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1

Theissenia reconsidered, including molecular phylogeny of the type species T. pyrenocrata and a new genus Durotheca (Xylariaceae, Ascomycota).  

PubMed

The genus Durotheca is introduced with D. depressa sp. nov., as type. Hypoxylon comedens is transferred to Durotheca, based on its morphology with further evidence from molecular phylogenetic studies; a combined ?-tubulin and ?-actin gene dataset. Theissenia cinerea is synonymized with D. comedens, and the type of Theissenia, T. pyrenocrata, is shown to occupy a basal, rather distant position in a monotypic clade in relation to sequenced taxa of Durotheca. This clade has an unresolved position in relation to the two informal subfamilies "Xylarioideae" and "Hypoxyloideae" within the Xylariaceae. New distributional data for D. comedens and T. pyrenocrata are presented, with the former found to be widespread in South-East Asia and the latter is reported as new from western Amazonia (Ecuador). One further species described in Theissenia, T. rogersii, is transferred to Durotheca, whilst T. eurima is accepted in Theissenia. PMID:23898413

Læssøe, Thomas; Srikitikulchai, Prasert; D Luangsa-Ard, J Jennifer; Stadler, Marc

2013-05-14

2

Polyketides from a Marine-Derived Fungus Xylariaceae sp.  

PubMed Central

Eighteen polyketides (1–18) including six citrinin derivatives, two phenol derivatives, one cyclopentenone, two naphthol derivatives, and seven tetralone derivatives were isolated from the culture broth of a marine-derived fungal strain Xylariaceae sp. SCSGAF0086. Five of these compounds (1, 2, 8, 9, and 10) were new, and their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods. Compounds 4, 6, 7, and 17 showed enzyme-inhibitory activities towards several tested enzymes, and 6 and 7 showed strong antifouling activity against Bugula neritina larvae settlement. This is the first time that the antifouling and enzyme-inhibitory activities of these compounds has been reported.

Nong, Xu-Hua; Zheng, Zhi-Hui; Zhang, Xiao-Yong; Lu, Xin-Hua; Qi, Shu-Hua

2013-01-01

3

Polyketides from a marine-derived fungus Xylariaceae sp.  

PubMed

Eighteen polyketides (1-18) including six citrinin derivatives, two phenol derivatives, one cyclopentenone, two naphthol derivatives, and seven tetralone derivatives were isolated from the culture broth of a marine-derived fungal strain Xylariaceae sp. SCSGAF0086. Five of these compounds (1, 2, 8, 9, and 10) were new, and their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods. Compounds 4, 6, 7, and 17 showed enzyme-inhibitory activities towards several tested enzymes, and 6 and 7 showed strong antifouling activity against Bugula neritina larvae settlement. This is the first time that the antifouling and enzyme-inhibitory activities of these compounds has been reported. PMID:23697953

Nong, Xu-Hua; Zheng, Zhi-Hui; Zhang, Xiao-Yong; Lu, Xin-Hua; Qi, Shu-Hua

2013-05-21

4

Affinities of Phylacia and the daldinoid Xylariaceae, inferred from chemotypes of cultures and ribosomal DNA sequences.  

PubMed

A chemotaxonomic evaluation using hplc profiling was undertaken to resolve the infrageneric and intergeneric affinities of over 150 strains of Xylariaceae. Daldinia placentiformis, Hypoxylon nicaraguense, H. polyporus, and Phylacia sagrana were found to contain 8-methoxy-1-naphthol, which is apparently absent in Annulohypoxylon, Hypoxylon, and related genera with bipartite stromata. D. placentiformis and other species of Daldinia and Entonaema produced this naphthol, 5-hydroxy-2-methylchromone, isosclerone derivatives, and 'AB-5046' phytotoxins. Phylacia sagrana differed from most Daldinia spp., except for D. caldariorum, by producing eutypine derivatives in addition to the above compounds. Indolylquinones were observed in H. nicaraguense and H. polyporus. Isosclerones were also identified in the A. multiforme complex, but Hypoxylon and other Annulohypoxylon and most Hypoxylon spp. studied Annulohypoxylon spp. contained 5-methylmellein as the major metabolite of their cultures. Based on the occurrence of the above metabolites, further mellein-type dihydroisocoumarins, teleomorphic and anamorphic Xylariaceae with Nodulisporium-like anamorphs ('Hypoxyloideae') were divided into various chemotypes. A comparison of their 5.8S/ITS nuc-rDNA sequences agreed in some important aspects with the above results: H. nicaraguense and H. polyporus appeared basal to a clade comprising Daldinia, Entonaema, and Ph. sagrana. The latter species appeared allied to D. caldariorum, but was distantly related to Pyrenomyxa morganii and Hypoxylon s. str. PMID:18319146

Bitzer, Jens; Laessøe, Thomas; Fournier, Jacques; Kummer, Volker; Decock, Cony; Tichy, Hans-Volker; Piepenbring, Meike; Persoh, Derek; Stadler, Marc

2007-07-26

5

Dating the Diversification of the Major Lineages of Ascomycota (Fungi)  

PubMed Central

Establishing the dates for the origin and main diversification events in the phylogeny of Ascomycota is among the most crucial remaining goals in understanding the evolution of Fungi. There have been several analyses of divergence times in the fungal tree of life in the last two decades, but most have yielded contrasting results for the origin of the major lineages. Moreover, very few studies have provided temporal estimates for a large set of clades within Ascomycota. We performed molecular dating to estimate the divergence times of most of the major groups of Ascomycota. To account for paleontological uncertainty, we included alternative fossil constraints as different scenarios to enable a discussion of the effect of selection of fossils. We used data from 6 molecular markers and 121 extant taxa within Ascomycota. Our various ‘relaxed clock’ scenarios suggest that the origin and diversification of the Pezizomycotina occurred in the Cambrian. The main lineages of lichen–forming Ascomycota originated at least as early as the Carboniferous, with successive radiations in the Jurassic and Cretaceous generating the diversity of the main modern groups. Our study provides new information about the timing of the main diversification events in Ascomycota, including estimates for classes, orders and families of both lichenized and non–lichenized Ascomycota, many of which had not been previously dated.

Prieto, Maria; Wedin, Mats

2013-01-01

6

Origin and evolution of carnivorism in the Ascomycota (fungi)  

PubMed Central

Carnivorism is one of the basic life strategies of fungi. Carnivorous fungi possess the ability to trap and digest their preys by sophisticated trapping devices. However, the origin and development of fungal carnivorism remains a gap in evolution biology. In this study, five protein-encoding genes were used to construct the phylogeny of the carnivorous fungi in the phylum Ascomycota; these fungi prey on nematodes by means of specialized trapping structures such as constricting rings and adhesive traps. Our analysis revealed a definitive pattern of evolutionary development for these trapping structures. Molecular clock calibration based on two fossil records revealed that fungal carnivorism diverged from saprophytism about 419 Mya, which was after the origin of nematodes about 550–600 Mya. Active carnivorism (fungi with constricting rings) and passive carnivorism (fungi with adhesive traps) diverged from each other around 246 Mya, shortly after the occurrence of the Permian–Triassic extinction event about 251.4 Mya. The major adhesive traps evolved around 198–208 Mya, which was within the time frame of the Triassic–Jurassic extinction event about 201.4 Mya. However, no major carnivorous ascomycetes divergence was correlated to the Cretaceous–Tertiary extinction event, which occurred more recently (about 65.5 Mya). Therefore, a causal relationship between mass extinction events and fungal carnivorism evolution is not validated in this study. More evidence including additional fossil records is needed to establish if fungal carnivorism evolution was a response to mass extinction events.

Yang, Ence; Xu, Lingling; Yang, Ying; Zhang, Xinyu; Xiang, Meichun; Wang, Chengshu; An, Zhiqiang; Liu, Xingzhong

2012-01-01

7

Relationships among genera of the Saccharomycotina (Ascomycota) from multigene phylogenetic analysis of type species  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Phylogenetic relatedness among ascomycetous yeast genera (subphylum Saccharomycotina, phylum Ascomycota) has been uncertain. In the present study, type species of 70 currently recognized genera are compared from divergence in the nearly entire nuclear gene sequences for large subunit rRNA, small sub...

8

Liquid culture production of chlamydospores of Lewia chlamidosporiformans (Ascomycota: Pleosporales), a mycoherbicide candidate for wild poinsettia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lewia chlamidosporiformans (Ascomycota) is a recently described fungal species that is a highly virulent pathogen of wild poinsettia (Euphorbia heterophylla — Euphorbiaceae), one of the worst weeds in Brazilian agriculture and an aggressive invader of soybean fields. A mycoherbicide\\u000a against this weed is presently being developed with L. chlamidosporiformans. Methods for production of chlamydospores, the asexual resting spores of L.

B. S. Vieira; R. W. Barreto

2010-01-01

9

EPR investigation of some desiccated Ascomycota and Basidiomycota gamma-irradiated mushrooms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The suitability of the EPR spectroscopy for detection of ?-irradiation in five species of dried mushroom, currently used in gastronomy: yellow morel—Morchella esculenta, (L.) Pers. (Phylum Ascomycota), button mushroom—Agaricus bisporus (J.E.Lange), Agaricus haemorrhoidarius Fr., golden chantarelle—Cantharellus cibarius Fr., as well as oyster mushroom—Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. ex Fr.) (Phylum Basidiomycota) is presented and discussed. Although after irradiation at doses up to 11 kGy, all specimens presented well defined EPR spectra, only A. bisporus EPR signal was enough stable to make detection possible after 18 months.

Bercu, V.; Negut, C. D.; Duliu, O. G.

2010-12-01

10

Kodamaea ohmeri (Ascomycota: Saccharomycotina) presence in commercial Bombus impatiens Cresson and feral Bombus pensylvanicus DeGeer (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In this study, eight commercial and three feral bumble bee (Bombus impatiens Cresson and Bombus pensylvanicus DeGeer respectively, Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies were tested for the presence of Kodamaea ohmeri (Ascomycota: Saccharomycotina), a yeast known to attract small hive beetles (SHB) (Aethina ...

11

Diversidad de Anamorfos de Ascomycota en bosques nativos de Celtis tala (Ulmaceae) en la Provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: Diversity of anamorphic fungi in Celtis tala (Ulmaceae) native forest from Buenos Aires province, Argentina. In this paper we analyze the diversity of species that compose the saprotrophic (anamorphic Ascomycota) fungi community in the leaf litter and soil in Celtis tala forest in Magdalena, located in the province of Buenos Aires. Seasonal samples were taken during two years (2004-2005),

NATALIA ALLEGRUCCI; LORENA ELÍADES; ANA MARÍA BUCSINSZKY; MARTA CABELLO; ANGÉLICA ARAMBARRI

12

Phylogenetic comparison of protein-coding versus ribosomal RNA-coding sequence data: A case study of the Lecanoromycetes (Ascomycota)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The resolving power and statistical support provided by two protein-coding (RPB1 and RPB2) and three ribosomal RNA-coding (nucSSU, nucLSU, and mitSSU) genes individually and in various combinations were investigated based on maximum likelihood bootstrap analyses on lichen-forming fungi from the class Lecanoromycetes (Ascomycota). Our results indicate that the optimal loci (single and combined) to use for molecular systematics of lichen-forming

Valérie Hofstetter; Jolanta Miadlikowska; Frank Kauff; François Lutzoni

2007-01-01

13

8 Fruiting Body Evolution in the Ascomycota: a Molecular Perspective Integrating Lichenized and Non-Lichenized Groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Fruiting body traits are among the most widely used characters in fungal classification. Due to the paucity and homoplasy\\u000a of ascomatal features, however, ascomycete classification has been notoriously instable over the past 100 years. With the\\u000a growing pool of molecular data and advancing bioinformatics tools we now begin to unravel some of the higher-level relationships\\u000a in the Ascomycota and the evolution

Imke Schmitt

14

Evolution of SET-domain protein families in the unicellular and multicellular Ascomycota fungi  

PubMed Central

Background The evolution of multicellularity is accompanied by the occurrence of differentiated tissues, of organismal developmental programs, and of mechanisms keeping the balance between proliferation and differentiation. Initially, the SET-domain proteins were associated exclusively with regulation of developmental genes in metazoa. However, finding of SET-domain genes in the unicellular yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe suggested that SET-domain proteins regulate a much broader variety of biological programs. Intuitively, it is expected that the numbers, types, and biochemical specificity of SET-domain proteins of multicellular versus unicellular forms would reflect the differences in their biology. However, comparisons across the unicellular and multicellular domains of life are complicated by the lack of knowledge of the ancestral SET-domain genes. Even within the crown group, different biological systems might use the epigenetic 'code' differently, adapting it to organism-specific needs. Simplifying the model, we undertook a systematic phylogenetic analysis of one monophyletic fungal group (Ascomycetes) containing unicellular yeasts, Saccharomycotina (hemiascomycetes), and a filamentous fungal group, Pezizomycotina (euascomycetes). Results Systematic analysis of the SET-domain genes across an entire eukaryotic phylum has outlined clear distinctions in the SET-domain gene collections in the unicellular and in the multicellular (filamentous) relatives; diversification of SET-domain gene families has increased further with the expansion and elaboration of multicellularity in animal and plant systems. We found several ascomycota-specific SET-domain gene groups; each was unique to either Saccharomycotina or Pezizomycotina fungi. Our analysis revealed that the numbers and types of SET-domain genes in the Saccharomycotina did not reflect the habitats, pathogenicity, mechanisms of sexuality, or the ability to undergo morphogenic transformations. However, novel genes have appeared for functions associated with the transition to multicellularity. Descendents of most of the SET-domain gene families found in the filamentous fungi could be traced in the genomes of extant animals and plants, albeit as more complex structural forms. Conclusion SET-domain genes found in the filamentous species but absent from the unicellular sister group reflect two alternative evolutionary events: deletion from the yeast genomes or appearance of novel structures in filamentous fungal groups. There were no Ascomycota-specific SET-domain gene families (i.e., absent from animal and plant genomes); however, plants and animals share SET-domain gene subfamilies that do not exist in the fungi. Phylogenetic and gene-structure analyses defined several animal and plant SET-domain genes as sister groups while those of fungal origin were basal to them. Plants and animals also share SET-domain subfamilies that do not exist in fungi.

2008-01-01

15

Main airborne Ascomycota spores: characterization by culture, spore morphology, ribosomal DNA sequences and enzymatic analysis.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to identify the main allergy-related Ascomycetes fungal spores present in the atmosphere of Porto, using different and complementary techniques. The atmospheric sampling, performed in the atmosphere of Porto (Portugal) from August 2006 to July 2008, indicated Cladosporium, Penicillium, Aspergillus and Alternaria as the main fungal spore taxa. Alternaria and Cladosporium peaks were registered during summer. Aspergillus and Penicillium highest values were registered from late winter to early spring. Additionally, the Andersen sampler allowed the culture and isolation of the collected viable spores subsequently used for different identification approaches. The internal-transcribed spacer region of the nuclear ribosomal repeat unit sequences of airborne Ascomycetes fungi isolates revealed 11 taxonomically related fungal species. Among the identified taxa, Penicillum and Aspergillus presented the highest diversity, while only one species of Cladosporium and Alternaria, respectively, were identified. All selected fungal spore taxa possessed phosphatase, esterase, leucine arylamidase and beta-glucosidase enzymatic activity, while none had lipase, cystine arylamidase, trypsin or beta-glucuronidase activity. The association between the spore cell wall morphology, DNA-based techniques and enzymatic activity approaches allowed a more reliable identification procedure of the airborne Ascomycota fungal spores. PMID:20143229

Oliveira, Manuela; Amorim, M Isabel; Ferreira, Elsa; Delgado, Luís; Abreu, Ilda

2010-02-09

16

Ascomycota Members Dominate Fungal Communities during Straw Residue Decomposition in Arable Soil  

PubMed Central

This study investigated the development of fungal community composition in arable soil during the degradation of straw residue. We explored the short-term responses of the fungal community over 28 days of decomposition in soil using culture-independent polymerase chain reaction in combination with a clone library and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Fungal cellobiohydrolase I (cbhI) genes in the soil were also characterized, and their diversity suggested the existence of a different cellulose decomposer. The DGGE profiles based on fungal internal transcribed spacer analysis showed different successions of fungal populations during residue decomposition. Members of Lecythophora and Sordariales were dominant in the early succession, while Hypocrea and Engyodontium were better adapted in the late succession. The succession of fungal communities might be related to changes of residue quality during decomposition. Collectively, sequences assigned to Ascomycota members were dominant at different stages of the fungal succession during decomposition, revealing that they were key drivers responsible for residue degradation in the arable soil tested.

Ma, Anzhou; Zhuang, Xuliang; Wu, Junmei; Cui, Mengmeng; Lv, Di; Liu, Chunzhao; Zhuang, Guoqiang

2013-01-01

17

Ascomycota members dominate fungal communities during straw residue decomposition in arable soil.  

PubMed

This study investigated the development of fungal community composition in arable soil during the degradation of straw residue. We explored the short-term responses of the fungal community over 28 days of decomposition in soil using culture-independent polymerase chain reaction in combination with a clone library and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Fungal cellobiohydrolase I (cbhI) genes in the soil were also characterized, and their diversity suggested the existence of a different cellulose decomposer. The DGGE profiles based on fungal internal transcribed spacer analysis showed different successions of fungal populations during residue decomposition. Members of Lecythophora and Sordariales were dominant in the early succession, while Hypocrea and Engyodontium were better adapted in the late succession. The succession of fungal communities might be related to changes of residue quality during decomposition. Collectively, sequences assigned to Ascomycota members were dominant at different stages of the fungal succession during decomposition, revealing that they were key drivers responsible for residue degradation in the arable soil tested. PMID:23840414

Ma, Anzhou; Zhuang, Xuliang; Wu, Junmei; Cui, Mengmeng; Lv, Di; Liu, Chunzhao; Zhuang, Guoqiang

2013-06-20

18

Endophytic hyphal compartmentalization is required for successful symbiotic Ascomycota association with root cells.  

PubMed

Root endophytic fungi are seen as promising alternatives to replace chemical fertilizers and pesticides in sustainable and organic agriculture systems. Fungal endophytes structure formations play key roles in symbiotic intracellular association with plant-roots. To compare the morphologies of Ascomycete endophytic fungi in wheat, we analyzed growth morphologies during endophytic development of hyphae within the cortex of living vs. dead root cells. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) was used to characterize fungal cell morphology within lactofuchsin-stained roots. Cell form regularity Ireg and cell growth direction Idir, indexes were used to quantify changes in fungal morphology. Endophyte fungi in living roots had a variable Ireg and Idir values, low colonization abundance and patchy colonization patterns, whereas the same endophyte species in dead (gamma-irradiated) roots had consistent form of cells and mostly grew parallel to the root axis. Knot, coil and vesicle structures dominated in living roots, as putative symbiotic functional organs. Finally, an increased hypha septation in living roots might indicate local specialization within endophytic Ascomycota. Our results suggested that the applied method could be expanded to other septate fungal symbionts (e.g. Basidiomycota). The latter is discussed in light of our results and other recent discoveries. PMID:19269322

Abdellatif, Lobna; Bouzid, Sadok; Kaminskyj, Susan; Vujanovic, Vladimir

2009-03-06

19

The anamorphic genus Monotosporella (Ascomycota) from Eocene amber and from modern Agathis resin.  

PubMed

The anamorphic fungal genus Monotosporella (Ascomycota, Sordariomycetes) has been reco-vered from a piece of Early Eocene Indian amber, as well as from the surface of extant resin flows in New Caledonia. The fossil fungus was obtained from the Tarkeshwar Lignite Mine of Gujarat State, western India, and was part of the biota of an early tropical angiosperm rainforest. The amber inclusion represents the second fossil record of Sordariomycetes, as well as the first fossil of its particular order (either Savoryellales or Chaetosphaeriales). The fossil fungus is distinguished from extant representatives by possessing both short conidiophores and small two-septate pyriform conidia, and is described as Monotosporella doerfeltii sp. nov. Inside the amber, the anamorph is attached to its substrate, which is likely the degraded thallus of a cladoniform lichen. The extant New Caledonian species is assigned to Monotosporella setosa. It was found growing on semi-solidified resin flows of Agathis ovata (Araucariaceae), and is the first record of Monotosporella from modern resin substrates. PMID:23063189

Sadowski, Eva-Maria; Beimforde, Christina; Gube, Matthias; Rikkinen, Jouko; Singh, Hukam; Seyfullah, Leyla J; Heinrichs, Jochen; Nascimbene, Paul C; Reitner, Joachim; Schmidt, Alexander R

2012-08-24

20

Beauveria bassiana (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) wound dressing for the control of Euzophera pinguis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).  

PubMed

Injury to olive tree trunks and branches because of biotic and abiotic factors, such as pruning and mechanical harvesting, attracts the olive pyralid moth Euzophera pinguis Haworth (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). This moth has become increasingly important in the Mediterranean region during recent years. The use of an entomopathogenic fungus for wound dressing for pest control is reported for the first time in this study. Beauveria bassiana (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) strain EABb 08/04-Ep was originally obtained from a diseased E. pinguis larva and has shown effective E. pinguis control in an olive crop in Jaén, Andalusia, Spain, under field conditions during the spring and fall of 2008 and 2009 and the spring of 2011. Experimental artificial 30 by 30-mm square wound cages were large enough to allow the E. pinguis females to oviposit. Approximately 80 and 40-60% of the control wounds contained live larvae in the experiments that occurred during the spring and fall, respectively. The B. hassiana wound dressing gave similar results as the chlorpyrifos wound dressing throughout the experiment, with efficacies reaching 80-85% in the spring and 90-95% in the autumn. The B. bassiana fungus was recovered from 60-90% of the wounds at the completion of the experiments and after 60 d of treatment. These data indicate that strain EABb 08/04-Ep applied to the pruning wounds can be an effective tool for the microbial control of E. pinguis in olive crops. Moreover, B. bassiana may be used within integrated pest management strategies to minimize chemicals, depending on the population density of the pyralid moth. PMID:24020271

Quesada-Moraga, E; Yousef, M; Ortiz, A; Ruíz-Torres, M; Garrido-Jurado, I; Estévez, A

2013-08-01

21

Phylogenetic Revision of the Genus Peltigera (Lichen?Forming Ascomycota) Based on Morphological, Chemical, and Large Subunit Nuclear Ribosomal DNA Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peltigera (Peltigerineae, lichenized Ascomycota) is one of the most widespread lichen genera incorporating bi- and trimembered associations involving fungi, green algae (cf. Coccomyxa), and cyanobacteria (cf. Nostoc). A wide range of morphological and chemical (secondary compounds) variation at both the intra- and inter- specific levels is present in this genus. Compared to many other genera of macrolichens, its taxonomy, including

Jolanta Miadlikowska; Francois Lutzoni

2000-01-01

22

A new species of Phyllopsora (Lecanorales, lichen-forming Ascomycota) from Dominican amber, with remarks on the fossil history of lichens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phyllopsora dominicanus sp. nov. (Bacidiaceae, Leca- norales, lichen-forming Ascomycota) is described and illustrated from Dominican amber. The diagnostic features of the lichen include a minute subfolious thallus of lacinulate, ascending squamules, a well- developed upper cortex, and a net-like pseudocortex on the lower surface. The algal symbionts are unicellu- lar green algae, forming a distinct layer immediately below the upper

Jouko Rikkinen; George O. Poinar Jr

2010-01-01

23

Disentangling the Collema-Leptogium complex through a molecular phylogenetic study of the Collemataceae (Peltigerales, lichen-forming Ascomycota).  

PubMed

Family Collemataceae (Peltigerales, Ascomycota) includes species of cyanolichens with foliose to fruticose or crustose thalli, with simple or septate ascospores. The current classification divides this family into two groups on the basis of ascospore types. The objective of this study was to evaluate the phylogenetic relationships within this family. Combined DNA sequence data from the nuclear large subunit and mitochondrial small subunit ribosomal RNA genes were used to evaluate monophyly of the family and the relationships between the largest genera of this family. The results revealed that this family is not monophyletic. Genera Staurolemma and Physma, currently classified within the Collemataceae, were found nested within the Pannariaceae. The second result of this study confirms that the genera Collema and Leptogium, both part of the Collemataceae s. str., are not monophyletic and that the presence of a thallus cortex is not a synapomorphy for Leptogium. The main taxonomic conclusion is that families Collemataceae and Pannariaceae were recircumscribed in light of molecular findings with the latter family now including Staurolemma and Physma. Genera Collema and Leptogium form a single mixed monophyletic group. Inferred ancestral character states within the Collema-Leptogium complex revealed that the ancestor of this family had a thallus without cortex and that a cortex evolved at least twice relatively early in the evolution of the Collemataceae s. str. These independent gains of a thallus cortex seems to be associated with a transition from colonizing bare rocks and soils in semi-arid and exposed habitats to epiphytism in shady humid forests. PMID:20361496

Otálora, Mónica A G; Aragón, Gregorio; Molina, M Carmen; Martínez, Isabel; Lutzoni, François

24

Ultrastructural and cytochemical characterization of brown soft scale Coccus hesperidum (Hemiptera: Coccidae) infected by the Lecanicillium lecanii (Ascomycota: Hypocreales).  

PubMed

The ultrastructural and cytochemical characterization of the brown soft scale, Coccus hesperidum L. (Hemiptera: Coccidae) infected by the hyphomycete Lecanicillium lecanii (Zimmermann) Gams & Zare, belonging to the phylum Ascomycota and order Hypocreales, was investigated by light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Gold cytochemistry was used to label chitin in the cuticle of the scale insect. The results revealed that the pathogenic fungus, L. lecanii generally infected by penetrating the integument, especially at anus, vulva, spiracles, stigmatic furrow, body margin, and the areas of cuticle with grooves, fissures and rugoses areas. The conidia became attached to the host body surface and germinated into hyphae that established colonies by branching repeatedly. Hyphae penetrated the integument by means of their penetration pegs using mechanical force and extracellular enzymes. During integument penetration, the hyphae extended vertically or parallel along the cuticle. Labeling with the WGA/Ovo-G complex showed disruption of the parallel sheets of chitin and a decrease in the density of the gold particles surrounding the penetrated hyphae. Hyphal invasion also separated the cuticle and epidermis from each other. Once in the haemocoele, blastospores of the fungus infected the haemocytes and internal organs. After some time, the nutritive value of the haemocoele decreased and the insect's internal organs disappeared. The hyphae then produced conidiophores and released them through the cuticle of the scale insect cadaver. PMID:20863711

Liu, Weimin; Xie, Yingping; Xue, Jiaoliang; Zhang, Yanfeng; Zhang, Xiaomin

2010-08-07

25

What an rRNA Secondary Structure Tells about Phylogeny of Fungi in Ascomycota with Emphasis on Evolution of Major Types of Ascus  

PubMed Central

Background RNA secondary structure is highly conserved throughout evolution. The higher order structure is fundamental in establishing important structure-function relationships. Nucleotide sequences from ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes have made a great contribution to our understanding of Ascomycota phylogeny. However, filling the gaps between molecular phylogeny and morphological assumptions based on ascus dehiscence modes and type of fruitbodies at the higher level classification of the phylum remains an unfulfilled task faced by mycologists. Methodology/Principal Findings We selected some major groups of Ascomycota to view their phylogenetic relationships based on analyses of rRNA secondary structure. Using rRNA secondary structural information, here, we converted nucleotide sequences into the structure ones over a 20-symbol code. Our structural analyses together with ancestral character state reconstruction produced reasonable phylogenetic position for the class Geoglossomycetes as opposed to the classic nucleotide analyses. Judging from the secondary structure analyses with consideration of mode of ascus dehiscence and the ability of forming fruitbodies, we draw a clear picture of a possible evolutionary route for fungal asci and some major groups of fungi in Ascomycota. The secondary structure trees show a more reasonable phylogenetic position for the class Geoglossomycetes. Conclusions Our results illustrate that asci lacking of any dehiscence mechanism represent the most primitive type. Passing through the operculate and Orbilia-type asci, bitunicate asci occurred. The evolution came to the most advanced inoperculate type. The ascus-producing fungi might be derived from groups lacking of the capacity to form fruitbodies, and then evolved multiple times. The apothecial type of fruitbodies represents the ancestral state, and the ostiolar type is advanced. The class Geoglossomycetes is closely related to Leotiomycetes and Sordariomycetes having a similar ascus type other than it was originally placed based on nucleotide sequence analyses.

Zhuang, Wen-Ying; Liu, Chao-Yang

2012-01-01

26

Miocene and Pliocene dominated diversification of the lichen-forming fungal genus Melanohalea (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota) and Pleistocene population expansions  

PubMed Central

Background Factors promoting diversification in lichen symbioses remain largely unexplored. While Pleistocene events have been important for driving diversification and affecting distributions in many groups, recent estimates suggest that major radiations within some genera in the largest clade of macrolichens (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota) vastly predate the Pleistocene. To better understand the temporal placement and sequence of diversification events in lichens, we estimated divergence times in a common lichen-forming fungal genus, Melanohalea, in the Northern Hemisphere. Divergence times were estimated using both concatenated gene tree and coalescent-based multilocus species tree approaches to assess the temporal context of major radiation events within Melanohalea. In order to complement our understanding of processes impacting genetic differentiation, we also evaluated the effects of Pleistocene glacial cycles on population demographics of distinct Melanohalea lineages, differing in reproductive strategies. Results We found that divergence estimates, from both concatenated gene tree and coalescent-based multilocus species tree approaches, suggest that diversification within Melanohalea occurred predominantly during the Miocene and Pliocene, although estimated of divergence times differed by up to 8.3 million years between the two methods. These results indicate that, in some cases, taxonomically diagnostic characters may be maintained among divergent lineages for millions of years. In other cases, similar phenotypic characters among non-sister taxa, including reproductive strategies, suggest the potential for convergent evolution due to similar selective pressures among distinct lineages. Our analyses provide evidence of population expansions predating the last glacial maximum in the sampled lineages. These results suggest that Pleistocene glaciations were not inherently unfavorable or restrictive for some Melanohalea species, albeit with apparently different demographic histories between sexually and vegetatively reproducing lineages. Conclusions Our results contribute to the understanding of how major changes during the Miocene and Pliocene have been important in promoting diversification within common lichen-forming fungi in the northern Hemisphere. Additionally, we provide evidence that glacial oscillations have influenced current population structure of broadly distributed lichenized fungal species throughout the Holarctic.

2012-01-01

27

A monograph of Allantonectria, Nectria, and Pleonectria (Nectriaceae, Hypocreales, Ascomycota) and their pycnidial, sporodochial, and synnematous anamorphs  

PubMed Central

Although Nectria is the type genus of Nectriaceae (Hypocreales, Sordariomycetes, Pezizomycotina, Ascomycota), the systematics of the teleomorphic and anamorphic state of Nectria sensu Rossman has not been studied in detail. The objectives of this study are to 1) provide a phylogenetic overview to determine if species of Nectria with Gyrostroma, Tubercularia, and Zythiostroma anamorphs form a monophyletic group; 2) define Nectria, segregate genera, and their species using morphologically informative characters of teleomorphic and anamorphic states; and 3) provide descriptions and illustrations of these genera and species. To accomplish these objectives, results of phylogenetic analyses of DNA sequence data from six loci (act, ITS, LSU, rpb1, tef1 and tub), were integrated with morphological characterisations of anamorphs and teleomorphs. Results from the phylogenetic analyses demonstrate that species previously regarded as the genus Nectria having Gyrostroma, Tubercularia, and Zythiostroma anamorphs belong in two major paraphyletic clades. The first major clade regarded as the genus Pleonectria contains 26 species with ascoconidia produced by ascospores in asci, perithecial walls having bright yellow scurf, and immersed or superficial pycnidial anamorphs (Zythiostroma = Gyrostroma). A lineage basal to the Pleonectria clade includes Nectria miltina having very small, aseptate ascospores, and trichoderma-like conidiophores and occurring on monocotyledonous plants. These characteristics are unusual in Pleonectria, thus we recognise the monotypic genus Allantonectria with Allantonectria miltina. The second major clade comprises the genus Nectria sensu stricto including the type species, N. cinnabarina, and 28 additional species. Within the genus Nectria, four subclades exist. One subclade includes species with sporodochial anamorphs and another with synnematous anamorphs. The other two paraphyletic subclades include species that produce abundant stromata in which the large perithecia are immersed, large ascospores, and peculiar anamorphs that form pycnidia or sporodochia either on their natural substrate or in culture. In this study the evolution of species, morphology, and ecology of the three genera, Allantonectria, Nectria, and Pleonectria, are discussed based on the phylogenetic analyses. In addition, descriptions, illustrations, and keys for identification are presented for the 56 species in Allantonectria, Nectria, and Pleonectria. Taxonomic novelties: New species: Nectria argentinensis Hirooka, Rossman & P. Chaverri, Nectria berberidicola Hirooka, Lechat, Rossman, & P. Chaverri, Nectria himalayensis Hirooka, Rossman, & P. Chaverri, Nectria magnispora Hirooka, Rossman, & P. Chaverri, Nectria mariae Hirooka, Fournier, Lechat, Rossman, & P. Chaverri, Nectria pyriformis Hirooka, Rossman & P. Chaverri, Pleonectria boothii Hirooka, Rossman & Chaverri, Pleonectria clavatispora Hirooka, Rossman & P. Chaverri, Pleonectria ilicicola Hirooka, Rossman & P. Chaverri, Pleonectria okinawensis Hirooka, Rossman & P. Chaverri, Pleonectria pseudomissouriensis Hirooka, Rossman & P. Chaverri, Pleonectria quercicola Hirooka, Checa, Areual, Rossman & P. Chaverri, Pleonectria strobi Hirooka, Rossman & P. Chaverri. New combinations: Cosmospora proteae (Marinc., M.J. Wingf. & Crous) Hirooka, Rossman & P. Chaverri, Nectricladiella viticola (Berk. & M.A. Curtis) Hirooka, Rossman & P. Chaverri, Neocosmospora guarapiensis (Speg.) Hirooka, Samuels, Rossman & P. Chaverri, Neocosmospora rehmiana (Kirschstein) Hirooka, Samuels, Rossman & P. Chaverri, Pleonectria aquifolii (Fr.) Hirooka, Rossman & P. Chaverri, Pleonectria aurigera (Berk. & Rav.) Hirooka, Rossman & P. Chaverri, Pleonectria chlorinella (Cooke) Hirooka, Rossman & P. Chaverri, Pleonectria coryli (Fuckel) Hirooka, Rossman & P. Chaverri, Pleonectria cucurbitula (Tode: Fr.) Hirooka, Rossman & P. Chaverri, Pleonectria lonicerae (Seeler) Hirooka, Rossman & P. Chaverri, Pleonectria rosellinii (Carestia) Hirooka, Rossman & P. Chaverri, Pleonectria rubicarpa (Cooke) Hirooka, Rossman & P. Chaverri,

Hirooka, Y.; Rossman, A.Y.; Samuels, G.J.; Lechat, C.; Chaverri, P.

2012-01-01

28

New insights into classification and evolution of the Lecanoromycetes (Pezizomycotina, Ascomycota) from phylogenetic analyses of three ribosomal RNA- and two protein-coding genes.  

PubMed

The Lecanoromycetes includes most of the lichen-forming fungal species (> 13500) and is therefore one of the most diverse class of all Fungi in terms of phenotypic complexity. We report phylogenetic relationships within the Lecanoromycetes resulting from Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses with complementary posterior probabilities and bootstrap support values based on three combined multilocus datasets using a supermatrix approach. Nine of 10 orders and 43 of 64 families currently recognized in Eriksson's classification of the Lecanoromycetes (Outline of Ascomycota--2006 Myconet 12:1-82) were represented in this sampling. Our analyses strongly support the Acarosporomycetidae and Ostropomycetidae as monophyletic, whereas the delimitation of the largest subclass, the Lecanoromycetidae, remains uncertain. Independent of future delimitation of the Lecanoromycetidae, the Rhizocarpaceae and Umbilicariaceae should be elevated to the ordinal level. This study shows that recent classifications include several nonmonophyletic taxa at different ranks that need to be recircumscribed. Our phylogenies confirm that ascus morphology cannot be applied consistently to shape the classification of lichen-forming fungi. The increasing amount of missing data associated with the progressive addition of taxa resulted in some cases in the expected loss of support, but we also observed an improvement in statistical support for many internodes. We conclude that a phylogenetic synthesis for a chosen taxonomic group should include a comprehensive assessment of phylogenetic confidence based on multiple estimates using different methods and on a progressive taxon sampling with an increasing number of taxa, even if it involves an increasing amount of missing data. PMID:17486983

Miadlikowska, Jolanta; Kauff, Frank; Hofstetter, Valérie; Fraker, Emily; Grube, Martin; Hafellner, Josef; Reeb, Valérie; Hodkinson, Brendan P; Kukwa, Martin; Lücking, Robert; Hestmark, Geir; Otalora, Monica Garcia; Rauhut, Alexandra; Büdel, Burkhard; Scheidegger, Christoph; Timdal, Einar; Stenroos, Soili; Brodo, Irwin; Perlmutter, Gary B; Ertz, Damien; Diederich, Paul; Lendemer, James C; May, Philip; Schoch, Conrad L; Arnold, A Elizabeth; Gueidan, Cécile; Tripp, Erin; Yahr, Rebecca; Robertson, Connie; Lutzoni, François

29

Multilocus phylogeny of the lichen-forming fungal genus Melanohalea (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota): insights on diversity, distributions, and a comparison of species tree and concatenated topologies.  

PubMed

Accurate species circumscriptions are central for many biological disciplines and have critical implications for ecological and conservation studies. An increasing body of evidence suggests that in some cases traditional morphology-based taxonomy have underestimated diversity in lichen-forming fungi. Therefore, genetic data play an increasing role for recognizing distinct lineages of lichenized fungi that it would otherwise be improbable to recognize using classical phenotypic characters. Melanohalea (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota) is one of the most widespread and common lichen-forming genera in the northern Hemisphere. In this study, we assess traditional phenotype-based species boundaries, identify previously unrecognized species-level lineages and discuss biogeographic patterns in Melanohalea. We sampled 487 individuals worldwide, representing 18 of the 22 described Melanohalea species, and generated DNA sequence data from mitochondrial, nuclear ribosomal, and protein-coding markers. Diversity previously hidden within traditional species was identified using a genealogical concordance approach. We inferred relationships among sampled species-level lineages within Melanohalea using both concatenated phylogenetic methods and a coalescent-based multilocus species tree approach. Although lineages identified from genetic data are largely congruent with traditional taxonomy, we found strong evidence supporting the presence of previously unrecognized species in six of the 18 sampled taxa. Strong nodal support and overall congruence among independent loci suggest long-term reproductive isolation among most species-level lineages. While some Melanohalea taxa are truly widespread, a limited number of clades appear to have much more restricted distributional ranges. In most instances the concatenated gene tree and multilocus species tree approaches provided similar estimates of relationships. However, nodal support was generally higher in the phylogeny estimated from concatenated data, and relationships among taxa within one major clade were largely unresolved in the species tree. This study contributes to our understanding of diversity and evolution in common lichen-forming fungi by incorporating multiple locus sequence data to circumscribe morphologicallly cryptic lineages and infer relationships within a coalescent-based species tree approach. PMID:23017822

Leavitt, Steven D; Esslinger, Theodore L; Spribille, Toby; Divakar, Pradeep K; Thorsten Lumbsch, H

2012-09-24

30

Cytotoxic constituents from the fungus Daldinia concentrica (Xylariaceae).  

PubMed

Phytochemical study on the methanol extract of the fruit bodies of Vietnamese fungus Daldinia concentrica has led to the isolation and structural elucidation of three cytotoxic constituents, 6,8-dihydroxy-3-methyl-3,4-dihydroisocoumarin (1), (22R)-hydroxylanosta-7,9(11),24-trien-3-one (2) and ergosterol (3). Their structures were elucidated by 2D-NMR and FT-ICR-MS. All the three compounds showed moderate cytotoxicity against four cancer cells, KB (a human epidermal carcinoma), MCF7 (human breast carcinoma), SK-LU-1 (human lung carcinoma) and HepG2 (hepatocellular carcinoma). In addition, the isocoumarin (1) inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus with the IC50 value of 87.81?µg?mL(-1). PMID:22724545

Quang, Dang Ngoc; Lam, Duong Minh; Hanh, Nguyen Thi Hong; Que, Do Duc

2012-06-25

31

Wood decomposing abilities of diverse lignicolous fungi on nondecayed and decayed beech wood.  

PubMed

We tested the decay abilities of 28 isolates from 28 lignicolous fungal species (Basidiomycota, Ascomycota and Zygomycota) with the pure culture test. We used beech wood powder in varying moisture conditions and decay stages (nondecayed, intermediately decayed and well decayed) as substrates. The weight loss in wood powder was -0.2-17.8%. Five isolates of Basidiomycota (Bjerkandera adusta, Mycena haematopus, Omphalotus guepiniformis, Trametes hirsuta, Trametes versicolor) caused high weight losses in nondecayed wood. We detected significant effects of decay stage on weight loss in wood in most isolates tested, whereas moisture content rarely had an effect on weight loss. Among Basidiomycota and Xylariaceae in Ascomycota weight loss was greater for nondecayed wood than for intermediately and well decayed wood. In contrast four isolates in Ascomycota (Scytalidium lignicola, Trichoderma hamatum, T. harzianum, T. koningii) caused substantial weight loss in intermediately and well decayed wood, although they rarely caused weight loss in nondecayed wood. Zygomycota caused low weight loss in wood. Wood decay stages also affected decomposition of wood chemical components. Acid-unhydrolyzable residue (AUR) decomposition was reduced, whereas holocellulose decomposition was stimulated by some strains of Basidiomycota and Ascomycota in well decayed wood. T. harzianum in particular caused significant weight loss of holocellulose in well decayed wood, although this fungus caused negligible weight loss of both AUR and holocellulose in nondecayed wood. We discuss these changes in the decay patterns of AUR and holocellulose with varying wood decay stages in relation to the role of fungal decomposition of woody debris in forests. PMID:21262989

Fukasawa, Yu; Osono, Takashi; Takeda, Hiroshi

2011-01-24

32

Genus Dimerella (Coenogoniaceae, lichenized Ascomycota) in Slovakia  

Microsoft Academic Search

currence in Slovakia. The paper, based on literature review, revision of collections (BP, BRA, PR, PRC, SAV, W, herb. Vf ezda, herb. Pi{út) and fieldwork, brings together evi- dence of two species, D. pineti and D. lutea. The first voucher specimens and published data for D. pineti date back to the second half of 19th century; 20th century records are

ANNA GUTTOVÁ

2005-01-01

33

THE MYCORRHIZAL STATUS OF PSEUDOTULOSTOMA VOLVATA (ELAPHOMYCETACEAE, EUROTIALES, ASCOMYCOTA).  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Pseudotulostoma volvata O.K. Mill. & T. W. Henkel is a morphologically unusual member of the otherwise hypogeous Elaphomycetaceae due to its epigeous habit, and its spore-bearing mazaedium borne on an elevated stalk at maturity. Plot studies and field observations in Guyana indicated that P. volvat...

34

Accelerated evolutionary rates in tropical and oceanic parmelioid lichens (Ascomycota)  

PubMed Central

Background The rate of nucleotide substitutions is not constant across the Tree of Life, and departures from a molecular clock have been commonly reported. Within parmelioid lichens, the largest group of macrolichens, large discrepancies in branch lengths between clades were found in previous studies. Using an extended taxon sampling, we test for presence of significant rate discrepancies within and between these clades and test our a priori hypothesis that such rate discrepancies may be explained by shifts in moisture regime or other environmental conditions. Results In this paper, the first statistical evidence for accelerated evolutionary rate in lichenized ascomycetes is presented. Our results give clear evidence for a faster rate of evolution in two Hypotrachyna clades that includes species occurring in tropical and oceanic habitats in comparison with clades consisting of species occurring in semi-arid and temperate habitats. Further we explore potential links between evolutionary rates and shifts in habitat by comparing alternative Ornstein-Uhlenbeck models. Conclusion Although there was only weak support for a shift at the base of a second tropical clade, where the observed nucleotide substitution rate is high, overall support for a shift in environmental conditions at cladogenesis is very strong. This suggests that speciation in some lichen clades has proceeded by dispersal into a novel environment, followed by radiation within that environment. We found moderate support for a shift in moisture regime at the base of one tropical clade and a clade occurring in semi-arid regions and a shift in minimum temperature at the base of a boreal-temperate clade.

2008-01-01

35

New Elaphomyces species (Elaphomycetaceae, Eurotiales, Ascomycota) from Guyana.  

PubMed

Elaphomyces compleximurus sp. nov. and E. digitatus sp. nov. are described from the Pakaraima Mountains of Guyana. Macromorphological, micromorphological, habitat and DNA sequence data are provided for each new species. This is the first report of Elaphomyces ascomata associated with ectomycorrhizal members of the Fabaceae and also for the genus from the lowland South American tropics. PMID:22505430

Castellano, Michael A; Henkel, Terry W; Miller, Steven L; Smith, Matthew E; Aime, M Catherine

2012-04-13

36

Chemical variation in the lichen genus Letrouitia (Ascomycota, Letrouitiaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Secondary metabolites from 193 specimens belonging to 15 species of Letrouitia were analyzed by HPLC. Significant quantities of the anthraquinones parietin and fragilin were found in most species and\\u000a occasionally minor quantities of emodin, 5-chloroemodin, 7-chloroemodin, 7-chloroteloschistin, 7-chlorofallacinal and 7-chloroparietinic\\u000a acid were present. Eight previously unknown lichen substances were identified. A chemotype containing seven new dibenzofurans\\u000a (8-chlorodioxocondidymic acid, 8-chlorodioxodidymic acid,

Sanne Johansson; Ulrik Søchting; John A. Elix; Judith H. Wardlaw

2005-01-01

37

Saitoella coloradoensis sp. nov., a new species of the Ascomycota, subphylum Taphrinomycotina  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Saitoella coloradoensis sp. nov. (NRRL YB-2330, CBS 12360, type strain) is described. This new member of the phylum Ascomycotina, subphylum Taphrinomycotina was isolated from insect frass occurring in an Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii) that was growing in Colorado, USA. Multigene sequence analy...

38

Phylogenetic study of Catapyrenium s. str. (Verrucariaceae, lichen-forming Ascomycota) and related genus Placidiopsis.  

PubMed

The current classification of what used to be called Catapyrenium comprises eight genera belonging to distinct lineages in the Verrucariaceae. Previous phylogenetic studies have shown that the redefined genus Catapyrenium (Catapyrenium s. str.) is monophyletic and sister of Placidiopsis within the Staurothele group, but this relationship was based on only two species from each genus. We conducted a phylogenetic study of Catapyrenium and Placidiopsis as currently delimited to evaluate the monophyly of each genus and infer infrageneric relationships. An initial family level phylogenetic analysis based on the nuLSU locus and implementing a backbone constraint tree (with both weighted maximum parsimony and bootstrap maximum likelihood approaches) was performed to infer phylogenetic placements of Catapyrenium and Placidiopsis taxa not included in previous molecular systematic studies. The results of this analysis were used to define the ingroup for a second phylogenetic analysis based on nuITS and nuLSU and centered on Catapyrenium s. str. and Placidiopsis. Placidiopsis was found to be monophyletic, whereas Catapyrenium s. str. was not. Catapyrenium dactylinum was found to be closely related to Placopyrenium caeruleopulvinum and Placopyrenium stanfordii, all of which were closely related to Placocarpus schaereri and Verrucula. In addition we found genus Placopyrenium to be polyphyletic. The resulting trees confirmed that Catapyrenium s. str. (excluding C. dactylinum) and Placidiopsis constitute two sister monophyletic entities. The data do not support Placidiopsis cinerascens and P. tenella as two distinct species because no characters can be used to distinguish them. Thus P. tenella is here reduced to synonymy with P. cinerascens. PMID:20361497

Prieto, María; Martínez, Isabel; Aragón, Gregorio; Otálora, Mónica A G; Lutzoni, François

39

Hypoxylon pulicicidum sp. nov. (Ascomycota, Xylariales), a Pantropical Insecticide-Producing Endophyte  

PubMed Central

Background Nodulisporic acids (NAs) are indole diterpene fungal metabolites exhibiting potent systemic efficacy against blood-feeding arthropods, e.g., bedbugs, fleas and ticks, via binding to arthropod specific glutamate-gated chloride channels. Intensive medicinal chemistry efforts employing a nodulisporic acid A template have led to the development of N-tert-butyl nodulisporamide as a product candidate for a once monthly treatment of fleas and ticks on companion animals. The source of the NAs is a monophyletic lineage of asexual endophytic fungal strains that is widely distributed in the tropics, tentatively identified as a Nodulisporium species and hypothesized to be the asexual state of a Hypoxylon species. Methods and Results Inferences from GenBank sequences indicated that multiple researchers have encountered similar Nodulisporium endophytes in tropical plants and in air samples. Ascomata-derived cultures from a wood-inhabiting fungus, from Martinique and closely resembling Hypoxylon investiens, belonged to the same monophyletic clade as the NAs-producing endophytes. The hypothesis that the Martinique Hypoxylon collections were the sexual state of the NAs-producing endophytes was tested by mass spectrometric analysis of NAs, multi-gene phylogenetic analysis, and phenotypic comparisons of the conidial states. We established that the Martinique Hypoxylon strains produced an ample spectrum of NAs and were conspecific with the pantropical Nodulisporium endophytes, yet were distinct from H. investiens. A new species, H. pulicicidum, is proposed to accommodate this widespread organism. Conclusions and Significance Knowledge of the life cycle of H. pulicicidum will facilitate an understanding of the role of insecticidal compounds produced by the fungus, the significance of its infections in living plants and how it colonizes dead wood. The case of H. pulicicidum exemplifies how life cycle studies can consolidate disparate observations of a fungal organism, whether from environmental sequences, vegetative mycelia or field specimens, resulting in holistic species concepts critical to the assessment of the dimensions of fungal diversity.

Bills, Gerald F.; Gonzalez-Menendez, Victor; Martin, Jesus; Platas, Gonzalo; Fournier, Jacques; Persoh, Derek; Stadler, Marc

2012-01-01

40

Existence of a pattern of reproductive character displacement in Homobasidiomycota but not in Ascomycota  

Microsoft Academic Search

Generally, stronger reproductive isolation is expected between sympatric than between allopatric sibling species. Such reproductive character displacement should predominantly affect premating reproductive isolation and can be due to several mechanisms, including population extinction, fusion of insuffi- ciently isolated incipient species and reinforcement of reproductive isolation in response to low hybrid fitness. Experimental data on several taxa have confirmed these theoretical

M. LE GAC; T. GIRAUD

2008-01-01

41

Gelatinomyces siamensis gen. sp. nov. (Ascomycota, Leotiomycetes, incertae sedis) on bamboo in Thailand.  

PubMed

Gelatinomyces siamensis gen. sp. nov., incertae sedis within Leotiomycetes, the Siamese jelly-ball, is described. The fungus was collected from bamboo culms and branches in Nam Nao National Park, Phetchabun, Thailand. It presents as a ping-pong ball-sized and golf ball-like gelatinous ascostroma. The asci have numerous ascospores, are thick-walled, and arise on discoid apothecia which are aggregated and clustered to form the spherical gelatinous structures. An hyphomycete asexual morph is morphologically somewhat phialophora-like, and produces red pigments. On the basis of phylogenetic analysis based on rRNA, SSU, and LSU gene sequences, the lineage is closest to Collophora rubra. However, ITS sequences place the fungus on a well-separated branch from that fungus, and the morphological and ecological differences exclude it from Collophora. PMID:23898414

Sanoamuang, Niwat; Jitjak, Wuttiwat; Rodtong, Sureelak; Whalley, Anthony J S

2013-05-14

42

Pyrenomycetes of the Russian Far East 4: family Nitschkiaceae (Coronophorales, Ascomycota).  

PubMed

Ascomata of 10 species assigned to family Nitschkiaceae were examined with a scanning electron microscope to reveal their distinctive features. These observations, along with biogeographical considerations of the 10 species, form the basis for a revised interpretation of the concepts used for those nitschkiaceous taxa in the Russian Far East. Four genera instead of five are recognized as a result of the unification of Nitschkia and Calyculosphaeria, whereas Calyculosphaeria grevillei is replaced by Nitschkia grevillei. The name Fracchiaea subcongregata is now applied to the entity formerly recognized as Fracchiaea broomeiana, and the species recorded originally as Nitschkia cupularis is now identified as Nitschkia parasitans. Two new species, Fracchiaea seticoronata and Nitschkia modesta, are described and discussed. PMID:20120245

Vasilyeva, Larissa; Chernyshev, Aleksey; Stephenson, Steven L

43

Molecular and morphological characterization of Leveillula (Ascomycota: Erysiphales) on monocotyledonous plants.  

PubMed

Leveillula on monocotyledonous plants have been recorded as L. taurica by several authors, whereas the fungus on Allium has been described as an independent species, namely L. allii, by some authors. We sequenced ca 600bp of the rDNA ITS region for two Leveillula specimens from Allium and Polianthes (both from monocotyledons) and compared them with several already published sequences from Leveillula isolates from dicotyledons. Pair-wise percentages of sequence divergences were calculated for all Leveillula isolates. The ITS sequence of the Polianthes isolate was identical to L. taurica on Helianthus and Vicia. The sequence of the Allium isolate was 99.5% identical to L. taurica on Euphorbia, Haplophylum, Peganum, etc. These results suggest close relationships between monocot and dicot pathogenic Leveillula species. The identity between two monocot isolates was 98.4%. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the two monocot isolates do not group into a clade together. This result suggests that Leveillula acquired parasitism to monocots at least twice independently. PMID:17601717

Khodaparast, Seyed Akbar; Niinomi, Seiko; Takamatsu, Susumu

2007-04-29

44

Transoceanic Dispersal and Subsequent Diversification on Separate Continents Shaped Diversity of the Xanthoparmelia pulla Group (Ascomycota)  

PubMed Central

In traditional morphology-based concepts many species of lichenized fungi have world-wide distributions. Molecular data have revolutionized the species delimitation in lichens and have demonstrated that we underestimated the diversity of these organisms. The aim of this study is to explore the phylogeography and the evolutionary patterns of the Xanthoparmelia pulla group, a widespread group of one of largest genera of macrolichens. We used a dated phylogeny based on nuITS and nuLSU rDNA sequences and performed an ancestral range reconstruction to understand the processes and explain their current distribution, dating the divergence of the major lineages in the group. An inferred age of radiation of parmelioid lichens and the age of a Parmelia fossil were used as the calibration points for the phylogeny. The results show that many species of the X. pulla group as currently delimited are polyphyletic and five major lineages correlate with their geographical distribution and the biosynthetic pathways of secondary metabolites. South Africa is the area where the X. pulla group radiated during the Miocene times, and currently is the region with the highest genetic, morphological and chemical diversity. From this center of radiation the different lineages migrated by long-distance dispersal to others areas, where secondary radiations developed. The ancestral range reconstruction also detected that a secondary lineage migrated from Australia to South America via long-distance dispersal and subsequent continental radiation.

de Paz, Guillermo Amo; Cubas, Paloma; Crespo, Ana; Elix, John A.; Lumbsch, H. Thorsten

2012-01-01

45

Key and checklist for the lichen family Graphidaceae (lichenised Ascomycota) in the Solomon Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

A checklist and keys are given for the 16 genera in the lichen family Graphidaceae found in the Solomon Islands. A total of 75 species in the family Graphidaceae were identified, distributed as follows: Acanthothecis two species, Anomomorpha one species, Carbacanthographis three species, Diorygma six species, Dyplolabia one species, Fissurina 11 species, Graphis 17 species, Hemithecium four species, Leiorreuma four

Alan W. Archer

2007-01-01

46

Endophytic hyphal compartmentalization is required for successful symbiotic Ascomycota association with root cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Root endophytic fungi are seen as promising alternatives to replace chemical fertilizers and pesticides in sustainable and organic agriculture systems. Fungal endophytes structure formations play key roles in symbiotic intracellular association with plant-roots. To compare the morphologies of Ascomycete endophytic fungi in wheat, we analyzed growth morphologies during endophytic development of hyphae within the cortex of living vs. dead root

Lobna Abdellatif; Sadok Bouzid; Susan Kaminskyj; Vladimir Vujanovic

2009-01-01

47

Transoceanic dispersal and subsequent diversification on separate continents shaped diversity of the Xanthoparmelia pulla group (Ascomycota).  

PubMed

In traditional morphology-based concepts many species of lichenized fungi have world-wide distributions. Molecular data have revolutionized the species delimitation in lichens and have demonstrated that we underestimated the diversity of these organisms. The aim of this study is to explore the phylogeography and the evolutionary patterns of the Xanthoparmelia pulla group, a widespread group of one of largest genera of macrolichens. We used a dated phylogeny based on nuITS and nuLSU rDNA sequences and performed an ancestral range reconstruction to understand the processes and explain their current distribution, dating the divergence of the major lineages in the group. An inferred age of radiation of parmelioid lichens and the age of a Parmelia fossil were used as the calibration points for the phylogeny. The results show that many species of the X. pulla group as currently delimited are polyphyletic and five major lineages correlate with their geographical distribution and the biosynthetic pathways of secondary metabolites. South Africa is the area where the X. pulla group radiated during the Miocene times, and currently is the region with the highest genetic, morphological and chemical diversity. From this center of radiation the different lineages migrated by long-distance dispersal to others areas, where secondary radiations developed. The ancestral range reconstruction also detected that a secondary lineage migrated from Australia to South America via long-distance dispersal and subsequent continental radiation. PMID:22745810

Amo de Paz, Guillermo; Cubas, Paloma; Crespo, Ana; Elix, John A; Lumbsch, H Thorsten

2012-06-20

48

Phylogenetic classification of peltigeralean fungi (Peltigerales, Ascomycota) based on ribosomal RNA small and large subunits  

Microsoft Academic Search

To provide a comprehensive molecular phylogeny for peltigeralean fungi and to establish a classification based on monophyly, phylogenetic analyses were carried out on sequences from the nuclear ribosomal large (LSU) and small (SSU) subunits obtained from 113 individuals that represent virtually all main lineages of ascomycetes. Analyses were also conducted on a subset of 77 individuals in which the ingroup

JOLANTA MIADLIKOWSKA; F. Lutzoni

2004-01-01

49

Study on the ice nucleation activity of fungal spores (Ascomycota and Basidiomycota)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biogenic ice nucleation (IN) in the atmosphere is a topic of growing interest, as, according to IPCC, the impact of IN on global climate is crucial to perform reliable climate model calculations. About 20 years ago IN activity of a few lichen and Fusarium species [1,2] was reported, while all other investigated fungi were IN-negative. However, as the fungal kingdom is vast, many abundant species, especially the Basidiomycota (most mushrooms), were not tested before. Furthermore, the focus of the past studies was on the IN activity of the mycelium as a cryoprotective mechanism, and not on the airborne spores. We carried out oil immersion measurements [3] with spores from 17 different fungal species of ecological, economical or sanitary importance. Most of these species have not been investigated before, like exponents of Aspergillus, Trichoderma and Agaricales (most mushrooms). Apart from F. avenaceum, spores of all measured species showed moderate or no IN activity, supporting the hypothesis that significant IN activity is a rather exclusive property of only a few species within the fungal kingdom. [1] Kieft TL and Ruscetti T: J. Bacteriol. 172, 3519-3523, 1990. [2] Pouleur S et al.: Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 58, 2960-2964, 1992. [3] Marcolli C et al.: Atmos. Chem. Phys. 7, 5081-5091, 2007.

Pummer, B. G.; Atanasova, L.; Bauer, H.; Bernardi, J.; Druzhinina, I. S.; Grothe, H.

2012-04-01

50

Evolutionary History of Vegetative Reproduction in Porpidia s.l. (Lichen-Forming Ascomycota)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evolutionary history of gains and losses of vegetative reproductive propagules (soredia) in Porpidia s.l., a group of lichen-forming ascomycetes, was clarified using Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) approaches to monophyly tests and a combined MCMC and maximum likelihood approach to ancestral character state reconstructions. The MCMC framework provided confidence estimates for the reconstructions of relationships and ancestral character

Jutta Buschbom; Daniel Barker

2006-01-01

51

Biocontrol of pigeon tick Argas reflexus (Acari: Argasidae) by entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium Anisopliae (Ascomycota: Hypocreales)  

PubMed Central

The pigeon tick Argas reflexus is a pathogen-transmitting soft tick that typically feeds on pigeons, but can also attack humans causing local and systemic reactions. Chemical control is made difficult due to environmental contamination and resistance development. As a result, there is much interest in increasing the role of other strategies like biological control. In this study, the efficacy of three strains (V245, 685 and 715C) of entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae for biological control of three life stages of pigeon tick A. reflexus including eggs, larvae, engorged and unfed adults was investigated under laboratory conditions. Five concentrations of different strains of M. anisopliae ranging from 103 to 107 conidia/ml were used. All fungal strains significantly decreased hatchability of A. reflexus eggs. Strain V245 was the most effective strain on the mortality of larval stage with nearly 100% mortality at the lowest concentration (103 conidia/ml) at 10 days post-inoculation. The mortality rate of both engorged and unfed adult ticks were also increased significantly exposed to different conidial concentrations compared to the control groups (P < 0.05) making this fungus a potential biological control agent of pigeon tick reducing the use of chemical acaricides.

Tavassoli, Mosa; Pourseyed, Seyed Hassan; Ownagh, Abdulghaffar; Bernousi, Iraj; Mardani, Karim

2011-01-01

52

GROWER ADOPTABLE FORMULATIONS OF THE ENTOMOPATHOGENIC FUNGUS METARHIZIUM ANISOPLIAE (ASCOMYCOTA: HYPOCREALES) FOR SUGARBEET ROOT MAGGOT MANAGEMENT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In many North American sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.) production areas, sugarbeet root maggot (Tetanops myopaeformis Röder) management relies almost exclusively on organophosphate insecticides. The possibility that organophosphate-resistant root maggot strains might develop or the insecticides could ...

53

Biocontrol of pigeon tick Argas reflexus (Acari: Argasidae) by entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium Anisopliae (Ascomycota: Hypocreales).  

PubMed

The pigeon tick Argas reflexus is a pathogen-transmitting soft tick that typically feeds on pigeons, but can also attack humans causing local and systemic reactions. Chemical control is made difficult due to environmental contamination and resistance development. As a result, there is much interest in increasing the role of other strategies like biological control. In this study, the efficacy of three strains (V245, 685 and 715C) of entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae for biological control of three life stages of pigeon tick A. reflexus including eggs, larvae, engorged and unfed adults was investigated under laboratory conditions. Five concentrations of different strains of M. anisopliae ranging from 10(3) to 10(7) conidia/ml were used. All fungal strains significantly decreased hatchability of A. reflexus eggs. Strain V245 was the most effective strain on the mortality of larval stage with nearly 100% mortality at the lowest concentration (10(3) conidia/ml) at 10 days post-inoculation. The mortality rate of both engorged and unfed adult ticks were also increased significantly exposed to different conidial concentrations compared to the control groups (P < 0.05) making this fungus a potential biological control agent of pigeon tick reducing the use of chemical acaricides. PMID:24031777

Tavassoli, Mosa; Pourseyed, Seyed Hassan; Ownagh, Abdulghaffar; Bernousi, Iraj; Mardani, Karim

2011-12-01

54

Assessment of ectomycorrhizal fungal communities in the natural habitats of Tuber magnatum (Ascomycota, Pezizales).  

PubMed

The ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal communities of four natural Tuber magnatum truffle grounds, located in different Italian regions (Abruzzo, Emilia-Romagna, Molise, and Tuscany), were studied. The main objective of this study was to characterize and compare the ECM fungal communities in the different regions and in productive (where T. magnatum ascomata were found) and nonproductive points. More than 8,000 (8,100) colonized root tips were counted in 73 soil cores, and 129 operational taxonomic units were identified using morphological and molecular methods. Although the composition of the ECM fungal communities studied varied, we were able to highlight some common characteristics. The most plentiful ECM fungal taxa belong to the Thelephoraceae and Sebacinaceae families followed by Inocybaceae and Russulaceae. Although several ectomycorrhizas belonging to Tuber genus were identified, no T. magnatum ectomycorrhizas were found. The putative ecological significance of some species is discussed. PMID:23299664

Leonardi, M; Iotti, M; Oddis, M; Lalli, G; Pacioni, G; Leonardi, P; Maccherini, S; Perini, C; Salerni, E; Zambonelli, A

2013-01-09

55

Novel aspects in the life cycle and biotrophic interactions in Pezizomycetes (Ascomycota, Fungi).  

PubMed

The ascomycete class Pezizomycetes (single order Pezizales)is known for its cup-shaped fruit bodies and the evolution of edible truffles and morels, but little is known about the ontogeny and ecology of this large and ecologically diverse fungal group. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Healy et al. (2013) make a great leap forward by describing and identifying asexual, anamorphic structures that produce mitotic spores in many ectomycorrhiza-forming truffle and nontruffle species on soil surfaces worldwide(Fig. 1). Although such anamorphic forms have been reported sporadically from certain ectomycorrhizal and saprotrophic Pezizomycetes (e.g. Warcup 1990), Healy et al. (2013) demonstrate that these terricolous asexual forms are both taxonomically and geographically more widespread and, in fact, much more common than previously understood. We anticipate that deeper insight into other substrates, provided by molecular analyses of materials such as dead wood and seeds, is likely to reveal numerous anamorphs of saprotrophic and pathogenic Pezizomycetes as well (see Marek et al. 2009). PMID:23599958

Tedersoo, Leho; Arnold, A Elizabeth; Hansen, Karen

2013-03-01

56

Species delimitation in Cladonia (Ascomycota): a challenge to the DNA barcoding philosophy.  

PubMed

The lichen-forming fungal genus Cladonia is species-rich with approximately 500 described species. The accepted barcode for fungi (ITS rDNA) often fails in identifying Cladonia spp. In order to find other markers that, in combination with the ITS rDNA region can be used for species identification in Cladonia, we studied the loci IGS rDNA, ef1?, rpb2 and cox1. A total of 782 sequences from 36 species have been analyzed. PCR amplification success rate, intraspecific and interspecific genetic distance variation, calculated using the K2P model, and the correct identification percentage (PCI) were taken into account to assess possible barcode regions. The marker showing the least intraspecific genetic distance range was cox1, followed by ITS rDNA and ef1?. Of the five studied markers only cox1 showed a barcoding gap. The rpb2 locus showed the highest PCI values, but it was the most difficult to amplify. The highest correct identification rates using blast method were obtained with rpb2. PMID:23437908

Pino-Bodas, Raquel; Martín, María P; Burgaz, Ana R; Lumbsch, H Thorsten

2013-02-26

57

Evolution of SET-domain protein families in the unicellular and multicellular Ascomycota fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The evolution of multicellularity is accompanied by the occurrence of differentiated tissues, of organismal developmental programs, and of mechanisms keeping the balance between proliferation and differentiation. Initially, the SET-domain proteins were associated exclusively with regulation of developmental genes in metazoa. However, finding of SET-domain genes in the unicellular yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe suggested that SET-domain proteins regulate

Chendhore S Veerappan; Zoya Avramova; Etsuko N Moriyama

2008-01-01

58

Weed seeds as nutritional resources for soil Ascomycota and characterization of specific associations between plant and fungal species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current interest in biological-based management of weed seed banks in agriculture furthers the need to understand how microorganisms\\u000a affect seed fate in soil. Many annual weeds produce seeds in high abundance; their dispersal presenting ready opportunity\\u000a for interactions with soil-borne microorganisms. In this study, we investigated seeds of four common broadleaf weeds, velvetleaf\\u000a (Abutilon theophrasti), woolly cupgrass (Eriochloa villosa), Pennsylvania

Joanne C. Chee-Sanford

2008-01-01

59

The sister-group relationships of the largest family of lichenized fungi, Parmeliaceae (Lecanorales, Ascomycota).  

PubMed

Parmeliaceae is the largest family of lichen-forming fungi. In spite of its importance for fungal diversity, its relationships with other families in Lecanorales remain poorly known. To better understand the evolutionary history of the diversification of lineages and species richness in Parmeliaceae it is important to know the phylogenetic relationships of the closest relatives of the family. A recent study based on two molecular loci suggested that either Protoparmelia s. str. or a group consisting of Gypsoplaca and Protoparmelia s. str. were the possible sister-group candidates of Parmeliaceae, but that study could not distinguish between these two alternatives. Here, we used a four-locus phylogeny (nuLSU, ITS, RPB1, MCM7) to reveal relationships of Parmeliaceae with other potential relatives in Lecanorales. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses showed that Protoparmelia is polyphyletic, with Protoparmelia s. str. (including Protoparmelia badia and Protoparmelia picea) being most closely related to Parmeliaceae s. str., while the Protoparmelia atriseda-group formed the sister-group to Miriquidica. Gypsoplaca formed the sister-group to the Parmeliaceae s. str. + Protoparmelia s. str. clade. Monophyly of Protoparmelia as currently circumscribed, and Gypsoplaca as sister-group to Parmeliaceae s. str. were both significantly rejected by alternative hypothesis testing. PMID:24119410

Singh, Garima; Divakar, Pradeep K; Dal Grande, Francesco; Otte, Jürgen; Parnmen, Sittiporn; Wedin, Mats; Crespo, Ana; Lumbsch, H Thorsten; Schmitt, Imke

2013-08-13

60

Migration between continents: geographical structure and long-distance gene flow in Porpidia flavicunda (lichen-forming Ascomycota).  

PubMed

Historical and contemporary geographical distribution ranges with their associated gene flow patterns interact to produce the genetic diversity observed today. Often it is not possible to separate out the impacts of historical events, e.g. past fragmentation, and contemporary gene flow, e.g. long-distance dispersal. Porpidia flavicunda is a lichen-forming ascomycete occurring circumpolar in the boreal to arctic zones for which vegetation history suggests that its distribution pattern has stayed broadly the same over the past millennia. DNA-sequence diversity in P. flavicunda can, thus, be expected to predominantly represent geographical population differentiation and its contemporary migration rates. The population sample consists of 110 specimens collected in Northern Québec, Baffin Island, Western Greenland and Northern Scandinavia. DNA-sequence data sets of three nuclear gene fragments (LSU, RPB2 and beta-tubulin) were analysed for genetic diversity within, and differentiation between, geographical regions. Tests of population subdivision employing analyses of molecular variance and exact tests of haplotype frequency distributions showed significant structure between the geographical regions. However, the lack of fixed nucleotide polymorphisms and the wide sharing of identical haplotypes between geographical regions suggest recurrent long-distance gene flow of propagules. Still, the means by which propagules are dispersed remain to be discovered. Inference of migration rates shows that in many cases a sufficiently high amount of migrants is exchanged between geographical regions to prevent drastic population differentiation through genetic drift. The observed haplotype distributions and migration rates point to a gene flow model of isolation by distance. PMID:17444896

Buschbom, Jutta

2007-05-01

61

Comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of the genus Golovinomyces (Ascomycota: Erysiphales) reveals close evolutionary relationships with its host plants.  

PubMed

The Erysiphaceae were originally parasitic to trees, and host shift from trees to herbs might have occurred many times independently in the tribes and genera. To investigate the evolutionary relationships between Golovinomyces species and their host plants, we conducted a comprehensive molecular phylogenetic analysis of this genus with 183 nucleotide sequences of ITS and 28S rDNA regions from samples collected worldwide. These sequences were divided into 11 distinct lineages. Ten of these lineages consist in each case of sequences from a single plant family or tribe, which suggests close evolutionary relationships of Golovinomyces species and their host plants. The basal five clades were composed of sequences each from a single tribe of the Asteraceae. This result supports speculation that co-speciation occurred between asteraceous hosts and Golovinomyces in the early evolution stage of this genus. Lineage XI at the most derived position of the tree includes sequences from a wide range of host families and is divided into many species with close genetic affinity. Sequences from the putative G. orontii group were separated into three groups, suggesting that G. orontii is a species complex. PMID:23709526

Takamatsu, Susumu; Matsuda, Sanae; Grigaliunaite, Banga

2013-05-25

62

Susceptibility of two hymenopteran parasitoids of Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) to the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Ascomycota: Hypocreales).  

PubMed

Emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, native to Asia, is killing ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) across 15 states and southeastern Canada. Integrated pest management using biological control is the only viable long-term approach for controlling the spread of EAB outside of host resistance. Three hymenopteran parasitoids, Spathius agrili Yang, Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang, and Oobius agrili Zhang and Huang were discovered attacking EAB in China and were approved for release in the United States in 2007. The objective of this study was to assess susceptibility of the larval parasitoid species S. agrili and T. planipennisi, relative to that of EAB, to Beauveria bassiana, an entomopathogenic fungus that infects and kills EAB adults when sprayed on ash bark or foliage. Adult EAB and parasitoids were exposed to B. bassiana inoculated ash twigs for 2 h and then monitored daily for death and signs of infection for up to 10 days. All EAB adults exposed to B. bassiana were fatally infected while mean survival for control EAB was 77%. Average survival in the treatment groups for T. planipennisi and S. agrili were 99% and 83%, respectively, indicating these parasitoids are relatively unaffected by exposure to B. bassiana. This research elucidates interactions between a fungal pathogen and two parasitoids of EAB, and provides data necessary to developing a successful multi-stage integrated management approach to control of EAB. PMID:22245471

Dean, Kimberly M; Vandenberg, John D; Griggs, Michael H; Bauer, Leah S; Fierke, Melissa K

2012-01-08

63

Pathogenic and enzyme activities of the entomopathogenic fungus Tolypocladium cylindrosporum (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) from Tierra del Fuego, Argentina.  

PubMed

Tolypocladium cylindrosporum is an entomopathogenic fungi that has been studied as a biological control agent against insects of several orders. The fungus has been isolated from the soil as well as from insects of the orders Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, Diptera and Hymenoptera. In this study, we analyzed the ability of a strain of T cylindrosporum, isolated from soil samples taken in Tierra del Fuego, Argentina, to produce hydrolytic enzymes, and to study the relationship of those activities to the fungus pathogenicity against pest aphids. We have made the traditional and molecular characterization of this strain of T cylindrosporum. The expression of hydrolase activity in the fungal strain was estimated at three incubation temperatures (4 degreeC, 12 degreeC and 24 degreeC), on different agar media supplemented with the following specific substrates: chitin azure, Tween 20, casein, and urea for chitinase, lipase, protease, and urease activity, respectively. The hydrolytic-enzyme activity was estimated qualitatively according to the presence of a halo of clarification through hydrolase action, besides was expressed semi-quantitatively as the ratio between the hydrolytic-halo and colony diameters. The pathogenicity of the fungus was tested on adults of the aphid Rhopalosiphum padi at three temperatures of incubation (4 degree C, 12 degree C and 24 degree C). The suspension was adjusted to a concentration of 1x10(7) conidia/ml. In pathogenicity assays at seven days post-inoculation, the fungus caused the mortality of adults of Ropalosiphum padi at different temperatures also showed a broad ability to grow on several agar-culture media, supplemented with different carbon sources at the three incubation temperatures tested. Although, the growth was greater with higher incubation temperatures (with maximum levels at 24 degreeC), the fungus reached similar colony diameters after 15 days of incubation on the medium supplemented with Tween 20 at the lower two incubation temperatures of 4 degreeC or 12 degreeC. In accordance with the results on colony diameters, the fungus revealed an ability to degrade casein, chitin derivatives, Tween 20, and urea as evidenced by the appearance of a halo around the fungal colony. Because of its origin and temperature tolerance, this Argentine strain has great potential for use as a biocontrol agent for insect pest control in cold and temperate environments. PMID:23894949

Scorsetti, Ana C; Elíades, Lorena A; Stenglein, Sebastián A; Cabello, Marta N; Pelizza, Sebastián A; Saparrat, Mario C N

2012-06-01

64

Molecular analysis of the split cox1 gene from the Basidiomycota Agrocybe aegerita: relationship of its introns with homologous Ascomycota introns and divergence levels from common ancestral copies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Basidiomycota Agrocybe aegerita (Aa) mitochondrial cox1 gene (6790 nucleotides), encoding a protein of 527aa (58?377Da), is split by four large subgroup IB introns possessing site-specific endonucleases assumed to be involved in intron mobility. When compared to other fungal COX1 proteins, the Aa protein is closely related to the COX1 one of the Basidiomycota Schizophyllum commune (Sc). This clade reveals

Patrice Gonzalez; Gérard Barroso; Jacques Labarère

1998-01-01

65

Evolution of Pleopsidium (lichenized Ascomycota) S943 group I introns and the phylogeography of an intron-encoded putative homing endonuclease.  

PubMed

The sporadic distribution of nuclear group I introns among different fungal lineages can be explained by vertical inheritance of the introns followed by successive losses, or horizontal transfers from one lineage to another through intron homing or reverse splicing. Homing is mediated by an intron-encoded homing endonuclease (HE) and recent studies suggest that the introns and their associated HE gene (HEG) follow a recurrent cyclical model of invasion, degeneration, loss, and reinvasion. The purpose of this study was to compare this model to the evolution of HEGs found in the group I intron at position S943 of the nuclear ribosomal DNA of the lichen-forming fungus Pleopsidium. Forty-eight S943 introns were found in the 64 Pleopsidium samples from a worldwide screen, 22 of which contained a full-length HEG that encodes a putative 256-amino acid HE, and 2 contained HE pseudogenes. The HEGs are divided into two closely related types (as are the introns that encode them) that differ by 22.6% in their nucleotide sequences. The evolution of the Pleopsidium intron-HEG element shows strong evidence for a cyclical model of evolution. The intron was likely acquired twice in the genus and then transmitted via two or three interspecific horizontal transfers. Close geographical proximity plays an important role in intron-HEG horizontal transfer because most of these mobile elements were found in Europe. Once acquired in a lineage, the intron-HEG element was also vertically transmitted, and occasionally degenerated or was lost. PMID:17294323

Reeb, Valérie; Haugen, Peik; Bhattacharya, Debashish; Lutzoni, François

2007-02-08

66

Assessing deposition and persistence of Beauveria bassiana GHA (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) applied for control of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), in a commercial tree nursery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Determining the deposition and field persistence of mycoinsecticides is essential in the development of effective and economical application strategies, including specifically the timing and frequency of spray applications. In this study we used three methods to evaluate the persistence of Beauveria bassiana strain GHA applied for control of the emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, an invasive pest attacking ash

Louela A. Castrillo; Michael H. Griggs; Houping Liu; Leah S. Bauer; John D. Vandenberg

2010-01-01

67

Quantitative detection of Beauveria bassiana GHA (Ascomycota: Hypocreales), a potential microbial control agent of the emerald ash borer, by use of real-time PCR  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Accurate monitoring of an introduced, mass-released microbial control agent is essential in evaluating its persistence and in designing application strategies for insect pest control. As part of our multi-year study on the development and use of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana agains...

68

Quantitative detection of Beauveria bassiana GHA (Ascomycota: Hypocreales), a potential microbial control agent of the emerald ash borer, by use of real-time PCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate monitoring of an introduced, mass-released microbial control agent is essential in evaluating its persistence and in designing application strategies for insect pest control. As part of our multi-year study on the development and use of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana against the emerald ash borer, a major invasive pest of ash trees, we are determining persistence of the fungus

Louela A. Castrillo; Michael H. Griggs; John D. Vandenberg

2008-01-01

69

Phylogenetic classification at generic level in the absence of distinct phylogenetic patterns of phenotypical variation: a case study in graphidaceae (ascomycota).  

PubMed

Molecular phylogenies often reveal that taxa circumscribed by phenotypical characters are not monophyletic. While re-examination of phenotypical characters often identifies the presence of characters characterizing clades, there is a growing number of studies that fail to identify diagnostic characters, especially in organismal groups lacking complex morphologies. Taxonomists then can either merge the groups or split taxa into smaller entities. Due to the nature of binomial nomenclature, this decision is of special importance at the generic level. Here we propose a new approach to choose among classification alternatives using a combination of morphology-based phylogenetic binning and a multiresponse permutation procedure to test for morphological differences among clades. We illustrate the use of this method in the tribe Thelotremateae focusing on the genus Chapsa, a group of lichenized fungi in which our phylogenetic estimate is in conflict with traditional classification and the morphological and chemical characters do not show a clear phylogenetic pattern. We generated 75 new DNA sequences of mitochondrial SSU rDNA, nuclear LSU rDNA and the protein-coding RPB2. This data set was used to infer phylogenetic estimates using maximum likelihood and Bayesian approaches. The genus Chapsa was found to be polyphyletic, forming four well-supported clades, three of which clustering into one unsupported clade, and the other, supported clade forming two supported subclades. While these clades cannot be readily separated morphologically, the combined binning/multiresponse permutation procedure showed that accepting the four clades as different genera each reflects the phenotypical pattern significantly better than accepting two genera (or five genera if splitting the first clade). Another species within the Thelotremateae, Thelotrema petractoides, a unique taxon with carbonized excipulum resembling Schizotrema, was shown to fall outside Thelotrema. Consequently, the new genera Astrochapsa, Crutarndina, Pseudochapsa, and Pseudotopeliopsis are described here and 39 new combinations are proposed. PMID:23251515

Parnmen, Sittiporn; Lücking, Robert; Lumbsch, H Thorsten

2012-12-12

70

The distribution of ascus types and photobiontal selection in Lecanoromycetes (Ascomycota) against the background of a revised SSU nrDNA phylogeny  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the last decade, molecular methods have revealed the relationships in many groups of lichenized Ascomycetes. However,\\u000a the published phylogenies were often contradictory with respect to higher taxonomic levels. To achieve a more convincing overall\\u000a picture of phylogenetic relationships of and within the Lecanoromycetes, we set up an alignment of all publicly available\\u000a SSU nrDNA sequences of the Pezizomycotina, discarded

Derek Peršoh; Andreas Beck; Gerhard Rambold

2004-01-01

71

Ophiostomatoid fungi (Ascomycota) associated with Pinus tabuliformis infested by Dendroctonus valens (Coleoptera) in northern China and an assessment of their pathogenicity on mature trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dendroctonus valens is an invasive pest in coniferous forests of northern China. It was suspected of being responsible for the death of more\\u000a than three million Pinus tabuliformis trees. The present study sought to identify the ophiostomatoid fungi associated with D. valens in northern China and understand the possible role of these fungi in the pine decline. On the basis

Quan Lu; Cony Decock; Xing Yao Zhang; Henri Maraite

2009-01-01

72

Assessing deposition and persistence of Beauveria bassiana GHA (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) applied for control of emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), in a commercial tree nursery  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Determining the deposition and field persistence of mycoinsecticides is essential in the development of effective and economical application strategies, including specifically the timing and frequency of spray applications. In this study we used three methods to evaluate the persistence of Beauveri...

73

Alloascoidea hylecoeti gen. nov., comb. nov., Alloascoidea africana comb. nov., Ascoidea tarda sp. nov. and Nadsonia starkeyi-henricii comb. nov., new members of the Saccharomycotina (Ascomycota)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Phylogenetic analysis of concatenated nuclear gene sequences for large and small subunit rRNAs, translation elongation factor 1-a and the two large subunits of RNA polymerase II (RPB1, RPB2) demonstrated that species assigned to the yeast genus Ascoidea represent two separate and distantly related c...

74

Genetic covariation of the marine fungal symbiont Haloguignardia irritans (Ascomycota, Pezizomycotina) with its algal hosts Cystoseira and Halidrys (Phaeophyceae, Fucales) along the west coast of North America.  

PubMed

The fungal endophyte Haloguignardia irritans induces gall formation on the brown algal genera Cystoseira and Halidrys occurring from Oregon to Baja California, Mexico. Here we examine genetic covariation and compare rDNA phylogenies to investigate the coevolutionary histories of H. irritans and its algal hosts. Despite recognition of H. irritans as a single morphological species, internal transcribed spacer rDNA sequences representative of its geographic range are characterized by sequence variation at the intraspecific to intrageneric levels. An assessment of parallel cladogenesis between endophyte and host phylogenies provides evidence for a combination of independent fungal divergence and host jumping, similar to that observed in terrestrial lichens. Our results suggest that reduced gene flow due to geographic isolation is a major contributing factor to more concerted covariation observed at one island site, rather than to differences among algal host species alone. Because geography and its effects on gene flow can create heterogeneous mosaics of coevolution for symbioses in terrestrial environments, our results support the notion that conservation efforts toward the maintenance of genetic diversity in marine environments should likewise consider geographic complexity and its effects on coevolving marine species. PMID:20965065

Harvey, J B J; Goff, Lynda J

2009-11-04

75

A phylogeny of the highly diverse cup-fungus family Pyronemataceae (Pezizomycetes, Ascomycota) clarifies relationships and evolution of selected life history traits.  

PubMed

Pyronemataceae is the largest and most heterogeneous family of Pezizomycetes. It is morphologically and ecologically highly diverse, comprising saprobic, ectomycorrhizal, bryosymbiotic and parasitic species, occurring in a broad range of habitats (on soil, burnt ground, debris, wood, dung and inside living bryophytes, plants and lichens). To assess the monophyly of Pyronemataceae and provide a phylogenetic hypothesis of the group, we compiled a four-gene dataset including one nuclear ribosomal and three protein-coding genes for 132 distinct Pezizomycetes species (4437 nucleotides with all markers available for 80% of the total 142 included taxa). This is the most comprehensive molecular phylogeny of Pyronemataceae, and Pezizomycetes, to date. Three hundred ninety-four new sequences were generated during this project, with the following numbers for each gene: RPB1 (124), RPB2 (99), EF-1? (120) and LSU rDNA (51). The dataset includes 93 unique species from 40 genera of Pyronemataceae, and 34 species from 25 genera representing an additional 12 families of the class. Parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses suggest that Pyronemataceae is paraphyletic due to the nesting of both Ascodesmidaceae and Glaziellaceae within the family. Four lineages with taxa currently classified in the family, the Boubovia, Geopyxis, Pseudombrophila and Pulvinula lineages, form a monophyletic group with Ascodesmidaceae and Glaziellaceae. We advocate the exclusion of these four lineages in order to recognize a monophyletic Pyronemataceae. The genus Coprotus (Thelebolales, Leotiomycetes) is shown to belong to Pezizomycetes, forming a strongly supported monophyletic group with Boubovia. Ten strongly supported lineages are identified within Pyronemataceae s. str. Of these, the Pyropyxis and Otidea lineages are identified as successive sister lineages to the rest of Pyronemataceae s. str. The highly reduced (gymnohymenial) Monascella is shown to belong to Pezizomycetes and is for the first time suggested to be closely related to the cleistothecial Warcupia, as a sister group to the primarily apothecial Otidea. None of the lineages of pyronemataceous taxa identified here correspond to previous families or subfamily classifications. Ancestral character state reconstructions (ASR) using a Bayesian approach support that the ancestors of Pezizomycetes and Pyronemataceae were soil inhabiting and saprobic. Ectomycorrhizae have arisen within both lineages A, B and C of Pezizomycetes and are suggested to have evolved independently seven to eight times within Pyronemataceae s. l., whereas an obligate bryosymbiotic lifestyle has arisen only twice. No reversals to a free-living, saprobic lifestyle have happened from symbiotic or parasitic Pyronemataceae. Specializations to various substrates (e.g. burnt ground and dung) are suggested to have occurred several times in mainly saprobic lineages. Although carotenoids in the apothecia are shown to have arisen at least four times in Pezizomycetes, the ancestor of Pyronemataceae s. str., excluding the Pyropyxis and Otidea lineages, most likely produced carotenoids, which were then subsequently lost in some clades (- and possibly gained again). Excipular hairs were found with a high probability to be absent from apothecia in the deepest nodes of Pezizomycetes and in the ancestor of Pyronemataceae s. str. True hairs are restricted to the core group of Pyronemataceae s. str., but are also found in Lasiobolus (Ascodesmidaceae), the Pseudombrophila lineage and the clade of Chorioactidaceae, Sarcoscyphaceae and Sarcosomataceae. The number of gains and losses of true hairs within Pyronemataceae s. str., however, remains uncertain. The ASR of ascospore guttulation under binary coding (present or absent) indicates that this character is fast evolving and prone to shifts. PMID:23403226

Hansen, Karen; Perry, Brian A; Dranginis, Andrew W; Pfister, Donald H

2013-02-09

76

Pyrenomycetes and Loculoascomycetes as sources of secondary metabolites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over 400 secondary metabolites have been reported from members of the Pyrenomycetes and the Loculoascomycetes. Among these, members of the Hypocreaceae, the Clavicipitaceae, the Xylariaceae, the Melanosporaceae, and the Sordariaceae in the Pyrenomycetes, and those of the Pleosporaceae and the Sporormlaceae in the Loculoascomycetes have been explored frequently; and representative secondary metabolites produced by these fungi are illustrated. Many of

L H Huang; T Kaneko

1996-01-01

77

Saccharomycotina and Taphrinomycotina – the yeasts and yeast-like fungi of the Ascomycotina  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The phylum Ascomycota has been resolved into three major phylogenetic lineages: the subphyla Saccharomycotina (e.g., Saccharomyces, Pichia, Candida), Taphrinomycotina (e.g., Protomyces, Taphrina, Pneumocystis), and the Pezizomycotina (e.g., Aspergillus, Neurospora, Peziza). We discuss the ecology, ...

78

The hidden life of truffles - Treesearch  

Treesearch

These fleshy organs are temporary reproductive structures that produce spores, which ... Technically, true truffles are those fungi that belong to the Ascomycota phylum of organisms and are marketed as food. ... Last Modified: July 1, 2013.

79

Endophytic fungal entomopathogens with activity against plant pathogens: ecology and evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dual biological control, of both insect pests and plant pathogens, has been reported for the fungal entomopathogens, Beauveria bassiana (Bals.-Criv.) Vuill. (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) and Lecanicillium spp. (Ascomycota: Hypocreales). However, the primary mechanisms of plant disease suppression are different for these fungi.\\u000a Beauveria spp. produce an array of bioactive metabolites, and have been reported to limit growth of fungal plant pathogens

Bonnie H. OwnleyKimberly; Kimberly D. Gwinn; Fernando E. Vega

2010-01-01

80

Endophytic fungal entomopathogens with activity against plant pathogens: ecology and evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Dual biological control, of both insect pests and plant pathogens, has been reported for the fungal entomopathogens, Beauveria bassiana (Bals.-Criv.) Vuill. (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) and Lecanicillium spp. (Ascomycota: Hypocreales). However, the primary mechanisms of plant disease suppression are different for these fungi.\\u000a Beauveria spp. produce an array of bioactive metabolites, and have been reported to limit growth of fungal plant pathogens

Bonnie H. OwnleyKimberly; Kimberly D. Gwinn; Fernando E. Vega

81

Anti Candida metabolites from endophytic fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Submerged cultures of some 1500 Ascomycota and Basidiomycota isolated from their fruit-bodies or as soil-borne, coprophilous or endophytic fungi were screened for activity against Candida albicans and a range of other pathogenic and saprotrophic fungi. Considerably more Ascomycota (11–16%) than Basidiomycota (3.5%) produced metabolites with activity against C. albicans. From five species of endophytes, six bioactive compounds were isolated and

Roland W. S. Weber; Reinhard Kappe; Thomas Paululat; Eva Mösker; Heidrun Anke

2007-01-01

82

Cryopreservation of filamentous micromycetes and yeasts using perlite  

Microsoft Academic Search

The viability, growth and morphology of 48 strains ofAscomycota (including 17 yeasts) and 20 strains ofZygomycota were determined after a 2-d and then after 1-year storage in liquid nitrogen using a new cryopreservation method with perlite\\u000a as a particulate solid carrier. In case ofAscomycota, 45 strains (94 %) out of 48 survived both 2-d and 1-year storage in liquid nitrogen,

L. Homolka; L. Lisá; A. Kubátová; M. Vá?ová; B. Janderová; F. Nerud

2007-01-01

83

18S rRNA Gene Variation among Common Airborne Fungi, and Development of Specific Oligonucleotide Probes for the Detection of Fungal Isolates  

PubMed Central

In this study, we sequenced 18S rRNA genes (rDNA) from 49 fungal strains representing 31 species from 15 genera. Most of these species are common airborne fungi and pathogens that may cause various public health concerns. Sequence analysis revealed distinct divergence between Zygomycota and Ascomycota. Within Ascomycota, several strongly supported clades were identified that facilitate the taxonomic placement of several little-studied fungi. Wallemia appeared as the group most diverged from all the other Ascomycota species. Based on the 18S rDNA sequence variation, 108 oligonucleotide probes were designed for each genus and species included in this study. After homology searches and DNA hybridization evaluations, 33 probes were verified as genus or species specific. The optimal hybridization temperatures to achieve the best specificity for these 33 probes were determined. These new probes can contribute to the molecular diagnostic research for environmental monitoring.

Wu, Zhihong; Tsumura, Yoshihiko; Blomquist, Goran; Wang, Xiao-Ru

2003-01-01

84

Phylogenetics of Saccharomycetales, the ascomycete yeasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ascomycete yeasts (phylum Ascomycota: subphylum Saccharomycotina: class Saccharomycetes: order Saccharomycetales) comprise a monophyletic lineage with a single order of about 1000 known species. These yeasts live as saprobes, often in association with plants, animals and their interfaces. A few species account for most human mycotic infections, and fewer than 10 species are plant pathogens. Yeasts are responsible for important industrial

Sung-Oui Suh; Meredith Blackwell; Cletus P. Kurtzman; M.-A. Lachance

2006-01-01

85

Septal Pore Caps in Basidiomycetes, Composition and Ultrastructure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Filamentous fungi, including Ascomycota and Basidiomycota, form mycelia that consist of a network of apical growing hyphae. These hyphae are separated into cellular compartments by septa that have pores of about 70 to 500 nm in diameter. The cytoplasm within the mycelium is thus continuous (coenocytic). The septum in the higher Basidiomycota (i.e. Agaricomycotina) is flared towards the pore, forming

K. G. A. van Driel

2007-01-01

86

HYPOCREA RUFA/TRICHODERMA VIRIDE: A REASSESSMENT, AND DESCRIPTION OF THREE CLOSELY RELATED SPECIES WITH AND WITHOUT WARTED CONIDIA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The type species of the genus Hypocrea (Hypocreaceae, Hypocreales, Ascomycota, Fungi), H. rufa, is re-defined and epitypified using a combination of phenotype (morphology of teleomorphs and anamorphs, and characteristics in culture) and phylogenetic analyses of the translation-elongation factor 1' g...

87

The Fastest Flights in Nature: High-Speed Spore Discharge Mechanisms among Fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: A variety of spore discharge processes have evolved among the fungi. Those with the longest ranges are powered by hydrostatic pressure and include ''squirt guns'' that are most common in the Ascomycota and Zygomycota. In these fungi, fluid-filled stalks that support single spores or spore-filled sporangia, or cells called asci that contain multiple spores, are pressurized by osmosis. Because

Levi Yafetto; Loran Carroll; Yunluan Cui; Diana J. Davis; Mark W. F. Fischer; Andrew C. Henterly; Jordan D. Kessler; Hayley A. Kilroy; Jacob B. Shidler; Jessica L. Stolze-Rybczynski; Zachary Sugawara; Nicholas P. Money

2008-01-01

88

Ecology of the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae in temperate agroecosystems: Potential for conservation biological control  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is increasingly recognized that the biodiversity in agroecosystems deliver significant ecosystem services to agricultural production such as biological control of pests. Entomopathogenic fungi, specifically the anamorphic taxa Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae, Hypocreales (Ascomycota), are among the natural enemies of pests in agroecosystems and the fungi are candidates for future conservation biological control in temperate regions. Conservation biological control

Nicolai V. Meyling; Jørgen Eilenberg

2007-01-01

89

Trichoderma amazonicum, a new endophytic species on Hevea brasiliensis and H. guianensis from the Amazon basin  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A new species of Trichoderma (teleomorph Hypocrea, Ascomycota, Sordariomycetes, Hypocreales, Hypocreaceae), T. amazonicum, endophytic on the living sapwood and leaves of Hevea spp. trees is described. Trichoderma amazonicum is distinguished from closely related species in the Harzianum clade (e.g. ...

90

Evolution of the Fungi and their Mitochondrial Genomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the importance of fungi as model eukaryotic organisms, fungal mitochondrial genomics has only recently received considerable attention. Over the past several years, the number of available, completely sequenced mitochondrial genomes from fungi has increased from just 3 to 22 sequences, including representatives of the four principle divisions of this kingdom: Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Zygomycota and Chytridiomycota. This wealth of data

Charles E. Bullerwell; Jessica Leigh; Elias Seif; Joyce E. Longcore; B. Franz Lang

2003-01-01

91

Contribution of fungi to primary biogenic aerosols in the atmosphere: wet and dry discharged spores, carbohydrates, and inorganic ions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biogenic aerosols play important roles in atmospheric chemistry physics, the biosphere, climate, and public health. Here, we show that fungi which actively discharge their spores with liquids into the air, in particular actively wet spore discharging Ascomycota (AAM) and actively wet spore discharging Basidiomycota (ABM), are a major source of primary biogenic aerosol particles and components. We present the first

W. Elbert; P. E. Taylor; M. O. Andreae; U. Pöschl

2007-01-01

92

Contribution of fungi to primary biogenic aerosols in the atmosphere: wet and dry discharged spores, carbohydrates, and inorganic ions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biogenic aerosols play important roles in atmo- spheric chemistry physics, the biosphere, climate, and public health. Here, we show that fungi which actively discharge their spores with liquids into the air, in particular actively wet spore discharging Ascomycota (AAM) and actively wet spore discharging Basidiomycota (ABM), are a major source of primary biogenic aerosol particles and components. We present the

W. Elbert; P. E. Taylor; M. O. Andreae; U. Pöschl

2007-01-01

93

Detrimental effects of endophytic fungus Nigrospora sp. on survival and development of Spodoptera litura  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endophytes have been known to confer resistance to host plants against insect herbivores mediated by fungal alkaloids. In this study we have isolated an endophytic fungus Nigrospora sp. (Ascomycota: Sordariomycetes) from a native plant Tinospora cordifolia. To assess anti-insect potential, we tested to what extent the survival and development of Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), a polyphagous pest, was affected when

Abhinay Thakur; Sanehdeep Kaur; Amarjeet Kaur; Varinder Singh

2012-01-01

94

Detrimental effects of endophytic fungus Nigrospora sp. on survival and development of Spodoptera litura  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endophytes have been known to confer resistance to host plants against insect herbivores mediated by fungal alkaloids. In this study we have isolated an endophytic fungus Nigrospora sp. (Ascomycota: Sordariomycetes) from a native plant Tinospora cordifolia. To assess anti-insect potential, we tested to what extent the survival and development of Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) a polyphagous pest, was affected when

Abhinay Thakur; Sanehdeep Kaur; Amarjeet Kaur; Varinder Singh

2011-01-01

95

Evolutionary Origins and Ecological Consequences of Endophyte Symbiosis with Grasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past 20 yr much has been learned about a unique symbiotic interaction between fungal endophytes and grasses. The fungi (Clavicipitaceae, Ascomycota) grow intercellularly and sys- temically in aboveground plant parts. Vertically transmitted asexual endophytes forming asymptomatic infections of cool-season grasses have been repeatedly derived from sexual species that abort host inflorescences. The phylogenetic distribution of seed-transmitted en- dophytes

Keith Clay; Christopher Schardl

2002-01-01

96

Trypsin-like Proteins of the Fungi as Possible Markers of Phytopathogenicity  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sequences of peptidases with conserved motifs around the active site residues that are characteristic of trypsins (similar to trypsin peptidases, STP) were obtained from publicly available fungal genomes and related databases. Among the 74 fungal genomes, 30 species of parasitic Ascomycota contained...

97

The obligately lichenicolous genus Lichenoconium represents a novel lineage in the Dothideomycetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lichenicolous fungi are obligately lichen-associated organisms that have evolved many times throughout the Ascomycota and Basidiomycota. Approximately 20% of lichenicolous ascomycetes are recognized only from asexual (anamorphic) characteristics, so the phylogenetic position of many groups has never been resolved. Here we present the first molecular phylogeny of Lichenoconium, a genus of strictly asexual, obligately lichenicolous species with broad geographic distributions

James D. Lawrey; Paul Diederich; Matthew P. Nelsen; Masoumeh Sikaroodi; Patrick M. Gillevet; A. Maarten Brand; Pieter van den Boom

2011-01-01

98

HONGOS COMESTIBLES SILVESTRES COLECTADOS EN LA X REGION DE CHILE (Wild eatable mushrooms collected in the X Region of Chile)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty species of wild eatable mushrooms (autochtho- nous and exotic) Basidiomycota and Ascomycota that fructify in vegetal remains, native forests, forest planta- tions, parks, gardens and, prairies of the X Region of Chile are reported. A macro-microscopic description of them is presented and their ecological aspects and distribution are commented. Besides, a list of those wild eatable Basidiomycota that fructify

99

Freeze-drying of filamentous fungi and yeasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this thesis was to optimize the freeze-drying protocol for fungi in general and for those genera that do not survive this preservation method, in particular. To this end, the influence of the cooling rate, the lyoprotectant and the drying process itself was examined. Since most fungi belong to the Basidiomycota and Ascomycota, this thesis focused on freeze-drying

C. S. Tan

2011-01-01

100

The Spectrum of Fungal Allergy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fungi can be found throughout the world. They may live as saprophytes, parasites or symbionts of animals and plants in indoor as well as outdoor environment. For decades, fungi belonging to the ascomycota as well as to the basidiomycota have been known to cause a broad panel of human disorders. In contrast to pollen, fungal spores and\\/or mycelial cells may

Birgit Simon-Nobbe; Ursula Denk; Verena Pöll; Raphaela Rid; Michael Breitenbach

2008-01-01

101

Trifling variation in truffles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of the ten species of European truffle (fungi of the genus Tuber, phylum Ascomycota), some have economic value because of their organoleptic properties (taste and perfume), in particular the black truffle (Tuber melanosporum Vitt.) and the summer and burgundy truffles,. The black truffle is mainly found in Spain, France and Italy (Fig. 1a), and it shows variation in several traits,

G. Bertault; M. Raymond; A. Berthomieu; G. Callot; D. Fernandez

1998-01-01

102

Identification and characterization of Tc1\\/mariner-like DNA transposons in genomes of the pathogenic fungi of the Paracoccidioides species complex  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (Eukaryota, Fungi, Ascomycota) is a thermodimorphic fungus, the etiological agent of paracoccidioidomycosis, the most important systemic mycoses in Latin America. Three isolates corresponding to distinct phylogenetic lineages of the Paracoccidioides species complex had their genomes sequenced. In this study the identification and characterization of class II transposable elements in the genomes of these fungi was carried out.

Marjorie M Marini; Tamiris Zanforlin; Patrícia C Santos; Roberto RM Barros; Rosana Puccia; Maria SS Felipe; Marcelo Brigido; Célia MA Soares; Jerônimo C Ruiz; José F Silveira; Patrícia S Cisalpino

2010-01-01

103

What is Scirrhia?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ascomycetous genus Scirrhia is presently treated as a member of Dothideomycetidae, though uncertainty remains as to which family it belongs in Capnodiales, Ascomycota. Recent collections on stems of a fern, Pteridium aquilinum {Dennstaedtiaceae) in Brazil, led to the discovery of a new species of Scirrhia, described here as S. brasiliensis. Based on DNA sequence data of the nuclear ribosomal

P. W. Crous; A. M. Minnis; O. L. Pereira; A. C. Alfenas; R. F. Alfenas; A. Y. Rossman; J. Z. Groenewald

2011-01-01

104

The Wood Rot Ascomycete Xylaria polymorpha Produces a Novel GH78 Glycoside Hydrolase That Exhibits ?-l-Rhamnosidase and Feruloyl Esterase Activities and Releases Hydroxycinnamic Acids from Lignocelluloses  

PubMed Central

Soft rot (type II) fungi belonging to the family Xylariaceae are known to substantially degrade hardwood by means of their poorly understood lignocellulolytic system, which comprises various hydrolases, including feruloyl esterases and laccase. In the present study, several members of the Xylariaceae were found to exhibit high feruloyl esterase activity during growth on lignocellulosic materials such as wheat straw (up to 1,675 mU g?1) or beech wood (up to 80 mU g?1). Following the ester-cleaving activity toward methyl ferulate, a hydrolase of Xylaria polymorpha was produced in solid-state culture on wheat straw and purified by different steps of anion-exchange and size-exclusion chromatography to apparent homogeneity (specific activity, 2.2 U mg?1). The peptide sequence of the purified protein deduced from the gene sequence and verified by de novo peptide sequencing shows high similarity to putative ?-l-rhamnosidase sequences belonging to the glycoside hydrolase family 78 (GH78; classified under EC 3.2.1.40). The purified enzyme (98 kDa by SDS-PAGE, 103 kDa by size-exclusion chromatography; pI 3.7) converted diverse glycosides (e.g., ?-l-rhamnopyranoside and ?-l-arabinofuranoside) but also natural and synthetic esters (e.g., chlorogenic acid, hydroxycinnamic acid glycoside esters, veratric acid esters, or p-nitrophenyl acetate) and released free hydroxycinnamic acids (ferulic and coumaric acid) from arabinoxylan and milled wheat straw. These catalytic properties strongly suggest that X. polymorpha GH78 is a multifunctional enzyme. It is the first fungal enzyme that combines glycosyl hydrolase with esterase activities and may help this soft rot fungus to degrade lignocelluloses.

Nghi, Do Huu; Bittner, Britta; Kellner, Harald; Jehmlich, Nico; Ullrich, Rene; Pecyna, Marek J.; Nousiainen, Paula; Sipila, Jussi; Huong, Le Mai; Hofrichter, Martin

2012-01-01

105

First fungal community analyses of endophytic ascomycetes associated with Viscum album ssp. austriacum and its host Pinus sylvestris.  

PubMed

The endophytic fungal communities in the hemi-parasitic epiphyte Viscum album and in its phorophyte Pinus sylvestris were compared to reveal the fungal distribution patterns in their hosts. The ITS nrDNA of 208 multiple-isolated fungal strains was sequenced and a newly designed process was applied for assigning taxon names to the obtained sequences. Furthermore, the isolates were grouped as clusters, by subjecting a sequence similarity matrix to various cluster analyses, the results of which were compared and verified by data from phylogenetic reconstructions. In contrast to a previously reported dominance of Leotiomycetes among Pinus inhabiting fungi, the endophytic communities of the two host plant species studied here were dominated by Xylariaceae (Sordariomycetes). This is in accordance with the finding that host selectivity was only a minor factor in explaining the distribution patterns of the endophytic fungi in Viscum and Pinus. Organ and, probably, tissue selectivity had a more pronounced effect. The composition and condition of the woods in the surrounding, however, are concluded to be the major determinants, due to the following circumstantial evidence: The highest similarities in fungal community compositions were found for the leaves of the two host plant species, especially when considering only the older leaves. The finding that the inhabitants of matured or senescent organs are less host-selective is in accordance with decreasing defence capabilities of ageing host plant tissue and an increased nutrient supply for saprobic taxa. Therefore, the composition of the fungal communities in ageing leaves seems to be predominantly ascribed to contagious spread and to depend on the spectrum of nearby sporulating fungal taxa. We suggest that because a broad range of suitable substrates for Xylariaceae was present in immediate vicinity of the study sites, these fungi also dominated among the recorded endophytic taxa. PMID:20943170

Peršoh, Derek; Melcher, Martina; Flessa, Fabienne; Rambold, Gerhard

2010-05-11

106

Causes and Consequences of Genome Expansion in Fungi  

PubMed Central

Fungi display a large diversity in genome size and complexity, variation that is often considered to be adaptive. But because nonadaptive processes can also have important consequences on the features of genomes, we investigated the relationship of genetic drift and genome size in the phylum Ascomycota using multiple indicators of genetic drift. We detected a complex relationship between genetic drift and genome size in fungi: genetic drift is associated with genome expansion on broad evolutionary timescales, as hypothesized for other eukaryotes; but within subphyla over smaller timescales, the opposite trend is observed. Moreover, fungi and bacteria display similar patterns of genome degradation that are associated with initial effects of genetic drift. We conclude that changes in genome size within Ascomycota have occurred using two different routes: large-scale genome expansions are catalyzed by increasing drift as predicted by the mutation-hazard model of genome evolution and small-scale modifications in genome size are independent of drift.

Kelkar, Yogeshwar D.; Ochman, Howard

2012-01-01

107

Positive selection in phytotoxic protein-encoding genes of Botrytis species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evolutionary patterns of sequence divergence were analyzed in genes from the fungal genus Botrytis (Ascomycota), encoding phytotoxic proteins homologous to a necrosis and ethylene-inducing protein from Fusarium oxysporum. Fragments of two paralogous genes (designated NEP1 and NEP2) were amplified from all known Botrytis species and sequenced. NEP1 sequences of two Botrytis species contain premature stop codons, indicating that they may

Martijn Staats; Peter van Baarlen; Alexander Schouten; Jan A. L. van Kan; Freek T. Bakker

2007-01-01

108

Protein Profile of Nomuraea rileyi Spore Isolated from Infected Silkworm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nomuraea rileyi (N. rileyi) is the causative agent of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, green muscardine which can cause severe worldwide economical loss in sericulture. Little is known about N. rileyi at the protein level for this entomopathogenic parasite which belongs to the Ascomycota. Here, we employed proteomic-based\\u000a approach to identify proteins of N. rileyi spores collected from the dead silkworm. In all, 252

Lvgao Qin; Xiaoyong Liu; Jun Li; Huiqing Chen; Qin Yao; Zhe Yang; Lin Wang; Keping Chen

2009-01-01

109

Fungal Communities in Decaying Sapwood and Heartwood of a Conifer Keteleeria evelyniana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fungal communities in decaying sapwood and heartwood of K. evelyniana were demonstrated through construction of four 18 S rRNA gene libraries. The 210 sequenced clones were clustered into 11\\u000a subgroups, belonging to Basidiomycota (71.9%) and to Ascomycota (22.4%) and unclassified (1 subgroup; 5.7%). The heartwood\\u000a displayed higher species richness than the sapwood. Basidiomycota were dominant in either the heartwood or the

Han-Bo Zhang; Ming-Xia Yang; Ran Tu; Lei Gao; Zhi-Wei Zhao

2008-01-01

110

Contribution of fungi to primary biogenic aerosols in the atmosphere: active discharge of spores, carbohydrates, and inorganic ions by Asco- and Basidiomycota  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spores and related chemical compounds from actively spore-discharging Ascomycota (AAM) and actively spore-discharging Basidiomycota (ABM) are primary biogenic components of air particulate matter (characteristic size range 1-10 mum). Measurement results and budget calculations based on investigations in Amazonia (Balbina, Brazil, July 2001) indicate that the forcible discharge of fungal spores may account for a large proportion of coarse air particulate

W. Elbert; P. E. Taylor; M. O. Andreae; U. Pöschl

2006-01-01

111

Is Roesleria subterranea a primary pathogen or a minor parasite of grapevines? Risk assessment and a diagnostic decision scheme  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past the root rot pathogen Roesleria subterranea (Ascomycota) was generally considered as a minor parasite, a view with which we were often confronted during field work in\\u000a German wine-growing regions where this ascomycete recently caused serious problems in established vineyards and at replant\\u000a sites. To irrevocably demonstrate that R. subterranea is not a minor, but a primary pathogen

Sigrid Neuhauser; Lars Huber; Martin Kirchmair

112

Effects of prior decomposition of beech leaf litter by phyllosphere fungi on substrate utilization by fungal decomposers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in litter quality resulting from pretreatment of leaf litter by phyllosphere fungi may affect its subsequent decomposition\\u000a by succeeding fungi. The purpose of this study is to clarify the effect of prior decomposition of leaf litter by two phyllosphere\\u000a fungi of beech, Xylaria sp. and Ascochyta sp., on substrate utilization of 12 fungal species in the Basidiomycota, the Ascomycota,

Takashi Osono

2003-01-01

113

Multilocus phylogenetic and coalescent analyses identify two cryptic species in the Italian bianchetto truffle, Tuber borchii Vittad  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tuber borchii (Ascomycota, Pezizales) is a highly valued truffle sold in local markets in Italy. Despite its economic importance, knowledge\\u000a on its distribution and genetic structure is scarce. The objective of this work was to investigate the factors shaping the\\u000a genetic structure of T. borchii using 61 representative specimens with a broad distribution throughout Italy. In spite of the lack

Enrico Bonuso; Alessandra Zambonelli; Sarah E. Bergemann; Mirco Iotti; Matteo Garbelotto

2010-01-01

114

Characterization of beech ectomycorrhizae formed by species of the Pachyphloeus–Amylascus lineage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hypogeous genus Pachyphloeus forms a common phylogenetic lineage with the epigeous Scabropezia and the hypogeous Amylascus, within the Pezizaceae (Ascomycota). Though the ectomycorrhiza- (EM) forming ability of this group was proposed previously,\\u000a no detailed description has been published up to now, except for the characterization of EM related to P. virecens. During our several-year-long survey on the EM community

Zsolt Er?s-Honti; Erzsébet Jakucs

2009-01-01

115

The Fastest Flights in Nature: High-Speed Spore Discharge Mechanisms among Fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundA variety of spore discharge processes have evolved among the fungi. Those with the longest ranges are powered by hydrostatic pressure and include “squirt guns” that are most common in the Ascomycota and Zygomycota. In these fungi, fluid-filled stalks that support single spores or spore-filled sporangia, or cells called asci that contain multiple spores, are pressurized by osmosis. Because spores

Levi Yafetto; Loran Carroll; Yunluan Cui; Diana J. Davis; Mark W. F. Fischer; Andrew C. Henterly; Jordan D. Kessler; Hayley A. Kilroy; Jacob B. Shidler; Jessica L. Stolze-Rybczynski; Zachary Sugawara; Nicholas P. Money; Amy S. Gladfelter

2008-01-01

116

Hypocrea rufa\\/Trichoderma viride: a reassessment, and description of five closely related species with and without warted conidia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The type species of the genus Hypocrea (Hypocreaceae, Hypocreales, Ascomycota, Fungi), H. rufa, is re-defined and epitypified using a combination of phenotype (morphology of teleomorphs and anamorphs, and characteristics in culture) and phylogenetic analyses of the translation-elongation factor 1? gene. Its anamorph, T. viride, the type species of Trichoderma, is re-described and epitypified. Eidamia viridescens is combined as Trichoderma viridescens

Walter M. Jaklitsch; Gary J. Samuels; Sarah L. Dodd; Bing-Sheng Lu; Irina S. Druzhinina

2006-01-01

117

Changes in nitrogen assimilation, metabolism, and growth in transgenic rice plants expressing a fungal NADP(H)-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase (gdhA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In plants, glutamine synthetase (GS) is the enzyme that is mainly responsible for the assimilation of ammonium. Conversely,\\u000a in microorganisms such as bacteria and Ascomycota, NADP(H)-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and GS both have important\\u000a roles in ammonium assimilation. Here, we report the changes in nitrogen assimilation, metabolism, growth, and grain yield\\u000a of rice plants caused by an ectopic expression of

Tomomi Abiko; Masataka Wakayama; Akira Kawakami; Mitsuhiro Obara; Hiroaki Kisaka; Tetsuya Miwa; Naohiro Aoki; Ryu Ohsugi

2010-01-01

118

Structural features of fungal genomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eighteen fungal genomes have been sequenced to date from a variety of taxonomic groups, with fifteen Ascomycota, two Basidomycota and one Microsporidia species represented. The genomes vary in size more than tenfold, from approximately 2.5 Mbp to 38.8 Mbp. We have performed\\u000a a computational analysis of DNA structural features of all 18 fungal genomes. The sequenced genomes can be visualised

Phatthanaphong Wanchanthuek; Peter F. Hallin; Rodrigo Gouveia-Oliveira; David Ussery

119

Bipolaris euphorbiae as a Biological Control Agent for Wild Poinsettia ( Euphorbia heterophylla ): Host-Specificity and Variability in Pathogen and Host Populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bipolaris euphorbiae (anamorphic Ascomycota: Pleosporaceae) has been studied since the early 1980s as a potential biocontrol agent of wild poinsettia\\u000a (Euphorbia heterophylla), a noxious invader of soybean fields in Brazil. A new isolate (KLN05) was arbitrarily selected after the aggressiveness\\u000a of six isolates of the fungus obtained from different sites was evaluated on wild poinsettias grown from seeds obtained from

Kátia Lima De Nechet; Robert Weingart Barreto; Eduardo S. G. Mizubuti

2006-01-01

120

Origin and diversification of endomycorrhizal fungi and coincidence with vascular land plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

AMONG the Eukaryota, the true fungi comprise four divisions (Chytridiomycota, Zymogomycota, Ascomycota and Basidio-mycota) that constitute a natural group which is thought to have diverged about 1 billion (109) years ago, believed also to be the time of divergence between metaphyta and metazoa lineages1. The endosymbionts responsible for the most prevalent plant root symbiosis, the vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae (VAM) or, more

Luc Simon; Jean Bousquet; Roger C. Lévesque; Maurice Lalonde

1993-01-01

121

Effects of the fungus Lecanicillium lecanii on survival and reproduction of the aphid Schizaphis graminum  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the effects of a strain of the fungus Lecanicillium lecanii (Zimm.) Zare and Gams (Hypocreales: Ascomycota) on the aphid Schizaphis graminum (Rondani) (Hemiptera: Aphididae). The fungus was administered to fourth instar nymphs and to alate and apterous adult morphs\\u000a as a ground rice-kernel formulation. This study showed that L. lecanii formulation affected the survival of the aphids

Sonia Ganassi; Pasqualina Grazioso; Antonio Moretti; Maria Agnese Sabatini

2010-01-01

122

Assessment of soil fungal communities using pyrosequencing.  

PubMed

Pyrosequencing, a non-electrophoretic method of DNA sequencing, was used to investigate the extensive fungal community in soils of three islands in the Yellow Sea of Korea, between Korea and China. Pyrosequencing was carried out on amplicons derived from the 5' region of 18S rDNA. A total of 10,166 reads were obtained, with an average length of 103 bp. The maximum number of fungal phylotypes in soil predicted at 99% similarity was 3,334. The maximum numbers of phylotypes predicted at 97% and 95% similarities were 736 and 286, respectively. Through phylogenetic assignment using BLASTN, a total of 372 tentative taxa were identified. The majority of true fungal sequences recovered in this study belonged to the Ascomycota (182 tentative taxa in 2,708 reads) and Basidiomycota (172 tentative taxa in 6,837 reads). The predominant species of Ascomycota detected have been described as lichen-forming fungi, litter/wood decomposers, plant parasites, endophytes, and saprotrophs: Peltigera neopolydactyla (Lecanoromycetes), Paecilomyces sp. (Sordariomycetes), Phacopsis huuskonenii (Lecanoromycetes), and Raffaelea hennebertii (mitosporicAscomycota). The majority of sequences in the Basidiomycota matched ectomycorrhizal and wood rotting fungi, including species of the Agaricales and Aphyllophorales, respectively. A high number of sequences in the Thelephorales, Boletales, Stereales, Hymenochaetales, and Ceratobasidiomycetes were also detected. By applying high-throughput pyrosequencing, we observed a high diversity of soil fungi and found evidence that pyrosequencing is a reliable technique for investigating fungal communities in soils. PMID:20571944

Lim, Young Woon; Kim, Byung Kwon; Kim, Changmu; Jung, Hack Sung; Kim, Bong-Soo; Lee, Jae-Hak; Chun, Jongsik

2010-06-23

123

Fungi associated with the southern Eurasian orchid Spiranthes spiralis (L.) Chevall.  

PubMed

The hitherto unknown relationships between the European orchid Spiranthes spiralis (L.) Chevall and its internally associated fungi were explored by a combined approach involving microscopy-based investigations at a morpho-histological level as well as by molecular analyses of the identity of the eukaryotic endophytes present in the root tissue of the plant. We found that this orchid which is currently reported to have a vulnerable status in northern Italy, can host and interact with at least nine types of fungi. Some of these fungi show similarity to mycorrhizal genera found in orchids such as the Ceratobasidium-Rhizoctonia group. Other fungi found are from the genera Davidiella (Ascomycota), Leptosphaeria (Ascomycota), Alternaria (Ascomycota), and Malassezia (Basidiomycota), some of which until have not previously been reported to have an endophytic relationship with plants. The repeated occurrence of often pathogenic fungi such as Fusarium oxysporum, Bionectria ochroleuca, and Alternaria sp., within healthy specimens of this orchid suggests a tempered interaction with species that are sometimes deleterious to non-orchid plants. The fact is reminiscent of the symbiotic compromise established by orchids with fungi of the rhizoctonia group. PMID:22483052

Tondello, Alessandra; Vendramin, Elena; Villani, Mariacristina; Baldan, Barbara; Squartini, Andrea

2012-02-28

124

From pattern to process: species and functional diversity in fungal endophytes of Abies beshanzuensis.  

PubMed

The biodiversity-functional relationship in fungal ecology was recently developed and debated, but has rarely been addressed in endophytes. In this study, an integrative culture system was designed to capture a rich fungal consortium from the conifer Abies beshanzuensis. Results indicate an impressive diversity of fungal lineages (a total of 84 taxa classified in Dikarya) and a relatively high proportion of hitherto unknown species (27.4%). The laccase gene was used as a functional marker due to its involvement in lignocellulose degradation. Remarkable diversity of laccase genes was found across a wide range of taxa, with at least 35 and 19 distinct sequences in ascomycetes and basidiomycetes respectively, were revealed. Many groups displayed variable ability to decompose needles. Furthermore, many ascomycetes, including three volatile-producing Muscodor species (Xylariaceae), showed the ability to inhibit pathogens. Notably, most laccase-producing species showed little or no antibiosis and vice versa. Clavicipitalean and ustilaginomycetous fungi, specifically toxic to insects, were inferred from taxonomic information. Intra-specific physiological variation in Pezicula sporulosa, a second dominant species, was clearly high. We conclude that a suite of defensive characteristics in endophytes contributes to improving host fitness under various stresses and that a diversity of laccase genes confers an ecological advantage in competition for nutrients. Intra-specific diversity may be of great ecological significance for ecotypic adaptation. These findings suggest a fair degree of functional complementarity rather than redundancy among endemic symbionts of natural plant populations. PMID:21354526

Yuan, Zhi-Lin; Rao, Long-Bing; Chen, Yi-Cun; Zhang, Chu-Long; Wu, You-Gui

2010-11-30

125

Diversity and Taxonomy of Endophytic Xylariaceous Fungi from Medicinal Plants of Dendrobium (Orchidaceae)  

PubMed Central

Dendrobium spp. are traditional Chinese medicinal plants, and the main effective ingredients (polysaccharides and alkaloids) have pharmacologic effects on gastritis infection, cancer, and anti-aging. Previously, we confirmed endophytic xylariaceous fungi as the dominant fungi in several Dendrobium species of tropical regions from China. In the present study, the diversity, taxonomy, and distribution of culturable endophytic xylariaceous fungi associated with seven medicinal species of Dendrobium (Orchidaceae) were investigated. Among the 961 endophytes newly isolated, 217 xylariaceous fungi (morphotaxa) were identified using morphological and molecular methods. The phylogenetic tree constructed using nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS), large subunit of ribosomal DNA (LSU), and beta-tubulin sequences divided these anamorphic xylariaceous isolates into at least 18 operational taxonomic units (OTUs). The diversity of the endophytic xylariaceous fungi in these seven Dendrobium species was estimated using Shannon and evenness indices, with the results indicating that the dominant Xylariaceae taxa in each Dendrobium species were greatly different, though common xylariaceous fungi were found in several Dendrobium species. These findings implied that different host plants in the same habitats exhibit a preference and selectivity for their fungal partners. Using culture-dependent approaches, these xylariaceous isolates may be important sources for the future screening of new natural products and drug discovery.

Chen, Juan; Zhang, Li-Chun; Xing, Yong-Mei; Wang, Yun-Qiang; Xing, Xiao-Ke; Zhang, Da-Wei; Liang, Han-Qiao; Guo, Shun-Xing

2013-01-01

126

Chaenothecopsis khayensis, a new resinicolous calicioid fungus on African mahogany.  

PubMed

The new species Chaenothecopsis khayensis (Ascomycota, Mycocaliciaceae) is described from Ghana, western Africa, on the resin of Khaya anthotheca and K. ivorensis. The species is distinctive in forming asci without crosiers and in possessing ascospores that are faintly longitudinally striate. Analysis of large subunit rDNA gene sequences positioned this species within a clade corresponding to the Mycocaliciales and identified its closest relative as Sphinctrina leucopoda. Chaenothecopsis khayensis occurs commonly on resin exuding from trees damaged by the larvae of the mahogany shoot borer (Hypsipyla sp.), and we discuss the possible ecological relationship between the fungus and these moths. PMID:21471291

Tuovila, Hanna; Cobbinah, Joseph R; Rikkinen, Jouko

2011-04-06

127

Balticolid: A New 12-Membered Macrolide with Antiviral Activity from an Ascomycetous Fungus of Marine Origin  

PubMed Central

A new 12-membered macrolide, balticolid (1) was isolated from the EtOAc extract of the culture broth of fungal strain 222 belonging to the Ascomycota, which was found on driftwood collected from the coast of the Greifswalder Bodden, Baltic Sea, Germany. The structure of balticolid was determined to be (3R,11R), (4E,8E)-3-hydroxy-11-methyloxacyclododeca-4,8-diene-1,7-dione using extensive spectral data as well as the modified Mosher ester method. Balticolid (1) displayed anti-HSV-1 activity with an IC50 value of 0.45 ?M.

Shushni, Muftah A. M.; Singh, Rajinder; Mentel, Renate; Lindequist, Ulrike

2011-01-01

128

Permanent genetic resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 February 2013-31 March 2013.  

PubMed

This article documents the addition of 142 microsatellite marker loci to the Molecular Ecology Resources database. Loci were developed for the following species: Agriophyllum squarrosum, Amazilia cyanocephala, Batillaria attramentaria, Fungal strain CTeY1 (Ascomycota), Gadopsis marmoratus, Juniperus phoenicea subsp. turbinata, Liriomyza sativae, Lupinus polyphyllus, Metschnikowia reukaufii, Puccinia striiformis and Xylocopa grisescens. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Amazilia beryllina, Amazilia candida, Amazilia rutila, Amazilia tzacatl, Amazilia violiceps, Amazilia yucatanensis, Campylopterus curvipennis, Cynanthus sordidus, Hylocharis leucotis, Juniperus brevifolia, Juniperus cedrus, Juniperus osteosperma, Juniperus oxycedrus, Juniperus thurifera, Liriomyza bryoniae, Liriomyza chinensis, Liriomyza huidobrensis and Liriomyza trifolii. PMID:23693143

Arias, M C; Atteke, Christiane; Augusto, S C; Bailey, J; Bazaga, Pilar; Beheregaray, Luciano B; Benoit, Laure; Blatrix, Rumsaïs; Born, Céline; Brito, R M; Chen, Hai-kui; Covarrubias, Sara; de Vega, Clara; Djiéto-Lordon, Champlain; Dubois, Marie-Pierre; Francisco, F O; García, Cristina; Gonçalves, P H P; González, Clementina; Gutiérrez-Rodríguez, Carla; Hammer, Michael P; Herrera, Carlos M; Itoh, H; Kamimura, S; Karaoglu, H; Kojima, S; Li, Shou-Li; Ling, Hannah J; Matos-Maraví, Pável F; McKey, Doyle; Mezui-M'Eko, Judicaël; Ornelas, Juan Francisco; Park, R F; Pozo, María I; Ramula, Satu; Rigueiro, Cristina; Sandoval-Castillo, Jonathan; Santiago, L R; Seino, Miyuki M; Song, Chang-Bing; Takeshima, H; Vasemägi, Anti; Wellings, C R; Yan, Ji; Yu-Zhou, Du; Zhang, Chang-Rong; Zhang, Tian-Yun

2013-05-20

129

Balticolid: a new 12-membered macrolide with antiviral activity from an ascomycetous fungus of marine origin.  

PubMed

A new 12-membered macrolide, balticolid (1) was isolated from the EtOAc extract of the culture broth of fungal strain 222 belonging to the Ascomycota, which was found on driftwood collected from the coast of the Greifswalder Bodden, Baltic Sea, Germany. The structure of balticolid was determined to be (3R,11R), (4E,8E)-3-hydroxy-11-methyloxacyclododeca-4,8-diene-1,7-dione using extensive spectral data as well as the modified Mosher ester method. Balticolid (1) displayed anti-HSV-1 activity with an IC?? value of 0.45 ?M. PMID:21673893

Shushni, Muftah A M; Singh, Rajinder; Mentel, Renate; Lindequist, Ulrike

2011-05-13

130

Fungal diversity, biogeography, and new species of ice nucleating fungi in air  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fungal spores account for a substantial portion of air particulate matter. So far, however, the abundance, diversity, sources, properties, and effects of fungi in the atmosphere have not been well characterized. Here we summarize the results of a series of studies combining DNA-sequence analyses, cultivation and freezing experiments. A one-year study in central Europe showed high species richness and pronounced differences in the relative abundance and seasonal cycles of various groups of fungi in coarse and fine particulate matter. Investigations of continental and marine air samples revealed global biogeographic patterns in the species richness of Basidiomycota and Ascomycota and new species of ice nucleation active fungi were found.

Fröhlich-Nowoisky, Janine; Pöschl, Ulrich

2013-05-01

131

Fungal communities in soils along a vegetative ecotone.  

PubMed

We investigated the community composition and diversity of soil fungi along a sharp vegetative ecotone between coastal sage scrub (CSS) and nonnative annual grassland habitat at two sites in coastal California. USA- We pooled soil samples across 29 m transects on either side of the ecotone at each of the two sites, and. using clone libraries of fungal ribosomal DNA, we identified 280 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) from a total 40 g soil. We combined information from partial LSU and ITS sequences and found that the majority of OTUs belonged to the phylum Ascomycota, followed by Basidiomycota. Within the Ascomycota. a quarter of OTUs were Sordariomycetes. 17% were Leotiomycet.es, 16% were Dothideomycetes and the remaining OTUs were distributed among the classes Eurotiomycetes, Pezizomycetes, Lecanoromycetes, Orbiliomycetes and Arthoniomycetes. Within the Basidiomycota. all OTUs but one belonged to the subphylum Agaricomycotina. We also sampled plant communities at the same sites to offer a point of comparison for patterns in richness of fungal communities. Fungal communities had higher alpha and beta diversity than plant communities; fungal communities were approximately 20 times as rich as plant communities and the majority of OTUs were found in single soil samples. Soils harbored a unique mycoflora that did not reveal vegetative boundaries or site differences. High alpha and beta diversity and possible sampling artifacts necessitate extensive sampling to reveal differentiation in these fungal communities. PMID:22802393

Karst, Justine; Piculell, Bridget; Brigham, Christy; Booth, Michael; Hoeksema, Jason D

2012-07-16

132

Employing 454 amplicon pyrosequencing to reveal intragenomic divergence in the internal transcribed spacer rDNA region in fungi.  

PubMed

The rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region has been accepted as a DNA barcoding marker for fungi and is widely used in phylogenetic studies; however, intragenomic ITS variability has been observed in a broad range of taxa, including prokaryotes, plants, animals, and fungi, and this variability has the potential to inflate species richness estimates in molecular investigations of environmental samples. In this study 454 amplicon pyrosequencing of the ITS1 region was applied to 99 phylogenetically diverse axenic single-spore cultures of fungi (Dikarya: Ascomycota and Basidiomycota) to investigate levels of intragenomic variation. Three species (one Basidiomycota and two Ascomycota), in addition to a positive control species known to contain ITS paralogs, displayed levels of molecular variation indicative of intragenomic variation; taxon inflation due to presumed intragenomic variation was ?9%. Intragenomic variability in the ITS region appears to be widespread but relatively rare in fungi (?3-5% of species investigated in this study), suggesting this problem may have minor impacts on species richness estimates relative to PCR and/or pyrosequencing errors. Our results indicate that 454 amplicon pyrosequencing represents a powerful tool for investigating levels of ITS intragenomic variability across taxa, which may be valuable for better understanding the fundamental mechanisms underlying concerted evolution of repetitive DNA regions. PMID:23789083

Lindner, Daniel L; Carlsen, Tor; Henrik Nilsson, R; Davey, Marie; Schumacher, Trond; Kauserud, Håvard

2013-05-08

133

Assessment of the fungal diversity and succession of ligninolytic endophytes in Camellia japonica leaves using clone library analysis.  

PubMed

Fungal assemblages in live, newly shed and partly decomposed leaves of Camellia japonica were investigated with a clone library analysis to assess the fungal diversity and succession in a subtropical forest in southern Japan. Partly decomposed leaves were divided into bleached and adjacent nonbleached portions to estimate the fungi functionally associated with lignin decomposition in the bleached portions, with an emphasis on Coccomyces sinensis (Rhytismataceae, Ascomycota). From 144 cloned 28S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequences, 48 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were defined based on a sequence similarity threshold of 98%. Forty-one (85%) of the 48 OTUs belonged to the Ascomycota and seven OTUs (15%) to the Basidiomycota. Twenty-six OTUs (54%) were detected only once (singletons). The number of OTUs and the diversity indices of the fungal assemblages in the different leaves were in this order: live leaves > newly shed leaves > bleached portions > nonbleached portions of partly decomposed leaves. The fungal assemblages were similar in newly shed leaves and the bleached portions of partly decomposed leaves. Ligninolytic fungi of the genera Coccomyces, Lophodermium and Xylaria were frequently detected in the bleached portions. OTU3, identified as Coccomyces sinensis, was detected in live and newly shed leaves and the bleached portions of partly decomposed leaves, suggesting that this fungus latently infects live leaves, persists after leaf fall and takes part in lignin decomposition. PMID:23709486

Hirose, Dai; Matsuoka, Shunsuke; Osono, Takashi

2013-05-24

134

Structural and functional variation in soil fungal communities associated with litter bags containing maize leaf.  

PubMed

Soil fungi are key players in the degradation of recalcitrant organic matter in terrestrial ecosystems. To examine the organisms and genes responsible for complex organic matter degradation in soil, we tracked changes in fungal community composition and expressed genes in soil adjacent to mesh bags containing maize leaves undergoing decomposition. Using high-throughput sequencing approaches, changes in fungal community composition were determined by targeting 18S rRNA gene sequences, whereas community gene expression was examined via a metatranscriptomic approach. The majority of the 93 000 partial 18S rRNA gene sequences generated, were affiliated with the Ascomycota and Basidiomycota. Fungal diversity was at least 224 operational taxonomic units at the 97% similarity cutoff level. During litter degradation, the relative proportion of Basidiomycota increased, with a decrease in Ascomycota : Basidiomycota ratios over time. The most commonly detected decomposition-associated fungi included Agaricomycetes and Tremellales as well as unclassified Mucoromycotina. The majority of protein families found in the metatranscriptomic data were affiliated to fungal groups described to degrade plant-derived cellulose, such as Mucoraceae, Chaetomiaceae, Sordariaceae, Sebacinaceae, Tremellaceae, Psathyrellaceae and Schizophyllaceae. The combination of high-throughput rRNA gene-based and metatranscriptomic approaches provided perspectives into the organisms and genes involved in complex organic matter in soil. PMID:23360493

Kuramae, Eiko E; Hillekens, Remy H E; de Hollander, Mattias; van der Heijden, Marcel G A; van den Berg, Marlies; van Straalen, Nico M; Kowalchuk, George A

2013-02-19

135

Fungal diversity from various marine habitats deduced through culture-independent studies.  

PubMed

Studies on the molecular diversity of the micro-eukaryotic community have shown that fungi occupy a central position in a large number of marine habitats. Environmental surveys using molecular tools have shown the presence of fungi from a large number of marine habitats such as deep-sea habitats, pelagic waters, coastal regions, hydrothermal vent ecosystem, anoxic habitats, and ice-cold regions. This is of interest to a variety of research disciplines like ecology, evolution, biogeochemistry, and biotechnology. In this review, we have summarized how molecular tools have helped to broaden our understanding of the fungal diversity in various marine habitats. Majority of the environmental phylotypes could be grouped as novel clades within Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, and Chytridiomycota or as basal fungal lineages. Deep-branching novel environmental clusters could be grouped within Ascomycota as the Pezizomycotina clone group, deep-sea fungal group-I, and soil clone group-I, within Basidiomycota as the hydrothermal and/or anaerobic fungal group, and within Chytridiomycota as Cryptomycota or the Rozella clade. However, a basal true marine environmental cluster is still to be identified as most of the clusters include representatives from terrestrial regions. The challenge for future research is to explore the true marine fungi using molecular techniques. PMID:23363246

Manohar, Cathrine Sumathi; Raghukumar, Chandralata

2013-02-06

136

Widespread occurrence and phylogenetic placement of a soil clone group adds a prominant new branch to the fungal tree of life  

SciTech Connect

Fungi are one of the most diverse groups of Eukarya and play essential roles in terrestrial ecosystems as decomposers, pathogens and mutualists. This study unifies disparate reports of unclassified fungal sequences from soils of diverse origins and anchors many of them in a well-supported clade of the Ascomycota equivalent to a subphylum. We refer to this clade as Soil Clone Group I (SCGI). We expand the breadth of environments surveyed and develop a taxon-specific primer to amplify 2.4 kbp rDNA fragments directly from soil. Our results also expand the known range of this group from North America to Europe and Australia. The ancient origin of SCGI implies that it may represent an important transitional form among the basal Ascomycota groups. SCGI is unusual because it currently represents the only major fungal lineage known only from sequence data. This is an important contribution towards building a more complete fungal phylogeny and highlights the need for further work to determine the function and biology of SCGI taxa.

Porter, Terri M. [University of Toronto; Schadt, Christopher Warren [ORNL; Rizvi, L [Royal Ontario Museum; Martin, Andrew P. [University of Colorado; Schmidt, Steven K. [University of Colorado; Scott-Denton, Laura [University of Colorado; Vilgalys, Rytas [Duke University; Moncalvo, Jean-Marc [University of Toronto

2008-01-01

137

Anti-Candida metabolites from endophytic fungi.  

PubMed

Submerged cultures of some 1500 Ascomycota and Basidiomycota isolated from their fruit-bodies or as soil-borne, coprophilous or endophytic fungi were screened for activity against Candida albicans and a range of other pathogenic and saprotrophic fungi. Considerably more Ascomycota (11-16%) than Basidiomycota (3.5%) produced metabolites with activity against C. albicans. From five species of endophytes, six bioactive compounds were isolated and identified, viz. cerulenin (1), arundifungin (2), sphaeropsidin A (3), 5-(1,3-butadiene-1-yl)-3-(propene-1-yl)-2-(5H)-furanone (4), ascosteroside A (formerly called ascosteroside; 5) and a derivative of 5, ascosteroside B (6). 1, 3 and 5 were isolated from fungi belonging to different orders than previously described producers. Antifungal activities of 2 and 4-6 in the agar diffusion test were comparable with those of amphotericin B. Compound 6 exhibited a similar antifungal activity as 5 but its cytotoxicity towards Hep G2 cells was considerably lower. This study points to endophytic fungi related to hemibiotrophic or latent plant pathogens as an important source of bio- and chemodiversity. PMID:17286994

Weber, Roland W S; Kappe, Reinhard; Paululat, Thomas; Mösker, Eva; Anke, Heidrun

2007-02-06

138

Fluid Friction and Fungal Spore Ejection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A wide range of fungal species in the phylum Ascomycota uses the forcible ejection of microscopic spores to disperse and to cover new territory, triggered by the breakdown of osmolytes in the sack containing the spores (the ascus). The spores experience very high aerodynamic drag due to their small size and need to attain high velocities to leave the boundary layer of still air around the fruiting body. Here we address the efficiency of conversion of osmotic pressure to the kinetic energy of the spore, and in particular its dependence on the design of the ascus and the hole (the so-called apical ring) from where the spores leave the ascus. We present a fluid mechanical model of the ejection process, which predicts that the hole the apical ring should have specific properties, in order to minimize frictional and pressure losses and maximize the ejection velocity. We compare these predictions to measurements of apical ring properties across the phylum.

Fritz, Joerg; Seminara, Agnese; Roper, Marcus; Pringle, Anne; Brenner, Michael

2009-11-01

139

Diversity of Endophytic Fungi Associated with Taraxacum coreanum and Their Antifungal Activity  

PubMed Central

Endophytic fungi were isolated from healthy leaf and root samples of Taraxacum coreanum. Of the 72 isolates recovered, 39 were from leaves and 33 from roots with an isolation frequency of 54% and 46%, respectively. Based on ITS sequence analysis, 72 isolates were classified into 19 genera of which 17 were under the phylum Ascomycota and 2 were under Basidiomycota. Diverse genera were found and Alternaria, Cladosporium, Fusarium and Phoma were dominant. Out of 19 genera, Apodus, Ceriporia, Dothideales, Leptodontidium, Nemania, Neoplaconema, Phaeosphaeria, Plectosphaerella and Terfezia were new to Korea. Seventy two isolates were screened for antifungal activity, of which 10 isolates (14%) were found active at least against one of the tested fungi. Isolate 050603 had the widest antifungal spectra of activity, and isolates 050592 and 050611 were active against three plant pathogenic fungi.

Paul, Narayan Chandra; Kim, Won Ki; Woo, Sung Kyoon; Park, Myung Soo

2006-01-01

140

High diversity of fungi in air particulate matter  

PubMed Central

Fungal spores can account for large proportions of air particulate matter, and they may potentially influence the hydrological cycle and climate as nuclei for water droplets and ice crystals in clouds, fog, and precipitation. Moreover, some fungi are major pathogens and allergens. The diversity of airborne fungi is, however, not well-known. By DNA analysis we found pronounced differences in the relative abundance and seasonal cycles of various groups of fungi in coarse and fine particulate matter, with more plant pathogens in the coarse fraction and more human pathogens and allergens in the respirable fine particle fraction (<3 ?m). Moreover, the ratio of Basidiomycota to Ascomycota was found to be much higher than previously assumed, which might also apply to the biosphere.

Frohlich-Nowoisky, Janine; Pickersgill, Daniel A.; Despres, Viviane R.; Poschl, Ulrich

2009-01-01

141

Biogeography in the air: fungal diversity over land and oceans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biogenic aerosols are relevant for the Earth system, climate, and public health on local, regional, and global scales. Up to now, however, little is known about the diversity and biogeography of airborne microorganisms. We present the first DNA-based analysis of airborne fungi on global scales, showing pronounced geographic patterns and boundaries. In particular we found that the ratio of species richness between Basidiomycota and Ascomycota is much higher in continental air than in marine air. This may be an important difference between the "blue ocean" and "green ocean" regimes in the formation of clouds and precipitation, for which fungal spores can act as nuclei. Our findings also suggest that air flow patterns and the global atmospheric circulation are important for the evolution of microbial ecology and for the understanding of global changes in biodiversity.

Fröhlich-Nowoisky, J.; Burrows, S. M.; Xie, Z.; Engling, G.; Solomon, P. A.; Fraser, M. P.; Mayol-Bracero, O. L.; Artaxo, P.; Begerow, D.; Conrad, R.; Andreae, M. O.; Després, V. R.; Pöschl, U.

2011-07-01

142

Biogeography in the air: fungal diversity over land and oceans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biogenic aerosols are relevant for the Earth system, climate, and public health on local, regional, and global scales. Up to now, however, little is known about the diversity and biogeography of airborne microorganisms. We present the first DNA-based analysis of airborne fungi on global scales, showing pronounced geographic patterns and boundaries. In particular we find that the ratio of species richness between Basidiomycota and Ascomycota is much higher in continental air than in marine air. This may be an important difference between the "blue ocean" and "green ocean" regimes in the formation of clouds and precipitation, for which fungal spores can act as nuclei. Our findings also suggest that air flow patterns and the global atmospheric circulation are important for the understanding of global changes in biodiversity.

Fröhlich-Nowoisky, J.; Burrows, S. M.; Xie, Z.; Engling, G.; Solomon, P. A.; Fraser, M. P.; Mayol-Bracero, O. L.; Artaxo, P.; Begerow, D.; Conrad, R.; Andreae, M. O.; Després, V. R.; Pöschl, U.

2012-03-01

143

FungiDB: an integrated functional genomics database for fungi  

PubMed Central

FungiDB (http://FungiDB.org) is a functional genomic resource for pan-fungal genomes that was developed in partnership with the Eukaryotic Pathogen Bioinformatic resource center (http://EuPathDB.org). FungiDB uses the same infrastructure and user interface as EuPathDB, which allows for sophisticated and integrated searches to be performed using an intuitive graphical system. The current release of FungiDB contains genome sequence and annotation from 18 species spanning several fungal classes, including the Ascomycota classes, Eurotiomycetes, Sordariomycetes, Saccharomycetes and the Basidiomycota orders, Pucciniomycetes and Tremellomycetes, and the basal ‘Zygomycete’ lineage Mucormycotina. Additionally, FungiDB contains cell cycle microarray data, hyphal growth RNA-sequence data and yeast two hybrid interaction data. The underlying genomic sequence and annotation combined with functional data, additional data from the FungiDB standard analysis pipeline and the ability to leverage orthology provides a powerful resource for in silico experimentation.

Stajich, Jason E.; Harris, Todd; Brunk, Brian P.; Brestelli, John; Fischer, Steve; Harb, Omar S.; Kissinger, Jessica C.; Li, Wei; Nayak, Vishal; Pinney, Deborah F.; Stoeckert, Chris J.; Roos, David S.

2012-01-01

144

Ophiocordyceps unilateralis  

PubMed Central

Ophiocordyceps unilateralis (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) is a specialized parasite that infects, manipulates and kills formicine ants, predominantly in tropical forest ecosystems. We have reported previously, based on a preliminary study in remnant Atlantic Forest in Minas Gerais (Brazil), that O. unilateralis represents a species complex. On each of the four species of infected carpenter ant (Camponotus) collected, the fungus—characterized macroscopically by a single stalk arising from the dorsal neck region on which the sexual structures (stromatal plates) are borne laterally—can readily be distinguished both microscopically and functionally. Here, we describe and discuss the biology, life cycle and infection strategies of O. unilateralis s.l. and hypothesize that there may be hundreds of species within the complex parasitizing formicine ants worldwide. We then address the diversity within related hypocrealean fungi, with particular reference to symbionts (mutualists through to parasites), and argue that the widely-quoted total of extant fungi (1.5 million species) may be grossly underestimated.

Elliot, Simon L; Hughes, David P

2011-01-01

145

Molecular phylogeny of asexual entomopathogenic fungi with special reference to Beauveria bassiana and Nomuraea rileyi.  

PubMed

The phylogenetic lineage, taxonomic affiliation and interrelationships of important asexual entomopathogenic fungal genera were studied using the sequences of partial regions of beta-tubulin and rRNA genes. The species structures of Beauveria bassiana and Nomuraea rileyi were also investigated. A total of 147 fungal entries covering 94 species were analysed. Phylogenetic analysis placed all the asexual entomopathogenic fungal species analysed, in the family Clavicipitaceae of the order Hypocreales of Ascomycota. Deep phylogenetic lineages were observed in B. bassiana iterating the complex nature of this species. Some of the isolates assigned to this species separated out more distinctly than morphologically distinguishable genera. Cryptic speciation was also evident in N. rileyi. It is concluded that the asexual fungi with entomopathogenic habit arose from a single lineage in sexual Clavicipitaceae. PMID:19631163

Neelapu, Nageswara Rao Reddy; Reineke, Annette; Chanchala, Uma Maheswara Rao; Koduru, Uma Devi

2009-06-30

146

Fungal communities in decaying sapwood and heartwood of a conifer Keteleeria evelyniana.  

PubMed

Fungal communities in decaying sapwood and heartwood of K. evelyniana were demonstrated through construction of four 18 S rRNA gene libraries. The 210 sequenced clones were clustered into 11 subgroups, belonging to Basidiomycota (71.9%) and to Ascomycota (22.4%) and unclassified (1 subgroup; 5.7%). The heartwood displayed higher species richness than the sapwood. Basidiomycota were dominant in either the heartwood or the sapwood. Phylogenetically diverse Homobasidiomycetes were detected in the heartwood, contrary to the sapwood, where Heterobasidiomycetes were detected. Clones close to Spongipellis unicolor dominated in the heartwood (21 of 99 clones), while those close to Hydnochaete olivacea dominated in the sapwood (41 of 111 clones). The common species between the two parts were those related to S. unicolor, Calocera cornea, Debaryomyces hansenii, Davidiella tassiana, and Nomuraea rileyi and those from Chaetothyriomycetes. PMID:18183460

Zhang, Han-Bo; Yang, Ming-Xia; Tu, Ran; Gao, Lei; Zhao, Zhi-Wei

2008-01-09

147

Protein profile of Nomuraea rileyi spore isolated from infected silkworm.  

PubMed

Nomuraea rileyi (N. rileyi) is the causative agent of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, green muscardine which can cause severe worldwide economical loss in sericulture. Little is known about N. rileyi at the protein level for this entomopathogenic parasite which belongs to the Ascomycota. Here, we employed proteomic-based approach to identify proteins of N. rileyi spores collected from the dead silkworm. In all, 252 proteins were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE), and were subjected to mass spectrometry (MS) analysis, 121 proteins have good MS signal, and 24 of them were identified due to unavailability of genomic information from N. rileyi. This data will be helpful in understanding the biochemistry of N. rileyi. PMID:19288155

Qin, Lvgao; Liu, Xiaoyong; Li, Jun; Chen, Huiqing; Yao, Qin; Yang, Zhe; Wang, Lin; Chen, Keping

2009-03-14

148

Soil persistence and biodiversity of ericoid mycorrhizal fungi in the absence of the host plant in a Mediterranean ecosystem.  

PubMed

The occurrence of suitable mycorrhizal inocula may be an important factor affecting the dynamics of plant communities. We investigated the persistence and diversity of ericoid mycorrhizal fungi in the soil of a mature Quercus ilex forest where ericaceous hosts were absent. Erica arborea was used as a bait plant and results were compared to soil samples from experimental plots where cuttings had allowed reappearance of this ericaceous species. Fungal endophytes were isolated and tested in mycorrhiza resynthesis trials. Sterile mycorrhizal endophytes were assigned to morphotypes whose consistency was confirmed by ITS-RFLP. The ITS region of a representative of each morphotype was sequenced. BLAST searches and Neighbour-Joining analysis indicated taxonomic affinities with different classes within Ascomycota. Our results indicate that ericoid mycorrhizal fungi persist and maintain mycorrhizal ability in habitats lacking the ericaceous host. Their persistence could favour the establishment of E. arborea seedlings in pure Q. ilex forests after disturbance phenomena. PMID:12682828

Bergero, Roberta; Girlanda, Mariangela; Bello, Federica; Luppi, Anna Maria; Perotto, Silvia

2002-10-26

149

Discovery of cellobionic acid phosphorylase in cellulolytic bacteria and fungi.  

PubMed

A novel phosphorylase was characterized as new member of glycoside hydrolase family 94 from the cellulolytic bacterium Xanthomonas campestris and the fungus Neurospora crassa. The enzyme catalyzed reversible phosphorolysis of cellobionic acid. We propose 4-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-d-gluconic acid: phosphate ?-d-glucosyltransferase as the systematic name and cellobionic acid phosphorylase as the short names for the novel enzyme. Several cellulolytic fungi of the phylum Ascomycota also possess homologous proteins. We, therefore, suggest that the enzyme plays a crucial role in cellulose degradation where cellobionic acid as oxidized cellulolytic product is converted into ?-d-glucose 1-phosphate and d-gluconic acid to enter glycolysis and the pentose phosphate pathway, respectively. PMID:24055472

Nihira, Takanori; Saito, Yuka; Nishimoto, Mamoru; Kitaoka, Motomitsu; Igarashi, Kiyohiko; Ohtsubo, Ken'ichi; Nakai, Hiroyuki

2013-09-19

150

Fungal life in the extremely hypersaline water of the Dead Sea: first records.  

PubMed Central

The first report, to our knowledge, on the occurrence of filamentous fungi in the hypersaline (340 g salt l-1) Dead Sea is presented. Three species of filamentous fungi from surface water samples of the Dead Sea were isolated: Gymnascella marismortui (Ascomycota), which is described as a new species, Ulocladium chlamydosporum and Penicillium westlingii (Deuteromycota). G. marismortui and U. chlamydosporum grew on media containing up to 50% Dead Sea water. G. marismortui was found to be an obligate halophile growing optimally in the presence of 0.5-2 M NaCl or 10 30% (by volume) of Dead Sea water. Isolated cultures did not grow on agar media without salt, but grew on agar prepared with up to 50% Dead Sea water. This suggests that they may be adapted to life in the extremely stressful hypersaline Dead Sea.

Buchalo, A S; Nevo, E; Wasser, S P; Oren, A; Molitoris, H P

1998-01-01

151

Molecular analysis of microbial diversity in corrosion samples from energy transmission towers.  

PubMed

Microbial diversity in corrosion samples from energy transmission towers was investigated using molecular methods. Ribosomal DNA fragments were used to assemble gene libraries. Sequence analysis indicated 10 bacterial genera within the phyla Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes. In the two libraries generated from corroded screw-derived samples, the genus Acinetobacter was the most abundant. Acinetobacter and Clostridium spp. dominated, with similar percentages, in the libraries derived from corrosion scrapings. Fungal clones were affiliated with 14 genera belonging to the phyla Ascomycota and Basidiomycota; of these, Capnobotryella and Fellomyces were the most abundant fungi observed. Several of the microorganisms had not previously been associated with biofilms and corrosion, reinforcing the need to use molecular techniques to achieve a more comprehensive assessment of microbial diversity in environmental samples. PMID:21563009

Oliveira, Valéria M; Lopes-Oliveira, Patrícia F; Passarini, Michel R Z; Menezes, Claudia B A; Oliveira, Walter R C; Rocha, Adriano J; Sette, Lara D

2011-04-01

152

Fungal Endophyte Diversity in Sarracenia  

PubMed Central

Fungal endophytes were isolated from 4 species of the carnivorous pitcher plant genus Sarracenia: S. minor, S. oreophila, S. purpurea, and S. psittacina. Twelve taxa of fungi, 8 within the Ascomycota and 4 within the Basidiomycota, were identified based on PCR amplification and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA (ITS rDNA) with taxonomic identity assigned using the NCBI nucleotide megablast search tool. Endophytes are known to produce a large number of metabolites, some of which may contribute to the protection and survival of the host. We speculate that endophyte-infected Sarracenia may benefit from their fungal associates by their influence on nutrient availability from within pitchers and, possibly, by directly influencing the biota within pitchers.

Glenn, Anthony; Bodri, Michael S.

2012-01-01

153

Structural and functional characterization of the GalNAc/Gal-specific lectin from the phytopathogenic ascomycete Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary.  

PubMed

The lectin found in mycelium and sclerotes of the phytopathogenic fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum is a homodimer consisting of two identical non-covalently bound subunits of 16,000 Da. CD spectra analysis revealed that the S. sclerotiorum agglutinin (SSA) contains predominantly beta-sheet structures. SSA exhibits specificity towards GalNAc whereby the hydroxyls at positions 4 and 6 of the pyranose ring play a key role in the interaction with simple sugars. The carbohydrate-binding site of SSA can also accommodate disaccharides. The N-terminal sequence of SSA shares no significant similarity with any other protein except a lectin from the Sclerotiniaceae species Ciborinia camelliae. A comparison of SSA and the lectins from C. camelliae and some previously characterized lectins indicates that the Sclerotiniaceae lectins form a homogeneous family of fungal lectins. This newly identified lectin family, which is structurally unrelated to any other family of fungal lectins, is most probably confined to the Ascomycota. PMID:12901882

Candy, Laure; Van Damme, Els J M; Peumans, Willy J; Menu-Bouaouiche, Laurence; Erard, Monique; Rougé, Pierre

2003-08-22

154

Morphological and molecular characterisation of a new anamorphic genus Cheirosporium, from freshwater in China.  

PubMed

Cheirosporium gen. nov. is characterised by the production of sporodochial conidiomata, semi-macronematous to macronematous conidiophores that possess several distinct sterile branches, and cheiroid, smooth-walled conidia with rhexolytic secession. The 28S rDNA and ITS rDNA operon of this taxon were amplified and sequenced. A BLAST search revealed low homology between Cheirosporium triseriale and existing sequences in public databases, supporting the hypothesis that the species is new to science. Phylogenetic analysis showed that C. triseriale groups with Dictyosporium and allied species, and nests within the Pleosporales (Dothideomycetes, Ascomycota). Cheirosporium is morphologically distinct from the cheirosporous genera Cheiromyces, Cheiromycina, Dictyosporium, Digitomyces, Digitodesmium and Pseudodictyosporium and these differences are discussed. PMID:20467486

Cai, L; Guo, X Y; Hyde, K D

2008-04-23

155

Phylogenetic affiliation of the desert truffles Picoa juniperi and Picoa lefebvrei.  

PubMed

The molecular phylogeny and comparative morphological studies reported here provide evidence for the recognition of the genus Picoa, an hypogeous desert truffle, in the family Pyronemataceae (Ascomycota, Pezizales). Picoa juniperi and Picoa lefebvrei were reassigned to the genus Picoa based on large subunit (LSU) sequence (28S) rDNA and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rDNA (including the partial 18S, ITS1, ITS2, 5.8S gene, and partial 28S of the nuclear rDNA) data. Morphological studies of spores, asci, perida, and gleba revealed high similarities between P. lefebvrei and P. juniperi, thereby confirming the membership of both species in the genus Picoa. These two species were primarily distinguishable based on ascospore ornamentation. PMID:20559873

Sbissi, Imed; Neffati, Mohamed; Boudabous, Abdellatif; Murat, Claude; Gtari, Maher

2010-06-18

156

Otidea subterranea sp. nov.: Otidea goes below ground.  

PubMed

Evidence suggests that truffle-like sporocarp forms have evolved many times in the Pezizales, but primarily from epigeous ancestors within ectomycorrhizal clades. There are several ectomycorrhizal clades, however, that contain no known hypogeous species. We collected specimens of an unusual unidentified truffle from mixed oak woodlands in Iowa. Although clearly a member of the Pezizales (Ascomycota), this hypogeous species did not belong to any of the described truffle genera. Based on a combination of ecological, phylogenetic, and morphological evidence we determined that this new truffle is a hypogeous member of the genus Otidea (Pyronemataceae), a lineage with no described truffle species. We describe it here as a new species, Otidea subterranea. PMID:19422914

Smith, Matthew E; Healy, Rosanne A

2009-05-05

157

Proposal of Frondihabitans gen. nov. to replace the illegitimate genus name Frondicola Zhang et al. 2007.  

PubMed

The prokaryotic generic name Frondicola Zhang et al. 2007 is illegitimate because it is a later homonym of a fungal genus name Frondicola Hyde, 1992 (Fungi, Ascomycota, Sordariomycetes, Xylariomycetidae, Xylariales, Hyponectriaceae) [Principle 2 and Rule 51b(4) of the Bacteriological Code (1990 Revision)]. It is also questionable whether the genus name can be validly published. Therefore, a new genus name, Frondihabitans gen. nov., is proposed for this taxon. As a result, a new name is proposed for the type species, Frondihabitans australicus sp. nov., to replace the illegitimate combination Frondicola australicus Zhang et al. 2007. The type strain of Frondihabitans australicus is E1HC-02(T) (=JCM 13598(T) =DSM 17894(T)). PMID:19196793

Greene, Anthony C; Euzéby, Jean P; Tindall, Brian J; Patel, Bharat K C

2009-02-01

158

Microbial communities involved in the bioremediation of an aged recalcitrant hydrocarbon polluted soil by using organic amendments.  

PubMed

An 8-month field bioremediation experiment using fresh (FS) and composted (CS) sewage sludge and unamended soil (US) was carried out on an aged hydrocarbon contaminated semi-arid soil. FS treatments led to the highest percentage of hydrocarbon degradation (46%) and the highest bacterial and fungal population. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis demonstrated differences in bacterial and fungal community structure of treated compared to uncontaminated soil (control). Time of sampling accounted for most of the differences than type of treatment. The principal phyla observed in bioremediation treatments were Actinobacteria and Ascomycota. Results pointed to the addition of organic amendments, particularly sewage sludge, as an useful strategy for improving the effectiveness of landfarming biodegradation processes in hydrocarbon polluted soils. PMID:20413304

Ros, M; Rodríguez, I; García, C; Hernández, T

2010-04-21

159

Genome mining reveals the evolutionary origin and biosynthetic potential of basidiomycete polyketide synthases.  

PubMed

Numerous polyketides are known from bacteria, plants, and fungi. However, only a few have been isolated from basidiomycetes. Large scale genome sequencing projects now help anticipate the capacity of basidiomycetes to synthesize polyketides. In this study, we identified and annotated 111 type I and three type III polyketide synthase (PKS) genes from 35 sequenced basidiomycete genomes. Phylogenetic analysis of PKS genes suggests that all main types of fungal iterative PKS had already evolved before the Ascomycota and Basidiomycota diverged. A comparison of genomic and metabolomic data shows that the number of polyketide genes exceeds the number of known polyketide structures by far. Exploiting these results to design degenerate PCR primers, we amplified and cloned the complete sequence of armB, a PKS gene from the melleolide producer Armillaria mellea. We expect this study will serve as a guide for future genomic mining projects to discover structurally diverse mushroom-derived polyketides. PMID:23078836

Lackner, Gerald; Misiek, Mathias; Braesel, Jana; Hoffmeister, Dirk

2012-10-16

160

PRP8 inteins in species of the genus Botrytis and other ascomycetes.  

PubMed

The mobile elements termed inteins have a sporadic distribution in microorganisms. It is unclear how these elements are maintained. Inteins are intervening protein sequences that autocatalytically excise themselves from a precursor. Excision is a post-translational process referred to as 'protein splicing' in which the sequences flanking the intein are ligated, reforming the mature host protein. Some inteins contain a homing endonuclease domain (HEG) that is proposed to facilitate propagation of the intein element within a gene pool. We have previously demonstrated that the HEG of the PRP8 intein is highly active during meiosis in Botrytis cinerea. Here we analysed the Prp8 gene status in 21 additional Botrytis species to obtain insight into the mode of intein inheritance within the Botrytis lineage. Of the 21 species, 15 contained a PRP8 intein whereas six did not. The analysis was extended to closely related (Sclerotiniaceae) and distantly related (Ascomycota) taxa, focussing on evolutionary diversification of the PRP8 intein, including their possible acquisition by horizontal transfer and loss by deletion. Evidence was obtained for the occurrence of genetic footprints of previous intein occupation. There is no compelling evidence of horizontal transfer among species. Three distinct states of the Prp8 allele were identified, distributed over different orders within the Ascomycota: an occupied allele; an empty allele that was never occupied; an empty allele that was presumably previously occupied, from which the intein was precisely deleted. The presence of the genetic footprint identifies 20 species (including Neurospora crassa, Magnaporthe oryzae and Fusarium oxysporum) that previously contained the intein but have lost it entirely, while only 18 species (including Podospora anserina and Fusarium graminearum) appear never to have contained a PRP8 intein. The analysis indicates that inteins may be maintained in an equilibrium state. PMID:22285471

Bokor, Annika A M; Kohn, Linda M; Poulter, Russell T M; van Kan, Jan A L

2012-01-20

161

Phylogenetic relationships, host affinity, and geographic structure of boreal and arctic endophytes from three major plant lineages.  

PubMed

Although associated with all plants, fungal endophytes (microfungi that live within healthy plant tissues) represent an unknown proportion of fungal diversity. While there is a growing appreciation of their ecological importance and human uses, little is known about their host specificity, geographic structure, or phylogenetic relationships. We surveyed endophytic Ascomycota from healthy photosynthetic tissues of three plant species (Huperzia selago, Picea mariana, and Dryas integrifolia, representing lycophytes, conifers, and angiosperms, respectively) in northern and southern boreal forest (Québec, Canada) and arctic tundra (Nunavut, Canada). Endophytes were recovered from all plant species surveyed, and were present in <1-41% of 2 mm2 tissue segments examined per host species. Sequence data from the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) were obtained for 280 of 558 isolates. Species-accumulation curves based on ITS genotypes remained non-asymptotic, and bootstrap analyses indicated that a large number of genotypes remain to be found. The majority of genotypes were recovered from only a single host species, and only 6% of genotypes were shared between boreal and arctic communities. Two independent Bayesian analyses and a neighbor-joining bootstrapping analysis of combined data from the nuclear large and small ribosomal subunits (LSUrDNA, SSUrDNA; 2.4 kb) showed that boreal and arctic endophytes represent Dothideomycetes, Sordariomycetes, Chaetothyriomycetidae, Leotiomycetes, and Pezizomycetes. Many well-supported phylotypes contained only endophytes despite exhaustive sampling of available sequences of Ascomycota. Together, these data demonstrate greater than expected diversity of endophytes at high-latitude sites and provide a framework for assessing the evolution of these poorly known but ubiquitous symbionts of living plants. PMID:17005421

Higgins, K Lindsay; Arnold, A Elizabeth; Miadlikowska, Jolanta; Sarvate, Snehal D; Lutzoni, François

2006-07-26

162

Metaproteome analysis of the microbial community during leaf litter decomposition - the impact of stoichiometry and temperature perturbations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Leaf litter decomposition is the breakdown of dead plant material, a terrestrial ecosystem process of paramount importance. Nutrients released during decomposition play a key role for microbial growth and plant productivity. These processes are controlled by abiotic factors, such as climate, and by biotic factors, such as litter nutrient concentration and stoichiometry (carbon:nutrient ratio) and activity of soil organisms. Future climate change scenarios predict temperature perturbations, therefore following changes of microbial community composition and possible feedbacks on ecosystem processes are of key interest; especially as our knowledge about the microbial regulation of these processes is still scarce. Our aim was to elucidate how temperature perturbations and leaf litter stoichiometry affect the composition of the microbial decomposer community. To this end a terrestrial microcosm experiment using beech (Fagus sylvatica) litter with different stoichiometry was conducted. In a semi-quantitative metaproteomics approach (1D-SDS PAGE combined with liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry; unique spectral counting) we used the intrinsic metabolic function of proteins to relate specific microbial activities to their phylogenetic origin in multispecies communities. Decomposer communities varied on litter with different stoichiometry so that microbial decomposers (fungi and bacteria) were favoured in litter with narrow C:nutrient ratios. The fungal community was dominated by Ascomycota (Eurotiomycetes, Sordariomycetes) and Basidiomycota (Agaricomycetes) and the bacterial community was dominated by Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Firmicutes. The extracellular enzymes we detected belonged mainly to classes of xylanases, pectinases, cellulases and proteases and were almost exclusively of fungal origin (particularly Ascomycota). Temperature stress (heat and frost) evoked strong changes in community composition, enzyme activities, dissolved organic nitrogen and litter pH. Freeze treatments resulted in increased fungal abundance and a decline in residual plant litter material, indicating slightly accelerated decomposition. Extracellular enzyme activities were especially blocked by heat treatment. Using metaproteomics enabled us to link the composition of the microbial community to its ecosystem function.

Keiblinger, K. M.; Schneider, T.; Leitner, S.; Hämmerle, I.; Riedel, K.; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, S.

2012-04-01

163

Diverse bacteria inhabit living hyphae of phylogenetically diverse fungal endophytes.  

PubMed

Both the establishment and outcomes of plant-fungus symbioses can be influenced by abiotic factors, the interplay of fungal and plant genotypes, and additional microbes associated with fungal mycelia. Recently bacterial endosymbionts were documented in soilborne Glomeromycota and Mucoromycotina and in at least one species each of mycorrhizal Basidiomycota and Ascomycota. Here we show for the first time that phylogenetically diverse endohyphal bacteria occur in living hyphae of diverse foliar endophytes, including representatives of four classes of Ascomycota. We examined 414 isolates of endophytic fungi, isolated from photosynthetic tissues of six species of cupressaceous trees in five biogeographic provinces, for endohyphal bacteria using microscopy and molecular techniques. Viable bacteria were observed within living hyphae of endophytic Pezizomycetes, Dothideomycetes, Eurotiomycetes, and Sordariomycetes from all tree species and biotic regions surveyed. A focus on 29 fungus/bacterium associations revealed that bacterial and fungal phylogenies were incongruent with each other and with taxonomic relationships of host plants. Overall, eight families and 15 distinct genotypes of endohyphal bacteria were recovered; most were members of the Proteobacteria, but a small number of Bacillaceae also were found, including one that appears to occur as an endophyte of plants. Frequent loss of bacteria following subculturing suggests a facultative association. Our study recovered distinct lineages of endohyphal bacteria relative to previous studies, is the first to document their occurrence in foliar endophytes representing four of the most species-rich classes of fungi, and highlights for the first time their diversity and phylogenetic relationships with regard both to the endophytes they inhabit and the plants in which these endophyte-bacterium symbiota occur. PMID:20435775

Hoffman, Michele T; Arnold, A Elizabeth

2010-04-30

164

Statistical Approaches to Use a Model Organism for Regulatory Sequences Annotation of Newly Sequenced Species  

PubMed Central

A major goal of bioinformatics is the characterization of transcription factors and the transcriptional programs they regulate. Given the speed of genome sequencing, we would like to quickly annotate regulatory sequences in newly-sequenced genomes. In such cases, it would be helpful to predict sequence motifs by using experimental data from closely related model organism. Here we present a general algorithm that allow to identify transcription factor binding sites in one newly sequenced species by performing Bayesian regression on the annotated species. First we set the rationale of our method by applying it within the same species, then we extend it to use data available in closely related species. Finally, we generalise the method to handle the case when a certain number of experiments, from several species close to the species on which to make inference, are available. In order to show the performance of the method, we analyse three functionally related networks in the Ascomycota. Two gene network case studies are related to the G2/M phase of the Ascomycota cell cycle; the third is related to morphogenesis. We also compared the method with MatrixReduce and discuss other types of validation and tests. The first network is well known and provides a biological validation test of the method. The two cell cycle case studies, where the gene network size is conserved, demonstrate an effective utility in annotating new species sequences using all the available replicas from model species. The third case, where the gene network size varies among species, shows that the combination of information is less powerful but is still informative. Our methodology is quite general and could be extended to integrate other high-throughput data from model organisms.

Lio, Pietro; Angelini, Claudia; De Feis, Italia; Nguyen, Viet-Anh

2012-01-01

165

Diverse Bacteria Inhabit Living Hyphae of Phylogenetically Diverse Fungal Endophytes? †  

PubMed Central

Both the establishment and outcomes of plant-fungus symbioses can be influenced by abiotic factors, the interplay of fungal and plant genotypes, and additional microbes associated with fungal mycelia. Recently bacterial endosymbionts were documented in soilborne Glomeromycota and Mucoromycotina and in at least one species each of mycorrhizal Basidiomycota and Ascomycota. Here we show for the first time that phylogenetically diverse endohyphal bacteria occur in living hyphae of diverse foliar endophytes, including representatives of four classes of Ascomycota. We examined 414 isolates of endophytic fungi, isolated from photosynthetic tissues of six species of cupressaceous trees in five biogeographic provinces, for endohyphal bacteria using microscopy and molecular techniques. Viable bacteria were observed within living hyphae of endophytic Pezizomycetes, Dothideomycetes, Eurotiomycetes, and Sordariomycetes from all tree species and biotic regions surveyed. A focus on 29 fungus/bacterium associations revealed that bacterial and fungal phylogenies were incongruent with each other and with taxonomic relationships of host plants. Overall, eight families and 15 distinct genotypes of endohyphal bacteria were recovered; most were members of the Proteobacteria, but a small number of Bacillaceae also were found, including one that appears to occur as an endophyte of plants. Frequent loss of bacteria following subculturing suggests a facultative association. Our study recovered distinct lineages of endohyphal bacteria relative to previous studies, is the first to document their occurrence in foliar endophytes representing four of the most species-rich classes of fungi, and highlights for the first time their diversity and phylogenetic relationships with regard both to the endophytes they inhabit and the plants in which these endophyte-bacterium symbiota occur.

Hoffman, Michele T.; Arnold, A. Elizabeth

2010-01-01

166

Unequal Recombination and Evolution of the Mating-Type (MAT) Loci in the Pathogenic Fungus Grosmannia clavigera and Relatives  

PubMed Central

Sexual reproduction in fungi is regulated by the mating-type (MAT) locus where recombination is suppressed. We investigated the evolution of MAT loci in eight fungal species belonging to Grosmannia and Ophiostoma (Sordariomycetes, Ascomycota) that include conifer pathogens and beetle symbionts. The MAT1-2 idiomorph/allele was identified from the assembled and annotated Grosmannia clavigera genome, and the MAT locus is flanked by genes coding for cytoskeleton protein (SLA) and DNA lyase. The synteny of these genes is conserved and consistent with other members in Ascomycota. Using sequences from SLA and flanking regions, we characterized the MAT1-1 idiomorph from other isolates of G. clavigera and performed dotplot analysis between the two idiomorphs. Unexpectedly, the MAT1-2 idiomorph contains a truncated MAT1-1-1 gene upstream of the MAT1-2-1 gene that bears the high-mobility-group domain. The nucleotide and amino acid sequence of the truncated MAT1-1-1 gene is similar to its homologous copy in the MAT1-1 idiomorph in the opposite mating-type isolate, except that positive selection is acting on the truncated gene and the alpha(?)-box that encodes the transcription factor has been deleted. The MAT idiomorphs sharing identical gene organization were present in seven additional species in the Ophiostomatales, suggesting that the presence of truncated MAT1-1-1 gene is a general pattern in this order. We propose that an ancient unequal recombination event resulted in the ancestral MAT1-1-1 gene integrated into the MAT1-2 idiomorph and surviving as the truncated MAT1-1-1 genes. The ?-box domain of MAT1-1-1 gene, located at the same MAT locus adjacent to the MAT1-2-1 gene, could have been removed by deletion after recombination due to mating signal interference. Our data confirmed a 1:1 MAT/sex ratio in two pathogen populations, and showed that all members of the Ophiostomatales studied here including those that were previously deemed asexual have the potential to reproduce sexually. This ability can potentially increase genetic variability and can enhance fitness in new, ecological niches.

Tsui, Clement K.-M.; DiGuistini, Scott; Wang, Ye; Feau, Nicolas; Dhillon, Braham; Bohlmann, Jorg; Hamelin, Richard C.

2013-01-01

167

Unequal recombination and evolution of the mating-type (MAT) loci in the pathogenic fungus Grosmannia clavigera and relatives.  

PubMed

Sexual reproduction in fungi is regulated by the mating-type (MAT) locus where recombination is suppressed. We investigated the evolution of MAT loci in eight fungal species belonging to Grosmannia and Ophiostoma (Sordariomycetes, Ascomycota) that include conifer pathogens and beetle symbionts. The MAT1-2 idiomorph/allele was identified from the assembled and annotated Grosmannia clavigera genome, and the MAT locus is flanked by genes coding for cytoskeleton protein (SLA) and DNA lyase. The synteny of these genes is conserved and consistent with other members in Ascomycota. Using sequences from SLA and flanking regions, we characterized the MAT1-1 idiomorph from other isolates of G. clavigera and performed dotplot analysis between the two idiomorphs. Unexpectedly, the MAT1-2 idiomorph contains a truncated MAT1-1-1 gene upstream of the MAT1-2-1 gene that bears the high-mobility-group domain. The nucleotide and amino acid sequence of the truncated MAT1-1-1 gene is similar to its homologous copy in the MAT1-1 idiomorph in the opposite mating-type isolate, except that positive selection is acting on the truncated gene and the alpha(?)-box that encodes the transcription factor has been deleted. The MAT idiomorphs sharing identical gene organization were present in seven additional species in the Ophiostomatales, suggesting that the presence of truncated MAT1-1-1 gene is a general pattern in this order. We propose that an ancient unequal recombination event resulted in the ancestral MAT1-1-1 gene integrated into the MAT1-2 idiomorph and surviving as the truncated MAT1-1-1 genes. The ?-box domain of MAT1-1-1 gene, located at the same MAT locus adjacent to the MAT1-2-1 gene, could have been removed by deletion after recombination due to mating signal interference. Our data confirmed a 1:1 MAT/sex ratio in two pathogen populations, and showed that all members of the Ophiostomatales studied here including those that were previously deemed asexual have the potential to reproduce sexually. This ability can potentially increase genetic variability and can enhance fitness in new, ecological niches. PMID:23450093

Tsui, Clement K-M; DiGuistini, Scott; Wang, Ye; Feau, Nicolas; Dhillon, Braham; Bohlmann, Jörg; Hamelin, Richard C

2013-03-01

168

Archaea and fungi of the human gut microbiome: correlations with diet and bacterial residents.  

PubMed

Diet influences health as a source of nutrients and toxins, and by shaping the composition of resident microbial populations. Previous studies have begun to map out associations between diet and the bacteria and viruses of the human gut microbiome. Here we investigate associations of diet with fungal and archaeal populations, taking advantage of samples from 98 well-characterized individuals. Diet was quantified using inventories scoring both long-term and recent diet, and archaea and fungi were characterized by deep sequencing of marker genes in DNA purified from stool. For fungi, we found 66 genera, with generally mutually exclusive presence of either the phyla Ascomycota or Basiodiomycota. For archaea, Methanobrevibacter was the most prevalent genus, present in 30% of samples. Several other archaeal genera were detected in lower abundance and frequency. Myriad associations were detected for fungi and archaea with diet, with each other, and with bacterial lineages. Methanobrevibacter and Candida were positively associated with diets high in carbohydrates, but negatively with diets high in amino acids, protein, and fatty acids. A previous study emphasized that bacterial population structure was associated primarily with long-term diet, but high Candida abundance was most strongly associated with the recent consumption of carbohydrates. Methobrevibacter abundance was associated with both long term and recent consumption of carbohydrates. These results confirm earlier targeted studies and provide a host of new associations to consider in modeling the effects of diet on the gut microbiome and human health. PMID:23799070

Hoffmann, Christian; Dollive, Serena; Grunberg, Stephanie; Chen, Jun; Li, Hongzhe; Wu, Gary D; Lewis, James D; Bushman, Frederic D

2013-06-17

169

Mycosphaerella graminicola: from genomics to disease control.  

PubMed

This Mycosphaerella graminicola pathogen profile covers recent advances in the knowledge of this ascomycete fungus and of the disease it causes, septoria tritici blotch of wheat. Research on this pathogen has accelerated since publication of a previous pathogen profile in this journal in 2002. Septoria tritici blotch continues to have high economic importance and widespread global impact on wheat production. Taxonomy: Mycosphaerella graminicola (Fuckel) J. Schröt. In Cohn (anamorph: Septoria tritici Roberge in Desmaz.). Kingdom Fungi, Phylum Ascomycota, Class Loculoascomycetes (filamentous ascomycetes), Order Dothideales, Genus Mycosphaerella, Species graminicola. Host range: Bread and durum wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and T. turgidum ssp. durum L.). Disease symptoms: Initially leaves develop a chlorotic flecking, which is followed by the development of necrotic lesions which contain brown-black pycnidia. Necrosis causes a reduction in photosynthetic capacity and therefore affects grain yield. Disease control: The disease is primarily controlled by a combination of resistant cultivars and fungicides. Rapid advances in disease control, especially in resistance breeding, are opening up new opportunities for the management of the disease. Useful websites: http://genome.jgi-psf.org/Mycgr3/Mycgr3.home.html. PMID:21535348

Orton, Elizabeth S; Deller, Sian; Brown, James K M

2011-01-17

170

Chalkbrood transmission in the alfalfa leafcutting bee: the impact of disinfecting bee cocoons in loose cell management systems.  

PubMed

Understanding pathogen transmission could illuminate new methods for disease prevention. A case in point is chalkbrood in the alfalfa leafcutting bee [Megachile rotundata (F.)]. Propagation of this solitary bee is severely hampered by chalkbrood, a larval disease caused by Ascosphaera aggregata (Ascomycota). Alfalfa leafcutting bees nest in existing cavities in wood or hollow reeds and overwinter as larvae. In the early summer, emerging adults frequently must chew through dead, diseased siblings that block their exit, becoming contaminated with chalkbrood spores in the process. When alfalfa leafcutting bees are used as a commercial pollinator, the cocoons are removed from nesting boards to reduce chalkbrood transmission, but the disease is still common. To determine if these removed cocoons (called loose cells) are an important source of disease transmission, they were disinfected with a fungicide before bees were incubated, and released in the field. Chalkbrood prevalence among the progeny of the treated bees was reduced up to 50% in one field trial, but not significantly when tested in an on-farm trial. Thus, substantial disease transmission still occurred when the loose cells were disinfected, and even when clean nesting materials were used. In conclusion, pathogen transmission must still be occurring from another source that has yet to be identified. Another possible source of transmission could arise from bees that emerge midsummer in populations with a high percent of multivoltinism, but dirty nesting boards and feral bees also may be minor sources of transmission. PMID:22251678

James, R R

2011-08-01

171

Taxon-specific metagenomics of Trichoderma reveals a narrow community of opportunistic species that regulate each other's development  

PubMed Central

In this paper, we report on the in situ diversity of the mycotrophic fungus Trichoderma (teleomorph Hypocrea, Ascomycota, Dikarya) revealed by a taxon-specific metagenomic approach. We designed a set of genus-specific internal transcribed spacer (ITS)1 and ITS2 rRNA primers and constructed a clone library containing 411 molecular operational taxonomic units (MOTUs). The overall species composition in the soil of the two distinct ecosystems in the Danube floodplain consisted of 15 known species and two potentially novel taxa. The latter taxa accounted for only 1.5?% of all MOTUs, suggesting that almost no hidden or uncultivable Hypocrea/Trichoderma species are present at least in these temperate forest soils. The species were unevenly distributed in vertical soil profiles although no universal factors controlling the distribution of all of them (chemical soil properties, vegetation type and affinity to rhizosphere) were revealed. In vitro experiments simulating infrageneric interactions between the pairs of species that were detected in the same soil horizon showed a broad spectrum of reactions from very strong competition over neutral coexistence to the pronounced synergism. Our data suggest that only a relatively small portion of Hypocrea/Trichoderma species is adapted to soil as a habitat and that the interaction between these species should be considered in a screening for Hypocrea/Trichoderma as an agent(s) of biological control of pests.

Friedl, Martina A.

2012-01-01

172

First Record of Fusarium verticillioides as an Entomopathogenic Fungus of Grasshoppers  

PubMed Central

Fusarium verticillioides (Saccardo) Nirenberg (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) is the most common fungus reported on infected corn kernels and vegetative tissues, but has not yet been documented as being entomopathogenic for grasshoppers. Grasshoppers and locusts represent a large group of insects that cause economic damage to forage and crops. Tropidacris collaris (Stoll) (Orthoptera: Acridoidea: Romaleidae) is a large and voracious grasshopper that in recent years has become an increasingly recurrent and widespread pest in progressively more greatly extended areas of some of in Argentina's northern provinces, with chemical insecticides being currently the only means of control. During February and March of 2008–09, nymphs and adults of T. collaris were collected with sweep nets in dense woodland vegetation at a site near Tres Estacas in western Chaco Province, Argentina, and kept in screened cages. F. verticillioides was isolated from insects that died within 10 days and was cultured in PGA medium. Pathogenicity tests were conducted and positive results recorded. Using traditional and molecular-biological methods, an isolate of F. verticillioides was obtained from T. collaris, and its pathogenecity in the laboratory was shown against another harmful grasshopper, Ronderosia bergi (Stål) (Acridoidea: Acrididae: Melanoplinae). The mortality caused by F. verticillioides on R. bergi reached 58 ± 6.53% by 10 days after inoculation. This is the first record of natural infection caused by F. verticillioides in grasshoppers.

Pelizza, SA; Stenglein, SA; Cabello, MN; Dinolfo, MI; Lange, CE

2011-01-01

173

A taxonomic and ecological overview of cheese fungi.  

PubMed

Cheese is made from milk by a succession of microbes (bacteria, yeasts and fungi) that determine the consistency and flavor of the cheese. Apart from the emblematic species, Penicillium camemberti and Penicillium roqueforti, cheese fungi are not well known. Here we present a taxonomic and phylogenetic overview of the most important filamentous cheese Ascomycota based on 133 isolates provided by the producers of cheese and cheese starter cultures and 97 isolates from culture collections. We checked the congruence of different gene genealogies to circumscribe cheese species and our results allow us to propose molecular targets for their identification. To study their phylogenetic affiliation, we used LSU rDNA and showed that cheese fungi are found in two classes, the Eurotiomycetes with Penicillium species (Eurotiales) and Sporendonema casei/Sphaerosporium equinum (Onygenales), and the Sordariomycetes with Scopulariopsis species (Microascales) and Fusarium domesticum (Hypocreales). Some of these fungi, such as, P. camemberti, F. domesticum, Scopulariopsis flava and S. casei, are only known from cheeses and are probably adapted to this particular habitat, which is extremely rich in protein and fat. Other cheese fungi are ubiquitous, such as, P. roqueforti, Scopulariopsis candida and Scopulariopsis fusca. PMID:22381457

Ropars, Jeanne; Cruaud, Corinne; Lacoste, Sandrine; Dupont, Joëlle

2012-02-14

174

Proteomics shows new faces for the old penicillin producer Penicillium chrysogenum.  

PubMed

Fungi comprise a vast group of microorganisms including the Ascomycota (majority of all described fungi), the Basidiomycota (mushrooms or higher fungi), and the Zygomycota and Chytridiomycota (basal or lower fungi) that produce industrially interesting secondary metabolites, such as ?-lactam antibiotics. These compounds are one of the most commonly prescribed drugs world-wide. Since Fleming's initial discovery of Penicillium notatum 80 years ago, the role of Penicillium as an antimicrobial source became patent. After the isolation of Penicillium chrysogenum NRRL 1951 six decades ago, classical mutagenesis and screening programs led to the development of industrial strains with increased productivity (at least three orders of magnitude). The new "omics" era has provided the key to understand the underlying mechanisms of the industrial strain improvement process. The review of different proteomics methods applied to P. chrysogenum has revealed that industrial modification of this microorganism was a consequence of a careful rebalancing of several metabolic pathways. In addition, the secretome analysis of P. chrysogenum has opened the door to new industrial applications for this versatile filamentous fungus. PMID:22318718

Barreiro, Carlos; Martín, Juan F; García-Estrada, Carlos

2012-01-19

175

Alternative Splicing and Subfunctionalization Generates Functional Diversity in Fungal Proteomes  

PubMed Central

Alternative splicing is commonly used by the Metazoa to generate more than one protein from a gene. However, such diversification of the proteome by alternative splicing is much rarer in fungi. We describe here an ancient fungal alternative splicing event in which these two proteins are generated from a single alternatively spliced ancestral SKI7/HBS1 gene retained in many species in both the Ascomycota and Basidiomycota. While the ability to express two proteins from a single SKI7/HBS1 gene is conserved in many fungi, the exact mechanism by which they achieve this varies. The alternative splicing was lost in Saccharomyces cerevisiae following the whole-genome duplication event as these two genes subfunctionalized into the present functionally distinct HBS1 and SKI7 genes. When expressed in yeast, the single gene from Lachancea kluyveri generates two functionally distinct proteins. Expression of one of these proteins complements hbs1, but not ski7 mutations, while the other protein complements ski7, but not hbs1. This is the first known case of subfunctionalization by loss of alternative splicing in yeast. By coincidence, the ancestral alternatively spliced gene was also duplicated in Schizosaccharomyces pombe with subsequent subfunctionalization and loss of splicing. Similar subfunctionalization by loss of alternative splicing in fungi also explains the presence of two PTC7 genes in the budding yeast Tetrapisispora blattae, suggesting that this is a common mechanism to preserve duplicate alternatively spliced genes.

Jimenez-Lopez, Claudia; Lorenz, Michael C.; van Hoof, Ambro

2013-01-01

176

Identification, molecular characterization, and evolution of group I introns at the expansion segment D11 of 28S rDNA in Rhizoctonia species.  

PubMed

The nuclear ribosomal DNA of Rhizoctonia species is polymorphic in terms of the nucleotide composition and length. Insertions of 349-410 nucleotides in length with characteristics of group I introns were detected at a single insertion point at the expansion segment D11 of 28S rDNA in 12 out of 64 isolates. Eleven corresponded to Rhizoctonia solani (teleomorph: Thanatephorous) and one (AG-Q) to Rhizoctonia spp. (teleomorph: Ceratobasidium). Sequence data showed that all but AG-Q contained conserved DNA catalytic core regions (P, Q, R, and S) essential for selfsplicing. The predicted secondary structure revealed that base-paired helices corresponded to subgroup IC1. Isolates from same anastomosis group and even subgroups within R. solani were variable with regard to possession of introns. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that introns were vertically transmitted. Unfortunately, sequence data from the conserved region from all 64 isolates were not useful for delimiting species. Analyses with IC1 introns at same insertion point, of both Ascomycota and Basidiomycota indicated the possibility of horizontal transfer at this site. The present study uncovered new questions on evolutionary pattern of change of these introns within Rhizoctonia species. PMID:24012302

González, Dolores

2013-06-28

177

Subnivean decomposition in a Colorado subalpine forest - insights from an isotope labeling experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A growing body of evidence has highlighted the importance of winter ecological processes for carbon cycling in many temperate regions, including subalpine forests of the western United States. We conducted an experiment to examine decomposition dynamics of ponderosa pine needle litter in a high-elevation subalpine forest in the Rocky Mountains of Colorado. Pine saplings were isotopically-labeled in a laboratory growth chamber, providing a litter source that was highly enriched in carbon-13 (+2500 permil). Enriched pine needles were applied to the forest floor of the Niwot Ridge AmeriFlux site in late fall. Decomposition of the labeled litter was monitored over one winter (as CO2) using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy in the field. Use of this technology allowed high-resolution examination of the fluxes of labeled subnivean respiration. The following summer, soils were collected and 52% of the C label remained, primarily in the organic soil horizon. Phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) isotope analysis indicated that the majority of the remaining litter C was associated with fungi, but some was recovered in gram positive and negative bacterial groups. The dominant fungi that grew on the labeled needles were identified by 18S ribosomal DNA sequencing. Fungal phyla growing on the needles included Zygomycota, Ascomycota and Basidiomycota, some of which were known from our previous work, but several were not closely related to previously described snow molds.

Bowling, D. R.; Bird, J. A.; Schmidt, S. K.

2011-12-01

178

Detection and phylogenetic analysis of coastal bioaerosols using culture dependent and independent techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bioaerosols are emerging as important yet poorly understood players in atmospheric processes. Microorganisms can impact atmospheric chemistry through metabolic reactions and can potentially influence physical processes by participating in ice nucleation and cloud droplet formation. Microbial roles in atmospheric processes are thought to be species-specific and potentially dependent on cell viability. Using a coastal pier monitoring site as a sampling platform, culture-dependent (i.e. agar plates) and culture-independent (i.e. DNA clone libraries from filters) approaches were combined with 18S rRNA and 16S rRNA gene targeting to obtain insight into the local atmospheric microbial composition. From 13 microbial isolates and 42 DNA library clones, a total of 55 sequences were obtained representing four independent sampling events. Sequence analysis revealed that in these coastal samples two fungal phyla, Ascomycota and Basidiomycota, predominate among eukaryotes while Firmicutes and Proteobacteria predominate among bacteria. Furthermore, our culture-dependent study verifies the viability of microbes from all four phyla detected through our culture-independent study. Contrary to our expectations and despite oceanic air mass sources, common marine planktonic bacteria and phytoplankton were not typically found. The abundance of terrestrial and marine sediment-associated microorganisms suggests a potential importance for bioaerosols derived from beaches and/or coastal erosion processes.

Urbano, R.; Palenik, B.; Gaston, C. J.; Prather, K. A.

2011-02-01

179

Detection and phylogenetic analysis of coastal bioaerosols using culture dependent and independent techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bioaerosols are emerging as important yet poorly understood players in atmospheric processes. Microorganisms in the atmosphere have great potential to impact chemical and physical processes that influence global climateby participating in both ice nucleation and cloud droplet formation. The role of microorganisms in atmospheric processes is thought to be species-specific and, potentially, dependent on the viability of the cell; however, few simultaneous measurements of both parameters exist. Using a coastal pier monitoring site as a sampling platform to investigate the exchange of airborne microorganisms at the air-sea interface, culture independent (i.e. DNA clone libraries from filters) and culture dependent approaches (i.e. agar plates) were combined with 18S rRNA and 16S rRNA gene targeting to determine the microbial diversity. The results indicate that in these coastal air samples two fungal phyla, Basidiomycota and Ascomycota, predominate among eukaryotes while Firmicutes and Proteobacteria predominate among bacteria. Furthermore, our culture dependent study verifies the viability of microbes from all four phyla detected through our culture independent study. Contrary to our expectations and despite oceanic air mass sources, common marine planktonic bacteria and phytoplankton were not abundantly found in our air samples indicating the potential importance of bioaerosols derived from beaches and/or coastal erosion processes.

Urbano, R.; Palenik, B.; Gaston, C. J.; Prather, K. A.

2010-08-01

180

High Diversity of Fungi in Air Particulate Matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fungal spores account for large proportions of air particulate matter, and they influence the hydrological cycle and climate as nuclei for water droplets and ice crystals in clouds, fog and precipitation. Moreover, some fungi are major pathogens and allergens. The diversity of airborne fungi is, however, hardly known. By DNA analysis we found pronounced differences in the relative abundance and seasonal cycles of various groups of fungi in coarse and fine particulate matter, with more plant pathogens in the coarse and more human pathogens and allergens in the respirable fine particle fraction (< 3 µm). Moreover, the ratio of Basidiomycota to Ascomycota was found to be much higher than previously assumed, which might also apply to the biosphere. References: Després, V.R., J.F. Nowoisky, M. Klose, R. Conrad, M.O. Andreae, U. Pöschl, Characterization of primary biogenic aerosol particles in urban, rural, and high-alpine air by DNA sequence and restriction fragment analysis of ribosomal RNA genes, Biogeosciences, 4, 1127-1141, 2007. Elbert, W., P. E. Taylor, M. O. Andreae, U. Pöschl, Contribution of fungi to primary biogenic aerosols in the atmosphere: wet and dry discharged spores, carbohydrates, and inorganic ions, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 7, 4569-4588, 2007. Fröhlich-Nowoisky, J. Despres, V.R., Pöschl, U.: High diversity of fungi in air particulate matter, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, submitted, 2008.

Fröhlich-Nowoisky, J.; Despres, V. R.; Pöschl, U.

2009-04-01

181

DIRS and Ngaro Retrotransposons in Fungi.  

PubMed

Retrotransposons with a tyrosine recombinase (YR) have been discovered recently and lack thorough annotation in fungi. YR retrotransposons are divided into 3 groups: DIRS, Ngaro and VIPER (known only from kinetoplastida). We used comparative genomics to investigate the evolutionary patterns of retrotransposons in the fungal kingdom. The identification of both functional and remnant elements provides a unique view on both recent and past transposition activity. Our searches covering a wide range of fungal genomes allowed us to identify 2241 YR retrotransposons. Based on CLANS clustering of concatenated sequences of the reverse transcriptase (RT), RNase H (RH), DNA N-6-adenine-methyltransferase (MT) and YR protein domains we propose a revised classification of YR elements expanded by two new categories of Ngaro elements. A phylogenetic analysis of 477 representatives supports this observation and additionally demonstrates that DIRS and Ngaro abundance changed independently in Basidiomycota and Blastocladiomycota/Mucoromycotina/Kixellomycotina. Interestingly, a single remnant Ngaro element could be identified in an Ascomycota genome. Our analysis revealed also that 3 Pucciniomycotina taxa, known for their overall mobile element abundance and big genome size, encode an elevated number of Ngaro retrotransposons. Considering the presence of DIRS elements in all analyzed Mucoromycotina, Kickxellomycotina and Blastocladiomycota genomes one might assume a common origin of fungal DIRS retrotransposons with a loss in Dicarya. Ngaro elements described to date from Opisthokonta, seem to have invaded the common ancestor of Agaricomycotina and Pucciniomycotina after Ustilagomycotina divergence. Yet, most of analyzed genomes are devoid of YR elements and most identified retrotransposons are incomplete. PMID:24086727

Muszewska, Anna; Steczkiewicz, Kamil; Ginalski, Krzysztof

2013-09-25

182

Phylogenomic Relationships between Amylolytic Enzymes from 85 Strains of Fungi  

PubMed Central

Fungal amylolytic enzymes, including ?-amylase, gluocoamylase and ?-glucosidase, have been extensively exploited in diverse industrial applications such as high fructose syrup production, paper making, food processing and ethanol production. In this paper, amylolytic genes of 85 strains of fungi from the phyla Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Chytridiomycota and Zygomycota were annotated on the genomic scale according to the classification of glycoside hydrolase (GH) from the Carbohydrate-Active enZymes (CAZy) Database. Comparisons of gene abundance in the fungi suggested that the repertoire of amylolytic genes adapted to their respective lifestyles. Amylolytic enzymes in family GH13 were divided into four distinct clades identified as heterologous ?- amylases, eukaryotic ?-amylases, bacterial and fungal ?-amylases and GH13 ?-glucosidases. Family GH15 had two branches, one for gluocoamylases, and the other with currently unknown function. GH31 ?-glucosidases showed diverse branches consisting of neutral ?-glucosidases, lysosomal acid ?-glucosidases and a new clade phylogenetically related to the bacterial counterparts. Distribution of starch-binding domains in above fungal amylolytic enzymes was related to the enzyme source and phylogeny. Finally, likely scenarios for the evolution of amylolytic enzymes in fungi based on phylogenetic analyses were proposed. Our results provide new insights into evolutionary relationships among subgroups of fungal amylolytic enzymes and fungal evolutionary adaptation to ecological conditions.

Chen, Wanping; Xie, Ting; Shao, Yanchun; Chen, Fusheng

2012-01-01

183

Seasonal trends in the biomass and structure of bryophyte-associated fungal communities explored by 454 pyrosequencing.  

PubMed

Bryophytes are a dominant vegetation component of the boreal forest, but little is known about their associated fungal communities, including seasonal variation within them. Seasonal variation in the fungal biomass and composition of fungal communities associated with three widespread boreal bryophytes was investigated using HPLC assays of ergosterol and amplicon pyrosequencing of the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) region of rDNA. The bryophyte phyllosphere community was dominated by Ascomycota. Fungal biomass did not decline appreciably in winter (P=0.272). Significant host-specific patterns in seasonal variation of biomass were detected (P=0.003). Although seasonal effects were not the primary factors structuring community composition, collection date significantly explained (P=0.001) variation not attributed to locality, host, and tissue. Community homogenization and a reduction in turnover occurred with the onset of frost events and subzero air and soil temperatures. Fluctuations in the relative abundance of particular fungal groups seem to reflect the nature of their association with mosses, although conclusions are drawn with caution because of potential methodological bias. The moss-associated fungal community is dynamic, exhibiting seasonal turnover in composition and relative abundance of different fungal groups, and significant fungal biomass is present year-round, suggesting a winter-active fungal community. PMID:22758207

Davey, Marie L; Heegaard, Einar; Halvorsen, Rune; Ohlson, Mikael; Kauserud, Håvard

2012-07-03

184

Identification and characterization of GEO1, a new class II hydrophobin from Geosmithia spp.  

PubMed

In the present paper we describe a new noncatalytic protein belonging to the hydrophobin family, designated GEO1, purified from the culture filtrate of Geosmithia pallida (Ascomycota: Hypocreales), and the corresponding gene sequence. In the fungal genome, GEO1 was encoded by a single-copy gene with a 450 bp open reading frame interrupted by 2 small introns whose primary translation product was 109 amino acids long and included a 23 amino acids signal peptide. The mature protein had a molecular mass of 8111.75 Da and a theoretical pI of 4.33. The deduced amino acid sequence showed similarity to class II hydrophobins and contained 8 conserved cysteine residues, present in all hydrophobins isolated so far. Biochemical properties, such as foam-forming ability and trapezoid-like shape of a GEO1 drop, also resembled the typical features of the class II hydrophobins. Expression of the geo1 gene was assessed after 2, 4, 7, 9, and 11 days of culture and showed that the geo1 transcript appeared after 7 days and increased up to 11 days. PMID:22803587

Bettini, Priscilla P; Frascella, Arcangela; Comparini, Cecilia; Carresi, Lara; Pepori, Alessia L; Pazzagli, Luigia; Cappugi, Gianni; Scala, Felice; Scala, Aniello

2012-07-18

185

Effects of transgenic hybrid aspen overexpressing polyphenol oxidase on rhizosphere diversity.  

PubMed

This study assessed the potential effects of transgenic aspen overexpressing a polyphenol oxidase gene on diversity in rhizosphere communities. Cultivation-independent methods were used to better delineate bacterial and fungal populations associated with transgenic and nontransgenic trees. Gene libraries for the bacterial component of the rhizosphere were established using 16S rRNA and chaperonin-60 (CPN-60) gene sequences, while the fungal community was characterized using 18S rRNA gene sequences. The 16S rRNA gene libraries were dominated by alphaproteobacterial sequences, while the CPN-60 gene libraries were dominated by members of the Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi group. In both the CPN-60 and 16S rRNA libraries, there were differences in only minor components of the bacterial community between transgenic and unmodified trees, and no significant differences in species diversity were observed. Compared to the bacterial gene libraries, greater coverage of the underlying population was achieved with the fungal 18S rRNA libraries. Members of the Zygomycota, Chytridiomycota, Ascomycota, and Basidiomycota were recovered from both libraries. The dominant groups of fungi associated with each tree type were very similar, although there were some qualitative differences in the recovery of less-abundant fungi, likely as a result of the underlying heterogeneity of the fungal population. The methods employed revealed only minor differences between the bacterial and fungal communities associated with transgenic and unmodified trees. PMID:18552195

Oliver, Kathryn L; Hamelin, Richard C; Hintz, William E

2008-06-13

186

Diversity, ecological role and potential biotechnological applications of marine fungi associated to the seagrass Posidonia oceanica.  

PubMed

The marine environment is characterized by high salinity and exerts a strong selective pressure on the biota, favouring the development of halo-tolerant microorganisms. Part of this microbial diversity is made up of fungi, important organisms from ecological and biotechnological points of view. In this study, for the first time, the qualitative and quantitative composition of the mycoflora associated to leaves, rhizomes, roots and matte of the seagrass Posidonia oceanica was estimated. A total of 88 fungal taxa, mainly belonging to Ascomycota, were identified by morphological and molecular methods. The most represented genera were Penicillium, Cladosporium and Acremonium. Most of the species (70) were selectively associated with one district; only two species (Penicillium chrysogenum var. chrysogenum and P. janczewskii) were isolated from all the districts. Moreover the capability to produce laccases, peroxidases and tannases by 107 fungal isolated by the different districts of P. oceanica was carried out. These results show that the mycoflora associated to P. oceanica is very rich and characterized by fungi able to produce ligninolytic enzymes and tannases useful to degrade and detoxify lignocellulose residues in presence of high salt concentrations. These fungi, hence, may play important ecological roles in marine environments but can also be very useful in different biotechnological areas. PMID:23410985

Panno, Luigi; Bruno, Maurizio; Voyron, Samuele; Anastasi, Antonella; Gnavi, Giorgio; Miserere, Luca; Varese, Giovanna Cristina

2013-02-11

187

Morphological and molecular characterization of a fungus, Hirsutella sp., isolated from planthoppers and psocids in Argentina.  

PubMed

A mycosed planthopper, Oliarus dimidiatus Berg (Hemiptera: Cixiidae), and two psocids, Heterocaecilius sp. (Psocodea: Pseudocaeciliidae) and Ectopsocus sp. (Ectopsocidae), were collected from Los Hornos and La Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina between February and September 2007. Observations of mycelia growing on the host revealed that the putative fungal parasite had synnemata supporting monophialidic conidiogenous cells. Likewise, in vitro fungal cultures presented characteristics typical of the fungus Hirsutella citriformis Speare (Ascomycota: Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae). The identity of the isolated fungi characterized based on morphological aspects was complemented by means of the internal transcribed spacer sequences. The sequences of both isolates were highly homologous to those of Cordyceps sp. (Fries) Link and Ophiocordyceps sinensis (Berkely) G.H. Sung, J.M. Sung, Hywel-Jones, and Spatafora (Ophiocordycipitaceae). We additionally confirmed that both isolates had the ability to infect and kill adults of Delphacodes kuscheli Fennah (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) after 10 days. Therefore, based on the morphology of the isolated fungi, their ribosomal internal transcribed spacer sequence, and their ability to parasite insects, we conclude that the fungi isolated belong to the genus Hirsutella and might have biotechnological potential. PMID:23885970

Toledo, Andrea V; Simurro, María E; Balatti, Pedro A

2013-01-01

188

ITS rDNA phylogeny of Iranian strains of Cytospora and associated teleomorphs.  

PubMed

Cytospora spp. and associated teleomorphic species (Ascomycota, Diaporthales, Valsaceae) are among the most common and widespread canker- and dieback-causing fungi on trees, shrubs and herbaceous plants worldwide. From specimens collected all over Iran a total of 114 isolates were morphologically identified, representing 20 Cytospora, one Leucostoma and five Valsa species from 38 plant species. Nine of the identified taxa were new records for Iran, and many new hosts were identified. The phylogenetic relationships of the Iranian strains, along with sequences of 13 reference strains from GenBank, were inferred from ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 nuclear rDNA sequences. Parsimony analysis established five distinct major clades and 12 subclades, which represented accepted species and genera. Some of these subclades corresponded to morphologically based taxonomic concepts of single Cytospora species, while others contained more than one morphospecies. Teleomorphic states were present in six subclades, and most clustered with the corresponding anamorphs. This suggests that morphological and phylogenetic species concepts overlap and that in most cases they are meaningful for correct species identification. PMID:20943543

Fotouhifar, Khalil-Berdi; Hedjaroude, Ghorban-Ali; Leuchtmann, Adrian

2010-04-26

189

Characterization of the Fungal Microbiota (Mycobiome) in Healthy and Dandruff-Afflicted Human Scalps  

PubMed Central

The human scalp harbors a vast community of microbial mutualists, the composition of which is difficult to elucidate as many of the microorganisms are not culturable using current culture techniques. Dandruff, a common scalp disorder, is known as a causative factor of a mild seborrheic dermatitis as well as pityriasis versicolor, seborrheic dermatitis, and atopic dermatitis. Lipophilic yeast Malassezia is widely accepted to play a role in dandruff, but relatively few comprehensive studies have been reported. In order to investigate fungal biota and genetic resources of dandruff, we amplified the 26S rRNA gene from samples of healthy scalps and dandruff-afflicted scalps. The sequences were analyzed by a high throughput method using a GS-FLX 454 pyrosequencer. Of the 74,811 total sequence reads, Basidiomycota (Filobasidium spp.) was the most common phylum associated with dandruff. In contrast, Ascomycota (Acremonium spp.) was common in the healthy scalps. Our results elucidate the distribution of fungal communities associated with dandruff and provide new avenues for the potential prevention and treatment of dandruff.

Park, Hee Kuk; Ha, Myung-Ho; Park, Sang-Gue; Kim, Myeung Nam; Kim, Beom Joon; Kim, Wonyong

2012-01-01

190

Characterization of the fungal microbiota (mycobiome) in healthy and dandruff-afflicted human scalps.  

PubMed

The human scalp harbors a vast community of microbial mutualists, the composition of which is difficult to elucidate as many of the microorganisms are not culturable using current culture techniques. Dandruff, a common scalp disorder, is known as a causative factor of a mild seborrheic dermatitis as well as pityriasis versicolor, seborrheic dermatitis, and atopic dermatitis. Lipophilic yeast Malassezia is widely accepted to play a role in dandruff, but relatively few comprehensive studies have been reported. In order to investigate fungal biota and genetic resources of dandruff, we amplified the 26S rRNA gene from samples of healthy scalps and dandruff-afflicted scalps. The sequences were analyzed by a high throughput method using a GS-FLX 454 pyrosequencer. Of the 74,811 total sequence reads, Basidiomycota (Filobasidium spp.) was the most common phylum associated with dandruff. In contrast, Ascomycota (Acremonium spp.) was common in the healthy scalps. Our results elucidate the distribution of fungal communities associated with dandruff and provide new avenues for the potential prevention and treatment of dandruff. PMID:22393454

Park, Hee Kuk; Ha, Myung-Ho; Park, Sang-Gue; Kim, Myeung Nam; Kim, Beom Joon; Kim, Wonyong

2012-02-29

191

Is Roesleria subterranea a primary pathogen or a minor parasite of grapevines? Risk assessment and a diagnostic decision scheme.  

PubMed

In the past the root rot pathogen Roesleria subterranea (Ascomycota) was generally considered as a minor parasite, a view with which we were often confronted during field work in German wine-growing regions where this ascomycete recently caused serious problems in established vineyards and at replant sites. To irrevocably demonstrate that R. subterranea is not a minor, but a primary pathogen of grapevines (and fruit trees) a pest risk analysis was carried out according to the guidelines defined by EPPO standard series PM 5, which defines the information needed, and contains standardised, detailed key questions and a decision support scheme for risk analysis. Following the provided decision scheme, it becomes apparent that R. subterranea must be considered as a serious, primary pathogen for grapevines and fruit trees that can cause massive economic losses. Based on the literature, the pathogen seems to be ubiquitous in wine growing regions in cool climates of the northern hemisphere. It is likely that because of its growth below ground, the small fruiting bodies, and ambiguous symptoms above ground, R. subterranea has been overlooked in the past and therefore, has not been considered as primary pathogen for grapevine. Available published information together with experience from field trials was implemented into a diagnostic decision scheme which will, together with the comprehensive literature provided, be the basis (a) to implement quick and efficient diagnosis of this pathogen in the field and (b) to conduct risk analysis and management in areas where R. subterranea has not established yet. PMID:22318129

Neuhauser, Sigrid; Huber, Lars; Kirchmair, Martin

2011-08-01

192

Blue pigment in Hypocrea caerulescens sp. nov. and two additional new species in sect. Trichoderma  

PubMed Central

Three new species of Hypocrea/Trichoderma sect. Trichoderma (Hypocreaceae, Hypocreales, Ascomycota, Fungi) are described from recent collections in southern Europe and the Canary Islands. They have been characterized by morphological and molecular methods, including microscopic examination of the teleomorph in thin sections, the anamorph, growth rate experiments and phylogenetic analyses based on a part of the translation elongation factor 1-alpha encoding gene (tef1) containing the two last introns and a part of the rpb2 gene, encoding the second largest RNA polymerase subunit. Analyses involving tef1 did not unequivocally resolve the sister clade relationship of Hypocrea caerulescens relative to the Koningii and Viride clades, while analyses based on rpb2 clearly suggest a close relationship with the former, although the phenotype of H. caerulescens is similar to H. viridescens, particularly by its warted conidia and a coconut-like odor in CMD culture. Hypocrea hispanica and T. samuelsii however are clearly related to the Viride clade by both phylogenetic markers, despite their morphological similarity to H. koningii and its relatives. An apparently specific blue pigment is formed in CMD cultures by Hypocrea caerulescens but could not be obtained by extraction with organic solvents.

Jaklitsch, Walter M.; Stadler, Marc; Voglmayr, Hermann

2012-01-01

193

Diversity of fungal isolates from three Hawaiian marine sponges.  

PubMed

Sponges harbor diverse prokaryotic and eukaryotic microbes. However, the nature of sponge-fungal association and diversity of sponge-derived fungi have barely been addressed. In this study, the cultivation-dependent approach was applied to study fungal diversity in the Hawaiian sponges Gelliodes fibrosa, Haliclona caerulea, and Mycale armata. The cultivated fungal isolates were representatives of 8 taxonomic orders, belonging to at least 25 genera of Ascomycota and 1 of Basidiomycota. A portion of these isolates (n=15, 17%) were closely affiliated with fungal isolates isolated from other marine habitats; the rest of the isolates had affiliation with terrestrial fungal strains. Cultivated fungal isolates were classified into 3 groups: 'sponge-generalists'-found in all sponge species, 'sponge-associates'-found in more than one sponge species, and 'sponge-specialists'-found only in one sponge species. Individuals of G. fibrosa collected at two different locations shared the same group of 'sponge-specialists'. Also, representatives of 15 genera were identified for the first time in marine sponges. Large-scale phylogenetic analysis of sponge-derived fungi may provide critical information to distinguish between 'resident fungi' and 'transient fungi' in sponges as it has been done in other marine microbial groups. This is the first report of the host specificity analysis of culturable fungal communities in marine sponges. PMID:17681460

Li, Quanzi; Wang, Guangyi

2007-08-06

194

The Polyketide Synthase Gene pks4 of Trichoderma reesei Provides Pigmentation and Stress Resistance.  

PubMed

Species of the fungal genus Trichoderma (Hypocreales, Ascomycota) are well-known for their production of various secondary metabolites. Nonribosomal peptides and polyketides represent a major portion of these products. In a recent phylogenomic investigation of Trichoderma polyketide synthase (PKS)-encoding genes, the pks4 from T. reesei was shown to be an orthologue of pigment-forming PKSs involved in synthesis of aurofusarin and bikaverin in Fusarium spp. In this study, we show that deletion of this gene in T. reesei results in loss of green conidial pigmentation and in pigmentation alteration of teleomorph structures. It also has an impact on conidial cell wall stability and the antagonistic abilities of T. reesei against other fungi, including formation of inhibitory metabolites. In addition, deletion of pks4 significantly influences the expression of other PKS-encoding genes of T. reesei. To our knowledge, this is the first indication that a low-molecular-weight pigment-forming PKS is involved in defense, mechanical stability, and stress resistance in fungi. PMID:24036343

Atanasova, Lea; Knox, Benjamin P; Kubicek, Christian P; Druzhinina, Irina S; Baker, Scott E

2013-09-13

195

Application of temperature gradient gel electrophoresis to the study of yeast diversity in the estuary of the Tagus river, Portugal.  

PubMed

Temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TGGE) was employed for the assessment of yeast diversity in the estuary of the Tagus river (Portugal). The molecular detection of yeasts was carried out directly from water samples and, in parallel, a cultivation approach by means of an enrichment step was employed. A nested PCR was employed to obtain a fungal amplicon containing the D2 domain of the 26S rRNA gene. For identification the TGGE bands were extracted, re-amplified, and sequenced. Fourteen fungal taxa were detected and all except one were yeasts. Most yeast sequences corresponded to members of the Ascomycota and only three belonged to the Basidiomycota. Five yeasts (four ascomycetes and one basidiomycete) could not be identified to the species level due to the uniqueness of their sequences. The number of species detected after enrichment was higher than the number of taxa found using the direct detection method. This suggests that some yeast populations are present in densities that are below the detection threshold of the method. With respect to the analysis of the yeast community structure, our results indicate that the dominant populations belong to Debaryomyces hansenii, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, Cryptococcus longus, and to an uncultured basidiomycetous yeast phylogenetically close to Cr. longus. The combined analysis of direct detection and cultivation approaches indicates a similar community structure at the two sampled sites since nine species were present at both localities. PMID:15556087

Gadanho, Mário; Sampaio, José Paulo

2004-12-01

196

A dehydration-inducible gene in the truffle Tuber borchii identifies a novel group of dehydrins  

PubMed Central

Background The expressed sequence tag M6G10 was originally isolated from a screening for differentially expressed transcripts during the reproductive stage of the white truffle Tuber borchii. mRNA levels for M6G10 increased dramatically during fruiting body maturation compared to the vegetative mycelial stage. Results Bioinformatics tools, phylogenetic analysis and expression studies were used to support the hypothesis that this sequence, named TbDHN1, is the first dehydrin (DHN)-like coding gene isolated in fungi. Homologs of this gene, all defined as "coding for hypothetical proteins" in public databases, were exclusively found in ascomycetous fungi and in plants. Although complete (or almost complete) fungal genomes and EST collections of some Basidiomycota and Glomeromycota are already available, DHN-like proteins appear to be represented only in Ascomycota. A new and previously uncharacterized conserved signature pattern was identified and proposed to Uniprot database as the main distinguishing feature of this new group of DHNs. Expression studies provide experimental evidence of a transcript induction of TbDHN1 during cellular dehydration. Conclusion Expression pattern and sequence similarities to known plant DHNs indicate that TbDHN1 is the first characterized DHN-like protein in fungi. The high similarity of TbDHN1 with homolog coding sequences implies the existence of a novel fungal/plant group of LEA Class II proteins characterized by a previously undescribed signature pattern.

Abba', Simona; Ghignone, Stefano; Bonfante, Paola

2006-01-01

197

Phylogenetic placement of plant pathogenic Sclerotium species among teleomorph genera.  

PubMed

Phylogenetic analyses and morphological characteristics were used to assess the taxonomic placement of eight plant-pathogenic Sclerotium species. Members of this genus produce only sclerotia and no fruiting bodies or spores, so Sclerotium species have been difficult to place taxonomically. Sequences of rDNA large subunit (LSU) and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions were determined for isolates of Sclerotium cepivorum, S. coffeicola, S. denigrans, S. hydrophilum, Ceratorhiza oryzae-sativae, S. perniciosum, S. rhizodes, S. rolfsii and S. rolfsii var. delphinii. Parsimony analysis grouped two species previously thought to be in the Basidiomycota, S. denigrans and S. perniciosum, within the Ascomycota; these species were found to have affinities with the teleomorph genera Sclerotinia and Stromatinia and the asexual Sclerotium cepivorum, which was known earlier to be related to Sclerotinia species. The other Sclerotium species were placed in one of two basidiomycetous groups, genera Athelia or Ceratobasidium. Based on rDNA analysis and morphology the basidiomycetous Sclerotium hydrophilum and S. rhizodes were transferred to genus Ceratorhiza, the anamorph of Ceratobasidium species. Sclerotium coffeicola was found to be close to S. rolfsii var. delphinii and S. rolfsii var. rolfsii, which was shown earlier to have an Athelia teleomorph. PMID:20361501

Xu, Zhihan; Harrington, Thomas C; Gleason, Mark L; Batzer, Jean C

198

Quantitative proteomic analysis of secretome of microbial consortium during saw dust utilization.  

PubMed

Proteomics analysis of lignocellulolytic proteins by lignocellulosic biomass degrading microbes and compatible microbial consortium is a promising approach that offers a new means to enzyme discovery. The abundance of proteins in complex secretome by microbial communities would highlight key lignocellulolytic proteins for lignocellulosic biorefinery. In this study, lignocellulolytic enzymes of potent lignin degrading basidiomycota and effective cellulolytic ascomycota fungal strains, and their co-cultures were analyzed using high throughput isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) technique using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Protein abundances in the iTRAQ-multiplexed samples were determined by integrating relative quantitation and exponentially modified protein abundance index (emPAI). The functional classification of the secretory proteins by individual culture and co-culture demonstrated 36.77% cellulolytic proteins, 13.06% hemicellulases, 14.09% ligninolytic proteins, 19.59% proteolytic enzymes. 7.22% hypothetical proteins and 6.87% cell morphogenesis proteins. The abundance of the proteins by individual cultures and co-cultured fungal consortium revealed that co-culturing of Phanerochaete chrysosporium with Trichoderma reesei QM6a and Trichoderma reesei Rut C30 induced the production of cellulolytic proteins and stimulated expression of hemicellulolytic enzymes. The hierarchical clustering of proteins in secretome of fungal strains and their co-cultures elucidated differential expressions of lignocellulolytic proteins by the microbial consortium. PMID:22992538

Adav, Sunil S; Ravindran, Anita; Cheow, Esther Sok Hwee; Sze, Siu Kwan

2012-08-23

199

Microbial community on healthy and diseased leaves of an invasive plant Eupatorium adenophorum in Southwest China.  

PubMed

Invasive plants have caused great economic losses and environmental problems worldwide. Eupatorium adenophorum is one of the most invasive weeds in China. To better understand its invasive mechanisms, in the present paper, the microbial communities of healthy and diseased leaves of E. adenophorum were obtained using both culture-independent and -dependent methods and their diversities were compared. The bacteria obtained from culture-independent method belong to Proteobacteria (95.8%), Actinobacteria (2.1%), and Firmicutes (2.1%) and fungi belong to Ascomycota (65.2%) and Basidiomycota (34.8%). Very few overlapped microbial species were found by culture-dependent and -independent methods. Healthy leaves display higher bacterial diversity than diseased leaves. Phylogenetic structures are very different between healthy and diseased phyllosphere microbial communities. Bacteria close to Acinetobacter and Pseudomonas were dominant on healthy leaves, whereas those close to Shigella were dominant on diseased leaves. 52.9% of fungal clones from healthy leaves were Ustilaginomycetes, close to Rhodotorula phylloplana and uncultured basidomycete; by contrast, 60% of clones from diseased leaves were Lecanoromycetes, close to Umbilicaria muehlenbergii. No bacteria but four fungal strains phylogenetically close to Myrothecium sp. and Alternaria alternate were pathogenic to seedlings and detached leaves of the invasive plant. Therefore, this plant may be resistant to pathogens from bacteria but not fungi in its introduced range. PMID:20437143

Zhou, Zhen-Xin; Jiang, Huan; Yang, Chen; Yang, Ming-Zhi; Zhang, Han-Bo

2010-05-01

200

Incorporation of plant residue-derived carbon into the microeukaryotic community in a rice field soil revealed by DNA stable-isotope probing.  

PubMed

The microbial decomposition of plant residue is a central part of the carbon cycle in soil ecosystems. Here, we explored the microeukaryotic community responsible for the uptake of plant residue carbon in a rice field soil through DNA-based stable-isotope probing (SIP) using dried rice callus labelled with (13) C as a model substrate. Molecular fingerprinting with PCR-DGGE showed that the total eukaryotic community in soil under drained (upland) conditions distinctly changed within 3 days after the callus was applied and stable thereafter. The predominant group of eukaryotes that incorporated callus carbon were fungi affiliated with the Mucoromycotina (Mortierella), Ascomycota (Galactomyces, Eleutherascus, Gibberella and Fusarium) and Zoopagomycotina (Syncephalis). 'Fungus-like' protists such as Pythium (stramenopiles) and Polymyxa (Cercozoa) were also involved in carbon flow from the callus. Some of these fungi and 'fungus-like' protists took up soil organic matter with time, which suggested a priming effect of the callus on the eukaryotic community. Our results demonstrated the usefulness of SIP not only to trace the carbon flow from fresh organic matter but also to study the effect of fresh organic matter on the utilization of soil organic matter by the microbial community. PMID:22092599

Murase, Jun; Shibata, Manami; Lee, Chol Gyu; Watanabe, Takeshi; Asakawa, Susumu; Kimura, Makoto

2011-11-09

201

Increasing ecological inference from high throughput sequencing of fungi in the environment through a tagging approach.  

PubMed

High throughput sequencing methods are widely used in analyses of microbial diversity, but are generally applied to small numbers of samples, which precludes characterization of patterns of microbial diversity across space and time. We have designed a primer-tagging approach that allows pooling and subsequent sorting of numerous samples, which is directed to amplification of a region spanning the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacers and partial large subunit from fungi in environmental samples. To test the method for phylogenetic biases, we constructed a controlled mixture of four taxa representing the Chytridiomycota, Zygomycota, Ascomycota and Basidiomycota. Following cloning and colony restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, we found no significant difference in representation in 19 of the 23 tested primers. We also generated a clone library from two soil DNA extracts using two primers for each extract and compared 456 clone sequences. Community diversity statistics and contingency table tests applied to counts of operational taxonomic units revealed that the two DNA extracts differed significantly, while the pairs of tagged primers from each extract were indistinguishable. Similar results were obtained using UniFrac phylogenetic comparisons. Together, these results suggest that the pig-tagged primers can be used to increase ecological inference in high throughput sequencing projects on fungi. PMID:21585882

Taylor, D Lee; Booth, Michael G; McFarland, Jack W; Herriott, Ian C; Lennon, Niall J; Nusbaum, Chad; Marr, Thomas G

2008-07-01

202

DNA barcoding in Mexico: an introduction.  

PubMed

DNA barcoding has become an important current scientific trend to the understanding of the world biodiversity. In the case of mega-diverse hot spots like Mexico, this technique represents an important tool for taxonomists, allowing them to concentrate in highlighted species by the barcodes instead of analyzing entire sets of specimens. This tendency resulted in the creation of a national network named Mexican Barcode of Life (MEXBOL) which main goals are to train students, and to promote the interaction and collective work among researchers interested in this topic. As a result, the number of records in the Barcode of Life Database (BOLD) for some groups, such as the Mammalia, Actinopterygii, Polychaeta, Branchiopoda, Ostracoda, Maxillopoda, Nematoda, Pinophyta, Ascomycota and Basidiomycota place Mexico among the top ten countries in the generation of these data. This special number presents only few of the many interesting findings in this region of the world, after the use of this technique and its integration with other methodologies. PMID:23919390

Elías-Gutiérrez, M; León-Regagnon, V

2013-08-06

203

Endohyphal bacterium enhances production of indole-3-acetic Acid by a foliar fungal endophyte.  

PubMed

Numerous plant pathogens, rhizosphere symbionts, and endophytic bacteria and yeasts produce the important phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), often with profound effects on host plants. However, to date IAA production has not been documented among foliar endophytes -- the diverse guild of primarily filamentous Ascomycota that live within healthy, above-ground tissues of all plant species studied thus far. Recently bacteria that live within hyphae of endophytes (endohyphal bacteria) have been detected, but their effects have not been studied previously. Here we show not only that IAA is produced in vitro by a foliar endophyte (here identified as Pestalotiopsis aff. neglecta, Xylariales), but that IAA production is enhanced significantly when the endophyte hosts an endohyphal bacterium (here identified as Luteibacter sp., Xanthomonadales). Both the endophyte and the endophyte/bacterium complex appear to rely on an L-tryptophan dependent pathway for IAA synthesis. The bacterium can be isolated from the fungus when the symbiotic complex is cultivated at 36°C. In pure culture the bacterium does not produce IAA. Culture filtrate from the endophyte-bacterium complex significantly enhances growth of tomato in vitro relative to controls and to filtrate from the endophyte alone. Together these results speak to a facultative symbiosis between an endophyte and endohyphal bacterium that strongly influences IAA production, providing a new framework in which to explore endophyte-plant interactions. PMID:24086270

Hoffman, Michele T; Gunatilaka, Malkanthi K; Wijeratne, Kithsiri; Gunatilaka, Leslie; Arnold, A Elizabeth

2013-09-24

204

Utilizing ITS1 and ITS2 to study environmental fungal diversity using pyrosequencing.  

PubMed

The shorter reads generated by high-throughput sequencing has led to a focus on either the ITS1 or the ITS2 sublocus in fungal diversity analyses. Our study aimed to determine how making this choice would influence the datasets obtained and our vision of environmental fungal diversity. DNA was extracted from different environmental samples (water, sediments and soil) and the total internal transcribed spacer (ITS) locus was amplified. 454-sequencing was performed targeting both ITS1 and ITS2. No significant differences in the number of sequences, operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and in the dominant OTUs were detected but less diversity was observed in the ITS2 dataset. In the soil samples, differences in the fungal taxonomic identification were observed, with more Basidiomycota in the ITS1 dataset and more Ascomycota in the ITS2 dataset. Only one-third of the OTUs were detected in both datasets which could be due to (1) more short sequences removed in the ITS2 dataset, (2) different taxonomic affiliation depending on the sublocus used as BLASTn query and/or (3) selectivity in how a primer amplifies the true community. Although ITS1 and ITS2 datasets led to similar results at the fungal community level, for further in-depth diversity analysis this study suggests the analysis of both ITS regions, as they provided different information and were complementary. PMID:23176677

Monard, Cécile; Gantner, Stephan; Stenlid, Jan

2012-12-20

205

Morphological and Molecular Characterization of a Fungus, Hirsutella sp., Isolated from Planthoppers and Psocids in Argentina  

PubMed Central

A mycosed planthopper, Oliarus dimidiatus Berg (Hemiptera: Cixiidae), and two psocids, Heterocaecilius sp. (Psocodea: Pseudocaeciliidae) and Ectopsocus sp. (Ectopsocidae), were collected from Los Hornos and La Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina between February and September 2007. Observations of mycelia growing on the host revealed that the putative fungal parasite had synnemata supporting monophialidic conidiogenous cells. Likewise, in vitro fungal cultures presented characteristics typical of the fungus Hirsutella citriformis Speare (Ascomycota: Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae). The identity of the isolated fungi characterized based on morphological aspects was complemented by means of the internal transcribed spacer sequences. The sequences of both isolates were highly homologous to those of Cordyceps sp. (Fries) Link and Ophiocordyceps sinensis (Berkely) G.H. Sung, J.M. Sung, Hywel-Jones, and Spatafora (Ophiocordycipitaceae). We additionally confirmed that both isolates had the ability to infect and kill adults of Delphacodes kuscheli Fennah (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) after 10 days. Therefore, based on the morphology of the isolated fungi, their ribosomal internal transcribed spacer sequence, and their ability to parasite insects, we conclude that the fungi isolated belong to the genus Hirsutella and might have biotechnological potential.

Toledo, Andrea V.; Simurro, Maria E.; Balatti, Pedro A.

2013-01-01

206

Fungal Endophytes from Three Cultivars of Panax ginseng Meyer Cultivated in Korea  

PubMed Central

In order to investigate the diversity of endophytes, fungal endophytes in Panax ginseng Meyer cultivated in Korea were isolated and identified using internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences of ribosomal DNA. Three cultivars of 3-year-old ginseng roots (Chunpoong, Yunpoong, and Gumpoong) were used to isolate fungal endophytes. Surface sterilized ginseng roots were placed on potato dextrose agar plates supplemented with ampicilin and streptomycin to inhibit bacterial growth. Overall, 38 fungal endophytes were isolated from 12 ginseng roots. According to the sequence analysis of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2, 38 fungal isolates were classified into 4 different fungal species, which were Phoma radicina, Fusarium oxysporum, Setophoma terrestris and Ascomycota sp. 2-RNK. The most dominant fungal endophyte was P. radicina in 3 cultivars. The percentage of dominant endophytes of P. radicina was 65.8%. The percentage of colonization frequency of P. radicina was 80%, 52.9%, and 75% in Chunpoong, Yunpoong, and Gumpoong, respectively. The second most dominant fungal endophyte was F. oxysporum. The diversity of the fungal endophytes was low and no ginseng cultivar specificity among endophytes was detected in this study. The identified endophytes can be potential fungi for the production of bioactive compounds and control against ginseng pathogens.

Park, Sang Un; Lim, Hyoun-Sub; Park, Kee-Choon; Park, Young-Hwan; Bae, Hanhong

2012-01-01

207

High abundance and role of antifungal bacteria in compost-treated soils in a wildfire area.  

PubMed

Compost has been widely used in order to promote vegetation growth in post-harvested and burned soils. The effects on soil microorganisms were scarcely known, so we performed the microbial analyses in a wildfire area of the Taebaek Mountains, Korea, during field surveys from May to September 2007. Using culture-dependent and -independent methods, we found that compost used in burned soils influenced a greater impact on soil fungi than bacteria. Compost-treated soils contained higher levels of antifungal strains in the genera Bacillus and Burkholderia than non-treated soils. When the antifungal activity of Burkholderia sp. strain O1a_RA002, which had been isolated from a compost-treated soil, was tested for the growth inhibition of bacteria and fungi isolated from burned soils, the membrane-filtered culture supernatant inhibited 19/37 fungal strains including soil fungi, Eupenicillium spp. and Devriesia americana; plant pathogens, Polyschema larviformis and Massaria platani; an animal pathogen, Mortierella verticillata; and an unidentified Ascomycota. However, this organism only inhibited 11/151 bacterial strains tested. These patterns were compatible with the culture-independent DGGE results, suggesting that the compost used in burned soils had a greater impact on soil fungi than bacteria through the promotion of the growth of antifungal bacteria. Our findings indicate that compost used in burned soils is effective in restoring soil conditions to a state closer to those of nearby unburned forest soils at the early stage of secondary succession. PMID:21409344

Kim, Yong-Hak; Kim, In Sung; Moon, Eun Young; Park, Jeong Soo; Kim, Sang-Jong; Lim, Joo-Hoon; Park, Byung Tae; Lee, Eun Ju

2011-03-16

208

The molecular phylogeny of aquatic hyphomycetes with affinity to the Leotiomycetes.  

PubMed

Aquatic hyphomycetes play a key role in decomposition of submerged organic matter and stream ecosystem functioning. We examined the phylogenetic relationships among various genera of aquatic hyphomycetes belonging to the Leotiomycetes (Ascomycota) using sequences of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and large subunit (LSU) regions of rDNA generated from 42 pure cultures including 19 ex-types. These new sequence data were analyzed together with additional sequences from 36 aquatic hyphomycetes and 60 related fungi obtained from GenBank. Aquatic hyphomycetes, characterized by their tetraradiate or sigmoid conidia, were scattered in nine supported clades within the Helotiales (Leotiomycetes). Tricladium, Lemonniera, Articulospora, Anguillospora, Varicosporium, Filosporella, and Flagellospora are not monophyletic, with species from the same genus distributed among several major clades. The Gyoerffyella clade and the Hymenoscyphus clade accommodated species from eight and six different genera, respectively. Thirteen aquatic hyphomycete taxa were grouped in the Leotia-Bulgaria clade while twelve species clustered within the Hymenoscyphus clade along with several amphibious ascomycetes. Species of Filosporella and some species from four other aquatic genera were placed in the Ascocoryne-Hydrocina clade. It is evident that many aquatic hyphomycetes have relatives of terrestrial origin. Adaptation to colonize the aquatic environment has evolved independently in multiple phylogenetic lineages within the Leotiomycetes. PMID:24012305

Baschien, Christiane; Tsui, Clement Kin-Ming; Gulis, Vladislav; Szewzyk, Ulrich; Marvanová, Ludmila

2013-07-25

209

Molecular Diversity of Fungal Phylotypes Co-Amplified Alongside Nematodes from Coastal and Deep-Sea Marine Environments  

PubMed Central

Nematodes and fungi are both ubiquitous in marine environments, yet few studies have investigated relationships between these two groups. Microbial species share many well-documented interactions with both free-living and parasitic nematode species, and limited data from previous studies have suggested ecological associations between fungi and nematodes in benthic marine habitats. This study aimed to further document the taxonomy and distribution of fungal taxa often co-amplified from nematode specimens. A total of 15 fungal 18S rRNA phylotypes were isolated from nematode specimens representing both deep-sea and shallow water habitats; all fungal isolates displayed high pairwise sequence identities with published data in Genbank (99–100%) and unpublished high-throughput 454 environmental datasets (>95%). BLAST matches indicate marine fungal sequences amplified in this study broadly represent taxa within the phyla Ascomycota and Basidiomycota, and several phylotypes showed robust groupings with known taxa in phylogenetic topologies. In addition, some fungal phylotypes appeared to be present in disparate geographic habitats, suggesting cosmopolitan distributions or closely related species complexes in at least some marine fungi. The present study was only able to isolate fungal DNA from a restricted set of nematode taxa; further work is needed to fully investigate the taxonomic scope and function of nematode-fungal interactions.

Lambshead, John D.; Austen, Melanie C.; Smerdon, Gary R.; Rogers, Alex D.

2011-01-01

210

Surprising spectra of root-associated fungi in submerged aquatic plants.  

PubMed

Similarly to plants from terrestrial ecosystems, aquatic species harbour wide spectra of root-associated fungi (RAF). However, comparably less is known about fungal diversity in submerged roots. We assessed the incidence and diversity of RAF in submerged aquatic plants using microscopy, culture-dependent and culture-independent techniques. We studied RAF of five submerged isoetid species collected in four oligotrophic freshwater lakes in Norway. Levels of dark septate endophytes (DSE) colonization differed among the lakes and were positively related to the organic matter content and negatively related to pH. In total, we identified 41 fungal OTUs using culture-dependent and culture-independent techniques, belonging to Mucoromycotina, Chytridiomycota, Glomeromycota, Ascomycota as well as Basidiomycota. Sequences corresponding to aquatic hyphomycetes (e.g. Nectria lugdunensis, Tetracladium furcatum and Varicosporium elodeae) were obtained. Eight arbuscular mycorrhizal taxa belonging to the orders Archaeosporales, Diversisporales and Glomerales were also detected. However, the vast majority of the fungal species detected (e.g. Ceratobasidium sp., Cryptosporiopsis rhizophila, Leptodontidium orchidicola, and Tuber sp.) have previously been known only from roots of terrestrial plants. The abundance and phylogenetic distribution of mycorrhizal as well as nonmycorrhizal fungi in the roots of submerged plants have reshaped our views on the fungal diversity in aquatic environment. PMID:22224638

Kohout, Petr; Sýkorová, Zuzana; Ctvrtlíková, Martina; Rydlová, Jana; Suda, Jan; Vohník, Martin; Sudová, Radka

2012-01-20

211

Recovery and phylogenetic diversity of culturable fungi associated with marine sponges Clathrina luteoculcitella and Holoxea sp. in the South China Sea.  

PubMed

Sponge-associated fungi represent an important source of marine natural products, but little is known about the fungal diversity and the relationship of sponge-fungal association, especially no research on the fungal diversity in the South China Sea sponge has been reported. In this study, a total of 111 cultivable fungi strains were isolated from two South China Sea sponges Clathrina luteoculcitella and Holoxea sp. using eight different media. Thirty-two independent representatives were selected for analysis of phylogenetic diversity according to ARDRA and morphological characteristics. The culturable fungal communities consisted of at least 17 genera within ten taxonomic orders of two phyla (nine orders of the phylum Ascomycota and one order of the phylum Basidiomycota) including some potential novel marine fungi. Particularly, eight genera of Apiospora, Botryosphaeria, Davidiella, Didymocrea, Lentomitella, Marasmius, Pestalotiopsis, and Rhizomucor were isolated from sponge for the first time. Sponge C. luteoculcitella has greater culturable fungal diversity than sponge Holoxea sp. Five genera of Aspergillus, Davidiella, Fusarium, Paecilomyces, and Penicillium were isolated from both sponges, while 12 genera of Apiospora, Botryosphaeria, Candida, Marasmius, Cladosporium, Didymocrea, Hypocrea, Lentomitella, Nigrospora, Pestalotiopsis, Rhizomucor, and Scopulariopsis were isolated from sponge C. luteoculcitella only. Order Eurotiales especially genera Penicillium, Aspergillus, and order Hypocreales represented the dominant culturable fungi in these two South China Sea sponges. Nigrospora oryzae strain PF18 isolated from sponge C. luteoculcitella showed a strong and broad spectrum antimicrobial activities suggesting the potential for antimicrobial compounds production. PMID:21088979

Ding, Bo; Yin, Ying; Zhang, Fengli; Li, Zhiyong

2010-11-19

212

Marine drugs from sponge-microbe association--a review.  

PubMed

The subject of this review is the biodiversity of marine sponges and associated microbes which have been reported to produce therapeutically important compounds, along with the contextual information on their geographic distribution. Class Demospongiae and the orders Halichondrida, Poecilosclerida and Dictyoceratida are the richest sources of these compounds. Among the microbial associates, members of the bacterial phylum Actinobacteria and fungal division Ascomycota have been identified to be the dominant producers of therapeutics. Though the number of bacterial associates outnumber the fungal associates, the documented potential of fungi to produce clinically active compounds is currently more important than that of bacteria. Interestingly, production of a few identical compounds by entirely different host-microbial associations has been detected in both terrestrial and marine environments. In the Demospongiae, microbial association is highly specific and so to the production of compounds. Besides, persistent production of bioactive compounds has also been encountered in highly specific host-symbiont associations. Though spatial and temporal variations are known to have a marked effect on the quality and quantity of bioactive compounds, only a few studies have covered these dimensions. The need to augment production of these compounds through tissue culture and mariculture has also been stressed. The reviewed database of these compounds is available at www.niobioinformatics.in/drug.php. PMID:20479984

Thomas, Tresa Remya A; Kavlekar, Devanand P; LokaBharathi, Ponnapakkam A

2010-04-22

213

Diversity and antimicrobial activities of the fungal endophyte community associated with the traditional Brazilian medicinal plant Solanum cernuum Vell. (Solanaceae).  

PubMed

The diversity and antimicrobial activity of endophytic fungi associated with the Brazilian medicinal plant Solanum cernuum Vell. were studied during summer and winter seasons. A total of 246 fungal isolates were obtained, including 225 filamentous fungi and 21 yeasts. They were identified by morphological, physiological, and molecular methods. Fifty-five different taxa represented by the phyla Ascomycota (33 taxa), Basidiomycota (21 taxa), and Zygomycota (one taxon) were identified. The most abundant taxa were closely related to Arthrobotrys foliicola , Colletotrichum gloeosporioides , Coprinellus radians , Glomerella acutata , Diatrypella frostii , Phoma glomerata , Mucor sp., Phlebia subserialis , Phoma moricola , Phanerochaete sordida , and Colletotrichum sp. A total of 265 fungal extracts were screened and 64 (26.01%) displayed antimicrobial activities. Among these extracts, 18 (28.12%) presented antibacterial and antifungal activities, 42 (65.62%) displayed selective antibacterial activity, and four (6.25%) exhibited only antifungal activity. The best values of minimum inhibitory concentration were obtained from extracts of Cryptococcus rajasthanensis , Glomerella acutata, Leptosphaeria sp., and Phoma glomerata ranging from 7.8 to 15.62 µg/mL. This study is the first survey of the endophytic fungi community associated with S. cernuum, and our results show that they can represent a promising source of bioactive compounds. PMID:22182199

Vieira, Mariana L A; Hughes, Alice F S; Gil, Viviane B; Vaz, Aline B M; Alves, Tânia M A; Zani, Carlos L; Rosa, Carlos A; Rosa, Luiz H

2011-12-19

214

Geographic and tissue influences on endophytic fungal communities of Taxus chinensis var. mairei in China.  

PubMed

Endophytc fungi were collected from the barks, branches and leaves of Taxus chinensis var. mairei from the Jiangxi, Zhejiang and Chongqing regions of China and their influences on geographic and tissue investigated. A total of 145 fungal taxa were identified based on molecular techniques, of these 125 taxa (86.2 %) belonging to Ascomycota, 14 (9.7 %) to Basidiomycota, 5 (3.4 %) to Zygomycota, and 1 (0.7 %) to undefined fungi. The species richness and diversity of endophytic fungi were significantly affected by tissue, and were 1.2-2.5-fold higher in the branches and barks when compared to the leaves. The locality affected the species richness per tree and the shannon diversity index per tree by longitude. The endophyte assemblages were strongly shaped by locality and tissue according to partial least squares discriminant analysis. In addition, the distributions of dominant fungi at orders and genera levels differed as a function of locality and tissue. Most of the dominant taxa showed spatial heterogeneity and tissue specificity or preference and many fungal taxa with low frequency were special to one locality or one tissue. PMID:23053484

Wu, Lingshang; Han, Ting; Li, Wenchao; Jia, Min; Xue, Liming; Rahman, Khalid; Qin, Luping

2012-09-29

215

Diversity and cold adaptation of culturable endophytic fungi from bryophytes in the Fildes Region, King George Island, maritime Antarctica.  

PubMed

Endophytic fungi associated with three bryophyte species in the Fildes Region, King George Island, maritime Antarctica, that is, the liverwort Barbilophozia hatcheri, the mosses Chorisodontium aciphyllum and Sanionia uncinata, were studied by culture-dependent method. A total of 128 endophytic fungi were isolated from 1329 tissue segments of 14 samples. The colonization rate of endophytic fungi in three bryophytes species were 12.3%, 12.1%, and 8.7%, respectively. These isolates were identified to 21 taxa, with 15 Ascomycota, 5 Basidiomycota, and 1 unidentified fungus, based on morphological characteristics and sequence analyses of ITS region and D1/D2 domain. The dominant fungal endophyte was Hyaloscyphaceae sp. in B. hatcheri, Rhizoscyphus sp. in C. aciphyllum, and one unidentified fungus in S. uncinata; and their relative frequencies were 33.3%, 32.1%, and 80.0%, respectively. Furthermore, different Shannon-Weiner diversity indices (0.91-1.99) for endophytic fungi and low endophytic fungal composition similarities (0.19-0.40) were found in three bryophyte species. Growth temperature tests indicated that 21 taxa belong to psychrophiles (9), psychrotrophs (11), and mesophile (1). The results herein demonstrate that the Antarctic bryophytes are an interesting source of fungal endophytes and the endophytic fungal composition is different among the bryophyte species, and suggest that these fungal endophytes are adapted to cold stress in Antarctica. PMID:23350605

Zhang, Tao; Zhang, Yu-Qin; Liu, Hong-Yu; Wei, Yu-Zhen; Li, Hai-Long; Su, Jing; Zhao, Li-Xun; Yu, Li-Yan

2013-02-19

216

Novel and highly diverse fungal endophytes in soybean revealed by the consortium of two different techniques.  

PubMed

Fungal endophytes were isolated from the leaves of soybean cultivars in Brazil using two different isolation techniques - fragment plating and the innovative dilution-to-extinction culturing - to increase the species richness, frequency of isolates and diversity. A total of 241 morphospecies were obtained corresponding to 62 taxa that were identified by analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of the ribosomal DNA (rDNA). The Phylum Ascomycota predominated, representing 99% and 95.2% of isolates in the Monsoy and Conquista cultivars, respectively, whereas the Phylum Basidiomycota represented 1% and 4.8% of isolates, respectively. The genera Ampelomyces, Annulohypoxylon, Guignardia, Leptospora, Magnaporthe, Ophiognomonia, Paraconiothyrium, Phaeosphaeriopsis, Rhodotorula, Sporobolomyces, and Xylaria for the first time were isolated from soybean; this suggests that soybean harbours novel and highly diverse fungi. The yeasts genera Rhodotorula and Sporobolomyces (subphylum Pucciniomycotina) represent the Phylum Basidiomycota. The species richness was greater when both isolation techniques were used. The diversity of fungal endophytes was similar in both cultivars when the same isolation technique was used except for Hill's index, N1. The use of ITS region sequences allowed the isolates to be grouped according to Order, Class and Phylum. Ampelomyces, Chaetomium, and Phoma glomerata are endophytic species that may play potential roles in the biological control of soybean pathogens. This study is one of the first to apply extinction-culturing to isolate fungal endophytes in plant leaves, thus contributing to the development and improvement of this technique for future studies. PMID:23456713

de Souza Leite, Tiago; Cnossen-Fassoni, Andréia; Pereira, Olinto Liparini; Mizubuti, Eduardo Seiti Gomide; de Araújo, Elza Fernandes; de Queiroz, Marisa Vieira

2013-03-02

217

Identification of two fungal endophytes associated with the endangered orchid Orchis militaris L.  

PubMed

A survey of the endangered orchid Orchis militaris populations was carried out in north-eastern Italy. The occurrence of fungal root endophytes was investigated by light and electron microscopies and molecular techniques. Two main sites of presence were individuated in the Euganean Hills, differing as to the percentage of flowering individuals and of capsules completing maturity. Fluorescence microscopy revealed an intracellular cortical colonization by hyphal pelotons. Two ITS PCR products co-amplified. Sequencing revealed for the former an identity and a high similarity (99%) with a Tulasnellaceae (Basidiomycota) fungus found within tissues of the same host in independent studies in Hungary and Estonia, suggesting an interesting case of tight specificity throughout the Eurosiberian home range. The second amplicon had 99% similarity with Tetracladium species (Ascomycota) recently demonstrated as potential endophytes. TEM revealed two different hyphal structures. Double fungal colonization appears to occur in Orchis militaris and the possible requirement of a specific fungal partner throws light on the causes of this plant's rarity and threatened status. PMID:20372038

Vendramin, Elena; Gastaldo, Andrea; Tondello, Alessandra; Baldan, Barbara; Villani, Mariacristina; Squartini, Andrea

2010-03-01

218

The obligately lichenicolous genus Lichenoconium represents a novel lineage in the Dothideomycetes.  

PubMed

Lichenicolous fungi are obligately lichen-associated organisms that have evolved many times throughout the Ascomycota and Basidiomycota. Approximately 20% of lichenicolous ascomycetes are recognized only from asexual (anamorphic) characteristics, so the phylogenetic position of many groups has never been resolved. Here we present the first molecular phylogeny of Lichenoconium, a genus of strictly asexual, obligately lichenicolous species with broad geographic distributions and diverse host ecologies. We obtained nuclear and mitochondrial rDNA sequences from fungal cultures isolated from four species in the genus, including a new species, Lichenoconium aeruginosum sp. nov., collected in France, Luxembourg and Netherlands. Our multilocus phylogeny supports the monophyly of fungi in the genus Lichenoconium, and places the genus in the Dothideomycetes, an ascomycete class made up mainly of saprobes and plant-associated endophytes and pathogens. There are only a few recognized groups of lichen-formers in the Dothideomycetes, but Lichenoconium is not supported as being closely related to any of these, nor to any other recognized order within the Dothideomycetes. Given that Lichenoconium is but one of over 100 genera of anamorphic lichenicolous fungi, most of which have never been studied phylogenetically, we suggest that asexual lichenicolous fungi may represent novel and evolutionarily significant phylogenetic groups in the Kingdom Fungi. PMID:21315315

Lawrey, James D; Diederich, Paul; Nelsen, Matthew P; Sikaroodi, Masoumeh; Gillevet, Patrick M; Brand, A Maarten; van den Boom, Pieter

2010-12-10

219

Potential role for saccharopine reductase in swainsonine metabolism in endophytic fungus, Undifilum oxytropis.  

PubMed

Locoweed plants in the southwestern United States often harbour a slow-growing endophytic fungus, Undifilum oxytropis (Phylum: Ascomycota; Order: Pleosporales), which produces a toxic alkaloid, swainsonine. Consumption of U. oxytropis by grazing animals induces a neurological disorder called locoism for which the toxic alkaloid swainsonine has been reported to be the causal agent. Little is known about the biosynthetic pathway of swainsonine in endophytic fungi, but previous studies on non-endophytic ascomycetous fungi indicate that pipecolic acid and saccharopine are key intermediates. We have used degenerate primers, Rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE)-PCR and inverse PCR to identify the gene sequence of U. oxytropis saccharopine reductase. To investigate the role of this gene product in swainsonine metabolism, we have developed a gene deletion system for this slow-growing endophyte based on our recently established transformation protocol. A strain of U. oxytropis lacking saccharopine reductase had decreased levels of saccharopine and lysine along with increased accumulation of pipecolic acid and swainsonine. Thus, saccharopine reductase influences the accumulation of swainsonine and its precursor, pipecolic acid, in U. oxytropis. PMID:22862918

Mukherjee, Suman; Dawe, Angus L; Creamer, Rebecca

2012-06-16

220

Ophiocordyceps unilateralis: A keystone species for unraveling ecosystem functioning and biodiversity of fungi in tropical forests?  

PubMed

Ophiocordyceps unilateralis (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) is a specialized parasite that infects, manipulates and kills formicine ants, predominantly in tropical forest ecosystems. We have reported previously, based on a preliminary study in remnant Atlantic Forest in Minas Gerais (Brazil), that O. unilateralis represents a species complex. On each of the four species of infected carpenter ant (Camponotus) collected, the fungus-characterized macroscopically by a single stalk arising from the dorsal neck region on which the sexual structures (stromatal plates) are borne laterally-can readily be distinguished both microscopically and functionally. Here, we describe and discuss the biology, life cycle and infection strategies of O. unilateralis s.l. and hypothesize that there may be hundreds of species within the complex parasitizing formicine ants worldwide. We then address the diversity within related hypocrealean fungi, with particular reference to symbionts (mutualists through to parasites), and argue that the widely-quoted total of extant fungi (1.5 million species) may be grossly underestimated. PMID:22046474

Evans, Harry C; Elliot, Simon L; Hughes, David P

2011-09-01

221

Forest Age and Plant Species Composition Determine the Soil Fungal Community Composition in a Chinese Subtropical Forest  

PubMed Central

Fungal diversity and community composition are mainly related to soil and vegetation factors. However, the relative contribution of the different drivers remains largely unexplored, especially in subtropical forest ecosystems. We studied the fungal diversity and community composition of soils sampled from 12 comparative study plots representing three forest age classes (Young: 10–40 yrs; Medium: 40–80 yrs; Old: ?80 yrs) in Gutianshan National Nature Reserve in South-eastern China. Soil fungal communities were assessed employing ITS rDNA pyrotag sequencing. Members of Basidiomycota and Ascomycota dominated the fungal community, with 22 putative ectomycorrhizal fungal families, where Russulaceae and Thelephoraceae were the most abundant taxa. Analysis of similarity showed that the fungal community composition significantly differed among the three forest age classes. Forest age class, elevation of the study plots, and soil organic carbon (SOC) were the most important factors shaping the fungal community composition. We found a significant correlation between plant and fungal communities at different taxonomic and functional group levels, including a strong relationship between ectomycorrhizal fungal and non-ectomycorrhizal plant communities. Our results suggest that in subtropical forests, plant species community composition is the main driver of the soil fungal diversity and community composition.

Trogisch, Stefan; Both, Sabine; Scholten, Thomas; Bruelheide, Helge; Buscot, Francois

2013-01-01

222

Carbohydrate-active enzymes from the zygomycete fungus Rhizopus oryzae: a highly specialized approach to carbohydrate degradation depicted at genome level  

PubMed Central

Background Rhizopus oryzae is a zygomycete filamentous fungus, well-known as a saprobe ubiquitous in soil and as a pathogenic/spoilage fungus, causing Rhizopus rot and mucomycoses. Results Carbohydrate Active enzyme (CAZy) annotation of the R. oryzae identified, in contrast to other filamentous fungi, a low number of glycoside hydrolases (GHs) and a high number of glycosyl transferases (GTs) and carbohydrate esterases (CEs). A detailed analysis of CAZy families, supported by growth data, demonstrates highly specialized plant and fungal cell wall degrading abilities distinct from ascomycetes and basidiomycetes. The specific genomic and growth features for degradation of easily digestible plant cell wall mono- and polysaccharides (starch, galactomannan, unbranched pectin, hexose sugars), chitin, chitosan, ?-1,3-glucan and fungal cell wall fractions suggest specific adaptations of R. oryzae to its environment. Conclusions CAZy analyses of the genome of the zygomycete fungus R. oryzae and comparison to ascomycetes and basidiomycete species revealed how evolution has shaped its genetic content with respect to carbohydrate degradation, after divergence from the Ascomycota and Basidiomycota.

2011-01-01

223

The Aspergillus nidulans stress response transcription factor StzA is ascomycete-specific and shows species-specific polymorphisms in the C-terminal region.  

PubMed

Orthologues of the Aspergillus nidulans gene stzA were identified and characterised in an additional 19 fungi. These orthologues were restricted to, and found within all the Pezizomycotina subphyla of the Ascomycota, for which data are available, but not the Saccharomycotina or Taphrinomycotina subphyla. Intron analysis indicated that both intron loss and gain have occurred in this gene. The orthologous proteins demonstrate considerable size variation (between 663 and 897 amino acids); with almost all this variability accounted for by a hyper-variable region that is carboxy terminal to the zinc finger region. The Hypocrea jecorina orthologue (ACE1) has the binding site 5'AGGCA. There is evidence of competition, or interaction, between the ACE1/StzA and AreA binding sites in promoters of stzA and its orthologues, as well as genes involved in the metabolism of amino acids. The A. nidulans and A. fumigatus cpcA promoters have seven potential ACE1/StzA binding sites, six of which are highly conserved in position. Two very closely positioned sites are conserved across 14 of the 19 fungi analysed. Potential CpcA binding sites (5'TGAC/GTCA) have been identified between -50 and -170bp of the ATG start in the promoters of 16 of the stzA orthologues. PMID:18678248

Chilton, I J; Delaney, C E; Barham-Morris, J; Fincham, D A; Hooley, P; Whitehead, M P

2008-07-17

224

Microfungal-community diversity in Zygophyllum dumosum and Hammada scoparia root zones in the northern Negev Desert.  

PubMed

The soil dilution plate method was used to determine the influences of perennial shrubs on the species diversity and density of cultivable microfungal communities inhabiting the root zones of two perennial shrubs, Zygophyllum dumosum and Hammada scoparia, in the northern Negev Desert, Israel. Soil samples were collected under the canopies of shrubs and the open spaces between them (serving as control) from five depths (0-10, 10-20, 20-30, 30-40, and 40-50 cm) during the wet and dry seasons of 2010. Fifty-one species belonging to 31 genera were identified from Zygomycota, teleomorphic and anamorphic Ascomycota, including Coelomycetes. During the wet and dry seasons, 4-10 and 2-6 species were identified at different soil depths beneath perennial shrubs and in the open spaces, while the corresponding colony-forming units (CFUs) varied from 3071 to 27687 and from 3201 to 15247 g(-1) dry soil. More diverse microfungal communities were collected in the vicinity of perennial shrubs compared to the open spaces during the wet season, while a reverse trend was observed during the dry season. Further study is needed to provide insights into the correlation between compounds of litter and root exudates of perennial shrubs and microfungal-community structure by a combination of molecular and physiological tools. PMID:22736431

Yu, Jun; Grishkan, Isabella; Steinberger, Yosef

2012-06-26

225

Yeast Communities of Diverse Drosophila Species: Comparison of Two Symbiont Groups in the Same Hosts  

PubMed Central

The combination of ecological diversity with genetic and experimental tractability makes Drosophila a powerful model for the study of animal-associated microbial communities. Despite the known importance of yeasts in Drosophila physiology, behavior, and fitness, most recent work has focused on Drosophila-bacterial interactions. In order to get a more complete understanding of the Drosophila microbiome, we characterized the yeast communities associated with different Drosophila species collected around the world. We focused on the phylum Ascomycota because it constitutes the vast majority of the Drosophila-associated yeasts. Our sampling strategy allowed us to compare the distribution and structure of the yeast and bacterial communities in the same host populations. We show that yeast communities are dominated by a small number of abundant taxa, that the same yeast lineages are associated with different host species and populations, and that host diet has a greater effect than host species on yeast community composition. These patterns closely parallel those observed in Drosophila bacterial communities. However, we do not detect a significant correlation between the yeast and bacterial communities of the same host populations. Comparative analysis of different symbiont groups provides a more comprehensive picture of host-microbe interactions. Future work on the role of symbiont communities in animal physiology, ecological adaptation, and evolution would benefit from a similarly holistic approach.

Eisen, Jonathan A.; Kopp, Artyom

2012-01-01

226

Diversity of Culturable Soil Micro-fungi along Altitudinal Gradients of Eastern Himalayas  

PubMed Central

Very few studies have addressed the phylogenetic diversity of fungi from Northeast India under the Eastern Himalayan range. In the present study, an attempt has been made to study the phylogenetic diversity of culturable soil fungi along the altitudinal gradients of eastern Himalayas. Soil samples from 24 m above sea level to 2,000 m above sea level altitudes of North-East India were collected to investigate soil micro-fungal community structure and diversity. Molecular characterization of the isolates was done by PCR amplification of 18S rDNA using universal primers. Phylogenetic analysis using BLAST revealed variation in the distribution and richness of different fungal biodiversity over a wide range of altitudes. A total of 107 isolates were characterized belonging to the phyla Ascomycota and Zygomycota, corresponding to seven orders (Eurotiales, Hypocreales, Calosphaeriales, Capnodiales, Pleosporales, Mucorales, and Mortierellales) and Incertae sedis. The characterized isolates were analysed for richness, evenness and diversity indices. Fungal diversity had significant correlation with soil physico-chemical parameters and the altitude. Eurotiales and Hypocreales were most diverse and abundant group of fungi along the entire altitudinal stretch. Species of Penicillium (D = 1.44) and Aspergillus (D = 1.288) were found to have highest diversity index followed by Talaromyces (D = 1.26) and Fusarium (D = 1.26). Fungal distribution showed negative correlation with altitude and soil moisture content. Soil temperature, pH, humidity and ambient temperature showed positive correlation with fungal distribution.

Devi, Lamabam Sophiya; Khaund, Polashree; Nongkhlaw, Fenella M. W.

2012-01-01

227

The fate of gene duplicates in the genomes of fungal pathogens  

PubMed Central

Understanding how molecular changes underlie phenotypic variation within and between species is one of the main goals of evolutionary biology and comparative genetics. The recent proliferation of sequenced fungal genomes offers a unique opportunity to start elucidating the extreme phenotypic diversity in the Kingdom Fungi.1–4 We attempted to investigate the contribution of gene families to the evolutionary forces shaping the diversity of pathogenic lifestyles among the fungi.5 We studied a family of secreted enzymes which is present and expanded in all genomes of fungal pathogens sequenced to date and absent from the genomes of true yeasts.3,4 This family of cutinases6 predates the division between the two major fungal phyla, Ascomycota and Basidiomycota.5 We discuss our molecular phylogenetic analyses, the number and sequence diversity, and gene gains and losses of cutinase family members between five Ascomycetes: the phytopathogens Magnaporthe oryzae, Fusarium graminearum and Botrytis cinerea; and the model organisms Neurospora crassa and Aspergillus nidulans.5 The functional characterization of three members of the M. oryzae cutinase family,6–10 coupled with the regulatory subfunctionalization and neofunctionalization of most gene pairs5 provide the first justification for the retention of paralogs after duplication and for gene redundancy in the genomes of fungal pathogens.

Furlong, Rebecca F; Gurr, Sarah J

2008-01-01

228

Symbiotic complexity: discovery of a fifth symbiont in the attine ant-microbe symbiosis.  

PubMed

The fungus-growing ant-microbe mutualism is a classic example of organismal complexity generated through symbiotic association. The ants have an ancient obligate mutualism with fungi they cultivate for food. The success of the mutualism is threatened by specialized fungal parasites (Escovopsis) that consume the cultivated fungus. To defend their nutrient-rich garden against infection, the ants have a second mutualism with bacteria (Pseudonocardia), which produce antibiotics that inhibit the garden parasite Escovopsis. Here we reveal the presence of a fourth microbial symbiont associated with fungus-growing ants: black yeasts (Ascomycota; Phialophora). We show that black yeasts are commonly associated with fungus-growing ants, occurring throughout their geographical distribution. Black yeasts grow on the ants' cuticle, specifically localized to where the mutualistic bacteria are cultured. Molecular phylogenetic analyses reveal that the black yeasts form a derived monophyletic lineage associated with the phylogenetic diversity of fungus growers. The prevalence, distribution, localization and monophyly indicate that the black yeast is a fifth symbiont within the attine ant-microbe association, further exemplifying the complexity of symbiotic associations. PMID:17686758

Little, Ainslie E F; Currie, Cameron R

2007-10-22

229

The Trichoderma harzianum demon: complex speciation history resulting in coexistence of hypothetical biological species, recent agamospecies and numerous relict lineages  

PubMed Central

Background The mitosporic fungus Trichoderma harzianum (Hypocrea, Ascomycota, Hypocreales, Hypocreaceae) is an ubiquitous species in the environment with some strains commercially exploited for the biological control of plant pathogenic fungi. Although T. harzianum is asexual (or anamorphic), its sexual stage (or teleomorph) has been described as Hypocrea lixii. Since recombination would be an important issue for the efficacy of an agent of the biological control in the field, we investigated the phylogenetic structure of the species. Results Using DNA sequence data from three unlinked loci for each of 93 strains collected worldwide, we detected a complex speciation process revealing overlapping reproductively isolated biological species, recent agamospecies and numerous relict lineages with unresolved phylogenetic positions. Genealogical concordance and recombination analyses confirm the existence of two genetically isolated agamospecies including T. harzianum sensu stricto and two hypothetical holomorphic species related to but different from H. lixii. The exact phylogenetic position of the majority of strains was not resolved and therefore attributed to a diverse network of recombining strains conventionally called 'pseudoharzianum matrix'. Since H. lixii and T. harzianum are evidently genetically isolated, the anamorph - teleomorph combination comprising H. lixii/T. harzianum in one holomorph must be rejected in favor of two separate species. Conclusions Our data illustrate a complex speciation within H. lixii - T. harzianum species group, which is based on coexistence and interaction of organisms with different evolutionary histories and on the absence of strict genetic borders between them.

2010-01-01

230

DIRS and Ngaro Retrotransposons in Fungi  

PubMed Central

Retrotransposons with a tyrosine recombinase (YR) have been discovered recently and lack thorough annotation in fungi. YR retrotransposons are divided into 3 groups: DIRS, Ngaro and VIPER (known only from kinetoplastida). We used comparative genomics to investigate the evolutionary patterns of retrotransposons in the fungal kingdom. The identification of both functional and remnant elements provides a unique view on both recent and past transposition activity. Our searches covering a wide range of fungal genomes allowed us to identify 2241 YR retrotransposons. Based on CLANS clustering of concatenated sequences of the reverse transcriptase (RT), RNase H (RH), DNA N-6-adenine-methyltransferase (MT) and YR protein domains we propose a revised classification of YR elements expanded by two new categories of Ngaro elements. A phylogenetic analysis of 477 representatives supports this observation and additionally demonstrates that DIRS and Ngaro abundance changed independently in Basidiomycota and Blastocladiomycota/Mucoromycotina/Kixellomycotina. Interestingly, a single remnant Ngaro element could be identified in an Ascomycota genome. Our analysis revealed also that 3 Pucciniomycotina taxa, known for their overall mobile element abundance and big genome size, encode an elevated number of Ngaro retrotransposons. Considering the presence of DIRS elements in all analyzed Mucoromycotina, Kickxellomycotina and Blastocladiomycota genomes one might assume a common origin of fungal DIRS retrotransposons with a loss in Dicarya. Ngaro elements described to date from Opisthokonta, seem to have invaded the common ancestor of Agaricomycotina and Pucciniomycotina after Ustilagomycotina divergence. Yet, most of analyzed genomes are devoid of YR elements and most identified retrotransposons are incomplete.

Muszewska, Anna; Steczkiewicz, Kamil; Ginalski, Krzysztof

2013-01-01

231

Molecular identification and characterization of the edible and medicinal Morchellaceae germplasm collection of "mulch morels".  

PubMed

The accessions of the morel (Morchellaceae, Ascomycota) germplasm collection were genetically analyzed, in order to determine both their inter- and intraspecific relationships. This was done as a starting point for cultivation experiments, as well as to provide a genetic description of invasive morel populations linked to mulched garden patches, as compared with outdoor morels. The phylogenetic data, which was based on the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences and supported by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analyses, divided the germplasm isolates and accessions from the sequence database into three groups of yellow morels, and three groups of black morels, involving a remarkable monotypic genus of half-free morels (Mitrophora semilibera), the groups Morchella conica and M. angusticeps. Both Morchella groups include morel samples that use mulch bark as a vector for their spread across gardens in various locations in the Czech Republic. The AFLP analysis supported the ITS-based phylogenetic data and determined the intraspecific genetic profile of these, as a rule, almost entirely unstudied isolates. PMID:22164767

Ondrej, Vladan; Havránek, Pavel; Kitner, Miloslav; Nemcová, Pavla

2011-01-01

232

Examining new phylogenetic markers to uncover the evolutionary history of early-diverging fungi: comparing MCM7, TSR1 and rRNA genes for single- and multi-gene analyses of the Kickxellomycotina.  

PubMed

The recently recognised protein-coding genes MCM7 and TSR1 have shown significant promise for phylogenetic resolution within the Ascomycota and Basidiomycota, but have remained unexamined within other fungal groups (except for Mucorales). We designed and tested primers to amplify these genes across early-diverging fungal clades, with emphasis on the Kickxellomycotina, zygomycetous fungi with characteristic flared septal walls forming pores with lenticular plugs. Phylogenetic tree resolution and congruence with MCM7 and TSR1 were compared against those inferred with nuclear small (SSU) and large subunit (LSU) rRNA genes. We also combined MCM7 and TSR1 data with the rDNA data to create 3- and 4-gene trees of the Kickxellomycotina that help to resolve evolutionary relationships among and within the core clades of this subphylum. Phylogenetic inference suggests that Barbatospora, Orphella, Ramicandelaber and Spiromyces may represent unique lineages. It is suggested that these markers may be more broadly useful for phylogenetic studies among other groups of early-diverging fungi. PMID:24027350

Tretter, E D; Johnson, E M; Wang, Y; Kandel, P; White, M M

2013-03-20

233

Evolution of nematode-trapping cells of predatory fungi of the Orbiliaceae based on evidence from rRNA-encoding DNA and multiprotein sequences  

PubMed Central

Among fungi, the basic life strategies are saprophytism, parasitism, and predation. Fungi in Orbiliaceae (Ascomycota) prey on animals by means of specialized trapping structures. Five types of trapping devices are recognized, but their evolutionary origins and divergence are not well understood. Based on comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of nucleotide sequences of three protein-coding genes (RNA polymerase II subunit gene, rpb2; elongation factor 1-? gene, ef1-?; and ß tubulin gene, bt) and ribosomal DNA in the internal transcribed spacer region, we have demonstrated that the initial trapping structure evolved along two lineages yielding two distinct trapping mechanisms: one developed into constricting rings and the other developed into adhesive traps. Among adhesive trapping devices, the adhesive network separated from the others early and evolved at a steady and gentle speed. The adhesive knob evolved through stalk elongation, with a final development of nonconstricting rings. Our data suggest that the derived adhesive traps are at a highly differentiated stage. The development of trapping devices is felicitous proof of adaptive evolution.

Yang, Ying; Yang, Ence; An, Zhiqiang; Liu, Xingzhong

2007-01-01

234

Tasting Soil Fungal Diversity with Earth Tongues: Phylogenetic Test of SAT? Alignments for Environmental ITS Data  

PubMed Central

An abundance of novel fungal lineages have been indicated by DNA sequencing of the nuclear ribosomal ITS region from environmental samples such as soil and wood. Although phylogenetic analysis of these novel lineages is a key component of unveiling the structure and diversity of complex communities, such analyses are rare for environmental ITS data due to the difficulties of aligning this locus across significantly divergent taxa. One potential approach to this issue is simultaneous alignment and tree estimation. We targeted divergent ITS sequences of the earth tongue fungi (Geoglossomycetes), a basal class in the Ascomycota, to assess the performance of SATé, recent software that combines progressive alignment and tree building. We found that SATé performed well in generating high-quality alignments and in accurately estimating the phylogeny of earth tongue fungi. Drawing from a data set of 300 sequences of earth tongues and progressively more distant fungal lineages, 30 insufficiently identified ITS sequences from the public sequence databases were assigned to the Geoglossomycetes. The association between earth tongues and plants has been hypothesized for a long time, but hard evidence is yet to be collected. The ITS phylogeny showed that four ectomycorrhizal isolates shared a clade with Geoglossum but not with Trichoglossum earth tongues, pointing to the significant potential inherent to ecological data mining of environmental samples. Environmental sampling holds the key to many focal questions in mycology, and simultaneous alignment and tree estimation, as performed by SATé, can be a highly efficient companion in that pursuit.

Wang, Zheng; Nilsson, R. Henrik; Lopez-Giraldez, Francesc; Zhuang, Wen-ying; Dai, Yu-cheng; Johnston, Peter R.; Townsend, Jeffrey P.

2011-01-01

235

Recent advances in septum biogenesis in Neurospora crassa.  

PubMed

Hyphae of the Ascomycota are tubular cells compartmentalized by perforated septa, whose central pore allows the flow of organelles and cytoplasm. While in plants and yeast septation leads to cell separation, in filamentous fungi the formation of crosswalls appears to have an architectural role, limits the extent of mechanical damage thus maintaining hyphal integrity, and also is of fundamental importance as part of cell differentiation. The increasing number of available fungal genome sequences, knockout mutants, versatile tools for protein tagging, and the continuous improvement of fluorescence microscopes have allowed scientists to analyze living cells and reveal the molecular and cellular basis of septation with unprecedented detail. This review summarizes the recent advances in septum ontogenesis in Neurospora crassa. A "septal actomyosin tangle" is the first indication of impending septation. It assembles prior to any visible evidence of plasma membrane inward growth, which occurs concomitantly with the formation and constriction of a contractile actomyosin ring and synthesis of the septum wall. One of the key questions in septum biogenesis is how the septation machinery is assembled to construct a centripetally growing crosswall. Most of the machinery utilized in apical cell wall growth can be expected at septation sites to ensure an organized arrival and supply of vesicles leading to the formation of a septum. Yet, the intrinsically different architecture of the septum may require a different organization and regulation of the wall-synthesizing machinery. PMID:23890213

Mouriño-Pérez, Rosa Reyna; Riquelme, Meritxell

2013-01-01

236

Phylogenetics of Saccharomycetales, the ascomycete yeasts.  

PubMed

Ascomycete yeasts (phylum Ascomycota: subphylum Saccharomycotina: class Saccharomycetes: order Saccharomycetales) comprise a monophyletic lineage with a single order of about 1000 known species. These yeasts live as saprobes, often in association with plants, animals and their interfaces. A few species account for most human mycotic infections, and fewer than 10 species are plant pathogens. Yeasts are responsible for important industrial and biotechnological processes, including baking, brewing and synthesis of recombinant proteins. Species such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae are model organisms in research, some of which led to a Nobel Prize. Yeasts usually reproduce asexually by budding, and their sexual states are not enclosed in a fruiting body. The group also is well defined by synapomorphies visible at the ultrastructural level. Yeast identification and classification changed dramatically with the availability of DNA sequencing. Species identification now benefits from a constantly updated sequence database and no longer relies on ambiguous growth tests. A phylogeny based on single gene analyses has shown the order to be remarkably divergent despite morphological similarities among members. The limits of many previously described genera are not supported by sequence comparisons, and multigene phylogenetic studies are under way to provide a stable circumscription of genera, families and orders. One recent multigene study has resolved species of the Saccharomycetaceae into genera that differ markedly from those defined by analysis of morphology and growth responses, and similar changes are likely to occur in other branches of the yeast tree as additional sequences become available. PMID:17486976

Suh, Sung-Oui; Blackwell, Meredith; Kurtzman, Cletus P; Lachance, Marc-André

237

Curation of characterized glycoside hydrolases of Fungal origin  

PubMed Central

Fungi produce a wide range of extracellular enzymes to break down plant cell walls, which are composed mainly of cellulose, lignin and hemicellulose. Among them are the glycoside hydrolases (GH), the largest and most diverse family of enzymes active on these substrates. To facilitate research and development of enzymes for the conversion of cell-wall polysaccharides into fermentable sugars, we have manually curated a comprehensive set of characterized fungal glycoside hydrolases. Characterized glycoside hydrolases were retrieved from protein and enzyme databases, as well as literature repositories. A total of 453 characterized glycoside hydrolases have been cataloged. They come from 131 different fungal species, most of which belong to the phylum Ascomycota. These enzymes represent 46 different GH activities and cover 44 of the 115 CAZy GH families. In addition to enzyme source and enzyme family, available biochemical properties such as temperature and pH optima, specific activity, kinetic parameters and substrate specificities were recorded. To simplify comparative studies, enzyme and species abbreviations have been standardized, Gene Ontology terms assigned and reference to supporting evidence provided. The annotated genes have been organized in a searchable, online database called mycoCLAP (Characterized Lignocellulose-Active Proteins of fungal origin). It is anticipated that this manually curated collection of biochemically characterized fungal proteins will be used to enhance functional annotation of novel GH genes. Database URL: http://mycoCLAP.fungalgenomics.ca/

Murphy, Caitlin; Powlowski, Justin; Wu, Min; Butler, Greg; Tsang, Adrian

2011-01-01

238

Diversity of endolithic fungal communities in dolomite and limestone rocks from Nanjiang Canyon in Guizhou karst area, China.  

PubMed

The endolithic environment, the tiny pores and cracks in rocks, buffer microbial communities from a number of physical stresses, such as desiccation, rapid temperature variations, and UV radiation. Considerable knowledge has been acquired about the diversity of microorganisms in these ecosystems, but few culture-independent studies have been carried out on the diversity of fungi to date. Scanning electron microscopy of carbonate rock fragments has revealed that the rock samples contain certain kinds of filamentous fungi. We evaluated endolithic fungal communities from bare dolomite and limestone rocks collected from Nanjiang Canyon (a typical karst canyon in China) using culture-independent methods. Results showed that Ascomycota was absolutely dominant both in the dolomite and limestone fungal clone libraries. Basidiomycota and other eukaryotic groups (Bryophyta and Chlorophyta) were only detected occasionally or at low frequencies. The most common genus in the investigated carbonate rocks was Verrucaria. Some other lichen-forming fungi (e.g., Caloplaca, Exophiala, and Botryolepraria), Aspergillus, and Penicillium were also identified from the rock samples. The results provide a cross-section of the endolithic fungal communities in carbonate rocks and help us understand more about the role of microbes (fungi and other rock-inhabiting microorganisms) in rock weathering and pedogenesis. PMID:22571668

Tang, Yuan; Lian, Bin

2012-05-09

239

Comparison of bacterial and fungal communities between natural and planted pine forests in subtropical China.  

PubMed

To improve our understanding of the changes in bacterial and fungal diversity in natural pine and planted forests in subtropical region of China, we examined bacterial and fungal communities from a native and a nearby planted pine forest of the Mt. Lushan by constructing clone libraries of 16S and 18S rRNA genes. For bacterial communities, Proteobacteria and Acidobacteria were dominant bacterial taxa in both two types of forest soils. The Shannon-Wiener diversity index, rarefaction curve analysis, and LibShuff analysis suggest that these two forests contained similar diversity of bacterial communities. Low soil acidity (pH ? 4) of our study forests might be one of the most important selection factors determining growth of acidophilic Acidobacteria and Proteobacteria. However, the natural forest harbored greater level of fungal diversity than the planted forest according to the Shannon-Wiener diversity index and rarefaction curve analysis. Basidiomycota and Ascomycota were dominant fungal taxa in the soils of natural and planted forests, respectively. Our results suggest that fungal community was more sensitive than the bacterial community in characterizing the differences in plant cover impacts on the microbial flora in the natural and planted forests. The natural and planted forests may function differently due to the differences in soil fungal diversity and relative abundance. PMID:21993713

Nie, Ming; Meng, Han; Li, Ke; Wan, Jia-Rong; Quan, Zhe-Xue; Fang, Chang-Ming; Chen, Jia-Kuan; Li, Bo

2011-10-13

240

Archaea and Fungi of the Human Gut Microbiome: Correlations with Diet and Bacterial Residents  

PubMed Central

Diet influences health as a source of nutrients and toxins, and by shaping the composition of resident microbial populations. Previous studies have begun to map out associations between diet and the bacteria and viruses of the human gut microbiome. Here we investigate associations of diet with fungal and archaeal populations, taking advantage of samples from 98 well-characterized individuals. Diet was quantified using inventories scoring both long-term and recent diet, and archaea and fungi were characterized by deep sequencing of marker genes in DNA purified from stool. For fungi, we found 66 genera, with generally mutually exclusive presence of either the phyla Ascomycota or Basiodiomycota. For archaea, Methanobrevibacter was the most prevalent genus, present in 30% of samples. Several other archaeal genera were detected in lower abundance and frequency. Myriad associations were detected for fungi and archaea with diet, with each other, and with bacterial lineages. Methanobrevibacter and Candida were positively associated with diets high in carbohydrates, but negatively with diets high in amino acids, protein, and fatty acids. A previous study emphasized that bacterial population structure was associated primarily with long-term diet, but high Candida abundance was most strongly associated with the recent consumption of carbohydrates. Methobrevibacter abundance was associated with both long term and recent consumption of carbohydrates. These results confirm earlier targeted studies and provide a host of new associations to consider in modeling the effects of diet on the gut microbiome and human health.

Hoffmann, Christian; Dollive, Serena; Grunberg, Stephanie; Chen, Jun; Li, Hongzhe; Wu, Gary D.; Lewis, James D.; Bushman, Frederic D.

2013-01-01

241

Clonal Species Trichoderma parareesei sp. nov. Likely Resembles the Ancestor of the Cellulase Producer Hypocrea jecorina/T. reesei? †  

PubMed Central

We have previously reported that the prominent industrial enzyme producer Trichoderma reesei (teleomorph Hypocrea jecorina; Hypocreales, Ascomycota, Dikarya) has a genetically isolated, sympatric sister species devoid of sexual reproduction and which is constituted by the majority of anamorphic strains previously attributed to H. jecorina/T. reesei. In this paper we present the formal taxonomic description of this new species, T. parareesei, complemented by multivariate phenotype profiling and molecular evolutionary examination. A phylogenetic analysis of relatively conserved loci, such as coding fragments of the RNA polymerase B subunit II (rpb2) and GH18 chitinase (chi18-5), showed that T. parareesei is genetically invariable and likely resembles the ancestor which gave raise to H. jecorina. This and the fact that at least one mating type gene of T. parareesei has previously been found to be essentially altered compared to the sequence of H. jecorina/T. reesei indicate that divergence probably occurred due to the impaired functionality of the mating system in the hypothetical ancestor of both species. In contrast, we show that the sexually reproducing and correspondingly more polymorphic H. jecorina/T. reesei is essentially evolutionarily derived. Phenotype microarray analyses performed at seven temperature regimens support our previous speculations that T. parareesei possesses a relatively high opportunistic potential, which probably ensured the survival of this species in ancient and sustainable environment such as tropical forests.

Atanasova, Lea; Jaklitsch, Walter M.; Komon-Zelazowska, Monika; Kubicek, Christian P.; Druzhinina, Irina S.

2010-01-01

242

Characterization of Lovastatin biosynthetic cluster proteins in Aspergillus terreus strain ATCC 20542  

PubMed Central

Aspergillus terreus is a filamentous ascomycota, which is prominent for its production of lovastatin, an antihypercholesterolemic drug. The commercial importance of lovastatin with annual sales of billions of dollars made us to focus on lovastatin biosynthetic cluster proteins. The analysis of these lovastatin biosynthetic cluster proteins with different perspectives such as physicochemical property, structure based analysis and functional studies were done to find out the role and function of every protein involved in the lovastatin biosynthesis pathway. Several computational tools are used to predict the physicochemical properties, secondary structural features, topology, patterns, domains and cellular location. There are 8 unidentified proteins in lovastatin biosynthetic cluster, in which 6 proteins have homologous partners, and annotation transfer is done based on the closely related homologous genes, and their structures are also modeled. The two other proteins that do not have homologous partners are predicted as PQ loop repeat protein that may be involved in glycosylation machinery and as thiolase-acyl activity by the integrated functional analysis approach.

Subazini, Thankaswamy Kosalai; Kumar, Gopal Ramesh

2011-01-01

243

Patterns of fungal diversity and composition along a salinity gradient  

PubMed Central

Estuarine salinity gradients are known to influence plant, bacterial and archaeal community structure. We sequenced 18S rRNA genes to investigate patterns in sediment fungal diversity (richness and evenness of taxa) and composition (taxonomic and phylogenetic) along an estuarine salinity gradient. We sampled three marshes—a salt, brackish and freshwater marsh—in Rhode Island. To compare the relative effect of the salinity gradient with that of plants, we sampled fungi in plots with Spartina patens and in plots from which plants were removed 2 years prior to sampling. The fungal sediment community was unique compared with previously sampled fungal communities; we detected more Ascomycota (78%), fewer Basidiomycota (6%) and more fungi from basal lineages (16%) (Chytridiomycota, Glomeromycota and four additional groups) than typically found in soil. Across marshes, fungal composition changed substantially, whereas fungal diversity differed only at the finest level of genetic resolution, and was highest in the intermediate, brackish marsh. In contrast, the presence of plants had a highly significant effect on fungal diversity at all levels of genetic resolution, but less of an effect on fungal composition. These results suggest that salinity (or other covarying parameters) selects for a distinctive fungal composition, and plants provide additional niches upon which taxa within these communities can specialize and coexist. Given the number of sequences from basal fungal lineages, the study also suggests that further sampling of estuarine sediments may help in understanding early fungal evolution.

Mohamed, Devon J; Martiny, Jennifer BH

2011-01-01

244

Identification of essential genes in the human fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus by transposon mutagenesis.  

PubMed

The opportunistic pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus is the most frequent cause of deadly airborne fungal infections in developed countries. In order to identify novel antifungal-drug targets, we investigated the genome of A. fumigatus for genes that are necessary for efficient fungal growth. An artificial A. fumigatus diploid strain with one copy of an engineered impala160 transposon from Fusarium oxysporum integrated into its genome was used to generate a library of diploid strains by random in vivo transposon mutagenesis. Among 2,386 heterozygous diploid strains screened by parasexual genetics, 1.2% had a copy of the transposable element integrated into a locus essential for A. fumigatus growth. Comparison of genomic sequences flanking impala160 in these mutants with that of the genome of A. fumigatus allowed the characterization of 20 previously uncharacterized A. fumigatus genes. Among these, homologues of genes essential for Saccharomyces cerevisiae growth have been identified, as well as genes that do not have homologues in other fungal species. These results confirm that heterologous transposition using the transposable element impala is a powerful tool for functional genomics in ascomycota, and they pave the way for defining the complete set of essential genes in A. fumigatus, the first step toward target-based development of new antifungal drugs. PMID:12684374

Firon, Arnaud; Villalba, François; Beffa, Roland; D'Enfert, Christophe

2003-04-01

245

Three European species of Hypocrea with reddish brown stromata and green ascospores  

PubMed Central

The European species Hypocrea epimyces (Hypocreales, Ascomycota, Fungi) is redescribed based on the holotype including the drawing on its envelope by Saccardo and freshly collected material. The holomorphs of two closely related species, H. alni and H. brunneoviridis, are described as new species of the genus. They are characterized with morphological and molecular methods, including culture studies and phylogenetic analyses with internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2 as a part of the ribosomal RNA gene cluster, calmodulin, endochitinase, intron 4 of the translation elongation factor 1-alpha gene, and a part of the RNA polymerase II subunit B gene as phylogenetic markers. All species described here have green ascospores. Although phylogenetically closely related to H. lixii, they form reddish brown instead of green to black stromata. Except for H. brunneoviridis, forming nearly gliocladium-like conidiophores, the anamorphs of these species are similar to each other but vary in the angles of conidiophore branches and phialides, in phenotypic arrangement of conidiation on growth plates and in growth rates of cultures.

Jaklitsch, Walter M.; Kubicek, Christian P.; Druzhinina, Irina S.

2011-01-01

246

DNA barcoding survey of Trichoderma diversity in soil and litter of the Colombian lowland Amazonian rainforest reveals Trichoderma strigosellum sp. nov. and other species.  

PubMed

The diversity of Trichoderma (Hypocreales, Ascomycota) colonizing leaf litter as well as the rhizosphere of Garcinia macrophylla (Clusiaceae) was investigated in primary and secondary rain forests in Colombian Amazonia. DNA barcoding of 107 strains based on the internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2 (ITS1 and 2) of the ribosomal RNA gene cluster and the partial sequence of the translation elongation factor 1 alpha (tef1) gene revealed that the diversity of Trichoderma was dominated (71 %) by three common cosmopolitan species, namely Trichoderma harzianum sensu lato (41 %), Trichoderma spirale (17 %) and Trichoderma koningiopsis (13 %). Four ITS 1 and 2 phylotypes (13 strains) could not be identified with certainty. Multigene phylogenetic analysis and phenotype profiling of four strains with an ITS1 and 2 phylotype similar to Trichoderma strigosum revealed a new sister species of the latter that is described here as Trichoderma strigosellum sp. nov. Sequence similarity searches revealed that this species also occurs in soils of Malaysia and Cameroon, suggesting a pantropical distribution. PMID:23884864

López-Quintero, Carlos A; Atanasova, Lea; Franco-Molano, A Esperanza; Gams, Walter; Komon-Zelazowska, Monika; Theelen, Bart; Müller, Wally H; Boekhout, Teun; Druzhinina, Irina

2013-07-25

247

Endohyphal Bacterium Enhances Production of Indole-3-Acetic Acid by a Foliar Fungal Endophyte  

PubMed Central

Numerous plant pathogens, rhizosphere symbionts, and endophytic bacteria and yeasts produce the important phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), often with profound effects on host plants. However, to date IAA production has not been documented among foliar endophytes -- the diverse guild of primarily filamentous Ascomycota that live within healthy, above-ground tissues of all plant species studied thus far. Recently bacteria that live within hyphae of endophytes (endohyphal bacteria) have been detected, but their effects have not been studied previously. Here we show not only that IAA is produced in vitro by a foliar endophyte (here identified as Pestalotiopsis aff. neglecta, Xylariales), but that IAA production is enhanced significantly when the endophyte hosts an endohyphal bacterium (here identified as Luteibacter sp., Xanthomonadales). Both the endophyte and the endophyte/bacterium complex appear to rely on an L-tryptophan dependent pathway for IAA synthesis. The bacterium can be isolated from the fungus when the symbiotic complex is cultivated at 36°C. In pure culture the bacterium does not produce IAA. Culture filtrate from the endophyte-bacterium complex significantly enhances growth of tomato in vitro relative to controls and to filtrate from the endophyte alone. Together these results speak to a facultative symbiosis between an endophyte and endohyphal bacterium that strongly influences IAA production, providing a new framework in which to explore endophyte-plant interactions.

Hoffman, Michele T.; Gunatilaka, Malkanthi K.; Wijeratne, Kithsiri; Gunatilaka, Leslie; Arnold, A. Elizabeth

2013-01-01

248

Biologically active compounds from Aphyllophorales (polypore) fungi.  

PubMed

This review describes biologically active natural products isolated from Aphyllophorales, many of which are known as polypores. Polypores are a large group of terrestrial fungi of the phylum Basdiomycota (basidiomycetes), and they along with certain Ascomycota are a major source of pharmacologically active substances. There are about 25 000 species of basidiomycetes, of which about 500 are members of the Aphyllophorales, a polyphyletic group that contains the polypores. Many of these fungi have circumboreal distributions in North America, Europe, and Asia and broad distributions on all inhabited continents and Africa; only a small number of the most common species with the most obvious fruiting bodies (basidiocarps) have been evaluated for biological activity. An estimated 75% of polypore fungi that have been tested show strong antimicrobial activity, and these may constitute a good source for developing new antibiotics. Numerous compounds from these fungi also display antiviral, cytotoxic, and/or antineoplastic activities. Additional important components of this vast arsenal of compounds are polysaccharides derived from the fungal cell walls. These compounds have attracted significant attention in recent years because of their immunomodulatory activities, resulting in antitumor effects. These high molecular weight compounds, often called biological response modifiers (BRM), or immunopotentiators, prevent carcinogenesis, show direct anticancer effects, and prevent tumor metastasis. Some of the protein-bound polysaccharides from polypores and other basidiomycetes have found their way to the market in Japan as anticancer drugs. Finally, numerous compounds with cardiovascular, phytotoxic, immunomodulatory, analgesic, antidiabetic, antioxidant, insecticidal, and nematocidal activities, isolated from polypores, are also presented. In fact many of the fungi mentioned in this paper have long been used in herbal medicine, including polypores such as Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi or Ling Zhi), Laetiporus sulphureus (Chicken-of-the-Woods), Trametes versicolor (Yun Zhi), Grifola umbellata (Zhu Lin), Inonotus obliquus (Chaga), and Wolfiporia cocos (Hoelen). PMID:14987072

Zjawiony, Jordan K

2004-02-01

249

Increased diversity of fungal flora in the vagina of patients with recurrent vaginal candidiasis and allergic rhinitis.  

PubMed

Recurrent vaginal candidiasis (RVC) is considered to be a hypersensitivity disorder that is associated with allergic rhinitis (AR) in immune deficiencies; however, whether or not the composition of the vaginal fungal flora in patients with AR and RVC is altered and if such alterations in patients with AR are associated with the development of RVC remain unclear. In the present study, a cultivation-independent method with the 18S rRNA gene clone library was used to analyze the diversity and composition of the vaginal fungal flora in patients with AR and RVC and to explore the association. Three fungal phyla (Ascomycotae, 22 out of 28; Basidiomycetes, 5 out of 28; and Oomycetes, 1 out of 28) were identified from groups of healthy volunteers, patients with AR, patients with RVC, and patients with RVC complicated by AR, including 28 phylotypes of fungal flora (10, 15, 17, and 21 phylotypes for each group, respectively). The predominant genera of fungi identified in the vagina included Candida, uncultured fungi, and Dothideomycetes. An increased proportion of Candida albicans accompanied with decreased proportions of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and uncultured fungi was observed in patients with AR or RVC (P?

Guo, Renyong; Zheng, Nengneng; Lu, Haifeng; Yin, Hongfang; Yao, Jinmei; Chen, Yu

2012-07-06

250

Diversity of Fungal Endophytes in Various Tissues of Panax ginseng Meyer Cultivated in Korea  

PubMed Central

Endophytic fungi were isolated from various tissues (root, stem, petiole, leaf, and fl ower stalk) of 3- and 4-year-old ginseng plants (Panax ginseng Meyer) cultivated in Korea. The isolated endophytic fungi were identified based on the sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS), 1-5.8-ITS 2. A morphological characterization was also conducted using microscopic observations. According to the identification, 127 fungal isolates were assigned to 27 taxa. The genera of Phoma, Alternaria and Colletotrichum were the most frequent isolates, followed by Fusarium, Entrophospora and Xylaria. Although 19 of the 27 taxa were identified at the species level, the remainder were classified at the genus level (6 isolates), phylum level (Ascomycota, 1 isolate), and unknown fungal species (1 isolate). Endophytic fungi of 13 and 19 species were isolated from 3- and 4-year-old ginseng plants, respectively, and Phoma radicina and Fusarium solani were the most frequently isolated species colonizing the tissues of the 3- and 4-year-old ginseng plants, respectively. The colonization frequency (CF%) was dependant on the age and tissue examined: the CFs of the roots and stems in the 3-year-old ginseng were higher than the CF of tissues in the 4-year-old plants. In contrast, higher CFs were observed in the leaves and petioles of 4-year-old plants, and endophytic fungi in the flower stalks were only detected in the 4-year-old plants. In conclusion, we detected diverse endophytic fungi in ginseng plants, which were distributed differently depending on the age and tissue examined.

Park, Young-Hwan; Lee, Soon-Gu; Ahn, Doek Jong; Kwon, Tae Ryong; Park, Sang Un; Lim, Hyoun-Sub; Bae, Hanhong

2012-01-01

251

Prerequisites for amplicon pyrosequencing of microbial methanol utilizers in the environment  

PubMed Central

The commercial availability of next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies facilitated the assessment of functional groups of microorganisms in the environment with high coverage, resolution, and reproducibility. Soil methylotrophs were among the first microorganisms in the environment that were assessed with molecular tools, and nowadays, as well with NGS technologies. Studies in the past years re-attracted notice to the pivotal role of methylotrophs in global conversions of methanol, which mainly originates from plants, and is involved in oxidative reactions and ozone formation in the atmosphere. Aerobic methanol utilizers belong to Bacteria, yeasts, Ascomycota, and molds. Numerous bacterial methylotrophs are facultatively aerobic, and also contribute to anaerobic methanol oxidation in the environment, whereas strict anaerobic methanol utilizers belong to methanogens and acetogens. The diversity of enzymes catalyzing the initial oxidation of methanol is considerable, and comprises at least five different enzyme types in aerobes, and one in strict anaerobes. Only the gene of the large subunit of pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ)-dependent methanol dehydrogenase (MDH; mxaF) has been analyzed by environmental pyrosequencing. To enable a comprehensive assessment of methanol utilizers in the environment, new primers targeting genes of the PQQ MDH in Methylibium (mdh2), of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent MDH (mdh), of the methanol oxidoreductase of Actinobacteria (mdo), of the fungal flavin adenine nucleotide-dependent alcohol oxidase (mod1, mod2, and homologs), and of the gene of the large subunit of the methanol:corrinoid methyltransferases (mtaC) in methanogens and acetogens need to be developed. Combined stable isotope probing of nucleic acids or proteins with amplicon-based NGS are straightforward approaches to reveal insights into functions of certain methylotrophic taxa in the global methanol cycle.

Kolb, Steffen; Stacheter, Astrid

2013-01-01

252

Functional assays and metagenomic analyses reveals differences between the microbial communities inhabiting the soil horizons of a Norway spruce plantation.  

PubMed

In temperate ecosystems, acidic forest soils are among the most nutrient-poor terrestrial environments. In this context, the long-term differentiation of the forest soils into horizons may impact the assembly and the functions of the soil microbial communities. To gain a more comprehensive understanding of the ecology and functional potentials of these microbial communities, a suite of analyses including comparative metagenomics was applied on independent soil samples from a spruce plantation (Breuil-Chenue, France). The objectives were to assess whether the decreasing nutrient bioavailability and pH variations that naturally occurs between the organic and mineral horizons affects the soil microbial functional biodiversity. The 14 Gbp of pyrosequencing and Illumina sequences generated in this study revealed complex microbial communities dominated by bacteria. Detailed analyses showed that the organic soil horizon was significantly enriched in sequences related to Bacteria, Chordata, Arthropoda and Ascomycota. On the contrary the mineral horizon was significantly enriched in sequences related to Archaea. Our analyses also highlighted that the microbial communities inhabiting the two soil horizons differed significantly in their functional potentials according to functional assays and MG-RAST analyses, suggesting a functional specialisation of these microbial communities. Consistent with this specialisation, our shotgun metagenomic approach revealed a significant increase in the relative abundance of sequences related glycoside hydrolases in the organic horizon compared to the mineral horizon that was significantly enriched in glycoside transferases. This functional stratification according to the soil horizon was also confirmed by a significant correlation between the functional assays performed in this study and the functional metagenomic analyses. Together, our results suggest that the soil stratification and particularly the soil resource availability impact the functional diversity and to a lesser extent the taxonomic diversity of the bacterial communities. PMID:23418476

Uroz, Stéphane; Ioannidis, Panos; Lengelle, Juliette; Cébron, Aurélie; Morin, Emmanuelle; Buée, Marc; Martin, Francis

2013-02-13

253

Phylogenetically diverse cultivable fungal community and polyketide synthase (PKS), non-ribosomal peptide synthase (NRPS) genes associated with the South China Sea sponges.  

PubMed

Compared with sponge-associated bacteria, the phylogenetic diversity of fungi in sponge and the association of sponge fungi remain largely unknown. Meanwhile, no detection of polyketide synthase (PKS) or non-ribosomal peptide synthase (NRPS) genes in sponge-associated fungi has been attempted. In this study, diverse and novel cultivable fungi including 10 genera (Aspergillus, Ascomycete, Fusarium, Isaria, Penicillium, Plectosphaerella, Pseudonectria, Simplicillium, Trichoderma, and Volutella) in four orders (Eurotiales, Hypocreales, Microascales, and Phyllachorales) of phylum Ascomycota were isolated from 10 species marine sponges in the South China Sea. Eurotiales and Hypocreales fungi were suggested as sponge generalists. The predominant isolates were Penicillium and Aspergillus in Eurotiales followed by Volutella in Hypocreales. Based on the conserved Beta-ketosynthase of PKS and A domain of NRPS, 15 polyketide synthases, and four non-ribosomal peptides synthesis genes, including non-reducing and reducing PKSs and hybrid PKS-NRPS, were detected in these fungal isolates. A lateral gene transfer event was indicated in the comparison between the phylogenetic diversity of 18S rRNA genes and ?-ketoacyl synthase domain sequences. Some fungi, especially those with PKS or NRPS genes, showed antimicrobial activity against P. fluorescens, S. aureus and B. subtilis. It was the first time to investigate PKS and NRPS genes in sponge-associated fungi. Based on the detected antibiotics biosynthesis-related PKS and NRPS genes and antimicrobial activity, the potential ecological role of sponge-associated fungi in the chemical defense for sponge host was suggested. This study extended our knowledge of sponge-associated fungal phylogenetic diversity and their potential roles in the chemical defense. PMID:21519913

Zhou, Kang; Zhang, Xia; Zhang, Fengli; Li, Zhiyong

2011-04-26

254

Fungal diversity, dominance, and community structure in the rhizosphere of clonal Picea mariana plants throughout nursery production chronosequences.  

PubMed

Fungal diversity in the rhizosphere of healthy and diseased clonal black spruce (Picea mariana) plants was analyzed with regard to nursery production chronosequences. The four key production stages were sampled: mother plants (MP), 8-week-old cuttings (B + 0), second-year cuttings (B + 1), and third-year cuttings (B + 2). A total of 45 fungal taxa were isolated and identified based on cultural, phenotypic, and molecular characters. Members of phylum Ascomycota dominated, followed by Basidiomycota and Zygomycota. Diagnosis characters and distance analysis of the internal transcribed spacer rDNA sequences allowed the identification of 39 ascomycetous taxa. Many belong to the order Hypocreales, families Hypocreaceae and Nectriaceae, which contain many clusters of potentially pathogenic taxa (Cylindrocladium, Fusarium, and Neonectria) and are also ecologically associated with antagonistic taxa (Chaetomium, Hypocrea, Microsphaeropsis, Penicillium, Paecilomyces, Verticillium, Trichoderma, and Sporothrix). This is also the first report of a Cylindrocladium canadense association with disease symptoms and relation with Pestalotiopsis, Fusarium, Exserochilum, Rhizoctonia, and Xenochalara fungal consortia. Both production chronosequence and plant health considerably influenced fungal taxa assemblages. Unweighted pair-group arithmetic average clustering showed that isolates from MP, B + 0, and B + 1 plant rhizospheres clustered together within healthy or diseased health classes, whereas isolates from healthy and diseased B + 2 plants clustered together. Canonical correspondence analysis revealed substantial alteration in community assemblages with regard to plant health and yielded a principal axis direction that regrouped taxa associated with diseased plant rhizosphere soil, whereas the opposite axis direction was associated with healthy plants. Two diversity indices were defined and applied to assess the fungal taxa contribution (Tc) and persistence (Pi) throughout the production. PMID:17347891

Vujanovic, V; Hamelin, R C; Bernier, L; Vujanovic, G; St-Arnaud, M

2007-03-09

255

Endophytic life strategies decoded by genome and transcriptome analyses of the mutualistic root symbiont Piriformospora indica.  

PubMed

Recent sequencing projects have provided deep insight into fungal lifestyle-associated genomic adaptations. Here we report on the 25 Mb genome of the mutualistic root symbiont Piriformospora indica (Sebacinales, Basidiomycota) and provide a global characterization of fungal transcriptional responses associated with the colonization of living and dead barley roots. Extensive comparative analysis of the P. indica genome with other Basidiomycota and Ascomycota fungi that have diverse lifestyle strategies identified features typically associated with both, biotrophism and saprotrophism. The tightly controlled expression of the lifestyle-associated gene sets during the onset of the symbiosis, revealed by microarray analysis, argues for a biphasic root colonization strategy of P. indica. This is supported by a cytological study that shows an early biotrophic growth followed by a cell death-associated phase. About 10% of the fungal genes induced during the biotrophic colonization encoded putative small secreted proteins (SSP), including several lectin-like proteins and members of a P. indica-specific gene family (DELD) with a conserved novel seven-amino acids motif at the C-terminus. Similar to effectors found in other filamentous organisms, the occurrence of the DELDs correlated with the presence of transposable elements in gene-poor repeat-rich regions of the genome. This is the first in depth genomic study describing a mutualistic symbiont with a biphasic lifestyle. Our findings provide a significant advance in understanding development of biotrophic plant symbionts and suggest a series of incremental shifts along the continuum from saprotrophy towards biotrophy in the evolution of mycorrhizal association from decomposer fungi. PMID:22022265

Zuccaro, Alga; Lahrmann, Urs; Güldener, Ulrich; Langen, Gregor; Pfiffi, Stefanie; Biedenkopf, Dagmar; Wong, Philip; Samans, Birgit; Grimm, Carolin; Basiewicz, Magdalena; Murat, Claude; Martin, Francis; Kogel, Karl-Heinz

2011-10-13

256

Functional Assays and Metagenomic Analyses Reveals Differences between the Microbial Communities Inhabiting the Soil Horizons of a Norway Spruce Plantation  

PubMed Central

In temperate ecosystems, acidic forest soils are among the most nutrient-poor terrestrial environments. In this context, the long-term differentiation of the forest soils into horizons may impact the assembly and the functions of the soil microbial communities. To gain a more comprehensive understanding of the ecology and functional potentials of these microbial communities, a suite of analyses including comparative metagenomics was applied on independent soil samples from a spruce plantation (Breuil-Chenue, France). The objectives were to assess whether the decreasing nutrient bioavailability and pH variations that naturally occurs between the organic and mineral horizons affects the soil microbial functional biodiversity. The 14 Gbp of pyrosequencing and Illumina sequences generated in this study revealed complex microbial communities dominated by bacteria. Detailed analyses showed that the organic soil horizon was significantly enriched in sequences related to Bacteria, Chordata, Arthropoda and Ascomycota. On the contrary the mineral horizon was significantly enriched in sequences related to Archaea. Our analyses also highlighted that the microbial communities inhabiting the two soil horizons differed significantly in their functional potentials according to functional assays and MG-RAST analyses, suggesting a functional specialisation of these microbial communities. Consistent with this specialisation, our shotgun metagenomic approach revealed a significant increase in the relative abundance of sequences related glycoside hydrolases in the organic horizon compared to the mineral horizon that was significantly enriched in glycoside transferases. This functional stratification according to the soil horizon was also confirmed by a significant correlation between the functional assays performed in this study and the functional metagenomic analyses. Together, our results suggest that the soil stratification and particularly the soil resource availability impact the functional diversity and to a lesser extent the taxonomic diversity of the bacterial communities.

Uroz, Stephane; Ioannidis, Panos; Lengelle, Juliette; Cebron, Aurelie; Morin, Emmanuelle; Buee, Marc; Martin, Francis

2013-01-01

257

A Multifactor Analysis of Fungal and Bacterial Community Structure in the Root Microbiome of Mature Populus deltoides Trees.  

PubMed

Bacterial and fungal communities associated with plant roots are central to the host health, survival and growth. However, a robust understanding of the root-microbiome and the factors that drive host associated microbial community structure have remained elusive, especially in mature perennial plants from natural settings. Here, we investigated relationships of bacterial and fungal communities in the rhizosphere and root endosphere of the riparian tree species Populus deltoides, and the influence of soil parameters, environmental properties (host phenotype and aboveground environmental settings), host plant genotype (Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) markers), season (Spring vs. Fall) and geographic setting (at scales from regional watersheds to local riparian zones) on microbial community structure. Each of the trees sampled displayed unique aspects to its associated community structure with high numbers of Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) specific to an individual trees (bacteria >90%, fungi >60%). Over the diverse conditions surveyed only a small number of OTUs were common to all samples within rhizosphere (35 bacterial and 4 fungal) and endosphere (1 bacterial and 1 fungal) microbiomes. As expected, Proteobacteria and Ascomycota were dominant in root communities (>50%) while other higher-level phylogenetic groups (Chytridiomycota, Acidobacteria) displayed greatly reduced abundance in endosphere compared to the rhizosphere. Variance partitioning partially explained differences in microbiome composition between all sampled roots on the basis of seasonal and soil properties (4% to 23%). While most variation remains unattributed, we observed significant differences in the microbiota between watersheds (Tennessee vs. North Carolina) and seasons (Spring vs. Fall). SSR markers clearly delineated two host populations associated with the samples taken in TN vs. NC, but overall host genotypic distances did not have a significant effect on corresponding communities that could be separated from other measured effects. PMID:24146861

Shakya, Migun; Gottel, Neil; Castro, Hector; Yang, Zamin K; Gunter, Lee; Labbé, Jessy; Muchero, Wellington; Bonito, Gregory; Vilgalys, Rytas; Tuskan, Gerald; Podar, Mircea; Schadt, Christopher W

2013-10-16

258

Prevalence and identification of fungal DNA in the small intestine of healthy dogs and dogs with chronic enteropathies.  

PubMed

Limited information is available about the prevalence and phylogenetic classification of fungal organisms in the gastrointestinal tract of dogs. Also, the impact of fungal organisms on gastrointestinal health and disease is not well understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of fungal DNA in the small intestine of healthy dogs and dogs with chronic enteropathies. Small intestinal content was analyzed from 64 healthy and 71 diseased dogs from five different geographic locations in Europe and the USA. Fungal DNA was amplified with panfungal primers targeting the internal transcriber spacer (ITS) region. PCR amplicons were subjected to phylogenetic analysis. Fungal DNA was detected in 60.9% of healthy dogs and in 76.1% of dogs with chronic enteropathies. This prevalence was not significantly different between the two groups (p=0.065). Fungal DNA was significantly more prevalent in mucosal brush samples (82.8%) than in luminal samples (42.9%; p=0.002). Sequencing results revealed a total of 51 different phylotypes. All sequences belonged to two phyla and were classified as either Ascomycota (32 phylotypes) or Basidiomycota (19 phylotypes). Three major classes were identified: Saccharomycetes, Dothideomycetes, and Hymenomycetes. The most commonly observed sequences were classified as Pichia spp., Cryptococcus spp., Candida spp., and Trichosporon spp. Species believed to be clinically more important were more commonly observed in diseased dogs. These results indicate a high prevalence and diversity of fungal DNA in the small intestine of both healthy dogs and dogs with chronic enteropathies. The canine gastrointestinal tract of diseased dogs may harbor opportunistic fungal pathogens. PMID:18586415

Suchodolski, Jan S; Morris, Erin K; Allenspach, Karin; Jergens, Albert E; Harmoinen, Jaana A; Westermarck, Elias; Steiner, Jörg M

2008-05-24

259

Microbial Community Structure and Activity Linked to Contrasting Biogeochemical Gradients in Bog and Fen Environments of the Glacial Lake Agassiz Peatland  

PubMed Central

The abundances, compositions, and activities of microbial communities were investigated at bog and fen sites in the Glacial Lake Agassiz Peatland of northwestern Minnesota. These sites contrast in the reactivity of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and the presence or absence of groundwater inputs. Microbial community composition was characterized using pyrosequencing and clone library construction of phylogenetic marker genes. Microbial distribution patterns were linked to pH, concentrations of dissolved organic carbon and nitrogen, C/N ratios, optical properties of DOM, and activities of laccase and peroxidase enzymes. Both bacterial and archaeal richness and rRNA gene abundance were >2 times higher on average in the fen than in the bog, in agreement with a higher pH, labile DOM content, and enhanced enzyme activities in the fen. Fungi were equivalent to an average of 1.4% of total prokaryotes in gene abundance assayed by quantitative PCR. Results revealed statistically distinct spatial patterns between bacterial and fungal communities. Fungal distribution did not covary with pH and DOM optical properties and was vertically stratified, with a prevalence of Ascomycota and Basidiomycota near the surface and much higher representation of Zygomycota in the subsurface. In contrast, bacterial community composition largely varied between environments, with the bog dominated by Acidobacteria (61% of total sequences), while the Firmicutes (52%) dominated in the fen. Acetoclastic Methanosarcinales showed a much higher relative abundance in the bog, in contrast to the dominance of diverse hydrogenotrophic methanogens in the fen. This is the first quantitative and compositional analysis of three microbial domains in peatlands and demonstrates that the microbial abundance, diversity, and activity parallel with the pronounced differences in environmental variables between bog and fen sites.

Lin, X.; Green, S.; Tfaily, M. M.; Prakash, O.; Konstantinidis, K. T.; Corbett, J. E.; Chanton, J. P.; Cooper, W. T.

2012-01-01

260

The effects of high-tannin leaf litter from transgenic poplars on microbial communities in microcosm soils  

PubMed Central

The impacts of leaf litter from genetically modified hybrid poplar accumulating high levels of condensed tannins (proanthocyanidins) were examined in soil microcosms consisting of moss growing on sieved soil. Moss preferentially proliferated in microcosms with lower tannin content; DGGE (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) detected increased fungal diversity in microcosms with low-tannin litter. The proportion of cloned rDNA sequences from Actinobacteria decreased with litter addition while Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, Cyanobacteria, and ?-Proteobacteria significantly increased. ?-Proteobacteria were proportionally more numerous at high-tannin levels. Tannins had no significant impact on overall diversity of bacterial communities analyzed with various estimators. There was an increased proportion of N-fixing bacteria corresponding to the addition of litter with low-tannin levels. The addition of litter increased the proportion of Ascomycota/Basidiomycota. Dothideomycetes, Pucciniomycetes, and Tremellomycetes also increased and Agaricomycetes decreased. Agaricomycetes and Sordariomycetes were significantly more abundant in controls, whereas Pucciniomycetes increased in soil with litter from transformed trees (P = 0.051). Richness estimators and diversity indices revealed no significant difference in the composition of fungal communities; PCoA (principal coordinate analyses) partitioned the fungal communities into three groups: (i) those with higher amounts of added tannin from both transformed and untransformed treatments, (ii) those corresponding to soils without litter, and (iii) those corresponding to microcosms with litter added from trees transformed only with a ?-glucuronidase control vector. While the litter from transformed poplars had significant effects on soil microbe communities, the observed impacts reflected known impacts on soil processes associated with tannins, and were similar to changes that would be expected from natural variation in tannin levels.

Winder, Richard S.; Lamarche, Josyanne; Constabel, C. Peter; Hamelin, Richard C.

2013-01-01

261

High Diversity of the Fungal Community Structure in Naturally-Occurring Ophiocordyceps sinensis  

PubMed Central

Background Ophiocordyceps sinensis (syn. Cordyceps sinensis), which is a parasite of caterpillars and is endemic to alpine regions on the Tibetan Plateau, is one of the most valuable medicinal fungi in the world. “Natural O. sinensis specimens” harbor various other fungi. Several of these other fungi that have been isolated from natural O. sinensis specimens have similar chemical components and/or pharmaceutical effects as O. sinensis. Nevertheless, the mycobiota of natural O. sinensis specimens has not been investigated in detail. Methodology/Principal Findings Based on the technique of PCR-single-strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP), the mycobiota of three different sections (stromata, sclerotia, and mycelial cortices) from natural O. sinensis specimens were investigated using both culture-dependent and -independent methods. For the culture-dependent method, 572 fungal strains were isolated, and 92 putative operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were identified from 226 sequenced strains with the threshold of 97%. For the culture-independent method, 490 fungal clones were identified from about 3000 clones of ITS fragments from the whole-community DNA; based on PCR-SSCP analyses, 266 of these clones were selected to be sequenced, and 118 putative OTUs were detected. The overwhelming majority of isolates/clones and OTUs were detected from mycelial cortices; only a few were detected from stromata and sclerotia. The most common OTUs detected with both methods belonged to Ascomycota; however, only 13 OTUs were detected simultaneously by both methods. Potential novel lineages were detected by each of the two methods. Conclusions/Significance A great number of fungal species present in the mycobiota of naturally-occurring O. sinensis specimens were detected, and many of them may represent undescribed lineages. That only a few of the same OTUs were detected by both methods indicated that different methods should be used. This study increased our understanding about the fungal community structure of this valuable medicinal herb.

Zhang, Yongjie; Zhang, Shu; Wang, Mu; Bai, Fengyan; Liu, Xingzhong

2010-01-01

262

Hypocrea rufa/Trichoderma viride: a reassessment, and description of five closely related species with and without warted conidia  

PubMed Central

The type species of the genus Hypocrea (Hypocreaceae, Hypocreales, Ascomycota, Fungi), H. rufa, is re-defined and epitypified using a combination of phenotype (morphology of teleomorphs and anamorphs, and characteristics in culture) and phylogenetic analyses of the translation-elongation factor 1? gene. Its anamorph, T. viride, the type species of Trichoderma, is re-described and epitypified. Eidamia viridescens is combined as Trichoderma viridescens and is recognised as one of the most morphologically and phylogenetically similar relatives of T. viride. Its teleomorph is newly described as Hypocrea viridescens. Contrary to frequent citations of H. rufa and T. viride in the literature, this species is relatively rare. Although both T. viride and T. viridescens have a wide geographic distribution, their greatest genetic diversity appears to be in Europe and North America. Hypocrea vinosa is characterised and its anamorph, T. vinosum sp. nov., is described. Conidia of T. vinosum are subglobose and warted. The new species T. gamsii is proposed. It shares eidamia-like morphology of conidiophores with T. viridescens, but it has smooth, ellipsoidal conidia that have the longest L/W ratio that we have seen in Trichoderma. Trichoderma scalesiae, an endophyte of trunks of Scalesia pedunculata in the Galapagos Islands, is described as new. It only produces conidia on a low-nutrient agar to which filter paper has been added. Additional phylogenetically distinct clades are recognised and provisionally delimited from the species here described. Trichoderma neokoningii, a T. koningii-like species, is described from a collection made in Peru on a fruit of Theobroma cacao infected with Moniliophthora roreri.

Jaklitsch, Walter M.; Samuels, Gary J.; Dodd, Sarah L.; Lu, Bing-Sheng; Druzhinina, Irina S.

2006-01-01

263

Identification and Functional Analysis of the erh1+ Gene Encoding Enhancer of Rudimentary Homolog from the Fission Yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe  

PubMed Central

The ERH gene encodes a highly conserved small nuclear protein with a unique amino acid sequence and three-dimensional structure but unknown function. The gene is present in animals, plants, and protists but to date has only been found in few fungi. Here we report that ERH homologs are also present in all four species from the genus Schizosaccharomyces, S. pombe, S. octosporus, S. cryophilus, and S. japonicus, which, however, are an exception in this respect among Ascomycota and Basidiomycota. The ERH protein sequence is moderately conserved within the genus (58% identity between S. pombe and S. japonicus), but the intron-rich genes have almost identical intron-exon organizations in all four species. In S. pombe, erh1+ is expressed at a roughly constant level during vegetative growth and adaptation to unfavorable conditions such as nutrient limitation and hyperosmotic stress caused by sorbitol. Erh1p localizes preferentially to the nucleus with the exception of the nucleolus, but is also present in the cytoplasm. Cells lacking erh1+ have an aberrant cell morphology and a comma-like shape when cultured to the stationary phase, and exhibit a delayed recovery from this phase followed by slower growth. Loss of erh1+ in an auxotrophic background results in enhanced arrest in the G1 phase following nutritional stress, and also leads to hypersensitivity to agents inducing hyperosmotic stress (sorbitol), inhibiting DNA replication (hydroxyurea), and destabilizing the plasma membrane (SDS); this hypersensitivity can be abolished by expression of S. pombe erh1+ and, to a lesser extent, S. japonicus erh1+ or human ERH. Erh1p fails to interact with the human Ciz1 and PDIP46/SKAR proteins, known molecular partners of human ERH. Our data suggest that in Schizosaccharomyces sp. erh1+ is non-essential for normal growth and Erh1p could play a role in response to adverse environmental conditions and in cell cycle regulation.

Krzyzanowski, Marek K.; Kozlowska, Ewa; Kozlowski, Piotr

2012-01-01

264

The putative protein methyltransferase LAE1 of Trichoderma atroviride is a key regulator of asexual development and mycoparasitism.  

PubMed

In Ascomycota the protein methyltransferase LaeA is a global regulator that affects the expression of secondary metabolite gene clusters, and controls sexual and asexual development. The common mycoparasitic fungus Trichoderma atroviride is one of the most widely studied agents of biological control of plant-pathogenic fungi that also serves as a model for the research on regulation of asexual sporulation (conidiation) by environmental stimuli such as light and/or mechanical injury. In order to learn the possible involvement of LAE1 in these two traits, we assessed the effect of deletion and overexpression of lae1 gene on conidiation and mycoparasitic interaction. In the presence of light, conidiation was 50% decreased in a ? lae1 and 30-50% increased in lae1-overexpressing (OElae1) strains. In darkness, ? lae1 strains did not sporulate, and the OElae1 strains produced as much spores as the parent strain. Loss-of-function of lae1 also abolished sporulation triggered by mechanical injury of the mycelia. Deletion of lae1 also increased the sensitivity of T. atroviride to oxidative stress, abolished its ability to defend against other fungi and led to a loss of mycoparasitic behaviour, whereas the OElae1 strains displayed enhanced mycoparasitic vigor. The loss of mycoparasitic activity in the ? lae1 strain correlated with a significant underexpressionn of several genes normally upregulated during mycoparasitic interaction (proteases, GH16 ß-glucanases, polyketide synthases and small cystein-rich secreted proteins), which in turn was reflected in the partial reduction of formation of fungicidal water soluble metabolites and volatile compounds. Our study shows T. atroviride LAE1 is essential for asexual reproduction in the dark and for defense and parasitism on other fungi. PMID:23826217

Karimi Aghcheh, Razieh; Druzhinina, Irina S; Kubicek, Christian P

2013-06-24

265

A multifactor analysis of fungal and bacterial community structure of the root microbiome of mature Populus deltoides trees  

SciTech Connect

Bacterial and fungal communities associated with plant roots are central to the host- health, survival and growth. However, a robust understanding of root-microbiome and the factors that drive host associated microbial community structure have remained elusive, especially in mature perennial plants from natural settings. Here, we investigated relationships of bacterial and fungal communities in the rhizosphere and root endosphere of the riparian tree species Populus deltoides, and the influence of soil parameters, environmental properties (host phenotype and aboveground environmental settings), host plant genotype (Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) markers), season (Spring vs. Fall) and geographic setting (at scales from regional watersheds to local riparian zones) on microbial community structure. Each of the trees sampled displayed unique aspects to it s associated community structure with high numbers of Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) specific to an individual trees (bacteria >90%, fungi >60%). Over the diverse conditions surveyed only a small number of OTUs were common to all samples within rhizosphere (35 bacterial and 4 fungal) and endosphere (1 bacterial and 1 fungal) microbiomes. As expected, Proteobacteria and Ascomycota were dominant in root communities (>50%) while other higher-level phylogenetic groups (Chytridiomycota, Acidobacteria) displayed greatly reduced abundance in endosphere compared to the rhizosphere. Variance partitioning partially explained differences in microbiome composition between all sampled roots on the basis of seasonal and soil properties (4% to 23%). While most variation remains unattributed, we observed significant differences in the microbiota between watersheds (Tennessee vs. North Carolina) and seasons (Spring vs. Fall). SSR markers clearly delineated two host populations associated with the samples taken in TN vs. NC, but overall genotypic distances did not have a significant effect on corresponding communities that could be separated from other measured effects.

Shakya, Migun [ORNL] [ORNL; Gottel, Neil R [ORNL] [ORNL; Castro Gonzalez, Hector F [ORNL] [ORNL; Yang, Zamin [ORNL] [ORNL; Gunter, Lee E [ORNL] [ORNL; Labbe, Jessy L [ORNL] [ORNL; Muchero, Wellington [ORNL] [ORNL; Bonito, Gregory [Duke University] [Duke University; Vilgalys, Rytas [Duke University] [Duke University; Tuskan, Gerald A [ORNL] [ORNL; Podar, Mircea [ORNL] [ORNL; Schadt, Christopher Warren [ORNL] [ORNL

2013-01-01

266

Fungal assemblages associated with roots of halophytic and non-halophytic plant species vary differentially along a salinity gradient.  

PubMed

Structure of fungal communities is known to be influenced by host plants and environmental conditions. However, in most cases, the dynamics of these variation patterns are poorly understood. In this work, we compared richness, diversity, and composition between assemblages of endophytic and rhizospheric fungi associated to roots of two plants with different lifestyles: the halophyte Inula crithmoides and the non-halophyte I. viscosa (syn. Dittrichia viscosa L.), along a spatially short salinity gradient. Roots and rhizospheric soil from these plants were collected at three points between a salt marsh and a sand dune, and fungi were isolated and characterized by ITS rDNA sequencing. Isolates were classified in a total of 90 operational taxonomic units (OTUs), belonging to 17 fungal orders within Ascomycota and Basidiomycota. Species composition of endophytic and soil communities significantly differed across samples. Endophyte communities of I. crithmoides and I. viscosa were only similar in the intermediate zone between the salt marsh and the dune, and while the latter displayed a single, generalist association of endophytes, I. crithmoides harbored different assemblages along the gradient, adapted to the specific soil conditions. In the lower salt marsh, root assemblages were strongly dominated by a single dark septate sterile fungus, also prevalent in other neighboring salt marshes. Interestingly, although its occurrence was positively correlated to soil salinity, in vitro assays revealed a strong inhibition of its growth by salts. Our results suggest that host lifestyle and soil characteristics have a strong effect on endophytic fungi and that environmental stress may entail tight plant-fungus relationships for adaptation to unfavorable conditions. PMID:22573239

Maciá-Vicente, Jose G; Ferraro, Valeria; Burruano, Santella; Lopez-Llorca, Luis V

2012-05-10

267

Niche differentiation of two sympatric species of Microdochium colonizing the roots of common reed  

PubMed Central

Background Fungal endophyte communities are often comprised of many species colonizing the same host. However, little is known about the causes of this diversity. On the one hand, the apparent coexistence of closely related species may be explained by the traditional niche differentiation hypothesis, which suggests that abiotic and/or biotic factors mediate partitioning. For endophytes, such factors are difficult to identify, and are therefore in most cases unknown. On the other hand, there is the neutral hypothesis, which suggests that stochastic factors may explain high species diversity. There is a need to investigate to what extent each of these hypotheses may apply to endophytes. Results The niche partitioning of two closely related fungal endophytes, Microdochium bolleyi and M. phragmitis, colonizing Phragmites australis, was investigated. The occurrences of each species were assessed using specific nested-PCR assays for 251 field samples of common reed from Lake Constance, Germany. These analyses revealed niche preferences for both fungi. From three niche factors assessed, i.e. host habitat, host organ and season, host habitat significantly differentiated the two species. M. bolleyi preferred dry habitats, whereas M. phragmitis prevailed in flooded habitats. In contrast, both species exhibited a significant preference for the same host organ, i.e. roots. Likewise the third factor, season, did not significantly distinguish the two species. Differences in carbon utilization and growth temperature could not conclusively explain the niches. The inclusion of three unrelated species of Ascomycota, which also colonize P. australis at the same locations, indicated spatio-temporal niche partitioning between all fungi. None of the species exhibited the same preferences for all three factors, i.e. host habitat, host organ, and time of the season. Conclusions The fungal species colonizing common reed investigated in this study seem to exploit niche differences leading to a separation in space and time, which may allow for their coexistence on the same host. A purely neutral model is unlikely to explain the coexistence of closely related endophytes on common reed.

2011-01-01

268

A Multifactor Analysis of Fungal and Bacterial Community Structure in the Root Microbiome of Mature Populus deltoides Trees  

PubMed Central

Bacterial and fungal communities associated with plant roots are central to the host health, survival and growth. However, a robust understanding of the root-microbiome and the factors that drive host associated microbial community structure have remained elusive, especially in mature perennial plants from natural settings. Here, we investigated relationships of bacterial and fungal communities in the rhizosphere and root endosphere of the riparian tree species Populus deltoides, and the influence of soil parameters, environmental properties (host phenotype and aboveground environmental settings), host plant genotype (Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) markers), season (Spring vs. Fall) and geographic setting (at scales from regional watersheds to local riparian zones) on microbial community structure. Each of the trees sampled displayed unique aspects to its associated community structure with high numbers of Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) specific to an individual trees (bacteria >90%, fungi >60%). Over the diverse conditions surveyed only a small number of OTUs were common to all samples within rhizosphere (35 bacterial and 4 fungal) and endosphere (1 bacterial and 1 fungal) microbiomes. As expected, Proteobacteria and Ascomycota were dominant in root communities (>50%) while other higher-level phylogenetic groups (Chytridiomycota, Acidobacteria) displayed greatly reduced abundance in endosphere compared to the rhizosphere. Variance partitioning partially explained differences in microbiome composition between all sampled roots on the basis of seasonal and soil properties (4% to 23%). While most variation remains unattributed, we observed significant differences in the microbiota between watersheds (Tennessee vs. North Carolina) and seasons (Spring vs. Fall). SSR markers clearly delineated two host populations associated with the samples taken in TN vs. NC, but overall host genotypic distances did not have a significant effect on corresponding communities that could be separated from other measured effects.

Shakya, Migun; Gottel, Neil; Castro, Hector; Yang, Zamin K.; Gunter, Lee; Labbe, Jessy; Muchero, Wellington; Bonito, Gregory; Vilgalys, Rytas; Tuskan, Gerald; Podar, Mircea; Schadt, Christopher W.

2013-01-01

269

Use of drift substrates to characterize marine fungal communities from the west coast of Portugal.  

PubMed

This survey reports the occurrence, diversity and similarity of marine fungi associated with five categories of drift substrates (Arundo donax, Phragmites australis, Spartina maritima, "other stems" and driftwood) collected on four sandy beaches of the western coast of Portugal. "Other stems" and driftwood are composite samples with a variety of identified and unidentified pieces of non-woody and woody substrates respectively. Fifty-six taxa were identified, including 38 Ascomycota and 18 anamorphic fungi. Twenty-six taxa were generalists; however several cases of "substrate recurrence" were identified. The very frequent fungi differed among the categories of studied substrates, with the exception of Corollospora maritima, very frequent on four categories. Except for S. maritima, P. australis and driftwood, cases of multiple fungal colonization were rare. S. maritima was the single substrate with five different marine fungi on one sample, as well as with the highest number of very frequent fungi, highest percentage of colonization and average number of fungi per sample. Driftwood presented the highest value of fungal richness (37 taxa) and A. donax the lowest (22 taxa). ANOSIM analysis of similarity showed that all substrates supported different fungal communities with the exception of the pair P. australis/"other stems". The effect of sample size on estimated fungal richness was tested, and the results let us conclude that, although most of the sporadic fungi (<1% occurrence) will be detected only in a very large number of samples, 60 samples of A. donax and "other stems" and 70 samples of all the other substrates may suffice to assess their respective representative marine mycota. PMID:22241614

Azevedo, Egidia; Rebelo, Rui; Caeiro, Maria Filomena; Barata, Margarida

2012-01-12

270

The Fastest Flights in Nature: High-Speed Spore Discharge Mechanisms among Fungi  

PubMed Central

Background A variety of spore discharge processes have evolved among the fungi. Those with the longest ranges are powered by hydrostatic pressure and include “squirt guns” that are most common in the Ascomycota and Zygomycota. In these fungi, fluid-filled stalks that support single spores or spore-filled sporangia, or cells called asci that contain multiple spores, are pressurized by osmosis. Because spores are discharged at such high speeds, most of the information on launch processes from previous studies has been inferred from mathematical models and is subject to a number of errors. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we have used ultra-high-speed video cameras running at maximum frame rates of 250,000 fps to analyze the entire launch process in four species of fungi that grow on the dung of herbivores. For the first time we have direct measurements of launch speeds and empirical estimates of acceleration in these fungi. Launch speeds ranged from 2 to 25 m s?1 and corresponding accelerations of 20,000 to 180,000 g propelled spores over distances of up to 2.5 meters. In addition, quantitative spectroscopic methods were used to identify the organic and inorganic osmolytes responsible for generating the turgor pressures that drive spore discharge. Conclusions/Significance The new video data allowed us to test different models for the effect of viscous drag and identify errors in the previous approaches to modeling spore motion. The spectroscopic data show that high speed spore discharge mechanisms in fungi are powered by the same levels of turgor pressure that are characteristic of fungal hyphae and do not require any special mechanisms of osmolyte accumulation.

Yafetto, Levi; Carroll, Loran; Cui, Yunluan; Davis, Diana J.; Fischer, Mark W. F.; Henterly, Andrew C.; Kessler, Jordan D.; Kilroy, Hayley A.; Shidler, Jacob B.; Stolze-Rybczynski, Jessica L.; Sugawara, Zachary; Money, Nicholas P.

2008-01-01

271

The dermatophytes.  

PubMed

The etiologic agents of the dermatophytoses (ringworm) are classified in three anamorphic (asexual or imperfect) genera, Epidermophyton, Microsporum, and Trichophyton. Species capable of reproducing sexually belong in the teleomorphic genus, Arthroderma, of the Ascomycota. On the basis of primary habitat association, they may be grouped as geophilic (soil associated), zoophilic, and anthropophilic. Adaptation to growth on humans by most geophilic species resulted in diminished loss of sporulation, sexuality, and other soil-associated characteristics. The dermatophytes have the ability to invade keratinized tissue (skin, hair, and nails) but are usually restricted to the nonliving cornified layer of the epidermis because of their inability to penetrate viable tissue of an immunocompetent host. However, invasion does elicit a host response ranging from mild to severe. Acid proteinases, elastase, keratinases, and other proteinases reportedly act as virulence factors. The development of cell-mediated immunity correlated with delayed hypersensitivity and an inflammatory response is associated with clinical cure, whereas the lack of or a defective cell-mediated immunity predisposes the host to chronic or recurrent dermatophyte infection. Chronic dermatophytosis is mostly caused by Trichophyton rubrum, and there is some evidence that mannan produced by this fungus suppresses or diminishes the inflammatory response. Since dermatophytes cause a communicable disease, modes of transmission and control are discussed as well as a survey of recent trends in therapy. Collection of specimens, culture media, and tests for identification are also presented. Genetic studies have led to an understanding of incompatibility mechanisms, pleomorphism and variation, resistance to griseofulvin, and virulence. Molecular biology has contributed to our knowledge of the taxonomy and phylogenetic relationships of dermatophytes. PMID:7621400

Weitzman, I; Summerbell, R C

1995-04-01

272

Taxonomic assessment and enzymes production by yeasts isolated from marine and terrestrial Antarctic samples.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to investigate the taxonomic identity of yeasts isolated from the Antarctic continent and to evaluate their ability to produce enzymes (lipase, protease and xylanase) at low and moderate temperatures. A total of 97 yeast strains were recovered from marine and terrestrial samples collected in the Antarctica. The highest amount of yeast strains was obtained from marine sediments, followed by lichens, ornithogenic soils, sea stars, Salpa sp., algae, sea urchin, sea squirt, stone with lichens, Nacella concinna, sea sponge, sea isopod and sea snail. Data from polyphasic taxonomy revealed the presence of 21 yeast species, distributed in the phylum Ascomycota (n = 8) and Basidiomycota (n = 13). Representatives of encapsulated yeasts, belonging to genera Rhodotorula and Cryptococcus were recovered from 7 different Antarctic samples. Moreover, Candida glaebosa, Cryptococcus victoriae, Meyerozyma (Pichia) guilliermondii, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa and R. laryngis were the most abundant yeast species recovered. This is the first report of the occurrence of some species of yeasts recovered from Antarctic marine invertebrates. Additionally, results from enzymes production at low/moderate temperatures revealed that the Antarctic environment contains metabolically diverse cultivable yeasts, which could be considered as a target for biotechnological applications. Among the evaluated yeasts in the present study 46.39, 37.11 and 14.43 % were able to produce lipase (at 15 °C), xylanase (at 15 °C) and protease (at 25 °C), respectively. The majority of lipolytic, proteolytic and xylanolytic strains were distributed in the phylum Basidiomycota and were mainly recovered from sea stars, lichens, sea urchin and marine sediments. PMID:24114281

Duarte, A W F; Dayo-Owoyemi, I; Nobre, F S; Pagnocca, F C; Chaud, L C S; Pessoa, A; Felipe, M G A; Sette, L D

2013-10-11

273

Hypocrea rufa/Trichoderma viride: a reassessment, and description of five closely related species with and without warted conidia.  

PubMed

The type species of the genus Hypocrea (Hypocreaceae, Hypocreales, Ascomycota, Fungi), H. rufa, is re-defined and epitypified using a combination of phenotype (morphology of teleomorphs and anamorphs, and characteristics in culture) and phylogenetic analyses of the translation-elongation factor 1alpha gene. Its anamorph, T. viride, the type species of Trichoderma, is re-described and epitypified. Eidamia viridescens is combined as Trichoderma viridescens and is recognised as one of the most morphologically and phylogenetically similar relatives of T. viride. Its teleomorph is newly described as Hypocrea viridescens. Contrary to frequent citations of H. rufa and T. viride in the literature, this species is relatively rare. Although both T. viride and T. viridescens have a wide geographic distribution, their greatest genetic diversity appears to be in Europe and North America. Hypocrea vinosa is characterised and its anamorph, T. vinosum sp. nov., is described. Conidia of T. vinosum are subglobose and warted. The new species T. gamsii is proposed. It shares eidamia-like morphology of conidiophores with T. viridescens, but it has smooth, ellipsoidal conidia that have the longest L/W ratio that we have seen in Trichoderma. Trichoderma scalesiae, an endophyte of trunks of Scalesia pedunculata in the Galapagos Islands, is described as new. It only produces conidia on a low-nutrient agar to which filter paper has been added. Additional phylogenetically distinct clades are recognised and provisionally delimited from the species here described. Trichoderma neokoningii, a T. koningii-like species, is described from a collection made in Peru on a fruit of Theobroma cacao infected with Moniliophthora roreri. PMID:18490991

Jaklitsch, Walter M; Samuels, Gary J; Dodd, Sarah L; Lu, Bing-Sheng; Druzhinina, Irina S

2006-01-01

274

Identification and functional analysis of the erh1(+) gene encoding enhancer of rudimentary homolog from the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe.  

PubMed

The ERH gene encodes a highly conserved small nuclear protein with a unique amino acid sequence and three-dimensional structure but unknown function. The gene is present in animals, plants, and protists but to date has only been found in few fungi. Here we report that ERH homologs are also present in all four species from the genus Schizosaccharomyces, S. pombe, S. octosporus, S. cryophilus, and S. japonicus, which, however, are an exception in this respect among Ascomycota and Basidiomycota. The ERH protein sequence is moderately conserved within the genus (58% identity between S. pombe and S.japonicus), but the intron-rich genes have almost identical intron-exon organizations in all four species. In S. pombe, erh1(+) is expressed at a roughly constant level during vegetative growth and adaptation to unfavorable conditions such as nutrient limitation and hyperosmotic stress caused by sorbitol. Erh1p localizes preferentially to the nucleus with the exception of the nucleolus, but is also present in the cytoplasm. Cells lacking erh1(+) have an aberrant cell morphology and a comma-like shape when cultured to the stationary phase, and exhibit a delayed recovery from this phase followed by slower growth. Loss of erh1(+) in an auxotrophic background results in enhanced arrest in the G1 phase following nutritional stress, and also leads to hypersensitivity to agents inducing hyperosmotic stress (sorbitol), inhibiting DNA replication (hydroxyurea), and destabilizing the plasma membrane (SDS); this hypersensitivity can be abolished by expression of S. pombe erh1(+) and, to a lesser extent, S. japonicus erh1(+) or human ERH. Erh1p fails to interact with the human Ciz1 and PDIP46/SKAR proteins, known molecular partners of human ERH. Our data suggest that in Schizosaccharomyces sp. erh1(+) is non-essential for normal growth and Erh1p could play a role in response to adverse environmental conditions and in cell cycle regulation. PMID:23145069

Krzyzanowski, Marek K; Kozlowska, Ewa; Kozlowski, Piotr

2012-11-07

275

The effects of high-tannin leaf litter from transgenic poplars on microbial communities in microcosm soils.  

PubMed

The impacts of leaf litter from genetically modified hybrid poplar accumulating high levels of condensed tannins (proanthocyanidins) were examined in soil microcosms consisting of moss growing on sieved soil. Moss preferentially proliferated in microcosms with lower tannin content; DGGE (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) detected increased fungal diversity in microcosms with low-tannin litter. The proportion of cloned rDNA sequences from Actinobacteria decreased with litter addition while Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, Cyanobacteria, and ?-Proteobacteria significantly increased. ?-Proteobacteria were proportionally more numerous at high-tannin levels. Tannins had no significant impact on overall diversity of bacterial communities analyzed with various estimators. There was an increased proportion of N-fixing bacteria corresponding to the addition of litter with low-tannin levels. The addition of litter increased the proportion of Ascomycota/Basidiomycota. Dothideomycetes, Pucciniomycetes, and Tremellomycetes also increased and Agaricomycetes decreased. Agaricomycetes and Sordariomycetes were significantly more abundant in controls, whereas Pucciniomycetes increased in soil with litter from transformed trees (P = 0.051). Richness estimators and diversity indices revealed no significant difference in the composition of fungal communities; PCoA (principal coordinate analyses) partitioned the fungal communities into three groups: (i) those with higher amounts of added tannin from both transformed and untransformed treatments, (ii) those corresponding to soils without litter, and (iii) those corresponding to microcosms with litter added from trees transformed only with a ?-glucuronidase control vector. While the litter from transformed poplars had significant effects on soil microbe communities, the observed impacts reflected known impacts on soil processes associated with tannins, and were similar to changes that would be expected from natural variation in tannin levels. PMID:24133486

Winder, Richard S; Lamarche, Josyanne; Constabel, C Peter; Hamelin, Richard C

2013-09-26

276

The dermatophytes.  

PubMed Central

The etiologic agents of the dermatophytoses (ringworm) are classified in three anamorphic (asexual or imperfect) genera, Epidermophyton, Microsporum, and Trichophyton. Species capable of reproducing sexually belong in the teleomorphic genus, Arthroderma, of the Ascomycota. On the basis of primary habitat association, they may be grouped as geophilic (soil associated), zoophilic, and anthropophilic. Adaptation to growth on humans by most geophilic species resulted in diminished loss of sporulation, sexuality, and other soil-associated characteristics. The dermatophytes have the ability to invade keratinized tissue (skin, hair, and nails) but are usually restricted to the nonliving cornified layer of the epidermis because of their inability to penetrate viable tissue of an immunocompetent host. However, invasion does elicit a host response ranging from mild to severe. Acid proteinases, elastase, keratinases, and other proteinases reportedly act as virulence factors. The development of cell-mediated immunity correlated with delayed hypersensitivity and an inflammatory response is associated with clinical cure, whereas the lack of or a defective cell-mediated immunity predisposes the host to chronic or recurrent dermatophyte infection. Chronic dermatophytosis is mostly caused by Trichophyton rubrum, and there is some evidence that mannan produced by this fungus suppresses or diminishes the inflammatory response. Since dermatophytes cause a communicable disease, modes of transmission and control are discussed as well as a survey of recent trends in therapy. Collection of specimens, culture media, and tests for identification are also presented. Genetic studies have led to an understanding of incompatibility mechanisms, pleomorphism and variation, resistance to griseofulvin, and virulence. Molecular biology has contributed to our knowledge of the taxonomy and phylogenetic relationships of dermatophytes.

Weitzman, I; Summerbell, R C

1995-01-01

277

Species-specific ITS primers for the identification of Picoa juniperi and Picoa lefebvrei and using nested-PCR for detection of P. juniperi in planta.  

PubMed

Desert truffles, hypogeous Pezizales (Ascomycota), are difficult to identify due to evolutionary convergence of morphological characters among taxa that share a similar habitat and mode of spore dispersal. Also, during their symbiotic phase, these are barely distinguishable morphologically, and molecular probes are needed for their identification. We have developed a PCR-based method for the identification of Picoa juniperi and Picoa lefebvrei based on internal transcribed spacers of rDNA. Two PCR primers specific for P. lefebvrei (FLE/RLE) and two specific for P. juniperi (FJU/RJU) were designed. A collection of samples from different geographical areas representing diversity of these species were examined for unique regions of internal transcribed spacers 1, 2 and 5.8S gene of rDNA (ITS) compared to other closely related species. Annealing temperatures and extension times were optimized for each set of primers for maximum specificity and efficiency. They proved to be efficient to specifically detect the presence of P. juniperi and P. lefebvrei by PCR and neither set amplified purified DNA from other truffle species as well as some ascomycetous fungi. The partial small subunit of ribosomal DNA genes of P. juniperi were amplified with the genomic DNA extracted from Helianthemum ledifolium var. ledifolium roots by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using the universal fungal primer pair ITS1/ITS4 and specific primer pair FTC/RTC, which was designed based on internal transcribed spacer 1, 2 and 5.8S gene of rDNA sequences of P juniperi. The nested-PCR was sensitive enough to re-amplify the direct-PCR product, resulting in a DNA fragment of 426 bp. The efficacy of nested-PCR showed that it could re-amplify the direct-PCR product and detect 200 fg genomic DNA. PMID:24065525

Jamali, Samad; Banihashemi, Zia

2013-09-25

278

Characterization of a new clinical yeast species, Candida tunisiensis sp. nov., isolated from a strain collection from Tunisian hospitals.  

PubMed

From a collection of yeast isolates isolated from patients in Tunisian hospitals between September 2006 and July 2010, the yeast strain JEY63 (CBS 12513), isolated from a 50-year-old male that suffered from oral thrush, could not be identified to the species level using conventional methods used in clinical laboratories. These methods include matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), germ tube formation, and the use of CHROMagar Candida and metabolic galleries. Sequence analysis of the nuclear rRNA (18S rRNA, 5.8S rRNA, and 26S rRNA) and internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS1 and ITS2) indicated that the ribosomal DNA sequences of this species were not yet reported. Multiple gene phylogenic analyses suggested that this isolate clustered at the base of the Dipodascaceae (Saccharomycetales, Saccharomycetes, and Ascomycota). JEY63 was named Candida tunisiensis sp. nov. according to several phenotypic criteria and its geographical origin. C. tunisiensis was able to grow at 42°C and does not form chlamydospores and hyphae but could grow as yeast and pseudohyphal forms. C. tunisiensis exhibited most probably a haploid genome with an estimated size of 10 Mb on at least three chromosomes. Using European Committee for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) and Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) Candida albicans susceptibility breakpoints as a reference, C. tunisiensis was resistant to fluconazole (MIC = 8 ?g/ml), voriconazole (MIC = 0.5 ?g/ml), itraconazole (MIC = 16 ?g/ml), and amphotericin B (MIC = 4 ?g/ml) but still susceptible to posaconazole (MIC = 0.008 ?g/ml) and caspofungin (MIC = 0.5 ?g/ml). In conclusion, MALDI-TOF MS permitted the early selection of an unusual isolate, which was still unreported in molecular databases but could not be unambiguously classified based on phylogenetic approaches. PMID:23077122

Eddouzi, Jamel; Hofstetter, Valérie; Groenewald, Marizeth; Manai, Mohamed; Sanglard, Dominique

2012-10-17

279

Comparative analysis of fungal genomes reveals different plant cell wall degrading capacity in fungi  

PubMed Central

Background Fungi produce a variety of carbohydrate activity enzymes (CAZymes) for the degradation of plant polysaccharide materials to facilitate infection and/or gain nutrition. Identifying and comparing CAZymes from fungi with different nutritional modes or infection mechanisms may provide information for better understanding of their life styles and infection models. To date, over hundreds of fungal genomes are publicly available. However, a systematic comparative analysis of fungal CAZymes across the entire fungal kingdom has not been reported. Results In this study, we systemically identified glycoside hydrolases (GHs), polysaccharide lyases (PLs), carbohydrate esterases (CEs), and glycosyltransferases (GTs) as well as carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs) in the predicted proteomes of 103 representative fungi from Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Chytridiomycota, and Zygomycota. Comparative analysis of these CAZymes that play major roles in plant polysaccharide degradation revealed that fungi exhibit tremendous diversity in the number and variety of CAZymes. Among them, some families of GHs and CEs are the most prevalent CAZymes that are distributed in all of the fungi analyzed. Importantly, cellulases of some GH families are present in fungi that are not known to have cellulose-degrading ability. In addition, our results also showed that in general, plant pathogenic fungi have the highest number of CAZymes. Biotrophic fungi tend to have fewer CAZymes than necrotrophic and hemibiotrophic fungi. Pathogens of dicots often contain more pectinases than fungi infecting monocots. Interestingly, besides yeasts, many saprophytic fungi that are highly active in degrading plant biomass contain fewer CAZymes than plant pathogenic fungi. Furthermore, analysis of the gene expression profile of the wheat scab fungus Fusarium graminearum revealed that most of the CAZyme genes related to cell wall degradation were up-regulated during plant infection. Phylogenetic analysis also revealed a complex history of lineage-specific expansions and attritions for the PL1 family. Conclusions Our study provides insights into the variety and expansion of fungal CAZyme classes and revealed the relationship of CAZyme size and diversity with their nutritional strategy and host specificity.

2013-01-01

280

ITS-1 versus ITS-2 pyrosequencing: a comparison of fungal populations in truffle grounds.  

PubMed

In a recent study pyrosequencing of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer-1 (ITS-1) has validated the effectiveness of such technology in the survey of soil fungal diversity. Here we compare the two ITS regions, ITS-1 and ITS-2, of the fungal populations occurring in Tuber melanosporum/Quercus pubescens truffle grounds and sampled in two areas, one devoid of vegetation ("burned", brulé in French) where T. melanosporum fruiting bodies are usually collected, and outside the brulé. TS1F/ITS2 and ITS3/ITS4 were used respectively for the amplification of the ITS-1 and ITS-2 regions. Two amplicon libraries were built, one for inside and the other for outside. A set of 15.788 reads was obtained. After the removal of low quality sequences, 3568 and 3156 sequences were obtained from inside the brulé with the ITS-1 and ITS-2 primers respectively. The sequences obtained from outside the brulé were 4490 with the ITS-1 primers and 2432 with the ITS-2 primers. Most of the sequences obtained for both ITS fragments could be attributed to fungal organisms. The pair of primers, ITS1-F/ITS2, was more selective, producing fewer non-fungal sequences (1% inside, 3% outside), in addition to a higher number of sequences, than the pair ITS3/ITS4 (6% inside, 11% outside). Although differences are present in the taxa percentages between ITS-1 and ITS-2, both reveal that Ascomycota were the dominant fungal phylum and that their number decreased moving from inside the brulé to outside, while the number of Basidiomycota increased. Taken together, both the short ITS-1 and ITS-2 reads obtained by the high throughput 454 sequencing provide adequate information for taxon assignment and are suitable to correlate the dynamics of the fungal populations to specific environments. PMID:21700633

Mello, Antonietta; Napoli, Chiara; Murat, Claude; Morin, Emmanuelle; Marceddu, Giuseppe; Bonfante, Paola

2011-06-23

281

Genome Characterization of the Oleaginous Fungus Mortierella alpina  

PubMed Central

Mortierella alpina is an oleaginous fungus which can produce lipids accounting for up to 50% of its dry weight in the form of triacylglycerols. It is used commercially for the production of arachidonic acid. Using a combination of high throughput sequencing and lipid profiling, we have assembled the M. alpina genome, mapped its lipogenesis pathway and determined its major lipid species. The 38.38 Mb M. alpina genome shows a high degree of gene duplications. Approximately 50% of its 12,796 gene models, and 60% of genes in the predicted lipogenesis pathway, belong to multigene families. Notably, M. alpina has 18 lipase genes, of which 11 contain the class 2 lipase domain and may share a similar function. M. alpina's fatty acid synthase is a single polypeptide containing all of the catalytic domains required for fatty acid synthesis from acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA, whereas in many fungi this enzyme is comprised of two polypeptides. Major lipids were profiled to confirm the products predicted in the lipogenesis pathway. M. alpina produces a complex mixture of glycerolipids, glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids. In contrast, only two major sterol lipids, desmosterol and 24(28)-methylene-cholesterol, were detected. Phylogenetic analysis based on genes involved in lipid metabolism suggests that oleaginous fungi may have acquired their lipogenic capacity during evolution after the divergence of Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Chytridiomycota and Mucoromycota. Our study provides the first draft genome and comprehensive lipid profile for M. alpina, and lays the foundation for possible genetic engineering of M. alpina to produce higher levels and diverse contents of dietary lipids.

Feng, Yun; Ren, Yan; Gu, Zhennan; Chen, Haiqin; Wang, Hongchao; Thomas, Michael J.; Zhang, Baixi; Berquin, Isabelle M.; Li, Yang; Wu, Jiansheng; Zhang, Huanxin; Song, Yuanda; Liu, Xiang; Norris, James S.; Wang, Suriguga; Du, Peng; Shen, Junguo; Wang, Na; Yang, Yanlin; Wang, Wei; Feng, Lu; Ratledge, Colin; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Yong Q.

2011-01-01

282

Microbial community structure and activity linked to contrasting biogeochemical gradients in bog and fen environments of the Glacial Lake Agassiz Peatland.  

PubMed

The abundances, compositions, and activities of microbial communities were investigated at bog and fen sites in the Glacial Lake Agassiz Peatland of northwestern Minnesota. These sites contrast in the reactivity of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and the presence or absence of groundwater inputs. Microbial community composition was characterized using pyrosequencing and clone library construction of phylogenetic marker genes. Microbial distribution patterns were linked to pH, concentrations of dissolved organic carbon and nitrogen, C/N ratios, optical properties of DOM, and activities of laccase and peroxidase enzymes. Both bacterial and archaeal richness and rRNA gene abundance were >2 times higher on average in the fen than in the bog, in agreement with a higher pH, labile DOM content, and enhanced enzyme activities in the fen. Fungi were equivalent to an average of 1.4% of total prokaryotes in gene abundance assayed by quantitative PCR. Results revealed statistically distinct spatial patterns between bacterial and fungal communities. Fungal distribution did not covary with pH and DOM optical properties and was vertically stratified, with a prevalence of Ascomycota and Basidiomycota near the surface and much higher representation of Zygomycota in the subsurface. In contrast, bacterial community composition largely varied between environments, with the bog dominated by Acidobacteria (61% of total sequences), while the Firmicutes (52%) dominated in the fen. Acetoclastic Methanosarcinales showed a much higher relative abundance in the bog, in contrast to the dominance of diverse hydrogenotrophic methanogens in the fen. This is the first quantitative and compositional analysis of three microbial domains in peatlands and demonstrates that the microbial abundance, diversity, and activity parallel with the pronounced differences in environmental variables between bog and fen sites. PMID:22843538

Lin, X; Green, S; Tfaily, M M; Prakash, O; Konstantinidis, K T; Corbett, J E; Chanton, J P; Cooper, W T; Kostka, J E

2012-07-27

283

Soil fungal communities underneath willow canopies on a primary successional glacier forefront: rDNA sequence results can be affected by primer selection and chimeric data.  

PubMed

Soil fungal communities underneath willow canopies that had established on the forefront of a receding glacier were analyzed by cloning the polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-amplified partial small subunit (18S) of the ribosomal (rRNA) genes. Congruence between two sets of fungus-specific primers targeting the same gene region was analyzed by comparisons of inferred neighbor-joining topologies. The importance of chimeric sequences was evaluated by Chimera Check (Ribosomal Database Project) and by data reanalyses after omission of potentially chimeric regions at the 5'- and 3'-ends of the cloned amplicons. Diverse communities of fungi representing Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Chytridiomycota, and Zygomycota were detected. Ectomycorrhizal fungi comprised a major component in the early plant communities in primary successional ecosystems, as both primer sets frequently detected basidiomycetes (Russulaceae and Thelephoraceae) forming mycorrhizal symbioses. Various ascomycetes (Ophiostomatales, Pezizales, and Sordariales) of uncertain function dominated the clone libraries amplified from the willow canopy soil with one set of primers, whereas the clone libraries of the amplicons generated with the second primer set were dominated by basidiomycetes. Accordingly, primer bias is an important factor in fungal community analyses using DNA extracted from environmental samples. A large proportion (>30%) of the cloned sequences were concluded to be chimeric based on their changing positions in inferred phylogenies after omission of possibly chimeric data. Many chimeric sequences were positioned basal to existing classes of fungi, suggesting that PCR artifacts may cause frequent discovery of new, higher level taxa (order, class) in direct PCR analyses. Longer extension times during the PCR amplification and a smaller number of PCR cycles are necessary precautions to allow collection of reliable environmental sequence data. PMID:17106807

Jumpponen, Ari

2007-02-01

284

Aspergillus flavus: the major producer of aflatoxin.  

PubMed

SUMMARY Aspergillus flavus is an opportunistic pathogen of crops. It is important because it produces aflatoxin as a secondary metabolite in the seeds of a number of crops both before and after harvest. Aflatoxin is a potent carcinogen that is highly regulated in most countries. In the field, aflatoxin is associated with drought-stressed oilseed crops including maize, peanut, cottonseed and tree nuts. Under the right conditions, the fungus will grow and produce aflatoxin in almost any stored crop seed. In storage, aflatoxin can be controlled by maintaining available moisture at levels below that which will support growth of A. flavus. A number of field control measures are being utilized or explored, including: modification of cultural practices; development of resistant crops through molecular and proteomic techniques; competitive exclusion using strains that do not produce aflatoxin; and development of field treatments that would block aflatoxin production. Taxonomy: Aspergillus flavus Link (teleomorph unknown) kingdom Fungi, phyllum Ascomycota, order Eurotiales, class Eurotiomycetes, family Trichocomaceae, genus Aspergillus, species flavus. Host range: Aspergillus flavus has a broad host range as an opportunistic pathogen/saprobe. It is an extremely common soil fungus. The major concern with this fungus in agriculture is that it produces highly carcinogenic toxins called aflatoxins which are a health hazard to animals. In the field, A. flavus is predominantly a problem in the oilseed crops maize, peanuts, cottonseed and tree nuts. Under improper storage conditions, A. flavus is capable of growing and forming aflatoxin in almost any crop seed. It also is a pathogen of animals and insects. In humans it is predominantly an opportunistic pathogen of immunosuppressed patients. Useful websites: http://www.aspergillusflavus.org, http://www.aflatoxin.info/health.asp, plantpathology.tamu.edu/aflatoxin, http://www.aspergillus.org.uk. PMID:20507532

Klich, Maren A

2007-11-01

285

The Putative Protein Methyltransferase LAE1 of Trichoderma atroviride Is a Key Regulator of Asexual Development and Mycoparasitism  

PubMed Central

In Ascomycota the protein methyltransferase LaeA is a global regulator that affects the expression of secondary metabolite gene clusters, and controls sexual and asexual development. The common mycoparasitic fungus Trichoderma atroviride is one of the most widely studied agents of biological control of plant-pathogenic fungi that also serves as a model for the research on regulation of asexual sporulation (conidiation) by environmental stimuli such as light and/or mechanical injury. In order to learn the possible involvement of LAE1 in these two traits, we assessed the effect of deletion and overexpression of lae1 gene on conidiation and mycoparasitic interaction. In the presence of light, conidiation was 50% decreased in a ?lae1 and 30–50% increased in lae1-overexpressing (OElae1) strains. In darkness, ?lae1 strains did not sporulate, and the OElae1 strains produced as much spores as the parent strain. Loss-of-function of lae1 also abolished sporulation triggered by mechanical injury of the mycelia. Deletion of lae1 also increased the sensitivity of T. atroviride to oxidative stress, abolished its ability to defend against other fungi and led to a loss of mycoparasitic behaviour, whereas the OElae1 strains displayed enhanced mycoparasitic vigor. The loss of mycoparasitic activity in the ?lae1 strain correlated with a significant underexpressionn of several genes normally upregulated during mycoparasitic interaction (proteases, GH16 ß-glucanases, polyketide synthases and small cystein-rich secreted proteins), which in turn was reflected in the partial reduction of formation of fungicidal water soluble metabolites and volatile compounds. Our study shows T. atroviride LAE1 is essential for asexual reproduction in the dark and for defense and parasitism on other fungi.

Aghcheh, Razieh Karimi; Druzhinina, Irina S.; Kubicek, Christian P.

2013-01-01

286

Necrophytoremediation of phenanthrene and pyrene in contaminated soil.  

PubMed

In this study, the effect of necrophytoremediation, using pea and wheat straws on the remediation soil contaminated with two common polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), phenanthrene and pyrene alone or in combination was investigated. In addition, monitoring of the population of PAH-utilising microorganisms together with PCR-Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE)-sequencing methods were used to further elucidate the effect of straw addition on the bacterial, fungal and nidA gene (a functional gene involved in the degradation of PAHs) communities. The addition of pea straw had a positive effect on the degradation of PAHs, especially for pyrene. For example, the addition of pea straw to pyrene-contaminated soil resulted in an increase in the degradation of pyrene from 15% (66 mg kg(-1)) in the corresponding control to 70% (301 mg kg(-1)). The results from the most probable number (MPN) of PAH-utilising microorganisms and PCR-DGGE-sequencing methods indicated that the addition of straw led to an increase in microbial hydrocarbonoclastic biomass rather than changes in microbial diversity. For example, in pyrene-contaminated soil, the number of PAH-utilising microorganisms in the soil amended with pea straw reached 5.6 log10 CFU g(-1) dry soil, ~13-fold increase when compared with the numbers present in the control soil (4.5 log10 CFU g(-1) dry soils); however, the Shannon diversity index did not increase significantly. The sequencing of bands of interest from DGGE profiles revealed the presence of Actinobacteria, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria in the bacterial community. For fungi, sequenced bands belonged to Ascomycota, Basidiomycota and Mucoromycotina. In summary, this study has shown that necrophytoremediation using pea straw represents a promising biostimulation and cost effective agent which can be used for the bioremediation of PAH-contaminated soils. PMID:23567029

Shahsavari, Esmaeil; Adetutu, Eric M; Anderson, Peter A; Ball, Andrew S

2013-04-10

287

Host identity impacts rhizosphere fungal communities associated with three alpine plant species.  

PubMed

Fungal diversity and composition are still relatively unknown in many ecosystems; however, host identity and environmental conditions are hypothesized to influence fungal community assembly. To test these hypotheses, we characterized the richness, diversity, and composition of rhizosphere fungi colonizing three alpine plant species, Taraxacum ceratophorum, Taraxacum officinale, and Polemonium viscosum. Roots were collected from open meadow and willow understory habitats at treeline on Pennsylvania Mountain, Colorado, USA. Fungal small subunit ribosomal DNA was sequenced using fungal-specific primers, sample-specific DNA tags, and 454 pyrosequencing. We classified operational taxonomic units (OTUs) as arbuscular mycorrhizal (AMF) or non-arbuscular mycorrhizal (non-AMF) fungi and then tested whether habitat or host identity influenced these fungal communities. Approximately 14% of the sequences represented AMF taxa (44 OTUs) with the majority belonging to Glomus groups A and B. Non-AMF sequences represented 186 OTUs belonging to Ascomycota (58%), Basidiomycota (26%), Zygomycota (14%), and Chytridiomycota (2%) phyla. Total AMF and non-AMF richness were similar between habitats but varied among host species. AMF richness and diversity per root sample also varied among host species and were highest in T. ceratophorum compared with T. officinale and P. viscosum. In contrast, non-AMF richness and diversity per root sample were similar among host species except in the willow understory where diversity was reduced in T. officinale. Fungal community composition was influenced by host identity but not habitat. Specifically, T. officinale hosted a different AMF community than T. ceratophorum and P. viscosum while P. viscosum hosted a different non-AMF community than T. ceratophorum and T. officinale. Our results suggest that host identity has a stronger effect on rhizosphere fungi than habitat. Furthermore, although host identity influenced both AMF and non-AMF, this effect was stronger for the mutualistic AMF community. PMID:22038036

Becklin, Katie M; Hertweck, Kate L; Jumpponen, Ari

2011-10-27

288

Extensive Intra-Kingdom Horizontal Gene Transfer Converging on a Fungal Fructose Transporter Gene  

PubMed Central

Comparative genomics revealed in the last decade a scenario of rampant horizontal gene transfer (HGT) among prokaryotes, but for fungi a clearly dominant pattern of vertical inheritance still stands, punctuated however by an increasing number of exceptions. In the present work, we studied the phylogenetic distribution and pattern of inheritance of a fungal gene encoding a fructose transporter (FSY1) with unique substrate selectivity. 109 FSY1 homologues were identified in two sub-phyla of the Ascomycota, in a survey that included 241 available fungal genomes. At least 10 independent inter-species instances of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) involving FSY1 were identified, supported by strong phylogenetic evidence and synteny analyses. The acquisition of FSY1 through HGT was sometimes suggestive of xenolog gene displacement, but several cases of pseudoparalogy were also uncovered. Moreover, evidence was found for successive HGT events, possibly including those responsible for transmission of the gene among yeast lineages. These occurrences do not seem to be driven by functional diversification of the Fsy1 proteins because Fsy1 homologues from widely distant lineages, including at least one acquired by HGT, appear to have similar biochemical properties. In summary, retracing the evolutionary path of the FSY1 gene brought to light an unparalleled number of independent HGT events involving a single fungal gene. We propose that the turbulent evolutionary history of the gene may be linked to the unique biochemical properties of the encoded transporter, whose predictable effect on fitness may be highly variable. In general, our results support the most recent views suggesting that inter-species HGT may have contributed much more substantially to shape fungal genomes than heretofore assumed.

Coelho, Marco A.; Goncalves, Carla; Sampaio, Jose Paulo; Goncalves, Paula

2013-01-01

289

Contribution of fungi to primary biogenic aerosols in the atmosphere: active discharge of spores, carbohydrates, and inorganic ions by Asco- and Basidiomycota  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spores and related chemical compounds from actively spore-discharging Ascomycota (AAM) and actively spore-discharging Basidiomycota (ABM) are primary biogenic components of air particulate matter (characteristic size range 1-10 ?m). Measurement results and budget calculations based on investigations in Amazonia (Balbina, Brazil, July 2001) indicate that the forcible discharge of fungal spores may account for a large proportion of coarse air particulate matter in tropical rainforest regions during the wet season. For the particle diameter range of 1-10 ?m, the estimated proportions are ~25% during day-time, ~45% at night, and ~35% on average. For the sugar alcohol, mannitol, the budget calculations indicate that it is suitable for use as a molecular tracer for actively discharged basidiospores (ABS), and that the literature-derived emission ratio of about 5 pg per ABS may be taken as a representative average. ABM emissions may account for most of the atmospheric abundance of mannitol, and can explain the observed diurnal cycle (higher abundance at night). ABM emissions of hexose carbohydrates might also account for a significant proportion of glucose and fructose in air particulate matter, but the literature-derived ratios are not consistent with the observed diurnal cycle (lower abundance at night). AAM emissions appear to account for a large proportion of potassium in air particulate matter over tropical rainforest regions during the wet season, and they can also explain the observed diurnal cycle (higher abundance at night). The results of our investigations and budget calculations for tropical rainforest aerosols are consistent with measurements performed at other locations. Based on the average abundance of mannitol in particulate matter, which is consistent with the above emission ratio and the observed abundance of ABS, we have also calculated a value of ~17 Tg yr-1 as a first estimate for the global average emission rate of ABS over land surfaces. Comparisons with estimated rates of emission and formation of other major types of organic aerosol (~47 Tg yr-1 of anthropogenic primary organic aerosol; 12-70 Tg yr-1 of secondary organic aerosol) indicate that emissions from actively spore-discharging fungi should be taken into account as a significant source of organic aerosol. Their effects might be particularly important in tropical regions, where both physicochemical processes in the atmosphere and biological activity at the Earth's surface are particularly intense, and where the abundance of fungal spores and related chemical compounds are typically higher than in extratropical regions.

Elbert, W.; Taylor, P. E.; Andreae, M. O.; Pöschl, U.

2006-11-01

290

Re-annotation of the CAZy genes of Trichoderma reesei and transcription in the presence of lignocellulosic substrates  

PubMed Central

Background Trichoderma reesei is a soft rot Ascomycota fungus utilised for industrial production of secreted enzymes, especially lignocellulose degrading enzymes. About 30 carbohydrate active enzymes (CAZymes) of T. reesei have been biochemically characterised. Genome sequencing has revealed a large number of novel candidates for CAZymes, thus increasing the potential for identification of enzymes with novel activities and properties. Plenty of data exists on the carbon source dependent regulation of the characterised hydrolytic genes. However, information on the expression of the novel CAZyme genes, especially on complex biomass material, is very limited. Results In this study, the CAZyme gene content of the T. reesei genome was updated and the annotations of the genes refined using both computational and manual approaches. Phylogenetic analysis was done to assist the annotation and to identify functionally diversified CAZymes. The analyses identified 201 glycoside hydrolase genes, 22 carbohydrate esterase genes and five polysaccharide lyase genes. Updated or novel functional predictions were assigned to 44 genes, and the phylogenetic analysis indicated further functional diversification within enzyme families or groups of enzymes. GH3 ?-glucosidases, GH27 ?-galactosidases and GH18 chitinases were especially functionally diverse. The expression of the lignocellulose degrading enzyme system of T. reesei was studied by cultivating the fungus in the presence of different inducing substrates and by subjecting the cultures to transcriptional profiling. The substrates included both defined and complex lignocellulose related materials, such as pretreated bagasse, wheat straw, spruce, xylan, Avicel cellulose and sophorose. The analysis revealed co-regulated groups of CAZyme genes, such as genes induced in all the conditions studied and also genes induced preferentially by a certain set of substrates. Conclusions In this study, the CAZyme content of the T. reesei genome was updated, the discrepancies between the different genome versions and published literature were removed and the annotation of many of the genes was refined. Expression analysis of the genes gave information on the enzyme activities potentially induced by the presence of the different substrates. Comparison of the expression profiles of the CAZyme genes under the different conditions identified co-regulated groups of genes, suggesting common regulatory mechanisms for the gene groups.

2012-01-01

291

Nitrogen Additions Increase the Diversity of Carbon Compounds Degraded by Fungi in Boreal Forests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Boreal forest soils in North America harbor a large reservoir of organic C, and this region is increasingly exposed to long-range atmospheric N transport from Eurasia. By examining the responses of decomposers to N deposition in these forests, we hope to improve predictions of the fate of boreal carbon pools under global change. We tested the hypothesis that the functional diversity of decomposer fungi would increase under N fertilization in boreal forests where fungal growth was otherwise N-limited, owing to a reduction in competitive exclusion of fungal groups. We collected soil and leaf litter from three Alaskan sites that represent different successional stages at 5, 17, or 80 years following severe forest fire. Each site had been exposed for two years to nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization in a factorial design, with four plots per treatment. Nutrient limitation of fungal growth varied depending on successional stage. The standing hyphal length of decomposer fungi in soil (i.e. Ascomycota and Basidiomycota) responded to neither N nor P in the 5-year old site, increased under N fertilization in the 17-year old site, and increased where N and P was added simultaneously in the 80-year old site (site x N x P interaction: P = 0.001). We used BIOLOG microplates for filamentous fungi to obtain an index of the diversity of carbon use by decomposer fungi; each of 95 wells of these plates contains a different carbon-based compound, as well as a dye that changes color upon metabolism of the compound. Saline leaf litter extracts were mixed with fungal growth medium and then added to the microplates. The number of wells displaying metabolic activity was counted following incubation for five days. We found that N fertilization raised the average number of positive wells per plate from 14 to 27 (P = 0.012), with no significant differences in responses among sites. Phosphorus additions did not alter functional diversity of fungi in any site. Since increases in functional diversity occurred even in forests where fungal growth was not limited by N, alleviation of competitive exclusion does not appear to be the mechanism underlying this response. Our findings indicate that N fertilization could potentially result in the decomposition of a wider variety of organic carbon compounds in boreal forest soil, with possible consequences for CO2 release to the atmosphere.

Gartner, T. B.; Turner, K. M.; Treseder, K. K.

2004-12-01

292

Analysis of Fungal Diversity in the Wheat Rhizosphere by Sequencing of Cloned PCR-Amplified Genes Encoding 18S rRNA and Temperature Gradient Gel Electrophoresis  

PubMed Central

Like bacteria, fungi play an important role in the soil ecosystem. As only a small fraction of the fungi present in soil can be cultured, conventional microbiological techniques yield only limited information on the composition and dynamics of fungal communities in soil. DNA-based methods do not depend on the culturability of microorganisms, and therefore they offer an attractive alternative for the study of complex fungal community structures. For this purpose, we designed various PCR primers that allow the specific amplification of fungal 18S-ribosomal-DNA (rDNA) sequences, even in the presence of nonfungal 18S rDNA. DNA was extracted from the wheat rhizosphere, and 18S rDNA gene banks were constructed in Escherichia coli by cloning PCR products generated with primer pairs EF4-EF3 (1.4 kb) and EF4-fung5 (0.5 kb). Fragments of 0.5 kb from the cloned inserts were sequenced and compared to known rDNA sequences. Sequences from all major fungal taxa were amplified by using both primer pairs. As predicted by computer analysis, primer pair EF4-EF3 appeared slightly biased to amplify Basidiomycota and Zygomycota, whereas EF4-fung5 amplified mainly Ascomycota. The 61 clones that were sequenced matched the sequences of 24 different species in the Ribosomal Database Project (RDP) database. Similarity values ranged from 0.676 to 1. Temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TGGE) analysis of the fungal community in the wheat rhizosphere of a microcosm experiment was carried out after amplification of total DNA with both primer pairs. This resulted in reproducible, distinctive fingerprints, confirming the difference in amplification specificity. Clear banding patterns were obtained with soil and rhizosphere samples by using both primer sets in combination. By comparing the electrophoretic mobility of community fingerprint bands to that of the bands obtained with separate clones, some could be tentatively identified. While 18S-rDNA sequences do not always provide the taxonomic resolution to identify fungal species and strains, they do provide information on the diversity and dynamics of groups of related species in environmental samples with sufficient resolution to produce discrete bands which can be separated by TGGE. This combination of 18S-rDNA PCR amplification and TGGE community analysis should allow study of the diversity, composition, and dynamics of the fungal community in bulk soil and in the rhizosphere.

Smit, Eric; Leeflang, Paula; Glandorf, Boet; Dirk van Elsas, Jan; Wernars, Karel

1999-01-01

293

A new approach to species delimitation in Septoria  

PubMed Central

Septoria is a large genus of asexual morphs of Ascomycota causing leaf spot diseases of many cultivated and wild plants. Host specificity has long been a decisive criterium in species delimitation in Septoria, mainly because of the paucity of useful morphological characters and the high level of variation therein. This study aimed at improving the species delimitation of Septoria by adopting a polyphasic approach, including multilocus DNA sequencing and morphological analyses on the natural substrate and in culture. To this end 365 cultures preserved in CBS, Utrecht, The Netherlands, among which many new isolates obtained from fresh field specimens were sequenced. Herbarium material including many types was also studied. Full descriptions of the morphology in planta and in vitro are provided for 57 species. DNA sequences were generated for seven loci, viz. nuclear ITS and (partial) LSU ribosomal RNA genes, RPB2, actin, calmodulin, Btub, and EF. The robust phylogeny inferred showed that the septoria-like fungi are distributed over three main clades, establishing the genera Septoria s. str., Sphaerulina, and Caryophylloseptoria gen. nov. Nine new combinations and one species, Sphaerulina tirolensis sp. nov. were proposed. It is demonstrated that some species have wider host ranges than expected, including hosts from more than one family. Septoria protearum, previously only associated with Proteaceae was found to be also associated with host plants from six additional families of phanerogams and cryptogams. To our knowledge this is the first study to provide DNA-based evidence that multiple family-associations occur for a single species in Septoria. The distribution of host families over the phylogenetic tree showed a highly dispersed pattern for 10 host plant families, providing new insight into the evolution of these fungi. It is concluded that trans-family host jumping is a major force driving the evolution of Septoria and Sphaerulina. Taxonomic novelties: New genus - Caryophylloseptoria Verkley, Quaedvlieg & Crous; New species - Sphaerulina tirolensis Verkley, Quaedvlieg & Crous; New combinations - Caryophylloseptoria lychnidis (Desm.) Verkley, Quaedvlieg & Crous, Caryophylloseptoria silenes (Westend.) Verkley, Quaedvlieg & Crous, Caryophylloseptoria spergulae (Westend.) Verkley, Quaedvlieg & Crous, Sphaerulina aceris (Lib.) Verkley, Quaedvlieg & Crous, Sphaerulina cornicola (DC.: Fr.) Verkley, Quaedvlieg & Crous, Sphaerulina gei (Roberge ex Desm.) Verkley, Quaedvlieg & Crous, Sphaerulina hyperici (Roberge ex Desm.) Verkley, Quaedvlieg & Crous, Sphaerulina frondicola (Fr.) Verkley, Quaedvlieg & Crous, Sphaerulina socia (Pass.) Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous; Epitypifications (basionyms) - Ascochyta lysimachiae Lib., Septoria astragali Roberge ex Desm., Septoria cerastii Roberge ex Desm., Septoria clematidis Roberge ex Desm., Septoria cruciatae Roberge ex Desm., Septoria spergulae Westend., Septoria epilobii Westend., Septoria galeopsidis Westend., Septoria gei Roberge ex Desm., Septoria hyperici Roberge ex Desm., Septoria rubi Westend., Septoria senecionis Westend., Septoria urticae Roberge ex Desm.

Verkley, G.J.M.; Quaedvlieg, W.; Shin, H.-D.; Crous, P.W.

2013-01-01

294

Sex, drugs and recombination: the wild life of Aspergillus.  

PubMed

Throughout the eukaryotes, sexual reproduction is an almost universal phenomenon. However, within the Kingdom Fungi, this relationship is not so clear-cut. Fungi exhibit a spectrum of reproductive modes and life-cycles; amongst the better known species, sexual reproduction is often facultative, can be rare, and in over half of the known Ascomycota (the moulds) is unknown (Taylor et al. 1999). However, over the last decade, it has become apparent that many of these asexual mitosporic taxa undergo cryptic recombination via unobserved mechanisms and that wholly asexual fungi are, in fact, a rarity (Taylor et al. 1999, 2001; Heitman 2010). This revolution in our understanding of fungal sexuality has come about in two ways: Firstly, sexual reproduction leaves an imprint on fungal genomes by maintaining genes required for mating and by generating patterns of mutation and recombination restricted to meiotic processes. Secondly, scientists have become better at catching fungi in flagrante delicto. The genus Aspergillus is one such fungus where a combination of population genetics, genomics and taxonomy has been able to intuit the existence of sex, then to catch the fungus in the act and formally describe their sexual stages. So, why are sexy moulds exciting? One species in particular, Aspergillus flavus, is notorious for its ability to produce a diverse array of secondary metabolites, of which the polyketide aflatoxins (AF) are carcinogenic and others (such as cyclopiazonic acid) are toxigenic. Because of the predilection of A. flavus to grow on crops, such as peanuts, corn and cotton, biocontrol is widely used to mitigate infection by pre-applying nonaflatoxigenic (AF-) strains to competitively exclude the wild-type AF+ strains. However, the eventual fate in nature of these biocontrol strains is not known. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Olarte et al. (2012) make an important contribution by using laboratory crosses of A. flavus to show that not only is AF highly heritable, but AF- strains can become AF+ via crossing over during meiosis. This observation has raised the spectre of cross-breeding and non-mendelian inheritance of AF between native and biocontrol strains of the fungus, leading to an increase in the natural diversity of the fungus with perhaps unanticipated consequences. PMID:22393930

Fisher, Matthew C; Henk, Daniel A

2012-03-01

295

Heading for disaster: Fusarium graminearum on cereal crops.  

PubMed

SUMMARY The rapid global re-emergence of Fusarium head blight disease of wheat and barley in the last decade along with contamination of grains with mycotoxins attributable to the disease have spurred basic research on the fungal causal agent. As a result, Fusarium graminearum quickly has become one of the most intensively studied fungal plant pathogens. This review briefly summarizes current knowledge on the pathogenicity, population genetics, evolution and genomics of Fusarium graminearum. Taxonomy: Based on the sexual state Gibberella zeae (Schwein.) Petch: Superkingdom Eukaryota; Kingdom Fungi; Phylum Ascomycota; Subphylum Pezizomycotina; Class Sordariomycetidae; Subclass Hypocreomycetidae; Order Hypocreales; Family Nectriaceae; Genus Gibberella. Host range: The pathogen is capable of causing head blight or 'scab' on wheat (Triticum), barley (Hordeum), rice (Oryza), oats (Avena) and Gibberella stalk and ear rot disease on maize (Zea). The fungus also may infect other plant species without causing disease symptoms. Other host genera cited for Gibberella zeae or F. graminearum sensu lato (see below) are Agropyron, Agrostis, Bromus, Calamagrostis, Cenchrus, Cortaderia, Cucumis, Echinochloa, Glycine, Hierochloe, Lolium, Lycopersicon, Medicago, Phleum, Poa, Schizachyrium, Secale, Setaria, Sorghum, Spartina and Trifolium. Disease symptoms and signs: For wheat, brown, dark purple to black necrotic lesions form on the exterior surface of the florets and glume (Fig. 1). Although these lesion symptoms sometimes are referred to as scab, they are not formally related to the hyperplasia and hypertrophic epidermal growth associated with other scab diseases such as apple scab. Peduncles immediately below the inflorescence may become discoloured brown/purple. With time, tissue of the inflorescence often becomes blighted, appearing bleached and tan, while the grain within atrophies. Awns often become deformed, twisted and curved downward. In barley, infections are not always readily apparent in the field. Infected spikelets may show a browning or water-soaked appearance. Infected barley kernels show a tan to dark brown discolouration that can be similar to that caused by other kernel blighting organisms. During prolonged wet periods, pink to salmon-orange spore masses of the fungus are often seen on infected spikelets, glumes and kernels in both wheat and barley. For maize ear rot, infection occurs by way of colonizing silk and thus symptoms first appear at the ear apex. White mycelium, turning pink to red with time, colonizes kernels and may progress basipetally, covering the entire ear. Useful websites: http://www.broad.mit.edu/annotation/fungi/fusarium/mips.gsf.de/genre/proj/fusarium/ http://www.cdl.umn.edu/scab/gz-consort.html http://www.scabusa.org/ PMID:20565626

Goswami, Rubella S; Kistler, H Corby

2004-11-01

296

Characterization of primary biogenic aerosol particles in urban, rural, and high-alpine air by DNA sequence and restriction fragment analysis of ribosomal RNA genes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study explores the applicability of DNA analyses for the characterization of primary biogenic aerosol (PBA) particles in the atmosphere. Samples of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and total suspended particulates (TSP) have been collected on different types of filter materials at urban, rural, and high-alpine locations along an altitude transect in the south of Germany (Munich, Hohenpeissenberg, Mt. Zugspitze). From filter segments loaded with about one milligram of air particulate matter, DNA could be extracted and DNA sequences could be determined for bacteria, fungi, plants and animals. Sequence analyses were used to determine the identity of biological organisms, and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses (T-RFLP) were applied to estimate diversities and relative abundances of bacteria. Investigations of blank and background samples showed that filter materials have to be decontaminated prior to use, and that the sampling and handling procedures have to be carefully controlled to avoid artifacts in the analyses. Mass fractions of DNA in PM2.5 were found to be around 0.05% in urban, rural, and high-alpine aerosols. The average concentration of DNA determined for urban air was on the order of ~7 ng m-3, indicating that human adults may inhale about one microgram of DNA per day (corresponding to ~108 haploid bacterial genomes or ~105 haploid human genomes, respectively). Most of the bacterial sequences found in PM2.5 were from Proteobacteria (42) and some from Actinobacteria (10) and Firmicutes (1). The fungal sequences were characteristic for Ascomycota (3) and Basidiomycota (1), which are known to actively discharge spores into the atmosphere. The plant sequences could be attributed to green plants (2) and moss spores (2), while animal DNA was found only for one unicellular eukaryote (protist). Over 80% of the 53 bacterial sequences could be matched to one of the 19 T-RF peaks found in the PM2.5 samples, but only 40% of the T-RF peaks did correspond to one of the detected bacterial sequences. The results demonstrate that the T-RFLP analysis covered more of the bacterial diversity than the sequence analysis. Shannon-Weaver indices calculated from both sequence and T-RFLP data indicate that the bacterial diversity in the rural samples was higher than in the urban and alpine samples. Two of the bacterial sequences (Gammaproteobacteria) and five of the T-RF peaks were found at all sampling locations.

Després, V. R.; Nowoisky, J. F.; Klose, M.; Conrad, R.; Andreae, M. O.; Pöschl, U.

2007-12-01

297

Molecular genetics and diversity of primary biogenic aerosol particles in urban, rural, and high-alpine air  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study explores the applicability of molecular methods for the characterization of primary biogenic aerosol (PBA) particles in the atmosphere. Samples of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and total suspended particulates (TSP) have been collected on different types of filter materials at urban, rural, and high-alpine locations along an altitude transect in the south of Germany (Munich, Hohenpeissenberg, Mt. Zugspitze). From filter aliquots loaded with about one milligram of air particulate matter, DNA could be extracted and DNA sequences could be determined for bacteria, fungi, plants and animals. Sequence analyses were used to determine the identity of biological organisms, and terminal restriction length polymorphism analyses (T-RFLP) were applied to estimate diversities and relative abundances of bacteria. Investigations of blank and background samples showed that filter materials have to be decontaminated prior to use, and that the sampling and handling procedures have to be carefully controlled to avoid artifacts in the analyses. Mass fractions of DNA in PM2.5 were found to be around 0.05% in urban, rural, and high alpine aerosols. The average concentration of DNA determined for urban air was on the order of ~7 ng m-3, indicating that human adults may inhale about one microgram of DNA per day (corresponding to ~105 haploid human genomes). Most of the bacterial sequences found in PM2.5 were from Proteobacteria (42) and some from Actinobacteria (10) and Firmicutes (1). The fungal sequences were characteristic for Ascomycota (3) and Basidiomycetes (1), which are known to actively discharge spores into the atmosphere. The plant sequences could be attributed to green plants (2) and moss spores (2), while animal DNA was found only for one unicellular eukaryote (protist). Over 80% of the 53 bacterial sequences could be matched with about 40% of the 19 T-RF peaks (58 to 494 base pair length) found in the investigated PM2.5 samples. The results demonstrate that the T-RFLP analysis covered more of the bacterial diversity than the sequence analysis. Shannon-Weaver indices calculated from both sequence and T-RFLP data indicate that the bacterial diversity in the rural samples was higher than in the urban and alpine samples. Two of the bacterial sequences (Gammaproteobacteria) and five of the T-RF peaks were found at all sampling locations.

Després, V.; Nowoisky, J.; Klose, M.; Conrad, R.; Andreae, M. O.; Pöschl, U.

2007-02-01

298

Symbiotic fungal associations in 'lower' land plants.  

PubMed

An analysis of the current state of knowledge of symbiotic fungal associations in 'lower' plants is provided. Three fungal phyla, the Zygomycota, Ascomycota and Basidiomycota, are involved in forming these associations, each producing a distinctive suite of structural features in well-defined groups of 'lower' plants. Among the 'lower' plants only mosses and Equisetum appear to lack one or other of these types of association. The salient features of the symbioses produced by each fungal group are described and the relationships between these associations and those formed by the same or related fungi in 'higher' plants are discussed. Particular consideration is given to the question of the extent to which root fungus associations in 'lower' plants are analogous to 'mycorrhizas' of 'higher' plants and the need for analysis of the functional attributes of these symbioses is stressed. Zygomycetous fungi colonize a wide range of extant lower land plants (hornworts, many hepatics, lycopods, Ophioglossales, Psilotales and Gleicheniaceae), where they often produce structures analogous to those seen in the vesicular-arbuscular (VA) mycorrhizas of higher plants, which are formed by members of the order Glomales. A preponderance of associations of this kind is in accordance with palaeohbotanical and molecular evidence indicating that glomalean fungi produced the archetypal symbioses with the first plants to emerge on to land. It is shown, probably for the first time, that glomalean fungi forming typical VA mycorrhiza with a higher plant (Plantago lanceolata) can colonize a thalloid liverwort (Pellia epiphylla), producing arbuscules and vesicles in the hepatic. The extent to which these associations, which are structurally analogous to mycorrhizas, have similar functions remains to be evaluated. Ascomycetous associations are found in a relatively small number of families of leafy liverworts. The structural features of the fungal colonization of rhizoids and underground axes of these plants are similar to those seen in mycorrhizal associations of ericaceous plants like Vaccinium. Cross inoculation experiments have confirmed that a typical mycorrhizal endophyte of ericaceous plants, Hymenoscyphus ericae, will form associations in liverworts which are structurally identical to those seen in nature. Again, the functional significance of these associations remains to be examined. Some members of the Jungermanniales and Metzgeriales form associations with basidiomycetous fungi. These produce intracellular coils of hyphae, which are similar to the pelotons seen in orchid mycorrhizas, which also involve basidiomycetes. The fungal associates of the autotrophic Aneura and of its heterotrophic relative Cryptothallus mirabilis have been isolated. In the latter case it has been shown that the fungal symbiont is an ectomycorrhizal associate of Betula, suggesting that the apparently obligate nature of the association between the hepatic and Betula in nature is based upon requirement for this particular heterotroph. PMID:10905611

Read, D J; Ducket, J G; Francis, R; Ligron, R; Russell, A

2000-06-29

299

Diversity and phylogenetic affinities of foliar fungal endophytes in loblolly pine inferred by culturing and environmental PCR.  

PubMed

We examined endophytic fungi in asymptomatic foliage of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) in North Carolina, U.S.A., with four goals: (i) to evaluate morphotaxa, BLAST matches and groups based on sequence similarity as functional taxonomic units; (ii) to explore methods to maximize phylogenetic signal for environmental datasets, which typically contain many taxa but few characters; (iii) to compare culturing vs. culture-free methods (environmental PCR of surface sterilized foliage) for estimating endophyte diversity and species composition; and (iv) to investigate the relationships between traditional ecological indices (e.g. Shannon index) and phylogenetic diversity (PD) in estimating endophyte diversity and spatial heterogeneity. Endophytes were recovered in culture from 87 of 90 P. taeda leaves sampled, yielding 439 isolates that represented 24 morphotaxa. Sequence data from the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) for 150 isolates revealed 59 distinct ITS genotypes that represented 24 and 37 unique groups based on 90% and 95% sequence similarity, respectively. By recoding ambiguously aligned regions to extract phylogenetic signal and implementing a conservative phylogenetic backbone constraint, we recovered well supported phylogenies based on ca. 600 bp of the nuclear ribosomal large subunit (LSUrDNA) for 72 Ascomycota and Basidiomycota, 145 cultured endophytes and 33 environmental PCR samples. Comparisons with LSUrDNA-delimited species showed that morphotaxa adequately estimated total species richness but rarely corresponded to biologically meaningful groups. ITS BLAST results were variable in their utility, but ITS genotype groups based on 90% sequence similarity were concordant with LSUrDNA-delimited species. Environmental PCR yielded more genotypes per sampling effort and recovered several distinct clades relative to culturing, but some commonly cultured clades were never found (Sordariomycetes) or were rare relative to their high frequency among cultures (Leotiomycetes). In contrast to traditional indices, PD demonstrated spatial heterogeneity in endophyte assemblages among P. taeda trees and study plots. Our results highlight the need for caution in designating taxonomic units based on gross cultural morphology or ITS BLAST matches, the utility of phylogenetic tools for extracting robust phylogenies from environmental samples, the complementarity of culturing and environmental PCR, the utility of PD relative to traditional ecological indices, and the remarkably high diversity of foliar fungal endophytes in this simplified temperate ecosystem. PMID:17682771

Arnold, A Elizabeth; Henk, Daniel A; Eells, Rebecca L; Lutzoni, François; Vilgalys, Rytas

300

Metagenomic profiles of free-living archaea, bacteria and small eukaryotes in coastal areas of Sichang island, Thailand  

PubMed Central

Background Tha Wang and Tham Phang coasts, though situated at similar oceanographic positions on Sichang island, Chonburi province, Thailand, are different in bay geography and amount of municipal disturbances. These affect the marine ecosystems. The study used metagenomics combined with 16S and 18S rDNA pyrosequencing to identify types and distributions of archaea, bacteria, fungi and small eukaryotes of sizes ranges 0.45 and ~30 ?m. Results Following the open bay geography and minimal municipal sewages, Tham Phang coast showed the cleaner water properties, described by color, salinity, pH, conductivity and percent dissolved oxygen. The 16S and 18S rDNA metagenomic profiles for Tha Wang and Tham Phang coasts revealed many differences, highlighting by low Lennon and Yue & Clayton theta similarity indices (66.03-73.03% for 16S rDNA profiles, 2.85-25.38% for 18S rDNA profiles). For 16S rDNA, the percent compositions of species belonging to Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Cyanobacteria, Firmicutes, Verrucomicrobia, Gammatimonadetes, Tenericutes, Acidobacteria, Spirochaetes, Chlamydiae, Euryarchaeota, Nitrospirae, Planctomycetes, Thermotogae and Aquificae were higher or distinctly present in Tha Wang. In Tham Phang, except Actinobacteria, the fewer number of prokaryotic species existed. For 18S rDNA, fungi represented 74.745% of the species in Tha Wang, whereas only 6.728% in Tham Phang. Basidiomycota (71.157%) and Ascomycota (3.060%) were the major phyla in Tha Wang. Indeed, Tha Wang-to-Tham Phang percent composition ratios for fungi Basidiomycota and Chytridiomycota were 1264.701 and 25.422, respectively. In Tham Phang, Brachiopoda (lamp shells) and Mollusca (snails) accounted for 80.380% of the 18S rDNA species detected, and their proportions were approximately tenfold greater than those in Tha Wang. Overall, coastal Tham Phang comprised abundant animal species. Conclusions Tha Wang contained numerous archaea, bacteria and fungi, many of which could synthesize useful biotechnology gas and enzymes that could also function in high-saline and high-temperature conditions. Tham Phang contained less abundant archaea, bacteria and fungi, and the majority of the extracted metagenomes belonged to animal kingdom. Many microorganisms in Tham Phang were essential for nutrient-recycling and pharmaceuticals, for instances, Streptomyces, Pennicilium and Saccharomyces. Together, the study provided metagenomic profiles of free-living prokaryotes and eukaryotes in coastal areas of Sichang island.

2012-01-01

301

Occurrence and diversity of yeasts in the mid-atlantic ridge hydrothermal fields near the Azores Archipelago.  

PubMed

The yeast community associated with deep-sea hydrothermal systems of the Mid-Atlantic Rift was surveyed for the first time. This study relied on a culture-based approach using two different growth media: a conventional culture medium for yeasts supplemented with sea salts (MYPss) and the same medium additionally supplemented with sulfur (MYPssS). For the evaluation of species diversity, a molecular approach involving minisatellite-primed polymerase chain reaction (MSP-PCR) strain typing and sequence analysis of the D1/D2 domains of the 26S rDNA was followed. In the seven water samples that were studied, the number of colony-forming units per liter (cfu/L) ranged from 0 to 5940. The nonpigmented yeasts were much more abundant than the pink-pigmented ones. This disproportion was not observed in studies of other marine systems and may be due to the unique conditions of hydrothermal vents, characterized by a rich animal and microbial diversity and therefore by the availability of organic compounds utilizable by yeasts. Higher counts of nonpigmented yeast were obtained using MYPss, whereas for pink yeasts, higher counts were obtained using MYPssS. Moreover, among pink yeasts, some of the MSP-PCR classes obtained were composed of isolates obtained only on MYPssS, which might be an indication that these isolates are adapted to the ecosystems of the hydrothermal vents. Twelve phylotypes belonged to the Ascomycota and seven phylotypes belonged to the Basidiomycota. The nonpigmented yeasts were identified as Candida atlantica, C. atmosphaerica, C. lodderae, C. parapsilosis, Exophiala dermatitidis, Pichia guilliermondii, and Trichosporon dermatis, whereas the pigmented yeasts were identified as Rhodosporidium diobovatum, R. sphaerocarpum, R. toruloides, and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa. Some of the yeasts that were found belong to phylogenetic groups that include species reported from other marine environments, and eight phylotypes represent undescribed species. The new phylotypes found at Mid-Atlantic Ridge hydrothermal fields represent 33% of the total number of yeast taxa that were found. PMID:16328655

Gadanho, Mário; Sampaio, José Paulo

2005-11-24

302

Microbial Pathogens in the Fungal Kingdom  

PubMed Central

The fungal kingdom is vast, spanning ~1.5 to as many as 5 million species diverse as unicellular yeasts, filamentous fungi, mushrooms, lichens, and both plant and animal pathogens. The fungi are closely aligned with animals in one of the six to eight supergroups of eukaryotes, the opisthokonts. The animal and fungal kingdoms last shared a common ancestor ~1 billion years ago, more recently than other groups of eukaryotes. As a consequence of their close evolutionary history and shared cellular machinery with metazoans, fungi are exceptional models for mammalian biology, but prove more difficult to treat in infected animals. The last common ancestor to the fungal/metazoan lineages is thought to have been unicellular, aquatic, and motile with a posterior flagellum, and certain extant species closely resemble this hypothesized ancestor. Species within the fungal kingdom were traditionally assigned to four phyla, including the basal fungi (Chytridiomycota, Zygomycota) and the more recently derived monophyletic lineage, the dikarya (Ascomycota, Basidiomycota). The fungal tree of life project has revealed that the basal lineages are polyphyletic, and thus there are as many as eight to ten fungal phyla. Fungi that infect vertebrates are found in all of the major lineages, and virulence arose multiple times independently. A sobering recent development involves the species Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis from the basal fungal phylum, the Chytridiomycota, which has emerged to cause global amphibian declines and extinctions. Genomics is revolutionizing our view of the fungal kingdom, and genome sequences for zygomycete pathogens (Rhizopus, Mucor), skin-associated fungi (dermatophytes, Malassezia), and the Candida pathogenic species clade promise to provide insights into the origins of virulence. Here we survey the diversity of fungal pathogens and illustrate key principles revealed by genomics involving sexual reproduction and sex determination, loss of conserved pathways in derived fungal lineages that are retained in basal fungi, and shared and divergent virulence strategies of successful human pathogens, including dimorphic and trimorphic transitions in form. The overarching conclusion is that fungal pathogens of animals have arisen repeatedly and independently throughout the fungal tree of life, and while they share general properties, there are also unique features to the virulence strategies of each successful microbial pathogen.

Heitman, Joseph

2011-01-01

303

Diversity and evolutionary origins of fungi associated with seeds of a neotropical pioneer tree: a case study for analysing fungal environmental samples.  

PubMed

Fungi associated with seeds of tropical trees pervasively affect seed survival and germination, and thus are an important, but understudied, component of forest ecology. Here, we examine the diversity and evolutionary origins of fungi isolated from seeds of an important pioneer tree (Cecropia insignis, Cecropiaceae) following burial in soil for five months in a tropical moist forest in Panama. Our approach, which relied on molecular sequence data because most isolates did not sporulate in culture, provides an opportunity to evaluate several methods currently used to analyse environmental samples of fungi. First, intra- and interspecific divergence were estimated for the nu-rITS and 5.8S gene for four genera of Ascomycota that are commonly recovered from seeds. Using these values we estimated species boundaries for 527 isolates, showing that seed-associated fungi are highly diverse, horizontally transmitted, and genotypically congruent with some foliar endophytes from the same site. We then examined methods for inferring the taxonomic placement and phylogenetic relationships of these fungi, evaluating the effects of manual versus automated alignment, model selection, and inference methods, as well as the quality of BLAST-based identification using GenBank. We found that common methods such as neighbor-joining and Bayesian inference differ in their sensitivity to alignment methods; analyses of particular fungal genera differ in their sensitivity to alignments; and numerous and sometimes intricate disparities exist between BLAST-based versus phylogeny-based identification methods. Lastly, we used our most robust methods to infer phylogenetic relationships of seed-associated fungi in four focal genera, and reconstructed ancestral states to generate preliminary hypotheses regarding the evolutionary origins of this guild. Our results illustrate the dynamic evolutionary relationships among endophytic fungi, pathogens, and seed-associated fungi, and the apparent evolutionary distinctiveness of saprotrophs. Our study also elucidates the diversity, taxonomy, and ecology of an important group of plant-associated fungi and highlights some of the advantages and challenges inherent in the use of ITS data for environmental sampling of fungi. PMID:19103288

U'ren, Jana M; Dalling, James W; Gallery, Rachel E; Maddison, David R; Davis, E Christine; Gibson, Cara M; Arnold, A Elizabeth

2008-12-13