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Sample records for camillea xylariaceae ascomycota

  1. Contributions of North American endophytes to the phylogeny, ecology, and taxonomy of Xylariaceae (Sordariomycetes, Ascomycota).

    PubMed

    U'Ren, Jana M; Miadlikowska, Jolanta; Zimmerman, Naupaka B; Lutzoni, François; Stajich, Jason E; Arnold, A Elizabeth

    2016-05-01

    The Xylariaceae (Sordariomycetes) comprise one of the largest and most diverse families of Ascomycota, with at least 85 accepted genera and ca. 1343 accepted species. In addition to their frequent occurrence as saprotrophs, members of the family often are found as endophytes in living tissues of phylogenetically diverse plants and lichens. Many of these endophytes remain sterile in culture, precluding identification based on morphological characters. Previous studies indicate that endophytes are highly diverse and represent many xylariaceous genera; however, phylogenetic analyses at the family level generally have not included endophytes, such that their contributions to understanding phylogenetic relationships of Xylariaceae are not well known. Here we use a multi-locus, cumulative supermatrix approach to integrate 92 putative species of fungi isolated from plants and lichens into a phylogenetic framework for Xylariaceae. Our collection spans 1933 isolates from living and senescent tissues in five biomes across the continental United States, and here is analyzed in the context of previously published sequence data from described species and additional taxon sampling of type specimens from culture collections. We found that the majority of strains obtained in our surveys can be classified in the hypoxyloid and xylaroid subfamilies, although many also were found outside of these lineages (as currently circumscribed). Many endophytes were placed in lineages previously not known for endophytism. Most endophytes appear to represent novel species, but inferences are limited by potential gaps in public databases. By linking our data, publicly available sequence data, and records of ascomata, we identify many geographically widespread, host-generalist clades capable of symbiotic associations with diverse photosynthetic partners. Concomitant with such cosmopolitan host use and distributions, many xylariaceous endophytes appear to inhabit both living and non-living plant

  2. Rickenyls A-E, antioxidative terphenyls from the fungus Hypoxylon rickii (Xylariaceae, Ascomycota).

    PubMed

    Kuhnert, Eric; Surup, Frank; Herrmann, Jennifer; Huch, Volker; Müller, Rolf; Stadler, Marc

    2015-10-01

    Our screening efforts for new natural products with interesting bioactivity have revealed the neotropical ascomycete Hypoxylon rickii as a prolific source. We isolated five secondary metabolites with a p-terphenyl backbone from the mycelial extract of a fermentation of this fungus in 70 l scale by using RP-HPLC, which were named rickenyls A-E (1-5). Their structures were elucidated by X-ray crystallography and NMR spectroscopy, complemented by HRESIMS. Two of the compounds contained a quinone core structure in ortho (2) and para-position (5), respectively. We obtained 2 spontaneously and by lead tetraacetate oxidation from 1. All compounds were screened for antimicrobial, antioxidative and cytotoxic activities. Rickenyl A (1) exhibited strong antioxidative effects and moderate cytotoxic activity against various cancer cell lines. PMID:26296745

  3. A polyphasic taxonomy of Daldinia (Xylariaceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Stadler, Marc; Læssøe, Thomas; Fournier, Jacques; Decock, Cony; Schmieschek, Beata; Tichy, Hans-Volker; Peršoh, Derek

    2014-01-01

    For a monograph based on a polythetic concept, several thousands of herbarium specimens, and several hundreds of freshly collected and cultured specimens of Daldinia and allied Xylariaceae, originating from around the world, were studied for morphological traits, including by SEM, and chemically by HPLC profiles using UV-visible and mass spectrometric detection. Emphasis was given to tropical material, and importantly, ancient specimens, including as many types as possible, were tracked and studied to review earlier taxonomic concepts. An epitype of D. eschscholtzii was selected as representative of the morphochemotype that is most widely distributed in the tropics. Six new species of Daldinia from the tropics and the southern Hemisphere are described. Daldinia asphalatum is resurrected, and D. cudonia is regarded as its synonym. In addition, the following binomials are epi-, iso-, neo- and/or lectotypified: Daldinia asphalatum, D. caldariorum, D. clavata, D. cuprea, D. durissima, D. eschscholtzii, D. grandis, D. loculata, and D. vernicosa. Annellosporium and Versiomyces are regarded as synonyms of Daldinia. Many new synonymies in Daldinia are proposed, and some previously published names are rejected. In total, 47 taxa in Daldinia are recognised and a key is provided. Their biogeography, chorology, and ecology, as well as the importance of their secondary metabolites, are also discussed. The previous definition of the genus is emended. The species concept is based mainly on morphological and other phenotype-derived characters because, despite diligent search, no molecular data or cultures of several of the accepted species could be obtained. Daldinia is segregated into five major groups, based on phenotypic characteristics. Some unnamed but aberrant specimens were not found in good condition and are therefore not formally described as new species. However, they are illustrated in detail in a hope that this will facilitate the discovery of fresh material in future

  4. Polyketides from a marine-derived fungus Xylariaceae sp.

    PubMed

    Nong, Xu-Hua; Zheng, Zhi-Hui; Zhang, Xiao-Yong; Lu, Xin-Hua; Qi, Shu-Hua

    2013-05-01

    Eighteen polyketides (1-18) including six citrinin derivatives, two phenol derivatives, one cyclopentenone, two naphthol derivatives, and seven tetralone derivatives were isolated from the culture broth of a marine-derived fungal strain Xylariaceae sp. SCSGAF0086. Five of these compounds (1, 2, 8, 9, and 10) were new, and their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods. Compounds 4, 6, 7, and 17 showed enzyme-inhibitory activities towards several tested enzymes, and 6 and 7 showed strong antifouling activity against Bugula neritina larvae settlement. This is the first time that the antifouling and enzyme-inhibitory activities of these compounds has been reported. PMID:23697953

  5. Polyketides from a Marine-Derived Fungus Xylariaceae sp.

    PubMed Central

    Nong, Xu-Hua; Zheng, Zhi-Hui; Zhang, Xiao-Yong; Lu, Xin-Hua; Qi, Shu-Hua

    2013-01-01

    Eighteen polyketides (1–18) including six citrinin derivatives, two phenol derivatives, one cyclopentenone, two naphthol derivatives, and seven tetralone derivatives were isolated from the culture broth of a marine-derived fungal strain Xylariaceae sp. SCSGAF0086. Five of these compounds (1, 2, 8, 9, and 10) were new, and their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods. Compounds 4, 6, 7, and 17 showed enzyme-inhibitory activities towards several tested enzymes, and 6 and 7 showed strong antifouling activity against Bugula neritina larvae settlement. This is the first time that the antifouling and enzyme-inhibitory activities of these compounds has been reported. PMID:23697953

  6. Cytotoxic Cytochalasins and Other Metabolites from Xylariaceae sp. FL0390, a Fungal Endophyte of Spanish Moss.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ya-Ming; Bashyal, Bharat P; Liu, Mangping X; Espinosa-Artiles, Patricia; U'Ren, Jana M; Arnold, A Elizabeth; Gunatilaka, A A Leslie

    2015-10-01

    Two new metabolites, 6-oxo-12-norcytochalasin D (1) and 4,5-di-isobutyl-2(1H)-pyrimidinone (2), together with seven known metabolites, cytochalasins D (3), Q (4), and N (5), 12-hydroxyzygosporin G (6), heptelidic acid chlorohydrin (7), (+)-heptelidic acid (8), and trichoderonic acid A (9), were isolated from Xylariaceae sp. FL0390, a fungal endophyte inhabiting Spanish moss, Tillandsia usneoides. Metabolite 1 is the first example of a 12-norcytochalasin. All metabolites, except 2 and 9, showed cytotoxic activity in a panel of five human tumor cell lines with IC50S of 0.2-5.0 μM. PMID:26669096

  7. Dating the Diversification of the Major Lineages of Ascomycota (Fungi)

    PubMed Central

    Prieto, María; Wedin, Mats

    2013-01-01

    Establishing the dates for the origin and main diversification events in the phylogeny of Ascomycota is among the most crucial remaining goals in understanding the evolution of Fungi. There have been several analyses of divergence times in the fungal tree of life in the last two decades, but most have yielded contrasting results for the origin of the major lineages. Moreover, very few studies have provided temporal estimates for a large set of clades within Ascomycota. We performed molecular dating to estimate the divergence times of most of the major groups of Ascomycota. To account for paleontological uncertainty, we included alternative fossil constraints as different scenarios to enable a discussion of the effect of selection of fossils. We used data from 6 molecular markers and 121 extant taxa within Ascomycota. Our various ‘relaxed clock’ scenarios suggest that the origin and diversification of the Pezizomycotina occurred in the Cambrian. The main lineages of lichen–forming Ascomycota originated at least as early as the Carboniferous, with successive radiations in the Jurassic and Cretaceous generating the diversity of the main modern groups. Our study provides new information about the timing of the main diversification events in Ascomycota, including estimates for classes, orders and families of both lichenized and non–lichenized Ascomycota, many of which had not been previously dated. PMID:23799026

  8. Dating the diversification of the major lineages of Ascomycota (Fungi).

    PubMed

    Prieto, María; Wedin, Mats

    2013-01-01

    Establishing the dates for the origin and main diversification events in the phylogeny of Ascomycota is among the most crucial remaining goals in understanding the evolution of Fungi. There have been several analyses of divergence times in the fungal tree of life in the last two decades, but most have yielded contrasting results for the origin of the major lineages. Moreover, very few studies have provided temporal estimates for a large set of clades within Ascomycota. We performed molecular dating to estimate the divergence times of most of the major groups of Ascomycota. To account for paleontological uncertainty, we included alternative fossil constraints as different scenarios to enable a discussion of the effect of selection of fossils. We used data from 6 molecular markers and 121 extant taxa within Ascomycota. Our various 'relaxed clock' scenarios suggest that the origin and diversification of the Pezizomycotina occurred in the Cambrian. The main lineages of lichen-forming Ascomycota originated at least as early as the Carboniferous, with successive radiations in the Jurassic and Cretaceous generating the diversity of the main modern groups. Our study provides new information about the timing of the main diversification events in Ascomycota, including estimates for classes, orders and families of both lichenized and non-lichenized Ascomycota, many of which had not been previously dated. PMID:23799026

  9. Pupal mortality and adult emergence of western cherry fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) exposed to the fungus Muscodor albus (Xylariales: Xylariaceae).

    PubMed

    Yee, Wee L; Lacey, Lawrence A; Bishop, Belinda J B

    2009-12-01

    Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a major pest of sweet cherry, Prunus avium (L.) L. (Rosales: Rosaceae), that is conventionally controlled using insecticides. One alternative to the use of insecticides alone for fly control could be fumigation of the fly's overwintering habitat using the fungus Muscodor albus Worapong, Strobel & Hess (Xylariales: Xylariaceae) in conjunction with reduced insecticide use. The fungus produces a mixture of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that are biocidal for a variety of organisms. In this study, the main objectives were to determine the effects of M. albus VOCs on mortality of R. indifferens pupae and on adult emergence under laboratory conditions. In fumigation chamber experiments, a 14-d exposure of pupae in soil to VOCs resulted in 61.9% control, and exposure to VOCs for 7, 10, and 14 d reduced fly emergence by 44.2, 70.0, and 86.3%, respectively, relative to controls. In an experiment using plastic covers to retain VOCs in treated soil, a concentration of 1% M. albus formulation (fungus + rye grain) did not affect pupal mortality and fly emergence, but a concentration of 5% M. albus formulation resulted in 27.4% control and reduced fly emergence by 30.1% relative to the control. Larvae of R. indifferens that were dropped onto soil with 1% M. albus formulation were not affected by the fungus. Results indicate that prolonged exposure and high concentrations of M. albus VOCs can cause significant mortality of R. indifferens pupae in soil and delay adult emergence. PMID:20069829

  10. The complete mitochondrial genome of Paecilomyces hepiali (Ascomycota, Eurotiomycetes).

    PubMed

    Wang, Linping; Xu, Jiayue; Li, Huchen; Song, Lipu; Yu, Yi; Zhang, Wensheng; Liu, Guiming; Feng, Chengqiang

    2016-01-01

    Paecilomyces hepiali, belonging to the Eurotiales order Ascomycota, is an endoparasitic fungus that commonly exists in the natural Cordyceps sinensis anamorph stage. Here, we report the complete mitochondrial DNA sequences of P. hepiali for the first time. The genome is 24,245 bp in length, encoding 15 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 2 rRNA genes, 25 tRNA genes and 3 homing endonucleases. The overall AT composition is 73.37% and the average AT content of PCG, rRNA, tRNA and non-coding region are 74.21%, 66.07%, 62.83% and 75.96%, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis with eight Ascomycota species and thirteen Basidiomycota species revealed that P. hepiali is was more closely related to Cordyceps bassiana, Cordycep smilitaris and Cordyceps brongniartii. It is confirmed that P. hepiali is a derivative of Cordyceps sinensis. This study provided valuable information on the gene contents of the mitochondrial genome and would facilitate the study of function and evolution of P. hepiali. PMID:24963769

  11. Saccharomycotina and Taphrinomycotina: the yeasts and yeast-like fungi of the Ascomycota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The phylum Ascomycota has been resolved into three major phylogenetic lineages: the subphyla Saccharomycotina (e.g., Saccharomyces, Pichia, Candida), Taphrinomycotina (e.g., Protomyces, Taphrina, Pneumocystis), and the Pezizomycotina (e.g., Aspergillus, Neurospora, Peziza). We discuss the ecology, ...

  12. Origin and evolution of carnivorism in the Ascomycota (fungi)

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ence; Xu, Lingling; Yang, Ying; Zhang, Xinyu; Xiang, Meichun; Wang, Chengshu; An, Zhiqiang; Liu, Xingzhong

    2012-01-01

    Carnivorism is one of the basic life strategies of fungi. Carnivorous fungi possess the ability to trap and digest their preys by sophisticated trapping devices. However, the origin and development of fungal carnivorism remains a gap in evolution biology. In this study, five protein-encoding genes were used to construct the phylogeny of the carnivorous fungi in the phylum Ascomycota; these fungi prey on nematodes by means of specialized trapping structures such as constricting rings and adhesive traps. Our analysis revealed a definitive pattern of evolutionary development for these trapping structures. Molecular clock calibration based on two fossil records revealed that fungal carnivorism diverged from saprophytism about 419 Mya, which was after the origin of nematodes about 550–600 Mya. Active carnivorism (fungi with constricting rings) and passive carnivorism (fungi with adhesive traps) diverged from each other around 246 Mya, shortly after the occurrence of the Permian–Triassic extinction event about 251.4 Mya. The major adhesive traps evolved around 198–208 Mya, which was within the time frame of the Triassic–Jurassic extinction event about 201.4 Mya. However, no major carnivorous ascomycetes divergence was correlated to the Cretaceous–Tertiary extinction event, which occurred more recently (about 65.5 Mya). Therefore, a causal relationship between mass extinction events and fungal carnivorism evolution is not validated in this study. More evidence including additional fossil records is needed to establish if fungal carnivorism evolution was a response to mass extinction events. PMID:22715289

  13. Estimating the Phanerozoic history of the Ascomycota lineages: combining fossil and molecular data.

    PubMed

    Beimforde, Christina; Feldberg, Kathrin; Nylinder, Stephan; Rikkinen, Jouko; Tuovila, Hanna; Dörfelt, Heinrich; Gube, Matthias; Jackson, Daniel J; Reitner, Joachim; Seyfullah, Leyla J; Schmidt, Alexander R

    2014-09-01

    The phylum Ascomycota is by far the largest group in the fungal kingdom. Ecologically important mutualistic associations such as mycorrhizae and lichens have evolved in this group, which are regarded as key innovations that supported the evolution of land plants. Only a few attempts have been made to date the origin of Ascomycota lineages by using molecular clock methods, which is primarily due to the lack of satisfactory fossil calibration data. For this reason we have evaluated all of the oldest available ascomycete fossils from amber (Albian to Miocene) and chert (Devonian and Maastrichtian). The fossils represent five major ascomycete classes (Coniocybomycetes, Dothideomycetes, Eurotiomycetes, Laboulbeniomycetes, and Lecanoromycetes). We have assembled a multi-gene data set (18SrDNA, 28SrDNA, RPB1 and RPB2) from a total of 145 taxa representing most groups of the Ascomycota and utilized fossil calibration points solely from within the ascomycetes to estimate divergence times of Ascomycota lineages with a Bayesian approach. Our results suggest an initial diversification of the Pezizomycotina in the Ordovician, followed by repeated splits of lineages throughout the Phanerozoic, and indicate that this continuous diversification was unaffected by mass extinctions. We suggest that the ecological diversity within each lineage ensured that at least some taxa of each group were able to survive global crises and rapidly recovered. PMID:24792086

  14. Extracellular polysaccharides from Ascomycota and Basidiomycota: production conditions, biochemical characteristics, and biological properties.

    PubMed

    Osińska-Jaroszuk, Monika; Jarosz-Wilkołazka, Anna; Jaroszuk-Ściseł, Jolanta; Szałapata, Katarzyna; Nowak, Artur; Jaszek, Magdalena; Ozimek, Ewa; Majewska, Małgorzata

    2015-12-01

    Fungal polysaccharides (PSs) are the subject of research in many fields of science and industry. Many properties of PSs have already been confirmed and the list of postulated functions continues to grow. Fungal PSs are classified into different groups according to systematic affinity, structure (linear and branched), sugar composition (homo- and heteropolysaccharides), type of bonds between the monomers (β-(1 → 3), β-(1 → 6), and α-(1 → 3)) and their location in the cell (cell wall PSs, exoPSs, and endoPSs). Exopolysaccharides (EPSs) are most frequently studied fungal PSs but their definition, classification, and origin are still not clear and should be explained. Ascomycota and Basidiomycota fungi producing EPS have different ecological positions (saprotrophic and endophytic, pathogenic or symbiotic-mycorrhizae fungi); therefore, EPSs play different biological functions, for example in the protection against environmental stress factors and in interactions with other organisms. EPSs obtained from Ascomycota and Basidiomycota fungal cultures are known for their antioxidant, immunostimulating, antitumor, and antimicrobial properties. The major objective of the presented review article was to provide a detailed description of the state-of-the-art knowledge of the effectiveness of EPS production by filamentous and yeast Ascomycota and Basidiomycota fungi and techniques of derivation of EPSs, their biochemical characteristics, and biological properties allowing comprehensive analysis as well as indication of similarities and differences between these fungal groups. Understanding the role of EPSs in a variety of processes and their application in food or pharmaceutical industries requires improvement of the techniques of their derivation, purification, and characterization. The detailed analyses of data concerning the derivation and application of Ascomycota and Basidiomycota EPSs can facilitate development and trace the direction of application of these EPSs

  15. EPR investigation of some desiccated Ascomycota and Basidiomycota gamma-irradiated mushrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bercu, V.; Negut, C. D.; Duliu, O. G.

    2010-12-01

    The suitability of the EPR spectroscopy for detection of γ-irradiation in five species of dried mushroom, currently used in gastronomy: yellow morel— Morchella esculenta, (L.) Pers. (Phylum Ascomycota), button mushroom— Agaricus bisporus (J.E.Lange), Agaricus haemorrhoidarius Fr., golden chantarelle— Cantharellus cibarius Fr., as well as oyster mushroom— Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. ex Fr.) (Phylum Basidiomycota) is presented and discussed. Although after irradiation at doses up to 11 kGy, all specimens presented well defined EPR spectra, only A. bisporus EPR signal was enough stable to make detection possible after 18 months.

  16. Isolation of Endohyphal Bacteria from Foliar Ascomycota and In Vitro Establishment of Their Symbiotic Associations.

    PubMed

    Arendt, Kayla R; Hockett, Kevin L; Araldi-Brondolo, Sarah J; Baltrus, David A; Arnold, A Elizabeth

    2016-05-15

    Endohyphal bacteria (EHB) can influence fungal phenotypes and shape the outcomes of plant-fungal interactions. Previous work has suggested that EHB form facultative associations with many foliar fungi in the Ascomycota. These bacteria can be isolated in culture, and fungi can be cured of EHB using antibiotics. Here, we present methods for successfully introducing EHB into axenic mycelia of strains representing two classes of Ascomycota. We first establish in vitro conditions favoring reintroduction of two strains of EHB (Luteibacter sp.) into axenic cultures of their original fungal hosts, focusing on fungi isolated from healthy plant tissue as endophytes: Microdiplodia sp. (Dothideomycetes) and Pestalotiopsis sp. (Sordariomycetes). We then demonstrate that these EHB can be introduced into a novel fungal host under the same conditions, successfully transferring EHB between fungi representing different classes. Finally, we manipulate conditions to optimize reintroduction in a focal EHB-fungal association. We show that EHB infections were initiated and maintained more often under low-nutrient culture conditions and when EHB and fungal hyphae were washed with MgCl2 prior to reassociation. Our study provides new methods for experimental assessment of the effects of EHB on fungal phenotypes and shows how the identity of the fungal host and growth conditions can define the establishment of these widespread and important symbioses. PMID:26969692

  17. Kodamaea ohmeri (Ascomycota: Saccharomycotina) presence in commercial Bombus impatiens Cresson and feral Bombus pensylvanicus DeGeer (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, eight commercial and three feral bumble bee (Bombus impatiens Cresson and Bombus pensylvanicus DeGeer respectively, Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies were tested for the presence of Kodamaea ohmeri (Ascomycota: Saccharomycotina), a yeast known to attract small hive beetles (SHB) (Aethina ...

  18. Promising approaches towards biotransformation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with Ascomycota fungi.

    PubMed

    Aranda, Elisabet

    2016-04-01

    The bioremediation of hazardous aromatic pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has been extensively studied in recent decades, including the potential use of different phyla of fungi for this purpose. Molecular technologies are starting to reveal that the real players in polluted environments are mainly represented by the phylum Ascomycota and the subphylum Mucoromycotina and, to a lesser extent, the phylum Basidiomycota. Paradoxically, despite their key involvement, these groups of fungi are often treated as a black box, and their potential roles in the transformation of xenobiotics and catabolic pathways remain poorly understood. The complex intracellular metabolism seems to play a major role in the ability of these fungi to transform or remove PAHs, and their associated enzymes are encoded in the xenome. Functional genomics offers novel information about this enzymatic system, which is widely distributed among all phyla. PMID:26722717

  19. Saitoella coloradoensis sp. nov., a new species of the Ascomycota, subphylum Taphrinomycotina.

    PubMed

    Kurtzman, Cletus P; Robnett, Christie J

    2012-05-01

    Saitoella coloradoensis sp. nov. (NRRL YB-2330, CBS 12360, type strain, MycoBank accession number 563858) is described. This new member of the phylum Ascomycota, subphylum Taphrinomycotina was isolated from insect frass occurring in an Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii) that was growing in Colorado, USA. Multigene sequence analysis showed that S. coloradoensis is distinct from Saitoella complicata, the only other known species of Saitoella. The two species may be separated phenotypically from growth reactions on D: -xylose, ribitol and methyl-α-D: -glucoside. Asexual reproduction is by budding and both species produce thick-walled, spherical cells that appear morphologically similar to the ascogenous cells formed in plant host tissue by species of Protomyces and some species of Taphrina. The thick-walled cells did not form ascospores but did produce buds when placed on fresh growth media. PMID:22246589

  20. Molecular analysis reveals two new dimorphic species of Hesperomyces (Ascomycota, Laboulbeniomycetes) parasitic on the ladybird Coleomegilla maculata (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae).

    PubMed

    Goldmann, Lauren; Weir, Alex; Rossi, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Four morphotypes of Hesperomyces (Ascomycota, Laboulbeniomycetes) were found on the ladybird Coleomegilla maculata (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae) from Costa Rica and Ecuador. Partial SSU and ITS rDNA sequence analysis revealed that these belong to two phylogenetic species, each with a pair of morphotypes displaying position specificity. Confirmation of dimorphism in Laboulbeniales highlights the need for a thorough systematic revision of species concepts within the order. The theory of 'position specificity' also needs to be revisited. PMID:24295919

  1. Ascomycota Members Dominate Fungal Communities during Straw Residue Decomposition in Arable Soil

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Anzhou; Zhuang, Xuliang; Wu, Junmei; Cui, Mengmeng; Lv, Di; Liu, Chunzhao; Zhuang, Guoqiang

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the development of fungal community composition in arable soil during the degradation of straw residue. We explored the short-term responses of the fungal community over 28 days of decomposition in soil using culture-independent polymerase chain reaction in combination with a clone library and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Fungal cellobiohydrolase I (cbhI) genes in the soil were also characterized, and their diversity suggested the existence of a different cellulose decomposer. The DGGE profiles based on fungal internal transcribed spacer analysis showed different successions of fungal populations during residue decomposition. Members of Lecythophora and Sordariales were dominant in the early succession, while Hypocrea and Engyodontium were better adapted in the late succession. The succession of fungal communities might be related to changes of residue quality during decomposition. Collectively, sequences assigned to Ascomycota members were dominant at different stages of the fungal succession during decomposition, revealing that they were key drivers responsible for residue degradation in the arable soil tested. PMID:23840414

  2. Main airborne Ascomycota spores: characterization by culture, spore morphology, ribosomal DNA sequences and enzymatic analysis.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Manuela; Amorim, M Isabel; Ferreira, Elsa; Delgado, Luís; Abreu, Ilda

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this work was to identify the main allergy-related Ascomycetes fungal spores present in the atmosphere of Porto, using different and complementary techniques. The atmospheric sampling, performed in the atmosphere of Porto (Portugal) from August 2006 to July 2008, indicated Cladosporium, Penicillium, Aspergillus and Alternaria as the main fungal spore taxa. Alternaria and Cladosporium peaks were registered during summer. Aspergillus and Penicillium highest values were registered from late winter to early spring. Additionally, the Andersen sampler allowed the culture and isolation of the collected viable spores subsequently used for different identification approaches. The internal-transcribed spacer region of the nuclear ribosomal repeat unit sequences of airborne Ascomycetes fungi isolates revealed 11 taxonomically related fungal species. Among the identified taxa, Penicillum and Aspergillus presented the highest diversity, while only one species of Cladosporium and Alternaria, respectively, were identified. All selected fungal spore taxa possessed phosphatase, esterase, leucine arylamidase and beta-glucosidase enzymatic activity, while none had lipase, cystine arylamidase, trypsin or beta-glucuronidase activity. The association between the spore cell wall morphology, DNA-based techniques and enzymatic activity approaches allowed a more reliable identification procedure of the airborne Ascomycota fungal spores. PMID:20143229

  3. Rickia wasmannii increases the need for water in Myrmica scabrinodis (Ascomycota: Laboulbeniales; Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    PubMed

    Báthori, Ferenc; Csata, Enikő; Tartally, András

    2015-03-01

    The order Laboulbeniales (Fungi, Ascomycota) is a little-studied group of microscopic ectoparasites of invertebrates, mostly insects. The effects of Laboulbeniales species on their hosts are mostly unknown. Rickia wasmannii Cavara, 1899 is a common Laboulbeniales fungus occurring in Europe and is currently known to be a parasite of at least eight Myrmica ant species. R.wasmannii serves as a good model organism for Laboulbeniales-host interactions, as this species covers the host in a very high density, and infected host individuals can be easily collected in high numbers. The effect of R. wasmannii on the survival rate of its most common host species, Myrmica scabrinodis Nylander 1846, was therefore investigated in a laboratory experiment on an individual level. To enhance the results, environmental stresses were simulated by depriving infected and uninfected workers of water and food. The survival of individuals was recorded hourly until the death of the last individual. Infected specimens were significantly more sensitive to the withdrawal of food and water than uninfected specimens. When we tested for water consumption, we found that infected ants spent more time consuming water than uninfected ants. Therefore, it is possible that infected ants must replace the loss of water. Based on these results, R. wasmannii substantially decreases the chances and time of survival of infected individuals, at least in resource-limited environments, which suggest that R. wasmannii has a negative effect on its host. PMID:25620725

  4. Ascomycota members dominate fungal communities during straw residue decomposition in arable soil.

    PubMed

    Ma, Anzhou; Zhuang, Xuliang; Wu, Junmei; Cui, Mengmeng; Lv, Di; Liu, Chunzhao; Zhuang, Guoqiang

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the development of fungal community composition in arable soil during the degradation of straw residue. We explored the short-term responses of the fungal community over 28 days of decomposition in soil using culture-independent polymerase chain reaction in combination with a clone library and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Fungal cellobiohydrolase I (cbhI) genes in the soil were also characterized, and their diversity suggested the existence of a different cellulose decomposer. The DGGE profiles based on fungal internal transcribed spacer analysis showed different successions of fungal populations during residue decomposition. Members of Lecythophora and Sordariales were dominant in the early succession, while Hypocrea and Engyodontium were better adapted in the late succession. The succession of fungal communities might be related to changes of residue quality during decomposition. Collectively, sequences assigned to Ascomycota members were dominant at different stages of the fungal succession during decomposition, revealing that they were key drivers responsible for residue degradation in the arable soil tested. PMID:23840414

  5. The anamorphic genus Monotosporella (Ascomycota) from Eocene amber and from modern Agathis resin.

    PubMed

    Sadowski, Eva-Maria; Beimforde, Christina; Gube, Matthias; Rikkinen, Jouko; Singh, Hukam; Seyfullah, Leyla J; Heinrichs, Jochen; Nascimbene, Paul C; Reitner, Joachim; Schmidt, Alexander R

    2012-10-01

    The anamorphic fungal genus Monotosporella (Ascomycota, Sordariomycetes) has been reco-vered from a piece of Early Eocene Indian amber, as well as from the surface of extant resin flows in New Caledonia. The fossil fungus was obtained from the Tarkeshwar Lignite Mine of Gujarat State, western India, and was part of the biota of an early tropical angiosperm rainforest. The amber inclusion represents the second fossil record of Sordariomycetes, as well as the first fossil of its particular order (either Savoryellales or Chaetosphaeriales). The fossil fungus is distinguished from extant representatives by possessing both short conidiophores and small two-septate pyriform conidia, and is described as Monotosporella doerfeltii sp. nov. Inside the amber, the anamorph is attached to its substrate, which is likely the degraded thallus of a cladoniform lichen. The extant New Caledonian species is assigned to Monotosporella setosa. It was found growing on semi-solidified resin flows of Agathis ovata (Araucariaceae), and is the first record of Monotosporella from modern resin substrates. PMID:23063189

  6. New species of Elaphomyces (Elaphomycetaceae, Eurotiales, Ascomycota) from tropical rainforests of Cameroon and Guyana.

    PubMed

    Castellano, Michael A; Dentinger, Bryn T M; Séné, Olivier; Elliott, Todd F; Truong, Camille; Henkel, Terry W

    2016-06-01

    The sequestrate false truffles Elaphomyces favosus, E. iuppitercellus, and E. labyrinthinus spp. nov. are described as new to science from the Dja Biosphere Reserve, Cameroon. Elaphomyces adamizans sp. nov. is described as new from the Pakaraima Mountains of Guyana. The Cameroonian species are the first Elaphomyces taxa to be formally described from Africa, occurring in lowland Guineo-Congolian tropical rainforests dominated by the ectomycorrhizal (ECM) canopy tree Gilbertiodendron dewevrei (Fabaceae subfam. Caesalpinioideae). The Guyanese species is the third to be discovered in lowland tropical South America, occurring in forests dominated by the ECM trees Pakaraimaea dipterocarpacea (Dipterocarpaceae) and Dicymbe jenmanii (Fabaceae subfam. Caesalpinioideae). Macromorphological, micromorphological, habitat, and DNA sequence data are provided for each new species. Molecular and morphological data place these fungi in Elaphomycetaceae (Eurotiales, Ascomycota). Unique morphological features are congruent with molecular delimitation of each of the new species based on a phylogenetic analysis of the rDNA ITS and 28S loci across the Elaphomycetaceae. The phylogenetic analysis also suggests that a common ancestor is shared between some Elaphomyces species from Africa and South America, and that species of the stalked, volvate genus Pseudotulostoma may be nested in Elaphomyces. PMID:27433441

  7. Molecular characterization and comparative virulence of Beauveria bassiana isolates (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) associated with the greenhouse shore fly, Scatella tenuicosta (Diptera: Ephydridae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reports of natural infections of the insect pathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill. (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) in greenhouses and laboratory colonies of Scatella tenuicosta Collin (Diptera: Ephydridae), a nuisance pest and vector of plant pathogens, suggest the potential for using B. bass...

  8. Histopathological effects of Aspergillus clavatus (Ascomycota: Trichocomaceae) on larvae of the southern house mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Bawin, Thomas; Seye, Fawrou; Boukraa, Slimane; Zimmer, Jean-Yves; Raharimalala, Fara Nantenaina; Ndiaye, Mady; Compere, Philippe; Delvigne, Frank; Francis, Frédéric

    2016-04-01

    Aspergillus clavatus (Ascomycota: Trichocomaceae) was previously found to be an opportunistic pathogen of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae). In the present study, the mechanism leading to its insecticidal activity was investigated regarding histological damages on Culex quinquefasciatus larvae exposed to A. clavatus spores. Multiple concentration assays using spore suspensions (0.5-2.5 × 10(8) spores ml(-1)) revealed 17.0-74.3 % corrected mortalities after 48 h exposure. Heat-deactivated spores induced a lower mortality compared to nonheated spores suggesting that insecticidal effects are actively exerted. Spore-treated and untreated larvae were prepared for light microscopy as well as for scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Spores failed to adhere to the external body surface (except the mouth parts) of these aquatic immature stages but progressively filled the digestive tract where their metabolism seemed to activate. In parallel, the internal tissues of the larvae, i.e. the midgut wall, the skeletal muscles, and the cuticle-secreting epidermis, were progressively destroyed between 8 and 24 h of exposure. These observations suggest that toxins secreted by active germinating spores of A. clavatus in the digestive tract altered the larval tissues, leading to their necrosis and causing larval death. Fungal proliferation and sporulation then occurred during a saprophytic phase. A. clavatus enzymes or toxins responsible for these pathogenic effects need to be identified in further studies before any use of this fungus in mosquito control. PMID:27020151

  9. Conservation and divergence of transcriptional coregulations between box C/D snoRNA and ribosomal protein genes in Ascomycota

    PubMed Central

    Diao, Li-Ting; Xiao, Zhen-Dong; Leng, Xiao-Min; Li, Bin; Li, Jun-Hao; Luo, Yu-Ping; Li, Si-Guang; Yu, Chuan-He; Zhou, Hui

    2014-01-01

    Coordinated assembly of the ribosome is essential for proper translational activity in eukaryotic cells. It is therefore critical to coordinate the expression of components of ribosomal programs with the cell's nutritional status. However, coordinating expression of these components is poorly understood. Here, by combining experimental and computational approaches, we systematically identified box C/D snoRNAs in four fission yeasts and found that the expression of box C/D snoRNA and ribosomal protein (RP) genes were orchestrated by a common Homol-D box, thereby ensuring a constant balance of these two genetic components. Interestingly, such transcriptional coregulations could be observed in most Ascomycota species and were mediated by different cis-regulatory elements. Via the reservation of cis elements, changes in spatial configuration, the substitution of cis elements, and gain or loss of cis elements, the regulatory networks of box C/D snoRNAs evolved to correspond with those of the RP genes, maintaining transcriptional coregulation between box C/D snoRNAs and RP genes. Our results indicate that coregulation via common cis elements is an important mechanism to coordinate expression of the RP and snoRNA genes, which ensures a constant balance of these two components. PMID:25002674

  10. Seasonality of Laboulbenia phaeoxanthae (Ascomycota, Laboulbeniales) and its host Phaeoxantha aequinoctialis (Coleoptera, Carabidae) at a central Amazonian blackwater floodplain.

    PubMed

    Zerm, Matthias; Adis, Joachim

    2004-05-01

    Terrestrial invertebrates in central Amazonian floodplains must cope with annual long-term inundation. Parasites should be affected mainly indirectly through the specific life-cycles of their hosts. We studied the temporal structure of a beetle-fungus system at a central Amazonian blackwater floodplain (Rio Negro, Brazil). The host species Phaeoxantha aequinoctialis (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Cicindelinae) showed a seasonal, univoltine life-cycle triggered by the annual flood pulse. Infestation frequency of its fungal parasite, Laboulbenia phaeoxanthae (Ascomycota, Laboulbeniales), varied seasonally. However, the seasonality was opposed in host and parasite: the lowest infestation frequencies were observed during periods of highest beetle abundance and vice versa. Periods of lowest beetle abundance coincided with the end of the old generation, those with highest abundance with the appearance of new adults. The resulting annual patterns of a slow spread in the host population resembled the few records of temporal patterns from temperate regions. It is explicitly demonstrated that older adult female beetles are more frequently infested than younger ones. Future studies may reveal whether this is simply the result of specific host life-cycles (driven by a flood pulse, winter, or other factors), or might also be related to potentially easier infestation in older individuals. PMID:15230009

  11. Multigene Molecular Phylogeny and Biogeographic Diversification of the Earth Tongue Fungi in the Genera Cudonia and Spathularia (Rhytismatales, Ascomycota)

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Zai-Wei; Yang, Zhu L.; Pfister, Donald H.; Carbone, Matteo; Bau, Tolgor; Smith, Matthew E.

    2014-01-01

    The family Cudoniaceae (Rhytismatales, Ascomycota) was erected to accommodate the “earth tongue fungi” in the genera Cudonia and Spathularia. There have been no recent taxonomic studies of these genera, and the evolutionary relationships within and among these fungi are largely unknown. Here we explore the molecular phylogenetic relationships within Cudonia and Spathularia using maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analyses based on 111 collections from across the Northern Hemisphere. Phylogenies based on the combined data from ITS, nrLSU, rpb2 and tef-1α sequences support the monophyly of three main clades, the /flavida, /velutipes, and /cudonia clades. The genus Cudonia and the family Cudoniaceae are supported as monophyletic groups, while the genus Spathularia is not monophyletic. Although Cudoniaceae is monophyletic, our analyses agree with previous studies that this family is nested within the Rhytismataceae. Our phylogenetic analyses circumscribes 32 species-level clades, including the putative recognition of 23 undescribed phylogenetic species. Our molecular phylogeny also revealed an unexpectedly high species diversity of Cudonia and Spathularia in eastern Asia, with 16 (out of 21) species-level clades of Cudonia and 8 (out of 11) species-level clades of Spathularia. We estimate that the divergence time of the Cudoniaceae was in the Paleogene approximately 28 Million years ago (Mya) and that the ancestral area for this group of fungi was in Eastern Asia based on the current data. We hypothesize that the large-scale geological and climatic events in Oligocene (e.g. the global cooling and the uplift of the Tibetan plateau) may have triggered evolutionary radiations in this group of fungi in East Asia. This work provides a foundation for future studies on the phylogeny, diversity, and evolution of Cudonia and Spathularia and highlights the need for more molecular studies on collections from Europe and North America. PMID:25084276

  12. First detection of the larval chalkbrood disease pathogen Ascosphaera apis (Ascomycota: Eurotiomycetes: Ascosphaerales) in adult bumble bees.

    PubMed

    Maxfield-Taylor, Sarah A; Mujic, Alija B; Rao, Sujaya

    2015-01-01

    Fungi in the genus Ascosphaera (Ascomycota: Eurotiomycetes: Ascosphaerales) cause chalkbrood disease in larvae of bees. Here, we report the first-ever detection of the fungus in adult bumble bees that were raised in captivity for studies on colony development. Wild queens of Bombus griseocollis, B. nevadensis and B. vosnesenskii were collected and maintained for establishment of nests. Queens that died during rearing or that did not lay eggs within one month of capture were dissected, and tissues were examined microscopically for the presence of pathogens. Filamentous fungi that were detected were plated on artificial media containing broad spectrum antibiotics for isolation and identification. Based on morphological characters, the fungus was identified as Ascosphaera apis (Maasen ex Claussen) Olive and Spiltoir, a species that has been reported earlier only from larvae of the European honey bee, Apis mellifera, the Asian honey bee, Apis cerana, and the carpenter bee Xylocopa californica arizonensis. The identity of the fungus was confirmed using molecular markers and phylogenetic analysis. Ascosphaera apis was detected in queens of all three bumble bee species examined. Of 150 queens dissected, 12 (8%) contained vegetative and reproductive stages of the fungus. Both fungal stages were also detected in two workers collected from colonies with Ascosphaera-infected B. nevadensis queens. In this study, wild bees could have been infected prior to capture for rearing, or, the A. apis infection could have originated via contaminated European honey bee pollen fed to the bumble bees in captivity. Thus, the discovery of A. apis in adult bumble bees in the current study has important implications for commercial production of bumble bee colonies and highlights potential risks to native bees via pathogen spillover from infected bees and infected pollen. PMID:25885679

  13. Origin and Diversification of Major Clades in Parmelioid Lichens (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota) during the Paleogene Inferred by Bayesian Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Amo de Paz, Guillermo; Cubas, Paloma; Divakar, Pradeep K.; Lumbsch, H. Thorsten; Crespo, Ana

    2011-01-01

    There is a long-standing debate on the extent of vicariance and long-distance dispersal events to explain the current distribution of organisms, especially in those with small diaspores potentially prone to long-distance dispersal. Age estimates of clades play a crucial role in evaluating the impact of these processes. The aim of this study is to understand the evolutionary history of the largest clade of macrolichens, the parmelioid lichens (Parmeliaceae, Lecanoromycetes, Ascomycota) by dating the origin of the group and its major lineages. They have a worldwide distribution with centers of distribution in the Neo- and Paleotropics, and semi-arid subtropical regions of the Southern Hemisphere. Phylogenetic analyses were performed using DNA sequences of nuLSU and mtSSU rDNA, and the protein-coding RPB1 gene. The three DNA regions had different evolutionary rates: RPB1 gave a rate two to four times higher than nuLSU and mtSSU. Divergence times of the major clades were estimated with partitioned BEAST analyses allowing different rates for each DNA region and using a relaxed clock model. Three calibrations points were used to date the tree: an inferred age at the stem of Lecanoromycetes, and two dated fossils: Parmelia in the parmelioid group, and Alectoria. Palaeoclimatic conditions and the palaeogeological area cladogram were compared to the dated phylogeny of parmelioid. The parmelioid group diversified around the K/T boundary, and the major clades diverged during the Eocene and Oligocene. The radiation of the genera occurred through globally changing climatic condition of the early Oligocene, Miocene and early Pliocene. The estimated divergence times are consistent with long-distance dispersal events being the major factor to explain the biogeographical distribution patterns of Southern Hemisphere parmelioids, especially for Africa-Australia disjunctions, because the sequential break-up of Gondwana started much earlier than the origin of these clades. However, our

  14. First Detection of the Larval Chalkbrood Disease Pathogen Ascosphaera apis (Ascomycota: Eurotiomycetes: Ascosphaerales) in Adult Bumble Bees

    PubMed Central

    Maxfield-Taylor, Sarah A.; Mujic, Alija B.; Rao, Sujaya

    2015-01-01

    Fungi in the genus Ascosphaera (Ascomycota: Eurotiomycetes: Ascosphaerales) cause chalkbrood disease in larvae of bees. Here, we report the first-ever detection of the fungus in adult bumble bees that were raised in captivity for studies on colony development. Wild queens of Bombus griseocollis, B. nevadensis and B. vosnesenskii were collected and maintained for establishment of nests. Queens that died during rearing or that did not lay eggs within one month of capture were dissected, and tissues were examined microscopically for the presence of pathogens. Filamentous fungi that were detected were plated on artificial media containing broad spectrum antibiotics for isolation and identification. Based on morphological characters, the fungus was identified as Ascosphaera apis (Maasen ex Claussen) Olive and Spiltoir, a species that has been reported earlier only from larvae of the European honey bee, Apis mellifera, the Asian honey bee, Apis cerana, and the carpenter bee Xylocopa californica arizonensis. The identity of the fungus was confirmed using molecular markers and phylogenetic analysis. Ascosphaera apis was detected in queens of all three bumble bee species examined. Of 150 queens dissected, 12 (8%) contained vegetative and reproductive stages of the fungus. Both fungal stages were also detected in two workers collected from colonies with Ascosphaera-infected B. nevadensis queens. In this study, wild bees could have been infected prior to capture for rearing, or, the A. apis infection could have originated via contaminated European honey bee pollen fed to the bumble bees in captivity. Thus, the discovery of A. apis in adult bumble bees in the current study has important implications for commercial production of bumble bee colonies and highlights potential risks to native bees via pathogen spillover from infected bees and infected pollen. PMID:25885679

  15. Origin and diversification of major clades in parmelioid lichens (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota) during the Paleogene inferred by Bayesian analysis.

    PubMed

    Amo de Paz, Guillermo; Cubas, Paloma; Divakar, Pradeep K; Lumbsch, H Thorsten; Crespo, Ana

    2011-01-01

    There is a long-standing debate on the extent of vicariance and long-distance dispersal events to explain the current distribution of organisms, especially in those with small diaspores potentially prone to long-distance dispersal. Age estimates of clades play a crucial role in evaluating the impact of these processes. The aim of this study is to understand the evolutionary history of the largest clade of macrolichens, the parmelioid lichens (Parmeliaceae, Lecanoromycetes, Ascomycota) by dating the origin of the group and its major lineages. They have a worldwide distribution with centers of distribution in the Neo- and Paleotropics, and semi-arid subtropical regions of the Southern Hemisphere. Phylogenetic analyses were performed using DNA sequences of nuLSU and mtSSU rDNA, and the protein-coding RPB1 gene. The three DNA regions had different evolutionary rates: RPB1 gave a rate two to four times higher than nuLSU and mtSSU. Divergence times of the major clades were estimated with partitioned BEAST analyses allowing different rates for each DNA region and using a relaxed clock model. Three calibrations points were used to date the tree: an inferred age at the stem of Lecanoromycetes, and two dated fossils: Parmelia in the parmelioid group, and Alectoria. Palaeoclimatic conditions and the palaeogeological area cladogram were compared to the dated phylogeny of parmelioid. The parmelioid group diversified around the K/T boundary, and the major clades diverged during the Eocene and Oligocene. The radiation of the genera occurred through globally changing climatic condition of the early Oligocene, Miocene and early Pliocene. The estimated divergence times are consistent with long-distance dispersal events being the major factor to explain the biogeographical distribution patterns of Southern Hemisphere parmelioids, especially for Africa-Australia disjunctions, because the sequential break-up of Gondwana started much earlier than the origin of these clades. However, our

  16. Miocene and Pliocene dominated diversification of the lichen-forming fungal genus Melanohalea (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota) and Pleistocene population expansions

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Factors promoting diversification in lichen symbioses remain largely unexplored. While Pleistocene events have been important for driving diversification and affecting distributions in many groups, recent estimates suggest that major radiations within some genera in the largest clade of macrolichens (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota) vastly predate the Pleistocene. To better understand the temporal placement and sequence of diversification events in lichens, we estimated divergence times in a common lichen-forming fungal genus, Melanohalea, in the Northern Hemisphere. Divergence times were estimated using both concatenated gene tree and coalescent-based multilocus species tree approaches to assess the temporal context of major radiation events within Melanohalea. In order to complement our understanding of processes impacting genetic differentiation, we also evaluated the effects of Pleistocene glacial cycles on population demographics of distinct Melanohalea lineages, differing in reproductive strategies. Results We found that divergence estimates, from both concatenated gene tree and coalescent-based multilocus species tree approaches, suggest that diversification within Melanohalea occurred predominantly during the Miocene and Pliocene, although estimated of divergence times differed by up to 8.3 million years between the two methods. These results indicate that, in some cases, taxonomically diagnostic characters may be maintained among divergent lineages for millions of years. In other cases, similar phenotypic characters among non-sister taxa, including reproductive strategies, suggest the potential for convergent evolution due to similar selective pressures among distinct lineages. Our analyses provide evidence of population expansions predating the last glacial maximum in the sampled lineages. These results suggest that Pleistocene glaciations were not inherently unfavorable or restrictive for some Melanohalea species, albeit with apparently different

  17. First record of Clonostachys rosea (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) as an entomopathogenic fungus of Oncometopia tucumana and Sonesimia grossa (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Toledo, A V; Virla, E; Humber, R A; Paradell, S L; Lastra, C C López

    2006-05-01

    Clonostachys rosea (Link: Fries) Schroers, Samuels, Seifert, and Gams (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) has been reported as a mycoparasite of fungi and nematodes and as saprobe in soils, but this fungus has not been reported previously to be entomopathogenic. Many species of cicadellid leafhoppers cause economic damage to crops as vectors of plant pathogens. In the present work, we report the first record of C. rosea as an entomopathogenic fungus of two leafhoppers pest, Oncometopia tucumana and Sonesimia grossa (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), in Argentina and evaluate the pathogenicity of C. rosea against them. PMID:16580016

  18. Who's getting around? Assessing species diversity and phylogeography in the widely distributed lichen-forming fungal genus Montanelia (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota).

    PubMed

    Leavitt, Steven D; Divakar, Pradeep K; Ohmura, Yoshihito; Wang, Li-Song; Esslinger, Theodore L; Lumbsch, H Thorsten

    2015-09-01

    Brown parmelioid lichens comprise a number of distinct genera in one of the most species-rich families of lichen-forming fungi, Parmeliaceae (Ascomycota). In spite of their superficial similarity, a number of studies of brown parmelioids have provided important insight into diversification in lichen-forming fungi with cosmopolitan distributions. In this study we assess species diversity, biogeography and diversification of the genus Montanelia, which includes alpine to temperate saxicolous species. We sampled each of the five known species, four of which are known from broad, intercontinental distributions. In order to identify potential biogeographical patterns, each broadly distributed species was represented by individuals collected across their intercontinental distributions. Molecular sequence data were generated for six loci, including three nuclear protein-coding markers (MCM7, RPB1, and RPB2), two nuclear ribosomal markers (ITS and nrLSU), and a fragment of the mitochondrial small subunit. We used three sequence-based species delimitations methods to validate traditional, phenotype-based species and circumscribe previously unrecognized species-level lineages in Montanelia. Relationships among putative lineages and divergence times were estimated within a coalescent-based multi-locus species tree framework. Based on the results of the species delimitation analyses, we propose that the genus Montanelia is likely comprised of six to nine species-level lineages, including previously unrecognized species-level diversity in the nominal taxa M. panniformis and M. tominii. In contrast, molecular sequence data suggest that M. predisjuncta may be conspecific with the widespread taxon M. disjuncta in spite of distinct morphological differences. The rate-based age estimation of the most recent common ancestor of Montanelia (ca. 23.1Ma) was similar to previous estimates based on the fossil record. Furthermore, our data suggest that diversification in Montanelia occurred

  19. A monograph of Allantonectria, Nectria, and Pleonectria (Nectriaceae, Hypocreales, Ascomycota) and their pycnidial, sporodochial, and synnematous anamorphs

    PubMed Central

    Hirooka, Y.; Rossman, A.Y.; Samuels, G.J.; Lechat, C.; Chaverri, P.

    2012-01-01

    Although Nectria is the type genus of Nectriaceae (Hypocreales, Sordariomycetes, Pezizomycotina, Ascomycota), the systematics of the teleomorphic and anamorphic state of Nectria sensu Rossman has not been studied in detail. The objectives of this study are to 1) provide a phylogenetic overview to determine if species of Nectria with Gyrostroma, Tubercularia, and Zythiostroma anamorphs form a monophyletic group; 2) define Nectria, segregate genera, and their species using morphologically informative characters of teleomorphic and anamorphic states; and 3) provide descriptions and illustrations of these genera and species. To accomplish these objectives, results of phylogenetic analyses of DNA sequence data from six loci (act, ITS, LSU, rpb1, tef1 and tub), were integrated with morphological characterisations of anamorphs and teleomorphs. Results from the phylogenetic analyses demonstrate that species previously regarded as the genus Nectria having Gyrostroma, Tubercularia, and Zythiostroma anamorphs belong in two major paraphyletic clades. The first major clade regarded as the genus Pleonectria contains 26 species with ascoconidia produced by ascospores in asci, perithecial walls having bright yellow scurf, and immersed or superficial pycnidial anamorphs (Zythiostroma = Gyrostroma). A lineage basal to the Pleonectria clade includes Nectria miltina having very small, aseptate ascospores, and trichoderma-like conidiophores and occurring on monocotyledonous plants. These characteristics are unusual in Pleonectria, thus we recognise the monotypic genus Allantonectria with Allantonectria miltina. The second major clade comprises the genus Nectria sensu stricto including the type species, N. cinnabarina, and 28 additional species. Within the genus Nectria, four subclades exist. One subclade includes species with sporodochial anamorphs and another with synnematous anamorphs. The other two paraphyletic subclades include species that produce abundant stromata in which the

  20. A new species of Phyllopsora (Lecanorales, lichen-forming Ascomycota) from Dominican amber, with remarks on the fossil history of lichens.

    PubMed

    Rikkinen, Jouko; Poinar, George O

    2008-01-01

    Phyllopsora dominicanus sp. nov. (Bacidiaceae, Lecanorales, lichen-forming Ascomycota) is described and illustrated from Dominican amber. The diagnostic features of the lichen include a minute subfolious thallus of lacinulate, ascending squamules, a well-developed upper cortex, and a net-like pseudocortex on the lower surface. The algal symbionts are unicellular green algae, forming a distinct layer immediately below the upper cortex. The fossil demonstrates that distinguishing features of Phyllopsora have remained unchanged for tens of millions of years. The fossil also provides the first detailed views of mycobiont-photobiont contacts in Tertiary green algal lichens. The mycobiont hyphae formed apical and intercalary appressoria by pressing closely against the photobiont cells. This indicates that a conserved maintenance of structure is also seen in the fine details of the fungal-algal interface. PMID:18319239

  1. Fodinomyces uranophilus gen. nov. sp. nov. and Coniochaeta fodinicola sp. nov., two uranium mine-inhabiting Ascomycota fungi from northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Campos, Xabier; Kinsela, Andrew S; Waite, T David; Collins, Richard N; Neilan, Brett A

    2014-01-01

    Seven acidophilic/acidotolerant fungal strains were characterized from samples of process waters (raffinate) at one of Australia's largest uranium mines, the Ranger Mine in Northern Territory. They were isolated from raffinate, which typically were very acidic (pH 1.7-1.8) and contained high concentrations of total dissolved/colloidal salts (> 100 g/L). Five of the isolates correspond to two new acidotolerant Ascomycota fungi. The first is a member of a new genus, here described as Fodinomyces (Teratosphaeriaceae, Capnodiales, Dothideomycetes) and does not show clear close affiliation with any other described fungus in the scientific literature. The second belongs to the genus Coniochaeta (Coniochaetaceae, Coniochaetales, Sordariomycetes) and is closely related to Coniochaeta hansenii. PMID:25143478

  2. Multilocus phylogeny of the lichen-forming fungal genus Melanohalea (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota): insights on diversity, distributions, and a comparison of species tree and concatenated topologies.

    PubMed

    Leavitt, Steven D; Esslinger, Theodore L; Spribille, Toby; Divakar, Pradeep K; Thorsten Lumbsch, H

    2013-01-01

    Accurate species circumscriptions are central for many biological disciplines and have critical implications for ecological and conservation studies. An increasing body of evidence suggests that in some cases traditional morphology-based taxonomy have underestimated diversity in lichen-forming fungi. Therefore, genetic data play an increasing role for recognizing distinct lineages of lichenized fungi that it would otherwise be improbable to recognize using classical phenotypic characters. Melanohalea (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota) is one of the most widespread and common lichen-forming genera in the northern Hemisphere. In this study, we assess traditional phenotype-based species boundaries, identify previously unrecognized species-level lineages and discuss biogeographic patterns in Melanohalea. We sampled 487 individuals worldwide, representing 18 of the 22 described Melanohalea species, and generated DNA sequence data from mitochondrial, nuclear ribosomal, and protein-coding markers. Diversity previously hidden within traditional species was identified using a genealogical concordance approach. We inferred relationships among sampled species-level lineages within Melanohalea using both concatenated phylogenetic methods and a coalescent-based multilocus species tree approach. Although lineages identified from genetic data are largely congruent with traditional taxonomy, we found strong evidence supporting the presence of previously unrecognized species in six of the 18 sampled taxa. Strong nodal support and overall congruence among independent loci suggest long-term reproductive isolation among most species-level lineages. While some Melanohalea taxa are truly widespread, a limited number of clades appear to have much more restricted distributional ranges. In most instances the concatenated gene tree and multilocus species tree approaches provided similar estimates of relationships. However, nodal support was generally higher in the phylogeny estimated from

  3. Rapid discovery and functional characterization of terpene synthases from four endophytic xylariaceae

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wu, Weihua; Tran, William; Taatjes, Craig A.; Alonso-Gutierrez, Jorge; Lee, Taek Soon; Gladden, John M.; Hamberger, Bjorn

    2016-02-17

    Endophytic fungi are ubiquitous plant endosymbionts that establish complex and poorly understood relationships with their host organisms. Many endophytic fungi are known to produce a wide spectrum of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with potential energy applications, which have been described as "mycodiesel". Many of these mycodiesel hydrocarbons are terpenes, a chemically diverse class of compounds produced by many plants, fungi, and bacteria. Due to their high energy densities, terpenes, such as pinene and bisabolene, are actively being investigated as potential "drop-in" biofuels for replacing diesel and aviation fuel. In this study, we rapidly discovered and characterized 26 terpene synthases (TPSs)more » derived from four endophytic fungi known to produce mycodiesel hydrocarbons. The TPS genes were expressed in an E. coli strain harboring a heterologous mevalonate pathway designed to enhance terpene production, and their product profiles were determined using Solid Phase Micro-Extraction (SPME) and GC-MS. Lastly, out of the 26 TPS’s profiled, 12 TPS’s were functional, with the majority of them exhibiting both monoterpene and sesquiterpene synthase activity.« less

  4. Rapid Discovery and Functional Characterization of Terpene Synthases from Four Endophytic Xylariaceae

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Weihua; Tran, William; Taatjes, Craig A.; Alonso-Gutierrez, Jorge; Lee, Taek Soon; Gladden, John M.

    2016-01-01

    Endophytic fungi are ubiquitous plant endosymbionts that establish complex and poorly understood relationships with their host organisms. Many endophytic fungi are known to produce a wide spectrum of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with potential energy applications, which have been described as "mycodiesel". Many of these mycodiesel hydrocarbons are terpenes, a chemically diverse class of compounds produced by many plants, fungi, and bacteria. Due to their high energy densities, terpenes, such as pinene and bisabolene, are actively being investigated as potential "drop-in" biofuels for replacing diesel and aviation fuel. In this study, we rapidly discovered and characterized 26 terpene synthases (TPSs) derived from four endophytic fungi known to produce mycodiesel hydrocarbons. The TPS genes were expressed in an E. coli strain harboring a heterologous mevalonate pathway designed to enhance terpene production, and their product profiles were determined using Solid Phase Micro-Extraction (SPME) and GC-MS. Out of the 26 TPS’s profiled, 12 TPS’s were functional, with the majority of them exhibiting both monoterpene and sesquiterpene synthase activity. PMID:26885833

  5. Rapid Discovery and Functional Characterization of Terpene Synthases from Four Endophytic Xylariaceae.

    PubMed

    Wu, Weihua; Tran, William; Taatjes, Craig A; Alonso-Gutierrez, Jorge; Lee, Taek Soon; Gladden, John M

    2016-01-01

    Endophytic fungi are ubiquitous plant endosymbionts that establish complex and poorly understood relationships with their host organisms. Many endophytic fungi are known to produce a wide spectrum of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with potential energy applications, which have been described as "mycodiesel". Many of these mycodiesel hydrocarbons are terpenes, a chemically diverse class of compounds produced by many plants, fungi, and bacteria. Due to their high energy densities, terpenes, such as pinene and bisabolene, are actively being investigated as potential "drop-in" biofuels for replacing diesel and aviation fuel. In this study, we rapidly discovered and characterized 26 terpene synthases (TPSs) derived from four endophytic fungi known to produce mycodiesel hydrocarbons. The TPS genes were expressed in an E. coli strain harboring a heterologous mevalonate pathway designed to enhance terpene production, and their product profiles were determined using Solid Phase Micro-Extraction (SPME) and GC-MS. Out of the 26 TPS's profiled, 12 TPS's were functional, with the majority of them exhibiting both monoterpene and sesquiterpene synthase activity. PMID:26885833

  6. Altitudinal patterns of Stereocaulon (Lichenized Ascomycota) in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Man-Rong

    2010-03-01

    Based on herbarium collections, the altitudinal distribution patterns of six species of the lichen genus Stereocaulon in China were analyzed. Species are elevation-dependent: normal distributions and corresponding empirical formulae were detected for the genus and S. japonicum and S. paschale, the species distributed in low elevation areas, and log-normal distributions detected for S. sorediiferum and S. tomentosum, the species in medium elevation areas, while S. pomiferum and S. myriocarpum, the species in high elevation areas, appear to be irregularly distributed according to altitude. Such formulae should prove valuable for biological conservation practices.

  7. New Elaphomyces species (Elaphomycetaceae, Eurotiales, Ascomycota) from Guyana.

    PubMed

    Castellano, Michael A; Henkel, Terry W; Miller, Steven L; Smith, Matthew E; Aime, M Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Elaphomyces compleximurus sp. nov. and E. digitatus sp. nov. are described from the Pakaraima Mountains of Guyana. Macromorphological, micromorphological, habitat and DNA sequence data are provided for each new species. This is the first report of Elaphomyces ascomata associated with ectomycorrhizal members of the Fabaceae and also for the genus from the lowland South American tropics. PMID:22505430

  8. Understanding phenotypical character evolution in parmelioid lichenized fungi (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota).

    PubMed

    Divakar, Pradeep K; Kauff, Frank; Crespo, Ana; Leavitt, Steven D; Lumbsch, H Thorsten

    2013-01-01

    Parmelioid lichens form a species-rich group of predominantly foliose and fruticose lichenized fungi encompassing a broad range of morphological and chemical diversity. Using a multilocus approach, we reconstructed a phylogeny including 323 OTUs of parmelioid lichens and employed ancestral character reconstruction methods to understand the phenotypical evolution within this speciose group of lichen-forming fungi. Specifically, we were interested in the evolution of growth form, epicortex structure, and cortical chemistry. Since previous studies have shown that results may differ depending on the reconstruction method used, here we employed both maximum-parsimony and maximum-likelihood approaches to reconstruct ancestral character states. We have also implemented binary and multistate coding of characters and performed parallel analyses with both coding types to assess for potential coding-based biases. We reconstructed the ancestral states for nine well-supported major clades in the parmelioid group, two higher-level sister groups and the ancestral character state for all parmelioid lichens. We found that different methods for coding phenotypical characters and different ancestral character state reconstruction methods mostly resulted in identical reconstructions but yield conflicting inferences of ancestral states, in some cases. However, we found support for the ancestor of parmelioid lichens having been a foliose lichen with a non-pored epicortex and pseudocyphellae. Our data suggest that some traits exhibit patterns of evolution consistent with adaptive radiation. PMID:24312438

  9. Understanding Phenotypical Character Evolution in Parmelioid Lichenized Fungi (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota)

    PubMed Central

    Divakar, Pradeep K.; Kauff, Frank; Crespo, Ana; Leavitt, Steven D.; Lumbsch, H. Thorsten

    2013-01-01

    Parmelioid lichens form a species-rich group of predominantly foliose and fruticose lichenized fungi encompassing a broad range of morphological and chemical diversity. Using a multilocus approach, we reconstructed a phylogeny including 323 OTUs of parmelioid lichens and employed ancestral character reconstruction methods to understand the phenotypical evolution within this speciose group of lichen-forming fungi. Specifically, we were interested in the evolution of growth form, epicortex structure, and cortical chemistry. Since previous studies have shown that results may differ depending on the reconstruction method used, here we employed both maximum-parsimony and maximum-likelihood approaches to reconstruct ancestral character states. We have also implemented binary and multistate coding of characters and performed parallel analyses with both coding types to assess for potential coding-based biases. We reconstructed the ancestral states for nine well-supported major clades in the parmelioid group, two higher-level sister groups and the ancestral character state for all parmelioid lichens. We found that different methods for coding phenotypical characters and different ancestral character state reconstruction methods mostly resulted in identical reconstructions but yield conflicting inferences of ancestral states, in some cases. However, we found support for the ancestor of parmelioid lichens having been a foliose lichen with a non-pored epicortex and pseudocyphellae. Our data suggest that some traits exhibit patterns of evolution consistent with adaptive radiation. PMID:24312438

  10. Cladonia peziziformis (Lichenized Ascomycota, Cladoniaceae) New to Korea.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin Yu; Hur, Hyun; Lee, You Mi; Bae, Funny; Koh, Young Jin; Hur, Jae-Seoun

    2008-09-01

    Cladonia peziziformis (With.) J.R. Laundon was collected from Baega mountain, Jeonnam Province, Korea in 2008. It is characterized by short and slender podetia with verruculose surface, split along the sides. Apothecia large, pale brown, always growing on the top of the podetia. Primary squamules shell-like, thick, and convex. Fumarprotocetraric acid contained in thallus. This is the first record of this species in Korea. PMID:23997624

  11. Pupal Mortality and Adult Emergence of Western Cherry Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) Exposed to the Fungus Muscodor albus (Xylariales: Xylariaceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran, is a major pest of sweet cherry, Prunus avium (L.) L., that is conventionally controlled using insecticides. One alternative to the use of insecticides for fly control could be fumigation of the fly’s overwintering habitat using the fungus Mus...

  12. Proposal to conserve the name Diaporthe eres against all other competing names (Ascomycota, Diaporthales, Diaporthaceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With the change to one scientific name for pleomorphic fungi based on relative priority, Diaporthe represents the generic name that is older than the synonym Phomopsis. At present Diaporthe includes over 800 names while the number of names described in Phomopsis exceeds 1,000, thus merging these two...

  13. Phylogenetic overview of the genus Genea (Pezizales, Ascomycota) with an emphasis on European taxa.

    PubMed

    Alvarado, Pablo; Cabero, Julio; Moreno, Gabriel; Bratek, Zoltán; van Vooren, Nicolas; Kaounas, Vasileios; Konstantinidis, Giorgos; Agnello, Carlo; Merényi, Zsolt; Smith, Matthew E; Vizzini, Alfredo; Trappe, James M

    2016-01-01

    We constructed a comprehensive phylogeny of the genus Genea, with new molecular data from samples collected in several countries in temperate and Mediterranean Europe, as well as North America. Type specimens and authentic material of most species were examined to support identifications. The molecular identity of the most common species in Genea was compared with nuc rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS), D1-D2 domains of 28S nuc rDNA (28S rDNA) and translation elongation factor 1-α ene (TEF1) profiles of 10 recently proposed taxa, G. brunneocarpa, G. compressa, G. dentata, G. fageticola, G. lobulata, G. oxygala, G. pinicola, G. pseudobalsleyi, G. pseudoverrucosa and G. tuberculata, supporting their status as distinct species. Genea mexicana and G. thaxteri on the one hand and G. sphaerica and G. lespiaultii on the other are closely related. Multiple lineages were recorded for G. verrucosa and G. fragrans, but we found no morphological traits to discriminate among them, so we tentatively interpreted them as cryptic species. A key to species of the genus Genea is provided to facilitate identification. We provide macroscopic images of fresh specimens and of representative spores of most species. Finally, we conducted a molecular analysis of the divergence time for Genea and discuss the implications of our results. PMID:26740538

  14. Biocontrol of pigeon tick Argas reflexus (Acari: Argasidae) by entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium Anisopliae (Ascomycota: Hypocreales)

    PubMed Central

    Tavassoli, Mosa; Pourseyed, Seyed Hassan; Ownagh, Abdulghaffar; Bernousi, Iraj; Mardani, Karim

    2011-01-01

    The pigeon tick Argas reflexus is a pathogen-transmitting soft tick that typically feeds on pigeons, but can also attack humans causing local and systemic reactions. Chemical control is made difficult due to environmental contamination and resistance development. As a result, there is much interest in increasing the role of other strategies like biological control. In this study, the efficacy of three strains (V245, 685 and 715C) of entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae for biological control of three life stages of pigeon tick A. reflexus including eggs, larvae, engorged and unfed adults was investigated under laboratory conditions. Five concentrations of different strains of M. anisopliae ranging from 103 to 107 conidia/ml were used. All fungal strains significantly decreased hatchability of A. reflexus eggs. Strain V245 was the most effective strain on the mortality of larval stage with nearly 100% mortality at the lowest concentration (103 conidia/ml) at 10 days post-inoculation. The mortality rate of both engorged and unfed adult ticks were also increased significantly exposed to different conidial concentrations compared to the control groups (P < 0.05) making this fungus a potential biological control agent of pigeon tick reducing the use of chemical acaricides. PMID:24031777

  15. Sublethal Effects of Beauveria bassiana (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) on Life Table Parameters of Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Reitz, Stuart R; Wang, Haihong; Lei, Zhongren

    2015-06-01

    We assessed effects of parental exposure to Beauveria bassiana on life history traits of subsequent generations of western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Progeny from individuals that survived fungal exposure as second instars had significantly shorter egg stages, but longer prepupal development times than corresponding untreated controls. However, survivorship to adulthood of these progeny groups did not differ. Although fecundities of the parental types did not differ, the sex ratio of progeny from fungal-treated parents was male-biased, whereas sex ratio of progeny from untreated control parents was even. We calculated life table parameters for the progeny and found that all parameters, except for generation time, were significantly less for the progeny of fungal-treated parents than for progeny of untreated parents. The intrinsic rate of increase, finite rate of increase, net reproductive rate, mean generation time, and gross reproductive rate were 0.199 d(-1), 1.229 d(-1), 21.84, 15.48 d, and 27.273, respectively, for progeny of treated thrips, and 0.266 d(-1), 1.316 d(-1), 52.540, 14.92 d, and 70.64, respectively, for progeny of control thrips. Consequently, population projections demonstrated that offspring of parents exposed to B. bassiana would increase their population more slowly than those from untreated parents. These results demonstrate that B. bassiana has sublethal effects that reduce the reproductive success of F. occidentalis and these effects should be taken into account when evaluating its use in management programs for F. occidentalis. PMID:26470219

  16. Novel aspects in the life cycle and biotrophic interactions in Pezizomycetes (Ascomycota, Fungi).

    PubMed

    Tedersoo, Leho; Arnold, A Elizabeth; Hansen, Karen

    2013-03-01

    The ascomycete class Pezizomycetes (single order Pezizales)is known for its cup-shaped fruit bodies and the evolution of edible truffles and morels, but little is known about the ontogeny and ecology of this large and ecologically diverse fungal group. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Healy et al. (2013) make a great leap forward by describing and identifying asexual, anamorphic structures that produce mitotic spores in many ectomycorrhiza-forming truffle and nontruffle species on soil surfaces worldwide(Fig. 1). Although such anamorphic forms have been reported sporadically from certain ectomycorrhizal and saprotrophic Pezizomycetes (e.g. Warcup 1990), Healy et al. (2013) demonstrate that these terricolous asexual forms are both taxonomically and geographically more widespread and, in fact, much more common than previously understood. We anticipate that deeper insight into other substrates, provided by molecular analyses of materials such as dead wood and seeds, is likely to reveal numerous anamorphs of saprotrophic and pathogenic Pezizomycetes as well (see Marek et al. 2009). PMID:23599958

  17. Delimitation of Neonectria and Cylindrocarpon (Nectriaceae, Hypocreales, Ascomycota) and related genera with Cylindrocarpon-like anamorphs.

    PubMed

    Chaverri, P; Salgado, C; Hirooka, Y; Rossman, A Y; Samuels, G J

    2011-01-01

    Neonectria is a cosmopolitan genus and it is, in part, defined by its link to the anamorph genus Cylindrocarpon. Neonectria has been divided into informal groups on the basis of combined morphology of anamorph and teleomorph. Previously, Cylindrocarpon was divided into four groups defined by presence or absence of microconidia and chlamydospores. Molecular phylogenetic analyses have indicated that Neonectriasensu stricto and Cylindrocarponsensu stricto are phylogenetically congeneric. In addition, morphological and molecular data accumulated over several years have indicated that Neonectria sensu lato and Cylindrocarponsensu lato do not form a monophyletic group and that the respective informal groups may represent distinct genera. In the present work, a multilocus analysis (act, ITS, LSU, rpb1, tef1, tub) was applied to representatives of the informal groups to determine their level of phylogenetic support as a first step towards taxonomic revision of Neonectriasensu lato. Results show five distinct highly supported clades that correspond to some extent with the informal Neonectria and Cylindrocarpon groups that are here recognised as genera: (1) N. coccinea-group and Cylindrocarpon groups 1 & 4 (Neonectria/Cylindrocarponsensu stricto); (2) N.rugulosa-group (Rugonectria gen. nov.); (3) N. mammoidea/N. veuillotiana-groups and Cylindrocarpon group 2 (Thelonectria gen. nov.); (4) N. radicicola-group and Cylindrocarpon group 3 (Ilyonectria gen. nov.); and (5) anamorph genus Campylocarpon. Characteristics of the anamorphs and teleomorphs correlate with the five genera, three of which are newly described. New combinations are made for species where their classification is confirmed by phylogenetic data. PMID:21523189

  18. Delimitation of Neonectria and Cylindrocarpon (Nectriaceae, Hypocreales, Ascomycota) and related genera with Cylindrocarpon-like anamorphs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Neonectria is a cosmopolitan genus and it is, in part, defined by its link to the anamorph genus Cylindrocarpon. Neonectria has been divided into informal groups on the basis of combined morphology of anamorph and teleomorph. Forty years ago Booth divided Cylindrocarpon into four groups defined by p...

  19. Biogeography and Genetic Structure in Populations of a Widespread Lichen (Parmelina tiliacea, Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota).

    PubMed

    Núñez-Zapata, Jano; Cubas, Paloma; Hawksworth, David L; Crespo, Ana

    2015-01-01

    The genetic diversity and population structure of the foliose lichenized fungus Parmelina tiliacea has been analyzed through its geographical range, including samples from Macaronesia (Canary Islands), the Mediterranean, and Eurosiberia. DNA sequences from the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer, the mitochondrial large subunit ribosomal RNA gene, and the translation elongation factor 1-α were used as molecular markers. The haplotypes of the three markers and the molecular variance analyses of multilocus haplotypes showed the highest diversity in the Canary Islands, while restricted haplotypes occurred at high frequencies in Mediterranean coastal samples. The multilocus haplotypes formed three unevenly distributed clusters (clusters 1-3). In the Canary Islands all the haplotypes were present in a similar proportion, while the coastal Mediterranean sites had almost exclusively haplotypes of cluster 3; cluster 2 predominated in inland Mediterranean sites; and cluster 1 was more abundant in central and northern Europe (Eurosiberian area). The distribution of clusters is partially explained by climatic factors, and its interaction with local spatial structure, but much of the variation remains unexplained. The high frequency of individuals in the Canary Islands with haplotypes shared with other areas suggests that could be a refugium of genetic diversity, and the high frequency of individuals of the Mediterranean coastal sites with restricted haplotypes indicates that gene flow to contiguous areas may be restricted. This is significant for the selection of areas for conservation purposes, as those with most genetic variation may reflect historical factors and biological properties of the species. PMID:25961726

  20. Phylogeny and taxonomic revision of Thelonectria discophora (Ascomycota, Hypocreales, Nectriaceae) species complex

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thelonectria discophora (Thelonectria, Nectriaceae, Hypocreales) is a conspicuous group of saprobic fungi on decaying plant material, characterized by red perithecia each with a broad mammiform (nipple-like) apex. The anamorphic state is characterized by a cylindrocarpon-like morphology, with 3–5 se...

  1. Nine new cytochalasan alkaloids from Chaetomium globosum TW1-1 (Ascomycota, Sordariales).

    PubMed

    Chen, Chunmei; Tong, Qingyi; Zhu, Hucheng; Tan, Dongdong; Zhang, Jinwen; Xue, Yongbo; Yao, Guangmin; Luo, Zengwei; Wang, Jianping; Wang, Yanyan; Zhang, Yonghui

    2016-01-01

    Chemical investigation on the methanol extract of Chaetomium globosum TW1-1, a fungus isolated from the common pillbug (Armadillidium vulgare), has resulted in the isolation of nine new highly oxygenated cytochalasan alkaloids, armochaetoglobins S-Z (1 and 3-9) and 7-O-acetylarmochaetoglobin S (2), together with eight structurally related known analogues (10-17). Their structures and absolute configurations were elucidated by spectroscopic analyses. Among them, compound 2 presents to be the first member of chaetoglobosin family with an acetyl group, and compounds 3 represents the first chaetoglobosin characterized by an 2',3'-epoxy-indole moiety. The discovery of these new compounds revealed the largely untapped chemical diversity of cytochalasans and enriched their chemical research. Compounds 1-9 were evaluated for their cytotoxic activities against five human cancer cell lines, and compounds 8 and 9 exhibited significant cytotoxic activities with IC50 values ranging from 10.45 to 30.42 μM. PMID:26739896

  2. Nine new cytochalasan alkaloids from Chaetomium globosum TW1-1 (Ascomycota, Sordariales)

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chunmei; Tong, Qingyi; Zhu, Hucheng; Tan, Dongdong; Zhang, Jinwen; Xue, Yongbo; Yao, Guangmin; Luo, Zengwei; Wang, Jianping; Wang, Yanyan; Zhang, Yonghui

    2016-01-01

    Chemical investigation on the methanol extract of Chaetomium globosum TW1-1, a fungus isolated from the common pillbug (Armadillidium vulgare), has resulted in the isolation of nine new highly oxygenated cytochalasan alkaloids, armochaetoglobins S–Z (1 and 3–9) and 7-O-acetylarmochaetoglobin S (2), together with eight structurally related known analogues (10–17). Their structures and absolute configurations were elucidated by spectroscopic analyses. Among them, compound 2 presents to be the first member of chaetoglobosin family with an acetyl group, and compounds 3 represents the first chaetoglobosin characterized by an 2′,3′-epoxy-indole moiety. The discovery of these new compounds revealed the largely untapped chemical diversity of cytochalasans and enriched their chemical research. Compounds 1–9 were evaluated for their cytotoxic activities against five human cancer cell lines, and compounds 8 and 9 exhibited significant cytotoxic activities with IC50 values ranging from 10.45 to 30.42 μM. PMID:26739896

  3. Hypoxylon pulicicidum sp. nov. (Ascomycota, Xylariales), a Pantropical Insecticide-Producing Endophyte

    PubMed Central

    Bills, Gerald F.; González-Menéndez, Victor; Martín, Jesús; Platas, Gonzalo; Fournier, Jacques; Peršoh, Derek; Stadler, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Background Nodulisporic acids (NAs) are indole diterpene fungal metabolites exhibiting potent systemic efficacy against blood-feeding arthropods, e.g., bedbugs, fleas and ticks, via binding to arthropod specific glutamate-gated chloride channels. Intensive medicinal chemistry efforts employing a nodulisporic acid A template have led to the development of N-tert-butyl nodulisporamide as a product candidate for a once monthly treatment of fleas and ticks on companion animals. The source of the NAs is a monophyletic lineage of asexual endophytic fungal strains that is widely distributed in the tropics, tentatively identified as a Nodulisporium species and hypothesized to be the asexual state of a Hypoxylon species. Methods and Results Inferences from GenBank sequences indicated that multiple researchers have encountered similar Nodulisporium endophytes in tropical plants and in air samples. Ascomata-derived cultures from a wood-inhabiting fungus, from Martinique and closely resembling Hypoxylon investiens, belonged to the same monophyletic clade as the NAs-producing endophytes. The hypothesis that the Martinique Hypoxylon collections were the sexual state of the NAs-producing endophytes was tested by mass spectrometric analysis of NAs, multi-gene phylogenetic analysis, and phenotypic comparisons of the conidial states. We established that the Martinique Hypoxylon strains produced an ample spectrum of NAs and were conspecific with the pantropical Nodulisporium endophytes, yet were distinct from H. investiens. A new species, H. pulicicidum, is proposed to accommodate this widespread organism. Conclusions and Significance Knowledge of the life cycle of H. pulicicidum will facilitate an understanding of the role of insecticidal compounds produced by the fungus, the significance of its infections in living plants and how it colonizes dead wood. The case of H. pulicicidum exemplifies how life cycle studies can consolidate disparate observations of a fungal organism, whether from environmental sequences, vegetative mycelia or field specimens, resulting in holistic species concepts critical to the assessment of the dimensions of fungal diversity. PMID:23056404

  4. Molecular phylogenetics of Pleosporales: Melanommataceae and Lophiostomataceae re-circumscribed (Pleosporomycetidae, Dothideomycetes, Ascomycota)

    PubMed Central

    Mugambi, G.K.; Huhndorf, S.M.

    2009-01-01

    The classification of Pleosporales has posed major challenges due to the lack of clear understanding of the importance of the morphological characters used to distinguish between different groups in the order. This has resulted in varied taxonomic treatments of many families in the group including Melanommataceae and Lophiostomataceae. In this study we employ two nuclear DNA gene markers, nuclear ribosomal large subunit DNA and translation elongation factor 1-alpha in order to examine the molecular phylogenetics of Pleosporales with strong emphasis on the families Melanommataceae and Lophiostomataceae. Phylogenetic analyses recovered Melanommataceae, Lophiostomataceae, Hypsostromataceae, and a few others as strongly supported clades within the Pleosporales. Melanommataceae as currently circumscribed was found to be polyphyletic. The genera Byssosphaeria, Melanomma, and Pseudotrichia were recovered within the family, while others such as Ostropella and Xenolophium nested outside in a weakly supported group along with Platystomum compressum and Pseudotrichia guatopoensis that may correspond to the family Platystomaceae. The genus Byssosphaeria was recovered as a strongly supported group within the Melanommataceae while Melanomma was weakly supported with unclear relationships among the species. The genera Herpotrichia and Bertiella were also found to belong in the Melanommataceae. Lophiostomataceae occurs as a strongly supported group but its concept is here expanded to include a new genus Misturatosphaeria that bears morphology traditionally not known to occur in the family. The strongly supported clade of Misturatosphaeria contains nine species that have gregarious, papillate ascomata with lighter coloured apices and plugged ostioles and that vary in ascospore morphology from 1- to 3-septate to muriform. Along with a strongly supported Lophiostoma clade, also within the family are Thyridaria macrostomoides based on new sequences from Kenyan collections and Massariosphaeria triseptata, M. grandispora, Westerdykella cylindrica and Preussia terricola based on GenBank sequences. The family Hypsostromataceae was recovered as a strongly supported monophyletic group nested within the Pleosporales. PMID:20169025

  5. Seven wood-inhabiting new species of the genus Trichoderma (Fungi, Ascomycota) in Viride clade.

    PubMed

    Qin, Wen-Tao; Zhuang, Wen-Ying

    2016-01-01

    More than 200 recent collections of Trichoderma from China were examined and 16 species belonging to the Viride clade were identified based on integrated studies of phenotypic and molecular data. Among them, seven wood-inhabiting new species, T. albofulvopsis, T. densum, T. laevisporum, T. sinokoningii, T. sparsum, T. sphaerosporum and T. subviride, are found. They form trichoderma- to verticillium-like conidiophores, lageniform to subulate phialides and globose to ellipsoidal conidia, but vary greatly in colony features, growth rates, and sizes of phialides and conidia. To explore their taxonomic positions, the phylogenetic tree including all the known species of the Viride clade is constructed based on sequence analyses of the combined RNA polymerase II subunit b and translation elongation factor 1 alpha exon genes. Our results indicated that the seven new species were well-located in the Koningii, Rogersonii and Neorufum subclades as well as a few independent terminal branches. They are clearly distinguishable from any existing species. Morphological distinctions and sequence divergences between the new species and their close relatives were discussed. PMID:27245694

  6. Proposal to conserve the name Bipolaris against Cochliobolus (Ascomycota: Pleosporales: Pleosporaceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fungal genera Bipolaris Shoemaker and Cochliobolus Drechsler have been applied to economically important plant pathogens causing diseases of cereal crops worldwide, especially southern corn leaf blight. There are major accounts of these genera including those incorporating molecular phylogenetic...

  7. Common Microfungi of Costa Rica and Other Tropical Regions: An Illustrated Guide (Ascomycota, Pezizomycotina, Sordariomycetes)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One hundred and sixteen common tropical pyrenomycete fungi are described and illustrated in a bilingual (Spanish/English) guide. The pyrenomycete fungi include some of the most important plant and human pathogens and also are highly significant in nutrient cycling in tropical forest ecosystems. The...

  8. Extreme phenotypic variation in Cetraria aculeata (lichenized Ascomycota): adaptation or incidental modification?

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Ortega, Sergio; Fernández-Mendoza, Fernando; Raggio, José; Vivas, Mercedes; Ascaso, Carmen; Sancho, Leopoldo G.; Printzen, Christian; de los Ríos, Asunción

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Phenotypic variability is a successful strategy in lichens for colonizing different habitats. Vagrancy has been reported as a specific adaptation for lichens living in steppe habitats around the world. Among the facultatively vagrant species, the cosmopolitan Cetraria aculeata apparently forms extremely modified vagrant thalli in steppe habitats of Central Spain. The aim of this study was to investigate whether these changes are phenotypic plasticity (a single genotype producing different phenotypes), by characterizing the anatomical and ultrastructural changes observed in vagrant morphs, and measuring differences in ecophysiological performance. Methods Specimens of vagrant and attached populations of C. aculeata were collected on the steppes of Central Spain. The fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPD) and the large sub-unit of the mitochondrial ribosomal DNA (mtLSUm), and the algal ITS and actin were studied within a population genetics framework. Semi-thin and ultrathin sections were analysed by means of optical, scanning electron and transmission electron microscopy. Gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence were used to compare the physiological performance of both morphs. Key Results and Conclusions Vagrant and attached morphs share multilocus haplotypes which may indicate that they belong to the same species in spite of their completely different anatomy. However, differentiation tests suggested that vagrant specimens do not represent a random sub-set of the surrounding population. The morphological differences were related to anatomical and ultrastructural differences. Large intercalary growth rates of thalli after the loss of the basal–apical thallus polarity may be the cause of the increased growth shown by vagrant specimens. The anatomical and morphological changes lead to greater duration of ecophysiological activity in vagrant specimens. Although the anatomical and physiological changes could be chance effects, the genetic differentiation between vagrant and attached sub-populations and the higher biomass of the former show fitness effects and adaptation to dry environmental conditions in steppe habitats. PMID:22451601

  9. Assessment of ectomycorrhizal fungal communities in the natural habitats of Tuber magnatum (Ascomycota, Pezizales).

    PubMed

    Leonardi, M; Iotti, M; Oddis, M; Lalli, G; Pacioni, G; Leonardi, P; Maccherini, S; Perini, C; Salerni, E; Zambonelli, A

    2013-07-01

    The ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal communities of four natural Tuber magnatum truffle grounds, located in different Italian regions (Abruzzo, Emilia-Romagna, Molise, and Tuscany), were studied. The main objective of this study was to characterize and compare the ECM fungal communities in the different regions and in productive (where T. magnatum ascomata were found) and nonproductive points. More than 8,000 (8,100) colonized root tips were counted in 73 soil cores, and 129 operational taxonomic units were identified using morphological and molecular methods. Although the composition of the ECM fungal communities studied varied, we were able to highlight some common characteristics. The most plentiful ECM fungal taxa belong to the Thelephoraceae and Sebacinaceae families followed by Inocybaceae and Russulaceae. Although several ectomycorrhizas belonging to Tuber genus were identified, no T. magnatum ectomycorrhizas were found. The putative ecological significance of some species is discussed. PMID:23299664

  10. Delimitation of Neonectria and Cylindrocarpon (Nectriaceae, Hypocreales, Ascomycota) and related genera with Cylindrocarpon-like anamorphs

    PubMed Central

    Chaverri, P.; Salgado, C.; Hirooka, Y.; Rossman, A.Y.; Samuels, G.J.

    2011-01-01

    Neonectria is a cosmopolitan genus and it is, in part, defined by its link to the anamorph genus Cylindrocarpon. Neonectria has been divided into informal groups on the basis of combined morphology of anamorph and teleomorph. Previously, Cylindrocarpon was divided into four groups defined by presence or absence of microconidia and chlamydospores. Molecular phylogenetic analyses have indicated that Neonectria sensu stricto and Cylindrocarpon sensu stricto are phylogenetically congeneric. In addition, morphological and molecular data accumulated over several years have indicated that Neonectria sensu lato and Cylindrocarpon sensu lato do not form a monophyletic group and that the respective informal groups may represent distinct genera. In the present work, a multilocus analysis (act, ITS, LSU, rpb1, tef1, tub) was applied to representatives of the informal groups to determine their level of phylogenetic support as a first step towards taxonomic revision of Neonectria sensu lato. Results show five distinct highly supported clades that correspond to some extent with the informal Neonectria and Cylindrocarpon groups that are here recognised as genera: (1) N. coccinea-group and Cylindrocarpon groups 1 & 4 (Neonectria/Cylindrocarpon sensu stricto); (2) N. rugulosa-group (Rugonectria gen. nov.); (3) N. mammoidea/N. veuillotiana-groups and Cylindrocarpon group 2 (Thelonectria gen. nov.); (4) N. radicicola-group and Cylindrocarpon group 3 (Ilyonectria gen. nov.); and (5) anamorph genus Campylocarpon. Characteristics of the anamorphs and teleomorphs correlate with the five genera, three of which are newly described. New combinations are made for species where their classification is confirmed by phylogenetic data. PMID:21523189

  11. An Integrative Approach for Understanding Diversity in the Punctelia rudecta Species Complex (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota).

    PubMed

    Alors, David; Lumbsch, H Thorsten; Divakar, Pradeep K; Leavitt, Steven D; Crespo, Ana

    2016-01-01

    High levels of cryptic diversity have been documented in lichenized fungi, especially in Parmeliaceae, and integrating various lines of evidence, including coalescent-based species delimitation approaches, help establish more robust species circumscriptions. In this study, we used an integrative taxonomic approach to delimit species in the lichen-forming fungal genus Punctelia (Parmeliaceae), with a particular focus on the cosmopolitan species P. rudecta. Nuclear, mitochondrial ribosomal DNA and protein-coding DNA sequences were analyzed in phylogenetic and coalescence-based frameworks. Additionally, morphological, ecological and geographical features of the sampled specimens were evaluated. Five major strongly supported monophyletic clades were recognized in the genus Punctelia, and each clade could be characterized by distinct patterns in medullary chemistry. Punctelia rudecta as currently circumscribed was shown to be polyphyletic. A variety of empirical species delimitation methods provide evidence for a minimum of four geographically isolated species within the nominal taxon Punctelia rudecta, including a newly described saxicolous species, P. guanchica, and three corticolous species. In order to facilitate reliable sample identification for biodiversity, conservation, and air quality bio-monitoring research, these three species have been epitypified, in addition to the description of a new species. PMID:26863231

  12. An Integrative Approach for Understanding Diversity in the Punctelia rudecta Species Complex (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota)

    PubMed Central

    Alors, David; Lumbsch, H. Thorsten; Divakar, Pradeep K.; Leavitt, Steven D.; Crespo, Ana

    2016-01-01

    High levels of cryptic diversity have been documented in lichenized fungi, especially in Parmeliaceae, and integrating various lines of evidence, including coalescent-based species delimitation approaches, help establish more robust species circumscriptions. In this study, we used an integrative taxonomic approach to delimit species in the lichen-forming fungal genus Punctelia (Parmeliaceae), with a particular focus on the cosmopolitan species P. rudecta. Nuclear, mitochondrial ribosomal DNA and protein-coding DNA sequences were analyzed in phylogenetic and coalescence-based frameworks. Additionally, morphological, ecological and geographical features of the sampled specimens were evaluated. Five major strongly supported monophyletic clades were recognized in the genus Punctelia, and each clade could be characterized by distinct patterns in medullary chemistry. Punctelia rudecta as currently circumscribed was shown to be polyphyletic. A variety of empirical species delimitation methods provide evidence for a minimum of four geographically isolated species within the nominal taxon Punctelia rudecta, including a newly described saxicolous species, P. guanchica, and three corticolous species. In order to facilitate reliable sample identification for biodiversity, conservation, and air quality bio-monitoring research, these three species have been epitypified, in addition to the description of a new species. PMID:26863231

  13. Upper cortex anatomy corroborates phylogenetic hypothesis in species of Physconia (Ascomycota, Lecanoromycetes).

    PubMed

    Divakar, Pradeep K; Amo De Paz, Guillermo; Del Prado, Ruth; Esslinger, Theodore L; Crespo, Ana

    2007-11-01

    A phylogenetic and taxonomic study of the Physconia distorta morphotype complex was undertaken using ITS nu-rDNA as a molecular marker to re-evaluate this group. The analysis incorporated several samples of European P. distorta and also of American and European populations, recently named as P. americana. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that P. distorta and the European population of P. americana form two monophyletic and partially sympatric species and that both are distinct from the American species P. americana. Because differences in upper cortex anatomy had been used in establishing P. americana as distinct from P. distorta, the anatomy of the upper cortex was restudied in all three of these taxa, and notable differences were revealed. Our study confirmed that the upper cortex of P. distorta is prosoplectenchymatous with thick hyphal cell walls and narrow lumina, and that American specimens of P. americana have a typical paraplectenchymatous upper cortex. The cortex anatomy of both of these looks essentially the same in both longitudinal and transverse sections. Conversely, the European specimens that have been called P. americana are different from both of these. The cells of the upper cortex are rather thin walled, and in transverse lobe sections the cortex closely resembles a paraplectenchyma. However, in longitudinal lobe sections these thin walled cells can be seen to be elongate and ramified, obviously hyphal in nature, and better meeting the criteria of a prosoplectenchyma. The results confirmed the evolutionary pattern and taxonomic assessment of the anatomy of the upper cortex in the genus Physconia and revealed a common undescribed species (P. thorstenii sp. nov.) that can be added to the North African and Southern Euro-Asiatic lichen flora. PMID:18023166

  14. New molecular markers for fungal phylogenetics: Two genes for species level systematics in the Sordariomycetes (Ascomycota)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although significant progress has been made resolving deep branches of the fungal tree of life in recent works, many fungal systematists are interested in species-level questions to both define species and to assess fungal biodiversity. Fungal genome sequences are a useful resource to systematic bio...

  15. Inoculation of coffee plants with the fungal entomopathogen Beauveria bassiana (Ascomycota: Hypocreales).

    PubMed

    Posada, Francisco; Aime, M Catherine; Peterson, Stephen W; Rehner, Stephen A; Vega, Fernando E

    2007-06-01

    The entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana was established in coffee seedlings after fungal spore suspensions were applied as foliar sprays, stem injections, or soil drenches. Direct injection yielded the highest post-inoculation recovery of endophytic B. bassiana. Establishment, based on percent recovery of B. bassiana, decreased as time post-inoculation increased in all treatments. Several other endophytes were isolated from the seedlings and could have negatively influenced establishment of B. bassiana. The recovery of B. bassiana from sites distant from the point of inoculation indicates that the fungus has the potential to move throughout the plant. PMID:17604149

  16. Inoculation of coffee plants with the fungal entomopathogen Beauveria bassiana (Ascomycota: Hypocreales)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana was established in coffee seedlings after fungal spore suspensions were applied as foliar sprays, stem injections, or soil drenches. Direct injection yielded the highest post-inoculation recovery of endophytic B. bassiana. Establishment, based on per...

  17. Seven wood-inhabiting new species of the genus Trichoderma (Fungi, Ascomycota) in Viride clade

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Wen-Tao; Zhuang, Wen-Ying

    2016-01-01

    More than 200 recent collections of Trichoderma from China were examined and 16 species belonging to the Viride clade were identified based on integrated studies of phenotypic and molecular data. Among them, seven wood-inhabiting new species, T. albofulvopsis, T. densum, T. laevisporum, T. sinokoningii, T. sparsum, T. sphaerosporum and T. subviride, are found. They form trichoderma- to verticillium-like conidiophores, lageniform to subulate phialides and globose to ellipsoidal conidia, but vary greatly in colony features, growth rates, and sizes of phialides and conidia. To explore their taxonomic positions, the phylogenetic tree including all the known species of the Viride clade is constructed based on sequence analyses of the combined RNA polymerase II subunit b and translation elongation factor 1 alpha exon genes. Our results indicated that the seven new species were well-located in the Koningii, Rogersonii and Neorufum subclades as well as a few independent terminal branches. They are clearly distinguishable from any existing species. Morphological distinctions and sequence divergences between the new species and their close relatives were discussed. PMID:27245694

  18. Lichen-Associated Fungal Community in Hypogymnia hypotrypa (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota) Affected by Geographic Distribution and Altitude

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yanyan; Zheng, Yong; Wang, Xinyu; Wei, Xinli; Wei, Jiangchun

    2016-01-01

    Lichen-associated fungal species have already been investigated in almost all the main growth forms of lichens, however, whether or not they are homogeneous and constant within each lichen species are still inconclusive. Moreover, the related ecological factors to affect and structure the fungal composition have been poorly studied. In order to answer these questions, we took Hypogymnia hypotrypa as a model to study the relationship between the lichen-associated fungal composition and two ecological factors, i.e., site and altitude, using the method of IlluminaMiSeq sequencing. Four different sites and two levels of altitude were included in this study, and the effects of site and altitude on fungal community composition were assessed at three levels, i.e., operational taxonomic unit (OTU), class and phylum. The results showed that a total of 50 OTUs were identified and distributed in 4 phyla, 13 classes, and 20 orders. The lichen-associated fungal composition within H. hypotrypa were significantly affected by both site and altitude at OTU and class levels, while at the phylum level, it was only affected by altitude. While the lichen associated fungal communities were reported to be similar with endophytic fungi of the moss, our results indicated the opposite results in some degree. But whether there exist specific OTUs within this lichen species corresponding to different sites and altitudes is still open. More lichen species and ecological factors would be taken into the integrated analyses to address these knowledge gaps in the near future. PMID:27547204

  19. Screening pentachlorophenol degradation ability by environmental fungal strains belonging to the phyla Ascomycota and Zygomycota.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Mariana B; Martins, Isabel; Leitão, Maria C; Garcia, Helga; Rodrigues, Cátia; San Romão, Vitória; McLellan, Iain; Hursthouse, Andrew; Silva Pereira, Cristina

    2009-10-01

    Pentachlorophenol (PCP) bioremediation by the fungal strains amongst the cork-colonising community has not yet been analysed. In this paper, the co- and direct metabolism of PCP by each of the 17 fungal species selected from this community were studied. Using hierarchical data analysis, the isolates were ranked by their PCP bioremediation potential. Fifteen isolates were able to degrade PCP under co-metabolic conditions, and surprisingly Chrysonilia sitophila, Trichoderma longibrachiatum, Mucor plumbeus, Penicillium janczewskii and P. glandicola were able to directly metabolise PCP, leading to its complete depletion from media. PCP degradation intermediates are preliminarily discussed. Data emphasise the significance of these fungi to have an interesting potential to be used in PCP bioremediation processes. PMID:19543759

  20. A note on the lichen genus ramalina (ramalinaceae, ascomycota) in the hengduan mountains in china.

    PubMed

    Oh, Soon-Ok; Wang, Xin Yu; Wang, Li Song; Liu, Pei Gui; Hur, Jae-Seoun

    2014-09-01

    On the basis of extensive field investigation and a series of herbarium specimen identifications, we present and discuss the descriptions and distribution of 22 species of Ramalina found in the Hengduan Mountains of southwestern China. In this revisionary study, representatives of the Ramalina genus, including R. americana, R. confirmata, R. dendriscoides, R. obtusata, R. pacifica, R. pentecostii, R. peruviana, R. shinanoana, and R. subcomplanata are found for the first time in this area. In addition, R. holstii is reported for the first time China. Finally, a newly described species identified as Ramalina hengduanshanensis S. O. Oh & L. S. Wang is reported. It is characterized as growing from a narrow holdfast, solid, sparsely or richly and irregularly dichotomously branched, palmate and flattened lobes with distinctly dorsiventral appearance, surface rugose to reticulate, surface rugosely cracked, dense chondroid tissue, helmet shaped soralia at the tip. The species grows on rock and tree at the highest elevations in this area. Although very few lichen species belonging to the genus Ramalina have been collected above 4,000 m, this new species is found at this elevation. We present detailed morphological, anatomical, and chemical descriptions of this species along with molecular phylogenetic analysis of the internal transcribed spacer rDNA sequences. PMID:25346599

  1. Lichen-Associated Fungal Community in Hypogymnia hypotrypa (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota) Affected by Geographic Distribution and Altitude.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanyan; Zheng, Yong; Wang, Xinyu; Wei, Xinli; Wei, Jiangchun

    2016-01-01

    Lichen-associated fungal species have already been investigated in almost all the main growth forms of lichens, however, whether or not they are homogeneous and constant within each lichen species are still inconclusive. Moreover, the related ecological factors to affect and structure the fungal composition have been poorly studied. In order to answer these questions, we took Hypogymnia hypotrypa as a model to study the relationship between the lichen-associated fungal composition and two ecological factors, i.e., site and altitude, using the method of IlluminaMiSeq sequencing. Four different sites and two levels of altitude were included in this study, and the effects of site and altitude on fungal community composition were assessed at three levels, i.e., operational taxonomic unit (OTU), class and phylum. The results showed that a total of 50 OTUs were identified and distributed in 4 phyla, 13 classes, and 20 orders. The lichen-associated fungal composition within H. hypotrypa were significantly affected by both site and altitude at OTU and class levels, while at the phylum level, it was only affected by altitude. While the lichen associated fungal communities were reported to be similar with endophytic fungi of the moss, our results indicated the opposite results in some degree. But whether there exist specific OTUs within this lichen species corresponding to different sites and altitudes is still open. More lichen species and ecological factors would be taken into the integrated analyses to address these knowledge gaps in the near future. PMID:27547204

  2. Saitoella coloradoensis sp. nov., a new species of the Ascomycota, subphylum Taphrinomycotina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Saitoella coloradoensis sp. nov. (NRRL YB-2330, CBS 12360, type strain) is described. This new member of the phylum Ascomycotina, subphylum Taphrinomycotina was isolated from insect frass occurring in an Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii) that was growing in Colorado, USA. Multigene sequence analy...

  3. Taxonomic Study on the Lichen Genus Cetrelia (Lecanorales, Ascomycota) in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Heng; Wei, Xin Li; Han, Keon Seon; Koh, Young Jin

    2007-01-01

    Seventy-two lichen specimens of Cetrelia collected in South Korea since 2003 were examined by both phenotypic and phylogenetic analyses. The phenotypic analysis was based on morphological and chemical characters, and the phylogenetic analysis was based on nrDNA ITS sequences. The result suggested that the presence and absence of isidia, soredia, lobules and medullar reaction C+ or C- are the important characters in the taxonomy of this genus. Four species of Cetrelia, C. chicitae, C. braunsiana, C. japonica, and C. pseudolivetorum have been identified in this study. Description of each species is presented with morphological and chemical characters. A key to the Cetrelia species is also presented. PMID:24015081

  4. Study on the ice nucleation activity of fungal spores (Ascomycota and Basidiomycota)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pummer, B. G.; Atanasova, L.; Bauer, H.; Bernardi, J.; Druzhinina, I. S.; Grothe, H.

    2012-04-01

    Biogenic ice nucleation (IN) in the atmosphere is a topic of growing interest, as, according to IPCC, the impact of IN on global climate is crucial to perform reliable climate model calculations. About 20 years ago IN activity of a few lichen and Fusarium species [1,2] was reported, while all other investigated fungi were IN-negative. However, as the fungal kingdom is vast, many abundant species, especially the Basidiomycota (most mushrooms), were not tested before. Furthermore, the focus of the past studies was on the IN activity of the mycelium as a cryoprotective mechanism, and not on the airborne spores. We carried out oil immersion measurements [3] with spores from 17 different fungal species of ecological, economical or sanitary importance. Most of these species have not been investigated before, like exponents of Aspergillus, Trichoderma and Agaricales (most mushrooms). Apart from F. avenaceum, spores of all measured species showed moderate or no IN activity, supporting the hypothesis that significant IN activity is a rather exclusive property of only a few species within the fungal kingdom. [1] Kieft TL and Ruscetti T: J. Bacteriol. 172, 3519-3523, 1990. [2] Pouleur S et al.: Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 58, 2960-2964, 1992. [3] Marcolli C et al.: Atmos. Chem. Phys. 7, 5081-5091, 2007.

  5. Biogeography and Genetic Structure in Populations of a Widespread Lichen (Parmelina tiliacea, Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota)

    PubMed Central

    Hawksworth, David L.; Crespo, Ana

    2015-01-01

    The genetic diversity and population structure of the foliose lichenized fungus Parmelina tiliacea has been analyzed through its geographical range, including samples from Macaronesia (Canary Islands), the Mediterranean, and Eurosiberia. DNA sequences from the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer, the mitochondrial large subunit ribosomal RNA gene, and the translation elongation factor 1-α were used as molecular markers. The haplotypes of the three markers and the molecular variance analyses of multilocus haplotypes showed the highest diversity in the Canary Islands, while restricted haplotypes occurred at high frequencies in Mediterranean coastal samples. The multilocus haplotypes formed three unevenly distributed clusters (clusters 1-3). In the Canary Islands all the haplotypes were present in a similar proportion, while the coastal Mediterranean sites had almost exclusively haplotypes of cluster 3; cluster 2 predominated in inland Mediterranean sites; and cluster 1 was more abundant in central and northern Europe (Eurosiberian area). The distribution of clusters is partially explained by climatic factors, and its interaction with local spatial structure, but much of the variation remains unexplained. The high frequency of individuals in the Canary Islands with haplotypes shared with other areas suggests that could be a refugium of genetic diversity, and the high frequency of individuals of the Mediterranean coastal sites with restricted haplotypes indicates that gene flow to contiguous areas may be restricted. This is significant for the selection of areas for conservation purposes, as those with most genetic variation may reflect historical factors and biological properties of the species. PMID:25961726

  6. Transoceanic Dispersal and Subsequent Diversification on Separate Continents Shaped Diversity of the Xanthoparmelia pulla Group (Ascomycota)

    PubMed Central

    de Paz, Guillermo Amo; Cubas, Paloma; Crespo, Ana; Elix, John A.; Lumbsch, H. Thorsten

    2012-01-01

    In traditional morphology-based concepts many species of lichenized fungi have world-wide distributions. Molecular data have revolutionized the species delimitation in lichens and have demonstrated that we underestimated the diversity of these organisms. The aim of this study is to explore the phylogeography and the evolutionary patterns of the Xanthoparmelia pulla group, a widespread group of one of largest genera of macrolichens. We used a dated phylogeny based on nuITS and nuLSU rDNA sequences and performed an ancestral range reconstruction to understand the processes and explain their current distribution, dating the divergence of the major lineages in the group. An inferred age of radiation of parmelioid lichens and the age of a Parmelia fossil were used as the calibration points for the phylogeny. The results show that many species of the X. pulla group as currently delimited are polyphyletic and five major lineages correlate with their geographical distribution and the biosynthetic pathways of secondary metabolites. South Africa is the area where the X. pulla group radiated during the Miocene times, and currently is the region with the highest genetic, morphological and chemical diversity. From this center of radiation the different lineages migrated by long-distance dispersal to others areas, where secondary radiations developed. The ancestral range reconstruction also detected that a secondary lineage migrated from Australia to South America via long-distance dispersal and subsequent continental radiation. PMID:22745810

  7. Phylogenetic placement, species delimitation, and cyanobiont identity of endangered aquatic Peltigera species (lichen-forming Ascomycota, Lecanoromycetes).

    PubMed

    Miadlikowska, Jolanta; Richardson, David; Magain, Nicolas; Ball, Bernard; Anderson, Frances; Cameron, Robert; Lendemer, James; Truong, Camille; Lutzoni, François

    2014-07-11

    • Premise of this study: Aquatic cyanolichens from the genus Peltigera section Hydrothyriae are subject to anthropogenic threats and, therefore, are considered endangered. In this study we addressed the phylogenetic placement of section Hydrothyriae within Peltigera. We delimited species within the section and identified their symbiotic cyanobacteria.• Methods: Species delimitation and population structure were explored using monophyly as a grouping criterion (RAxML) and Structurama based on three protein-coding genes in combination with two nuclear ribosomal loci. The 16S and rbcLX sequences for the cyanobionts were analyzed in the broad phylogenetic context of free-living and symbiotic cyanobacteria.• Key results: We confirm with high confidence the placement of section Hydrothyriae within the monophyletic genus Peltigera; however, its phylogenetic position within the genus remains unsettled. We recovered three distinct monophyletic groups corresponding to three species: P. hydrothyria, P. gowardii s.s., and P. aquatica Miadl. & Lendemer, the latter being formally introduced here. Each species was associated with an exclusive set of Nostoc haplotypes.• Conclusions: The ITS region alone provides sufficient genetic information to distinguish the three morphologically cryptic species within section Hydrothyriae. Section Hydrothyriae seems to be associated with a monophyletic lineage of Nostoc, that has not been found in symbiotic association with other members of Peltigera. Capsosira lowei should be transferred to the genus Nostoc. Potential threats to P. aquatica should be re-examined based on the recognition of two aquatic species in western North America. PMID:25016011

  8. Presence of natural genetic resistance in Fraxinus excelsior (Oleraceae) to Chalara fraxinea (Ascomycota): an emerging infectious disease

    PubMed Central

    McKinney, L V; Nielsen, L R; Hansen, J K; Kjær, E D

    2011-01-01

    Fraxinus excelsior, common ash native to Europe, is threatened by a recently identified pathogenic fungus Chalara fraxinea, which causes extensive damage on ash trees across Europe. In Denmark, most stands are severely affected leaving many trees with dead crowns. However, single trees show notably fewer symptoms. In this study, the impact of the emerging infectious disease on native Danish ash trees is assessed by estimating presence of inherent resistance in natural populations. Disease symptoms were assessed from 2007 to 2009 at two different sites with grafted ramets of 39 selected clones representing native F. excelsior trees. A strong genetic variation in susceptibility to C. fraxinea infections was observed. No genetic or geographic structure can explain the differences, but strong genetic correlations to leaf senescence were observed. The results suggest that a small fraction of trees in the Danish population of ash possess substantial resistance against the damage. Though this fraction is probably too low to avoid population collapse in most natural or managed ash forests, the observed presence of putative resistance against the emerging infectious disease in natural stands is likely to be of evolutionary importance. This provides prospects of future maintenance of the species through natural or artificial selection in favour of remaining healthy individuals. PMID:20823903

  9. A phylogenetic analysis of the boreal lichen Mycoblastus sanguinarius (Mycoblastaceae, lichenized Ascomycota) reveals cryptic clades correlated with fatty acid profiles

    PubMed Central

    Spribille, Toby; Klug, Barbara; Mayrhofer, Helmut

    2011-01-01

    Lichens are a prominent feature of northern conifer forests and a large number of species are thought to be circumboreal. Whether or not circumboreal lichen species really constitute monophyletic groups has seldom been tested. We investigated molecular phylogenetic patterns in the mycobiont of Mycoblastus sanguinarius, a well known epiphytic lichen species of the boreal forest, based on material collected from across the high latitude northern hemisphere. A three-locus dataset of internal transcribed spacer rDNA, translation elongation factor 1-α and replication licensing factor Mcm7 DNA sequences revealed that material treated until now as belonging to M. sanguinarius does indeed form a monophyletic group within the genus and is distinct from a strongly supported Mycoblastus affinis. The M. sanguinarius complex appears closely related to the rare Mycoblastus glabrescens, which is currently known only from the Pacific Northwest and was rediscovered during the present study. However, within M. sanguinarius s.lat. in the northern hemisphere, two deeply divergent and morphologically coherent species can be recovered, one of which matches the southern hemisphere species Mycoblastus sanguinarioides and turns out to be widespread in North America and Asia, and one of which corresponds to M. sanguinarius s.str. Both M. sanguinarius and M. sanguinarioides exhibit additional low-level genetic differentiation into geographically structured clades, the most prominent of which are distributed in East Asia/eastern North America and western North America/Europe, respectively. Individuals from these lowest-level clades are morphologically indistinguishable but chemical analyses by thin layer chromatography revealed that each clade possesses its own fatty acid profile, suggesting that chemical differentiation precedes morphological differentiation and may be a precursor to speciation. PMID:21443957

  10. A multigene phylogenetic synthesis for the class Lecanoromycetes (Ascomycota): 1307 fungi representing 1139 infrageneric taxa, 317 genera and 66 families

    PubMed Central

    Miadlikowska, Jolanta; Kauff, Frank; Högnabba, Filip; Oliver, Jeffrey C.; Molnár, Katalin; Fraker, Emily; Gaya, Ester; Hafellner, Josef; Hofstetter, Valérie; Gueidan, Cécile; Otálora, Mónica A.G.; Hodkinson, Brendan; Kukwa, Martin; Lücking, Robert; Björk, Curtis; Sipman, Harrie J.M.; Burgaz, Ana Rosa; Thell, Arne; Passo, Alfredo; Myllys, Leena; Goward, Trevor; Fernández-Brime, Samantha; Hestmark, Geir; Lendemer, James; Lumbsch, H. Thorsten; Schmull, Michaela; Schoch, Conrad; Sérusiaux, Emmanuël; Maddison, David R.; Arnold, A. Elizabeth; Lutzoni, François; Stenroos, Soili

    2014-01-01

    The Lecanoromycetes is the largest class of lichenized Fungi, and one of the most species-rich classes in the kingdom. Here we provide a multigene phylogenetic synthesis (using three ribosomal RNA-coding and two protein-coding genes) of the Lecanoromycetes based on 642 newly generated and 3329 publicly available sequences representing 1139 taxa, 317 genera, 66 families, 17 orders and five subclasses (four currently recognized: Acarosporomycetidae, Lecanoromycetidae, Ostropomycetidae, Umbilicariomycetidae; and one provisionarily recognized, ‘Candelariomycetidae’). Maximum likelihood phylogenetic analyses on four multigene datasets assembled using a cumulative supermatrix approach with a progressively higher number of species and missing data (5-gene, 5+4-gene, 5+4+3-gene and 5+4+3+2-gene datasets) show that the current classification includes non-monophyletic taxa at various ranks, which need to be recircumscribed and require revisionary treatments based on denser taxon sampling and more loci. Two newly circumscribed orders (Arctomiales and Hymeneliales in the Ostropomycetidae) and three families (Ramboldiaceae and Psilolechiaceae in the Lecanorales, and Strangosporaceae in the Lecanoromycetes inc. sed.) are introduced. The potential resurrection of the families Eigleraceae and Lopadiaceae is considered here to alleviate phylogenetic and classification disparities. An overview of the photobionts associated with the main fungal lineages in the Lecanoromycetes based on available published records is provided. A revised schematic classification at the family level in the phylogenetic context of widely accepted and newly revealed relationships across Lecanoromycetes is included. The cumulative addition of taxa with an increasing amount of missing data (i.e., a cumulative supermatrix approach, starting with taxa for which sequences were available for all five targeted genes and ending with the addition of taxa for which only two genes have been sequenced) revealed relatively stable relationships for many families and orders. However, the increasing number of taxa without the addition of more loci also resulted in an expected substantial loss of phylogenetic resolving power and support (especially for deep phylogenetic relationships), potentially including the misplacements of several taxa. Future phylogenetic analyses should include additional single copy protein-coding markers in order to improve the tree of the Lecanoromycetes. As part of this study, a new module (“Hypha”) of the freely available Mesquite software was developed to compare and display the internodal support values derived from this cumulative supermatrix approach. PMID:24747130

  11. Establishment of fungal entomopathogens Beauveria bassiana and Bionectria ochroleuca (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) as endophytes on artichoke Cynara scolymus.

    PubMed

    Guesmi-Jouini, J; Garrido-Jurado, I; López-Díaz, C; Ben Halima-Kamel, M; Quesada-Moraga, E

    2014-06-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi (EPF) are commonly found in diverse habitats and are known to cause mycoses in many different taxa of arthropods. Various unexpected roles have been recently reported for fungal entomopathogens, including their presence as fungal endophytes, plant disease antagonists, rhizosphere colonizers and plant growth promoting fungi. In Tunisia, a wide range of indigenous EPF isolates from different species, such as Beauveria bassiana and Bionectria ochroleuca, were found to occur in the soil, and to be pathogenic against the artichoke aphid Capitophorus elaeagni (Hemiptera: Aphididae). Since endophytic fungi are recently regarded as plant-defending mutualists and their presence in internal plant tissue has been discussed as an adaptive protection against insects, we were interested on elucidating the possible endophytic behavior of B. bassiana and B. ochroleuca on artichoke, Cynara scolymus, after foliar spraying tehcnique. The leaf spray inoculation method was effective in introducing the inoculated fungi into the plant tissues and showed, then, an endophytic activity on artichoke even 10 days later. According S-N-K test, there was significant differences between the two fungal treatments, B. ochroleuca (84% a) and B. bassiana (78% a), and controls (0% b). Likewise, the inoculated entomopathogenic fungi were also isolated from new leaves even though with significant differences respectively between controls (0% c), B. bassiana (56% b) and B. ochroleuca (78% a). These results reveals significant new data on the interaction of inoculated fungi with artichoke plant as ecological roles that can be exploited for the protection of plants. PMID:24681358

  12. Position specificity in Chitonomyces (Ascomycota, Laboulbeniomycetes) on Laccophilus (Coleoptera, Dytiscidae): a molecular approach resolves a century-old debate.

    PubMed

    Goldmann, Lauren; Weir, Alex

    2012-01-01

    The occurrence of Laboulbeniomycete species consistently on a precise portion of beetle integument was investigated in 13 species of Chitonomyces ectoparasitic on the aquatic diving beetle Laccophilus maculosus (Coleoptera, Dytiscidae). The phenomenon was called "position specificity" by Roland Thaxter in 1896, yet the mechanism has remained unknown. By using molecular analysis of the nucSSU rRNA gene and the 5.8S and partial ITS1 rRNA regions, 13 species of Chitonomyces reported to exhibit position specificity on Laccophilus maculosus were placed neatly into pairs of morphotypes, resulting in synonomies and recognition of six phylogenetic species (one species is a triplet). Each phylogenetic species was located at corresponding positions on male and female beetles that make contact during mating. In addition, ecological data and video footage of the mating behaviors of Laccophilus confirmed that sexual transmission is the mechanism behind this enigmatic phenomenon. PMID:22684291

  13. (2049-2050) Proposals to conserve the name Wickerhamomyces against Hansenula and to reject the name Saccharomyces sphaericus (Ascomycota: Saccharomycotina)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The International Rules of Botanical Nomenclature, under which fungi are also classified, require a preserved specimen, the type specimen, for all described species. The yeast Wickerhamomyces anomalus, which is common in nature and widely used for the biocontrol of spoilage fungi that contaminate en...

  14. Distribution of the myrmecoparasitic fungus Rickia wasmannii (Ascomycota: Laboulbeniales) across colonies, individuals, and body parts of Myrmica scabrinodis.

    PubMed

    Markó, Bálint; Csata, Enikő; Erős, Katalin; Német, Enikő; Czekes, Zsolt; Rózsa, Lajos

    2016-05-01

    The ant species Myrmica scabrinodis plays a markedly important ecological role through much of the humid grasslands of Eurasia. It hosts a species-rich community of pathogens and parasites, including Rickia wasmannii, an enigmatic member of entomoparasitic laboulbenialean fungi. This study provides a descriptive ecology of R. wasmannii by characterizing its prevalence and distribution across several hierarchical levels: colonies, individuals, and anatomic body parts. Infections were restricted to a single ant species, M. scabrinodis, and infected colonies occurred predominantly in wet habitats. Infections tended to be highly prevalent within infected colonies, often reaching 100% sample prevalence among workers. Individual infections exhibited an aggregated distribution typical to host-parasite systems. Workers from the aboveground part of nests (presumably older ones acting as foragers) were more infected than those from the belowground part. Fungal thalli could be found all over the body of the hosts, the head and the abdomen being the most infected parts of the body. The fungi's distribution among host body parts statistically differed between low versus high-intensity infections: the initial dominance of the head decreased with advancing infection. These findings may provide baseline data for future comparative or monitoring studies. PMID:26970261

  15. Remototrachyna, a newly recognized tropical lineage of lichens in the Hypotrachyna clade (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota), originated in the Indian subcontinent.

    PubMed

    Divakar, Pradeep K; Lumbsch, H Thorsten; Ferencova, Zuzana; Del Prado, Ruth; Crespo, Ana

    2010-04-01

    Biogeographical studies of lichens used to be complicated because of the large distribution ranges of many species. Molecular systematics has revitalized lichen biogeography by improving species delimitation and providing better information about species range limitations. This study focuses on the major clade of tropical parmelioid lichens, which share a chemical feature, the presence of isolichenan in the cell wall, and a morphological feature, microscopic pores in the uppermost layer. Our previous phylogenetic studies revealed that the largest genus in this clade, Hypotrachyna, is polyphyletic with a clade mainly distributed in South and East Asia clustering distant from the core of the genus. To divide the Hypotrachyna clade into monophyletic groups and to reevaluate morphological and chemical characters in a phylogenetic context, we sampled ITS, nuclear large subunit (nuLSU) and mitochondrial small subunit (mtSSU) rDNA sequences from 77 species. We are erecting the new genus Remototrachyna for a core group of 15 former Hypotrachyna species. The segregation of Remototrachyna from Hypotrachyna receives support from morphological and chemical data, as well from maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses of the DNA. We used a likelihood approach to study the geographic range evolution of Remototrachyna and Bulbothrix, which are sister groups. This analysis suggests that the ancestral range of Remototrachyna was restricted to India and that subsequent long-distance dispersal is responsible for the pantropical occurrence of two species of Remototrachyna. PMID:21622420

  16. Genetic distances within and among species in monophyletic lineages of Parmeliaceae (Ascomycota) as a tool for taxon delimitation.

    PubMed

    Del-Prado, Ruth; Cubas, Paloma; Lumbsch, H Thorsten; Divakar, Pradeep K; Blanco, Oscar; de Paz, Guillermo Amo; Molina, M Carmen; Crespo, Ana

    2010-07-01

    The species delimitation in fungi is currently in flux. A growing body of evidence shows that the morphology-based species circumscription underestimates the number of existing species. The large and ever growing number of DNA sequence data of fungi makes it possible to use these to identify potential cases of hidden species, which then need to be studied with extensive taxon samplings. We used Parmeliaceae, one of the largest families of lichenized fungi as a model. Intra- and interspecific distances derived from maximum-likelihood phylogenetic trees inferred from 491 nuclear ITS rDNA sequences were examined for five major clades of parmelioid lichens. The intra- and interspecific distances were well separated in most cases allowing the calculation of a threshold, with exceptions of highly deviating distances in a few cases. These situations are shown to be taxa in which the current delimitation needs revision. Thus the analysis of the distance distributions is shown to be a powerful tool for identifying species complexes. PMID:20399873

  17. The sister-group relationships of the largest family of lichenized fungi, Parmeliaceae (Lecanorales, Ascomycota).

    PubMed

    Singh, Garima; Divakar, Pradeep K; Dal Grande, Francesco; Otte, Jürgen; Parnmen, Sittiporn; Wedin, Mats; Crespo, Ana; Lumbsch, H Thorsten; Schmitt, Imke

    2013-10-01

    Parmeliaceae is the largest family of lichen-forming fungi. In spite of its importance for fungal diversity, its relationships with other families in Lecanorales remain poorly known. To better understand the evolutionary history of the diversification of lineages and species richness in Parmeliaceae it is important to know the phylogenetic relationships of the closest relatives of the family. A recent study based on two molecular loci suggested that either Protoparmelia s. str. or a group consisting of Gypsoplaca and Protoparmelia s. str. were the possible sister-group candidates of Parmeliaceae, but that study could not distinguish between these two alternatives. Here, we used a four-locus phylogeny (nuLSU, ITS, RPB1, MCM7) to reveal relationships of Parmeliaceae with other potential relatives in Lecanorales. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses showed that Protoparmelia is polyphyletic, with Protoparmelia s. str. (including Protoparmelia badia and Protoparmelia picea) being most closely related to Parmeliaceae s. str., while the Protoparmelia atriseda-group formed the sister-group to Miriquidica. Gypsoplaca formed the sister-group to the Parmeliaceae s. str. + Protoparmelia s. str. clade. Monophyly of Protoparmelia as currently circumscribed, and Gypsoplaca as sister-group to Parmeliaceae s. str. were both significantly rejected by alternative hypothesis testing. PMID:24119410

  18. (2289) Proposal to conserve the name Morchella semilibera against Phallus crassipes, P. gigas and P. undosus (Ascomycota)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    True morels (Morchella) are among the most highly prized and easily recognized edible mushrooms collected during spring throughout the Northern Hemisphere. To help ensure that commercial harvests are sustainable and species diversity is preserved, management practices and conservation policies need...

  19. Efficacy of the Biofumigant Fungus Muscodor albus (Ascomycota: Xylariales) for Control of Codling Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in Simulated Storage Conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Codling moth CM, Cydia pomonella, (L.), a serious pest of pome fruit, is a threat to exportation of apples because of the possibility of shipping infested fruit. Broad spectrum fumigants have been used as the principle method for the protection of exported fruit from insect infestations. Some of th...

  20. Using Phylogenetic and Coalescent Methods to Understand the Species Diversity in the Cladia aggregata Complex (Ascomycota, Lecanorales)

    PubMed Central

    Parnmen, Sittiporn; Rangsiruji, Achariya; Mongkolsuk, Pachara; Boonpragob, Kansri; Nutakki, Aparna; Lumbsch, H. Thorsten

    2012-01-01

    The Cladia aggregata complex is one of the phenotypically most variable groups in lichenized fungi, making species determination difficult and resulting in different classifications accepting between one to eight species. Multi-locus DNA sequence data provide an avenue to test species delimitation scenarios using genealogical and coalescent methods, employing gene and species trees. Here we tested species delimitation in the complex using molecular data of four loci (nuITS and IGS rDNA, protein-coding GAPDH and Mcm-7), including 474 newly generated sequences. Using a combination of ML and Bayesian gene tree topologies, species tree inferences, coalescent-based species delimitation, and examination of phenotypic variation we assessed the circumscription of lineages. We propose that results from our analyses support a 12 species delimitation scenario, suggesting that there is a high level of species diversity in the complex. Morphological and chemical characters often do not characterize lineages but show some degree of plasticity within at least some of the clades. However, clades can often be characterized by a combination of several phenotypical characters. In contrast to the amount of homoplasy in the morphological characters, the data set exhibits some geographical patterns with putative species having distribution patterns, such as austral, Australasian or being endemic to Australia, New Zealand or Tasmania. PMID:23272229

  1. A multigene phylogenetic synthesis for the class Lecanoromycetes (Ascomycota): 1307 fungi representing 1139 infrageneric taxa, 317 genera and 66 families.

    PubMed

    Miadlikowska, Jolanta; Kauff, Frank; Högnabba, Filip; Oliver, Jeffrey C; Molnár, Katalin; Fraker, Emily; Gaya, Ester; Hafellner, Josef; Hofstetter, Valérie; Gueidan, Cécile; Otálora, Mónica A G; Hodkinson, Brendan; Kukwa, Martin; Lücking, Robert; Björk, Curtis; Sipman, Harrie J M; Burgaz, Ana Rosa; Thell, Arne; Passo, Alfredo; Myllys, Leena; Goward, Trevor; Fernández-Brime, Samantha; Hestmark, Geir; Lendemer, James; Lumbsch, H Thorsten; Schmull, Michaela; Schoch, Conrad L; Sérusiaux, Emmanuël; Maddison, David R; Arnold, A Elizabeth; Lutzoni, François; Stenroos, Soili

    2014-10-01

    The Lecanoromycetes is the largest class of lichenized Fungi, and one of the most species-rich classes in the kingdom. Here we provide a multigene phylogenetic synthesis (using three ribosomal RNA-coding and two protein-coding genes) of the Lecanoromycetes based on 642 newly generated and 3329 publicly available sequences representing 1139 taxa, 317 genera, 66 families, 17 orders and five subclasses (four currently recognized: Acarosporomycetidae, Lecanoromycetidae, Ostropomycetidae, Umbilicariomycetidae; and one provisionarily recognized, 'Candelariomycetidae'). Maximum likelihood phylogenetic analyses on four multigene datasets assembled using a cumulative supermatrix approach with a progressively higher number of species and missing data (5-gene, 5+4-gene, 5+4+3-gene and 5+4+3+2-gene datasets) show that the current classification includes non-monophyletic taxa at various ranks, which need to be recircumscribed and require revisionary treatments based on denser taxon sampling and more loci. Two newly circumscribed orders (Arctomiales and Hymeneliales in the Ostropomycetidae) and three families (Ramboldiaceae and Psilolechiaceae in the Lecanorales, and Strangosporaceae in the Lecanoromycetes inc. sed.) are introduced. The potential resurrection of the families Eigleraceae and Lopadiaceae is considered here to alleviate phylogenetic and classification disparities. An overview of the photobionts associated with the main fungal lineages in the Lecanoromycetes based on available published records is provided. A revised schematic classification at the family level in the phylogenetic context of widely accepted and newly revealed relationships across Lecanoromycetes is included. The cumulative addition of taxa with an increasing amount of missing data (i.e., a cumulative supermatrix approach, starting with taxa for which sequences were available for all five targeted genes and ending with the addition of taxa for which only two genes have been sequenced) revealed relatively stable relationships for many families and orders. However, the increasing number of taxa without the addition of more loci also resulted in an expected substantial loss of phylogenetic resolving power and support (especially for deep phylogenetic relationships), potentially including the misplacements of several taxa. Future phylogenetic analyses should include additional single copy protein-coding markers in order to improve the tree of the Lecanoromycetes. As part of this study, a new module ("Hypha") of the freely available Mesquite software was developed to compare and display the internodal support values derived from this cumulative supermatrix approach. PMID:24747130

  2. Cuticle Fatty Acid Composition and Differential Susceptibility of Three Species of Cockroaches to the Entomopathogenic Fungi Metarhizium anisopliae (Ascomycota, Hypocreales).

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Alejandra C; Gołębiowski, Marek; Pennisi, Mariana; Peterson, Graciela; García, Juan J; Manfrino, Romina G; López Lastra, Claudia C

    2015-04-01

    Differences in free fatty acids (FFAs) chemical composition of insects may be responsible for susceptibility or resistance to fungal infection. Determination of FFAs found in cuticular lipids can effectively contribute to the knowledge concerning insect defense mechanisms. In this study, we have evaluated the susceptibility of three species of cockroaches to the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin by topical application. Mortality due to M. anisopliae was highly significant on adults and nymphs of Blattella germanica L. (Blattodea: Blattellidae). However, mortality was faster in adults than in nymphs. Adults of Blatta orientalis L. (Blattodea: Blattidae) were not susceptible to the fungus, and nymphs of Blaptica dubia Serville (Blattodea: Blaberidae) were more susceptible to the fungus than adults. The composition of cuticular FFAs in the three species of cockroaches was also studied. The analysis indicated that all of the fatty acids were mostly straight-chain, long-chain, saturated or unsaturated. Cuticular lipids of three species of cockroaches contained 19 FFAs, ranging from C14:0 to C24:0. The predominant fatty acids found in the three studied species of cockroaches were oleic, linoleic, palmitic, and stearic acid. Only in adults of Bl. orientalis, myristoleic acid, γ-linolenic acid, arachidic acid, dihomolinoleic acid, and behenic acid were identified. Lignoceric acid was detected only in nymphs of Bl. orientalis. Heneicosylic acid and docosahexaenoic acid were identified in adults of Ba. dubia. PMID:26470187

  3. Pathogenic and enzyme activities of the entomopathogenic fungus Tolypocladium cylindrosporum (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) from Tierra del Fuego, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Scorsetti, Ana C; Elíades, Lorena A; Stenglein, Sebastián A; Cabello, Marta N; Pelizza, Sebastián A; Saparrat, Mario C N

    2012-06-01

    Tolypocladium cylindrosporum is an entomopathogenic fungi that has been studied as a biological control agent against insects of several orders. The fungus has been isolated from the soil as well as from insects of the orders Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, Diptera and Hymenoptera. In this study, we analyzed the ability of a strain of T cylindrosporum, isolated from soil samples taken in Tierra del Fuego, Argentina, to produce hydrolytic enzymes, and to study the relationship of those activities to the fungus pathogenicity against pest aphids. We have made the traditional and molecular characterization of this strain of T cylindrosporum. The expression of hydrolase activity in the fungal strain was estimated at three incubation temperatures (4 degreeC, 12 degreeC and 24 degreeC), on different agar media supplemented with the following specific substrates: chitin azure, Tween 20, casein, and urea for chitinase, lipase, protease, and urease activity, respectively. The hydrolytic-enzyme activity was estimated qualitatively according to the presence of a halo of clarification through hydrolase action, besides was expressed semi-quantitatively as the ratio between the hydrolytic-halo and colony diameters. The pathogenicity of the fungus was tested on adults of the aphid Rhopalosiphum padi at three temperatures of incubation (4 degree C, 12 degree C and 24 degree C). The suspension was adjusted to a concentration of 1x10(7) conidia/ml. In pathogenicity assays at seven days post-inoculation, the fungus caused the mortality of adults of Ropalosiphum padi at different temperatures also showed a broad ability to grow on several agar-culture media, supplemented with different carbon sources at the three incubation temperatures tested. Although, the growth was greater with higher incubation temperatures (with maximum levels at 24 degreeC), the fungus reached similar colony diameters after 15 days of incubation on the medium supplemented with Tween 20 at the lower two incubation temperatures of 4 degreeC or 12 degreeC. In accordance with the results on colony diameters, the fungus revealed an ability to degrade casein, chitin derivatives, Tween 20, and urea as evidenced by the appearance of a halo around the fungal colony. Because of its origin and temperature tolerance, this Argentine strain has great potential for use as a biocontrol agent for insect pest control in cold and temperate environments. PMID:23894949

  4. Retention of genes in a secondary metabolite gene cluster that has degenerated in multiple lineages of the Ascomycota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fungal secondary metabolite (SM) gene clusters encode proteins involved in SM biosynthesis, protection against SMs, and regulation of cluster gene transcription. RNA-Seq analysis of Fusarium langsethiae (class Sordariomycetes) revealed a cluster of six genes that were highly expressed during growth...

  5. Paecilomyces niveus Stolk & Samson, 1971 (Ascomycota: Thermoascaceae) as a pathogen of Nasonovia ribisnigri (Mosley, 1841) (Hemiptera, Aphididae) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Zawadneak, M A C; Pimentel, I C; Robl, D; Dalzoto, P; Vicente, V; Sosa-Gómez, D R; Porsani, M; Cuquel, F L

    2015-11-01

    Nasonovia ribisnigri is a key pest of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) in Brazil that requires alternative control methods to synthetic pesticides. We report, for the first time, the occurrence of Paecilomyces niveus as an entomopathogen of the aphid Nasonovia ribisnigri in Pinhais, Paraná, Brazil. Samples of mummified aphids were collected from lettuce crops. The fungus P. niveus (PaePR) was isolated from the insect bodies and identified by macro and micromorphology. The species was confirmed by sequencing Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) rDNA. We obtained a sequence of 528 bp (accession number HQ441751), which aligned with Byssochlamys nivea strains (100% identities). In a bioassay, 120 h after inoculation of N. ribisnigri with pathogenic P. niveus had an average mortality of 74%. The presence of P. niveus as a natural pathogen of N. ribisnigri in Brazil suggests that it may be possible to employ P. niveus to minimize the use of chemical insecticides. PMID:26602345

  6. Quantitative detection of Beauveria bassiana GHA (Ascomycota: Hypocreales), a potential microbial control agent of the emerald ash borer, by use of real-time PCR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accurate monitoring of an introduced, mass-released microbial control agent is essential in evaluating its persistence and in designing application strategies for insect pest control. As part of our multi-year study on the development and use of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana agains...

  7. Proposal to conserve the name Helminthosporium maydis Y. Nisik. & C. Miyake (Bipolaris maydis) against H. maydis Brond. and Ophiobolus heterostrophus (Ascomycota: Pleosporales: Pleosporaceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The name Bipolaris maydis (Y. Nisik. & C. Miyake) Shoemaker is the type of the genus Bipolaris Shoemaker, while Cochliobolus heterostrophus (Drechsler) Drechsler is the type of the genus Cochliobolus Drechsler. Initially described as Helminthosporium maydis Y. Nisik. & C. Miyake, Bipolaris maydis is...

  8. Virulence of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) commercial strains against adult Xylosandrus germanus (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) and impact on brood

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ambrosia beetle Xylosandrus germanus is an invasive pest with a wide host range and is a serious pest of orchards and nurseries in the eastern US. In this study we evaluated the potential of entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae as control agents against this beet...

  9. Not as Ubiquitous as We Thought: Taxonomic Crypsis, Hidden Diversity and Cryptic Speciation in the Cosmopolitan Fungus Thelonectria discophora (Nectriaceae, Hypocreales, Ascomycota)

    PubMed Central

    Salgado-Salazar, Catalina; Rossman, Amy Y.; Chaverri, Priscila

    2013-01-01

    The distribution of microbial species, including fungi, has long been considered cosmopolitan. Recently, this perception has been challenged by molecular studies in historical biogeography, phylogeny and population genetics. Here we explore this issue using the fungal morphological species Thelonectria discophora, one of the most common species of fungi in the family Nectriaceae, encountered in almost all geographic regions and considered as a cosmopolitan taxon. In order to determine if T. discophora is a single cosmopolitan species or an assemblage of sibling species, we conducted various phylogenetic analyses, including standard gene concatenation, Bayesian concordance methods, and coalescent-based species tree reconstruction on isolates collected from a wide geographic range. Results show that diversity among isolates referred as T. discophora is greatly underestimated and that it represents a species complex. Within this complex, sixteen distinct highly supported lineages were recovered, each of which has a restricted geographic distribution and ecology. The taxonomic status of isolates regarded as T. discophora is reconsidered, and the assumed cosmopolitan distribution of this species is rejected. We discuss how assumptions about geographically widespread species have implications regarding their taxonomy, true diversity, biological diversity conservation, and ecological functions. PMID:24204665

  10. Assessing deposition and persistence of Beauveria bassiana GHA (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) applied for control of emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), in a commercial tree nursery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Determining the deposition and field persistence of mycoinsecticides is essential in the development of effective and economical application strategies, including specifically the timing and frequency of spray applications. In this study we used three methods to evaluate the persistence of Beauveri...

  11. Characterization and phylogeny of entomopathogenic Isaria spp. (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) using ITS1-5.8X-ITS2 and elongation factor 1-alpha sequences

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The elongation factor 1-alpha (EF1-a) and the internal transcribed spacer regions ITS1 and ITS2 (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2) sequences were used to characterize and identify Isaria isolates from Argentina and Brazil, as well as to study the phylogenetic relationships among these isolates and other related fungi...

  12. Not as ubiquitous as we thought: taxonomic crypsis, hidden diversity and cryptic speciation in the cosmopolitan fungus Thelonectria discophora (Nectriaceae, Hypocreales, Ascomycota)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The distribution of microbial species, including fungi, has long been considered cosmopolitan. Recently, this perception has been challenged by molecular studies in historical biogeography, phylogeny and population genetics. Here we explore this issue using the fungal morphological species Thelonect...

  13. Alloascoidea hylecoeti gen. nov., comb. nov., Alloascoidea africana comb. nov., Ascoidea tarda sp. nov. and Nadsonia starkeyi-henricii comb. nov., new members of the Saccharomycotina (Ascomycota)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phylogenetic analysis of concatenated nuclear gene sequences for large and small subunit rRNAs, translation elongation factor 1-a and the two large subunits of RNA polymerase II (RPB1, RPB2) demonstrated that species assigned to the yeast genus Ascoidea represent two separate and distantly related c...

  14. Effect of plant extracts and a disinfectant on biological parameters and pathogenicity of the fungus Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill. (Ascomycota: Cordycipitaceae).

    PubMed

    Martins, C C; Alves, L F A; Mamprim, A P

    2016-06-01

    The fungus Beauveria bassiana is naturally found in poultry houses and causes high rates of mortality in Alphitobius diaperinus. Laboratory and field experiments have shown the potential of this fungus as an insect control agent. However, in poultry houses, bacteria as Salmonella, can be found and have been studied alternative control methods for this pathogen. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of plant extracts and a disinfectant on the fungus Beauveria bassiana (strain Unioeste 4). Conidial viability, colony-forming unit (CFU) counts, vegetative growth, conidia production, insecticidal activity of the fungus and compatibility were used as parameters in the evaluation of the effect of these products on the fungus. Alcoholic and aqueous extracts of jabuticaba (Myrciaria cauliflora (Mart.), guava (Psidium guajava (L.)), and jambolan (Syzygium cumini (L.), at concentrations of 10% as well as the commercial disinfectant, Peroxitane® 1512 AL, were evaluated at the recommended concentrations (RC), 1:200 (RC), 0.5 RC and 2 RC. There was a negative influence of alcoholic and aqueous extracts of jabuticaba, guava and three dilutions of Peroxitane on the viability of conidia. The CFUs and vegetative growth of the fungus were affected only by the Peroxitane (all dilutions). For conidial production, the aqueous extract of guava had a positive effect, increasing production, while the Peroxitane at the R and RC concentrations resulted in a negative influence. The mortality of A. diaperinus, caused by the fungus after exposure to these products, was 60% for the peracetic acid at 0.5 RC, and above 80% for the extracts. Thus, the results showed that all the extracts and Peroxitane at RC 0.5 are compatible with the fungus B. bassiana Unioeste 4, however only the extracts had a low impact on inoculum potential. PMID:27143049

  15. Fungal specificity and selectivity for algae play a major role in determining lichen partnerships across diverse ecogeographic regions in the lichen-forming family Parmeliaceae (Ascomycota).

    PubMed

    Leavitt, Steven D; Kraichak, Ekaphan; Nelsen, Matthew P; Altermann, Susanne; Divakar, Pradeep K; Alors, David; Esslinger, Theodore L; Crespo, Ana; Lumbsch, Thorsten

    2015-07-01

    Microbial symbionts are instrumental to the ecological and long-term evolutionary success of their hosts, and the central role of symbiotic interactions is increasingly recognized across the vast majority of life. Lichens provide an iconic group for investigating patterns in species interactions; however, relationships among lichen symbionts are often masked by uncertain species boundaries or an inability to reliably identify symbionts. The species-rich lichen-forming fungal family Parmeliaceae provides a diverse group for assessing patterns of interactions of algal symbionts, and our study addresses patterns of lichen symbiont interactions at the largest geographic and taxonomic scales attempted to date. We analysed a total of 2356 algal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region sequences collected from lichens representing ten mycobiont genera in Parmeliaceae, two genera in Lecanoraceae and 26 cultured Trebouxia strains. Algal ITS sequences were grouped into operational taxonomic units (OTUs); we attempted to validate the evolutionary independence of a subset of the inferred OTUs using chloroplast and mitochondrial loci. We explored the patterns of symbiont interactions in these lichens based on ecogeographic distributions and mycobiont taxonomy. We found high levels of undescribed diversity in Trebouxia, broad distributions across distinct ecoregions for many photobiont OTUs and varying levels of mycobiont selectivity and specificity towards the photobiont. Based on these results, we conclude that fungal specificity and selectivity for algal partners play a major role in determining lichen partnerships, potentially superseding ecology, at least at the ecogeographic scale investigated here. To facilitate effective communication and consistency across future studies, we propose a provisional naming system for Trebouxia photobionts and provide representative sequences for each OTU circumscribed in this study. PMID:26073165

  16. Coalescent-Based Species Delimitation Approach Uncovers High Cryptic Diversity in the Cosmopolitan Lichen-Forming Fungal Genus Protoparmelia (Lecanorales, Ascomycota)

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Garima; Dal Grande, Francesco; Divakar, Pradeep K.; Otte, Jürgen; Leavitt, Steven D.; Szczepanska, Katarzyna; Crespo, Ana; Rico, Víctor J.; Aptroot, André; Cáceres, Marcela Eugenia da Silva; Lumbsch, H. Thorsten; Schmitt, Imke

    2015-01-01

    Species recognition in lichen-forming fungi has been a challenge because of unsettled species concepts, few taxonomically relevant traits, and limitations of traditionally used morphological and chemical characters for identifying closely related species. Here we analyze species diversity in the cosmopolitan genus Protoparmelia s.l. The ~25 described species in this group occur across diverse habitats from the boreal -arctic/alpine to the tropics, but their relationship to each other remains unexplored. In this study, we inferred the phylogeny of 18 species currently assigned to this genus based on 160 specimens and six markers: mtSSU, nuLSU, ITS, RPB1, MCM7, and TSR1. We assessed the circumscription of species-level lineages in Protoparmelia s. str. using two coalescent-based species delimitation methods – BP&P and spedeSTEM. Our results suggest the presence of a tropical and an extra-tropical lineage, and eleven previously unrecognized distinct species-level lineages in Protoparmelia s. str. Several cryptic lineages were discovered as compared to phenotype-based species delimitation. Many of the putative species are supported by geographic evidence. PMID:25932996

  17. Testing the use of ITS rDNA and protein-coding genes in the generic and species delimitation of the lichen genus Usnea (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota).

    PubMed

    Truong, Camille; Divakar, Pradeep K; Yahr, Rebecca; Crespo, Ana; Clerc, Philippe

    2013-08-01

    In lichen-forming fungi, traditional taxonomical concepts are frequently in conflict with molecular data, and identifying appropriate taxonomic characters to describe phylogenetic clades remains challenging in many groups. The selection of suitable markers for the reconstruction of solid phylogenetic hypotheses is therefore fundamental. The lichen genus Usnea is highly diverse, with more than 350 estimated species, distributed in polar, temperate and tropical regions. The phylogeny and classification of Usnea have been a matter of debate, given the lack of phenotypic characters to describe phylogenetic clades and the low degree of resolution of phylogenetic trees. In this study, we investigated the phylogenetic relationships of 52 Usnea species from across the genus, based on ITS rDNA, nuLSU, and two protein-coding genes RPB1 and MCM7. ITS comprised several highly variable regions, containing substantial genetic signal, but also susceptible to causing bias in the generation of the alignment. We compared several methods of alignment of ITS and found that a simultaneous optimization of alignment and phylogeny (using BAli-phy) improved significantly both the topology and the resolution of the phylogenetic tree. However the resolution was even better when using protein-coding genes, especially RPB1 although it is less variable. The phylogeny based on the concatenated dataset revealed that the genus Usnea is subdivided into four highly-supported clades, corresponding to the traditionally circumscribed subgenera Eumitria, Dolichousnea, Neuropogon and Usnea. However, characters that have been used to describe these clades are often homoplasious within the phylogeny and their parallel evolution is suggested. On the other hand, most of the species were reconstructed as monophyletic, indicating that combinations of phenotypic characters are suitable discriminators for delimitating species, but are inadequate to describe generic subdivisions. PMID:23603312

  18. Coalescent-based species delimitation approach uncovers high cryptic diversity in the cosmopolitan lichen-forming fungal genus Protoparmelia (Lecanorales, Ascomycota).

    PubMed

    Singh, Garima; Dal Grande, Francesco; Divakar, Pradeep K; Otte, Jürgen; Leavitt, Steven D; Szczepanska, Katarzyna; Crespo, Ana; Rico, Víctor J; Aptroot, André; Cáceres, Marcela Eugenia da Silva; Lumbsch, H Thorsten; Schmitt, Imke

    2015-01-01

    Species recognition in lichen-forming fungi has been a challenge because of unsettled species concepts, few taxonomically relevant traits, and limitations of traditionally used morphological and chemical characters for identifying closely related species. Here we analyze species diversity in the cosmopolitan genus Protoparmelia s.l. The ~25 described species in this group occur across diverse habitats from the boreal-arctic/alpine to the tropics, but their relationship to each other remains unexplored. In this study, we inferred the phylogeny of 18 species currently assigned to this genus based on 160 specimens and six markers: mtSSU, nuLSU, ITS, RPB1, MCM7, and TSR1. We assessed the circumscription of species-level lineages in Protoparmelia s. str. using two coalescent-based species delimitation methods--BP&P and spedeSTEM. Our results suggest the presence of a tropical and an extra-tropical lineage, and eleven previously unrecognized distinct species-level lineages in Protoparmelia s. str. Several cryptic lineages were discovered as compared to phenotype-based species delimitation. Many of the putative species are supported by geographic evidence. PMID:25932996

  19. Metagenome sequence of Elaphomyces granulatus from sporocarp tissue reveals Ascomycota ectomycorrhizal fingerprints of genome expansion and a Proteobacteria-rich microbiome.

    PubMed

    Quandt, C Alisha; Kohler, Annegret; Hesse, Cedar N; Sharpton, Thomas J; Martin, Francis; Spatafora, Joseph W

    2015-08-01

    Many obligate symbiotic fungi are difficult to maintain in culture, and there is a growing need for alternative approaches to obtaining tissue and subsequent genomic assemblies from such species. In this study, the genome of Elaphomyces granulatus was sequenced from sporocarp tissue. The genome assembly remains on many contigs, but gene space is estimated to be mostly complete. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the Elaphomyces lineage is most closely related to Talaromyces and Trichocomaceae s.s. The genome of E. granulatus is reduced in carbohydrate-active enzymes, despite a large expansion in genome size, both of which are consistent with what is seen in Tuber melanosporum, the other sequenced ectomycorrhizal ascomycete. A large number of transposable elements are predicted in the E. granulatus genome, especially Gypsy-like long terminal repeats, and there has also been an expansion in helicases. The metagenome is a complex community dominated by bacteria in Bradyrhizobiaceae, and there is evidence to suggest that the community may be reduced in functional capacity as estimated by KEGG pathways. Through the sequencing of sporocarp tissue, this study has provided insights into Elaphomyces phylogenetics, genomics, metagenomics and the evolution of the ectomycorrhizal association. PMID:25753751

  20. Sporothrix chilensis sp. nov. (Ascomycota: Ophiostomatales), a soil-borne agent of human sporotrichosis with mild-pathogenic potential to mammals.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Anderson Messias; Cruz Choappa, Rodrigo; Fernandes, Geisa Ferreira; de Hoog, G Sybren; de Camargo, Zoilo Pires

    2016-02-01

    A combination of phylogeny, evolution, morphologies and ecologies has enabled major advances in understanding the taxonomy of Sporothrix species, including members exhibiting distinct lifestyles such as saprobes, human/animal pathogens, and insect symbionts. Phylogenetic analyses of ITS1/2 + 5.8s sequences split Sporothrix genus in two well-defined groups with dissimilar ecologies. Species embedded in the Sporothrix schenckii complex are frequently agents of human and animal sporotrichosis, and some of these are responsible for large sapronoses and zoonoses around the warmer temperate regions of the world. At the other extreme, basal saprophytic species evolved in association with decaying wood and soil, and are rarely found to cause human disease. We propose to create a new taxa, Sporothrix chilensis sp. nov., to accommodate strains collected from a clinical case of onychomycosis as well as from environmental origins in Chile. Multigene analyses based on ITS1/2 + 5.8s region, beta-tubulin, calmodulin and translation elongation factor 1α revealed that S. chilensis is a member of the Sporothrix pallida complex, and the nearest taxon is Sporothrix mexicana, a rare soil-borne species, non-pathogenic to humans. The ITS region serves as a primary barcode marker, while each one of the protein-coding loci easily recognized species boundaries providing sufficient information for species identification. A disseminated model of murine sporotrichosis revealed a mild-pathogenic potential, with lung invasion. Although S. chilensis is not a primary pathogen, accidental infection may have an impact in the immunosuppressed population. With the introduction of distinct species with similar routes of transmission but different virulence, identification of Sporothrix agents at the species level is mandatory. PMID:26781380

  1. Complex patterns of speciation in cosmopolitan "rock posy" lichens--discovering and delimiting cryptic fungal species in the lichen-forming Rhizoplaca melanophthalma species-complex (Lecanoraceae, Ascomycota).

    PubMed

    Leavitt, Steven D; Fankhauser, Johnathon D; Leavitt, Dean H; Porter, Lyndon D; Johnson, Leigh A; St Clair, Larry L

    2011-06-01

    A growing body of evidence indicates that in some cases morphology-based species circumscription of lichenized fungi misrepresents the number of existing species. The cosmopolitan "rock posy" lichen (Rhizoplaca melanophthalma) species-complex includes a number of morphologically distinct species that are both geographically and ecologically widespread, providing a model system to evaluate speciation in lichen-forming ascomycetes. In this study, we assembled multiple lines of evidence from nuclear DNA sequence data, morphology, and biochemistry for species delimitation in the R. melanophthalma species-complex. We identify a total of ten candidate species in this study, four of which were previously recognized as distinct taxa and six previously unrecognized lineages found within what has been thus far considered a single species. Candidate species are supported using inferences from multiple empirical operational criteria. Multiple instances of sympatry support the view that these lineages merit recognition as distinct taxa. Generally, we found little corroboration between morphological and chemical characters, and previously unidentified lineages were morphologically polymorphic. However, secondary metabolite data supported one cryptic saxicolous lineage, characterized by orsellinic-derived gyrophoric and lecanoric acids, which we consider to be taxonomically significant. Our study of the R. melanophthalma species-complex indicates that the genus Rhizoplaca, as presently circumscribed, is more diverse in western North American than originally perceived, and we present our analyses as a working example of species delimitation in morphologically cryptic and recently diverged lichenized fungi. PMID:21443956

  2. A monograph of the entomopathogenic genera Hypocrella, Moelleriella, and Samuelsia gen. nov. (Ascomycota, Hypocreales, Clavicipitaceae), and their aschersonia-like anamorphs in the Neotropics

    PubMed Central

    Chaverri, P.; Liu, M.; Hodge, K.T.

    2008-01-01

    The present taxonomic revision deals with Neotropical species of three entomopathogenic genera that were once included in Hypocrella s. l.: Hypocrella s. str. (anamorph Aschersonia), Moelleriella (anamorph aschersonia-like), and Samuelsia gen. nov (anamorph aschersonia-like). Species of Hypocrella, Moelleriella, and Samuelsia are pathogens of scale insects (Coccidae and Lecaniidae, Homoptera) and whiteflies (Aleyrodidae, Homoptera) and are common in tropical regions. Phylogenetic analyses of DNA sequences from nuclear ribosomal large subunit (28S), translation elongation factor 1-α (TEF 1-α), and RNA polymerase II subunit 1 (RPB1) and analyses of multiple morphological characters demonstrate that the three segregated genera can be distinguished by the disarticulation of the ascospores and shape and size of conidia. Moelleriella has filiform multi-septate ascospores that disarticulate at the septa within the ascus and aschersonia-like anamorphs with fusoid conidia. Hypocrella s. str. has filiform to long-fusiform ascospores that do not disarticulate and Aschersonia s. str. anamorphs with fusoid conidia. The new genus proposed here, Samuelsia, has filiform to long-fusiform ascospores that do not disarticulate and aschersonia-like anamorphs with small allantoid conidia. In addition, the present study presents and discusses the evolution of species, morphology, and ecology in Hypocrella, Moelleriella, and Samuelsia based on multigene phylogenetic analyses. PMID:18490956

  3. Neoerysiphe kerribeeensis sp. nov. (Ascomycota: Erysiphales), a new species of Neoerysiphe on native and introduced species of Senecio (Asteraceae) in Australia.

    PubMed

    Beilharz, Vyrna; Cunnington, James H; Pascoe, Ian G

    2010-04-01

    Anamorphic powdery mildew fungi on introduced taxa of Senecio and Pericallis × hybrida in Australia have previously been identified as Neoerysiphe cumminsiana on the basis of a combination of Euoidium-type conidiophores and lobed mycelial and germ tube appressoria. But, two specimens with chasmothecia on the indigenous Senecio glossanthus did not agree with published descriptions of N. cumminsiana. The teleomorph of the S. glossanthus mildew differed from that of N. cumminsiana in the morphology of its peridial cells, the pigmentation of its appendages, and the morphology and pigmentation of some secondary hyphae. Ribosomal DNA ITS sequences from the two S. glossanthus mildew specimens and five other specimens of Senecio mildews from south-eastern Australia demonstrated that all Australian Senecio mildews are conspecific and distinct from the northern hemisphere Senecio mildew (N. cumminsiana) and from other Neoerysiphe taxa. Based on morphological characters and rDNA sequence data, the Australian Senecio mildew is described as a new species, Neoerysiphe kerribeeensis. This is the first native teleomorphic powdery mildew described from Australia. PMID:20943143

  4. Isolation of Paecilomyces lilacinus (Thom) Samson (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) from the Chagas disease vector, Triatoma infestans Klug (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) in an endemic area in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Marti, Gerardo A; Lastra, Claudia C López; Pelizza, Sebastian A; García, Juan J

    2006-11-01

    A survey for entomopathogenic fungi of the Chagas disease vector Triatoma infestans was conducted in two provinces of Argentina from March-December 2003. Field-collected insects that died in the laboratory were individually maintained in moist chamber and incubated at 22 degrees C. Triatominae adults infected with the fungus Paecilomyces lilacinus were found at El Quebracho (27 degrees 34'S-64 degrees 31'W), Santiago del Estero province, Argentina, in December 2003. Paecilomyces lilacinus was cultured and isolated from infected insects in SDAY, PYG and MEA media. Pathogenicity tests were conducted and positive results were recorded. The median survival time (MST) of T. infestans exposed to a P. lilacinus conidial suspension was 12.8 days, and 100% mortality occurred at 30 days post-treatment. This is the first record of natural infection caused by P. lilacinus in T. infestans in the world. PMID:17123036

  5. Catalogue of the Lichenized and Lichenicolous Fungi of Bosnia and Herzegovina

    PubMed Central

    Bilovitz, Peter O.; Mayrhofer, Helmut

    2011-01-01

    Summary The catalogue is based on a comprehensive evaluation of 152 published sources. It includes 624 species (with 4 subspecies and 13 varieties) of lichenized and 17 species of lichenicolous Ascomycota, as well as 9 non-lichenized Ascomycota traditionally included in lichenological literature. PMID:22121302

  6. Draft Genome Sequence of Microdochium bolleyi, a Dark Septate Fungal Endophyte of Beach Grass

    PubMed Central

    Haridas, Sajeet; LaButti, Kurt; Lim, Joanne; Lipzen, Anna; Wang, Mei; Barry, Kerrie; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Spatafora, Joseph W.

    2016-01-01

    Here, we present the genome sequence of the dark septate fungal endophyte Microdochium bolleyi (Ascomycota, Sordariomycetes, Xylariales). The assembled genome size was 38.84 Mbp and consisted of 173 scaffolds and 13,177 predicted genes. PMID:27125481

  7. Compatibility of the insect pathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana with neem against sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, on eggplant

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study on the compatibility of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) with neem was conducted against sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), on eggplant. Initially, three concentrations of B. bassiana (106, 1...

  8. Draft Genome Sequence of Microdochium bolleyi, a Dark Septate Fungal Endophyte of Beach Grass.

    PubMed

    David, Aaron S; Haridas, Sajeet; LaButti, Kurt; Lim, Joanne; Lipzen, Anna; Wang, Mei; Barry, Kerrie; Grigoriev, Igor V; Spatafora, Joseph W; May, Georgiana

    2016-01-01

    Here, we present the genome sequence of the dark septate fungal endophyte Microdochium bolleyi (Ascomycota, Sordariomycetes, Xylariales). The assembled genome size was 38.84 Mbp and consisted of 173 scaffolds and 13,177 predicted genes. PMID:27125481

  9. PHYLOGENETICS OF SACCHAROMYCETALES, THE ASCOMYCETE YEASTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ascomycete yeasts (Phylum Ascomycota: Subphylum Saccharomycotina: Class Saccharomycetes: Order Saccharomycetales) comprise a monophyletic lineage with a single order of about 1000 known species. These yeasts live as saprobes, often in association with plants, animals, and their interfaces. A few s...

  10. Limited transmission of the ectoparasitic fungus Hesperomyces virescens between lady beetles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ectoparasitic fungus Hesperomyces virescens Thaxter (Ascomycota: Laboulbeniales) commonly infects the invasive lady beetle Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) and several other aphidophagous lady beetles in North America and Europe. We tested the hypothesis that bodily contact between adults of differen...

  11. Sporothriolide derivatives as chemotaxonomic markers for Hypoxylon monticulosum

    PubMed Central

    Surup, Frank; Kuhnert, Eric; Lehmann, Erik; Heitkämper, Simone; Hyde, Kevin D.; Fournier, Jacques; Stadler, Marc

    2014-01-01

    During the course of a screening for novel anti-infective agents from cultures of tropical Xylariaceae originating from French Guiana and Thailand, pronounced antifungal activity was noted in extracts of cultures of Hypoxylon monticulosum. A bioassay-guided fractionation led to the known metabolite sporothriolide as active principle. In addition, three new derivatives of sporothriolide were isolated, for which we propose the trivial names sporothric acid, isosporothric acid and dihydroisosporothric acid. Their chemical structures were elucidated by high-resolution electrospray mass spectrometry in conjunction with two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (2D-NMR) spectroscopy. From earlier studies on the biogenesis of the chemically similar canadensolides, we postulate that the new compounds were shunt products, rather than biogenetic precursors of sporothriolide. Interestingly, this compound class, as well as strong antifungal activities, was only observed in multiple cultures of H. monticulosum, but not in several hundreds of Hypoxylon cultures studied previously or concurrently. Therefore, sporothriolide production may constitute a species-specific feature with respect to Hypoxylon and the Xylariaceae, although the compound was previously reported from non-related fungal taxa. PMID:25379335

  12. Antagonistic activity of fungi of Olea europaea L. against Colletotrichum acutatum.

    PubMed

    Landum, Miguel C; Félix, Maria do Rosário; Alho, Joana; Garcia, Raquel; Cabrita, Maria João; Rei, Fernando; Varanda, Carla M R

    2016-02-01

    Fungi naturally present in olive trees were identified and tested for their antagonistic potential against Colletotrichum acutatum. A total of 14 isolates were identified, 12 belonged to genera Alternaria, Epicoccum, Fusarium, Aspergillus, Anthrinium, Chaetomium, Diaporthe, Nigrospora, one to family Xylariaceae and one was unclassified. All fungal isolates showed some inhibitory action over the growth of C. acutatum during dual culture growth, however, when agar-diffusible tests were performed only five fungal isolates caused C. acutatum growth inhibition: Alternaria sp. isolate 2 (26.8%), the fungus from Xylariaceae family (14.3%), Alternaria sp. isolate 1 (10.7%); Diaporthe sp. (10.7%), Nigrospora oryzae (3.5%). Volatile substances produced by these isolates were identified through gas-chromatography techniques, as phenylethyl alcohol, 4-methylquinazoline, benzothiazole, benzyl alcohol, lilial, galaxolide, among others. These inhibitory volatiles could play a significant role in reduction of C. acutatum expansion in olive and their study as potential biocontrol agents should be further explored. PMID:26805623

  13. 18S rRNA Gene Variation among Common Airborne Fungi, and Development of Specific Oligonucleotide Probes for the Detection of Fungal Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhihong; Tsumura, Yoshihiko; Blomquist, Göran; Wang, Xiao-Ru

    2003-01-01

    In this study, we sequenced 18S rRNA genes (rDNA) from 49 fungal strains representing 31 species from 15 genera. Most of these species are common airborne fungi and pathogens that may cause various public health concerns. Sequence analysis revealed distinct divergence between Zygomycota and Ascomycota. Within Ascomycota, several strongly supported clades were identified that facilitate the taxonomic placement of several little-studied fungi. Wallemia appeared as the group most diverged from all the other Ascomycota species. Based on the 18S rDNA sequence variation, 108 oligonucleotide probes were designed for each genus and species included in this study. After homology searches and DNA hybridization evaluations, 33 probes were verified as genus or species specific. The optimal hybridization temperatures to achieve the best specificity for these 33 probes were determined. These new probes can contribute to the molecular diagnostic research for environmental monitoring. PMID:12957927

  14. Muscodor albus MOW12 an Endophyte of Piper nigrum L. (Piperaceae) Collected from North East India Produces Volatile Antimicrobials.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Debdulal; Pandey, Akhil; Jana, Maloy; Strobel, Gary

    2014-03-01

    Muscodor albus MOW12, an endophytic fungus isolated from Piper nigrum in Mawlong, Meghalaya, India, resembles some cultural and hyphal characteristics of previous isolates of Muscodor sp. In addition, it possesses about 99 % similarity in its ITS rDNA with other M. albus isolates and thus is nicely centered within the genetic tree to other Muscodor spp. This xylariaceae fungus effectively inhibits and kills certain plant pathogenic fungi by virtue of a mixture of volatile compounds that it produces. The majority of these compounds were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry as small molecular weight esters, alcohols, and acids. The main ester components of this isolate of M. albus in its volatile mixture are acetic acid, ethyl ester; propanoic acid, 2-methyl-, methyl ester and acetic acid, 2-methylpropyl ester. This appears to be the first report of any M. albus strain from India. PMID:24426163

  15. Contrasting Diversity and Host Association of Ectomycorrhizal Basidiomycetes versus Root-Associated Ascomycetes in a Dipterocarp Rainforest

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Hirotoshi; Tanabe, Akifumi S.; Toju, Hirokazu

    2015-01-01

    Root-associated fungi, including ectomycorrhizal and root-endophytic fungi, are among the most diverse and important belowground plant symbionts in dipterocarp rainforests. Our study aimed to reveal the biodiversity, host association, and community structure of ectomycorrhizal Basidiomycota and root-associated Ascomycota (including root-endophytic Ascomycota) in a lowland dipterocarp rainforest in Southeast Asia. The host plant chloroplast ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase large subunit (rbcL) region and fungal internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) region were sequenced using tag-encoded, massively parallel 454 pyrosequencing to identify host plant and root-associated fungal taxa in root samples. In total, 1245 ascomycetous and 127 putative ectomycorrhizal basidiomycetous taxa were detected from 442 root samples. The putative ectomycorrhizal Basidiomycota were likely to be associated with closely related dipterocarp taxa to greater or lesser extents, whereas host association patterns of the root-associated Ascomycota were much less distinct. The community structure of the putative ectomycorrhizal Basidiomycota was possibly more influenced by host genetic distances than was that of the root-associated Ascomycota. This study also indicated that in dipterocarp rainforests, root-associated Ascomycota were characterized by high biodiversity and indistinct host association patterns, whereas ectomycorrhizal Basidiomycota showed less biodiversity and a strong host phylogenetic preference for dipterocarp trees. Our findings lead to the working hypothesis that root-associated Ascomycota, which might be mainly represented by root-endophytic fungi, have biodiversity hotspots in the tropics, whereas biodiversity of ectomycorrhizal Basidiomycota increases with host genetic diversity. PMID:25884708

  16. Contrasting diversity and host association of ectomycorrhizal basidiomycetes versus root-associated ascomycetes in a dipterocarp rainforest.

    PubMed

    Sato, Hirotoshi; Tanabe, Akifumi S; Toju, Hirokazu

    2015-01-01

    Root-associated fungi, including ectomycorrhizal and root-endophytic fungi, are among the most diverse and important belowground plant symbionts in dipterocarp rainforests. Our study aimed to reveal the biodiversity, host association, and community structure of ectomycorrhizal Basidiomycota and root-associated Ascomycota (including root-endophytic Ascomycota) in a lowland dipterocarp rainforest in Southeast Asia. The host plant chloroplast ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase large subunit (rbcL) region and fungal internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) region were sequenced using tag-encoded, massively parallel 454 pyrosequencing to identify host plant and root-associated fungal taxa in root samples. In total, 1245 ascomycetous and 127 putative ectomycorrhizal basidiomycetous taxa were detected from 442 root samples. The putative ectomycorrhizal Basidiomycota were likely to be associated with closely related dipterocarp taxa to greater or lesser extents, whereas host association patterns of the root-associated Ascomycota were much less distinct. The community structure of the putative ectomycorrhizal Basidiomycota was possibly more influenced by host genetic distances than was that of the root-associated Ascomycota. This study also indicated that in dipterocarp rainforests, root-associated Ascomycota were characterized by high biodiversity and indistinct host association patterns, whereas ectomycorrhizal Basidiomycota showed less biodiversity and a strong host phylogenetic preference for dipterocarp trees. Our findings lead to the working hypothesis that root-associated Ascomycota, which might be mainly represented by root-endophytic fungi, have biodiversity hotspots in the tropics, whereas biodiversity of ectomycorrhizal Basidiomycota increases with host genetic diversity. PMID:25884708

  17. The Wood Rot Ascomycete Xylaria polymorpha Produces a Novel GH78 Glycoside Hydrolase That Exhibits α-l-Rhamnosidase and Feruloyl Esterase Activities and Releases Hydroxycinnamic Acids from Lignocelluloses

    PubMed Central

    Nghi, Do Huu; Bittner, Britta; Kellner, Harald; Jehmlich, Nico; Ullrich, René; Pecyna, Marek J.; Nousiainen, Paula; Sipilä, Jussi; Huong, Le Mai; Hofrichter, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Soft rot (type II) fungi belonging to the family Xylariaceae are known to substantially degrade hardwood by means of their poorly understood lignocellulolytic system, which comprises various hydrolases, including feruloyl esterases and laccase. In the present study, several members of the Xylariaceae were found to exhibit high feruloyl esterase activity during growth on lignocellulosic materials such as wheat straw (up to 1,675 mU g−1) or beech wood (up to 80 mU g−1). Following the ester-cleaving activity toward methyl ferulate, a hydrolase of Xylaria polymorpha was produced in solid-state culture on wheat straw and purified by different steps of anion-exchange and size-exclusion chromatography to apparent homogeneity (specific activity, 2.2 U mg−1). The peptide sequence of the purified protein deduced from the gene sequence and verified by de novo peptide sequencing shows high similarity to putative α-l-rhamnosidase sequences belonging to the glycoside hydrolase family 78 (GH78; classified under EC 3.2.1.40). The purified enzyme (98 kDa by SDS-PAGE, 103 kDa by size-exclusion chromatography; pI 3.7) converted diverse glycosides (e.g., α-l-rhamnopyranoside and α-l-arabinofuranoside) but also natural and synthetic esters (e.g., chlorogenic acid, hydroxycinnamic acid glycoside esters, veratric acid esters, or p-nitrophenyl acetate) and released free hydroxycinnamic acids (ferulic and coumaric acid) from arabinoxylan and milled wheat straw. These catalytic properties strongly suggest that X. polymorpha GH78 is a multifunctional enzyme. It is the first fungal enzyme that combines glycosyl hydrolase with esterase activities and may help this soft rot fungus to degrade lignocelluloses. PMID:22544251

  18. [Classification of Fungi in modern view].

    PubMed

    Agerer, R

    2003-01-01

    Fungi are a heterogeneous jumble coming together from three kingdoms of organisms. The True Fungi represent a kingdom of its own and are positioned closer to the Animalia than to the Plantae. At present the Fungi are divided into five Divisions. Species pathogenic for humans are found in the Divisions Zygomycota, Ascomycota and Basidiomycota. The Pneumocystidales are now classified in the Ascomycota. The Malasseziales are included in the Class Ustilaginomycetes. Essential characteristics for the classification of Fungi are derived from ultrastructure, chemistry, and more recently also from molecular biology of these organisms. None of these methods can stand for its own, all characteristics must be included. PMID:12955846

  19. Population genetics of Eutypa lata in the major grape-growing regions of the world and historical patterns of viticulture.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The causal agent of Eutypa dieback of grape, Eutypa lata (Ascomycota), is a destructive disease worldwide. The pathogen has a broad host range, but causes severe symptoms on only a few cultivated hosts (e.g., apricot & grape). To decipher its cosmopolitan distribution, we examined the population gen...

  20. Two members of the Ustilago maydis velvet family influence teliospore development and virulence on maize seedlings

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Members of the fungal-specific velvet protein family regulate sexual and asexual spore production in the Ascomycota. We predicted, therefore, that velvet homologs in the basidiomycetous plant pathogen Ustilago maydis would regulate sexual spore development, which is also associated with plant disea...

  1. Sexual reproduction and recombination in the aflatoxin-producing fungus Aspergillus parasiticus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fungal phylum Ascomycota comprises a large proportion of species with no known sexual stage, despite high genetic variability in field populations. One such asexual species, Aspergillus parasiticus, is a potent producer of carcinogenic and hepatotoxic aflatoxins, polyketide-derived secondary me...

  2. What is Scirrhia?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ascomycete genus Scirrhia is presently treated as a member of the Dothideomycetidae, though uncertainty remains to which family it belongs in the Capnodiales within the Ascomycota. Recent collections on stems of a fern, Pteridium aquilinum (Dennstaedtiaceae) in Brazil, led to the discovery of a ...

  3. Microsatellite loci for the fungus, Ascosphaera apis, cause of honey bee chalkbrood disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fungus Ascosphaera apis (Ascomycota:Ascosphaeriaceae) is a worldwide fungal pathogen of honey bees. To provide tools for understanding the dispersal history of this pathogen, strain differences in virulence, and host-pathogen interactions, we developed and tested microsatellite loci for this sp...

  4. Contribution of Ergot Alkaloids to Suppression of a Grass-Feeding Caterpillar Assessed with Gene-Knockout Endophytes in Perennial Rygrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Neotyphodium and Epichloë species (Ascomycota: Clavicipitaceae) are fungal symbionts (endophytes) of grasses. Many of these endophytes produce alkaloids that enhance their hosts' resistance to insects or are toxic to grazing mammals. The goals of eliminating from forage grasses factors such as ergot...

  5. Saccharomycotina and Taphrinomycotina – progress in circumscription of genera

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Much progress has been made in understanding relationships among the yeasts. DNA barcoding (D1/D2, ITS) has provided a rapid means for species identification and phylogenetic analysis of gene sequences has shown that the Ascomycota is comprised of three major lineages, i.e, Saccharomycotina (buddin...

  6. Fungi associated with rocks of the Atacama Desert: Taxonomy, distribution, diversity, ecology and bioprospection for bioactive compounds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study assessed the diversity of fungi living in rocks from different altitudes in the Atacama Desert, Chile. Eighty-one fungal isolates obtained were identified as 21 species of 12 genera from Ascomycota using molecular techniques. Cladosporium halotolerans, Penicillium chrysogenum and Penicill...

  7. Recommendations of generic names in Diaporthales competing for protection or use

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In advancing to one name for fungi, this paper treats generic names competing for use in the order Diaporthales (Ascomycota, Sordariomycetes) and makes a recommendation for the use or protection of one generic name among synonymous names that may be either sexua...

  8. Discussion of teleomorphic and anamorphic Ascomycetous yeasts and yeast-like taxa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The relationship of ascomycetous yeasts with other members of the ascomycete fungi (Ascomycota) has been controversial for over 100 years. Because yeasts are morphologically simple, it was proposed that they represent primitive forms of ascomycetes (e.g., Guilliermond 1912). Alternatively, the ide...

  9. Trichoderma amazonicum, a new endophytic species on Hevea brasiliensis and H. guianensis from the Amazon basin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new species of Trichoderma (teleomorph Hypocrea, Ascomycota, Sordariomycetes, Hypocreales, Hypocreaceae), T. amazonicum, endophytic on the living sapwood and leaves of Hevea spp. trees is described. Trichoderma amazonicum is distinguished from closely related species in the Harzianum clade (e.g. ...

  10. Stenocybe fragmenta, a new species of Mycocaliciaceae with fragmenting spores

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, E.B.; Rikkinen, Jouko

    1998-01-01

    The new species Stenocybe fragmenta (Ascomycota, Mycocaliciaceae) is described from western North America. The species was collected from twigs of Cercocarpus montanus and Rhamnus purshiana. Stenocybe fragmenta is characterized by 5-7 septate, 18-30 I?m long ascospores that fragment at maturity. This is the first report of spore fragmentation among the Mycocaliciaceae.

  11. Trypsin-like Proteins of the Fungi as Possible Markers of Phytopathogenicity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sequences of peptidases with conserved motifs around the active site residues that are characteristic of trypsins (similar to trypsin peptidases, STP) were obtained from publicly available fungal genomes and related databases. Among the 74 fungal genomes, 30 species of parasitic Ascomycota contained...

  12. HYPOCREA RUFA/TRICHODERMA VIRIDE: A REASSESSMENT, AND DESCRIPTION OF THREE CLOSELY RELATED SPECIES WITH AND WITHOUT WARTED CONIDIA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The type species of the genus Hypocrea (Hypocreaceae, Hypocreales, Ascomycota, Fungi), H. rufa, is re-defined and epitypified using a combination of phenotype (morphology of teleomorphs and anamorphs, and characteristics in culture) and phylogenetic analyses of the translation-elongation factor 1' g...

  13. Tubakia seoraksanensis sp. nov., a new species from Korea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An unknown species of Tubakia (Diaporthales, Ascomycota) was collected recently from Quercus mongolica on Seoraksan Mountain, GangWon province in Korea. It was characterized with cultural, ITS region sequence, and morphologial data. After comparison with known species of Tubakia, this species is des...

  14. Phylogeny and historical biogeography of true morels (Morchella) reveals an early Cretaceous origin and high continental endemism and provincialism in the Holarctic

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Morel mushrooms (Morchella, phylum Ascomycota) are arguably the most widely recognized and highly prized of the estimated 1.5 million fungi that inhabit our planet. Although field guides treat these epicurean macrofungi as though the species have cosmopolitan distributions, this assumption has not b...

  15. Full Genome of Phialocephala scopiformis DAOMC 229536, a Fungal Endophyte of Spruce Producing the Potent Anti-Insectan Compound Rugulosin

    PubMed Central

    Frasz, Samantha L.; Seifert, Keith A.; Miller, J. David; Mondo, Stephen J.; LaButti, Kurt; Lipzen, Anna; Dockter, Rhyan B.; Kennedy, Megan C.; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Spatafora, Joseph W.

    2016-01-01

    We present the full genome of Phialocephala scopiformis DAOMC 229536 (Helotiales, Ascomycota), a foliar endophyte of white spruce from eastern Quebec. DAOMC 229536 produces the anti-insectan compound rugulosin, which inhibits a devastating forestry pest, the spruce budworm. This genome will enable fungal genotyping and host-endophyte evolutionary genomics in inoculated trees. PMID:26950333

  16. Full Genome of Phialocephala scopiformis DAOMC 229536, a Fungal Endophyte of Spruce Producing the Potent Anti-Insectan Compound Rugulosin.

    PubMed

    Walker, Allison K; Frasz, Samantha L; Seifert, Keith A; Miller, J David; Mondo, Stephen J; LaButti, Kurt; Lipzen, Anna; Dockter, Rhyan B; Kennedy, Megan C; Grigoriev, Igor V; Spatafora, Joseph W

    2016-01-01

    We present the full genome of Phialocephala scopiformis DAOMC 229536 (Helotiales, Ascomycota), a foliar endophyte of white spruce from eastern Quebec. DAOMC 229536 produces the anti-insectan compound rugulosin, which inhibits a devastating forestry pest, the spruce budworm. This genome will enable fungal genotyping and host-endophyte evolutionary genomics in inoculated trees. PMID:26950333

  17. Fungi associated with rocks of the Atacama Desert: taxonomy, distribution, diversity, ecology and bioprospection for bioactive compounds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study assessed the diversity of fungi living in rocks from different altitudes in the Atacama Desert, Chile. Eighty-one fungal isolates obtained were identified as 21 species of 12 genera from Ascomycota using molecular techniques. Cladosporium halotolerans, Penicillium chrysogenum and Penicill...

  18. Community Structure and Succession Regulation of Fungal Consortia in the Lignocellulose-Degrading Process on Natural Biomass

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chunxiang; Lv, Ruirui; Zhou, Junxiong; Li, Xin; Zheng, Yi; Jin, Xiangyu; Wang, Mengli; Ye, Yongxia; Huang, Xinyi; Liu, Ping

    2014-01-01

    The study aims to investigate fungal community structures and dynamic changes in forest soil lignocellulose-degrading process. rRNA gene clone libraries for the samples collected in different stages of lignocellulose degradation process were constructed and analyzed. A total of 26 representative RFLP types were obtained from original soil clone library, including Mucoromycotina (29.5%), unclassified Zygomycetes (33.5%), Ascomycota (32.4%), and Basidiomycota (4.6%). When soil accumulated with natural lignocellulose, 16 RFLP types were identified from 8-day clone library, including Basidiomycota (62.5%), Ascomycota (36.1%), and Fungi incertae sedis (1.4%). After enrichment for 15 days, identified 11 RFLP types were placed in 3 fungal groups: Basidiomycota (86.9%), Ascomycota (11.5%), and Fungi incertae sedis (1.6%). The results showed richer, more diversity and abundance fungal groups in original forest soil. With the degradation of lignocellulose, fungal groups Mucoromycotina and Ascomycota decreased gradually, and wood-rotting fungi Basidiomycota increased and replaced the opportunist fungi to become predominant group. Most of the fungal clones identified in sample were related to the reported lignocellulose-decomposing strains. Understanding of the microbial community structure and dynamic change during natural lignocellulose-degrading process will provide us with an idea and a basis to construct available commercial lignocellulosic enzymes or microbial complex. PMID:24574925

  19. Draft Genome Sequence of the Fungus Penicillium brasilianum MG11.

    PubMed

    Horn, Fabian; Linde, Jörg; Mattern, Derek J; Walther, Grit; Guthke, Reinhard; Brakhage, Axel A; Valiante, Vito

    2015-01-01

    The genus Penicillium belongs to the phylum Ascomycota and includes a variety of fungal species important for food and drug production. We report the draft genome sequence of Penicillium brasilianum MG11. This strain was isolated from soil, and it was reported to produce different secondary metabolites. PMID:26337871

  20. Cyberlindnera xylolytica sp. nov., a xylitol-producing yeast species isolated from lignocellulosic materials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Independent surveys of yeasts associated with lignocellulosic-related materials led to the discovery of a novel yeast species belonging to the Cyberlindnera clade (Saccharomycotina, Ascomycota). Analysis of the sequences of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region and the D1/D2 domains of the la...

  1. Glucosylation and other biotransformations of T-2 toxin by yeasts of the Trichomonascus clade

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twenty-five yeasts assigned to the Trichomonascus clade (Saccharomycotina, Ascomycota), including three Trichomonascus species and 22 anamorphic species presently classified in Blastobotrys, were tested for their ability to convert T-2 toxin, a Fusarium trichothecene mycotoxin, to less toxic product...

  2. Fungal endophyte diversity in Sarracenia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fungal endophytes were isolated from four species of the carnivorous pitcher plant genus Sarracenia: S. minor, S. oreophila, S. purpurea, and S. psittacina. Twelve taxa of fungi, eight within the Ascomycota and four within the Basidiomycota, were identified based on PCR amplification and sequencing ...

  3. Detrimental and neutral effects of a wild grass-fungal endophyte symbiotum on insect preference and performance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The presence of seed-borne Epichloë/Neotyphodium (Ascomycota: Clavicipitaceae) fungal endophytes in temperate grasses can influence the outcome of grass–insect interactions. For example, the expression of endophyte-mediated resistance to insects depends on the insect species involved. The behavior...

  4. Molecular Systematics of Entomopathogenic Fungi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insect parasitism has multiple and diverse origins within the Kingdom Fungi, with shifts to trophic specialization on insects having evolved one or more times in each of the four traditionally recognized phyla of fungi, the Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Chytridiomycota, and Zygomycota. The rich legacy ...

  5. Revision of the Genus Corallomycetella with Corallonectria gen. nov. for C. jatrophae (Nectriaceae, Hypocreales)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genus Corallomycetella (Ascomycota, Sordariomycetes, Hypocreales, Nectriaceae) has been defined to include red nectrioid fungi associated with rhizomorphs in nature and culture. With the recent collection of an unusual specimen having striated ascospores, the genus was re-examined using this and...

  6. Comparative physiology of forty-five Yarrowia lipolytica strains grown on pretreated switchgrass hydrolysate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yarrowia lipolytica is a well-characterized yeast of the phylum Ascomycota with established use in the biotechnology industry for production of organic acids and enzymes. In addition, the yeast is a model oleaginous organism that accumulates lipids during growth on a variety of carbon sources. The a...

  7. Phylogenetic placement of the ectomycorrhizal genus Cenococcum in Gloniaceae (Dothideomycetes).

    PubMed

    Spatafora, Joseph W; Owensby, C Alisha; Douhan, Greg W; Boehm, Eric W A; Schoch, Conrad L

    2012-01-01

    Cenococcum is a genus of ectomycorrhizal Ascomycota that has a broad host range and geographic distribution. It is not known to produce either meiotic or mitotic spores and is known to exist only in the form of hyphae, sclerotia and host-colonized ectomycorrhizal root tips. Due to its lack of sexual and asexual spores and reproductive structures, it has proven difficult to incorporate into traditional classification within Ascomycota. Molecular phylogenetic studies of ribosomal RNA placed Cenococcum in Dothideomycetes, but the definitive identification of closely related taxa remained elusive. Here we report a phylogenetic analysis of five nuclear loci (SSU, LSU, TEF1, RPB1, RPB2) of Dothideomycetes that placed Cenococcum as a close relative of the genus Glonium of Gloniaceae (Pleosporomycetidae incertae sedis) with strong statistical support. Glonium is a genus of saprobic Dothideomycetes that produces darkly pigmented, carbonaceous, hysteriate apothecia and is not known to be biotrophic. Evolution of ectomycorhizae, Cenococcum and Dothideomycetes is discussed. PMID:22453119

  8. Fireworks under the microscope: a spectacular new species of Zodiomyces from the Thaxter collection.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Walter; Haelewaters, Danny; Pfister, Donald H

    2016-01-01

    A new species of Zodiomyces (Ascomycota, Laboulbeniales) is described, Z. rhizophorus, parasitic on a hydrophilid beetle (Coleoptera, Hydrophilidae) from Trinidad. This species was discovered during the examination of the slides of Laboulbeniales made by Roland Thaxter. It is characterized by numerous long, slender, multicellular and multiseriate outgrowths at the base of the receptacle. Thaxter's outstanding illustrations have set a standard in the field of mycology; we provide a review of the methods he employed in the preparation of these illustrations. PMID:27055574

  9. Comparison of pectin-degrading fungal communities in temperate forests using glycosyl hydrolase family 28 pectinase primers targeting Ascomycete fungi.

    PubMed

    Gacura, Matthew D; Sprockett, Daniel D; Heidenreich, Bess; Blackwood, Christopher B

    2016-04-01

    Fungi have developed a wide assortment of enzymes to break down pectin, a prevalent polymer in plant cell walls that is important in plant defense and structure. One enzyme family used to degrade pectin is the glycosyl hydrolase family 28 (GH28). In this study we developed primers for the amplification of GH28 coding genes from a database of 293 GH28 sequences from 40 fungal genomes. The primers were used to successfully amplify GH28 pectinases from all Ascomycota cultures tested, but only three out of seven Basidiomycota cultures. In addition, we further tested the primers in PCRs on metagenomic DNA extracted from senesced tree leaves from different forest ecosystems, followed by cloning and sequencing. Taxonomic specificity for Ascomycota GH28 genes was tested by comparing GH28 composition in leaves to internal transcribed spacer (ITS) amplicon composition using pyrosequencing. All sequences obtained from GH28 primers were classified as Ascomycota; in contrast, ITS sequences indicated that fungal communities were up to 39% Basidiomycetes. Analysis of leaf samples indicated that both forest stand and ecosystem type were important in structuring fungal communities. However, site played the prominent role in explaining GH28 composition, whereas ecosystem type was more important for ITS composition, indicating possible genetic drift between populations of fungi. Overall, these primers will have utility in understanding relationships between fungal community composition and ecosystem processes, as well as detection of potentially pathogenic Ascomycetes. PMID:26899925

  10. Comparison of pectin-degrading fungal communities in temperate forests using glycosyl hydrolase family 28 pectinase primers targeting Ascomycete fungi

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Gacura, Matthew D.; Sprockett, Daniel D.; Heidenreich, Bess; Blackwood, Christopher B.

    2016-02-17

    Here, fungi have developed a wide assortment of enzymes to break down pectin, a prevalent polymer in plant cell walls that is important in plant defense and structure. One enzyme family used to degrade pectin is the glycosyl hydrolase family 28 (GH28). In this studywe developed primers for the amplification of GH28 coding genes from a database of 293 GH28 sequences from40 fungal genomes. The primerswere used to successfully amplify GH28 pectinases from all Ascomycota cultures tested, but only three out of seven Basidiomycota cultures. In addition, we further tested the primers in PCRs on metagenomic DNA extracted from senescedmore » tree leaves from different forest ecosystems, followed by cloning and sequencing. Taxonomic specificity for Ascomycota GH28 genes was tested by comparing GH28 composition in leaves to internal transcribed spacer (ITS) amplicon composition using pyrosequencing. All sequences obtained from GH28 primers were classified as Ascomycota; in contrast, ITS sequences indicated that fungal communitieswere up to 39% Basidiomycetes. Analysis of leaf samples indicated that both forest stand and ecosystemtype were important in structuring fungal communities. However, site played the prominent role in explaining GH28 composition, whereas ecosystem type was more important for ITS composition, indicating possible genetic drift between populations of fungi. Overall, these primers will have utility in understanding relationships between fungal community composition and ecosystem processes, as well as detection of potentially pathogenic Ascomycetes.« less

  11. Identification of a Fungal 1,8-Cineole Synthase from Hypoxylon sp. with Specificity Determinants in Common with the Plant Synthases*

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Jeffrey J.; Berbasova, Tetyana; Sasaki, Tomoaki; Jefferson-George, Kyra; Spakowicz, Daniel J.; Dunican, Brian F.; Portero, Carolina E.; Narváez-Trujillo, Alexandra; Strobel, Scott A.

    2015-01-01

    Terpenes are an important and diverse class of secondary metabolites widely produced by fungi. Volatile compound screening of a fungal endophyte collection revealed a number of isolates in the family Xylariaceae, producing a series of terpene molecules, including 1,8-cineole. This compound is a commercially important component of eucalyptus oil used in pharmaceutical applications and has been explored as a potential biofuel additive. The genes that produce terpene molecules, such as 1,8-cineole, have been little explored in fungi, providing an opportunity to explore the biosynthetic origin of these compounds. Through genome sequencing of cineole-producing isolate E7406B, we were able to identify 11 new terpene synthase genes. Expressing a subset of these genes in Escherichia coli allowed identification of the hyp3 gene, responsible for 1,8-cineole biosynthesis, the first monoterpene synthase discovered in fungi. In a striking example of convergent evolution, mutational analysis of this terpene synthase revealed an active site asparagine critical for water capture and specificity during cineole synthesis, the same mechanism used in an unrelated plant homologue. These studies have provided insight into the evolutionary relationship of fungal terpene synthases to those in plants and bacteria and further established fungi as a relatively untapped source of this important and diverse class of compounds. PMID:25648891

  12. Measurement of personal exposure to outdoor aeromycota in northern New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Green, Brett James; O'Meara, Timothy; Sercombe, Jason; Tovey, Euan

    2006-01-01

    Aerobiological sampling traditionally uses a volumetric spore trap located in a fixed position to estimate personal exposure to airborne fungi. In this study, the number and identity of fungi inhaled by human subjects (n=34), wearing Intra-nasal air samplers (INASs), was measured over 2-hour periods in an outdoor community setting, and compared to fungal counts made with a Burkard spore trap and Institute of Occupational Medicine personal filter air samplers (IOMs). All sampling devices were in close proximity and located in an outdoor environment in Casino, northern New South Wales, Australia. Using INASs, the most prevalent fungi inhaled belonged to soil or vegetation borne spores of Alternaria, Arthrinium, Bipolaris, Cladosporium, Curvularia, Epicoccum, Exserohilum, Fusarium, Pithomyces, Spegazzinia and Tetraploa species, Xylariaceae ascospores, in addition to hyphal fragments. These results showed that inhaled fungal exposure in most people varied in a 2-fold range with 10-fold outliers. In addition, the INASs and personal air filters agreed more with each other than with Burkard spore trap counts (r=0.74, p < 0.0001). These findings further support a new paradigm of personal fungal exposure, which implicates the inhalation of a spectrum of fungi more closely associated with soil or vegetation borne mycoflora and hyphal fragments than what is collected by stationary spore traps in the same geographic region. PMID:17195994

  13. Spatial and Temporal Profiling of Griseofulvin Production in Xylaria cubensis Using Mass Spectrometry Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Sica, Vincent P.; Rees, Evan R.; Tchegnon, Edem; Bardsley, Robert H.; Raja, Huzefa A.; Oberlies, Nicholas H.

    2016-01-01

    A large portion of natural products research revolves around the discovery of new, bioactive chemical entities; however, studies to probe the biological purpose of such secondary metabolites for the host organism are often limited. Mass spectrometry mapping of secondary metabolite biosynthesis in situ can be used to probe a series of ecological questions about fungi that may be lost through traditional natural products chemistry extraction protocols. A griseofulvin-producing fungal culture of the Xylariaceae family, isolated as an endophyte of the tree Asimina triloba, was analyzed through a series of spatial and temporal mapping experiments. This fungus produced unique fungal characteristics, such as guttates and stroma, both of which were explored spatially. The distribution of griseofulvin on this culture in isolation was compared to its dispersal when grown in co-culture with a competing Penicillium species via a droplet–based surface sampling system. The fungistatic properties of griseofulvin were visualized, including the consequences for biosynthesis of polyhydroxyanthraquinones in a rival culture. PMID:27199902

  14. Identification of a fungal 1,8-cineole synthase from Hypoxylon sp. with specificity determinants in common with the plant synthases.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Jeffrey J; Berbasova, Tetyana; Sasaki, Tomoaki; Jefferson-George, Kyra; Spakowicz, Daniel J; Dunican, Brian F; Portero, Carolina E; Narváez-Trujillo, Alexandra; Strobel, Scott A

    2015-03-27

    Terpenes are an important and diverse class of secondary metabolites widely produced by fungi. Volatile compound screening of a fungal endophyte collection revealed a number of isolates in the family Xylariaceae, producing a series of terpene molecules, including 1,8-cineole. This compound is a commercially important component of eucalyptus oil used in pharmaceutical applications and has been explored as a potential biofuel additive. The genes that produce terpene molecules, such as 1,8-cineole, have been little explored in fungi, providing an opportunity to explore the biosynthetic origin of these compounds. Through genome sequencing of cineole-producing isolate E7406B, we were able to identify 11 new terpene synthase genes. Expressing a subset of these genes in Escherichia coli allowed identification of the hyp3 gene, responsible for 1,8-cineole biosynthesis, the first monoterpene synthase discovered in fungi. In a striking example of convergent evolution, mutational analysis of this terpene synthase revealed an active site asparagine critical for water capture and specificity during cineole synthesis, the same mechanism used in an unrelated plant homologue. These studies have provided insight into the evolutionary relationship of fungal terpene synthases to those in plants and bacteria and further established fungi as a relatively untapped source of this important and diverse class of compounds. PMID:25648891

  15. Spatial and Temporal Profiling of Griseofulvin Production in Xylaria cubensis Using Mass Spectrometry Mapping.

    PubMed

    Sica, Vincent P; Rees, Evan R; Tchegnon, Edem; Bardsley, Robert H; Raja, Huzefa A; Oberlies, Nicholas H

    2016-01-01

    A large portion of natural products research revolves around the discovery of new, bioactive chemical entities; however, studies to probe the biological purpose of such secondary metabolites for the host organism are often limited. Mass spectrometry mapping of secondary metabolite biosynthesis in situ can be used to probe a series of ecological questions about fungi that may be lost through traditional natural products chemistry extraction protocols. A griseofulvin-producing fungal culture of the Xylariaceae family, isolated as an endophyte of the tree Asimina triloba, was analyzed through a series of spatial and temporal mapping experiments. This fungus produced unique fungal characteristics, such as guttates and stroma, both of which were explored spatially. The distribution of griseofulvin on this culture in isolation was compared to its dispersal when grown in co-culture with a competing Penicillium species via a droplet-based surface sampling system. The fungistatic properties of griseofulvin were visualized, including the consequences for biosynthesis of polyhydroxyanthraquinones in a rival culture. PMID:27199902

  16. Diversity and Taxonomy of Endophytic Xylariaceous Fungi from Medicinal Plants of Dendrobium (Orchidaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Juan; Zhang, Li-Chun; Xing, Yong-Mei; Wang, Yun-Qiang; Xing, Xiao-Ke; Zhang, Da-Wei; Liang, Han-Qiao; Guo, Shun-Xing

    2013-01-01

    Dendrobium spp. are traditional Chinese medicinal plants, and the main effective ingredients (polysaccharides and alkaloids) have pharmacologic effects on gastritis infection, cancer, and anti-aging. Previously, we confirmed endophytic xylariaceous fungi as the dominant fungi in several Dendrobium species of tropical regions from China. In the present study, the diversity, taxonomy, and distribution of culturable endophytic xylariaceous fungi associated with seven medicinal species of Dendrobium (Orchidaceae) were investigated. Among the 961 endophytes newly isolated, 217 xylariaceous fungi (morphotaxa) were identified using morphological and molecular methods. The phylogenetic tree constructed using nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS), large subunit of ribosomal DNA (LSU), and beta-tubulin sequences divided these anamorphic xylariaceous isolates into at least 18 operational taxonomic units (OTUs). The diversity of the endophytic xylariaceous fungi in these seven Dendrobium species was estimated using Shannon and evenness indices, with the results indicating that the dominant Xylariaceae taxa in each Dendrobium species were greatly different, though common xylariaceous fungi were found in several Dendrobium species. These findings implied that different host plants in the same habitats exhibit a preference and selectivity for their fungal partners. Using culture-dependent approaches, these xylariaceous isolates may be important sources for the future screening of new natural products and drug discovery. PMID:23472167

  17. Phytochelatin synthase is required for tolerating metal toxicity in a basidiomycete yeast and is a conserved factor involved in metal homeostasis in fungi

    PubMed Central

    Shine, Alaina M; Shakya, Viplendra PS; Idnurm, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Background Phytochelatin synthase (PCS) is an enzyme that catalyzes the biosynthesis of phytochelatin from glutathione. Phytochelatins protect cells against the toxic effects of non-essential heavy metals, such as cadmium, and hence growth is restricted in the presence of these metals in mutants in PCS-encoding genes. PCS genes from fungi have been characterized in only two species in the Ascomycota, and these genes are considered sparsely distributed in the fungal kingdom. Results A gene encoding a putative PCS was identified in Sporobolomyces sp. strain IAM 13481, a fungus that is a member of the Pucciniomycotina subphylum of the Basidiomycota. The function of this PCS1 gene was assessed by heterologous expression in the Ascomycota yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe, and by mutating the gene in Sporobolomyces. The gene is required for tolerance to toxic concentrations of non-essential cadmium as well as the essential metal copper. Pcs1 homologs in fungi and other eukaryotes have putative targeting sequences for mitochondrial localization: the S. pombe homolog was fused to green fluorescent protein and it co-localized with a mitochondrial dye. Evaluation of the presence or absence of PCS and PCS-like homologs in the genome sequences of fungi indicates that they have a wide distribution, and the absence in most Ascomycota and Basidiomycota (the Dikarya) species can be explained by a small number of gene losses. Conclusions The ecology of the species within the fungi carrying putative PCS genes, the phenotypes of phytochelatin synthase mutants in two major fungal lineages, and the presence of homologs in many non-Dikarya lineages parallel what is seen in the plant and animal kingdoms. That is, PCS is a protein present early during the evolution of the fungi and whose role is not solely dedicated to combating toxic concentrations of non-essential metals. PMID:25926993

  18. Illumina MiSeq investigations on the changes of microbial community in the Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense infected soil during and after reductive soil disinfestation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xinqi; Liu, Liangliang; Wen, Teng; Zhu, Rui; Zhang, Jinbo; Cai, Zucong

    2015-12-01

    Although reductive soil disinfestation (RSD) is increasingly used for the control of soil-borne diseases, its impact on the soil microbial community during and after RSD remains poorly understood. MiSeq pyrosequencing, real-time PCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis were performed to investigate the changes of microbial community in the Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (FOC) infected soil during RSD and at the simulative banana cultivation after RSD. The results showed that RSD significantly increased soil microbial populations and a different microbial community with the pathogenic soil was established after RSD. Specifically, the number of Firmicutes mainly containing Ruminococcus and Coprococcus followed by a small part of Clostridium which were the dominant bacterial genera significantly increased during RSD. In contrast, Symbiobacterium and Flavisolibacter were the dominant genera in the flooding soil. When the soils were recovered under aerobic condition, the relative abundances of the bacteria belonging to the phylum Bacteroidetes, Acidobacteria, Planctomycetes increased as alternatives to the reducing Firmicutes. For fungi, the population of F. oxysporum significantly decreased during RSD accompanied with the pH decline, which resulted in the significant decrease of relative abundance in the phylum Ascomycota. Alternatively, the relative abundances of some other fungal species increased, such as Chaetomium spp. and Penicillium spp. belonging to Ascomycota and the family Clavulinaceae belonging to Basidiomycota. Then, the relative abundance of Ascomycota re-increased after RSD with Podospora and Zopfiella as dominant genera, whereas the relative abundance of Fusarium further decreased. Overall, the microbial populations and community re-established by RSD made the soil more disease-suppressive and beneficial to the soil nutrient cycling and plant growth compared with the previous pathogenic soil. PMID:26640050

  19. New insight into biodegradation of polylactide (PLA)/clay nanocomposites using molecular ecological techniques.

    PubMed

    Sangwan, Parveen; Way, Cameron; Wu, Dong-Yang

    2009-07-01

    Novel molecular ecological techniques were used to study changes in microbial community structure and population during degradation of polylactide (PLA)/organically modified layered silicates (OMLS) nanocomposites. Cloned gene sequences belonging to members of the phyla Actinobacteria and Ascomycota comprized the most dominant groups of microorganisms during biodegradation of PLA/OMLS nanocomposites. Due to their numerical abundance, members of these microbial groups are likely to play an important role during biodegradation process. This paper presents new insights into the biodegradability of PLA/OMLS nanocomposites and highlights the importance of using novel molecular ecological techniques for in situ identification of new microorganisms involved in biodegradation of polymeric materials. PMID:19148900

  20. Permanent genetic resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 February 2013-31 March 2013.

    PubMed

    Arias, M C; Atteke, Christiane; Augusto, S C; Bailey, J; Bazaga, Pilar; Beheregaray, Luciano B; Benoit, Laure; Blatrix, Rumsaïs; Born, Céline; Brito, R M; Chen, Hai-kui; Covarrubias, Sara; de Vega, Clara; Djiéto-Lordon, Champlain; Dubois, Marie-Pierre; Francisco, F O; García, Cristina; Gonçalves, P H P; González, Clementina; Gutiérrez-Rodríguez, Carla; Hammer, Michael P; Herrera, Carlos M; Itoh, H; Kamimura, S; Karaoglu, H; Kojima, S; Li, Shou-Li; Ling, Hannah J; Matos-Maraví, Pável F; McKey, Doyle; Mezui-M'Eko, Judicaël; Ornelas, Juan Francisco; Park, R F; Pozo, María I; Ramula, Satu; Rigueiro, Cristina; Sandoval-Castillo, Jonathan; Santiago, L R; Seino, Miyuki M; Song, Chang-Bing; Takeshima, H; Vasemägi, Anti; Wellings, C R; Yan, Ji; Yu-Zhou, Du; Zhang, Chang-Rong; Zhang, Tian-Yun

    2013-07-01

    This article documents the addition of 142 microsatellite marker loci to the Molecular Ecology Resources database. Loci were developed for the following species: Agriophyllum squarrosum, Amazilia cyanocephala, Batillaria attramentaria, Fungal strain CTeY1 (Ascomycota), Gadopsis marmoratus, Juniperus phoenicea subsp. turbinata, Liriomyza sativae, Lupinus polyphyllus, Metschnikowia reukaufii, Puccinia striiformis and Xylocopa grisescens. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Amazilia beryllina, Amazilia candida, Amazilia rutila, Amazilia tzacatl, Amazilia violiceps, Amazilia yucatanensis, Campylopterus curvipennis, Cynanthus sordidus, Hylocharis leucotis, Juniperus brevifolia, Juniperus cedrus, Juniperus osteosperma, Juniperus oxycedrus, Juniperus thurifera, Liriomyza bryoniae, Liriomyza chinensis, Liriomyza huidobrensis and Liriomyza trifolii. PMID:23693143

  1. New Primers for Discovering Fungal Diversity Using Nuclear Large Ribosomal DNA

    PubMed Central

    Gloor, Gregory B.; Lindo, Zoë

    2016-01-01

    Metabarcoding has become an important tool in the discovery of biodiversity, including fungi, which are the second most speciose group of eukaryotes, with diverse and important ecological roles in terrestrial ecosystems. We have designed and tested new PCR primers that target the D1 variable region of nuclear large subunit (LSU) ribosomal DNA; one set that targets the phylum Ascomycota and another that recovers all other fungal phyla. The primers yield amplicons compatible with the Illumina MiSeq platform, which is cost-effective and has a lower error rate than other high throughput sequencing platforms. The new primer set LSU200A-F/LSU476A-R (Ascomycota) yielded 95–98% of reads of target taxa from environmental samples, and primers LSU200-F/LSU481-R (all other fungi) yielded 72–80% of target reads. Both primer sets have fairly low rates of data loss, and together they cover a wide variety of fungal taxa. We compared our results with these primers by amplifying and sequencing a subset of samples using the previously described ITS3_KYO2/ITS4_KYO3 primers, which amplify the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) of Ascomycota and Basidiomycota. With approximately equivalent read depth, our LSU primers recovered a greater number and phylogenetic diversity of sequences than the ITS2 primers. For instance, ITS3_KYO2/ITS4_KYO3 primers failed to pick up any members of Eurotiales, Mytilinidiales, Pezizales, Saccharomycetales, or Venturiales within Ascomycota, or members of Exobasidiomycetes, Microbotryomycetes, Pucciniomycetes, or Tremellomycetes within Basidiomycota, which were retrieved in good numbers from the same samples by our LSU primers. Among the OTUs recovered using the LSU primers were 127 genera and 28 species that were not obtained using the ITS2 primers, although the ITS2 primers recovered 10 unique genera and 16 species that were not obtained using either of the LSU primers These features identify the new primer sets developed in this study as useful

  2. A new method to evaluate the biocontrol potential of single spore isolates of fungal entomopathogens

    PubMed Central

    Posada, Francisco J.; Vega, Fernando E.

    2005-01-01

    Fifty Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) strains isolated from the coffee berry borer were used to develop a novel screening method aimed at selecting strains with the highest biocontrol potential. The screening method is based on percent insect mortality, average survival time, mortality distribution, percent spore germination, fungal life cycle duration, and spore production on the insect. Based on these parameters, only 11 strains merited further study. The use of a sound scientific protocol for the selection of promising fungal entomopathogens should lead to more efficient use of time, labor, and financial resources in biological control programs. PMID:17119619

  3. Structural Diversity and Biological Activities of Indole Diketopiperazine Alkaloids from Fungi.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yang-Min; Liang, Xi-Ai; Kong, Yang; Jia, Bin

    2016-09-01

    Indole diketopiperazine alkaloids are secondary metabolites of microorganisms that are widely distributed in filamentous fungi, especially in the genera Aspergillus and Penicillium of the phylum Ascomycota or sac fungi. These alkaloids represent a group of natural products characterized by diversity in both chemical structures and biological activities. This review aims to summarize 166 indole diketopiperazine alkaloids from fungi published from 1944 to mid-2015. The emphasis is on diverse chemical structures within these alkaloids and their relevant biological activities. The aim is to assess which of these compounds merit further study for purposes of drug development. PMID:27538469

  4. Analysis of the microbial diversity in faecal material of the endangered blue whale, Balaenoptera musculus.

    PubMed

    Guass, Olivia; Haapanen, Lisa Meier; Dowd, Scot E; Širović, Ana; McLaughlin, Richard William

    2016-07-01

    Using bacterial and fungal tag-encoded FLX-Titanium amplicon pyrosequencing, the microbiota of the faecal material of two blue whales living in the wild off the coast of California was investigated. In both samples the most predominant bacterial phylum was the Firmicutes with Clostridium spp. being the most dominant bacteria. The most predominant fungi were members of the phylum Ascomycota with Metschnikowia spp. being the most dominant. In this study, we also preliminarily characterised the culturable anaerobic bacteria from the faecal material, using traditional culture and 16S rRNA gene sequencing approaches. In total, three bacterial species belonging to the phylum Firmicutes were identified. PMID:27108139

  5. Survey of Microbial Diversity in Flood Areas during Thailand 2011 Flood Crisis Using High-Throughput Tagged Amplicon Pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    Mhuantong, Wuttichai; Wongwilaiwalin, Sarunyou; Laothanachareon, Thanaporn; Eurwilaichitr, Lily; Tangphatsornruang, Sithichoke; Boonchayaanant, Benjaporn; Limpiyakorn, Tawan; Pattaragulwanit, Kobchai; Punmatharith, Thantip; McEvoy, John; Khan, Eakalak; Rachakornkij, Manaskorn; Champreda, Verawat

    2015-01-01

    The Thailand flood crisis in 2011 was one of the largest recorded floods in modern history, causing enormous damage to the economy and ecological habitats of the country. In this study, bacterial and fungal diversity in sediments and waters collected from ten flood areas in Bangkok and its suburbs, covering residential and agricultural areas, were analyzed using high-throughput 454 pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene and internal transcribed spacer sequences. Analysis of microbial community showed differences in taxa distribution in water and sediment with variations in the diversity of saprophytic microbes and sulfate/nitrate reducers among sampling locations, suggesting differences in microbial activity in the habitats. Overall, Proteobacteria represented a major bacterial group in waters, while this group co-existed with Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria in sediments. Anaeromyxobacter, Steroidobacter, and Geobacter were the dominant bacterial genera in sediments, while Sulfuricurvum, Thiovirga, and Hydrogenophaga predominated in waters. For fungi in sediments, Ascomycota, Glomeromycota, and Basidiomycota, particularly in genera Philipsia, Rozella, and Acaulospora, were most frequently detected. Chytridiomycota and Ascomycota were the major fungal phyla, and Rhizophlyctis and Mortierella were the most frequently detected fungal genera in water. Diversity of sulfate-reducing bacteria, related to odor problems, was further investigated using analysis of the dsrB gene which indicated the presence of sulfate-reducing bacteria of families Desulfobacteraceae, Desulfobulbaceae, Syntrobacteraceae, and Desulfoarculaceae in the flood sediments. The work provides an insight into the diversity and function of microbes related to biological processes in flood areas. PMID:26020967

  6. Assessment of the fungal diversity and succession of ligninolytic endophytes in Camellia japonica leaves using clone library analysis.

    PubMed

    Hirose, Dai; Matsuoka, Shunsuke; Osono, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    Fungal assemblages in live, newly shed and partly decomposed leaves of Camellia japonica were investigated with a clone library analysis to assess the fungal diversity and succession in a subtropical forest in southern Japan. Partly decomposed leaves were divided into bleached and adjacent nonbleached portions to estimate the fungi functionally associated with lignin decomposition in the bleached portions, with an emphasis on Coccomyces sinensis (Rhytismataceae, Ascomycota). From 144 cloned 28S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequences, 48 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were defined based on a sequence similarity threshold of 98%. Forty-one (85%) of the 48 OTUs belonged to the Ascomycota and seven OTUs (15%) to the Basidiomycota. Twenty-six OTUs (54%) were detected only once (singletons). The number of OTUs and the diversity indices of the fungal assemblages in the different leaves were in this order: live leaves > newly shed leaves > bleached portions > nonbleached portions of partly decomposed leaves. The fungal assemblages were similar in newly shed leaves and the bleached portions of partly decomposed leaves. Ligninolytic fungi of the genera Coccomyces, Lophodermium and Xylaria were frequently detected in the bleached portions. OTU3, identified as Coccomyces sinensis, was detected in live and newly shed leaves and the bleached portions of partly decomposed leaves, suggesting that this fungus latently infects live leaves, persists after leaf fall and takes part in lignin decomposition. PMID:23709486

  7. Activity of the novel fungicide SYP-Z048 against plant pathogens.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fengping; Han, Ping; Liu, Pengfei; Si, Naiguo; Liu, Junli; Liu, Xili

    2014-01-01

    In in vitro tests with 18 plant pathogens, the fungicide 3-[5-(4-chlorophenyl)-2,3-dimethyl-3-isoxazolidinyl] pyridine (SYP-Z048) was highly effective on inhibiting mycelial growth of various ascomycota and basidiomycota, with EC50 values ranging from 0.008 to 1.140 μg/ml. SYP-Z048 had much weaker activity against growth of oomycota with EC50 values > 100 μg/ml. In a second in vitro test with Monilinia fructicola isolates, SYP-Z048 inhibited mycelial growth (EC50 = 0.013 μg/ml), germ tube elongation (EC50 = 0.007 μg/ml), and sporulation but did not affect spore germination. In a detached pear fruit assay inoculated with M. fructicola isolates, SYP-Z048 showed protective and curative activity. Field tests indicated that SYP-Z048 was an efficacious fungicide for control of brown rot disease in two peach orchards. When applied to a single spot on a tomato leaflet in a compound leaf, SYP-Z048 suppressed the growth of Botrytis cinerea isolates on the rest 4 leaflets, indicating that the fungicide has systemic movement in plant tissues. These results indicate that SYP-Z048 has potential for management of brown rot causing by M. fructicola and other diseases caused by ascomycota and basidiomycota. PMID:25253681

  8. Seasonal Succession of Fungi Associated with Ips typographus Beetles and Their Phoretic Mites in an Outbreak Region of Finland

    PubMed Central

    Mahilainen, Saila; Harrington, Alison; Vanhanen, Henri; Eriksson, Miikka; Mehtätalo, Lauri; Pappinen, Ari; Wingfield, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    The ophiostomatoid fungi (Microascales and Ophiostomatales, Ascomycota) are common associates of Ips typographus, and include tree pathogens and species responsible for blue-stain of timber. Fungal assemblages associated with I. typographus have varied considerably between studies but few investigations have attempted to explain this variation. For this reason, we assessed the overall cultivable fungal diversity associated with I. typographus in a storm-felled spruce forest in south-eastern Finland. Fungi were isolated from the individually collected beetles as well as their phoretic mites in spring, summer and autumn, including different life stages of the beetle (hibernation, dispersal flight and first generation). The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) gene region was used to identify the fungi. A total of 32 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were found and these resided in four fungal phyla/subphyla (24 Ascomycota, 2 Basidiomycota, 5 Mucoromycotina, 1 Mortierellomycotina) in association with adult bark beetles. Ophiostomatoid species were the most commonly detected fungal associates. A generalized linear model analysis showed a clear association between fungal communities and season, indicating seasonal succession among I. typographus-associated fungi. The season of sampling appears to be an important factor that has resulted in inconsistencies between results in previous studies. Many of these fungi were also found on phoretic mites and their presence or absence could have influenced variation in patterns of association. PMID:27187192

  9. Diversity and Distribution of Aquatic Fungal Communities in the Ny-Ålesund Region, Svalbard (High Arctic) : Aquatic Fungi in the Arctic.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Wang, Neng-Fei; Zhang, Yu-Qin; Liu, Hong-Yu; Yu, Li-Yan

    2016-04-01

    We assessed the diversity and distribution of fungi in 13 water samples collected from four aquatic environments (stream, pond, melting ice water, and estuary) in the Ny-Ålesund Region, Svalbard (High Arctic) using 454 pyrosequencing with fungi-specific primers targeting the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the ribosomal rRNA gene. Aquatic fungal communities in this region showed high diversity, with a total of 43,061 reads belonging to 641 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) being found. Of these OTUs, 200 belonged to Ascomycota, 196 to Chytridiomycota, 120 to Basidiomycota, 13 to Glomeromycota, and 10 to early diverging fungal lineages (traditional Zygomycota), whereas 102 belonged to unknown fungi. The major orders were Helotiales, Eurotiales, and Pleosporales in Ascomycota; Chytridiales and Rhizophydiales in Chytridiomycota; and Leucosporidiales and Sporidiobolales in Basidiomycota. The common fungal genera Penicillium, Rhodotorula, Epicoccum, Glaciozyma, Holtermanniella, Betamyces, and Phoma were identified. Interestingly, the four aquatic environments in this region harbored different aquatic fungal communities. Salinity, conductivity, and temperature were important factors in determining the aquatic fungal diversity and community composition. The results suggest the presence of diverse fungal communities and a considerable number of potentially novel fungal species in Arctic aquatic environments, which can provide reliable data for studying the ecological and evolutionary responses of fungi to climate change in the Arctic ecosystem. PMID:26492897

  10. Phylogenetic diversity of fungal communities in areas accessible and not accessible to tourists in Naracoorte Caves.

    PubMed

    Adetutu, Eric M; Thorpe, Krystal; Bourne, Steven; Cao, Xiangsheng; Shahsavari, Esmaeil; Kirby, Greg; Ball, Andrew S

    2011-01-01

    The fungal diversity in areas accessible and not accessible to tourists at UNESCO World Heritage-listed Naracoorte Caves was investigated with culture-dependent and culture-independent techniques for assistance in cave management protocol development. The caves were selected based on tourist numbers and configurations: Stick Tomato (open, high numbers), Alexandra (lockable openings, high numbers) and Strawhaven (control; no access). Culture-based survey revealed Ascomycota dominance irrespective of sampling area with Microascales (Trichurus sp.) being most frequently isolated. Some Hypocreales-like sequences belonging to Fusarium sp., Trichoderma sp. and Neonectria sp. (Stick Tomato) were cultured only from areas not accessible to tourists. These orders also were detected by DGGE assay irrespective of sampling area. The predominance of Ascomycota (especially Microascales) suggested their important ecological roles in these caves. Culture-independent analysis showed higher Shannon fungal diversity values (from ITS-based DGGE profiles) in tourist-accessible areas of these caves than in inaccessible areas with the fungal community banding patterns being substantially different in Stick Tomato Cave. Further investigations are needed to determine the cause of the differences in the fungal communities of Stick Tomato Cave, although cave-related factors such as use, configuration and sediment heterogeneity might have contributed to these differences. PMID:21642344

  11. Widespread occurrence and phylogenetic placement of a soil clone group adds a prominant new branch to the fungal tree of life

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, Terri M.; Schadt, Christopher Warren; Rizvi, L; Martin, Andrew P.; Schmidt, Steven K.; Scott-Denton, Laura; Vilgalys, Rytas; Moncalvo, Jean-Marc

    2008-01-01

    Fungi are one of the most diverse groups of Eukarya and play essential roles in terrestrial ecosystems as decomposers, pathogens and mutualists. This study unifies disparate reports of unclassified fungal sequences from soils of diverse origins and anchors many of them in a well-supported clade of the Ascomycota equivalent to a subphylum. We refer to this clade as Soil Clone Group I (SCGI). We expand the breadth of environments surveyed and develop a taxon-specific primer to amplify 2.4 kbp rDNA fragments directly from soil. Our results also expand the known range of this group from North America to Europe and Australia. The ancient origin of SCGI implies that it may represent an important transitional form among the basal Ascomycota groups. SCGI is unusual because it currently represents the only major fungal lineage known only from sequence data. This is an important contribution towards building a more complete fungal phylogeny and highlights the need for further work to determine the function and biology of SCGI taxa.

  12. Mechanisms of Bacterial (Serratia marcescens) Attachment to, Migration along, and Killing of Fungal Hyphae.

    PubMed

    Hover, Tal; Maya, Tal; Ron, Sapir; Sandovsky, Hani; Shadkchan, Yana; Kijner, Nitzan; Mitiagin, Yulia; Fichtman, Boris; Harel, Amnon; Shanks, Robert M Q; Bruna, Roberto E; García-Véscovi, Eleonora; Osherov, Nir

    2016-05-01

    We have found a remarkable capacity for the ubiquitous Gram-negative rod bacteriumSerratia marcescensto migrate along and kill the mycelia of zygomycete molds. This migration was restricted to zygomycete molds and several basidiomycete species. No migration was seen on any molds of the phylum Ascomycota.S. marcescensmigration did not require fungal viability or surrounding growth medium, as bacteria migrated along aerial hyphae as well.S. marcescensdid not exhibit growth tropism toward zygomycete mycelium. Bacterial migration along hyphae proceeded only when the hyphae grew into the bacterial colony.S. marcescenscells initially migrated along the hyphae, forming attached microcolonies that grew and coalesced to generate a biofilm that covered and killed the mycelium. Flagellum-defective strains ofS. marcescenswere able to migrate along zygomycete hyphae, although they were significantly slower than the wild-type strain and were delayed in fungal killing. Bacterial attachment to the mycelium does not necessitate type 1 fimbrial adhesion, since mutants defective in this adhesin migrated equally well as or faster than the wild-type strain. Killing does not depend on the secretion ofS. marcescenschitinases, as mutants in which all three chitinase genes were deleted retained wild-type killing abilities. A better understanding of the mechanisms by whichS. marcescensbinds to, spreads on, and kills fungal hyphae might serve as an excellent model system for such interactions in general; fungal killing could be employed in agricultural fungal biocontrol. PMID:26896140

  13. Watershed-Scale Fungal Community Characterization along a pH Gradient in a Subsurface Environment Cocontaminated with Uranium and Nitrate

    PubMed Central

    Jasrotia, Puja; Green, Stefan J.; Canion, Andy; Overholt, Will A.; Prakash, Om; Wafula, Denis; Hubbard, Daniela; Watson, David B.; Schadt, Christopher W.; Brooks, Scott C.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize fungal communities in a subsurface environment cocontaminated with uranium and nitrate at the watershed scale and to determine the potential contribution of fungi to contaminant transformation (nitrate attenuation). The abundance, distribution, and diversity of fungi in subsurface groundwater samples were determined using quantitative and semiquantitative molecular techniques, including quantitative PCR of eukaryotic small-subunit rRNA genes and pyrosequencing of fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions. Potential bacterial and fungal denitrification was assessed in sediment-groundwater slurries amended with antimicrobial compounds and in fungal pure cultures isolated from the subsurface. Our results demonstrate that subsurface fungal communities are dominated by members of the phylum Ascomycota, and a pronounced shift in fungal community composition occurs across the groundwater pH gradient at the field site, with lower diversity observed under acidic (pH <4.5) conditions. Fungal isolates recovered from subsurface sediments, including cultures of the genus Coniochaeta, which were detected in abundance in pyrosequence libraries of site groundwater samples, were shown to reduce nitrate to nitrous oxide. Denitrifying fungal isolates recovered from the site were classified and found to be distributed broadly within the phylum Ascomycota and within a single genus of the Basidiomycota. Potential denitrification rate assays with sediment-groundwater slurries showed the potential for subsurface fungi to reduce nitrate to nitrous oxide under in situ acidic pH conditions. PMID:24389927

  14. Fungal diversity from various marine habitats deduced through culture-independent studies.

    PubMed

    Manohar, Cathrine Sumathi; Raghukumar, Chandralata

    2013-04-01

    Studies on the molecular diversity of the micro-eukaryotic community have shown that fungi occupy a central position in a large number of marine habitats. Environmental surveys using molecular tools have shown the presence of fungi from a large number of marine habitats such as deep-sea habitats, pelagic waters, coastal regions, hydrothermal vent ecosystem, anoxic habitats, and ice-cold regions. This is of interest to a variety of research disciplines like ecology, evolution, biogeochemistry, and biotechnology. In this review, we have summarized how molecular tools have helped to broaden our understanding of the fungal diversity in various marine habitats. Majority of the environmental phylotypes could be grouped as novel clades within Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, and Chytridiomycota or as basal fungal lineages. Deep-branching novel environmental clusters could be grouped within Ascomycota as the Pezizomycotina clone group, deep-sea fungal group-I, and soil clone group-I, within Basidiomycota as the hydrothermal and/or anaerobic fungal group, and within Chytridiomycota as Cryptomycota or the Rozella clade. However, a basal true marine environmental cluster is still to be identified as most of the clusters include representatives from terrestrial regions. The challenge for future research is to explore the true marine fungi using molecular techniques. PMID:23363246

  15. Comparative Genomics and Transcriptomics Analyses Reveal Divergent Lifestyle Features of Nematode Endoparasitic Fungus Hirsutella minnesotensis

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Yiling; Liu, Keke; Zhang, Xinyu; Zhang, Xiaoling; Li, Kuan; Wang, Niuniu; Shu, Chi; Wu, Yunpeng; Wang, Chengshu; Bushley, Kathryn E.; Xiang, Meichun; Liu, Xingzhong

    2014-01-01

    Hirsutella minnesotensis [Ophiocordycipitaceae (Hypocreales, Ascomycota)] is a dominant endoparasitic fungus by using conidia that adhere to and penetrate the secondary stage juveniles of soybean cyst nematode. Its genome was de novo sequenced and compared with five entomopathogenic fungi in the Hypocreales and three nematode-trapping fungi in the Orbiliales (Ascomycota). The genome of H. minnesotensis is 51.4 Mb and encodes 12,702 genes enriched with transposable elements up to 32%. Phylogenomic analysis revealed that H. minnesotensis was diverged from entomopathogenic fungi in Hypocreales. Genome of H. minnesotensis is similar to those of entomopathogenic fungi to have fewer genes encoding lectins for adhesion and glycoside hydrolases for cellulose degradation, but is different from those of nematode-trapping fungi to possess more genes for protein degradation, signal transduction, and secondary metabolism. Those results indicate that H. minnesotensis has evolved different mechanism for nematode endoparasitism compared with nematode-trapping fungi. Transcriptomics analyses for the time-scale parasitism revealed the upregulations of lectins, secreted proteases and the genes for biosynthesis of secondary metabolites that could be putatively involved in host surface adhesion, cuticle degradation, and host manipulation. Genome and transcriptome analyses provided comprehensive understanding of the evolution and lifestyle of nematode endoparasitism. PMID:25359922

  16. Alectorioid Morphologies in Paleogene Lichens: New Evidence and Re-Evaluation of the Fossil Alectoria succini Mägdefrau.

    PubMed

    Kaasalainen, Ulla; Heinrichs, Jochen; Krings, Michael; Myllys, Leena; Grabenhorst, Heinrich; Rikkinen, Jouko; Schmidt, Alexander R

    2015-01-01

    One of the most important issues in molecular dating studies concerns the incorporation of reliable fossil taxa into the phylogenies reconstructed from DNA sequence variation in extant taxa. Lichens are symbiotic associations between fungi and algae and/or cyanobacteria. Several lichen fossils have been used as minimum age constraints in recent studies concerning the diversification of the Ascomycota. Recent evolutionary studies of Lecanoromycetes, an almost exclusively lichen-forming class in the Ascomycota, have utilized the Eocene amber inclusion Alectoria succinic as a minimum age constraint. However, a re-investigation of the type material revealed that this inclusion in fact represents poorly preserved plant remains, most probably of a root. Consequently, this fossil cannot be used as evidence of the presence of the genus Alectoria (Parmeliaceae, Lecanorales) or any other lichens in the Paleogene. However, newly discovered inclusions from Paleogene Baltic and Bitterfeld amber verify that alectorioid morphologies in lichens were in existence by the Paleogene. The new fossils represent either a lineage within the alectorioid group or belong to the genus Oropogon. PMID:26053106

  17. Traversing the fungal terpenome

    PubMed Central

    Quin, Maureen B.; Flynn, Christopher M.; Schmidt-Dannert, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Fungi (Ascomycota and Basidiomycota) are prolific producers of structurally diverse terpenoid compounds. Classes of terpenoids identified in fungi include the sesqui-, di- and triterpenoids. Biosynthetic pathways and enzymes to terpenoids from each of these classes have been described. These typically involve the scaffold generating terpene synthases and cyclases, and scaffold tailoring enzymes such as e.g. cytochrome P450 monoxygenases, NAD(P)+ and flavin dependent oxidoreductases, and various group transferases that generate the final bioactive structures. The biosynthesis of several sesquiterpenoid mycotoxins and bioactive diterpenoids has been well-studied in Ascomycota (e.g. filamentous fungi). Little is known about the terpenoid biosynthetic pathways in Basidiomycota (e.g. mushroom forming fungi), although they produce a huge diversity of terpenoid natural products. Specifically, many trans-humulyl cation derived sesquiterpenoid natural products with potent bioactivities have been isolated. Biosynthetic gene clusters responsible for the production of trans-humulyl cation derived protoilludanes, and other sesquiterpenoids, can be rapidly identified by genome sequencing and bioinformatic methods. Genome mining combined with heterologous biosynthetic pathway refactoring has the potential to facilitate discovery and production of pharmaceutically relevant fungal terpenoids. PMID:25171145

  18. Fluid mechanical responses to nutrient depletion in fungi and biofilmsa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brenner, Michael P.

    2014-10-01

    In both fungi and bacterial biofilms, when nutrients are depleted, the organisms cannot physically migrate to find a new source, but instead must develop adaptations that allow them to survive. This paper reviews our work attempting to discover design principles for these adaptations. We develop fluid mechanical models, and aim to understand whether these suggest organizing principles for the observed morphological diversity. Determining whether a proposed organizing principle explains extant biological designs is fraught with difficulty: simply because a design principle predicts characteristics similar to an organism's morphology could just as well be accidental as revealing. In each of the two sets of examples, we adopt different strategies to develop understanding in spite of this difficulty. Within the fungal phylum Ascomycota, we use the large observed diversity of different morphological solutions to the fundamental fluid mechanical problem to measure how far each solution is from a design optimum, thereby measuring how far the extant designs deviate from the hypothesized optimum. This allows comparing different design principles to each other. For biofilms, we use engineering principles to make qualitative predictions of what types of adaptations might exist given the physicochemical properties of the repertoire of proteins that bacteria can create, and then find evidence for these adaptations in experiments. While on the surface this paper addresses the particular adaptations used by the fungal phylum Ascomycota and bacterial biofilms, we also aim to motivate discussion of different approaches to using design principles, fluid mechanical or otherwise, to rationalize observed engineering solutions in biology.

  19. Alectorioid Morphologies in Paleogene Lichens: New Evidence and Re-Evaluation of the Fossil Alectoria succini Mägdefrau

    PubMed Central

    Kaasalainen, Ulla; Heinrichs, Jochen; Krings, Michael; Myllys, Leena; Grabenhorst, Heinrich; Rikkinen, Jouko; Schmidt, Alexander R.

    2015-01-01

    One of the most important issues in molecular dating studies concerns the incorporation of reliable fossil taxa into the phylogenies reconstructed from DNA sequence variation in extant taxa. Lichens are symbiotic associations between fungi and algae and/or cyanobacteria. Several lichen fossils have been used as minimum age constraints in recent studies concerning the diversification of the Ascomycota. Recent evolutionary studies of Lecanoromycetes, an almost exclusively lichen-forming class in the Ascomycota, have utilized the Eocene amber inclusion Alectoria succinic as a minimum age constraint. However, a re-investigation of the type material revealed that this inclusion in fact represents poorly preserved plant remains, most probably of a root. Consequently, this fossil cannot be used as evidence of the presence of the genus Alectoria (Parmeliaceae, Lecanorales) or any other lichens in the Paleogene. However, newly discovered inclusions from Paleogene Baltic and Bitterfeld amber verify that alectorioid morphologies in lichens were in existence by the Paleogene. The new fossils represent either a lineage within the alectorioid group or belong to the genus Oropogon. PMID:26053106

  20. Characterization of active and total fungal communities in the atmosphere over the Amazon rainforest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Womack, A. M.; Artaxo, P. E.; Ishida, F. Y.; Mueller, R. C.; Saleska, S. R.; Wiedemann, K. T.; Bohannan, B. J. M.; Green, J. L.

    2015-11-01

    Fungi are ubiquitous in the atmosphere and may play an important role in atmospheric processes. We investigated the composition and diversity of fungal communities over the Amazon rainforest canopy and compared these communities to fungal communities found in terrestrial environments. We characterized the total fungal community and the metabolically active portion of the community using high-throughput DNA and RNA sequencing and compared these data to predictions generated by a mass-balance model. We found that the total community was primarily comprised of fungi from the phylum Basidiomycota. In contrast, the active community was primarily composed of members of the phylum Ascomycota and included a high relative abundance of lichen fungi, which were not detected in the total community. The relative abundance of Basidiomycota and Ascomycota in the total and active communities was consistent with our model predictions, suggesting that this result was driven by the relative size and number of spores produced by these groups. When compared to other environments, fungal communities in the atmosphere were most similar to communities found in tropical soils and leaf surfaces. Our results demonstrate that there are significant differences in the composition of the total and active fungal communities in the atmosphere, and that lichen fungi, which have been shown to be efficient ice nucleators, may be abundant members of active atmospheric fungal communities over the forest canopy.

  1. Seasonal Succession of Fungi Associated with Ips typographus Beetles and Their Phoretic Mites in an Outbreak Region of Finland.

    PubMed

    Linnakoski, Riikka; Mahilainen, Saila; Harrington, Alison; Vanhanen, Henri; Eriksson, Miikka; Mehtätalo, Lauri; Pappinen, Ari; Wingfield, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    The ophiostomatoid fungi (Microascales and Ophiostomatales, Ascomycota) are common associates of Ips typographus, and include tree pathogens and species responsible for blue-stain of timber. Fungal assemblages associated with I. typographus have varied considerably between studies but few investigations have attempted to explain this variation. For this reason, we assessed the overall cultivable fungal diversity associated with I. typographus in a storm-felled spruce forest in south-eastern Finland. Fungi were isolated from the individually collected beetles as well as their phoretic mites in spring, summer and autumn, including different life stages of the beetle (hibernation, dispersal flight and first generation). The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) gene region was used to identify the fungi. A total of 32 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were found and these resided in four fungal phyla/subphyla (24 Ascomycota, 2 Basidiomycota, 5 Mucoromycotina, 1 Mortierellomycotina) in association with adult bark beetles. Ophiostomatoid species were the most commonly detected fungal associates. A generalized linear model analysis showed a clear association between fungal communities and season, indicating seasonal succession among I. typographus-associated fungi. The season of sampling appears to be an important factor that has resulted in inconsistencies between results in previous studies. Many of these fungi were also found on phoretic mites and their presence or absence could have influenced variation in patterns of association. PMID:27187192

  2. High-throughput sequencing-based analysis of endogenetic fungal communities inhabiting the Chinese Cordyceps reveals unexpectedly high fungal diversity.

    PubMed

    Xia, Fei; Chen, Xin; Guo, Meng-Yuan; Bai, Xiao-Hui; Liu, Yan; Shen, Guang-Rong; Li, Yu-Ling; Lin, Juan; Zhou, Xuan-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Chinese Cordyceps, known in Chinese as "DongChong XiaCao", is a parasitic complex of a fungus (Ophiocordyceps sinensis) and a caterpillar. The current study explored the endogenetic fungal communities inhabiting Chinese Cordyceps. Samples were collected from five different geographical regions of Qinghai and Tibet, and the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer-1 sequences from each sample were obtained using Illumina high-throughput sequencing. The results showed that Ascomycota was the dominant fungal phylum in Chinese Cordyceps and its soil microhabitat from different sampling regions. Among the Ascomycota, 65 genera were identified, and the abundant operational taxonomic units showed the strongest sequence similarity to Ophiocordyceps, Verticillium, Pseudallescheria, Candida and Ilyonectria Not surprisingly, the genus Ophiocordyceps was the largest among the fungal communities identified in the fruiting bodies and external mycelial cortices of Chinese Cordyceps. In addition, fungal communities in the soil microhabitats were clustered separately from the external mycelial cortices and fruiting bodies of Chinese Cordyceps from different sampling regions. There was no significant structural difference in the fungal communities between the fruiting bodies and external mycelial cortices of Chinese Cordyceps. This study revealed an unexpectedly high diversity of fungal communities inhabiting the Chinese Cordyceps and its microhabitats. PMID:27625176

  3. Watershed scale fungal community characterization along a pH gradient in a subsurface environment co-contaminated with uranium and nitrate

    SciTech Connect

    Jasrotia, Puja; Green, Stefan; Canion, Andy; Overholt, Will; Prakash, Om; Wafula, Dennis; Hubbard, Daniela; Watson, David B; Schadt, Christopher Warren; Brooks, Scott C; Kostka,

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize fungal communities in a subsurface environment co-contaminated with uranium and nitrate at the watershed scale, and to determine the potential contribution of fungi to contaminant transformation (nitrate attenuation). The abundance, distribution and diversity of fungi in subsurface groundwater samples were determined using quantitative and semi-quantitative molecular techniques, including quantitative PCR of eukaryotic SSU rRNA genes and pyrosequencing of fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions. Potential bacterial and fungal denitrification was assessed in sediment-groundwater slurries amended with antimicrobial compounds and in fungal pure cultures isolated from subsurface. Our results demonstrate that subsurface fungal communities are dominated by members of the phylum Ascomycota, and a pronounced shift in fungal community composition occurs across the groundwater pH gradient at the field site, with lower diversity observed under acidic (pH < 4.5) conditions. Fungal isolates recovered from subsurface sediments were shown to reduce nitrate to nitrous oxide, including cultures of the genus Coniochaeta that were detected in abundance in pyrosequence libraries of site groundwater samples. Denitrifying fungal isolates recovered from the site were classified, and found to be distributed broadly within the phylum Ascomycota, and within a single genus within the Basidiomycota. Potential denitrification rate assays with sediment-groundwater slurries showed the potential for subsurface fungi to reduce nitrate to nitrous oxide under in situ acidic pH conditions.

  4. Survey of Microbial Diversity in Flood Areas during Thailand 2011 Flood Crisis Using High-Throughput Tagged Amplicon Pyrosequencing

    PubMed Central

    Mhuantong, Wuttichai; Wongwilaiwalin, Sarunyou; Laothanachareon, Thanaporn; Eurwilaichitr, Lily; Tangphatsornruang, Sithichoke; Boonchayaanant, Benjaporn; Limpiyakorn, Tawan; Pattaragulwanit, Kobchai; Punmatharith, Thantip; McEvoy, John; Khan, Eakalak; Rachakornkij, Manaskorn; Champreda, Verawat

    2015-01-01

    The Thailand flood crisis in 2011 was one of the largest recorded floods in modern history, causing enormous damage to the economy and ecological habitats of the country. In this study, bacterial and fungal diversity in sediments and waters collected from ten flood areas in Bangkok and its suburbs, covering residential and agricultural areas, were analyzed using high-throughput 454 pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene and internal transcribed spacer sequences. Analysis of microbial community showed differences in taxa distribution in water and sediment with variations in the diversity of saprophytic microbes and sulfate/nitrate reducers among sampling locations, suggesting differences in microbial activity in the habitats. Overall, Proteobacteria represented a major bacterial group in waters, while this group co-existed with Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria in sediments. Anaeromyxobacter, Steroidobacter, and Geobacter were the dominant bacterial genera in sediments, while Sulfuricurvum, Thiovirga, and Hydrogenophaga predominated in waters. For fungi in sediments, Ascomycota, Glomeromycota, and Basidiomycota, particularly in genera Philipsia, Rozella, and Acaulospora, were most frequently detected. Chytridiomycota and Ascomycota were the major fungal phyla, and Rhizophlyctis and Mortierella were the most frequently detected fungal genera in water. Diversity of sulfate-reducing bacteria, related to odor problems, was further investigated using analysis of the dsrB gene which indicated the presence of sulfate-reducing bacteria of families Desulfobacteraceae, Desulfobulbaceae, Syntrobacteraceae, and Desulfoarculaceae in the flood sediments. The work provides an insight into the diversity and function of microbes related to biological processes in flood areas. PMID:26020967

  5. High diversity of fungi in air particulate matter

    PubMed Central

    Fröhlich-Nowoisky, Janine; Pickersgill, Daniel A.; Després, Viviane R.; Pöschl, Ulrich

    2009-01-01

    Fungal spores can account for large proportions of air particulate matter, and they may potentially influence the hydrological cycle and climate as nuclei for water droplets and ice crystals in clouds, fog, and precipitation. Moreover, some fungi are major pathogens and allergens. The diversity of airborne fungi is, however, not well-known. By DNA analysis we found pronounced differences in the relative abundance and seasonal cycles of various groups of fungi in coarse and fine particulate matter, with more plant pathogens in the coarse fraction and more human pathogens and allergens in the respirable fine particle fraction (<3 μm). Moreover, the ratio of Basidiomycota to Ascomycota was found to be much higher than previously assumed, which might also apply to the biosphere. PMID:19617562

  6. Phylogenetic affiliation of the desert truffles Picoa juniperi and Picoa lefebvrei.

    PubMed

    Sbissi, Imed; Neffati, Mohamed; Boudabous, Abdellatif; Murat, Claude; Gtari, Maher

    2010-11-01

    The molecular phylogeny and comparative morphological studies reported here provide evidence for the recognition of the genus Picoa, an hypogeous desert truffle, in the family Pyronemataceae (Ascomycota, Pezizales). Picoa juniperi and Picoa lefebvrei were reassigned to the genus Picoa based on large subunit (LSU) sequence (28S) rDNA and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rDNA (including the partial 18S, ITS1, ITS2, 5.8S gene, and partial 28S of the nuclear rDNA) data. Morphological studies of spores, asci, perida, and gleba revealed high similarities between P. lefebvrei and P. juniperi, thereby confirming the membership of both species in the genus Picoa. These two species were primarily distinguishable based on ascospore ornamentation. PMID:20559873

  7. Study on morphology, pathogenicity, and genetic variability of Beauveria bassiana isolates obtained from Boophilus microplus tick.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Everton Kort Kamp; Costa, Gisela Lara; Moraes, Aurea Maria Lage; Zahner, Viviane; Bittencourt, Vânia Rita Elias Pinheiro

    2006-03-01

    Fifty isolates of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin, 1912 (Ascomycota: Clavicipitaceae) were analyzed by morphology, for their pathogenic potential to Boophilus microplus (Canestrini, 1887) (Acari: Ixodidae) larvae, and by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA-Polymerase Chain Reaction technique. Morphological analysis demonstrated that isolates present characteristics compatible to those described for B. bassiana in the literature. Virulence test demonstrated that all isolates present lethal effect on larvae and that the lethal concentration varies among isolates. The most virulent isolate was the only one obtained from human infection, which was also the only isolate presenting synnemata. The study on genetic variability among the isolates allowed the identification of 23 electrophoretic profiles. The established groupings suggest that most of the isolates obtained from B. microplus of the same locality present low genetic variation. In this way, the data in the present study will contribute to a meticulous characterization of these B. bassiana isolates. PMID:16374618

  8. Aspergillus 6V4, a Strain Isolated from Manipueira, Produces High Amylases Levels by Using Wheat Bran as a Substrate

    PubMed Central

    Celestino, Jessyca dos Reis; Duarte, Ana Caroline; Silva, Cláudia Maria de Melo; Sena, Hellen Holanda; Ferreira, Maria do Perpétuo Socorro Borges Carriço; Mallmann, Neila Hiraishi; Lima, Natacha Pinheiro Costa; Tavares, Chanderlei de Castro; de Souza, Rodrigo Otávio Silva; Souza, Érica Simplício; Souza, João Vicente Braga

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was screening fungi strains, isolated from manipueira (a liquid subproduct obtained from the flour production of Manihot esculenta), for amylases production and investigating production of these enzymes by the strain Aspergillus 6V4. The fungi isolated from manipueira belonged to Ascomycota phylum. The strain Aspergillus 6V4 was the best amylase producer in the screening assay of starch hydrolysis in petri dishes (ASHPD) and in the assay in submerged fermentation (ASbF). The strain Aspergillus 6V4 produced high amylase levels (335 UI/L) using wheat bran infusion as the exclusive substrate and the supplementation of this substrate with peptone decreased the production of this enzyme. The moisture content of 70% was the best condition for the production of Aspergillus 6V4 amylases (385 IU/g) in solid state fermentation (SSF). PMID:24724017

  9. Phylogenetic Diversity and Antifungal Activity of Endophytic Fungi Associated with Tephrosia purpurea

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Ze-Ping; Lin, Hai-Yan; Ding, Wen-Bing; He, Hua-Liang

    2015-01-01

    Sixty-one endophytic fungus strains with different colony morphologies were isolated from the leaves, stems and roots of Tephrosia purpurea with colonization rates of 66.95%, 37.50%, and 26.92%, respectively. Based on internal transcribed spacer sequence analysis, 61 isolates were classified into 16 genera belonging to 3 classes under the phylum Ascomycota. Of the 61 isolates, 6 (9.84%) exhibited antifungal activity against one or more indicator plant pathogenic fungi according to the dual culture test. Isolate TPL25 had the broadest antifungal spectrum of activity, and isolate TPL35 was active against 5 plant pathogenic fungi. Furthermore, culture filtrates of TPL25 and TPL35 exhibited greater than 80% growth inhibition against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. We conclude that the endophytic fungal strains TPL25 and TPL35 are promising sources of bioactive compounds. PMID:26839503

  10. [Peculiarities of mortmass mycobiota formation in soft-deciduous young forests on old-tillage soils of the Chernihiv Polissya].

    PubMed

    Bilous, A M; Voloshchuk, N M; Buzyl', M A; Kovbasa, Ia V

    2013-01-01

    Thirty eight species of fungi were identified as a result of mycological analysis of 180 mortmass samples of Betulapendula Routh. and Populus tremula L. Mortmass mycobiota of B. pendula and P. tremula was represented by white, brown- and soft-rot species. Fungi of Ascomycota phylum were most numerous (24 species). Species of genera Aspergillus, Penicillium, Brachysporium, Cladosporium, Drechslera, Fusarium, Cylindrocarpon, Spadicesporium, Trichoderma in variants with middle and hard classes of wood degradation were identified among them. The Basidiomycota phylum was represented by 12 species; among them Armillariella mellea and Phellinus igniarius occurred most frequently. The most specific fungal complex decaying B. pendula and P tremula mortmass was observed under class III of its degradation. PMID:24450187

  11. Exploiting composting biodiversity: study of the persistent and biotechnologically relevant microorganisms from lignocellulose-based composting.

    PubMed

    Jurado, Macarena; López, María J; Suárez-Estrella, Francisca; Vargas-García, María C; López-González, Juan A; Moreno, Joaquín

    2014-06-01

    The composting ecosystem is a suitable source for the discovery of novel microorganisms and secondary metabolites. This work analyzes the identity of microbial community that persists throughout lignocellulose-based composting, evaluates their metabolic activities and studies the capability of selected isolates for composting bioaugmentation. Bacterial species of the phyla Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria and fungi of the phylum Ascomycota were ubiquitous throughout the composting. The species Arthrobacter russicus, Microbacterium gubbeenense, Ochrocladosporium frigidarii and Cladosporium lignicola are detected for the first time in this ecosystem. In addition, several bacterial and fungal isolates exhibited a wide range of metabolic capabilities such as polymers (lignocellulose, protein, lipids, pectin and starch) breakdown and phosphate-solubilization that may find many biotechnological applications. In particular, Streptomyces albus BM292, Gibellulopsis nigrescens FM1397 and FM1411, Bacillus licheniformis BT575, Bacillus smithii AT907 and Alternaria tenuissima FM1385 exhibited a great potential as inoculants for composting bioaugmentation. PMID:24759645

  12. Secondary metabolite profiling of Alternaria dauci, A. porri, A. solani, and A. tomatophila.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Birgitte; Dongo, Anita; Pryor, Barry M

    2008-02-01

    Chemotaxonomy (secondary metabolite profiling) has been shown to be of great value in the classification and differentiation in Ascomycota. However, few studies have investigated the use of metabolite production for classification and identification purposes of plant pathogenic Alternaria species. The purpose of the present study was to describe the methodology behind metabolite profiling in chemotaxonomy using A. dauci, A. porri, A. solani, and A. tomatophila strains as examples of the group. The results confirmed that A. dauci, A. solani, and A. tomatophila are three distinct species each with their own specific metabolite profiles, and that A. solani and A. tomatophila both produce altersolanol A, altertoxin I, and macrosporin. By using automated chemical image analysis and other multivariate statistic analyses, three sets of species-specific metabolites could be selected, one each for A. dauci, A. solani, and A. tomatophila. PMID:18262401

  13. Cercosporoid fungi (Mycosphaerellaceae) 5. Species on dicots (Anacardiaceae to Annonaceae).

    PubMed

    Braun, Uwe; Crous, Pedro W; Nakashima, Chiharu

    2016-06-01

    The present paper is a continuation of a series of comprehensive taxonomic treatments of cercosporoid fungi (formerly Cercospora s. lat.), belonging to Mycosphaerellaceae (Ascomycota). This fifth contribution of this series proceeds with treatments of cercosporoid fungi on dicots and comprises species occurring on hosts belonging to the families Anacardiaceae and Annonaceae, which are described and illustrated in alphabetical order under the particular cercosporoid genera, supplemented by keys to the species concerned. A detailed introduction, a survey of currently recognised cercosporoid genera, a key to the genera concerned, and a discussion of taxonomically relevant characters were published in the first part of this series. The following taxonomic novelties are introduced: Passalora cotini sp. nov., P. guoana nom. nov., P. rhois-aromaticae sp. nov., and Pseudocercospora rhoicola. PMID:27433446

  14. Molecular analysis of microbial diversity in corrosion samples from energy transmission towers.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Valéria M; Lopes-Oliveira, Patrícia F; Passarini, Michel R Z; Menezes, Claudia B A; Oliveira, Walter R C; Rocha, Adriano J; Sette, Lara D

    2011-04-01

    Microbial diversity in corrosion samples from energy transmission towers was investigated using molecular methods. Ribosomal DNA fragments were used to assemble gene libraries. Sequence analysis indicated 10 bacterial genera within the phyla Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes. In the two libraries generated from corroded screw-derived samples, the genus Acinetobacter was the most abundant. Acinetobacter and Clostridium spp. dominated, with similar percentages, in the libraries derived from corrosion scrapings. Fungal clones were affiliated with 14 genera belonging to the phyla Ascomycota and Basidiomycota; of these, Capnobotryella and Fellomyces were the most abundant fungi observed. Several of the microorganisms had not previously been associated with biofilms and corrosion, reinforcing the need to use molecular techniques to achieve a more comprehensive assessment of microbial diversity in environmental samples. PMID:21563009

  15. Evolution of Reproductive Morphology in Leaf Endophytes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zheng; Johnston, Peter R.; Yang, Zhu L.; Townsend, Jeffrey P.

    2009-01-01

    The endophytic lifestyle has played an important role in the evolution of the morphology of reproductive structures (body) in one of the most problematic groups in fungal classification, the Leotiomycetes (Ascomycota). Mapping fungal morphologies to two groups in the Leiotiomycetes, the Rhytismatales and Hemiphacidiaceae reveals significant divergence in body size, shape and complexity. Mapping ecological roles to these taxa reveals that the groups include endophytic fungi living on leaves and saprobic fungi living on duff or dead wood. Finally, mapping of the morphologies to ecological roles reveals that leaf endophytes produce small, highly reduced fruiting bodies covered with fungal tissue or dead host tissue, while saprobic species produce large and intricate fruiting bodies. Intriguingly, resemblance between asexual conidiomata and sexual ascomata in some leotiomycetes implicates some common developmental pathways for sexual and asexual development in these fungi. PMID:19158947

  16. Subcutaneous infection by Ochroconis mirabilis in an immunocompetent patient

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Dongmei; Lu, Guixia; Mei, Huan; de Hoog, G. Sybren; Samerpitak, Kittipan; Deng, Shuwen; Shen, Yongnian; Liu, Weida

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the taxonomy of Ochroconis (Ascomycota, Pezizomycotina, Venturiales, Sympoventuriaceae) has been revised with the recognition of an additional genus, Verruconis. Ochroconis comprises mesophilic saprobes that occasionally infect vertebrates which mostly are cold-blooded, while Verruconis contains thermophilic species which is a neurotrope in humans and birds. On the basis of molecular data it is noted that only a single Ochroconis species regularly infects immunocompetent human hosts. Here we report a subcutaneous infection due to Ochroconis mirabilis in a 50-year-old immunocompetent female patient. In vitro antifungal susceptibility tests revealed that terbinafine was the most effective drug. The patient was successfully cured with oral administration of terbinafine 250 mg daily in combination with 3 times of topical ALA-photodynamic therapy for 9 months. PMID:27182484

  17. The spectrum of allergic fungal diseases of the upper and lower airways.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Jonathan; Caruthers, Carrie; Azmeh, Roua; Dykewicz, Mark S; Slavin, Raymond G; Knutsen, Alan P

    2016-05-01

    Fungi cause a wide spectrum of fungal diseases of the upper and lower airways. There are three main phyla involved in allergic fungal disease: (1) Ascomycota (2) Basidiomycota (3) Zygomycota. Allergic fungal rhinosinusitis (AFRS) causes chronic rhinosinusitis symptoms and is caused predominantly by Aspergillus fumigatus in India and Bipolaris in the United States. The recommended treatment approach for AFRS is surgical intervention and systemic steroids. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (APBA) is most commonly diagnosed in patients with asthma or cystic fibrosis. Long term systemic steroids are the mainstay treatment option for ABPA with the addition of an antifungal medication. Fungal sensitization or exposure increases a patient's risk of developing severe asthma and has been termed severe asthma associated with fungal sensitivity (SAFS). Investigating for triggers and causes of a patient's asthma should be sought to decrease worsening progression of the disease. PMID:26776889

  18. Calcineurin Orchestrates Hyphal Growth, Septation, Drug Resistance and Pathogenesis of Aspergillus fumigatus: Where Do We Go from Here?

    PubMed

    Juvvadi, Praveen R; Steinbach, William J

    2015-01-01

    Studies on fungal pathogens belonging to the ascomycota phylum are critical given the ubiquity and frequency with which these fungi cause infections in humans. Among these species, Aspergillus fumigatus causes invasive aspergillosis, a leading cause of death in immunocompromised patients. Fundamental to A. fumigatus pathogenesis is hyphal growth. However, the precise mechanisms underlying hyphal growth and virulence are poorly understood. Over the past 10 years, our research towards the identification of molecular targets responsible for hyphal growth, drug resistance and virulence led to the elucidation of calcineurin as a key signaling molecule governing these processes. In this review, we summarize our salient findings on the significance of calcineurin for hyphal growth and septation in A. fumigatus and propose future perspectives on exploiting this pathway for designing new fungal-specific therapeutics. PMID:26694470

  19. The phylogenetic position of Spathulospora based on DNA sequences from dried herbarium material.

    PubMed

    Inderbitzin, Patrik; Lim, Sea Ra; Volkmann-Kohlmeyer, Brigitte; Kohlmeyer, Jan; Berbee, Mary L

    2004-07-01

    The phylogenetic position of the marine ascomycete genus Spathulospora was investigated using partial SSU and LSU DNA sequences obtained from dried herbarium specimens. Spathulospora was represented by the two species S. adelpha and S. antarctica. Phylogenetic analyses using Bayesian, parsimony, and neighbour-joining algorithms on SSU and LSU data sets agreed with the placement of Spathulospora. Both Spathulospora species are each others closest relatives, and group within the Lulworthiales (Sordariomycetes, Ascomycota) with support in all analyses. Members of the morphologically similar insect parasites in the Laboulbeniomycetes are not closely related to Spathulospora. Despite several striking morphological differences between Spathulospora and Lulworthiales, an important shared morphological character was found that until now had not been recognized. Ascospores of Spathulospora and some members of the Lulworthiales have apical chambers containing mucus believed to be involved in ascospore attachment. A closest relative to Spathulospora could not be determined. PMID:15446706

  20. Manipulation of culture conditions alters lipid content and fatty acid profiles of a wide variety of known and new oleaginous yeasts species

    PubMed Central

    Sitepu, Irnayuli R.; Sestric, Ryan; Ignatia, Laura; Levin, David; German, J. Bruce; Gillies, Laura A.; Almada, Luis A.G.; Boundy-Mills, Kyria L.

    2013-01-01

    Oleaginous yeasts have been studied for oleochemical production for over 80 years. Only a few species have been studied intensely. To expand the diversity of oleaginous yeasts available for lipid research, we surveyed a broad diversity of yeasts with indicators of oleaginicity including known oleaginous clades, and buoyancy. Sixty-nine strains representing 17 genera and 50 species were screened for lipid production. Yeasts belonged to Ascomycota families, Basidiomycota orders, and the yeast-like algal genus Prototheca. Total intracellular lipids and fatty acid composition were determined under different incubation times and nitrogen availability. Thirteen new oleaginous yeast species were discovered, representing multiple ascomycete and basidiomycete clades. Nitrogen starvation generally increased intracellular lipid content. The fatty acid profiles varied with the growth conditions regardless of taxonomic affiliation. The dominant fatty acids were oleic acid, palmitic acid, linoleic acid, and stearic acid. Yeasts and culture conditions that produced fatty acids appropriate for biodiesel were identified. PMID:23891835

  1. Endophytic Fungal Communities Associated with Vascular Plants in the High Arctic Zone Are Highly Diverse and Host-Plant Specific.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Yao, Yi-Feng

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the diversity and distribution of endophytic fungal communities associated with the leaves and stems of four vascular plant species in the High Arctic using 454 pyrosequencing with fungal-specific primers targeting the ITS region. Endophytic fungal communities showed high diversity. The 76,691 sequences obtained belonged to 250 operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Of these OTUs, 190 belonged to Ascomycota, 50 to Basidiomycota, 1 to Chytridiomycota, and 9 to unknown fungi. The dominant orders were Helotiales, Pleosporales, Capnodiales, and Tremellales, whereas the common known fungal genera were Cryptococcus, Rhizosphaera, Mycopappus, Melampsora, Tetracladium, Phaeosphaeria, Mrakia, Venturia, and Leptosphaeria. Both the climate and host-related factors might shape the fungal communities associated with the four Arctic plant species in this region. These results suggested the presence of an interesting endophytic fungal community and could improve our understanding of fungal evolution and ecology in the Arctic terrestrial ecosystems. PMID:26067836

  2. Lichensphere: a protected natural microhabitat of the non-lichenised fungal communities living in extreme environments of Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Santiago, Iara F; Soares, Marco Aurélio; Rosa, Carlos A; Rosa, Luiz H

    2015-11-01

    We surveyed the diversity, distribution and ecology of non-lichenised fungal communities associated with the Antarctic lichens Usnea antarctica and Usnea aurantiaco-atra across Antarctica. The phylogenetic study of the 438 fungi isolates identified 74 taxa from 21 genera of Ascomycota, Basidiomycota and Zygomycota. The most abundant taxa were Pseudogymnoascus sp., Thelebolus sp., Antarctomyces psychrotrophicus and Cryptococcus victoriae, which are considered endemic and/or highly adapted to Antarctica. Thirty-five fungi may represent new and/or endemic species. The fungal communities displayed high diversity, richness and dominance indices; however, the similarity among the communities was variable. After discovering rich and diverse fungal communities composed of symbionts, decomposers, parasites and endemic and cold-adapted cosmopolitan taxa, we introduced the term "lichensphere". We hypothesised that the lichensphere may represent a protected natural microhabitat with favourable conditions able to help non-lichenised fungi and other Antarctic life forms survive and disperse in the extreme environments of Antarctica. PMID:26400492

  3. Fungal Endophyte Diversity in Sarracenia

    PubMed Central

    Glenn, Anthony; Bodri, Michael S.

    2012-01-01

    Fungal endophytes were isolated from 4 species of the carnivorous pitcher plant genus Sarracenia: S. minor, S. oreophila, S. purpurea, and S. psittacina. Twelve taxa of fungi, 8 within the Ascomycota and 4 within the Basidiomycota, were identified based on PCR amplification and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA (ITS rDNA) with taxonomic identity assigned using the NCBI nucleotide megablast search tool. Endophytes are known to produce a large number of metabolites, some of which may contribute to the protection and survival of the host. We speculate that endophyte-infected Sarracenia may benefit from their fungal associates by their influence on nutrient availability from within pitchers and, possibly, by directly influencing the biota within pitchers. PMID:22427921

  4. Antimicrobial dihydrobenzofurans and xanthenes from a foliar endophyte of Pinus strobus.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Susan N; Nsiama, Tienabe K; Walker, Allison K; McMullin, David R; Miller, J David

    2015-09-01

    Foliar fungal endophytes of Pinus strobus (eastern white pine) were collected from different sites across south-eastern New Brunswick, Canada and screened for the production of bioactive metabolites. From one site, two fungal isolates representing a formerly unknown genus and species within the family Massarinaceae (Pleosporales, Dothideomycetes, Ascomycota) were resolved by phylogenetic analysis. These isolates produced crude organic extracts that were active against Microbotryum violaceum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. From these strains, DAOM 242779 and 242780, four dihydrobenzofurans (1-4) and two xanthenes (5-6) were characterized. Structures were elucidated by HRMS, interpretation of NMR spectra and other spectroscopic techniques. All isolated metabolites displayed antimicrobial activity against the biotrophic fungal pathogen M. violaceum and Bacillus subtilis. PMID:26189049

  5. Subaerial biofilms on granitic historic buildings: microbial diversity and development of phototrophic multi-species cultures.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Nion, D; Rodríguez-Castro, J; López-Rodríguez, M C; Fernández-Silva, I; Prieto, B

    2016-07-01

    Microbial communities of natural subaerial biofilms developed on granitic historic buildings of a World Heritage Site (Santiago de Compostela, NW Spain) were characterized and cultured in liquid BG11 medium. Environmental barcoding through next-generation sequencing (Pacific Biosciences) revealed that the biofilms were mainly composed of species of Chlorophyta (green algae) and Ascomycota (fungi) commonly associated with rock substrata. Richness and diversity were higher for the fungal than for the algal assemblages and fungi showed higher heterogeneity among samples. Cultures derived from natural biofilms showed the establishment of stable microbial communities mainly composed of Chlorophyta and Cyanobacteria. Although most taxa found in these cultures were not common in the original biofilms, they are likely common pioneer colonizers of building stone surfaces, including granite. Stable phototrophic multi-species cultures of known microbial diversity were thus obtained and their reliability to emulate natural colonization on granite should be confirmed in further experiments. PMID:27192622

  6. New primers for promising single-copy genes in fungal phylogenetics and systematics.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, I; Crespo, A; Divakar, P K; Fankhauser, J D; Herman-Sackett, E; Kalb, K; Nelsen, M P; Nelson, N A; Rivas-Plata, E; Shimp, A D; Widhelm, T; Lumbsch, H T

    2009-12-01

    Developing powerful phylogenetic markers is a key concern in fungal phylogenetics. Here we report degenerate primers that amplify the single-copy genes Mcm7 (MS456) and Tsr1 (MS277) across a wide range of Pezizomycotina (Ascomycota). Phylogenetic analyses of 59 taxa belonging to the Eurotiomycetes, Lecanoromycetes, Leotiomycetes, Lichinomycetes and Sordariomycetes, indicate the utility of these loci for fungal phylogenetics at taxonomic levels ranging from genus to class. We also tested the new primers in silico using sequences of Saccharomycotina, Taphrinomycotina and Basidiomycota to predict their potential of amplifying widely across the Fungi. The analyses suggest that the new primers will need no, or only minor sequence modifications to amplify Saccharomycotina, Taphrinomycotina and Basidiomycota. PMID:20198159

  7. Pyrosequencing assessment of rhizosphere fungal communities from a soybean field.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Akifumi; Ueda, Yoshikatsu; Takase, Hisabumi; Yazaki, Kazufumi

    2014-10-01

    Soil fungal communities play essential roles in soil ecosystems, affecting plant growth and health. Rhizosphere bacterial communities have been shown to undergo dynamic changes during plant growth. This study utilized 454 pyrosequencing to analyze rhizosphere fungal communities during soybean growth. Members of the Ascomycota and Basiodiomycota dominated in all soils. There were no statistically significant changes at the phylum level among growth stages or between bulk and rhizosphere soils. In contrast, the relative abundance of small numbers of operational taxonomic units, 4 during growth and 28 between bulk and rhizosphere soils, differed significantly. Clustering analysis revealed that rhizosphere fungal communities were different from bulk fungal communities during growth stages of soybeans. Taken together, these results suggest that in contrast to rhizosphere bacterial communities, most constituents of rhizosphere fungal communities remained stable during soybean growth. PMID:25264806

  8. Calnexin induces expansion of antigen-specific CD4(+) T cells that confer immunity to fungal ascomycetes via conserved epitopes.

    PubMed

    Wüthrich, Marcel; Brandhorst, Tristan T; Sullivan, Thomas D; Filutowicz, Hanna; Sterkel, Alana; Stewart, Douglas; Li, Mengyi; Lerksuthirat, Tassanee; LeBert, Vanessa; Shen, Zu Ting; Ostroff, Gary; Deepe, George S; Hung, Chiung Yu; Cole, Garry; Walter, Jennifer A; Jenkins, Marc K; Klein, Bruce

    2015-04-01

    Fungal infections remain a threat due to the lack of broad-spectrum fungal vaccines and protective antigens. Recent studies showed that attenuated Blastomyces dermatitidis confers protection via T cell recognition of an unknown but conserved antigen. Using transgenic CD4(+) T cells recognizing this antigen, we identify an amino acid determinant within the chaperone calnexin that is conserved across diverse fungal ascomycetes. Calnexin, typically an ER protein, also localizes to the surface of yeast, hyphae, and spores. T cell epitope mapping unveiled a 13-residue sequence conserved across Ascomycota. Infection with divergent ascomycetes, including dimorphic fungi, opportunistic molds, and the agent causing white nose syndrome in bats, induces expansion of calnexin-specific CD4(+) T cells. Vaccine delivery of calnexin in glucan particles induces fungal antigen-specific CD4(+) T cell expansion and resistance to lethal challenge with multiple fungal pathogens. Thus, the immunogenicity and conservation of calnexin make this fungal protein a promising vaccine target. PMID:25800545

  9. Calnexin induces expansion of antigen-specific CD4+ T cells that confer immunity to fungal ascomycetes via conserved epitopes

    PubMed Central

    Wüthrich, Marcel; Brandhorst, Tristan T.; Sullivan, Thomas D.; Filutowicz, Hanna; Sterkel, Alana; Stewart, Douglas; Li, Mengyi; Lerksuthirat, Tassanee; LeBert, Vanessa; Shen, Zu Ting; Ostroff, Gary; Deepe, George S.; Hung, Chiung Yu; Cole, Garry; Walter, Jennifer A.; Jenkins, Marc K.; Klein, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Fungal infections remain a threat due to the lack of broad spectrum fungal vaccines and protective antigens. Recent studies showed that attenuated Blastomyces dermatitidis confers protection via T cell recognition of an unknown, but conserved antigen. Using transgenic CD4+ T cells recognizing this antigen, we identify an amino acid determinant within the chaperone calnexin that is conserved across diverse fungal ascomycetes. Calnexin, typically an ER protein, also localizes to the surface of yeast, hyphae and spores. T cell epitope mapping unveiled a 13-residue sequence conserved across Ascomycota. Infection with divergent ascomycetes including dimorphic fungi, opportunistic molds, and the agent causing white nose syndrome in bats induces expansion of calnexin-specific CD4+ T cells. Vaccine delivery of calnexin in glucan particles induces fungal antigen-specific CD4+ T cell expansion and resistance to lethal challenge with multiple fungal pathogens. Thus, the immunogeneticity and conservation of calnexin make this fungal protein a promising vaccine target. PMID:25800545

  10. Fungi on the Skin: Dermatophytes and Malassezia

    PubMed Central

    White, Theodore C.; Findley, Keisha; Dawson, Thomas L.; Scheynius, Annika; Boekhout, Teun; Cuomo, Christina A.; Xu, Jun; Saunders, Charles W.

    2014-01-01

    Several human skin diseases and disorders are associated with two groups of fungi, the dermatophytes and Malassezia. Although these skin-related problems are not generally life threatening, they are among the most common diseases and disorders of mankind. These fungi are phylogenetically divergent, with the dermatophytes within the Ascomycota and Malassezia within Basidiomycota. Genome analysis indicates that the adaptations to the skin environment are different in these two groups of fungi. Malassezia are dependent on host lipids and secrete lipases and phospholipases that likely release host fatty acids. The dermatophytes encode multiple enzymes with potential roles in modulating host interactions: polyketide synthases, nonribosomal peptide synthetases, LysM, proteases, kinases, and pseudokinases. These two fungal groups have maximized their interactions with the host using two very different mechanisms. PMID:25085959

  11. Isolation and Characterization of a Novel Facultative Anaerobic Filamentous Fungus from Japanese Rice Field Soil

    PubMed Central

    Tonouchi, Akio

    2009-01-01

    A novel filamentous fungus strain designated RB-1 was isolated into pure culture from Japanese rice field soil through an anaerobic role tube technique. The strain is a mitosporic fungus that grows in both aerobic and strict anaerobic conditions using various mono-, di-, tri-, and polysaccharides with acetate and ethanol productions. The amount of acetate produced was higher than that of ethanol in both aerobic and anaerobic cultures. The characteristic verrucose or punctuate conidia of RB-1 closely resembled those of some strains of the genus Thermomyces, a thermophilic or mesophilic anamorphic ascomycete. However, based on phylogenetic analysis with the small subunit (SSU) and large subunit (LSU) rDNA sequences, RB-1 was characterized as a member of the class Lecanoromycetes of the phylum Ascomycota. Currently, RB-1 is designated as an anamorphic ascomycete and is phylogenetically considered an incertae sedis within the class Lecanoromycetes. PMID:20148171

  12. Biogeography in the air: fungal diversity over land and oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fröhlich-Nowoisky, J.; Burrows, S. M.; Xie, Z.; Engling, G.; Solomon, P. A.; Fraser, M. P.; Mayol-Bracero, O. L.; Artaxo, P.; Begerow, D.; Conrad, R.; Andreae, M. O.; Després, V. R.; Pöschl, U.

    2011-07-01

    Biogenic aerosols are relevant for the Earth system, climate, and public health on local, regional, and global scales. Up to now, however, little is known about the diversity and biogeography of airborne microorganisms. We present the first DNA-based analysis of airborne fungi on global scales, showing pronounced geographic patterns and boundaries. In particular we found that the ratio of species richness between Basidiomycota and Ascomycota is much higher in continental air than in marine air. This may be an important difference between the "blue ocean" and "green ocean" regimes in the formation of clouds and precipitation, for which fungal spores can act as nuclei. Our findings also suggest that air flow patterns and the global atmospheric circulation are important for the evolution of microbial ecology and for the understanding of global changes in biodiversity.

  13. Biogeography in the air: fungal diversity over land and oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fröhlich-Nowoisky, J.; Burrows, S. M.; Xie, Z.; Engling, G.; Solomon, P. A.; Fraser, M. P.; Mayol-Bracero, O. L.; Artaxo, P.; Begerow, D.; Conrad, R.; Andreae, M. O.; Després, V. R.; Pöschl, U.

    2012-03-01

    Biogenic aerosols are relevant for the Earth system, climate, and public health on local, regional, and global scales. Up to now, however, little is known about the diversity and biogeography of airborne microorganisms. We present the first DNA-based analysis of airborne fungi on global scales, showing pronounced geographic patterns and boundaries. In particular we find that the ratio of species richness between Basidiomycota and Ascomycota is much higher in continental air than in marine air. This may be an important difference between the "blue ocean" and "green ocean" regimes in the formation of clouds and precipitation, for which fungal spores can act as nuclei. Our findings also suggest that air flow patterns and the global atmospheric circulation are important for the understanding of global changes in biodiversity.

  14. Diversity and biochemical features of culturable fungi from the coastal waters of Southern China

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Fungi play a major role in various biogeochemical cycles of terrestrial and marine ecosystems. However, fungi in marine environments remain to be one of the most under-studied microbial groups. This study investigates the diversity of planktonic fungi from the coastal habitat off Pearl River Delta (China) using culture-dependent approach. A total of 22 fungi and 9 yeast isolates were recovered from 30 seawater and 2 sediment samples. Microscopic and ITS rRNA gene sequence analyses revealed that most of the fungi belonged to the phylum Ascomycota and Basidiomycota with a very small percentage (3%) of the subphylum Mucoromycotina of the Phylum Zygomycota. Most of these fungal isolates exhibited considerable production of extracellular enzymes, cellulase, lipase and laccase. Fungal isolates of two genera Mucor and Aspergillus sp. demonstrated pelletization capability over a wide range of pH, suggesting them as potential agents towards algae harvesting and wastewater treatment. PMID:25401065

  15. Distribution and Diversity of Planktonic Fungi in the West Pacific Warm Pool

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xin; Singh, Purnima; Gao, Zheng; Zhang, Xiaobo; Johnson, Zackary I.; Wang, Guangyi

    2014-01-01

    Fungi contribute substantially to biogeochemical cycles of terrestrial and marine habitats by decomposing matter and recycling nutrients. Yet, the diversity of their planktonic forms in the open ocean is poorly described. In this study, culture-independent and molecular approaches were applied to investigate fungal diversity and abundance derived from samples collected from a broad swath of the Pacific Warm Pool across major environmental gradients Our results revealed that planktonic fungi were molecularly diverse and their diversity patterns were related to major phytoplankton taxa and various nutrients including nitrate, nitrite, orthophosphate and silicic acid. Over 400 fungal phylotypes were recovered across this region and nearly half of them grouped into two major fungal lineages of Ascomycota and Basidiomycota, whose abundance varied among stations. These results suggest that planktonic fungi are a diverse and integral component of the marine microbial community and should be included in future marine microbial ecosystem models. PMID:24992154

  16. Biosynthetic Pathways of Ergot Alkaloids

    PubMed Central

    Gerhards, Nina; Neubauer, Lisa; Tudzynski, Paul; Li, Shu-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Ergot alkaloids are nitrogen-containing natural products belonging to indole alkaloids. The best known producers are fungi of the phylum Ascomycota, e.g., Claviceps, Epichloë, Penicillium and Aspergillus species. According to their structures, ergot alkaloids can be divided into three groups: clavines, lysergic acid amides and peptides (ergopeptines). All of them share the first biosynthetic steps, which lead to the formation of the tetracyclic ergoline ring system (except the simplest, tricyclic compound: chanoclavine). Different modifications on the ergoline ring by specific enzymes result in an abundance of bioactive natural products, which are used as pharmaceutical drugs or precursors thereof. From the 1950s through to recent years, most of the biosynthetic pathways have been elucidated. Gene clusters from several ergot alkaloid producers have been identified by genome mining and the functions of many of those genes have been demonstrated by knock-out experiments or biochemical investigations of the overproduced enzymes. PMID:25513893

  17. Subcutaneous infection by Ochroconis mirabilis in an immunocompetent patient.

    PubMed

    Shi, Dongmei; Lu, Guixia; Mei, Huan; de Hoog, G Sybren; Samerpitak, Kittipan; Deng, Shuwen; Shen, Yongnian; Liu, Weida

    2016-03-01

    Recently, the taxonomy of Ochroconis (Ascomycota, Pezizomycotina, Venturiales, Sympoventuriaceae) has been revised with the recognition of an additional genus, Verruconis. Ochroconis comprises mesophilic saprobes that occasionally infect vertebrates which mostly are cold-blooded, while Verruconis contains thermophilic species which is a neurotrope in humans and birds. On the basis of molecular data it is noted that only a single Ochroconis species regularly infects immunocompetent human hosts. Here we report a subcutaneous infection due to Ochroconis mirabilis in a 50-year-old immunocompetent female patient. In vitro antifungal susceptibility tests revealed that terbinafine was the most effective drug. The patient was successfully cured with oral administration of terbinafine 250 mg daily in combination with 3 times of topical ALA-photodynamic therapy for 9 months. PMID:27182484

  18. The diversity of fungal genome.

    PubMed

    Mohanta, Tapan Kumar; Bae, Hanhong

    2015-01-01

    The genome size of an organism varies from species to species. The C-value paradox enigma is a very complex puzzle with regards to vast diversity in genome sizes in eukaryotes. Here we reported the detailed genomic information of 172 fungal species among different fungal genomes and found that fungal genomes are very diverse in nature. In fungi, the diversity of genomes varies from 8.97 Mb to 177.57 Mb. The average genome sizes of Ascomycota and Basidiomycota fungi are 36.91 and 46.48 Mb respectively. But higher genome size is observed in Oomycota (74.85 Mb) species, a lineage of fungus-like eukaryotic microorganisms. The average coding genes of Oomycota species are almost doubled than that of Acomycota and Basidiomycota fungus. PMID:25866485

  19. Zombie bugs? The fungus Purpureocillium cf. lilacinum may manipulate the behavior of its host bug Edessa rufomarginata.

    PubMed

    Eberhard, William; Pacheco-Esquivel, Jessica; Carrasco-Rueda, Farah; Christopher, Yuliana; Gonzalez, Cely; Ramos, Daniel; Urbina, Hector; Blackwell, Meredith

    2014-01-01

    Just before dying, Edessa rufomarginata (Hemiptera, Pentotomidae) individuals that are infected with the fungus Purpureocillium cf. lilacinum (Ascomycota: Ophiocordycipitaceae) move from the leaves onto the stems of their Solanum sp. host and firmly grasp the stems in ways seldom employed by uninfected bugs. These alterations in host behavior probably improve the chances that the subsequently produced fungal spores will be dispersed aerially. Purpureocillium cf. lilacinum is a member of the Ophiocordycipitaceae, a group in which other species also modify the behavior of their hosts. As in the case of newly distinguished relatives of Ophiocordyceps unilateralis associated with "zombie ants" the discovery of P. cf. lilacinum infecting bugs reveals that P. lilacinum may be more diverse than previously appreciated. PMID:25143477

  20. First record of Talaromyces udagawae in soil related to decomposing human remains in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Tranchida, María C; Centeno, Néstor D; Stenglein, Sebastián A; Cabello, Marta N

    2016-01-01

    The morphologic features of Talaromyces udagawae Stolk and Samson are here described and illustrated. This teleomorphic Ascomycota fungus was isolated from soil obtained in Buenos Aires province (Argentina) from beneath a human cadaver in an advanced state of decomposition. After washing and serial dilution of the soil along with moist-chamber techniques for fungal cultivation, T. udagawae formed very restricted colonies of bright yellow color on different growth media with 8-ascospored asci. The ascospores were ellipsoidal and ornamented. The anamorphic state was not observed. Molecular-genetic techniques identified the species. The present record is the first of the species in Argentina, pointing it as a tool to identify soils where cadaver decomposition occurs. PMID:26766627

  1. Biosynthetic pathways of ergot alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Gerhards, Nina; Neubauer, Lisa; Tudzynski, Paul; Li, Shu-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Ergot alkaloids are nitrogen-containing natural products belonging to indole alkaloids. The best known producers are fungi of the phylum Ascomycota, e.g., Claviceps, Epichloë, Penicillium and Aspergillus species. According to their structures, ergot alkaloids can be divided into three groups: clavines, lysergic acid amides and peptides (ergopeptines). All of them share the first biosynthetic steps, which lead to the formation of the tetracyclic ergoline ring system (except the simplest, tricyclic compound: chanoclavine). Different modifications on the ergoline ring by specific enzymes result in an abundance of bioactive natural products, which are used as pharmaceutical drugs or precursors thereof. From the 1950s through to recent years, most of the biosynthetic pathways have been elucidated. Gene clusters from several ergot alkaloid producers have been identified by genome mining and the functions of many of those genes have been demonstrated by knock-out experiments or biochemical investigations of the overproduced enzymes. PMID:25513893

  2. Insights into fungal communities in composts revealed by 454-pyrosequencing: implications for human health and safety

    PubMed Central

    De Gannes, Vidya; Eudoxie, Gaius; Hickey, William J.

    2013-01-01

    Fungal community composition in composts of lignocellulosic wastes was assessed via 454-pyrosequencing of ITS1 libraries derived from the three major composting phases. Ascomycota represented most (93%) of the 27,987 fungal sequences. A total of 102 genera, 120 species, and 222 operational taxonomic units (OTUs; >97% similarity) were identified. Thirty genera predominated (ca. 94% of the sequences), and at the species level, sequences matching Chaetomium funicola and Fusarium oxysporum were the most abundant (26 and 12%, respectively). In all composts, fungal diversity in the mature phase exceeded that of the mesophilic phase, but there was no consistent pattern in diversity changes occurring in the thermophilic phase. Fifteen species of human pathogens were identified, eight of which have not been previously identified in composts. This study demonstrated that deep sequencing can elucidate fungal community diversity in composts, and that this information can have important implications for compost use and human health. PMID:23785368

  3. Molecular systematics of the cotton root rot pathogen, Phymatotrichopsis omnivora.

    PubMed

    Marek, S M; Hansen, K; Romanish, M; Thorn, R G

    2009-06-01

    Cotton root rot is an important soilborne disease of cotton and numerous dicot plants in the south-western United States and Mexico. The causal organism, Phymatotrichopsis omnivora (= Phymatotrichum omnivorum), is known only as an asexual, holoanamorphic (mitosporic) fungus, and produces conidia resembling those of Botrytis. Although the corticoid basidiomycetes Phanerochaete omnivora (Polyporales) and Sistotrema brinkmannii (Cantharellales; both Agaricomycetes) have been suggested as teleomorphs of Phymatotrichopsis omnivora, phylogenetic analyses of nuclear small- and large-subunit ribosomal DNA and subunit 2 of RNA polymerase II from multiple isolates indicate that it is neither a basidiomycete nor closely related to other species of Botrytis (Sclerotiniaceae, Leotiomycetes). Phymatotrichopsis omnivora is a member of the family Rhizinaceae, Pezizales (Ascomycota: Pezizomycetes) allied to Psilopezia and Rhizina. PMID:20198139

  4. Genome mining of ascomycetous fungi reveals their genetic potential for ergot alkaloid production.

    PubMed

    Gerhards, Nina; Matuschek, Marco; Wallwey, Christiane; Li, Shu-Ming

    2015-06-01

    Ergot alkaloids are important as mycotoxins or as drugs. Naturally occurring ergot alkaloids as well as their semisynthetic derivatives have been used as pharmaceuticals in modern medicine for decades. We identified 196 putative ergot alkaloid biosynthetic genes belonging to at least 31 putative gene clusters in 31 fungal species by genome mining of the 360 available genome sequences of ascomycetous fungi with known proteins. Detailed analysis showed that these fungi belong to the families Aspergillaceae, Clavicipitaceae, Arthrodermataceae, Helotiaceae and Thermoascaceae. Within the identified families, only a small number of taxa are represented. Literature search revealed a large diversity of ergot alkaloid structures in different fungi of the phylum Ascomycota. However, ergot alkaloid accumulation was only observed in 15 of the sequenced species. Therefore, this study provides genetic basis for further study on ergot alkaloid production in the sequenced strains. PMID:25796201

  5. Endophytic Fungal Communities Associated with Vascular Plants in the High Arctic Zone Are Highly Diverse and Host-Plant Specific

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tao; Yao, Yi-Feng

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the diversity and distribution of endophytic fungal communities associated with the leaves and stems of four vascular plant species in the High Arctic using 454 pyrosequencing with fungal-specific primers targeting the ITS region. Endophytic fungal communities showed high diversity. The 76,691 sequences obtained belonged to 250 operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Of these OTUs, 190 belonged to Ascomycota, 50 to Basidiomycota, 1 to Chytridiomycota, and 9 to unknown fungi. The dominant orders were Helotiales, Pleosporales, Capnodiales, and Tremellales, whereas the common known fungal genera were Cryptococcus, Rhizosphaera, Mycopappus, Melampsora, Tetracladium, Phaeosphaeria, Mrakia, Venturia, and Leptosphaeria. Both the climate and host-related factors might shape the fungal communities associated with the four Arctic plant species in this region. These results suggested the presence of an interesting endophytic fungal community and could improve our understanding of fungal evolution and ecology in the Arctic terrestrial ecosystems. PMID:26067836

  6. High-throughput Sequencing of Trace Quantities of Soil Provides Reproducible and Discriminative Fungal DNA Profiles.

    PubMed

    Young, Jennifer M; Weyrich, Laura S; Cooper, Alan

    2016-03-01

    High-throughput sequencing (HTS) offers improved resolution between forensic soil samples by characterizing individual taxa present; however, the heterogeneous distribution of taxa in soils, and limited quantity of material available, may hinder the reliability of HTS in casework. Using HTS of the internal transcribed spacer, we examined the effect of soil mass (50, 150, and 250 mg) on fungal DNA profiles, focusing on reproducibility and discriminatory power between close proximity soils, and samples with similar textural classification. The results show that reduced soil mass had no significant effect on sample differentiation and that 150 mg soil provides the most reproducible DNA profiles across different soil types. In addition, Ascomycota was identified as a robust fungal target for forensic intelligence as this phylum was detected consistently across all samples regardless of sample quantity. Overall, this study highlights the value of trace quantities of soil for use in forensic casework. PMID:27404621

  7. Assessment of ectomycorrhizal biodiversity in Tuber macrosporum productive sites.

    PubMed

    Benucci, Gian Maria Niccolò; Raggi, Lorenzo; Albertini, Emidio; Csorbai, Andrea Gógán; Donnini, Domizia

    2014-05-01

    Tuber macrosporum Vittad. is a truffle with superb organoleptic properties, whose cultivation is still in its infancy. For the first time we have aimed to provide information on ectomycorrhizal communities in natural and cultivated T. macrosporum sites. Ectomycorrhizal morphotypes were identified using ITS nrDNA sequencing and sorted into molecular operational taxonomic unit (MOTU). We detected 16 MOTUs in the T. macrosporum cultivated plantation. Ascomycota were the most abundant (86.4%) with Helvellaceae, Pyronemataceae and Pezizaceae the most common. Twenty-two MOTUs were collected in the natural T. macrosporum site. Basidiomycota morphotypes were plentiful (70.6%) and Thelephoraceae dominated. Each site had different taxa belowground with only T. macrosporum in common, being more abundant in the natural (18.2%) than in the cultivated (14.4%) site. Species richness, Simpson and Shannon diversity indices, taxonomic diversity, distinctness and variation of taxonomic distinctness were lower in the cultivated than in the natural site. PMID:24232503

  8. A comprehensive model to predict mitotic division in budding yeasts

    PubMed Central

    Sutradhar, Sabyasachi; Yadav, Vikas; Sridhar, Shreyas; Sreekumar, Lakshmi; Bhattacharyya, Dibyendu; Ghosh, Santanu Kumar; Paul, Raja; Sanyal, Kaustuv

    2015-01-01

    High-fidelity chromosome segregation during cell division depends on a series of concerted interdependent interactions. Using a systems biology approach, we built a robust minimal computational model to comprehend mitotic events in dividing budding yeasts of two major phyla: Ascomycota and Basidiomycota. This model accurately reproduces experimental observations related to spindle alignment, nuclear migration, and microtubule (MT) dynamics during cell division in these yeasts. The model converges to the conclusion that biased nucleation of cytoplasmic microtubules (cMTs) is essential for directional nuclear migration. Two distinct pathways, based on the population of cMTs and cortical dyneins, differentiate nuclear migration and spindle orientation in these two phyla. In addition, the model accurately predicts the contribution of specific classes of MTs in chromosome segregation. Thus we present a model that offers a wider applicability to simulate the effects of perturbation of an event on the concerted process of the mitotic cell division. PMID:26310442

  9. Description and phylogenetic placement of Beauveria hoplocheli sp. nov. used in the biological control of the sugarcane white grub, Hoplochelus marginalis, on Reunion Island.

    PubMed

    Robène-Soustrade, Isabelle; Jouen, Emmanuel; Pastou, Didier; Payet-Hoarau, Magali; Goble, Tarryn; Linderme, Daphné; Lefeuvre, Pierre; Calmès, Cédric; Reynaud, Bernard; Nibouche, Samuel; Costet, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    On Reunion Island successful biological control of the sugarcane white grub Hoplochelus marginalis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Melolonthidae) has been conducted for decades with strains from the entomopathogenic fungal genus Beauveria (Ascomycota: Hypocreales). A study based on morphological characters combined with a multisequence phylogenetic analysis of genes that encode the translation elongation factor 1-alpha (TEF1), RNA polymerase II largest subunit (RPB1), RNA polymerase II second largest subunit (RPB2) and the Bloc nuc intergenic region was carried out on Beauveria strains isolated on Reunion and Madagascar from H. marginalis. This study revealed that these strains, previously identified as Beauveria brongniartii, did not match that species and are closely related to but still distinct from B. malawiensis strains. Therefore we describe the Reunion Island fungus as the new species B. hoplocheli. PMID:26297783

  10. Liquid Culture Production of Fungal Microsclerotia.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Mark A; Payne, Angela R

    2016-01-01

    Fungal microsclerotia ("small" sclerotia) are compact hyphal aggregates, typically 50-600 μm in diameter, that are formed under unfavorable nutritional and/or environmental conditions. These structures are often melanized and desiccated to some degree containing endogenous nutritional reserves for use when favorable conditions return. Many fungi, mostly plant pathogens, produce microsclerotia as a survival structure. Liquid culture methods have been developed for producing microsclerotia of the Ascomycota Metarhizium spp, Colletotrichum truncatum, Mycoleptodiscus terrestris, and Trichoderma spp. While these fungi have varying culture conditions that optimize microsclerotia production, all share common nutritional and environmental requirements for microsclerotia formation. Described are the general liquid culture techniques, media components, and harvesting and drying methods necessary to produce stable microsclerotial granules of these fungi. PMID:27565493