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1

Ascomycota 1 Lecanoromycetes  

E-print Network

Lecanorales Cladoniaceae Cladonia fimbriata #12;Division Class Order Family Notes Division Class Order Family Cladonia furcata. Ascomycota 5 Lichens Lecanoromycetes Lecanorales Cladoniaceae Cladonia macileuta. Ascomycota 6 Lichens Lecanoromycetes Lecanorales Cladoniaceae Cladonia ochrochlora #12;Division Class Order

California at Berkeley, University of

2

A polyphasic taxonomy of Daldinia (Xylariaceae)1  

PubMed Central

For a monograph based on a polythetic concept, several thousands of herbarium specimens, and several hundreds of freshly collected and cultured specimens of Daldinia and allied Xylariaceae, originating from around the world, were studied for morphological traits, including by SEM, and chemically by HPLC profiles using UV-visible and mass spectrometric detection. Emphasis was given to tropical material, and importantly, ancient specimens, including as many types as possible, were tracked and studied to review earlier taxonomic concepts. An epitype of D. eschscholtzii was selected as representative of the morphochemotype that is most widely distributed in the tropics. Six new species of Daldinia from the tropics and the southern Hemisphere are described. Daldinia asphalatum is resurrected, and D. cudonia is regarded as its synonym. In addition, the following binomials are epi-, iso-, neo- and/or lectotypified: Daldinia asphalatum, D. caldariorum, D. clavata, D. cuprea, D. durissima, D. eschscholtzii, D. grandis, D. loculata, and D. vernicosa. Annellosporium and Versiomyces are regarded as synonyms of Daldinia. Many new synonymies in Daldinia are proposed, and some previously published names are rejected. In total, 47 taxa in Daldinia are recognised and a key is provided. Their biogeography, chorology, and ecology, as well as the importance of their secondary metabolites, are also discussed. The previous definition of the genus is emended. The species concept is based mainly on morphological and other phenotype-derived characters because, despite diligent search, no molecular data or cultures of several of the accepted species could be obtained. Daldinia is segregated into five major groups, based on phenotypic characteristics. Some unnamed but aberrant specimens were not found in good condition and are therefore not formally described as new species. However, they are illustrated in detail in a hope that this will facilitate the discovery of fresh material in future. A preliminary molecular phylogeny based on 5.8S/ITS nrDNA including numerous representatives of all hitherto described taxa for which cultures are extant, was found basically in agreement with the above mentioned segregation of the genus, based on morphological and chemotaxonomic evidence. In the rDNA based phylogenetic tree, Daldinia appears clearly distinct from members of the genera Annulohypoxylon and Hypoxylon; nevertheless, representatives of small genera of predominantly tropical origin (Entonaema, Phylacia, Ruwenzoria, Rhopalostroma, Thamnomyces) appear to have evolved from daldinioid ancestors and are nested inside the Daldinia clade. Interestingly, these findings correlate with chemotaxonomic characters to a great extent, especially regarding the distribution of marker metabolites in their mycelial cultures. Hence, the current study revealed for the first time that fungal secondary metabolite profiles can have taxonomic value beyond the species rank and even coincide with phylogenetic data. Taxonomic novelties: Daldinia andina sp. nov., D. australis sp. nov., D. hausknechtii sp. nov., D. rehmii sp. nov., D. starbaeckii sp. nov., D. theissenii sp. nov., D. cahuchosa comb. nov., D. nemorosa comb. nov. PMID:24790283

Stadler, Marc; Læssøe, Thomas; Fournier, Jacques; Decock, Cony; Schmieschek, Beata; Tichy, Hans-Volker; Peršoh, Derek

2014-01-01

3

Dating the Diversification of the Major Lineages of Ascomycota (Fungi)  

PubMed Central

Establishing the dates for the origin and main diversification events in the phylogeny of Ascomycota is among the most crucial remaining goals in understanding the evolution of Fungi. There have been several analyses of divergence times in the fungal tree of life in the last two decades, but most have yielded contrasting results for the origin of the major lineages. Moreover, very few studies have provided temporal estimates for a large set of clades within Ascomycota. We performed molecular dating to estimate the divergence times of most of the major groups of Ascomycota. To account for paleontological uncertainty, we included alternative fossil constraints as different scenarios to enable a discussion of the effect of selection of fossils. We used data from 6 molecular markers and 121 extant taxa within Ascomycota. Our various ‘relaxed clock’ scenarios suggest that the origin and diversification of the Pezizomycotina occurred in the Cambrian. The main lineages of lichen–forming Ascomycota originated at least as early as the Carboniferous, with successive radiations in the Jurassic and Cretaceous generating the diversity of the main modern groups. Our study provides new information about the timing of the main diversification events in Ascomycota, including estimates for classes, orders and families of both lichenized and non–lichenized Ascomycota, many of which had not been previously dated. PMID:23799026

Prieto, Maria; Wedin, Mats

2013-01-01

4

From elements to modules: regulatory evolution in Ascomycota fungi  

E-print Network

Regulatory divergence is likely a major driving force in evolution. Comparative transcriptomics provides a new glimpse into the evolution of gene regulation. Ascomycota fungi are uniquely suited among eukaryotes for studies ...

Wohlbach, Dana J.

5

Pupal mortality and adult emergence of western cherry fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) exposed to the fungus Muscodor albus (Xylariales: Xylariaceae).  

PubMed

Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a major pest of sweet cherry, Prunus avium (L.) L. (Rosales: Rosaceae), that is conventionally controlled using insecticides. One alternative to the use of insecticides alone for fly control could be fumigation of the fly's overwintering habitat using the fungus Muscodor albus Worapong, Strobel & Hess (Xylariales: Xylariaceae) in conjunction with reduced insecticide use. The fungus produces a mixture of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that are biocidal for a variety of organisms. In this study, the main objectives were to determine the effects of M. albus VOCs on mortality of R. indifferens pupae and on adult emergence under laboratory conditions. In fumigation chamber experiments, a 14-d exposure of pupae in soil to VOCs resulted in 61.9% control, and exposure to VOCs for 7, 10, and 14 d reduced fly emergence by 44.2, 70.0, and 86.3%, respectively, relative to controls. In an experiment using plastic covers to retain VOCs in treated soil, a concentration of 1% M. albus formulation (fungus + rye grain) did not affect pupal mortality and fly emergence, but a concentration of 5% M. albus formulation resulted in 27.4% control and reduced fly emergence by 30.1% relative to the control. Larvae of R. indifferens that were dropped onto soil with 1% M. albus formulation were not affected by the fungus. Results indicate that prolonged exposure and high concentrations of M. albus VOCs can cause significant mortality of R. indifferens pupae in soil and delay adult emergence. PMID:20069829

Yee, Wee L; Lacey, Lawrence A; Bishop, Belinda J B

2009-12-01

6

Origin and evolution of carnivorism in the Ascomycota (fungi)  

PubMed Central

Carnivorism is one of the basic life strategies of fungi. Carnivorous fungi possess the ability to trap and digest their preys by sophisticated trapping devices. However, the origin and development of fungal carnivorism remains a gap in evolution biology. In this study, five protein-encoding genes were used to construct the phylogeny of the carnivorous fungi in the phylum Ascomycota; these fungi prey on nematodes by means of specialized trapping structures such as constricting rings and adhesive traps. Our analysis revealed a definitive pattern of evolutionary development for these trapping structures. Molecular clock calibration based on two fossil records revealed that fungal carnivorism diverged from saprophytism about 419 Mya, which was after the origin of nematodes about 550–600 Mya. Active carnivorism (fungi with constricting rings) and passive carnivorism (fungi with adhesive traps) diverged from each other around 246 Mya, shortly after the occurrence of the Permian–Triassic extinction event about 251.4 Mya. The major adhesive traps evolved around 198–208 Mya, which was within the time frame of the Triassic–Jurassic extinction event about 201.4 Mya. However, no major carnivorous ascomycetes divergence was correlated to the Cretaceous–Tertiary extinction event, which occurred more recently (about 65.5 Mya). Therefore, a causal relationship between mass extinction events and fungal carnivorism evolution is not validated in this study. More evidence including additional fossil records is needed to establish if fungal carnivorism evolution was a response to mass extinction events. PMID:22715289

Yang, Ence; Xu, Lingling; Yang, Ying; Zhang, Xinyu; Xiang, Meichun; Wang, Chengshu; An, Zhiqiang; Liu, Xingzhong

2012-01-01

7

Estimating the Phanerozoic history of the Ascomycota lineages: Combining fossil and molecular data.  

PubMed

The phylum Ascomycota is by far the largest group in the fungal kingdom. Ecologically important mutualistic associations such as mycorrhizae and lichens have evolved in this group, which are regarded as key innovations that supported the evolution of land plants. Only a few attempts have been made to date the origin of Ascomycota lineages by using molecular clock methods, which is primarily due to the lack of satisfactory fossil calibration data. For this reason we have evaluated all of the oldest available ascomycete fossils from amber (Albian to Miocene) and chert (Devonian and Maastrichtian). The fossils represent five major ascomycete classes (Coniocybomycetes, Dothideomycetes, Eurotiomycetes, Laboulbeniomycetes, and Lecanoromycetes). We have assembled a multi-gene data set (18SrDNA, 28SrDNA, RPB1 and RPB2) from a total of 145 taxa representing most groups of the Ascomycota and utilized fossil calibration points solely from within the ascomycetes to estimate divergence times of Ascomycota lineages with a Bayesian approach. Our results suggest an initial diversification of the Pezizomycotina in the Ordovician, followed by repeated splits of lineages throughout the Phanerozoic, and indicate that this continuous diversification was unaffected by mass extinctions. We suggest that the ecological diversity within each lineage ensured that at least some taxa of each group were able to survive global crises and rapidly recovered. PMID:24792086

Beimforde, Christina; Feldberg, Kathrin; Nylinder, Stephan; Rikkinen, Jouko; Tuovila, Hanna; Dörfelt, Heinrich; Gube, Matthias; Jackson, Daniel J; Reitner, Joachim; Seyfullah, Leyla J; Schmidt, Alexander R

2014-09-01

8

A Perithecial Sordariomycete (Ascomycota, Diaporthales) from the Lower Cretaceous of Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada  

E-print Network

Island, British Columbia, Canada Author(s): Allison W. Bronson, Ashley A. Klymiuk, Ruth A. Stockey downloaded on Wed, 13 Mar 2013 10:34:44 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions #12;A PERITHECIAL SORDARIOMYCETE (ASCOMYCOTA, DIAPORTHALES) FROM THE LOWER CRETACEOUS OF VANCOUVER ISLAND, BRITISH COLUMBIA, CANADA

Tomescu, Alexandru MF

9

Interkingdom Gene Transfer of a Hybrid NPS/PKS from Bacteria to Filamentous Ascomycota  

PubMed Central

Nonribosomal peptides (NRPs) and polyketides (PKs) are ecologically important secondary metabolites produced by bacteria and fungi using multidomain enzymes called nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) and polyketide synthases (PKSs), respectively. Previous phylogenetic analyses of fungal NRPSs and PKSs have suggested that a few of these genes were acquired by fungi via horizontal gene transfer (HGT) from bacteria, including a hybrid NPS/PKS found in Cochliobolus heterostrophus (Dothideomycetes, Ascomycota). Here, we identify this hybrid gene in fungi representing two additional classes of Ascomycota (Aspergillus spp., Microsporum canis, Arthroderma spp., and Trichophyton spp., Eurotiomycetes; Chaetomium spp. and Metarhizium spp., Sordariomycetes) and use phylogenetic analyses of the most highly conserved domains from NRPSs (adenylation (A) domain) and PKSs (ketoacyl synthase (KS) domain) to examine the hypothesis that the hybrid NPS7/PKS24 was acquired by fungi from bacteria via HGT relatively early in the evolution of the Pezizomycotina. Our results reveal a unique ancestry of the A domain and KS domain in the hybrid gene relative to known fungal NRPSs and PKSs, provide strong evidence for HGT of the hybrid gene from a putative bacterial donor in the Burkholderiales, and suggest the HGT event occurred early in the evolution of the filamentous Ascomycota. PMID:22140558

Lawrence, Daniel P.; Kroken, Scott; Pryor, Barry M.; Arnold, A. Elizabeth

2011-01-01

10

Phylogenetic comparison of protein-coding versus ribosomal RNA-coding sequence data: A case study of the Lecanoromycetes (Ascomycota)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The resolving power and statistical support provided by two protein-coding (RPB1 and RPB2) and three ribosomal RNA-coding (nucSSU, nucLSU, and mitSSU) genes individually and in various combinations were investigated based on maximum likelihood bootstrap analyses on lichen-forming fungi from the class Lecanoromycetes (Ascomycota). Our results indicate that the optimal loci (single and combined) to use for molecular systematics of lichen-forming

Valérie Hofstetter; Jolanta Miadlikowska; Frank Kauff; François Lutzoni

2007-01-01

11

Molecular analysis reveals two new dimorphic species of Hesperomyces (Ascomycota, Laboulbeniomycetes) parasitic on the ladybird Coleomegilla maculata (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae).  

PubMed

Four morphotypes of Hesperomyces (Ascomycota, Laboulbeniomycetes) were found on the ladybird Coleomegilla maculata (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae) from Costa Rica and Ecuador. Partial SSU and ITS rDNA sequence analysis revealed that these belong to two phylogenetic species, each with a pair of morphotypes displaying position specificity. Confirmation of dimorphism in Laboulbeniales highlights the need for a thorough systematic revision of species concepts within the order. The theory of 'position specificity' also needs to be revisited. PMID:24295919

Goldmann, Lauren; Weir, Alex; Rossi, Walter

2013-01-01

12

Ascomycota Members Dominate Fungal Communities during Straw Residue Decomposition in Arable Soil  

PubMed Central

This study investigated the development of fungal community composition in arable soil during the degradation of straw residue. We explored the short-term responses of the fungal community over 28 days of decomposition in soil using culture-independent polymerase chain reaction in combination with a clone library and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Fungal cellobiohydrolase I (cbhI) genes in the soil were also characterized, and their diversity suggested the existence of a different cellulose decomposer. The DGGE profiles based on fungal internal transcribed spacer analysis showed different successions of fungal populations during residue decomposition. Members of Lecythophora and Sordariales were dominant in the early succession, while Hypocrea and Engyodontium were better adapted in the late succession. The succession of fungal communities might be related to changes of residue quality during decomposition. Collectively, sequences assigned to Ascomycota members were dominant at different stages of the fungal succession during decomposition, revealing that they were key drivers responsible for residue degradation in the arable soil tested. PMID:23840414

Ma, Anzhou; Zhuang, Xuliang; Wu, Junmei; Cui, Mengmeng; Lv, Di; Liu, Chunzhao; Zhuang, Guoqiang

2013-01-01

13

Phylogenetic comparison of protein-coding versus ribosomal RNA-coding sequence data: a case study of the Lecanoromycetes (Ascomycota).  

PubMed

The resolving power and statistical support provided by two protein-coding (RPB1 and RPB2) and three ribosomal RNA-coding (nucSSU, nucLSU, and mitSSU) genes individually and in various combinations were investigated based on maximum likelihood bootstrap analyses on lichen-forming fungi from the class Lecanoromycetes (Ascomycota). Our results indicate that the optimal loci (single and combined) to use for molecular systematics of lichen-forming Ascomycota are protein-coding genes (RPB1 and RPB2). RPB1 and RPB2 genes individually were phylogenetically more efficient than all two- and three-locus combinations of ribosomal loci. The 3rd codon position of each of these two loci provided the most characters in support of phylogenetic relationships within the Lecanoromycetes. Of the three ribosomal loci we used in this study, mitSSU contributed the most to phylogenetic analyses when combined with RPB1 and RPB2. Except for the mitSSU, ribosomal genes were the most difficult to recover because they often contain many introns, resulting in PCR bias toward numerous and intronless co-extracted contaminant fungi (mainly Dothideomycetes, Chaetothyriomycetes, and Sordariomycetes in the Ascomycota, and members of the Basidiomycota), which inhabit lichen thalli. Maximum likelihood analysis on the combined five-locus data set for 82 members of the Lecanoromycetes provided a well resolved and well supported tree compared to existing phylogenies. We confirmed the monophyly of three recognized subclasses in the Lecanoromycetes, the Acarosporomycetidae, Ostropomycetidae, and Lecanoromycetideae; the latter delimited as monophyletic for the first time, with the exclusion of the family Umbilicariaceae and Hypocenomyce scalaris. The genus Candelariella (formerly in the Candelariaceae, currently a member of the Lecanoraceae) represents the first evolutionary split within the Lecanoromycetes, before the divergence of the Acarosporomycetidae. This study provides a foundation necessary to guide the selection of loci for future multilocus phylogenetic studies on lichen-forming and allied ascomycetes. PMID:17207641

Hofstetter, Valérie; Miadlikowska, Jolanta; Kauff, Frank; Lutzoni, François

2007-07-01

14

Beauveria bassiana (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) wound dressing for the control of Euzophera pinguis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).  

PubMed

Injury to olive tree trunks and branches because of biotic and abiotic factors, such as pruning and mechanical harvesting, attracts the olive pyralid moth Euzophera pinguis Haworth (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). This moth has become increasingly important in the Mediterranean region during recent years. The use of an entomopathogenic fungus for wound dressing for pest control is reported for the first time in this study. Beauveria bassiana (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) strain EABb 08/04-Ep was originally obtained from a diseased E. pinguis larva and has shown effective E. pinguis control in an olive crop in Jaén, Andalusia, Spain, under field conditions during the spring and fall of 2008 and 2009 and the spring of 2011. Experimental artificial 30 by 30-mm square wound cages were large enough to allow the E. pinguis females to oviposit. Approximately 80 and 40-60% of the control wounds contained live larvae in the experiments that occurred during the spring and fall, respectively. The B. hassiana wound dressing gave similar results as the chlorpyrifos wound dressing throughout the experiment, with efficacies reaching 80-85% in the spring and 90-95% in the autumn. The B. bassiana fungus was recovered from 60-90% of the wounds at the completion of the experiments and after 60 d of treatment. These data indicate that strain EABb 08/04-Ep applied to the pruning wounds can be an effective tool for the microbial control of E. pinguis in olive crops. Moreover, B. bassiana may be used within integrated pest management strategies to minimize chemicals, depending on the population density of the pyralid moth. PMID:24020271

Quesada-Moraga, E; Yousef, M; Ortiz, A; Ruíz-Torres, M; Garrido-Jurado, I; Estévez, A

2013-08-01

15

First and southernmost records of Hirsutella (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) and Pandora (Zygomycota: Entomophthorales) species infecting Dermaptera and Psocodea.  

PubMed

We present the first and southernmost records of the fungi Hirsutella strigosa Petch, H. citriformis Speare (Ascomycota: Hypocreales), and Pandora nouryi (Remaudière & Hennebert) Humber (Zygomycota: Entomophthorales) infecting Doru lineare (Eschscholtz) (Dermaptera: Forficulidae), Ectopsocus californicus (Banks) (Psocodea: Ectopsocidae), and Heterocaecilius sp. (Psocodea: Pseudocaeciliidae), respectively. This is the first report of naturally occurring pathogenic fungi infecting Psocoptera, and it is also the first report of P. nouryi from any host outside of the Aphididae. The three fungal species were morphologically described from their host insects and from microscopic preparations. Attempts to obtain pure fungal isolates were unsuccessful but slides and photographs of these fungi were preserved and deposited in mycological collections as herbarium material. PMID:17949742

Toledo, A V; Humber, R A; Lastra, C C López

2008-02-01

16

What an rRNA Secondary Structure Tells about Phylogeny of Fungi in Ascomycota with Emphasis on Evolution of Major Types of Ascus  

PubMed Central

Background RNA secondary structure is highly conserved throughout evolution. The higher order structure is fundamental in establishing important structure-function relationships. Nucleotide sequences from ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes have made a great contribution to our understanding of Ascomycota phylogeny. However, filling the gaps between molecular phylogeny and morphological assumptions based on ascus dehiscence modes and type of fruitbodies at the higher level classification of the phylum remains an unfulfilled task faced by mycologists. Methodology/Principal Findings We selected some major groups of Ascomycota to view their phylogenetic relationships based on analyses of rRNA secondary structure. Using rRNA secondary structural information, here, we converted nucleotide sequences into the structure ones over a 20-symbol code. Our structural analyses together with ancestral character state reconstruction produced reasonable phylogenetic position for the class Geoglossomycetes as opposed to the classic nucleotide analyses. Judging from the secondary structure analyses with consideration of mode of ascus dehiscence and the ability of forming fruitbodies, we draw a clear picture of a possible evolutionary route for fungal asci and some major groups of fungi in Ascomycota. The secondary structure trees show a more reasonable phylogenetic position for the class Geoglossomycetes. Conclusions Our results illustrate that asci lacking of any dehiscence mechanism represent the most primitive type. Passing through the operculate and Orbilia-type asci, bitunicate asci occurred. The evolution came to the most advanced inoperculate type. The ascus-producing fungi might be derived from groups lacking of the capacity to form fruitbodies, and then evolved multiple times. The apothecial type of fruitbodies represents the ancestral state, and the ostiolar type is advanced. The class Geoglossomycetes is closely related to Leotiomycetes and Sordariomycetes having a similar ascus type other than it was originally placed based on nucleotide sequence analyses. PMID:23110078

Zhuang, Wen-Ying; Liu, Chao-Yang

2012-01-01

17

Miocene and Pliocene dominated diversification of the lichen-forming fungal genus Melanohalea (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota) and Pleistocene population expansions  

PubMed Central

Background Factors promoting diversification in lichen symbioses remain largely unexplored. While Pleistocene events have been important for driving diversification and affecting distributions in many groups, recent estimates suggest that major radiations within some genera in the largest clade of macrolichens (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota) vastly predate the Pleistocene. To better understand the temporal placement and sequence of diversification events in lichens, we estimated divergence times in a common lichen-forming fungal genus, Melanohalea, in the Northern Hemisphere. Divergence times were estimated using both concatenated gene tree and coalescent-based multilocus species tree approaches to assess the temporal context of major radiation events within Melanohalea. In order to complement our understanding of processes impacting genetic differentiation, we also evaluated the effects of Pleistocene glacial cycles on population demographics of distinct Melanohalea lineages, differing in reproductive strategies. Results We found that divergence estimates, from both concatenated gene tree and coalescent-based multilocus species tree approaches, suggest that diversification within Melanohalea occurred predominantly during the Miocene and Pliocene, although estimated of divergence times differed by up to 8.3 million years between the two methods. These results indicate that, in some cases, taxonomically diagnostic characters may be maintained among divergent lineages for millions of years. In other cases, similar phenotypic characters among non-sister taxa, including reproductive strategies, suggest the potential for convergent evolution due to similar selective pressures among distinct lineages. Our analyses provide evidence of population expansions predating the last glacial maximum in the sampled lineages. These results suggest that Pleistocene glaciations were not inherently unfavorable or restrictive for some Melanohalea species, albeit with apparently different demographic histories between sexually and vegetatively reproducing lineages. Conclusions Our results contribute to the understanding of how major changes during the Miocene and Pliocene have been important in promoting diversification within common lichen-forming fungi in the northern Hemisphere. Additionally, we provide evidence that glacial oscillations have influenced current population structure of broadly distributed lichenized fungal species throughout the Holarctic. PMID:22963132

2012-01-01

18

Multigene molecular phylogeny and biogeographic diversification of the earth tongue fungi in the genera Cudonia and Spathularia (Rhytismatales, Ascomycota).  

PubMed

The family Cudoniaceae (Rhytismatales, Ascomycota) was erected to accommodate the "earth tongue fungi" in the genera Cudonia and Spathularia. There have been no recent taxonomic studies of these genera, and the evolutionary relationships within and among these fungi are largely unknown. Here we explore the molecular phylogenetic relationships within Cudonia and Spathularia using maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analyses based on 111 collections from across the Northern Hemisphere. Phylogenies based on the combined data from ITS, nrLSU, rpb2 and tef-1? sequences support the monophyly of three main clades, the /flavida, /velutipes, and /cudonia clades. The genus Cudonia and the family Cudoniaceae are supported as monophyletic groups, while the genus Spathularia is not monophyletic. Although Cudoniaceae is monophyletic, our analyses agree with previous studies that this family is nested within the Rhytismataceae. Our phylogenetic analyses circumscribes 32 species-level clades, including the putative recognition of 23 undescribed phylogenetic species. Our molecular phylogeny also revealed an unexpectedly high species diversity of Cudonia and Spathularia in eastern Asia, with 16 (out of 21) species-level clades of Cudonia and 8 (out of 11) species-level clades of Spathularia. We estimate that the divergence time of the Cudoniaceae was in the Paleogene approximately 28 Million years ago (Mya) and that the ancestral area for this group of fungi was in Eastern Asia based on the current data. We hypothesize that the large-scale geological and climatic events in Oligocene (e.g. the global cooling and the uplift of the Tibetan plateau) may have triggered evolutionary radiations in this group of fungi in East Asia. This work provides a foundation for future studies on the phylogeny, diversity, and evolution of Cudonia and Spathularia and highlights the need for more molecular studies on collections from Europe and North America. PMID:25084276

Ge, Zai-Wei; Yang, Zhu L; Pfister, Donald H; Carbone, Matteo; Bau, Tolgor; Smith, Matthew E

2014-01-01

19

Origin and Diversification of Major Clades in Parmelioid Lichens (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota) during the Paleogene Inferred by Bayesian Analysis  

PubMed Central

There is a long-standing debate on the extent of vicariance and long-distance dispersal events to explain the current distribution of organisms, especially in those with small diaspores potentially prone to long-distance dispersal. Age estimates of clades play a crucial role in evaluating the impact of these processes. The aim of this study is to understand the evolutionary history of the largest clade of macrolichens, the parmelioid lichens (Parmeliaceae, Lecanoromycetes, Ascomycota) by dating the origin of the group and its major lineages. They have a worldwide distribution with centers of distribution in the Neo- and Paleotropics, and semi-arid subtropical regions of the Southern Hemisphere. Phylogenetic analyses were performed using DNA sequences of nuLSU and mtSSU rDNA, and the protein-coding RPB1 gene. The three DNA regions had different evolutionary rates: RPB1 gave a rate two to four times higher than nuLSU and mtSSU. Divergence times of the major clades were estimated with partitioned BEAST analyses allowing different rates for each DNA region and using a relaxed clock model. Three calibrations points were used to date the tree: an inferred age at the stem of Lecanoromycetes, and two dated fossils: Parmelia in the parmelioid group, and Alectoria. Palaeoclimatic conditions and the palaeogeological area cladogram were compared to the dated phylogeny of parmelioid. The parmelioid group diversified around the K/T boundary, and the major clades diverged during the Eocene and Oligocene. The radiation of the genera occurred through globally changing climatic condition of the early Oligocene, Miocene and early Pliocene. The estimated divergence times are consistent with long-distance dispersal events being the major factor to explain the biogeographical distribution patterns of Southern Hemisphere parmelioids, especially for Africa-Australia disjunctions, because the sequential break-up of Gondwana started much earlier than the origin of these clades. However, our data cannot reject vicariance to explain South America-Australia disjunctions. PMID:22174775

Amo de Paz, Guillermo; Cubas, Paloma; Divakar, Pradeep K.; Lumbsch, H. Thorsten; Crespo, Ana

2011-01-01

20

Multigene Molecular Phylogeny and Biogeographic Diversification of the Earth Tongue Fungi in the Genera Cudonia and Spathularia (Rhytismatales, Ascomycota)  

PubMed Central

The family Cudoniaceae (Rhytismatales, Ascomycota) was erected to accommodate the “earth tongue fungi” in the genera Cudonia and Spathularia. There have been no recent taxonomic studies of these genera, and the evolutionary relationships within and among these fungi are largely unknown. Here we explore the molecular phylogenetic relationships within Cudonia and Spathularia using maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analyses based on 111 collections from across the Northern Hemisphere. Phylogenies based on the combined data from ITS, nrLSU, rpb2 and tef-1? sequences support the monophyly of three main clades, the /flavida, /velutipes, and /cudonia clades. The genus Cudonia and the family Cudoniaceae are supported as monophyletic groups, while the genus Spathularia is not monophyletic. Although Cudoniaceae is monophyletic, our analyses agree with previous studies that this family is nested within the Rhytismataceae. Our phylogenetic analyses circumscribes 32 species-level clades, including the putative recognition of 23 undescribed phylogenetic species. Our molecular phylogeny also revealed an unexpectedly high species diversity of Cudonia and Spathularia in eastern Asia, with 16 (out of 21) species-level clades of Cudonia and 8 (out of 11) species-level clades of Spathularia. We estimate that the divergence time of the Cudoniaceae was in the Paleogene approximately 28 Million years ago (Mya) and that the ancestral area for this group of fungi was in Eastern Asia based on the current data. We hypothesize that the large-scale geological and climatic events in Oligocene (e.g. the global cooling and the uplift of the Tibetan plateau) may have triggered evolutionary radiations in this group of fungi in East Asia. This work provides a foundation for future studies on the phylogeny, diversity, and evolution of Cudonia and Spathularia and highlights the need for more molecular studies on collections from Europe and North America. PMID:25084276

Ge, Zai-Wei; Yang, Zhu L.; Pfister, Donald H.; Carbone, Matteo; Bau, Tolgor; Smith, Matthew E.

2014-01-01

21

Efficacy of the biofumigant fungus Muscodor albus (Ascomycota: Xylariales) for control of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in simulated storage conditions.  

PubMed

Codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), a serious pest of pome fruit, is a threat to exportation of apples (Malus spp.) because of the possibility of shipping infested fruit. The need for alternatives to fumigants such as methyl bromide for quarantine security of exported fruit has encouraged the development of effective fumigants with reduced side effects. The endophytic fungus Muscodor albus Worapong, Strobel and Hess (Ascomycota: Xylariales) produces volatile compounds that are biocidal for several pest organisms, including plant pathogens and insect pests. The objectives of our research were to determine the effects of M. albus volatile organic compounds (VOCs) on codling moth adults, neonate larvae, larvae in infested apples, and diapausing cocooned larvae in simulated storage conditions. Fumigation of adult codling moth with VOCs produced by M. albus for 3 d and incubating in fresh air for 24 h at 25 degrees C resulted in 81% corrected mortality. Four- and 5-d exposures resulted in higher mortality (84 and 100%, respectively), but control mortality was also high due to the short life span of the moths. Exposure of neonate larvae to VOCs for 3 d on apples and incubating for 7 d resulted in 86% corrected mortality. Treated larvae were predominantly first instars, whereas 85% of control larvae developed to second and third instars. Exposure of apples that had been infested for 5 d, fumigated with M. albus VOCs for 3 d, and incubated as described above resulted in 71% corrected larval mortality. Exposure of diapausing cocooned codling moth larvae to VOCs for 7 or 14 d resulted in 31 and 100% mortality, respectively, with negligible control mortality. Our data on treatment of several stages of codling moth with M. albus VOCs indicate that the fungus could provide an alternative to broad spectrum chemical fumigants for codling moth control in storage and contribute to the systems approach to achieve quarantine security of exported apples. PMID:19253616

Lacey, L A; Horton, D R; Jones, D C; Headrick, H L; Neven, L G

2009-02-01

22

The Ascomycota tree of life: a phylum-wide phylogeny clarifies the origin and evolution of fundamental reproductive and ecological traits.  

PubMed

We present a 6-gene, 420-species maximum-likelihood phylogeny of Ascomycota, the largest phylum of Fungi. This analysis is the most taxonomically complete to date with species sampled from all 15 currently circumscribed classes. A number of superclass-level nodes that have previously evaded resolution and were unnamed in classifications of the Fungi are resolved for the first time. Based on the 6-gene phylogeny we conducted a phylogenetic informativeness analysis of all 6 genes and a series of ancestral character state reconstructions that focused on morphology of sporocarps, ascus dehiscence, and evolution of nutritional modes and ecologies. A gene-by-gene assessment of phylogenetic informativeness yielded higher levels of informativeness for protein genes (RPB1, RPB2, and TEF1) as compared with the ribosomal genes, which have been the standard bearer in fungal systematics. Our reconstruction of sporocarp characters is consistent with 2 origins for multicellular sexual reproductive structures in Ascomycota, once in the common ancestor of Pezizomycotina and once in the common ancestor of Neolectomycetes. This first report of dual origins of ascomycete sporocarps highlights the complicated nature of assessing homology of morphological traits across Fungi. Furthermore, ancestral reconstruction supports an open sporocarp with an exposed hymenium (apothecium) as the primitive morphology for Pezizomycotina with multiple derivations of the partially (perithecia) or completely enclosed (cleistothecia) sporocarps. Ascus dehiscence is most informative at the class level within Pezizomycotina with most superclass nodes reconstructed equivocally. Character-state reconstructions support a terrestrial, saprobic ecology as ancestral. In contrast to previous studies, these analyses support multiple origins of lichenization events with the loss of lichenization as less frequent and limited to terminal, closely related species. PMID:20525580

Schoch, Conrad L; Sung, Gi-Ho; López-Giráldez, Francesc; Townsend, Jeffrey P; Miadlikowska, Jolanta; Hofstetter, Valérie; Robbertse, Barbara; Matheny, P Brandon; Kauff, Frank; Wang, Zheng; Gueidan, Cécile; Andrie, Rachael M; Trippe, Kristin; Ciufetti, Linda M; Wynns, Anja; Fraker, Emily; Hodkinson, Brendan P; Bonito, Gregory; Groenewald, Johannes Z; Arzanlou, Mahdi; de Hoog, G Sybren; Crous, Pedro W; Hewitt, David; Pfister, Donald H; Peterson, Kristin; Gryzenhout, Marieka; Wingfield, Michael J; Aptroot, André; Suh, Sung-Oui; Blackwell, Meredith; Hillis, David M; Griffith, Gareth W; Castlebury, Lisa A; Rossman, Amy Y; Lumbsch, H Thorsten; Lücking, Robert; Büdel, Burkhard; Rauhut, Alexandra; Diederich, Paul; Ertz, Damien; Geiser, David M; Hosaka, Kentaro; Inderbitzin, Patrik; Kohlmeyer, Jan; Volkmann-Kohlmeyer, Brigitte; Mostert, Lizel; O'Donnell, Kerry; Sipman, Harrie; Rogers, Jack D; Shoemaker, Robert A; Sugiyama, Junta; Summerbell, Richard C; Untereiner, Wendy; Johnston, Peter R; Stenroos, Soili; Zuccaro, Alga; Dyer, Paul S; Crittenden, Peter D; Cole, Mariette S; Hansen, Karen; Trappe, James M; Yahr, Rebecca; Lutzoni, François; Spatafora, Joseph W

2009-04-01

23

A monograph of Allantonectria, Nectria, and Pleonectria (Nectriaceae, Hypocreales, Ascomycota) and their pycnidial, sporodochial, and synnematous anamorphs  

PubMed Central

Although Nectria is the type genus of Nectriaceae (Hypocreales, Sordariomycetes, Pezizomycotina, Ascomycota), the systematics of the teleomorphic and anamorphic state of Nectria sensu Rossman has not been studied in detail. The objectives of this study are to 1) provide a phylogenetic overview to determine if species of Nectria with Gyrostroma, Tubercularia, and Zythiostroma anamorphs form a monophyletic group; 2) define Nectria, segregate genera, and their species using morphologically informative characters of teleomorphic and anamorphic states; and 3) provide descriptions and illustrations of these genera and species. To accomplish these objectives, results of phylogenetic analyses of DNA sequence data from six loci (act, ITS, LSU, rpb1, tef1 and tub), were integrated with morphological characterisations of anamorphs and teleomorphs. Results from the phylogenetic analyses demonstrate that species previously regarded as the genus Nectria having Gyrostroma, Tubercularia, and Zythiostroma anamorphs belong in two major paraphyletic clades. The first major clade regarded as the genus Pleonectria contains 26 species with ascoconidia produced by ascospores in asci, perithecial walls having bright yellow scurf, and immersed or superficial pycnidial anamorphs (Zythiostroma = Gyrostroma). A lineage basal to the Pleonectria clade includes Nectria miltina having very small, aseptate ascospores, and trichoderma-like conidiophores and occurring on monocotyledonous plants. These characteristics are unusual in Pleonectria, thus we recognise the monotypic genus Allantonectria with Allantonectria miltina. The second major clade comprises the genus Nectria sensu stricto including the type species, N. cinnabarina, and 28 additional species. Within the genus Nectria, four subclades exist. One subclade includes species with sporodochial anamorphs and another with synnematous anamorphs. The other two paraphyletic subclades include species that produce abundant stromata in which the large perithecia are immersed, large ascospores, and peculiar anamorphs that form pycnidia or sporodochia either on their natural substrate or in culture. In this study the evolution of species, morphology, and ecology of the three genera, Allantonectria, Nectria, and Pleonectria, are discussed based on the phylogenetic analyses. In addition, descriptions, illustrations, and keys for identification are presented for the 56 species in Allantonectria, Nectria, and Pleonectria. Taxonomic novelties: New species: Nectria argentinensis Hirooka, Rossman & P. Chaverri, Nectria berberidicola Hirooka, Lechat, Rossman, & P. Chaverri, Nectria himalayensis Hirooka, Rossman, & P. Chaverri, Nectria magnispora Hirooka, Rossman, & P. Chaverri, Nectria mariae Hirooka, Fournier, Lechat, Rossman, & P. Chaverri, Nectria pyriformis Hirooka, Rossman & P. Chaverri, Pleonectria boothii Hirooka, Rossman & Chaverri, Pleonectria clavatispora Hirooka, Rossman & P. Chaverri, Pleonectria ilicicola Hirooka, Rossman & P. Chaverri, Pleonectria okinawensis Hirooka, Rossman & P. Chaverri, Pleonectria pseudomissouriensis Hirooka, Rossman & P. Chaverri, Pleonectria quercicola Hirooka, Checa, Areual, Rossman & P. Chaverri, Pleonectria strobi Hirooka, Rossman & P. Chaverri. New combinations: Cosmospora proteae (Marinc., M.J. Wingf. & Crous) Hirooka, Rossman & P. Chaverri, Nectricladiella viticola (Berk. & M.A. Curtis) Hirooka, Rossman & P. Chaverri, Neocosmospora guarapiensis (Speg.) Hirooka, Samuels, Rossman & P. Chaverri, Neocosmospora rehmiana (Kirschstein) Hirooka, Samuels, Rossman & P. Chaverri, Pleonectria aquifolii (Fr.) Hirooka, Rossman & P. Chaverri, Pleonectria aurigera (Berk. & Rav.) Hirooka, Rossman & P. Chaverri, Pleonectria chlorinella (Cooke) Hirooka, Rossman & P. Chaverri, Pleonectria coryli (Fuckel) Hirooka, Rossman & P. Chaverri, Pleonectria cucurbitula (Tode: Fr.) Hirooka, Rossman & P. Chaverri, Pleonectria lonicerae (Seeler) Hirooka, Rossman & P. Chaverri, Pleonectria rosellinii (Carestia) Hirooka, Rossman & P. Chaverri, Pleonectria rubicarpa (Cooke) Hirooka, Rossman & P. Chaverri,

Hirooka, Y.; Rossman, A.Y.; Samuels, G.J.; Lechat, C.; Chaverri, P.

2012-01-01

24

Interactions between the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) and the aphid parasitoid Diaeretiella rapae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) on Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae).  

PubMed

The interactions between the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo-Crivelli) Vuillemin (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) and the aphid parasitoid Diaeretiella rapae McIntoch (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) were evaluated under laboratory conditions. Nymphs of Myzus persicae Sulzer (Hemiptera: Aphididae) were first exposed to parasitoid females for 24 h and then 0, 24, and 48 h afterwards sprayed with a solution of B. bassiana. Likewise, aphids were also sprayed with B. bassiana and then exposed to parasitoids at 0, 24, and 48 h afterwards. Parasitism rate varied from 13 to 66.5%, and were significantly lower in treatments where the two agents were exposed within a 0-24 h time interval compared with the control (without B. bassiana). Parasitoid emergence was negatively affected in treatments with B. bassiana spraying and subsequent exposure to D. rapae. Decreases in longevity of adult females of the D. rapae F1 generation were observed in treatments with B. bassiana spraying. The application of these two biological control agents can be used in combination on the control of M. persicae, wherein this use requires effective time management to avoid antagonistic interactions. PMID:25026650

Silva, R J; Alencar, J R D C C; Silva, K P; Cividanes, F J; Duarte, R T; Agostini, L T; Polanczyk, R A

2014-06-01

25

Wood decomposing abilities of diverse lignicolous fungi on nondecayed and decayed beech wood.  

PubMed

We tested the decay abilities of 28 isolates from 28 lignicolous fungal species (Basidiomycota, Ascomycota and Zygomycota) with the pure culture test. We used beech wood powder in varying moisture conditions and decay stages (nondecayed, intermediately decayed and well decayed) as substrates. The weight loss in wood powder was -0.2-17.8%. Five isolates of Basidiomycota (Bjerkandera adusta, Mycena haematopus, Omphalotus guepiniformis, Trametes hirsuta, Trametes versicolor) caused high weight losses in nondecayed wood. We detected significant effects of decay stage on weight loss in wood in most isolates tested, whereas moisture content rarely had an effect on weight loss. Among Basidiomycota and Xylariaceae in Ascomycota weight loss was greater for nondecayed wood than for intermediately and well decayed wood. In contrast four isolates in Ascomycota (Scytalidium lignicola, Trichoderma hamatum, T. harzianum, T. koningii) caused substantial weight loss in intermediately and well decayed wood, although they rarely caused weight loss in nondecayed wood. Zygomycota caused low weight loss in wood. Wood decay stages also affected decomposition of wood chemical components. Acid-unhydrolyzable residue (AUR) decomposition was reduced, whereas holocellulose decomposition was stimulated by some strains of Basidiomycota and Ascomycota in well decayed wood. T. harzianum in particular caused significant weight loss of holocellulose in well decayed wood, although this fungus caused negligible weight loss of both AUR and holocellulose in nondecayed wood. We discuss these changes in the decay patterns of AUR and holocellulose with varying wood decay stages in relation to the role of fungal decomposition of woody debris in forests. PMID:21262989

Fukasawa, Yu; Osono, Takashi; Takeda, Hiroshi

2011-01-01

26

Magnaporthiopsis, a new genus in Magnaporthaceae (Ascomycota).  

PubMed

The phylogenetic relationships among taxa in the Magnaporthaceae are investigated based on DNA sequences of multiple genes including SSU, ITS, LSU, MCM7, RPB1 and TEF1. The genera Magnaporthe and Gaeumannomyces are shown to be polyphyletic and their members are divided into four major groups based on the phylogenetic analyses. Considering morphological, biological and molecular data, we establish a new genus, Magnaporthiopsis. It is characterized by black and globose perithecia with a cylindrical neck, two-layered perithecial wall, clavate asci with a refractive apical ring, fusiform to fusoid and septate ascospores, simple hyphopodia, and Phialophora-like anamorph. Species in this genus are necrotrophic parasites infecting roots of grasses. Three new combinations, Magnaporthiopsis poae, M. rhizophila and M. incrustans, are proposed accordingly. Pyricularia is suggested as the generic name for the rice blast fungus over Magnaporthe, following Article 59.1 of the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants. A new combination, Nakataea oryzae, is proposed for the rice stem rot fungus. PMID:23449077

Luo, Jing; Zhang, Ning

2013-01-01

27

Genus Dimerella (Coenogoniaceae, lichenized Ascomycota) in Slovakia  

Microsoft Academic Search

currence in Slovakia. The paper, based on literature review, revision of collections (BP, BRA, PR, PRC, SAV, W, herb. Vf ezda, herb. Pi{út) and fieldwork, brings together evi- dence of two species, D. pineti and D. lutea. The first voucher specimens and published data for D. pineti date back to the second half of 19th century; 20th century records are

ANNA GUTTOVÁ

2005-01-01

28

Three species of lichenized Ascomycota new to Poland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three noteworthy calciphilous lichen species Placynthium dolichoterum (Nyl.) Trevis., Schadonia fecunda (Th. Fr.) V?zda & Poelt and Solorina octospora (Arnold) Arnold have been reported for the first time from Poland from the mylonite area of the High Tatra Mts. The genus Schadonia is new to Poland. Brief morphological description of the species based on Polish specimens is provided. Ecology and

Adam Flakus; W. Szafer

2006-01-01

29

Accelerated evolutionary rates in tropical and oceanic parmelioid lichens (Ascomycota)  

PubMed Central

Background The rate of nucleotide substitutions is not constant across the Tree of Life, and departures from a molecular clock have been commonly reported. Within parmelioid lichens, the largest group of macrolichens, large discrepancies in branch lengths between clades were found in previous studies. Using an extended taxon sampling, we test for presence of significant rate discrepancies within and between these clades and test our a priori hypothesis that such rate discrepancies may be explained by shifts in moisture regime or other environmental conditions. Results In this paper, the first statistical evidence for accelerated evolutionary rate in lichenized ascomycetes is presented. Our results give clear evidence for a faster rate of evolution in two Hypotrachyna clades that includes species occurring in tropical and oceanic habitats in comparison with clades consisting of species occurring in semi-arid and temperate habitats. Further we explore potential links between evolutionary rates and shifts in habitat by comparing alternative Ornstein-Uhlenbeck models. Conclusion Although there was only weak support for a shift at the base of a second tropical clade, where the observed nucleotide substitution rate is high, overall support for a shift in environmental conditions at cladogenesis is very strong. This suggests that speciation in some lichen clades has proceeded by dispersal into a novel environment, followed by radiation within that environment. We found moderate support for a shift in moisture regime at the base of one tropical clade and a clade occurring in semi-arid regions and a shift in minimum temperature at the base of a boreal-temperate clade. PMID:18808710

2008-01-01

30

Molecular phylogeny of the genus Lecania (Ramalinaceae, lichenized Ascomycota).  

PubMed

The molecular phylogeny of the lichen genus Lecania was investigated using nucleotide sequences from the mt-SSU rRNA, the ITS region of the nu-rDNA, and the RNA polymerase II second largest subunit. Forty-six species representing Lecania and other genera likely to influence the phylogeny were included in the study. Phylogenetic reconstructions were carried out using Bayesian inference, ML, and MP approaches. Lecania, as traditionally circumscribed, is not a monophyletic genus. However, a monophyletic group containing a large number of Lecania species, including the type species L. fuscella, was discovered in the analysis, and recognition of Lecania sensu stricto is suggested. L. baeomma, L. glauca, L. gerlachei, L. brialmontii, L. racovitzae, L. hyalina (alias Biatora globulosa), L. chlorotiza, L. naegelii, and L. furfuracea do not belong in Lecania s. str., although the latter two are closely related to Lecania s. str. Representatives of the genus Bilimbia form a well-supported group, as does the 'Thamnolecania' group containing the Antarctic 'Lecania' species, L. gerlachei, L. brialmontii, and L. racovitzae. An alternative to recognizing these two genera would be a wider circumscription of Bilimbia to include the 'Thamnolecania' group as well as affiliated taxa. PMID:17512709

Reese Naesborg, Rikke; Ekman, Stefan; Tibell, Leif

2007-05-01

31

Cladonia peziziformis (Lichenized Ascomycota, Cladoniaceae) New to Korea  

PubMed Central

Cladonia peziziformis (With.) J.R. Laundon was collected from Baega mountain, Jeonnam Province, Korea in 2008. It is characterized by short and slender podetia with verruculose surface, split along the sides. Apothecia large, pale brown, always growing on the top of the podetia. Primary squamules shell-like, thick, and convex. Fumarprotocetraric acid contained in thallus. This is the first record of this species in Korea. PMID:23997624

Wang, Xin Yu; Hur, Hyun; Lee, You Mi; Bae, Funny; Koh, Young Jin

2008-01-01

32

The rise and fall of Sarawakus (Hypocreaceae, Ascomycota)  

PubMed Central

Species of Sarawakus are rarely encountered. Their teleomorphs resemble sexual stages of Trichoderma, formerly called Hypocrea, but differ from that genus by unicellular ascospores. The two greenspored species S. britannicus and the type species of Sarawakus, S. lycogaloides, recently were collected, compared with their types and cultured. We redescribe and illustrate these species and transfer them to Trichoderma, based on phylogenetic analysis of the translation elongation factor 1-alpha encoding gene (tef1), containing the two last introns and exon, and a part of the rpb2 gene, encoding the second largest RNA polymerase subunit. Trichoderma lycogaloides, was found to cluster with Hypocrea sulawesensis, an unusual species of Trichoderma, while T. britannicum is closely related to T. aerugineum of the Spinulosa clade. The anamorphs of the two examined species are characterized by (odd) verticillium-like conidiophores, large cylindrical phialides and conidia, which belong to the largest of those species forming green conidia, oval to subglobose in T. lycogaloides and oblong in T. britannicum. All species currently recognized in Sarawakus are transferred to Trichoderma, introducing the new combinations T. fragile, T. hexasporum, T. izawae, T. sordidum, T. subtrachycarpum, T. succisum and T. trachycarpum and the new name T. rosellum. Trichoderma trachycarpum is redescribed and illustrated from an isotype. PMID:24603837

Jaklitsch, Walter M.; Lechat, Christian; Voglmayr, Hermann

2014-01-01

33

Phylogenetic reassessment of the Teloschistaceae (lichen-forming Ascomycota, Lecanoromycetes)  

E-print Network

. saxicola s. str. groups were recovered as monophyletic. The subgenera Caloplaca and Pyrenodesmia were also Editor: H. Thorsten Lumbsch Keywords: Arc Caloplaca Fulgensia INAASE ITS Letrouitiaceae Molecular of Teloschistaceae. Our study confirmed the polyphyly of Caloplaca, Ful- gensia and Xanthoria, and revealed

Lutzoni, François M.

34

Phylogenetic reassessment of the Teloschistaceae (lichen-forming Ascomycota, Lecanoromycetes).  

PubMed

The Teloschistaceae is a widespread family with considerable morphological and ecological heterogeneity across genera and species groups. In order to provide a comprehensive molecular phylogeny for this family, phylogenetic analyses were carried out on sequences from the nuclear ribosomal ITS region obtained from 114 individuals that represent virtually all main lineages of Teloschistaceae. Our study confirmed the polyphyly of Caloplaca, Fulgensia and Xanthoria, and revealed that Teloschistes is probably non-monophyletic. We also confirm here that species traditionally included in Caloplaca subgenus Gasparrinia do not form a monophyletic entity. Caloplaca aurantia, C. carphinea and C. saxicola s. str. groups were recovered as monophyletic. The subgenera Caloplaca and Pyrenodesmia were also polyphyletic. In the subgenus Caloplaca, the traditionally recognized C. cerina group was recovered as monophyletic. Because this study is based solely on ITS, to maximize taxon sampling, the inclusion of phylogenetic signal from ambiguously aligned regions in MP (recoded INAASE and arc characters) resulted in the most highly supported phylogenetic reconstruction, compared with Bayesian inference restricted to alignable sites. PMID:18406120

Gaya, Ester; Navarro-Rosinés, Pere; Llimona, Xavier; Hladun, Néstor; Lutzoni, François

2008-05-01

35

Phylogenetic reassessment of the Teloschistaceae (lichen-forming Ascomycota, Lecanoromycetes)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Teloschistaceae is a widespread family with considerable morphological and ecological heterogeneity across genera and species groups. In order to provide a comprehensive molecular phylogeny for this family, phylogenetic analyses were carried out on sequences from the nuclear ribosomal ITS region obtained from 114 individuals that represent virtually all main lineages of Teloschistaceae. Our study confirmed the polyphyly of Caloplaca,

Ester Gaya; Pere Navarro-Rosinés; Xavier Llimona; Néstor Hladun; François Lutzoni

2008-01-01

36

ORIGINAL PAPER Weed seeds as nutritional resources for soil Ascomycota  

E-print Network

-borne microorganisms. In this study, we investigated seeds of four common broadleaf weeds, velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti), woolly cupgrass (Eriochloa villosa), Pennsyl- vania smartweed (Polygonum pensylvanicum

Sims, Gerald K.

37

A phylogenetic study of the Lecanora rupicola group (Lecanoraceae, Ascomycota).  

PubMed

A molecular phylogeny of the Lecanora rupicola group is presented, based on ITS sequence analyses. The study includes saxicolous and corticolous members of the Lecanora rupicola group as well as other Lecanora species with pruinose apothecia. A phylogenetic hypothesis for species in Lecanora s. lat. and various other genera in Lecanoraceae, based on an alignment-free distance estimation technique, shows that the Lecanora rupicola group forms a monophyletic clade within Lecanoraceae. Affinities to the core group of Lecanora are not well supported, likewise the monophyly of Lecanora s. str. with other species groups in Lecanora, such as the lobate taxa (and Rhizoplaca) is not supported. A more detailed analysis involving Lecanora species with pruinose apothecial discs was carried out with model-based Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo (B/MCMC) tree sampling. The results suggest the monophyly of the Lecanora species that are characterized by the presence of chromones. Corticolous as well as saxicolous species are included. Lepraria flavescens is closely related to the Lecanora swartzii subgroup, and the new name Lecanora rouxii nom. nov. is introduced for that species. Other Lecanora species with pruinose discs are not closely related to the Lecanora rupicola group. PMID:15230003

Grube, Martin; Baloch, Elisabeth; Arup, Ulf

2004-05-01

38

Ophiostoma arduennense sp. nov. (Ophiostomatales, Ascomycota) from Fagus sylvatica in southern Belgium.  

PubMed

Ophiostoma arduennense sp. nov. is described from several cultures isolated from Fagus sylvatica in southern Belgium. The species is mainly characterized by globose perithecia with small button-like bases ornamented with brown hyphal hairs of variable length and, long cylindrical necks ending in ostiolate hyphae. It is homothallic with small reniform ascospores and no apparent anamorph. It is closely associated with the ambrosia beetles Xyloterus domesticus and X. signatus. Its phylogenetic relationships within Ophiostoma are discussed and the species is compared with other Ophiostoma species associated with European beech or other broad-leaved trees in Europe, especially species of the O. quercus-O. piceae complex. The species is responsible for a dark brown staining of the sapwood and its role in the decline of beech in Southern Belgium is also discussed. PMID:16828272

Carlier, François-Xavier; Decock, Cony; Jacobs, Karin; Maraite, Henri

2006-07-01

39

Evidence for a new lineage of primary ambrosia fungi in Geosmithia Pitt (Ascomycota: Hypocreales).  

PubMed

Geosmithia is a genus of mitosporic filamentous fungi typically associated with phloeophagous bark beetles world-wide. During this study, the fungal associates of ambrosia beetles Cnesinus lecontei, Eupagiocerus dentipes, and Microcorthylus sp. from Costa Rica, were studied using morphology and DNA sequences. Fungal associates belonged to four undescribed Geosmithia species. Geosmithia eupagioceri sp. nov. and G. microcorthyli sp. nov. are evidently primary ambrosia fungi of their respective vectors E. dentipes and Microcorthylus species. They both have convergently evolved distinct morphological adaptations including the production of large, solitary and globose conidia, and yeast-like cells. Tunnels of C. lecontei contained an undescribed Geosmithia species, but its nutritional importance for its vector is unclear. An auxiliary ambrosia fungus, Geosmithia rufescens sp. nov., was found associated with both G. eupagioceri and the Geosmithia species associated with C. lecontei. G. microcorthyli is genetically quite similar to the phloem-associated Geosmithia sp. 8 from Europe. Large differences in morphology between these two species suggest the rapid co-evolution resulting from the close symbiosis of the former with its beetle host. The ITS rDNA sequences of G. microcorthyli and Geosmithia sp. 8 were not diagnostic, suggesting that alternative markers such as EF-1?, IGS rDNA or ?-tubulin should be used, together with morphological and ecological data, for species delimitation in this genus. The primary ambrosia fungi described here are derived from phloem-associated ancestors, and represent two independent lineages of ambrosia fungi in the Hypocreales and a new ecological strategy within Geosmithia. PMID:20943178

Kola?ík, Miroslav; Kirkendall, Lawrence R

2010-08-01

40

Lignicolous freshwater ascomycota from Thailand: 1. Ascotaiwania sawada and its anamorph state Monotosporella  

Microsoft Academic Search

Single ascospore isolates ofAscotaiwania sawada gave rise to conidia of aMonotosporella species. Repeated isolations confirmed that theMonotosporella was the anamorph ofA. sawada. These findings are discussed and compared with the other known anamorph-teleomorph stages of freshwater fungi. This species\\u000a ofMonotosporella is new to science but because it has not been found in nature it is referred to as theMonotosporella state

Somsak Sivichai; Nigel Hywel-Jones; E. B. Gareth Jones

1998-01-01

41

Disintegration of the Micareaceae (lichenized Ascomycota): a molecular phylogeny based on mitochondrial rDNA sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phylogeny of the family Micareaceae and the genus Micarea was studied using mitochondrial small subunit ribosomal DNA sequences. Phylogenetic reconstructions were performed using Bayesian MCMC tree sampling and a maximum likelihood approach. The Micareaceae in its current sense is highly heterogeneous, and Helocarpon, Psilolechia, and Scutula, all thought to be close relatives of Micarea, are shown to be only

Heidi L. Andersen; Stefan Ekman

2005-01-01

42

Genetic diversity and photobiont associations in selected taxa of the Tephromela atra group (Lecanorales, lichenised Ascomycota)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mycobiont and photobiont genetic diversity was investigated in four taxa of the Tephromela atra complex, which differ in ecology and substratum preference (from siliceous rocks, limestone to bark), and are differently\\u000a interpreted by taxonomists. Phylogenetic analyses were performed using mycobiont nuclear ITS, beta tubulin and homologous\\u000a polyketide synthase gene (PKS) sequences obtained from freshly collected material sampled from the Mediterranean

Lucia Muggia; Martin Grube; Mauro Tretiach

2008-01-01

43

Transoceanic Dispersal and Subsequent Diversification on Separate Continents Shaped Diversity of the Xanthoparmelia pulla Group (Ascomycota)  

PubMed Central

In traditional morphology-based concepts many species of lichenized fungi have world-wide distributions. Molecular data have revolutionized the species delimitation in lichens and have demonstrated that we underestimated the diversity of these organisms. The aim of this study is to explore the phylogeography and the evolutionary patterns of the Xanthoparmelia pulla group, a widespread group of one of largest genera of macrolichens. We used a dated phylogeny based on nuITS and nuLSU rDNA sequences and performed an ancestral range reconstruction to understand the processes and explain their current distribution, dating the divergence of the major lineages in the group. An inferred age of radiation of parmelioid lichens and the age of a Parmelia fossil were used as the calibration points for the phylogeny. The results show that many species of the X. pulla group as currently delimited are polyphyletic and five major lineages correlate with their geographical distribution and the biosynthetic pathways of secondary metabolites. South Africa is the area where the X. pulla group radiated during the Miocene times, and currently is the region with the highest genetic, morphological and chemical diversity. From this center of radiation the different lineages migrated by long-distance dispersal to others areas, where secondary radiations developed. The ancestral range reconstruction also detected that a secondary lineage migrated from Australia to South America via long-distance dispersal and subsequent continental radiation. PMID:22745810

de Paz, Guillermo Amo; Cubas, Paloma; Crespo, Ana; Elix, John A.; Lumbsch, H. Thorsten

2012-01-01

44

Artificially Colored Ascospores of the Saprobic Microfungus Aliquandostipite khaoyaiensis (Loculoascomycetes, Ascomycota).  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

in this issue; and Bidartondo et al.: High root concentration and uneven ectomycorrhizal diversity near Sarcodes sanguinea(Ericaceae): a cheater that stimulates its victims?, 87/12/1783"">pp. 1783–1788 in this issue. Photo credit: Dirk Redecker.

Mohamed A. Abdel-Wahab (City University of Hong Kong, Department of Biology and Chemistry ADR;POSTAL); Patrik Inderbitzen (University of British Columbia;Department of Botany ADR;POSTAL)

2004-03-09

45

Ophiostoma species (Ophiostomatales, Ascomycota), including two new taxa on eucalypts in Australia  

E-print Network

. and O. novo-ulmi Brasier, responsible for two Dutch elm disease pandemics that have devastated elm trees/NRF Centre of Excellence in Tree Health Biotechnology, Forestry and Agricultural Biotechnology Institute

46

Molecular phylogeny of Acarosporaceae (Ascomycota) with focus on the proposed genus Polysporinopsis.  

PubMed

The molecular phylogeny of Acarosporaceae with a focus on the recently proposed genus Polysporinopsis was investigated using maximum parsimony and Bayesian analyses, using nuITS-LSU and mtSSU rDNA sequence datasets. A well-supported monophyletic clade corresponding to Acarospora (including the type species A. schleicheri, A. fuscata, A. nitrophila, A. rugulosa, A. bullata, A. sinopica, A molybdina and A. peliscypha) was present in all analyses. Acarospora as currently delimited is not monophyletic; neither A. smaragdula nor A. badiofusca belongs to the genus in the restricted sense. Polysporinopsis, which comprises three species previously classified in Acarospora (P. sinopica-type species, P. smaragdula, and P. rugulosa) is not a monophyletic group separate from Acarospora s. str. Acarospora sinopica and A. smaragdula are not closely related; A. sinopica belongs to Acarospora s. str., but A. smaragdula is one of the most basal taxa currently known in Acarosporaceae. PMID:16616841

Crewe, Anna T; Purvis, O William; Wedin, Mats

2006-05-01

47

Molecular phylogeny of Acarosporaceae ( Ascomycota) with focus on the proposed genus Polysporinopsis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The molecular phylogeny of Acarosporaceae with a focus on the recently proposed genus Polysporinopsis was investigated using maximum parsimony and Bayesian analyses, using nuITS-LSU and mtSSU rDNA sequence datasets. A well-supported monophyletic clade corresponding to Acarospora (including the type species A. schleicheri, A. fuscata, A. nitrophila, A. rugulosa, A. bullata, A. sinopica, A molybdina and A. peliscypha) was present in

Anna T. Crewe; O. William Purvis; Mats Wedin

2006-01-01

48

Extreme phenotypic variation in Cetraria aculeata (lichenized Ascomycota): adaptation or incidental modification?  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Phenotypic variability is a successful strategy in lichens for colonizing different habitats. Vagrancy has been reported as a specific adaptation for lichens living in steppe habitats around the world. Among the facultatively vagrant species, the cosmopolitan Cetraria aculeata apparently forms extremely modified vagrant thalli in steppe habitats of Central Spain. The aim of this study was to investigate whether these changes are phenotypic plasticity (a single genotype producing different phenotypes), by characterizing the anatomical and ultrastructural changes observed in vagrant morphs, and measuring differences in ecophysiological performance. Methods Specimens of vagrant and attached populations of C. aculeata were collected on the steppes of Central Spain. The fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPD) and the large sub-unit of the mitochondrial ribosomal DNA (mtLSUm), and the algal ITS and actin were studied within a population genetics framework. Semi-thin and ultrathin sections were analysed by means of optical, scanning electron and transmission electron microscopy. Gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence were used to compare the physiological performance of both morphs. Key Results and Conclusions Vagrant and attached morphs share multilocus haplotypes which may indicate that they belong to the same species in spite of their completely different anatomy. However, differentiation tests suggested that vagrant specimens do not represent a random sub-set of the surrounding population. The morphological differences were related to anatomical and ultrastructural differences. Large intercalary growth rates of thalli after the loss of the basal–apical thallus polarity may be the cause of the increased growth shown by vagrant specimens. The anatomical and morphological changes lead to greater duration of ecophysiological activity in vagrant specimens. Although the anatomical and physiological changes could be chance effects, the genetic differentiation between vagrant and attached sub-populations and the higher biomass of the former show fitness effects and adaptation to dry environmental conditions in steppe habitats. PMID:22451601

Perez-Ortega, Sergio; Fernandez-Mendoza, Fernando; Raggio, Jose; Vivas, Mercedes; Ascaso, Carmen; Sancho, Leopoldo G.; Printzen, Christian; de los Rios, Asuncion

2012-01-01

49

Phylogenetic studies in the Candelariaceae (lichenized Ascomycota) based on nuclear ITS DNA sequence data.  

PubMed

The phylogeny of the lichen family Candelariaceae was investigated using nucleotide sequences from the ITS region of the nu-rDNA. Twenty-three species of Candelariella, six species of Candelaria, two species of Candelina and two species of Placomaronea were included in the study. Acarospora cervina and Pleopsidium chlorophanum were used as outgroup species. The phylogenetic analyses were performed using MP and Bayesian MCMC inference. The resulting trees were poorly resolved and strong support was only found for terminal clades. However, the results indicate that polyspored asci have evolved a limited number of times within the family and appear within four clades. One of these clades comprises the core group of Candelariella, including the type species C. vitellina. Placomaronea and Candelina both form strongly supported monophyletic clades, but neither genera are distinctly morphologically separated from Candelariella, and their positions in the tree are uncertain. The genus Candelaria is probably polyphyletic and should possibly be restricted to comprise only polyspored species with a lower cortex. PMID:18006290

Westberg, Martin; Arup, Ulf; Kärnefelt, Ingvar

2007-11-01

50

Phylogenetic studies in the Candelariaceae (lichenized Ascomycota) based on nuclear ITS DNA sequence data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phylogeny of the lichen family Candelariaceae was investigated using nucleotide sequences from the ITS region of the nu-rDNA. Twenty-three species of Candelariella, six species of Candelaria, two species of Candelina and two species of Placomaronea were included in the study. Acarospora cervina and Pleopsidium chlorophanum were used as outgroup species. The phylogenetic analyses were performed using MP and Bayesian

Martin Westberg; Ulf Arup; Ingvar Kärnefelt

2007-01-01

51

Accelerated Evolutionary Rate May Be Responsible for the Emergence of Lineage-Specific Genes in Ascomycota  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evolutionary origin of “orphan” genes, genes that lack sequence similarity to any known gene, remains a mystery. One suggestion\\u000a has been that most orphan genes evolve rapidly so that similarity to other genes cannot be traced after a certain evolutionary\\u000a distance. This can be tested by examining the divergence rates of genes with different degrees of lineage specificity. Here

James J. Cai; Patrick C. Y. Woo; Susanna K. P. Lau; David K. Smith; Kwok-yung Yuen

2006-01-01

52

Notes on the genus Polycoccum (Ascomycota, Dacampiaceae) in Spain, with a key to the species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comments on and a key to the 13 Polycoccum species known in Spain are presented, including synopses of their world distributions. Amongst these is P. rubellianae sp. nov., a lichenicolous fungus growing on thalli of Caloplaca rubelliana in eastern Spain (Valencia). It has relatively small ascomata, the lower part pale brown, and also small ascospores which are coarsely verrucose and

Violeta Atienza; Vicent Calatayud; David L Hawksworth

2003-01-01

53

Biocontrol of pigeon tick Argas reflexus (Acari: Argasidae) by entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium Anisopliae (Ascomycota: Hypocreales)  

PubMed Central

The pigeon tick Argas reflexus is a pathogen-transmitting soft tick that typically feeds on pigeons, but can also attack humans causing local and systemic reactions. Chemical control is made difficult due to environmental contamination and resistance development. As a result, there is much interest in increasing the role of other strategies like biological control. In this study, the efficacy of three strains (V245, 685 and 715C) of entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae for biological control of three life stages of pigeon tick A. reflexus including eggs, larvae, engorged and unfed adults was investigated under laboratory conditions. Five concentrations of different strains of M. anisopliae ranging from 103 to 107 conidia/ml were used. All fungal strains significantly decreased hatchability of A. reflexus eggs. Strain V245 was the most effective strain on the mortality of larval stage with nearly 100% mortality at the lowest concentration (103 conidia/ml) at 10 days post-inoculation. The mortality rate of both engorged and unfed adult ticks were also increased significantly exposed to different conidial concentrations compared to the control groups (P < 0.05) making this fungus a potential biological control agent of pigeon tick reducing the use of chemical acaricides. PMID:24031777

Tavassoli, Mosa; Pourseyed, Seyed Hassan; Ownagh, Abdulghaffar; Bernousi, Iraj; Mardani, Karim

2011-01-01

54

Delimitation of Neonectria and Cylindrocarpon (Nectriaceae, Hypocreales, Ascomycota) and related genera with Cylindrocarpon-like anamorphs  

PubMed Central

Neonectria is a cosmopolitan genus and it is, in part, defined by its link to the anamorph genus Cylindrocarpon. Neonectria has been divided into informal groups on the basis of combined morphology of anamorph and teleomorph. Previously, Cylindrocarpon was divided into four groups defined by presence or absence of microconidia and chlamydospores. Molecular phylogenetic analyses have indicated that Neonectria sensu stricto and Cylindrocarpon sensu stricto are phylogenetically congeneric. In addition, morphological and molecular data accumulated over several years have indicated that Neonectria sensu lato and Cylindrocarpon sensu lato do not form a monophyletic group and that the respective informal groups may represent distinct genera. In the present work, a multilocus analysis (act, ITS, LSU, rpb1, tef1, tub) was applied to representatives of the informal groups to determine their level of phylogenetic support as a first step towards taxonomic revision of Neonectria sensu lato. Results show five distinct highly supported clades that correspond to some extent with the informal Neonectria and Cylindrocarpon groups that are here recognised as genera: (1) N. coccinea-group and Cylindrocarpon groups 1 & 4 (Neonectria/Cylindrocarpon sensu stricto); (2) N. rugulosa-group (Rugonectria gen. nov.); (3) N. mammoidea/N. veuillotiana-groups and Cylindrocarpon group 2 (Thelonectria gen. nov.); (4) N. radicicola-group and Cylindrocarpon group 3 (Ilyonectria gen. nov.); and (5) anamorph genus Campylocarpon. Characteristics of the anamorphs and teleomorphs correlate with the five genera, three of which are newly described. New combinations are made for species where their classification is confirmed by phylogenetic data. PMID:21523189

Chaverri, P.; Salgado, C.; Hirooka, Y.; Rossman, A.Y.; Samuels, G.J.

2011-01-01

55

Molecular phylogenetics of Pleosporales: Melanommataceae and Lophiostomataceae re-circumscribed (Pleosporomycetidae, Dothideomycetes, Ascomycota)  

PubMed Central

The classification of Pleosporales has posed major challenges due to the lack of clear understanding of the importance of the morphological characters used to distinguish between different groups in the order. This has resulted in varied taxonomic treatments of many families in the group including Melanommataceae and Lophiostomataceae. In this study we employ two nuclear DNA gene markers, nuclear ribosomal large subunit DNA and translation elongation factor 1-alpha in order to examine the molecular phylogenetics of Pleosporales with strong emphasis on the families Melanommataceae and Lophiostomataceae. Phylogenetic analyses recovered Melanommataceae, Lophiostomataceae, Hypsostromataceae, and a few others as strongly supported clades within the Pleosporales. Melanommataceae as currently circumscribed was found to be polyphyletic. The genera Byssosphaeria, Melanomma, and Pseudotrichia were recovered within the family, while others such as Ostropella and Xenolophium nested outside in a weakly supported group along with Platystomum compressum and Pseudotrichia guatopoensis that may correspond to the family Platystomaceae. The genus Byssosphaeria was recovered as a strongly supported group within the Melanommataceae while Melanomma was weakly supported with unclear relationships among the species. The genera Herpotrichia and Bertiella were also found to belong in the Melanommataceae. Lophiostomataceae occurs as a strongly supported group but its concept is here expanded to include a new genus Misturatosphaeria that bears morphology traditionally not known to occur in the family. The strongly supported clade of Misturatosphaeria contains nine species that have gregarious, papillate ascomata with lighter coloured apices and plugged ostioles and that vary in ascospore morphology from 1- to 3-septate to muriform. Along with a strongly supported Lophiostoma clade, also within the family are Thyridaria macrostomoides based on new sequences from Kenyan collections and Massariosphaeria triseptata, M. grandispora, Westerdykella cylindrica and Preussia terricola based on GenBank sequences. The family Hypsostromataceae was recovered as a strongly supported monophyletic group nested within the Pleosporales. PMID:20169025

Mugambi, G.K.; Huhndorf, S.M.

2009-01-01

56

Study on the ice nucleation activity of fungal spores (Ascomycota and Basidiomycota)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biogenic ice nucleation (IN) in the atmosphere is a topic of growing interest, as, according to IPCC, the impact of IN on global climate is crucial to perform reliable climate model calculations. About 20 years ago IN activity of a few lichen and Fusarium species [1,2] was reported, while all other investigated fungi were IN-negative. However, as the fungal kingdom is vast, many abundant species, especially the Basidiomycota (most mushrooms), were not tested before. Furthermore, the focus of the past studies was on the IN activity of the mycelium as a cryoprotective mechanism, and not on the airborne spores. We carried out oil immersion measurements [3] with spores from 17 different fungal species of ecological, economical or sanitary importance. Most of these species have not been investigated before, like exponents of Aspergillus, Trichoderma and Agaricales (most mushrooms). Apart from F. avenaceum, spores of all measured species showed moderate or no IN activity, supporting the hypothesis that significant IN activity is a rather exclusive property of only a few species within the fungal kingdom. [1] Kieft TL and Ruscetti T: J. Bacteriol. 172, 3519-3523, 1990. [2] Pouleur S et al.: Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 58, 2960-2964, 1992. [3] Marcolli C et al.: Atmos. Chem. Phys. 7, 5081-5091, 2007.

Pummer, B. G.; Atanasova, L.; Bauer, H.; Bernardi, J.; Druzhinina, I. S.; Grothe, H.

2012-04-01

57

A Note on the Lichen Genus Ramalina (Ramalinaceae, Ascomycota) in the Hengduan Mountains in China  

PubMed Central

On the basis of extensive field investigation and a series of herbarium specimen identifications, we present and discuss the descriptions and distribution of 22 species of Ramalina found in the Hengduan Mountains of southwestern China. In this revisionary study, representatives of the Ramalina genus, including R. americana, R. confirmata, R. dendriscoides, R. obtusata, R. pacifica, R. pentecostii, R. peruviana, R. shinanoana, and R. subcomplanata are found for the first time in this area. In addition, R. holstii is reported for the first time China. Finally, a newly described species identified as Ramalina hengduanshanensis S. O. Oh & L. S. Wang is reported. It is characterized as growing from a narrow holdfast, solid, sparsely or richly and irregularly dichotomously branched, palmate and flattened lobes with distinctly dorsiventral appearance, surface rugose to reticulate, surface rugosely cracked, dense chondroid tissue, helmet shaped soralia at the tip. The species grows on rock and tree at the highest elevations in this area. Although very few lichen species belonging to the genus Ramalina have been collected above 4,000 m, this new species is found at this elevation. We present detailed morphological, anatomical, and chemical descriptions of this species along with molecular phylogenetic analysis of the internal transcribed spacer rDNA sequences.

Oh, Soon-Ok; Wang, Xin Yu; Wang, Li Song; Liu, Pei Gui

2014-01-01

58

Taxonomic Study on the Lichen Genus Cetrelia (Lecanorales, Ascomycota) in South Korea  

PubMed Central

Seventy-two lichen specimens of Cetrelia collected in South Korea since 2003 were examined by both phenotypic and phylogenetic analyses. The phenotypic analysis was based on morphological and chemical characters, and the phylogenetic analysis was based on nrDNA ITS sequences. The result suggested that the presence and absence of isidia, soredia, lobules and medullar reaction C+ or C- are the important characters in the taxonomy of this genus. Four species of Cetrelia, C. chicitae, C. braunsiana, C. japonica, and C. pseudolivetorum have been identified in this study. Description of each species is presented with morphological and chemical characters. A key to the Cetrelia species is also presented. PMID:24015081

Luo, Heng; Wei, Xin Li; Han, Keon Seon; Koh, Young Jin

2007-01-01

59

Phylogenetic study of Fulgensia and allied Caloplaca and Xanthoria species (Teloschistaceae, lichen-forming ascomycota).  

PubMed

Fulgensia Massal. & De Not. is a widespread genus with considerable morphological and ecological heterogeneity across species. For this reason, the taxonomic delimitation of this genus has been controversial. Relationships among species of Fulgensia, Caloplaca Th. Fr., and Xanthoria (Fr.) Th. Fr. (Lecanorales) were investigated based on a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of 62 DNA sequences from the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region using maximum parsimony (MP) and likelihood (ML). Ambiguously aligned (INAASE coded characters) and unambiguous regions were analyzed separately and combined when using MP as the optimization criterion. All our analyses confirm the polyphyly of this genus as three distinct lineages: Fulgensia sensu stricto, F. australis, and F. schistidii. We report here that Caloplaca, Fulgensia, and Xanthoria together form two main sister lineages. One lineage includes Fulgensia schistidii (part of the C. saxicola group), Xanthoria, and most of the lobed Caloplaca species belonging to the Gasparrinia group. A second main lineage comprises the remaining Caloplaca species, Fulgensia sensu stricto, and F. australis. Therefore, the traditional generic level classification schemes for the family Teloschistaceae appear to be highly artificial. All three genera were found to be nonmonophyletic. We demonstrate here that the ITS is appropriate to resolve relationships across the Teloschistaceae. However, a combination of an MP analysis, in which ambiguously aligned regions are accommodated using INAASE, with an ML analysis, in which phylogenetic confidence is estimated using a Bayesian approach, is needed. PMID:21659209

Gaya, Ester; Lutzoni, François; Zoller, Stefan; Navarro-Rosinés, Pere

2003-07-01

60

Phylogenetic study of Fulgensia and allied Caloplaca and Xanthoria species (Teloschistaceae, lichen-forming ascomycota)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fulgensia Massal. & De Not. is a widespread genus with considerable morphological and ecological heterogeneity across species. For this reason, the taxonomic delimitation of this genus has been controversial. Relationships among species of Fulgensia, Caloplaca Th. Fr., and Xanthoria (Fr.) Th. Fr. (Lecanorales) were investigated based on a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of 62 DNA sequences from the nuclear ribosomal internal

ESTER GAYA; F. Lutzoni; STEFAN ZOLLER; P. Navarro-Rosines

2003-01-01

61

A brief chronicle of the genus cordyceps fr., the oldest valid genus in cordycipitaceae (hypocreales, ascomycota).  

PubMed

The earliest pre-Linnaean fungal genera are briefly discussed here with special emphasis on the nomenclatural connection with the genus Cordyceps Fr. Since its valid publication under the basidiomycetous genus Clavaria Vaill. ex L. (Clavaria militaris L. Sp. Pl. 2:1182, 1753), the genus Cordyceps has undergone nomenclatural changes in the post-Linnaean era, but has stood firmly for approximately 200 years. Synonyms of Cordyceps were collected from different literature sources and analyzed based on the species they represent. True synonyms of Cordyceps Fr. were defined as genera that represented species of Cordyceps Fr. emend. G. H. Sung, J. M. Sung, Hywel-Jones & Spatafora. The most common synonyms of Cordyceps observed were Clavaria and Sphaeria Hall, reported in the 18th and in the first half of the 19th century, respectively. Cordyceps, the oldest genus in the Cordyceps s. s. clade of Cordycipitaceae, is the most preferred name under the "One Fungus = One Name" principle on priority bases. PMID:25071376

Shrestha, Bhushan; Tanaka, Eiji; Han, Jae-Gu; Oh, Junsang; Han, Sang-Kuk; Lee, Kang-Hyo; Sung, Gi-Ho

2014-06-01

62

A Brief Chronicle of the Genus Cordyceps Fr., the Oldest Valid Genus in Cordycipitaceae (Hypocreales, Ascomycota)  

PubMed Central

The earliest pre-Linnaean fungal genera are briefly discussed here with special emphasis on the nomenclatural connection with the genus Cordyceps Fr. Since its valid publication under the basidiomycetous genus Clavaria Vaill. ex L. (Clavaria militaris L. Sp. Pl. 2:1182, 1753), the genus Cordyceps has undergone nomenclatural changes in the post-Linnaean era, but has stood firmly for approximately 200 years. Synonyms of Cordyceps were collected from different literature sources and analyzed based on the species they represent. True synonyms of Cordyceps Fr. were defined as genera that represented species of Cordyceps Fr. emend. G. H. Sung, J. M. Sung, Hywel-Jones & Spatafora. The most common synonyms of Cordyceps observed were Clavaria and Sphaeria Hall, reported in the 18th and in the first half of the 19th century, respectively. Cordyceps, the oldest genus in the Cordyceps s. s. clade of Cordycipitaceae, is the most preferred name under the "One Fungus = One Name" principle on priority bases. PMID:25071376

Tanaka, Eiji; Han, Jae-Gu; Oh, Junsang; Han, Sang-Kuk; Lee, Kang-Hyo

2014-01-01

63

Taxonomic Study on the Lichen Genus Coccocarpia (Lecanorales, Ascomycota) in South Korea  

PubMed Central

Three species of Coccocarpia have been reported from Korean Peninsular. However, there was no revisional study on this genus before. After careful examination of the specimens deposited in the Korean Lichen Research Institute (KoLRI) and collected from main mountain areas of Korea, two species of Coccocarpia, C. palmicola and C. erythroxyli, have been revealed to occur and confirmed in South Korea. The presence and absence of isidia and apothecia are the most important characters for the South Korean species. We provide the detailed description and illustration of the available two species. A key to the species is also provided. PMID:24015093

Wang, Xin Yu; Wei, Xin Li; Han, Keon Seon; Koh, Young Jin

2007-01-01

64

New Record of the Existence of Sarcographa tricosa (Lichenized Ascomycota, Graphidaceace) in Korea  

PubMed Central

Lichen genus Sarcographa Fee, a stromatoid Graphidacean taxa, was newly found in Geomun Island, Jeonnam province. The lichen grew on the bark of Camellia japonica and Eurya emarginata along the coastal line of the island. It was identified as Sarcographa tricosa (Ach.) Müll. Arg. for the first time in Korea. PMID:23983525

Joshi, Yogesh; Lee, You Mi; Wang, Xin Yu; Koh, Young Jin

2009-01-01

65

Using a multigene phylogenetic analysis to assess generic delineation and character evolution in Verrucariaceae (Verrucariales, Ascomycota).  

PubMed

Verrucariaceae are a family of mostly crustose lichenized ascomycetes colonizing various habitats ranging from marine and fresh water to arid environments. Phylogenetic relationships among members of the Verrucariaceae are mostly unknown and the current morphology-based classification has never been confronted to molecular data. A multilocus phylogeny (nuLSU, nuSSU and RPB1) was reconstructed for 83 taxa representing all main genera of this family to provide a molecular phylogenetic framework necessary to assess the current morphology-based classification. Four main well-supported monophyletic groups were recovered, one of which contains seven robust monophyletic subgroups. Most genera, as traditionally delimited, were not monophyletic. A few taxonomic changes are proposed here to reconcile the morphology-based classification with the molecular phylogeny (Endocarpon diffractellum comb. nov., Heteroplacidium fusculum comb. nov., and Bagliettoa marmorea comb. nov.). Ancestral state reconstructions show that the most recent common ancestor of the Verrucariaceae was most likely crustose with a weakly differentiated upper cortex, simple ascospores, and hymenium free of algae. As shown in this study, the use of symplesiomorphic traits to define Verrucaria, the largest and type genus for the Verrucariaceae, as well as the non monophyly of the genera Polyblastia, Staurothele and Thelidium, explain most of the discrepancies between the current classification based on morphological similarity and a classification using monophyly as a grouping criterion. PMID:17981450

Gueidan, Cécile; Roux, Claude; Lutzoni, François

2007-10-01

66

First Report of Heterodermia squamulosa (Lichenized Ascomycota, Physciaceae) in South Korea  

PubMed Central

Heterodermia squamulosa (Degel.) W.L. Culb. was found in the mountain of Gariwang, Gangwon province, in 2008. It is characterized by numerous squamules along the margin, decorticate and white lower surface, rhizines along the margin, black and densely squarrosely branched, usually forming a dense mat under the thallus. Apothecia margins densely squamulose, ascospores 12~15 × 25~30 µm. Atranorin and zeorin contained in thallus. This is the first record of this species in South Korea. PMID:23997623

Wang, Xin Yu; Hur, Hyun; Lee, You Mi; Koh, Young Jin

2008-01-01

67

A note on the lichen genus ramalina (ramalinaceae, ascomycota) in the hengduan mountains in china.  

PubMed

On the basis of extensive field investigation and a series of herbarium specimen identifications, we present and discuss the descriptions and distribution of 22 species of Ramalina found in the Hengduan Mountains of southwestern China. In this revisionary study, representatives of the Ramalina genus, including R. americana, R. confirmata, R. dendriscoides, R. obtusata, R. pacifica, R. pentecostii, R. peruviana, R. shinanoana, and R. subcomplanata are found for the first time in this area. In addition, R. holstii is reported for the first time China. Finally, a newly described species identified as Ramalina hengduanshanensis S. O. Oh & L. S. Wang is reported. It is characterized as growing from a narrow holdfast, solid, sparsely or richly and irregularly dichotomously branched, palmate and flattened lobes with distinctly dorsiventral appearance, surface rugose to reticulate, surface rugosely cracked, dense chondroid tissue, helmet shaped soralia at the tip. The species grows on rock and tree at the highest elevations in this area. Although very few lichen species belonging to the genus Ramalina have been collected above 4,000 m, this new species is found at this elevation. We present detailed morphological, anatomical, and chemical descriptions of this species along with molecular phylogenetic analysis of the internal transcribed spacer rDNA sequences. PMID:25346599

Oh, Soon-Ok; Wang, Xin Yu; Wang, Li Song; Liu, Pei Gui; Hur, Jae-Seoun

2014-09-01

68

Gene Genealogies, Cryptic Species, and Molecular Evolution in the Human Pathogen Coccidioides immitis and Relatives (Ascomycota, Onygenales)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous genealogical analyses of population structure in Coccidioides immitis revealed the presence of two cryptic and sexual species in this pathogenic fungus but did not clarify their origin and relationships with respect to other taxa. By combining the C. immitis data with those of two of its closest relatives, the free-living saprophytes Auxarthron zuffianumand Uncinocarpus reesii, we show that the

Vassiliki Koufopanou; Austin Burt; Timothy Szaro; John W. Taylor

69

Phylogenetic affiliations of members of the heterogeneous lichen-forming fungi of the genus Lecidea sensu Zahlbruckner (Lecanoromycetes, Ascomycota)  

E-print Network

on morphology (including the type species, Lecidea fuscoatra [L.] Ach.) form, with Porpidia speciesPhylogenetic affiliations of members of the heterogeneous lichen-forming fungi of the genus Lecidea of Biology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708-0338 Abstract: The genus Lecidea Ach. sensu lato

Lutzoni, François M.

70

Phylogenetic affiliations of members of the heterogeneous lichen-forming fungi of the genus Lecidea sensu Zahlbruckner (Lecanoromycetes, Ascomycota).  

PubMed

The genus Lecidea Ach. sensu lato (sensu Zahlbruckner) includes almost 1200 species, out of which only 100 species represent Lecidea sensu stricto (sensu Hertel). The systematic position of the remaining species is mostly unsettled but anticipated to represent several unrelated lineages within Lecanoromycetes. This study attempts to elucidate the phylogenetic placement of members of this heterogeneous group of lichen-forming fungi and to improve the classification and phylogeny of Lecanoromycetes. Twenty-five taxa of Lecidea sensu lato and 22 putatively allied species were studied in a broad selection of 268 taxa, representing 48 families of Lecanoromycetes. Six loci, including four ribosomal and two protein-coding genes for 315- and 209-OTU datasets were subjected to maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses. The resulting well supported phylogenetic relationships within Lecanoromycetes are in agreement with published phylogenies, but the addition of new taxa revealed putative rearrangements of several families (e.g. Catillariaceae, Lecanoraceae, Lecideaceae, Megalariaceae, Pilocarpaceae and Ramalinaceae). As expected, species of Lecidea sensu lato and putatively related taxa are scattered within Lecanoromycetidae and beyond, with several species nested in Lecanoraceae and Pilocarpaceae and others placed outside currently recognized families in Lecanorales and orders in Lecanoromycetidae. The phylogenetic affiliations of Schaereria and Strangospora are outside Lecanoromycetidae, probably with Ostropomycetidae. All species referred to as Lecidea sensu stricto based on morphology (including the type species, Lecidea fuscoatra [L.] Ach.) form, with Porpidia species, a monophyletic group with high posterior probability outside Lecanorales, Peltigerales and Teloschistales, in Lecanoromycetidae, supporting the recognition of order Lecideales Vain. in this subclass. The genus name Lecidea must be redefined to apply only to Lecidea sensu stricto and to include at least some members of the genus Porpidia. Based on morphological and chemical similarities, as well as the phylogenetic relationship of Lecidea pullata sister to Frutidella caesioatra, the new combination Frutidella pullata is proposed here. PMID:21642348

Schmull, Michaela; Miadlikowska, Jolanta; Pelzer, Monika; Stocker-Wörgötter, Elfie; Hofstetter, Valerie; Fraker, Emily; Hodkinson, Brendan P; Reeb, Valerie; Kukwa, Martin; Lumbsch, H Thorsten; Kauff, Frank; Lutzoni, François

2011-01-01

71

Presence of natural genetic resistance in Fraxinus excelsior (Oleraceae) to Chalara fraxinea (Ascomycota): an emerging infectious disease  

PubMed Central

Fraxinus excelsior, common ash native to Europe, is threatened by a recently identified pathogenic fungus Chalara fraxinea, which causes extensive damage on ash trees across Europe. In Denmark, most stands are severely affected leaving many trees with dead crowns. However, single trees show notably fewer symptoms. In this study, the impact of the emerging infectious disease on native Danish ash trees is assessed by estimating presence of inherent resistance in natural populations. Disease symptoms were assessed from 2007 to 2009 at two different sites with grafted ramets of 39 selected clones representing native F. excelsior trees. A strong genetic variation in susceptibility to C. fraxinea infections was observed. No genetic or geographic structure can explain the differences, but strong genetic correlations to leaf senescence were observed. The results suggest that a small fraction of trees in the Danish population of ash possess substantial resistance against the damage. Though this fraction is probably too low to avoid population collapse in most natural or managed ash forests, the observed presence of putative resistance against the emerging infectious disease in natural stands is likely to be of evolutionary importance. This provides prospects of future maintenance of the species through natural or artificial selection in favour of remaining healthy individuals. PMID:20823903

McKinney, L V; Nielsen, L R; Hansen, J K; Kjaer, E D

2011-01-01

72

A phylogenetic analysis of the boreal lichen Mycoblastus sanguinarius (Mycoblastaceae, lichenized Ascomycota) reveals cryptic clades correlated with fatty acid profiles  

PubMed Central

Lichens are a prominent feature of northern conifer forests and a large number of species are thought to be circumboreal. Whether or not circumboreal lichen species really constitute monophyletic groups has seldom been tested. We investigated molecular phylogenetic patterns in the mycobiont of Mycoblastus sanguinarius, a well known epiphytic lichen species of the boreal forest, based on material collected from across the high latitude northern hemisphere. A three-locus dataset of internal transcribed spacer rDNA, translation elongation factor 1-? and replication licensing factor Mcm7 DNA sequences revealed that material treated until now as belonging to M. sanguinarius does indeed form a monophyletic group within the genus and is distinct from a strongly supported Mycoblastus affinis. The M. sanguinarius complex appears closely related to the rare Mycoblastus glabrescens, which is currently known only from the Pacific Northwest and was rediscovered during the present study. However, within M. sanguinarius s.lat. in the northern hemisphere, two deeply divergent and morphologically coherent species can be recovered, one of which matches the southern hemisphere species Mycoblastus sanguinarioides and turns out to be widespread in North America and Asia, and one of which corresponds to M. sanguinarius s.str. Both M. sanguinarius and M. sanguinarioides exhibit additional low-level genetic differentiation into geographically structured clades, the most prominent of which are distributed in East Asia/eastern North America and western North America/Europe, respectively. Individuals from these lowest-level clades are morphologically indistinguishable but chemical analyses by thin layer chromatography revealed that each clade possesses its own fatty acid profile, suggesting that chemical differentiation precedes morphological differentiation and may be a precursor to speciation. PMID:21443957

Spribille, Toby; Klug, Barbara; Mayrhofer, Helmut

2011-01-01

73

Using Phylogenetic and Coalescent Methods to Understand the Species Diversity in the Cladia aggregata Complex (Ascomycota, Lecanorales)  

PubMed Central

The Cladia aggregata complex is one of the phenotypically most variable groups in lichenized fungi, making species determination difficult and resulting in different classifications accepting between one to eight species. Multi-locus DNA sequence data provide an avenue to test species delimitation scenarios using genealogical and coalescent methods, employing gene and species trees. Here we tested species delimitation in the complex using molecular data of four loci (nuITS and IGS rDNA, protein-coding GAPDH and Mcm-7), including 474 newly generated sequences. Using a combination of ML and Bayesian gene tree topologies, species tree inferences, coalescent-based species delimitation, and examination of phenotypic variation we assessed the circumscription of lineages. We propose that results from our analyses support a 12 species delimitation scenario, suggesting that there is a high level of species diversity in the complex. Morphological and chemical characters often do not characterize lineages but show some degree of plasticity within at least some of the clades. However, clades can often be characterized by a combination of several phenotypical characters. In contrast to the amount of homoplasy in the morphological characters, the data set exhibits some geographical patterns with putative species having distribution patterns, such as austral, Australasian or being endemic to Australia, New Zealand or Tasmania. PMID:23272229

Parnmen, Sittiporn; Rangsiruji, Achariya; Mongkolsuk, Pachara; Boonpragob, Kansri; Nutakki, Aparna; Lumbsch, H. Thorsten

2012-01-01

74

A phylogenetic analysis of the boreal lichen Mycoblastus sanguinarius (Mycoblastaceae, lichenized Ascomycota) reveals cryptic clades correlated with fatty acid profiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lichens are a prominent feature of northern conifer forests and a large number of species are thought to be circumboreal. Whether or not circumboreal lichen species really constitute monophyletic groups has seldom been tested. We investigated molecular phylogenetic patterns in the mycobiont of Mycoblastus sanguinarius, a well known epiphytic lichen species of the boreal forest, based on material collected from

Toby Spribille; Barbara Klug; Helmut Mayrhofer

2011-01-01

75

A phylogenetic analysis of the boreal lichen Mycoblastus sanguinarius (Mycoblastaceae, lichenized Ascomycota) reveals cryptic clades correlated with fatty acid profiles.  

PubMed

Lichens are a prominent feature of northern conifer forests and a large number of species are thought to be circumboreal. Whether or not circumboreal lichen species really constitute monophyletic groups has seldom been tested. We investigated molecular phylogenetic patterns in the mycobiont of Mycoblastus sanguinarius, a well known epiphytic lichen species of the boreal forest, based on material collected from across the high latitude northern hemisphere. A three-locus dataset of internal transcribed spacer rDNA, translation elongation factor 1-? and replication licensing factor Mcm7 DNA sequences revealed that material treated until now as belonging to M. sanguinarius does indeed form a monophyletic group within the genus and is distinct from a strongly supported Mycoblastus affinis. The M. sanguinarius complex appears closely related to the rare Mycoblastus glabrescens, which is currently known only from the Pacific Northwest and was rediscovered during the present study. However, within M. sanguinarius s.lat. in the northern hemisphere, two deeply divergent and morphologically coherent species can be recovered, one of which matches the southern hemisphere species Mycoblastus sanguinarioides and turns out to be widespread in North America and Asia, and one of which corresponds to M. sanguinarius s.str. Both M. sanguinarius and M. sanguinarioides exhibit additional low-level genetic differentiation into geographically structured clades, the most prominent of which are distributed in East Asia/eastern North America and western North America/Europe, respectively. Individuals from these lowest-level clades are morphologically indistinguishable but chemical analyses by thin layer chromatography revealed that each clade possesses its own fatty acid profile, suggesting that chemical differentiation precedes morphological differentiation and may be a precursor to speciation. PMID:21443957

Spribille, Toby; Klug, Barbara; Mayrhofer, Helmut

2011-06-01

76

Molecular phylogenetic study at the generic boundary between the lichen-forming fungi Caloplaca and Xanthoria ( Ascomycota, Teloschistaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A molecular phylogenetic analysis of rDNA was performed for seven Caloplaca, seven Xanthoria, one Fulgensia and five outgroup species. Phylogenetic hypotheses are constructed based on nuclear small and large subunit rDNA, separately and in combination. Three strongly supported major monophyletic groups were revealed within the Teloschistaceae. One group represents the Xanthoria fallax-group. The second group includes three subgroups: (1) X.

Ulrik Søchting; François Lutzoni

2003-01-01

77

Migration between continents: geographical structure and long-distance gene flow in Porpidia flavicunda (lichen-forming Ascomycota).  

PubMed

Historical and contemporary geographical distribution ranges with their associated gene flow patterns interact to produce the genetic diversity observed today. Often it is not possible to separate out the impacts of historical events, e.g. past fragmentation, and contemporary gene flow, e.g. long-distance dispersal. Porpidia flavicunda is a lichen-forming ascomycete occurring circumpolar in the boreal to arctic zones for which vegetation history suggests that its distribution pattern has stayed broadly the same over the past millennia. DNA-sequence diversity in P. flavicunda can, thus, be expected to predominantly represent geographical population differentiation and its contemporary migration rates. The population sample consists of 110 specimens collected in Northern Québec, Baffin Island, Western Greenland and Northern Scandinavia. DNA-sequence data sets of three nuclear gene fragments (LSU, RPB2 and beta-tubulin) were analysed for genetic diversity within, and differentiation between, geographical regions. Tests of population subdivision employing analyses of molecular variance and exact tests of haplotype frequency distributions showed significant structure between the geographical regions. However, the lack of fixed nucleotide polymorphisms and the wide sharing of identical haplotypes between geographical regions suggest recurrent long-distance gene flow of propagules. Still, the means by which propagules are dispersed remain to be discovered. Inference of migration rates shows that in many cases a sufficiently high amount of migrants is exchanged between geographical regions to prevent drastic population differentiation through genetic drift. The observed haplotype distributions and migration rates point to a gene flow model of isolation by distance. PMID:17444896

Buschbom, Jutta

2007-05-01

78

A multigene phylogenetic synthesis for the class Lecanoromycetes (Ascomycota): 1307 fungi representing 1139 infrageneric taxa, 317 genera and 66 families.  

PubMed

The Lecanoromycetes is the largest class of lichenized Fungi, and one of the most species-rich classes in the kingdom. Here we provide a multigene phylogenetic synthesis (using three ribosomal RNA-coding and two protein-coding genes) of the Lecanoromycetes based on 642 newly generated and 3329 publicly available sequences representing 1139 taxa, 317 genera, 66 families, 17 orders and five subclasses (four currently recognized: Acarosporomycetidae, Lecanoromycetidae, Ostropomycetidae, Umbilicariomycetidae; and one provisionarily recognized, 'Candelariomycetidae'). Maximum likelihood phylogenetic analyses on four multigene datasets assembled using a cumulative supermatrix approach with a progressively higher number of species and missing data (5-gene, 5+4-gene, 5+4+3-gene and 5+4+3+2-gene datasets) show that the current classification includes non-monophyletic taxa at various ranks, which need to be recircumscribed and require revisionary treatments based on denser taxon sampling and more loci. Two newly circumscribed orders (Arctomiales and Hymeneliales in the Ostropomycetidae) and three families (Ramboldiaceae and Psilolechiaceae in the Lecanorales, and Strangosporaceae in the Lecanoromycetes inc. sed.) are introduced. The potential resurrection of the families Eigleraceae and Lopadiaceae is considered here to alleviate phylogenetic and classification disparities. An overview of the photobionts associated with the main fungal lineages in the Lecanoromycetes based on available published records is provided. A revised schematic classification at the family level in the phylogenetic context of widely accepted and newly revealed relationships across Lecanoromycetes is included. The cumulative addition of taxa with an increasing amount of missing data (i.e., a cumulative supermatrix approach, starting with taxa for which sequences were available for all five targeted genes and ending with the addition of taxa for which only two genes have been sequenced) revealed relatively stable relationships for many families and orders. However, the increasing number of taxa without the addition of more loci also resulted in an expected substantial loss of phylogenetic resolving power and support (especially for deep phylogenetic relationships), potentially including the misplacements of several taxa. Future phylogenetic analyses should include additional single copy protein-coding markers in order to improve the tree of the Lecanoromycetes. As part of this study, a new module ("Hypha") of the freely available Mesquite software was developed to compare and display the internodal support values derived from this cumulative supermatrix approach. PMID:24747130

Miadlikowska, Jolanta; Kauff, Frank; Högnabba, Filip; Oliver, Jeffrey C; Molnár, Katalin; Fraker, Emily; Gaya, Ester; Hafellner, Josef; Hofstetter, Valérie; Gueidan, Cécile; Otálora, Mónica A G; Hodkinson, Brendan; Kukwa, Martin; Lücking, Robert; Björk, Curtis; Sipman, Harrie J M; Burgaz, Ana Rosa; Thell, Arne; Passo, Alfredo; Myllys, Leena; Goward, Trevor; Fernández-Brime, Samantha; Hestmark, Geir; Lendemer, James; Lumbsch, H Thorsten; Schmull, Michaela; Schoch, Conrad L; Sérusiaux, Emmanuël; Maddison, David R; Arnold, A Elizabeth; Lutzoni, François; Stenroos, Soili

2014-10-01

79

Wood-inhabiting freshwater fungi from Thailand: Ascothailandia grenadoidia gen. et sp. nov., Canalisporium grenadoidia sp. nov. with a key to Canalisporium species (Sordariomycetes, Ascomycota)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ascothailandia grenadoidia gen. et sp. nov. is described and illustrated from submerged wood (Wrightia tomentosa) in a stream at Hala Bala Wildlife Sanctuary, southern Thailand. The new genus (teleomorph) is characterized by perithecoid,\\u000a globose, dark brown, ostiolate ascomata, paraphysate, asci cylindrical, unitunicate with a prominent J-refractive apical ring\\u000a and versicolurus, 3-euseptate ascospores. Ascospores germinated producing a Canalisporium (C. grenadoidia sp.

Veera Sri-indrasutdhi; Nattawut Boonyuen; Satinee Suetrong; Charuwan Chuaseeharonnachai; Somsak Sivichai; E. B. Gareth Jones

2010-01-01

80

Not as Ubiquitous as We Thought: Taxonomic Crypsis, Hidden Diversity and Cryptic Speciation in the Cosmopolitan Fungus Thelonectria discophora (Nectriaceae, Hypocreales, Ascomycota)  

PubMed Central

The distribution of microbial species, including fungi, has long been considered cosmopolitan. Recently, this perception has been challenged by molecular studies in historical biogeography, phylogeny and population genetics. Here we explore this issue using the fungal morphological species Thelonectria discophora, one of the most common species of fungi in the family Nectriaceae, encountered in almost all geographic regions and considered as a cosmopolitan taxon. In order to determine if T. discophora is a single cosmopolitan species or an assemblage of sibling species, we conducted various phylogenetic analyses, including standard gene concatenation, Bayesian concordance methods, and coalescent-based species tree reconstruction on isolates collected from a wide geographic range. Results show that diversity among isolates referred as T. discophora is greatly underestimated and that it represents a species complex. Within this complex, sixteen distinct highly supported lineages were recovered, each of which has a restricted geographic distribution and ecology. The taxonomic status of isolates regarded as T. discophora is reconsidered, and the assumed cosmopolitan distribution of this species is rejected. We discuss how assumptions about geographically widespread species have implications regarding their taxonomy, true diversity, biological diversity conservation, and ecological functions. PMID:24204665

Salgado-Salazar, Catalina; Rossman, Amy Y.; Chaverri, Priscila

2013-01-01

81

A phylogeny of the highly diverse cup-fungus family Pyronemataceae (Pezizomycetes, Ascomycota) clarifies relationships and evolution of selected life history traits.  

PubMed

Pyronemataceae is the largest and most heterogeneous family of Pezizomycetes. It is morphologically and ecologically highly diverse, comprising saprobic, ectomycorrhizal, bryosymbiotic and parasitic species, occurring in a broad range of habitats (on soil, burnt ground, debris, wood, dung and inside living bryophytes, plants and lichens). To assess the monophyly of Pyronemataceae and provide a phylogenetic hypothesis of the group, we compiled a four-gene dataset including one nuclear ribosomal and three protein-coding genes for 132 distinct Pezizomycetes species (4437 nucleotides with all markers available for 80% of the total 142 included taxa). This is the most comprehensive molecular phylogeny of Pyronemataceae, and Pezizomycetes, to date. Three hundred ninety-four new sequences were generated during this project, with the following numbers for each gene: RPB1 (124), RPB2 (99), EF-1? (120) and LSU rDNA (51). The dataset includes 93 unique species from 40 genera of Pyronemataceae, and 34 species from 25 genera representing an additional 12 families of the class. Parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses suggest that Pyronemataceae is paraphyletic due to the nesting of both Ascodesmidaceae and Glaziellaceae within the family. Four lineages with taxa currently classified in the family, the Boubovia, Geopyxis, Pseudombrophila and Pulvinula lineages, form a monophyletic group with Ascodesmidaceae and Glaziellaceae. We advocate the exclusion of these four lineages in order to recognize a monophyletic Pyronemataceae. The genus Coprotus (Thelebolales, Leotiomycetes) is shown to belong to Pezizomycetes, forming a strongly supported monophyletic group with Boubovia. Ten strongly supported lineages are identified within Pyronemataceae s. str. Of these, the Pyropyxis and Otidea lineages are identified as successive sister lineages to the rest of Pyronemataceae s. str. The highly reduced (gymnohymenial) Monascella is shown to belong to Pezizomycetes and is for the first time suggested to be closely related to the cleistothecial Warcupia, as a sister group to the primarily apothecial Otidea. None of the lineages of pyronemataceous taxa identified here correspond to previous families or subfamily classifications. Ancestral character state reconstructions (ASR) using a Bayesian approach support that the ancestors of Pezizomycetes and Pyronemataceae were soil inhabiting and saprobic. Ectomycorrhizae have arisen within both lineages A, B and C of Pezizomycetes and are suggested to have evolved independently seven to eight times within Pyronemataceae s. l., whereas an obligate bryosymbiotic lifestyle has arisen only twice. No reversals to a free-living, saprobic lifestyle have happened from symbiotic or parasitic Pyronemataceae. Specializations to various substrates (e.g. burnt ground and dung) are suggested to have occurred several times in mainly saprobic lineages. Although carotenoids in the apothecia are shown to have arisen at least four times in Pezizomycetes, the ancestor of Pyronemataceae s. str., excluding the Pyropyxis and Otidea lineages, most likely produced carotenoids, which were then subsequently lost in some clades (- and possibly gained again). Excipular hairs were found with a high probability to be absent from apothecia in the deepest nodes of Pezizomycetes and in the ancestor of Pyronemataceae s. str. True hairs are restricted to the core group of Pyronemataceae s. str., but are also found in Lasiobolus (Ascodesmidaceae), the Pseudombrophila lineage and the clade of Chorioactidaceae, Sarcoscyphaceae and Sarcosomataceae. The number of gains and losses of true hairs within Pyronemataceae s. str., however, remains uncertain. The ASR of ascospore guttulation under binary coding (present or absent) indicates that this character is fast evolving and prone to shifts. PMID:23403226

Hansen, Karen; Perry, Brian A; Dranginis, Andrew W; Pfister, Donald H

2013-05-01

82

Bark and ambrosia beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae), their phoretic mites (Acari) and associated Geosmithia species (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) from Virgilia trees in South Africa.  

PubMed

Bark and ambrosia beetles are ecologically and economically important phloeophagous insects that often have complex symbiotic relationships with fungi and mites. These systems are greatly understudied in Africa. In the present study we identified bark and ambrosia beetles, their phoretic mites and their main fungal associates from native Virgilia trees in the Cape Floristic Region (CFR) of South Africa. In addition, we tested the ability of mites to feed on the associated fungi. Four species of scolytine beetles were collected from various Virgilia hosts and from across the CFR. All were consistently associated with various Geosmithia species, fungi known from phloeophagous beetles in many parts of the world, but not yet reported as Scolytinae associates in South Africa. Four beetle species, a single mite species and five Geosmithia species were recovered. The beetles, Hapalogenius fuscipennis, Cryphalini sp. 1, and Scolytoplatypus fasciatus were associated with a single species of Elattoma phoretic mite that commonly carried spores of Geosmithia species. Liparthrum sp. 1 did not carry phoretic mites. Similar to European studies, Geosmithia associates of beetles from Virgilia were constant over extended geographic ranges, and species that share the same host plant individual had similar Geosmithia communities. Phoretic mites were unable to feed on their Geosmithia associates, but were observed to feed on bark beetle larvae within tunnels. This study forms the first African-centred base for ongoing global studies on the associations between arthropods and Geosmithia species. It strengthens hypotheses that the association between Scolytinae beetles and dry-spored Geosmithia species may be more ubiquitous than commonly recognised. PMID:24863476

Machingambi, Netsai M; Roux, Jolanda; Dreyer, Léanne L; Roets, Francois

2014-01-01

83

Characterization and phylogeny of Isaria spp. strains (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) using ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 and elongation factor 1-alpha sequences.  

PubMed

The elongation factor 1-alpha (EF1-?) and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions ITS1 and ITS2 (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2) sequences were used to characterize and to identify Isaria isolates from Argentina, Mexico, and Brazil, as well as to study the phylogenetic relationships among these isolates and other related fungi from the order Hypocreales. The molecular characterization, which was performed by PCR-RFLP of EF1-? and ITS1-5.8-ITS2 genes, was useful for resolving representative isolates of Isaria fumosorosea, Isaria farinosa, and Isaria tenuipes and to confirm the taxonomic identity of fungi from Argentina, Mexico, and Brazil. The phylogenetic analyses showed three clades corresponding to three families of Hypocreales. The genus Isaria was confirmed as polyphyletic and in family Cordycipitaceae, Isaria species were related to anamorphic species of Beauveria, Lecanicillium, and Simplicillium and to teleomorphic Cordyceps and Torrubiella. Therefore, EF1-? and ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 genes were found to be powerful tools for improving the characterization, identification, and phylogenetic relationship of the Isaria species and other entomopathogenic fungi. PMID:24222441

D'Alessandro, Celeste P; Jones, Leandro R; Humber, Richard A; López Lastra, Claudia C; Sosa-Gomez, Daniel R

2014-07-01

84

Ophiostomatoid fungi (Ascomycota) associated with Pinus tabuliformis infested by Dendroctonus valens (Coleoptera) in northern China and an assessment of their pathogenicity on mature trees.  

PubMed

Dendroctonus valens is an invasive pest in coniferous forests of northern China. It was suspected of being responsible for the death of more than three million Pinus tabuliformis trees. The present study sought to identify the ophiostomatoid fungi associated with D. valens in northern China and understand the possible role of these fungi in the pine decline. On the basis of morphology, physiology, mating compatibility and phylogenetic analyses of multiple DNA sequences, seven species of ophiostomatoid fungi were isolated from and around D. valens galleries: Leptographium alethinum, Grosmannia koreana (teleomorph of L. koreanum), L. procerum, L. sinoprocerum, L. truncatum, Pesotum aureum and P. pini. All have been recorded for the first time in China. Among them, the occurrence of the dominant species L. procerum is positively linked to attack intensities of D. valens. The pathogenicity of four species (L. koreanum, L. procerum, L. sinoprocerum and L. truncatum) was tested on mature P. tabuliformis trees by stem inoculation. All inoculated strains caused significant necrotic lesions on the inner bark. However, L. koreanum and L. truncatum induced more extensive lesions than L. procerum and L. sinoprocerum. Their association with D. valens and the P. tabuliformis decline is discussed. PMID:19404768

Lu, Quan; Decock, Cony; Zhang, Xing Yao; Maraite, Henri

2009-10-01

85

Ophiostomatoid fungi (Ascomycota) associated with Pinus tabuliformis infested by Dendroctonus valens (Coleoptera) in northern China and an assessment of their pathogenicity on mature trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dendroctonus valens is an invasive pest in coniferous forests of northern China. It was suspected of being responsible for the death of more\\u000a than three million Pinus tabuliformis trees. The present study sought to identify the ophiostomatoid fungi associated with D. valens in northern China and understand the possible role of these fungi in the pine decline. On the basis

Quan Lu; Cony Decock; Xing Yao Zhang; Henri Maraite

2009-01-01

86

Phylogenetic Classification at Generic Level in the Absence of Distinct Phylogenetic Patterns of Phenotypical Variation: A Case Study in Graphidaceae (Ascomycota)  

PubMed Central

Molecular phylogenies often reveal that taxa circumscribed by phenotypical characters are not monophyletic. While re-examination of phenotypical characters often identifies the presence of characters characterizing clades, there is a growing number of studies that fail to identify diagnostic characters, especially in organismal groups lacking complex morphologies. Taxonomists then can either merge the groups or split taxa into smaller entities. Due to the nature of binomial nomenclature, this decision is of special importance at the generic level. Here we propose a new approach to choose among classification alternatives using a combination of morphology-based phylogenetic binning and a multiresponse permutation procedure to test for morphological differences among clades. We illustrate the use of this method in the tribe Thelotremateae focusing on the genus Chapsa, a group of lichenized fungi in which our phylogenetic estimate is in conflict with traditional classification and the morphological and chemical characters do not show a clear phylogenetic pattern. We generated 75 new DNA sequences of mitochondrial SSU rDNA, nuclear LSU rDNA and the protein-coding RPB2. This data set was used to infer phylogenetic estimates using maximum likelihood and Bayesian approaches. The genus Chapsa was found to be polyphyletic, forming four well-supported clades, three of which clustering into one unsupported clade, and the other, supported clade forming two supported subclades. While these clades cannot be readily separated morphologically, the combined binning/multiresponse permutation procedure showed that accepting the four clades as different genera each reflects the phenotypical pattern significantly better than accepting two genera (or five genera if splitting the first clade). Another species within the Thelotremateae, Thelotrema petractoides, a unique taxon with carbonized excipulum resembling Schizotrema, was shown to fall outside Thelotrema. Consequently, the new genera Astrochapsa, Crutarndina, Pseudochapsa, and Pseudotopeliopsis are described here and 39 new combinations are proposed. PMID:23251515

Parnmen, Sittiporn; Lucking, Robert; Lumbsch, H. Thorsten

2012-01-01

87

Inedible mushrooms: a good source of biologically active substances  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the course of our investigation on biologically active substances from inedible mushrooms in Japan, Germany, and Vietnam, we studied the chemical constituents of 22 species belonging to five families: Scutigeraceae, Polyporaceae, Xylariaceae, Thelephoraceae, and Paxillaceae. Various types of chemical substances were purified and characterized based on the modern spectro- scopic methods and also on chemical reactions. These metabolites have

Dang Ngoc Quang; Toshihiro Hashimoto; Yoshinori Asakawa

2006-01-01

88

Catalogue of the Lichenized and Lichenicolous Fungi of Bosnia and Herzegovina  

PubMed Central

Summary The catalogue is based on a comprehensive evaluation of 152 published sources. It includes 624 species (with 4 subspecies and 13 varieties) of lichenized and 17 species of lichenicolous Ascomycota, as well as 9 non-lichenized Ascomycota traditionally included in lichenological literature. PMID:22121302

Bilovitz, Peter O.; Mayrhofer, Helmut

2011-01-01

89

Evolutionary principles of modular gene regulation in yeasts  

E-print Network

Divergence in gene regulation can play a major role in evolution. Here, we used a phylogenetic framework to measure mRNA profiles in 15 yeast species from the phylum Ascomycota and reconstruct the evolution of their modular ...

Thompson, Dawn A.

90

Fungal regulatory evolution: cis and trans in the balance  

E-print Network

Regulatory divergence is likely a major driving force in evolution. Comparative genomics is being increasingly used to infer the evolution of gene regulation. Ascomycota fungi are uniquely suited among eukaryotes for ...

Thompson, Dawn Anne

91

Cryopreservation of filamentous micromycetes and yeasts using perlite  

Microsoft Academic Search

The viability, growth and morphology of 48 strains ofAscomycota (including 17 yeasts) and 20 strains ofZygomycota were determined after a 2-d and then after 1-year storage in liquid nitrogen using a new cryopreservation method with perlite\\u000a as a particulate solid carrier. In case ofAscomycota, 45 strains (94 %) out of 48 survived both 2-d and 1-year storage in liquid nitrogen,

L. Homolka; L. Lisá; A. Kubátová; M. Vá?ová; B. Janderová; F. Nerud

2007-01-01

92

Endophytic fungal entomopathogens with activity against plant pathogens: ecology and evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dual biological control, of both insect pests and plant pathogens, has been reported for the fungal entomopathogens, Beauveria bassiana (Bals.-Criv.) Vuill. (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) and Lecanicillium spp. (Ascomycota: Hypocreales). However, the primary mechanisms of plant disease suppression are different for these fungi.\\u000a Beauveria spp. produce an array of bioactive metabolites, and have been reported to limit growth of fungal plant pathogens

Bonnie H. OwnleyKimberly; Kimberly D. Gwinn; Fernando E. Vega

2010-01-01

93

Endophytic fungal entomopathogens with activity against plant pathogens: ecology and evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Dual biological control, of both insect pests and plant pathogens, has been reported for the fungal entomopathogens, Beauveria bassiana (Bals.-Criv.) Vuill. (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) and Lecanicillium spp. (Ascomycota: Hypocreales). However, the primary mechanisms of plant disease suppression are different for these fungi.\\u000a Beauveria spp. produce an array of bioactive metabolites, and have been reported to limit growth of fungal plant pathogens

Bonnie H. OwnleyKimberly; Kimberly D. Gwinn; Fernando E. Vega

94

Sporothriolide derivatives as chemotaxonomic markers for Hypoxylon monticulosum  

PubMed Central

During the course of a screening for novel anti-infective agents from cultures of tropical Xylariaceae originating from French Guiana and Thailand, pronounced antifungal activity was noted in extracts of cultures of Hypoxylon monticulosum. A bioassay-guided fractionation led to the known metabolite sporothriolide as active principle. In addition, three new derivatives of sporothriolide were isolated, for which we propose the trivial names sporothric acid, isosporothric acid and dihydroisosporothric acid. Their chemical structures were elucidated by high-resolution electrospray mass spectrometry in conjunction with two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (2D-NMR) spectroscopy. From earlier studies on the biogenesis of the chemically similar canadensolides, we postulate that the new compounds were shunt products, rather than biogenetic precursors of sporothriolide. Interestingly, this compound class, as well as strong antifungal activities, was only observed in multiple cultures of H. monticulosum, but not in several hundreds of Hypoxylon cultures studied previously or concurrently. Therefore, sporothriolide production may constitute a species-specific feature with respect to Hypoxylon and the Xylariaceae, although the compound was previously reported from non-related fungal taxa. PMID:25379335

Surup, Frank; Kuhnert, Eric; Lehmann, Erik; Heitkamper, Simone; Hyde, Kevin D.; Fournier, Jacques; Stadler, Marc

2014-01-01

95

Taxonomy of the lichen Cladonia rei and its status in Poland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cladonia rei (Cladoniaceae, lichenized Ascomycota), a species recently synonymised with C. subulata, deserves to be treated as a separate taxon. Since C. rei was very much neglected in Poland and most previous records referred to C. glauca and C. subulata, its distribution and habitat requirements in the country are reviewed. It is commoner in the eastern part of Poland, becoming

Magdalena Syrek; Martin Kukwa

2008-01-01

96

Archaeorhizomycetes: Patterns of Distribution and Abundance in Soil  

E-print Network

lineages of soil fungi, and its formal description adds a prominent branch to the Taphrinomycotina among the basal Ascomycota (Rosling et al. 2011). Fungi in the class are strongly associated with soil in sediment from a freshwater stream (Ba�rlocher et al. 2008). While this could indicate

Taylor, Lee

97

CSIRO PUBLISHING www.publish.csiro.au/journals/app Australasian Plant Pathology, 2006, 35, 521548  

E-print Network

­548 Cytospora species (Ascomycota, Diaporthales, Valsaceae): introduced and native pathogens of trees in South­14 known species and three unique lineages. Several species are new records for South Africa, doubling from non-native Eucalyptus, Malus, Pinus, Populus, Prunus and Salix species and isolates from Australia

98

Mate-recognition and species boundaries in the ascomycetes Simon H. Martin & Emma T. Steenkamp &  

E-print Network

). This fact complicated taxonomy and species recognition until molecular methods were introduced (TaylorREVIEW Mate-recognition and species boundaries in the ascomycetes Simon H. Martin & Emma T adequately explored in the Ascomycota, the most species-rich fungal phylum. The mechanisms of mate

99

Community Structure and Succession Regulation of Fungal Consortia in the Lignocellulose-Degrading Process on Natural Biomass  

PubMed Central

The study aims to investigate fungal community structures and dynamic changes in forest soil lignocellulose-degrading process. rRNA gene clone libraries for the samples collected in different stages of lignocellulose degradation process were constructed and analyzed. A total of 26 representative RFLP types were obtained from original soil clone library, including Mucoromycotina (29.5%), unclassified Zygomycetes (33.5%), Ascomycota (32.4%), and Basidiomycota (4.6%). When soil accumulated with natural lignocellulose, 16 RFLP types were identified from 8-day clone library, including Basidiomycota (62.5%), Ascomycota (36.1%), and Fungi incertae sedis (1.4%). After enrichment for 15 days, identified 11 RFLP types were placed in 3 fungal groups: Basidiomycota (86.9%), Ascomycota (11.5%), and Fungi incertae sedis (1.6%). The results showed richer, more diversity and abundance fungal groups in original forest soil. With the degradation of lignocellulose, fungal groups Mucoromycotina and Ascomycota decreased gradually, and wood-rotting fungi Basidiomycota increased and replaced the opportunist fungi to become predominant group. Most of the fungal clones identified in sample were related to the reported lignocellulose-decomposing strains. Understanding of the microbial community structure and dynamic change during natural lignocellulose-degrading process will provide us with an idea and a basis to construct available commercial lignocellulosic enzymes or microbial complex. PMID:24574925

Wang, Chunxiang; Lv, Ruirui; Zhou, Junxiong; Li, Xin; Zheng, Yi; Jin, Xiangyu; Wang, Mengli; Ye, Yongxia; Huang, Xinyi; Liu, Ping

2014-01-01

100

Int. J. Plant Sci. 161(6):925958. 2000. 2000 by The University of Chicago. All rights reserved.  

E-print Network

of Peltigera, including Hydrothyria, was confirmed. The genus Hydrothyria is transferred to Peltigera and a new combination Peltigera hydrothyria Miadlikowska & Lutzoni is proposed. Eight monophyletic sections within. 1058-5893/2000/16106-0009$03.00 PHYLOGENETIC REVISION OF THE GENUS PELTIGERA (LICHEN-FORMING ASCOMYCOTA

Lutzoni, François M.

101

Epichloë festucae and Related Mutualistic Symbionts of Grasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epichloë and Neotyphodium species (Ascomycota) are mutualistic symbionts (endophytes) of temperate grasses, to which they impart numerous and profound fitness benefits. Epichloë festucae, a common symbiont of Festuca, Lolium,and Koeleria spp., is a model for endophyte research that is amenable to Mendelian and molecular genetic analysis. Characteristics of E. festucaeinclude: (i) production of the anti-insect alkaloids peramine and lolines, (ii)

Christopher L. Schardl

2001-01-01

102

Evolutionary Origins and Ecological Consequences of Endophyte Symbiosis with Grasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past 20 yr much has been learned about a unique symbiotic interaction between fungal endophytes and grasses. The fungi (Clavicipitaceae, Ascomycota) grow intercellularly and sys- temically in aboveground plant parts. Vertically transmitted asexual endophytes forming asymptomatic infections of cool-season grasses have been repeatedly derived from sexual species that abort host inflorescences. The phylogenetic distribution of seed-transmitted en- dophytes

Keith Clay; Christopher Schardl

2002-01-01

103

Fungal relationships and structural identity of their ectomycorrhizae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aproximately 5,000–6,000 fungal species form ectomyorrhizae (ECM), the symbiotic organs with roots of predominantly trees. The contributing fungi are not evenly distributed over the system of fungi. Within Basidiomycota exclusively Hymenomycetes and within Ascomycota exclusively Ascomycetes contribute to the symbiosis. Hymenomycetes play a big part, Ascomycetes a minor role; Zygomycetes only form exceptionally ECM. Responsible for ascomycetous ECM are mostly

Reinhard Agerer

2006-01-01

104

The Spectrum of Fungal Allergy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fungi can be found throughout the world. They may live as saprophytes, parasites or symbionts of animals and plants in indoor as well as outdoor environment. For decades, fungi belonging to the ascomycota as well as to the basidiomycota have been known to cause a broad panel of human disorders. In contrast to pollen, fungal spores and\\/or mycelial cells may

Birgit Simon-Nobbe; Ursula Denk; Verena Pöll; Raphaela Rid; Michael Breitenbach

2008-01-01

105

Identification and characterization of Tc1\\/mariner-like DNA transposons in genomes of the pathogenic fungi of the Paracoccidioides species complex  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (Eukaryota, Fungi, Ascomycota) is a thermodimorphic fungus, the etiological agent of paracoccidioidomycosis, the most important systemic mycoses in Latin America. Three isolates corresponding to distinct phylogenetic lineages of the Paracoccidioides species complex had their genomes sequenced. In this study the identification and characterization of class II transposable elements in the genomes of these fungi was carried out.

Marjorie M Marini; Tamiris Zanforlin; Patrícia C Santos; Roberto RM Barros; Rosana Puccia; Maria SS Felipe; Marcelo Brigido; Célia MA Soares; Jerônimo C Ruiz; José F Silveira; Patrícia S Cisalpino

2010-01-01

106

Revision of the genus Placostromella and inclusion of Palawaniella castanopsis as a third species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current status of Placostromella (Ascomycota, Dothideomycetes inc. sed.) is discussed, and a third species is added to the genus based on Palawaniella castanopsis J.N. Kapoor. Both species occur on living leaves of Castanopsis (Fagaceae) in South and East Asia. Placostromella castanopsis and the type P. macrospora are fully redescribed and illustrated.

Carlos A. Inácio; Paul F. Cannon; Brian F. Ferry

2005-01-01

107

Surviving climate changes: high genetic diversity and transoceanic gene flow in  

E-print Network

, Flavocetraria cucullata and Flavocetraria nivalis, which are widespread in arctic and alpine tundra. Location in two arctic­alpine lichens, Flavocetraria cucullata and F. nivalis (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota) Jo´zsef Geml1,2 *, Frank Kauff3 , Christian Brochmann4 and D. L. Taylor2 INTRODUCTION The arctic tundra

Taylor, Lee

108

Stenocybe fragmenta, a new species of Mycocaliciaceae with fragmenting spores  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The new species Stenocybe fragmenta (Ascomycota, Mycocaliciaceae) is described from western North America. The species was collected from twigs of Cercocarpus montanus and Rhamnus purshiana. Stenocybe fragmenta is characterized by 5-7 septate, 18-30 I?m long ascospores that fragment at maturity. This is the first report of spore fragmentation among the Mycocaliciaceae.

Peterson, E. B.; Rikkinen, Jouko

1998-01-01

109

Effect of temperature on virulence of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae isolates to Tetranychus evansi  

Microsoft Academic Search

The virulence of three isolates of Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill. and 23 isolates of Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnik.) Sorok. (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) against the tomato spider mite, Tetranychus evansi Baker and Pritchard (Acari: Tetranychidae), was assessed in the laboratory. The effect of temperature on germination, radial\\u000a growth and virulence of selected isolates (two isolates of B. bassiana and nine of M. anisopliae)

David M. Bugeme; Nguya K. Maniania; Markus Knapp; Hamadi I. Boga

2008-01-01

110

Effect of temperature on virulence of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae isolates to Tetranychus evansi  

Microsoft Academic Search

The virulence of three isolates of Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill. and 23 isolates of Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnik.) Sorok. (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) against the tomato spider mite, Tetranychus evansi Baker and Pritchard (Acari: Tetranychidae), was assessed in the laboratory. The effect of temperature on germination, radial\\u000a growth and virulence of selected isolates (two isolates of B. bassiana and nine of M. anisopliae)

David M. Bugeme; Nguya K. Maniania; Markus Knapp; Hamadi I. Boga

111

American Journal of Botany 90(7): 10951103. 2003. PHYLOGENETIC STUDY OF FULGENSIA AND ALLIED  

E-print Network

CALOPLACA AND XANTHORIA SPECIES (TELOSCHISTACEAE, LICHEN-FORMING ASCOMYCOTA)1 ESTER GAYA,2,5 FRANC¸ OIS, Caloplaca Th. Fr., and Xanthoria (Fr.) Th. Fr. (Lecanorales) were investigated based on a comprehensive. australis, and F. schistidii. We report here that Caloplaca, Fulgensia, and Xanthoria together form two main

Lutzoni, François M.

112

Filamentous Fungi Isolated from Platypus koryoensis, the Insect Vector of Oak Wilt Disease in Korea.  

PubMed

The ambrosia beetle, Platypus koryoensis, is a serious pest of oak trees in Korea. In this study we investigated filamentous fungi present in the body of the beetle. Fourteen genera of filamentous fungi belonging to Ascomycota and Basidiomycota were isolated. Among the isolated fungi, some were able to produce wood degrading enzymes. This is first report of fungi associated with P. koryoensis. PMID:22783124

Suh, Dong Yeon; Hyun, Min Woo; Kim, Seong Hwan; Seo, Sang Tae; Kim, Kyung Hee

2011-12-01

113

Otlora & al. Taxonomy of the Leptogium lichenoides groupTAXON 57 (3) August 2008: 907921 INTRODUCTION  

E-print Network

907 Otálora & al. · Taxonomy of the Leptogium lichenoides groupTAXON 57 (3) · August 2008: 907 morphological differences. Leptogium lichenoides was originally described as Tremella lichenoides L. (1753). Phylogenetic relationships and taxonomy of the Leptogium lichenoides group (Collemataceae, Ascomycota

Lutzoni, François M.

114

The Wood Rot Ascomycete Xylaria polymorpha Produces a Novel GH78 Glycoside Hydrolase That Exhibits ?-l-Rhamnosidase and Feruloyl Esterase Activities and Releases Hydroxycinnamic Acids from Lignocelluloses  

PubMed Central

Soft rot (type II) fungi belonging to the family Xylariaceae are known to substantially degrade hardwood by means of their poorly understood lignocellulolytic system, which comprises various hydrolases, including feruloyl esterases and laccase. In the present study, several members of the Xylariaceae were found to exhibit high feruloyl esterase activity during growth on lignocellulosic materials such as wheat straw (up to 1,675 mU g?1) or beech wood (up to 80 mU g?1). Following the ester-cleaving activity toward methyl ferulate, a hydrolase of Xylaria polymorpha was produced in solid-state culture on wheat straw and purified by different steps of anion-exchange and size-exclusion chromatography to apparent homogeneity (specific activity, 2.2 U mg?1). The peptide sequence of the purified protein deduced from the gene sequence and verified by de novo peptide sequencing shows high similarity to putative ?-l-rhamnosidase sequences belonging to the glycoside hydrolase family 78 (GH78; classified under EC 3.2.1.40). The purified enzyme (98 kDa by SDS-PAGE, 103 kDa by size-exclusion chromatography; pI 3.7) converted diverse glycosides (e.g., ?-l-rhamnopyranoside and ?-l-arabinofuranoside) but also natural and synthetic esters (e.g., chlorogenic acid, hydroxycinnamic acid glycoside esters, veratric acid esters, or p-nitrophenyl acetate) and released free hydroxycinnamic acids (ferulic and coumaric acid) from arabinoxylan and milled wheat straw. These catalytic properties strongly suggest that X. polymorpha GH78 is a multifunctional enzyme. It is the first fungal enzyme that combines glycosyl hydrolase with esterase activities and may help this soft rot fungus to degrade lignocelluloses. PMID:22544251

Nghi, Do Huu; Bittner, Britta; Kellner, Harald; Jehmlich, Nico; Ullrich, Rene; Pecyna, Marek J.; Nousiainen, Paula; Sipila, Jussi; Huong, Le Mai; Hofrichter, Martin

2012-01-01

115

The wood rot ascomycete Xylaria polymorpha produces a novel GH78 glycoside hydrolase that exhibits ?-L-rhamnosidase and feruloyl esterase activities and releases hydroxycinnamic acids from lignocelluloses.  

PubMed

Soft rot (type II) fungi belonging to the family Xylariaceae are known to substantially degrade hardwood by means of their poorly understood lignocellulolytic system, which comprises various hydrolases, including feruloyl esterases and laccase. In the present study, several members of the Xylariaceae were found to exhibit high feruloyl esterase activity during growth on lignocellulosic materials such as wheat straw (up to 1,675 mU g(-1)) or beech wood (up to 80 mU g(-1)). Following the ester-cleaving activity toward methyl ferulate, a hydrolase of Xylaria polymorpha was produced in solid-state culture on wheat straw and purified by different steps of anion-exchange and size-exclusion chromatography to apparent homogeneity (specific activity, 2.2 U mg(-1)). The peptide sequence of the purified protein deduced from the gene sequence and verified by de novo peptide sequencing shows high similarity to putative ?-L-rhamnosidase sequences belonging to the glycoside hydrolase family 78 (GH78; classified under EC 3.2.1.40). The purified enzyme (98 kDa by SDS-PAGE, 103 kDa by size-exclusion chromatography; pI 3.7) converted diverse glycosides (e.g., ?-L-rhamnopyranoside and ?-L-arabinofuranoside) but also natural and synthetic esters (e.g., chlorogenic acid, hydroxycinnamic acid glycoside esters, veratric acid esters, or p-nitrophenyl acetate) and released free hydroxycinnamic acids (ferulic and coumaric acid) from arabinoxylan and milled wheat straw. These catalytic properties strongly suggest that X. polymorpha GH78 is a multifunctional enzyme. It is the first fungal enzyme that combines glycosyl hydrolase with esterase activities and may help this soft rot fungus to degrade lignocelluloses. PMID:22544251

Nghi, Do Huu; Bittner, Britta; Kellner, Harald; Jehmlich, Nico; Ullrich, René; Pecyna, Marek J; Nousiainen, Paula; Sipilä, Jussi; Huong, Le Mai; Hofrichter, Martin; Liers, Christiane

2012-07-01

116

Causes and Consequences of Genome Expansion in Fungi  

PubMed Central

Fungi display a large diversity in genome size and complexity, variation that is often considered to be adaptive. But because nonadaptive processes can also have important consequences on the features of genomes, we investigated the relationship of genetic drift and genome size in the phylum Ascomycota using multiple indicators of genetic drift. We detected a complex relationship between genetic drift and genome size in fungi: genetic drift is associated with genome expansion on broad evolutionary timescales, as hypothesized for other eukaryotes; but within subphyla over smaller timescales, the opposite trend is observed. Moreover, fungi and bacteria display similar patterns of genome degradation that are associated with initial effects of genetic drift. We conclude that changes in genome size within Ascomycota have occurred using two different routes: large-scale genome expansions are catalyzed by increasing drift as predicted by the mutation-hazard model of genome evolution and small-scale modifications in genome size are independent of drift. PMID:22117086

Kelkar, Yogeshwar D.; Ochman, Howard

2012-01-01

117

Coevolution between a Family of Parasite Virulence Effectors and a Class of LINE1 Retrotransposons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parasites are able to evolve rapidly and overcome host defense mechanisms, but the molecular basis of this adaptation is poorly understood. Powdery mildew fungi (Erysiphales, Ascomycota) are obligate biotrophic parasites infecting nearly 10,000 plant genera. They obtain their nutrients from host plants through specialized feeding structures known as haustoria. We previously identified the AVRk1 powdery mildew-specific gene family encoding effectors

Soledad Sacristán; Marielle Vigouroux; Carsten Pedersen; Pari Skamnioti; Hans Thordal-Christensen; Cristina Micali; James K. M. Brown; Christopher J. Ridout; Niyaz Ahmed

2009-01-01

118

Biotransformation of benzaldehyde into ( R )-phenylacetylcarbinol by filamentous fungi or their extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extracts of 14 filamentous fungi were examined regarding their potential for production of (R)-phenylacetylcarbinol [(R)-PAC], which is the chiral precursor in the manufacture of the pharmaceuticals ephedrine and pseudoephedrine. Benzaldehyde and pyruvate were transformed at a scale of 1.2 ml into PAC by cell-free extracts of all selected strains, covering the broad taxonomic spectrum of Ascomycota, Zygomycota and Basidiomycota. Highest

B. Rosche; V. Sandford; M. Breuer; B. Hauer; P. Rogers

2001-01-01

119

Exophiala crusticola anam. nov. (affinity Herpotrichiellaceae), a novel black yeast from biological soil crusts in the Western United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel black yeast-like fungus, Exophiala crusticola, is described based on two closely related isolates from biological soil crust (BSC) samples collected on the Colorado Plateau (Utah) and in the Great Basin desert (Oregon), USA. Their morphology places them in the anamorphic genus Exophiala,having affinities to the familyHerpotrichiellaceae (Ascomycota). Phylogenetic analysis of their D1\\/D2 largesubunit nuclear ribosomal RNA (LSU nrRNA)

Scott T. Bates; G. S. N. Reddy; Ferran Garcia-Pichel

2006-01-01

120

PCR Primers with Enhanced Specificity for Nematode-Trapping Fungi ( Orbiliales )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nematode-trapping fungi, a monophyletic lineage within the Orbiliales (Ascomycota), use specialized structures to capture and consume nematodes in soil, leaf litter, and other substrates. These fungi have\\u000a been studied both because of their unique predatory life history and because they are potential control agents of important\\u000a plant- and animal-parasitic nematodes. Ecological studies of nematode-trapping fungi have primarily used culture-based methods,

Matthew E. Smith; Bruce A. Jaffee

2009-01-01

121

Pumpkin seeds – the mycobiota and potential mycotoxins  

Microsoft Academic Search

75?surface disinfected and 75?non-disinfected Austrian pumpkin seeds were plated directly on to each of the three media,\\u000a DG-18, DRBC, and MSA 5%, to determine the quantitative as well as qualitative mycobiota. Overall, 902?moulds belonging 25?different\\u000a species and 17?different genera were isolated. The species were divided as follows: ascomycota, 2; zygomycota, 3; mitosporic\\u000a fungi, 12. The mycobiota were dominated by Penicillium

Martin Weidenbörner

2001-01-01

122

Hypocrea rufa\\/Trichoderma viride: a reassessment, and description of five closely related species with and without warted conidia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The type species of the genus Hypocrea (Hypocreaceae, Hypocreales, Ascomycota, Fungi), H. rufa, is re-defined and epitypified using a combination of phenotype (morphology of teleomorphs and anamorphs, and characteristics in culture) and phylogenetic analyses of the translation-elongation factor 1? gene. Its anamorph, T. viride, the type species of Trichoderma, is re-described and epitypified. Eidamia viridescens is combined as Trichoderma viridescens

Walter M. Jaklitsch; Gary J. Samuels; Sarah L. Dodd; Bing-Sheng Lu; Irina S. Druzhinina

2006-01-01

123

Lasionectrin, a naphthopyrone from a Lasionectria sp.  

PubMed

A new naphthopyrone derivative, lasionectrin (1), was isolated from fermentations of an Acremonium-like fungus provisionally identified as a Lasionectria sp. (Ascomycota, Hypocreales) and isolated from forest leaf litter from Equatorial Guinea. Its structure was determined by a combination of spectroscopic techniques, including UV, (+)-HRESIMS, and 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, and comparison with published data for related fungal metabolites. Compound 1 inhibited the growth of Plasmodium falciparum with an IC(50) value of 11 ?M. PMID:22694295

El Aouad, Noureddine; Pérez-Moreno, Guiomar; Sánchez, Paula; Cantizani, Juan; Ortiz-López, Francisco Javier; Martín, Jesús; González-Menéndez, Víctor; Ruiz-Pérez, Luis M; González-Pacanowska, Dolores; Vicente, Francisca; Bills, Gerald; Reyes, Fernando

2012-06-22

124

Fungi associated with the southern Eurasian orchid Spiranthes spiralis (L.) Chevall.  

PubMed

The hitherto unknown relationships between the European orchid Spiranthes spiralis (L.) Chevall and its internally associated fungi were explored by a combined approach involving microscopy-based investigations at a morpho-histological level as well as by molecular analyses of the identity of the eukaryotic endophytes present in the root tissue of the plant. We found that this orchid which is currently reported to have a vulnerable status in northern Italy, can host and interact with at least nine types of fungi. Some of these fungi show similarity to mycorrhizal genera found in orchids such as the Ceratobasidium-Rhizoctonia group. Other fungi found are from the genera Davidiella (Ascomycota), Leptosphaeria (Ascomycota), Alternaria (Ascomycota), and Malassezia (Basidiomycota), some of which until have not previously been reported to have an endophytic relationship with plants. The repeated occurrence of often pathogenic fungi such as Fusarium oxysporum, Bionectria ochroleuca, and Alternaria sp., within healthy specimens of this orchid suggests a tempered interaction with species that are sometimes deleterious to non-orchid plants. The fact is reminiscent of the symbiotic compromise established by orchids with fungi of the rhizoctonia group. PMID:22483052

Tondello, Alessandra; Vendramin, Elena; Villani, Mariacristina; Baldan, Barbara; Squartini, Andrea

2012-04-01

125

Diversity and Taxonomy of Endophytic Xylariaceous Fungi from Medicinal Plants of Dendrobium (Orchidaceae)  

PubMed Central

Dendrobium spp. are traditional Chinese medicinal plants, and the main effective ingredients (polysaccharides and alkaloids) have pharmacologic effects on gastritis infection, cancer, and anti-aging. Previously, we confirmed endophytic xylariaceous fungi as the dominant fungi in several Dendrobium species of tropical regions from China. In the present study, the diversity, taxonomy, and distribution of culturable endophytic xylariaceous fungi associated with seven medicinal species of Dendrobium (Orchidaceae) were investigated. Among the 961 endophytes newly isolated, 217 xylariaceous fungi (morphotaxa) were identified using morphological and molecular methods. The phylogenetic tree constructed using nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS), large subunit of ribosomal DNA (LSU), and beta-tubulin sequences divided these anamorphic xylariaceous isolates into at least 18 operational taxonomic units (OTUs). The diversity of the endophytic xylariaceous fungi in these seven Dendrobium species was estimated using Shannon and evenness indices, with the results indicating that the dominant Xylariaceae taxa in each Dendrobium species were greatly different, though common xylariaceous fungi were found in several Dendrobium species. These findings implied that different host plants in the same habitats exhibit a preference and selectivity for their fungal partners. Using culture-dependent approaches, these xylariaceous isolates may be important sources for the future screening of new natural products and drug discovery. PMID:23472167

Chen, Juan; Zhang, Li-Chun; Xing, Yong-Mei; Wang, Yun-Qiang; Xing, Xiao-Ke; Zhang, Da-Wei; Liang, Han-Qiao; Guo, Shun-Xing

2013-01-01

126

Glomalean fungi from the Ordovician.  

PubMed

Fossilized fungal hyphae and spores from the Ordovician of Wisconsin (with an age of about 460 million years) strongly resemble modern arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Glomales, Zygomycetes). These fossils indicate that Glomales-like fungi were present at a time when the land flora most likely only consisted of plants on the bryophytic level. Thus, these fungi may have played a crucial role in facilitating the colonization of land by plants, and the fossils support molecular estimates of fungal phylogeny that place the origin of the major groups of terrestrial fungi (Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, and Glomales) around 600 million years ago. PMID:10988069

Redecker, D; Kodner, R; Graham, L E

2000-09-15

127

Fluid mechanical responses to nutrient depletion in fungi and biofilmsa)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In both fungi and bacterial biofilms, when nutrients are depleted, the organisms cannot physically migrate to find a new source, but instead must develop adaptations that allow them to survive. This paper reviews our work attempting to discover design principles for these adaptations. We develop fluid mechanical models, and aim to understand whether these suggest organizing principles for the observed morphological diversity. Determining whether a proposed organizing principle explains extant biological designs is fraught with difficulty: simply because a design principle predicts characteristics similar to an organism's morphology could just as well be accidental as revealing. In each of the two sets of examples, we adopt different strategies to develop understanding in spite of this difficulty. Within the fungal phylum Ascomycota, we use the large observed diversity of different morphological solutions to the fundamental fluid mechanical problem to measure how far each solution is from a design optimum, thereby measuring how far the extant designs deviate from the hypothesized optimum. This allows comparing different design principles to each other. For biofilms, we use engineering principles to make qualitative predictions of what types of adaptations might exist given the physicochemical properties of the repertoire of proteins that bacteria can create, and then find evidence for these adaptations in experiments. While on the surface this paper addresses the particular adaptations used by the fungal phylum Ascomycota and bacterial biofilms, we also aim to motivate discussion of different approaches to using design principles, fluid mechanical or otherwise, to rationalize observed engineering solutions in biology.

Brenner, Michael P.

2014-10-01

128

Comparisons of the fungal and protistan communities among different marine sponge holobionts by pyrosequencing.  

PubMed

To date, the knowledge of eukaryotic communities associated with sponges remains limited compared with prokaryotic communities. In a manner similar to prokaryotes, it could be hypothesized that sponge holobionts have phylogenetically diverse eukaryotic symbionts, and the eukaryotic community structures in different sponge holobionts were probably different. In order to test this hypothesis, the communities of eukaryota associated with 11 species of South China Sea sponges were compared with the V4 region of 18S ribosomal ribonucleic acid gene using 454 pyrosequencing. Consequently, 135 and 721 unique operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of fungi and protists were obtained at 97 % sequence similarity, respectively. These sequences were assigned to 2 phyla of fungi (Ascomycota and Basidiomycota) and 9 phyla of protists including 5 algal phyla (Chlorophyta, Haptophyta, Streptophyta, Rhodophyta, and Stramenopiles) and 4 protozoal phyla (Alveolata, Cercozoa, Haplosporidia, and Radiolaria) including 47 orders (12 fungi, 35 protists). Entorrhizales of fungi and 18 orders of protists were detected in marine sponges for the first time. Particularly, Tilletiales of fungi and Chlorocystidales of protists were detected for the first time in marine habitats. Though Ascomycota, Alveolata, and Radiolaria were detected in all the 11 sponge species, sponge holobionts have different fungi and protistan communities according to OTU comparison and principal component analysis at the order level. This study provided the first insights into the fungal and protistan communities associated with different marine sponge holobionts using pyrosequencing, thus further extending the knowledge on sponge-associated eukaryotic diversity. PMID:24577740

He, Liming; Liu, Fang; Karuppiah, Valliappan; Ren, Yi; Li, Zhiyong

2014-05-01

129

Activity of the novel fungicide SYP-Z048 against plant pathogens  

PubMed Central

In in vitro tests with 18 plant pathogens, the fungicide 3-[5-(4-chlorophenyl)-2,3-dimethyl-3-isoxazolidinyl] pyridine (SYP-Z048) was highly effective on inhibiting mycelial growth of various ascomycota and basidiomycota, with EC50 values ranging from 0.008 to 1.140??g/ml. SYP-Z048 had much weaker activity against growth of oomycota with EC50 values > 100??g/ml. In a second in vitro test with Monilinia fructicola isolates, SYP-Z048 inhibited mycelial growth (EC50 = 0.013??g/ml), germ tube elongation (EC50 = 0.007??g/ml), and sporulation but did not affect spore germination. In a detached pear fruit assay inoculated with M. fructicola isolates, SYP-Z048 showed protective and curative activity. Field tests indicated that SYP-Z048 was an efficacious fungicide for control of brown rot disease in two peach orchards. When applied to a single spot on a tomato leaflet in a compound leaf, SYP-Z048 suppressed the growth of Botrytis cinerea isolates on the rest 4 leaflets, indicating that the fungicide has systemic movement in plant tissues. These results indicate that SYP-Z048 has potential for management of brown rot causing by M. fructicola and other diseases caused by ascomycota and basidiomycota. PMID:25253681

Chen, Fengping; Han, Ping; Liu, Pengfei; Si, Naiguo; Liu, Junli; Liu, Xili

2014-01-01

130

Divergent Responses of Soil Fungi Functional Groups to Short-term Warming.  

PubMed

Soil fungi fill pivotal ecological roles in biogeochemical processes, particularly dominating decomposition of lignin. Little is known, however, about the responses of different fungal groups to climate warming with respect to bacteria. In this study, using barcode pyrosequencing, we showed that short-term (15 months) of field exposure of an alpine meadow to warming (elevated 1 and 2 °C) did not markedly alter the overall soil fungal community structures and ?-diversity on Tibetan Plateau, but the average ?-diversity dramatically decreased in response to warming. However, soil respiration rates were stimulated in the growing season, which significantly (P?Ascomycota and rare taxa (relative abundance?Ascomycota showed a range of responses to warming. Collectively, we conclude that the fungal communities are resistant to short-term warming, though variations are observed in certain species and rare taxa. This report indicates that changes in a relatively small subset of the soil fungal community are sufficient to produce substantial changes in function, such as CO2 efflux rates. PMID:24553914

Xiong, Jinbo; Peng, Fei; Sun, Huaibo; Xue, Xian; Chu, Haiyan

2014-11-01

131

Expanding the Cyanuric Acid Hydrolase Protein Family to the Fungal Kingdom  

PubMed Central

The known enzymes that open the s-triazine ring, the cyanuric acid hydrolases, have been confined almost exclusively to the kingdom Bacteria and are all homologous members of the rare cyanuric acid hydrolase/barbiturase protein family. In the present study, a filamentous fungus, Sarocladium sp. strain CA, was isolated from soil by enrichment culturing using cyanuric acid as the sole source of nitrogen. A reverse-genetic approach identified a fungal cyanuric acid hydrolase gene composed of two exons and one intron. The translated spliced sequence was 39 to 53% identical to previously characterized bacterial cyanuric acid hydrolases. The sequence was used to generate a gene optimized for expression in Escherichia coli and encoding an N-terminally histidine-tagged protein. The protein was purified by nickel affinity and anion-exchange chromatography. The purified protein was shown by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (13C-NMR) to produce carboxybiuret as the product, which spontaneously decarboxylated to yield biuret and carbon dioxide. The protein was very narrow in substrate specificity, showing activity only with cyanuric acid and N-methyl cyanuric acid. Barbituric acid was an inhibitor of enzyme activity. Sequence analysis identified genes with introns in other fungi from the Ascomycota that, if spliced, are predicted to encode proteins with cyanuric acid hydrolase activity. The Ascomycota cyanuric acid hydrolase homologs are most closely related to cyanuric acid hydrolases from Actinobacteria. PMID:24039269

Dodge, Anthony G.; Preiner, Chelsea S.

2013-01-01

132

The soil carbon/nitrogen ratio and moisture affect microbial community structures in alkaline permafrost-affected soils with different vegetation types on the Tibetan plateau.  

PubMed

In the Tibetan permafrost region, vegetation types and soil properties have been affected by permafrost degradation, but little is known about the corresponding patterns of their soil microbial communities. Thus, we analyzed the effects of vegetation types and their covariant soil properties on bacterial and fungal community structure and membership and bacterial community-level physiological patterns. Pyrosequencing and Biolog EcoPlates were used to analyze 19 permafrost-affected soil samples from four principal vegetation types: swamp meadow (SM), meadow (M), steppe (S) and desert steppe (DS). Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria dominated bacterial communities and the main fungal phyla were Ascomycota, Basidiomycota and Mucoromycotina. The ratios of Proteobacteria/Acidobacteria decreased in the order: SM>M>S>DS, whereas the Ascomycota/Basidiomycota ratios increased. The distributions of carbon and nitrogen cycling bacterial genera detected were related to soil properties. The bacterial communities in SM/M soils degraded amines/amino acids very rapidly, while polymers were degraded rapidly by S/DS communities. UniFrac analysis of bacterial communities detected differences among vegetation types. The fungal UniFrac community patterns of SM differed from the others. Redundancy analysis showed that the carbon/nitrogen ratio had the main effect on bacteria community structures and their diversity in alkaline soil, whereas soil moisture was mainly responsible for structuring fungal communities. Thus, microbial communities and their functioning are probably affected by soil environmental change in response to permafrost degradation. PMID:24463013

Zhang, Xinfang; Xu, Shijian; Li, Changming; Zhao, Lin; Feng, Huyuan; Yue, Guangyang; Ren, Zhengwei; Cheng, Guogdong

2014-01-01

133

5 S and 5.8 S ribosomal RNA sequences and protist phylogenetics.  

PubMed

More than 100 5 S 5.8 S rRNA sequences from protists, including fungi, are known. Through a combination of quantitative treeing and special consideration of "signature' nucleotide combinations, the most significant phylogenetic implications of these data are emphasized. Also, limitations of the data for phylogenetic inferences are discussed and other significant data are brought to bear on the inferences obtained. 5 S sequences from red algae are seen as the most isolated among eukaryotics. A 5 S sequence lineage consisting of oomycetes, euglenoids, most protozoa, most slime molds and perhaps dinoflagellates and mesozoa is defined. Such a lineage is not evident from 5.8 S rRNA or cytochrome c sequence data. 5 S sequences from Ascomycota and Basidiomycota are consistent with the proposal that each is derived from a mycelial form with a haploid yeast phase and simple septal pores, probably most resembling present Taphrinales. 5 S sequences from Chytridiomycota and Zygomycota are not clearly distinct from each other and suggest that a major lineage radiation occurred in the early history of each. Qualitative biochemical data clearly supports a dichotomy between an Ascomycota-Basidiomycota lineage and a Zygomycota-Chytridiomycota lineage. PMID:3910134

Walker, W F

1985-01-01

134

Massive parallel 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing reveals highly diverse fecal bacterial and fungal communities in healthy dogs and cats.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the fecal microbiota of 12 healthy pet dogs and 12 pet cats using bacterial and fungal tag-encoded FLX-Titanium amplicon pyrosequencing. A total of 120,406 pyrosequencing reads for bacteria (mean 5017) and 5359 sequences (one pool each for dogs and cats) for fungi were analyzed. Additionally, group-specific 16S rRNA gene clone libraries for Bifidobacterium spp. and lactic acid-producing bacteria (LAB) were constructed. The most abundant bacterial phylum was Firmicutes, followed by Bacteroidetes in dogs and Actinobacteria in cats. The most prevalent bacterial class in dogs and cats was Clostridia, dominated by the genera Clostridium (clusters XIVa and XI) and Ruminococcus. At the genus level, 85 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were identified in dogs and 113 OTUs in cats. Seventeen LAB and eight Bifidobacterium spp. were detected in canine feces. Ascomycota was the only fungal phylum detected in cats, while Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Glomeromycota, and Zygomycota were identified in dogs. Nacaseomyces was the most abundant fungal genus in dogs; Saccharomyces and Aspergillus were predominant in cats. At the genus level, 33 different fungal OTUs were observed in dogs and 17 OTUs in cats. In conclusion, this study revealed a highly diverse bacterial and fungal microbiota in canine and feline feces. PMID:21261668

Handl, Stefanie; Dowd, Scot E; Garcia-Mazcorro, Jose F; Steiner, Jörg M; Suchodolski, Jan S

2011-05-01

135

Activity of the novel fungicide SYP-Z048 against plant pathogens.  

PubMed

In in vitro tests with 18 plant pathogens, the fungicide 3-[5-(4-chlorophenyl)-2,3-dimethyl-3-isoxazolidinyl] pyridine (SYP-Z048) was highly effective on inhibiting mycelial growth of various ascomycota and basidiomycota, with EC50 values ranging from 0.008 to 1.140??g/ml. SYP-Z048 had much weaker activity against growth of oomycota with EC50 values > 100??g/ml. In a second in vitro test with Monilinia fructicola isolates, SYP-Z048 inhibited mycelial growth (EC50 = 0.013??g/ml), germ tube elongation (EC50 = 0.007??g/ml), and sporulation but did not affect spore germination. In a detached pear fruit assay inoculated with M. fructicola isolates, SYP-Z048 showed protective and curative activity. Field tests indicated that SYP-Z048 was an efficacious fungicide for control of brown rot disease in two peach orchards. When applied to a single spot on a tomato leaflet in a compound leaf, SYP-Z048 suppressed the growth of Botrytis cinerea isolates on the rest 4 leaflets, indicating that the fungicide has systemic movement in plant tissues. These results indicate that SYP-Z048 has potential for management of brown rot causing by M. fructicola and other diseases caused by ascomycota and basidiomycota. PMID:25253681

Chen, Fengping; Han, Ping; Liu, Pengfei; Si, Naiguo; Liu, Junli; Liu, Xili

2014-01-01

136

Traversing the fungal terpenome.  

PubMed

Fungi (Ascomycota and Basidiomycota) are prolific producers of structurally diverse terpenoid compounds. Classes of terpenoids identified in fungi include the sesqui-, di- and triterpenoids. Biosynthetic pathways and enzymes to terpenoids from each of these classes have been described. These typically involve the scaffold generating terpene synthases and cyclases, and scaffold tailoring enzymes such as e.g. cytochrome P450 monoxygenases, NAD(P)+ and flavin dependent oxidoreductases, and various group transferases that generate the final bioactive structures. The biosynthesis of several sesquiterpenoid mycotoxins and bioactive diterpenoids has been well-studied in Ascomycota (e.g. filamentous fungi). Little is known about the terpenoid biosynthetic pathways in Basidiomycota (e.g. mushroom forming fungi), although they produce a huge diversity of terpenoid natural products. Specifically, many trans-humulyl cation derived sesquiterpenoid natural products with potent bioactivities have been isolated. Biosynthetic gene clusters responsible for the production of trans-humulyl cation derived protoilludanes, and other sesquiterpenoids, can be rapidly identified by genome sequencing and bioinformatic methods. Genome mining combined with heterologous biosynthetic pathway refactoring has the potential to facilitate discovery and production of pharmaceutically relevant fungal terpenoids. PMID:25171145

Quin, Maureen B; Flynn, Christopher M; Schmidt-Dannert, Claudia

2014-10-01

137

Lack of evolutionary conservation at positions important for thermal stability in the yeast ODCase protein.  

PubMed

Mutations destabilizing the spatial structure of proteins can persist in populations if they are fixed by drift or compensated by other mutations. The prevalence and dynamics of these processes remain largely unrecognized. A suitable target to screen for both deleterious and compensatory mutations is the URA3 gene in yeast. We identified 13 positions in which a single missense substitution causes substantially strong thermal sensitivity. We then applied mild mutagenesis resulting in roughly one base substitution per gene and found that only reversions to an original amino acid can compensate for the thermal instability. However, the 13 positions are not visibly conserved across 53 species of Ascomycota, despite that the gene product is an enzyme of stable function and high efficiency. This shows how much fitness penalties for amino acid substitutions are background dependent, underscoring the role of complex intragenic interactions in the evolution of proteins. PMID:19349645

Jakubowska, Agata; Korona, Ryszard

2009-07-01

138

Diversity and biochemical features of culturable fungi from the coastal waters of Southern China  

PubMed Central

Fungi play a major role in various biogeochemical cycles of terrestrial and marine ecosystems. However, fungi in marine environments remain to be one of the most under-studied microbial groups. This study investigates the diversity of planktonic fungi from the coastal habitat off Pearl River Delta (China) using culture-dependent approach. A total of 22 fungi and 9 yeast isolates were recovered from 30 seawater and 2 sediment samples. Microscopic and ITS rRNA gene sequence analyses revealed that most of the fungi belonged to the phylum Ascomycota and Basidiomycota with a very small percentage (3%) of the subphylum Mucoromycotina of the Phylum Zygomycota. Most of these fungal isolates exhibited considerable production of extracellular enzymes, cellulase, lipase and laccase. Fungal isolates of two genera Mucor and Aspergillus sp. demonstrated pelletization capability over a wide range of pH, suggesting them as potential agents towards algae harvesting and wastewater treatment. PMID:25401065

2014-01-01

139

Biogeography in the air: fungal diversity over land and oceans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biogenic aerosols are relevant for the Earth system, climate, and public health on local, regional, and global scales. Up to now, however, little is known about the diversity and biogeography of airborne microorganisms. We present the first DNA-based analysis of airborne fungi on global scales, showing pronounced geographic patterns and boundaries. In particular we find that the ratio of species richness between Basidiomycota and Ascomycota is much higher in continental air than in marine air. This may be an important difference between the "blue ocean" and "green ocean" regimes in the formation of clouds and precipitation, for which fungal spores can act as nuclei. Our findings also suggest that air flow patterns and the global atmospheric circulation are important for the understanding of global changes in biodiversity.

Fröhlich-Nowoisky, J.; Burrows, S. M.; Xie, Z.; Engling, G.; Solomon, P. A.; Fraser, M. P.; Mayol-Bracero, O. L.; Artaxo, P.; Begerow, D.; Conrad, R.; Andreae, M. O.; Després, V. R.; Pöschl, U.

2012-03-01

140

Biogeography in the air: fungal diversity over land and oceans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biogenic aerosols are relevant for the Earth system, climate, and public health on local, regional, and global scales. Up to now, however, little is known about the diversity and biogeography of airborne microorganisms. We present the first DNA-based analysis of airborne fungi on global scales, showing pronounced geographic patterns and boundaries. In particular we found that the ratio of species richness between Basidiomycota and Ascomycota is much higher in continental air than in marine air. This may be an important difference between the "blue ocean" and "green ocean" regimes in the formation of clouds and precipitation, for which fungal spores can act as nuclei. Our findings also suggest that air flow patterns and the global atmospheric circulation are important for the evolution of microbial ecology and for the understanding of global changes in biodiversity.

Fröhlich-Nowoisky, J.; Burrows, S. M.; Xie, Z.; Engling, G.; Solomon, P. A.; Fraser, M. P.; Mayol-Bracero, O. L.; Artaxo, P.; Begerow, D.; Conrad, R.; Andreae, M. O.; Després, V. R.; Pöschl, U.

2011-07-01

141

Manipulation of culture conditions alters lipid content and fatty acid profiles of a wide variety of known and new oleaginous yeasts species  

PubMed Central

Oleaginous yeasts have been studied for oleochemical production for over 80 years. Only a few species have been studied intensely. To expand the diversity of oleaginous yeasts available for lipid research, we surveyed a broad diversity of yeasts with indicators of oleaginicity including known oleaginous clades, and buoyancy. Sixty-nine strains representing 17 genera and 50 species were screened for lipid production. Yeasts belonged to Ascomycota families, Basidiomycota orders, and the yeast-like algal genus Prototheca. Total intracellular lipids and fatty acid composition were determined under different incubation times and nitrogen availability. Thirteen new oleaginous yeast species were discovered, representing multiple ascomycete and basidiomycete clades. Nitrogen starvation generally increased intracellular lipid content. The fatty acid profiles varied with the growth conditions regardless of taxonomic affiliation. The dominant fatty acids were oleic acid, palmitic acid, linoleic acid, and stearic acid. Yeasts and culture conditions that produced fatty acids appropriate for biodiesel were identified. PMID:23891835

Sitepu, Irnayuli R.; Sestric, Ryan; Ignatia, Laura; Levin, David; German, J. Bruce; Gillies, Laura A.; Almada, Luis A.G.; Boundy-Mills, Kyria L.

2013-01-01

142

Comparison of dyes for easy detection of extracellular cellulases in fungi.  

PubMed

To evaluate which dye is effective in a plate assay for detecting extracellular cellulase activity produced by fungi, four chromogenic dyes including remazol brilliant blue, phenol red, congo red, and tryphan blue, were compared using chromagenic media. For the comparison, 19 fungal species belonging to three phyla, ascomycota, basidiomycota, and zygomycota were inoculated onto yeast nitrogen-based media containing different carbon substrates such as cellulose (carboxylmethyl and avicel types) and cellobiose labeled with each of the four dyes. Overall, the formation of clear zone on agar media resulting from the degradation of the substrates by the enzymes secreted from the test fungi was most apparent with media containing congo red. The detection frequency of cellulase activity was also most high on congo red-supplemented media. The results of this study showed that congo red is better dye than other three dyes in a plate assay for fungal enzyme detection. PMID:24015063

Yoon, Ji Hwan; Park, Ji Eun; Suh, Dong Yeon; Hong, Seung Beom; Ko, Seung Ju; Kim, Seong Hwan

2007-03-01

143

Aspergillus 6V4, a Strain Isolated from Manipueira, Produces High Amylases Levels by Using Wheat Bran as a Substrate.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was screening fungi strains, isolated from manipueira (a liquid subproduct obtained from the flour production of Manihot esculenta), for amylases production and investigating production of these enzymes by the strain Aspergillus 6V4. The fungi isolated from manipueira belonged to Ascomycota phylum. The strain Aspergillus 6V4 was the best amylase producer in the screening assay of starch hydrolysis in petri dishes (ASHPD) and in the assay in submerged fermentation (ASbF). The strain Aspergillus 6V4 produced high amylase levels (335?UI/L) using wheat bran infusion as the exclusive substrate and the supplementation of this substrate with peptone decreased the production of this enzyme. The moisture content of 70% was the best condition for the production of Aspergillus 6V4 amylases (385?IU/g) in solid state fermentation (SSF). PMID:24724017

Celestino, Jessyca Dos Reis; Duarte, Ana Caroline; Silva, Cláudia Maria de Melo; Sena, Hellen Holanda; Ferreira, Maria do Perpétuo Socorro Borges Carriço; Mallmann, Neila Hiraishi; Lima, Natacha Pinheiro Costa; Tavares, Chanderlei de Castro; de Souza, Rodrigo Otávio Silva; Souza, Erica Simplício; Souza, João Vicente Braga

2014-01-01

144

Zombie bugs? The fungus Purpureocillium cf. lilacinum may manipulate the behavior of its host bug Edessa rufomarginata.  

PubMed

Just before dying, Edessa rufomarginata (Hemiptera, Pentotomidae) individuals that are infected with the fungus Purpureocillium cf. lilacinum (Ascomycota: Ophiocordycipitaceae) move from the leaves onto the stems of their Solanum sp. host and firmly grasp the stems in ways seldom employed by uninfected bugs. These alterations in host behavior probably improve the chances that the subsequently produced fungal spores will be dispersed aerially. Purpureocillium cf. lilacinum is a member of the Ophiocordycipitaceae, a group in which other species also modify the behavior of their hosts. As in the case of newly distinguished relatives of Ophiocordyceps unilateralis associated with "zombie ants" the discovery of P. cf. lilacinum infecting bugs reveals that P. lilacinum may be more diverse than previously appreciated. PMID:25143477

Eberhard, William; Pacheco-Esquivel, Jessica; Carrasco-Rueda, Farah; Christopher, Yuliana; Gonzalez, Cely; Ramos, Daniel; Urbina, Hector; Blackwell, Meredith

2014-11-01

145

Fungal Endophyte Diversity in Sarracenia  

PubMed Central

Fungal endophytes were isolated from 4 species of the carnivorous pitcher plant genus Sarracenia: S. minor, S. oreophila, S. purpurea, and S. psittacina. Twelve taxa of fungi, 8 within the Ascomycota and 4 within the Basidiomycota, were identified based on PCR amplification and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA (ITS rDNA) with taxonomic identity assigned using the NCBI nucleotide megablast search tool. Endophytes are known to produce a large number of metabolites, some of which may contribute to the protection and survival of the host. We speculate that endophyte-infected Sarracenia may benefit from their fungal associates by their influence on nutrient availability from within pitchers and, possibly, by directly influencing the biota within pitchers. PMID:22427921

Glenn, Anthony; Bodri, Michael S.

2012-01-01

146

What is Scirrhia?  

PubMed

The ascomycetous genus Scirrhia is presently treated as a member of Dothideomycetidae, though uncertainty remains as to which family it belongs in Capnodiales, Ascomycota. Recent collections on stems of a fern, Pteridium aquilinum (Dennstaedtiaceae) in Brazil, led to the discovery of a new species of Scirrhia, described here as S.brasiliensis. Based on DNA sequence data of the nuclear ribosomal DNA (LSU), Scirrhia is revealed to represent a member of Dothideomycetes, Capnodiales, Mycosphaerellaceae. Scirrhia is the first confirmed genus in Mycosphaerellaceae to have well developed pseudoparaphyses and a prominent hypostroma in which ascomata are arranged in parallel rows. Given the extremely slow growth rate and difficulty in obtaining cultures of S. brasiliensis on various growth media, it appears that Scirrhia represents a genus of potentially obligate plant pathogens within Mycosphaerellaceae. PMID:22679597

Crous, Pedro W; Minnis, Andrew M; Pereira, Olinto L; Alfenas, Acelino C; Alfenas, Rafael F; Rossman, Amy Y; Groenewald, Johannes Z

2011-12-01

147

Discovery of cellobionic acid phosphorylase in cellulolytic bacteria and fungi.  

PubMed

A novel phosphorylase was characterized as new member of glycoside hydrolase family 94 from the cellulolytic bacterium Xanthomonas campestris and the fungus Neurospora crassa. The enzyme catalyzed reversible phosphorolysis of cellobionic acid. We propose 4-O-?-D-glucopyranosyl-D-gluconic acid: phosphate ?-D-glucosyltransferase as the systematic name and cellobionic acid phosphorylase as the short names for the novel enzyme. Several cellulolytic fungi of the phylum Ascomycota also possess homologous proteins. We, therefore, suggest that the enzyme plays a crucial role in cellulose degradation where cellobionic acid as oxidized cellulolytic product is converted into ?-D-glucose 1-phosphate and D-gluconic acid to enter glycolysis and the pentose phosphate pathway, respectively. PMID:24055472

Nihira, Takanori; Saito, Yuka; Nishimoto, Mamoru; Kitaoka, Motomitsu; Igarashi, Kiyohiko; Ohtsubo, Ken'ichi; Nakai, Hiroyuki

2013-11-01

148

Distribution and diversity of planktonic fungi in the West Pacific Warm Pool.  

PubMed

Fungi contribute substantially to biogeochemical cycles of terrestrial and marine habitats by decomposing matter and recycling nutrients. Yet, the diversity of their planktonic forms in the open ocean is poorly described. In this study, culture-independent and molecular approaches were applied to investigate fungal diversity and abundance derived from samples collected from a broad swath of the Pacific Warm Pool across major environmental gradients Our results revealed that planktonic fungi were molecularly diverse and their diversity patterns were related to major phytoplankton taxa and various nutrients including nitrate, nitrite, orthophosphate and silicic acid. Over 400 fungal phylotypes were recovered across this region and nearly half of them grouped into two major fungal lineages of Ascomycota and Basidiomycota, whose abundance varied among stations. These results suggest that planktonic fungi are a diverse and integral component of the marine microbial community and should be included in future marine microbial ecosystem models. PMID:24992154

Wang, Xin; Singh, Purnima; Gao, Zheng; Zhang, Xiaobo; Johnson, Zackary I; Wang, Guangyi

2014-01-01

149

Genome mining reveals the evolutionary origin and biosynthetic potential of basidiomycete polyketide synthases.  

PubMed

Numerous polyketides are known from bacteria, plants, and fungi. However, only a few have been isolated from basidiomycetes. Large scale genome sequencing projects now help anticipate the capacity of basidiomycetes to synthesize polyketides. In this study, we identified and annotated 111 type I and three type III polyketide synthase (PKS) genes from 35 sequenced basidiomycete genomes. Phylogenetic analysis of PKS genes suggests that all main types of fungal iterative PKS had already evolved before the Ascomycota and Basidiomycota diverged. A comparison of genomic and metabolomic data shows that the number of polyketide genes exceeds the number of known polyketide structures by far. Exploiting these results to design degenerate PCR primers, we amplified and cloned the complete sequence of armB, a PKS gene from the melleolide producer Armillaria mellea. We expect this study will serve as a guide for future genomic mining projects to discover structurally diverse mushroom-derived polyketides. PMID:23078836

Lackner, Gerald; Misiek, Mathias; Braesel, Jana; Hoffmeister, Dirk

2012-12-01

150

Fungal Cytochrome P450 Monooxygenases: Their Distribution, Structure, Functions, Family Expansion, and Evolutionary Origin  

PubMed Central

Cytochrome P450 (CYP) monooxygenase superfamily contributes a broad array of biological functions in living organisms. In fungi, CYPs play diverse and pivotal roles in versatile metabolism and fungal adaptation to specific ecological niches. In this report, CYPomes in the 47 genomes of fungi belong to the phyla Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Chytridiomycota, and Zygomycota have been studied. The comparison of fungal CYPomes suggests that generally fungi possess abundant CYPs belonging to a variety of families with the two global families CYP51 and CYP61, indicating individuation of CYPomes during the evolution of fungi. Fungal CYPs show highly conserved characteristic motifs, but very low overall sequence similarities. The characteristic motifs of fungal CYPs are distinguishable from those of CYPs in animals, plants, and especially archaea and bacteria. The four representative motifs contribute to the general function of CYPs. Fungal CYP51s and CYP61s can be used as the models for the substrate recognition sites analysis. The CYP proteins are clustered into 15 clades and the phylogenetic analyses suggest that the wide variety of fungal CYPs has mainly arisen from gene duplication. Two large duplication events might have been associated with the booming of Ascomycota and Basidiomycota. In addition, horizontal gene transfer also contributes to the diversification of fungal CYPs. Finally, a possible evolutionary scenario for fungal CYPs along with fungal divergences is proposed. Our results provide the fundamental information for a better understanding of CYP distribution, structure and function, and new insights into the evolutionary events of fungal CYPs along with the evolution of fungi. PMID:24966179

Chen, Wanping; Lee, Mi-Kyung; Jefcoate, Colin; Kim, Sun-Chang; Chen, Fusheng; Yu, Jae-Hyuk

2014-01-01

151

Statistical Approaches to Use a Model Organism for Regulatory Sequences Annotation of Newly Sequenced Species  

PubMed Central

A major goal of bioinformatics is the characterization of transcription factors and the transcriptional programs they regulate. Given the speed of genome sequencing, we would like to quickly annotate regulatory sequences in newly-sequenced genomes. In such cases, it would be helpful to predict sequence motifs by using experimental data from closely related model organism. Here we present a general algorithm that allow to identify transcription factor binding sites in one newly sequenced species by performing Bayesian regression on the annotated species. First we set the rationale of our method by applying it within the same species, then we extend it to use data available in closely related species. Finally, we generalise the method to handle the case when a certain number of experiments, from several species close to the species on which to make inference, are available. In order to show the performance of the method, we analyse three functionally related networks in the Ascomycota. Two gene network case studies are related to the G2/M phase of the Ascomycota cell cycle; the third is related to morphogenesis. We also compared the method with MatrixReduce and discuss other types of validation and tests. The first network is well known and provides a biological validation test of the method. The two cell cycle case studies, where the gene network size is conserved, demonstrate an effective utility in annotating new species sequences using all the available replicas from model species. The third case, where the gene network size varies among species, shows that the combination of information is less powerful but is still informative. Our methodology is quite general and could be extended to integrate other high-throughput data from model organisms. PMID:22984403

Liò, Pietro; Angelini, Claudia; De Feis, Italia; Nguyen, Viet-Anh

2012-01-01

152

Illumina sequencing of fungi associated with manganese oxide deposits in cave systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The environmental cycling of manganese (Mn) remains relatively poorly characterized when compared with other metals such as iron. However, fungi have been observed to produce Mn(III/IV) oxides resembling buserite, birnessite, and todorokite on the periphery of vegetative hyphae, hyphal branching points and at the base of fruiting bodies. Recent studies indicate that some of these oxides may be generated by a two-stage reaction with soluble Mn(II) and biogenic reactive oxygen species for some groups of fungi, in particular the Ascomycota. These oxides can provide a versatile protective barrier or aid in the capture of trace metals in the environment, although the exact evolutionary function and trigger is unclear. In this study, two caves in the southern Appalachians, a pristine cave and an anthropogenically impacted cave, were compared by analyzing fungal community assemblages in manganese oxide rich deposits. Quantitative PCR data indicated that fungi are present in a low abundance (<1%) in all locations sampled within the caves. Among amplified DNA sequences retrieved in an 18S rDNA clone library, over 88% were representative of the phylum Basidiomycota (predominantly Agaricomycetes), 2.74% of Ascomycota, 2.28% of Blastocladiomycota and Chytridiomycota, 0.46% of Zygomycota, and 3.65% of Eukarya or Fungi incertae sedis. Using Illumina's MiSeq to sequence amplicons of the fungal ITS1 gene has yielded roughly 100,000-200,000 paired-end reads per sample. These data are currently being analyzed to compare fungal communities before and after induced Mn oxidation in the field. In addition, sites within the pristine cave are being compared with analogous sites in the impacted cave. Culturing efforts have thus far yielded Mn oxide producing members of the orders Glomerales and Pleosporales as well as two Genus incertae sedis (Fungal sp. YECT1, and Fungal sp. YECT3, growing on discarded electrical tape) that do not appear to be closely related to any other known Mn oxidizing fungi.

Zorn, B. T.; Santelli, C. M.; Carmichael, S. K.; Pepe-Ranney, C. P.; Roble, L.; Carmichael, M.; Bräuer, S.

2013-12-01

153

Diverse Bacteria Inhabit Living Hyphae of Phylogenetically Diverse Fungal Endophytes? †  

PubMed Central

Both the establishment and outcomes of plant-fungus symbioses can be influenced by abiotic factors, the interplay of fungal and plant genotypes, and additional microbes associated with fungal mycelia. Recently bacterial endosymbionts were documented in soilborne Glomeromycota and Mucoromycotina and in at least one species each of mycorrhizal Basidiomycota and Ascomycota. Here we show for the first time that phylogenetically diverse endohyphal bacteria occur in living hyphae of diverse foliar endophytes, including representatives of four classes of Ascomycota. We examined 414 isolates of endophytic fungi, isolated from photosynthetic tissues of six species of cupressaceous trees in five biogeographic provinces, for endohyphal bacteria using microscopy and molecular techniques. Viable bacteria were observed within living hyphae of endophytic Pezizomycetes, Dothideomycetes, Eurotiomycetes, and Sordariomycetes from all tree species and biotic regions surveyed. A focus on 29 fungus/bacterium associations revealed that bacterial and fungal phylogenies were incongruent with each other and with taxonomic relationships of host plants. Overall, eight families and 15 distinct genotypes of endohyphal bacteria were recovered; most were members of the Proteobacteria, but a small number of Bacillaceae also were found, including one that appears to occur as an endophyte of plants. Frequent loss of bacteria following subculturing suggests a facultative association. Our study recovered distinct lineages of endohyphal bacteria relative to previous studies, is the first to document their occurrence in foliar endophytes representing four of the most species-rich classes of fungi, and highlights for the first time their diversity and phylogenetic relationships with regard both to the endophytes they inhabit and the plants in which these endophyte-bacterium symbiota occur. PMID:20435775

Hoffman, Michele T.; Arnold, A. Elizabeth

2010-01-01

154

Metaproteome analysis of the microbial community during leaf litter decomposition - the impact of stoichiometry and temperature perturbations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Leaf litter decomposition is the breakdown of dead plant material, a terrestrial ecosystem process of paramount importance. Nutrients released during decomposition play a key role for microbial growth and plant productivity. These processes are controlled by abiotic factors, such as climate, and by biotic factors, such as litter nutrient concentration and stoichiometry (carbon:nutrient ratio) and activity of soil organisms. Future climate change scenarios predict temperature perturbations, therefore following changes of microbial community composition and possible feedbacks on ecosystem processes are of key interest; especially as our knowledge about the microbial regulation of these processes is still scarce. Our aim was to elucidate how temperature perturbations and leaf litter stoichiometry affect the composition of the microbial decomposer community. To this end a terrestrial microcosm experiment using beech (Fagus sylvatica) litter with different stoichiometry was conducted. In a semi-quantitative metaproteomics approach (1D-SDS PAGE combined with liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry; unique spectral counting) we used the intrinsic metabolic function of proteins to relate specific microbial activities to their phylogenetic origin in multispecies communities. Decomposer communities varied on litter with different stoichiometry so that microbial decomposers (fungi and bacteria) were favoured in litter with narrow C:nutrient ratios. The fungal community was dominated by Ascomycota (Eurotiomycetes, Sordariomycetes) and Basidiomycota (Agaricomycetes) and the bacterial community was dominated by Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Firmicutes. The extracellular enzymes we detected belonged mainly to classes of xylanases, pectinases, cellulases and proteases and were almost exclusively of fungal origin (particularly Ascomycota). Temperature stress (heat and frost) evoked strong changes in community composition, enzyme activities, dissolved organic nitrogen and litter pH. Freeze treatments resulted in increased fungal abundance and a decline in residual plant litter material, indicating slightly accelerated decomposition. Extracellular enzyme activities were especially blocked by heat treatment. Using metaproteomics enabled us to link the composition of the microbial community to its ecosystem function.

Keiblinger, K. M.; Schneider, T.; Leitner, S.; Hämmerle, I.; Riedel, K.; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, S.

2012-04-01

155

Unequal Recombination and Evolution of the Mating-Type (MAT) Loci in the Pathogenic Fungus Grosmannia clavigera and Relatives  

PubMed Central

Sexual reproduction in fungi is regulated by the mating-type (MAT) locus where recombination is suppressed. We investigated the evolution of MAT loci in eight fungal species belonging to Grosmannia and Ophiostoma (Sordariomycetes, Ascomycota) that include conifer pathogens and beetle symbionts. The MAT1-2 idiomorph/allele was identified from the assembled and annotated Grosmannia clavigera genome, and the MAT locus is flanked by genes coding for cytoskeleton protein (SLA) and DNA lyase. The synteny of these genes is conserved and consistent with other members in Ascomycota. Using sequences from SLA and flanking regions, we characterized the MAT1-1 idiomorph from other isolates of G. clavigera and performed dotplot analysis between the two idiomorphs. Unexpectedly, the MAT1-2 idiomorph contains a truncated MAT1-1-1 gene upstream of the MAT1-2-1 gene that bears the high-mobility-group domain. The nucleotide and amino acid sequence of the truncated MAT1-1-1 gene is similar to its homologous copy in the MAT1-1 idiomorph in the opposite mating-type isolate, except that positive selection is acting on the truncated gene and the alpha(?)-box that encodes the transcription factor has been deleted. The MAT idiomorphs sharing identical gene organization were present in seven additional species in the Ophiostomatales, suggesting that the presence of truncated MAT1-1-1 gene is a general pattern in this order. We propose that an ancient unequal recombination event resulted in the ancestral MAT1-1-1 gene integrated into the MAT1-2 idiomorph and surviving as the truncated MAT1-1-1 genes. The ?-box domain of MAT1-1-1 gene, located at the same MAT locus adjacent to the MAT1-2-1 gene, could have been removed by deletion after recombination due to mating signal interference. Our data confirmed a 1:1 MAT/sex ratio in two pathogen populations, and showed that all members of the Ophiostomatales studied here including those that were previously deemed asexual have the potential to reproduce sexually. This ability can potentially increase genetic variability and can enhance fitness in new, ecological niches. PMID:23450093

Tsui, Clement K.-M.; DiGuistini, Scott; Wang, Ye; Feau, Nicolas; Dhillon, Braham; Bohlmann, Jorg; Hamelin, Richard C.

2013-01-01

156

Ice nucleation by fungal spores from the classes Agaricomycetes, Ustilaginomycetes, and Eurotiomycetes, and the effect on the atmospheric transport of these spores  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We studied the ice nucleation properties of 12 different species of fungal spores chosen from three classes: Agaricomycetes, Ustilaginomycetes, and Eurotiomycetes. Agaricomycetes include many types of mushroom species and are widely distributed over the globe. Ustilaginomycetes are agricultural pathogens and have caused widespread damage to crops. Eurotiomycetes are found on all types of decaying material and include important human allergens. We focused on these classes because they are thought to be abundant in the atmosphere and because there is very little information on the ice nucleation ability of these classes of spores in the literature. All of the fungal spores investigated contained some fraction of spores that serve as ice nuclei at temperatures warmer than homogeneous freezing. The cumulative number of ice nuclei per spore was 0.001 at temperatures between -19 °C and -29 °C, 0.01 between -25.5 °C and -31 °C, and 0.1 between -26 °C and -31.5 °C. On average, the order of ice nucleating ability for these spores is Ustilaginomycetes > Agaricomycetes ? Eurotiomycetes. The freezing data also suggests that, at temperatures ranging from -20 °C to -25 °C, all of the fungal spores studied here are less efficient ice nuclei compared to Asian mineral dust on a per surface area basis. We used our new freezing results together with data in the literature to compare the freezing temperatures of spores from the phyla Basidiomycota and Ascomycota, which together make up 98% of known fungal species found on Earth. The data show that within both phyla (Ascomycota and Basidiomycota), there is a wide range of freezing properties, and also that the variation within a phylum is greater than the variation between the average freezing properties of the phyla. Using a global chemistry-climate transport model, we investigated whether ice nucleation on the studied spores, followed by precipitation, can influence the transport and global distributions of these spores in the atmosphere. Simulations suggest that inclusion of ice nucleation scavenging of these fungal spores in mixed-phase clouds can decrease the annual mean concentrations of fungal spores in near-surface air over the oceans and polar regions, and decrease annual mean concentrations in the upper troposphere.

Haga, D. I.; Burrows, S. M.; Iannone, R.; Wheeler, M. J.; Mason, R. H.; Chen, J.; Polishchuk, E. A.; Pöschl, U.; Bertram, A. K.

2014-08-01

157

Growth Inhibition of Beauveria bassiana by Bacteria Isolated from the Cuticular Surface of the Corn Leafhopper, Dalbulus maidis and the Planthopper, Delphacodes kuscheli, Two Important Vectors of Maize Pathogens  

PubMed Central

The phytosanitary importance of the corn leafhopper, Dalbulus maidis (De Long and Wolcott) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) and the planthopper, Delphacodes kuscheli Fennah (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) lies in their ability to transmit phloem-associated plant pathogens, mainly viruses and mollicutes, and to cause considerable mechanical damage to corn plants during feeding and oviposition. Fungi, particularly some members of the Ascomycota, are likely candidates for biocontrol agents against these insect pests, but several studies revealed their failure to invade the insect cuticle possibly because of the presence of inhibitory compounds such as phenols, quinones, and lipids and also by the antibiosis effect of the microbiota living on the cuticular surface of the host. The present work aims to understand interactions between the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Balsamao-Crivelli) Vuillemin (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae) and bacterial antagonists isolated from the cuticular surface of D. maidis and D. kuscheli. A total of 155 bacterial isolates were recovered from the insect's cuticle and tested against B. bassiana. Ninety-one out of 155 strains inhibited the growth of B. bassiana. Bacterial strains isolated from D. maidis were significantly more antagonistic against B. bassiana than those isolates from D. kuscheli. Among the most effective antagonistic strains, six isolates of Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bacillales: Bacillaeae (after B. subtilis)), one isolate of B. mycoides Flügge, eight isolates of B. megaterium de Bary, five isolates of B.pumilus Meyer and Gottheil, one isolate of B. licheniformis (Weigmann) Chester, and four isolates of B. subtilis (Ehrenberg) Cohn were identified. PMID:21529147

Toledo, A.V.; Alippi, A.M.; de Remes Lenicov, A.M.M.

2011-01-01

158

The agricultural pathology of ant fungus gardens  

PubMed Central

Gardens of fungus-growing ants (Formicidae: Attini) traditionally have been thought to be free of microbial parasites, with the fungal mutualist maintained in nearly pure “monocultures.” We conducted extensive isolations of “alien” (nonmutualistic) fungi from ant gardens of a phylogenetically representative collection of attine ants. Contrary to the long-standing assumption that gardens are maintained free of microbial pathogens and parasites, they are in fact host to specialized parasites that are only known from attine gardens and that are found in most attine nests. These specialized garden parasites, belonging to the microfungus genus Escovopsis (Ascomycota: anamorphic Hypocreales), are horizontally transmitted between colonies. Consistent with theory of virulence evolution under this mode of pathogen transmission, Escovopsis is highly virulent and has the potential for rapid devastation of ant gardens, leading to colony mortality. The specialized parasite Escovopsis is more prevalent in gardens of the more derived ant lineages than in gardens of the more “primitive” (basal) ant lineages. Because fungal cultivars of derived attine lineages are asexual clones of apparently ancient origin whereas cultivars of primitive ant lineages were domesticated relatively recently from free-living sexual stocks, the increased virulence of pathogens associated with ancient asexual cultivars suggests an evolutionary cost to cultivar clonality, perhaps resulting from slower evolutionary rates of cultivars in the coevolutionary race with their pathogens. PMID:10393936

Currie, Cameron R.; Mueller, Ulrich G.; Malloch, David

1999-01-01

159

Chalkbrood transmission in the alfalfa leafcutting bee: the impact of disinfecting bee cocoons in loose cell management systems.  

PubMed

Understanding pathogen transmission could illuminate new methods for disease prevention. A case in point is chalkbrood in the alfalfa leafcutting bee [Megachile rotundata (F.)]. Propagation of this solitary bee is severely hampered by chalkbrood, a larval disease caused by Ascosphaera aggregata (Ascomycota). Alfalfa leafcutting bees nest in existing cavities in wood or hollow reeds and overwinter as larvae. In the early summer, emerging adults frequently must chew through dead, diseased siblings that block their exit, becoming contaminated with chalkbrood spores in the process. When alfalfa leafcutting bees are used as a commercial pollinator, the cocoons are removed from nesting boards to reduce chalkbrood transmission, but the disease is still common. To determine if these removed cocoons (called loose cells) are an important source of disease transmission, they were disinfected with a fungicide before bees were incubated, and released in the field. Chalkbrood prevalence among the progeny of the treated bees was reduced up to 50% in one field trial, but not significantly when tested in an on-farm trial. Thus, substantial disease transmission still occurred when the loose cells were disinfected, and even when clean nesting materials were used. In conclusion, pathogen transmission must still be occurring from another source that has yet to be identified. Another possible source of transmission could arise from bees that emerge midsummer in populations with a high percent of multivoltinism, but dirty nesting boards and feral bees also may be minor sources of transmission. PMID:22251678

James, R R

2011-08-01

160

Phylogenomic Relationships between Amylolytic Enzymes from 85 Strains of Fungi  

PubMed Central

Fungal amylolytic enzymes, including ?-amylase, gluocoamylase and ?-glucosidase, have been extensively exploited in diverse industrial applications such as high fructose syrup production, paper making, food processing and ethanol production. In this paper, amylolytic genes of 85 strains of fungi from the phyla Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Chytridiomycota and Zygomycota were annotated on the genomic scale according to the classification of glycoside hydrolase (GH) from the Carbohydrate-Active enZymes (CAZy) Database. Comparisons of gene abundance in the fungi suggested that the repertoire of amylolytic genes adapted to their respective lifestyles. Amylolytic enzymes in family GH13 were divided into four distinct clades identified as heterologous ?- amylases, eukaryotic ?-amylases, bacterial and fungal ?-amylases and GH13 ?-glucosidases. Family GH15 had two branches, one for gluocoamylases, and the other with currently unknown function. GH31 ?-glucosidases showed diverse branches consisting of neutral ?-glucosidases, lysosomal acid ?-glucosidases and a new clade phylogenetically related to the bacterial counterparts. Distribution of starch-binding domains in above fungal amylolytic enzymes was related to the enzyme source and phylogeny. Finally, likely scenarios for the evolution of amylolytic enzymes in fungi based on phylogenetic analyses were proposed. Our results provide new insights into evolutionary relationships among subgroups of fungal amylolytic enzymes and fungal evolutionary adaptation to ecological conditions. PMID:23166747

Chen, Wanping; Xie, Ting; Shao, Yanchun; Chen, Fusheng

2012-01-01

161

Proteomics Shows New Faces for the Old Penicillin Producer Penicillium chrysogenum  

PubMed Central

Fungi comprise a vast group of microorganisms including the Ascomycota (majority of all described fungi), the Basidiomycota (mushrooms or higher fungi), and the Zygomycota and Chytridiomycota (basal or lower fungi) that produce industrially interesting secondary metabolites, such as ?-lactam antibiotics. These compounds are one of the most commonly prescribed drugs world-wide. Since Fleming's initial discovery of Penicillium notatum 80 years ago, the role of Penicillium as an antimicrobial source became patent. After the isolation of Penicillium chrysogenum NRRL 1951 six decades ago, classical mutagenesis and screening programs led to the development of industrial strains with increased productivity (at least three orders of magnitude). The new “omics” era has provided the key to understand the underlying mechanisms of the industrial strain improvement process. The review of different proteomics methods applied to P. chrysogenum has revealed that industrial modification of this microorganism was a consequence of a careful rebalancing of several metabolic pathways. In addition, the secretome analysis of P. chrysogenum has opened the door to new industrial applications for this versatile filamentous fungus. PMID:22318718

Barreiro, Carlos; Martin, Juan F.; Garcia-Estrada, Carlos

2012-01-01

162

Tasting Soil Fungal Diversity with Earth Tongues: Phylogenetic Test of SAT? Alignments for Environmental ITS Data  

PubMed Central

An abundance of novel fungal lineages have been indicated by DNA sequencing of the nuclear ribosomal ITS region from environmental samples such as soil and wood. Although phylogenetic analysis of these novel lineages is a key component of unveiling the structure and diversity of complex communities, such analyses are rare for environmental ITS data due to the difficulties of aligning this locus across significantly divergent taxa. One potential approach to this issue is simultaneous alignment and tree estimation. We targeted divergent ITS sequences of the earth tongue fungi (Geoglossomycetes), a basal class in the Ascomycota, to assess the performance of SATé, recent software that combines progressive alignment and tree building. We found that SATé performed well in generating high-quality alignments and in accurately estimating the phylogeny of earth tongue fungi. Drawing from a data set of 300 sequences of earth tongues and progressively more distant fungal lineages, 30 insufficiently identified ITS sequences from the public sequence databases were assigned to the Geoglossomycetes. The association between earth tongues and plants has been hypothesized for a long time, but hard evidence is yet to be collected. The ITS phylogeny showed that four ectomycorrhizal isolates shared a clade with Geoglossum but not with Trichoglossum earth tongues, pointing to the significant potential inherent to ecological data mining of environmental samples. Environmental sampling holds the key to many focal questions in mycology, and simultaneous alignment and tree estimation, as performed by SATé, can be a highly efficient companion in that pursuit. PMID:21533038

Wang, Zheng; Nilsson, R. Henrik; Lopez-Giraldez, Francesc; Zhuang, Wen-ying; Dai, Yu-cheng; Johnston, Peter R.; Townsend, Jeffrey P.

2011-01-01

163

Microbial community on healthy and diseased leaves of an invasive plant Eupatorium adenophorum in Southwest China.  

PubMed

Invasive plants have caused great economic losses and environmental problems worldwide. Eupatorium adenophorum is one of the most invasive weeds in China. To better understand its invasive mechanisms, in the present paper, the microbial communities of healthy and diseased leaves of E. adenophorum were obtained using both culture-independent and -dependent methods and their diversities were compared. The bacteria obtained from culture-independent method belong to Proteobacteria (95.8%), Actinobacteria (2.1%), and Firmicutes (2.1%) and fungi belong to Ascomycota (65.2%) and Basidiomycota (34.8%). Very few overlapped microbial species were found by culture-dependent and -independent methods. Healthy leaves display higher bacterial diversity than diseased leaves. Phylogenetic structures are very different between healthy and diseased phyllosphere microbial communities. Bacteria close to Acinetobacter and Pseudomonas were dominant on healthy leaves, whereas those close to Shigella were dominant on diseased leaves. 52.9% of fungal clones from healthy leaves were Ustilaginomycetes, close to Rhodotorula phylloplana and uncultured basidomycete; by contrast, 60% of clones from diseased leaves were Lecanoromycetes, close to Umbilicaria muehlenbergii. No bacteria but four fungal strains phylogenetically close to Myrothecium sp. and Alternaria alternate were pathogenic to seedlings and detached leaves of the invasive plant. Therefore, this plant may be resistant to pathogens from bacteria but not fungi in its introduced range. PMID:20437143

Zhou, Zhen-Xin; Jiang, Huan; Yang, Chen; Yang, Ming-Zhi; Zhang, Han-Bo

2010-04-01

164

Research Article Isolation and Characterization of a Novel Facultative Anaerobic Filamentous Fungus from Japanese Rice Field Soil  

E-print Network

novel filamentous fungus strain designated RB-1 was isolated into pure culture from Japanese rice field soil through an anaerobic role tube technique. The strain is a mitosporic fungus that grows in both aerobic and strict anaerobic conditions using various mono-, di-, tri-, and polysaccharides with acetate and ethanol productions. The amount of acetate produced was higher than that of ethanol in both aerobic and anaerobic cultures. The characteristic verrucose or punctuate conidia of RB-1 closely resembled thoseofsomestrainsofthegenusThermomyces, a thermophilic or mesophilic anamorphic ascomycete. However, based on phylogenetic analysis with the small subunit (SSU) and large subunit (LSU) rDNA sequences, RB-1 was characterized as a member of the class Lecanoromycetes of the phylum Ascomycota. Currently, RB-1 is designated as an anamorphic ascomycete and is phylogenetically considered an incertae sedis within the class Lecanoromycetes. Copyright © 2009 Akio Tonouchi. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 1.

Akio Tonouchi

165

Fungal alternative splicing is associated with multicellular complexity and virulence: a genome-wide multi-species study.  

PubMed

Alternative splicing (AS) is a cellular process that increases a cell's coding capacity from a limited set of genes. Although AS is common in higher plants and animals, its prevalence in other eukaryotes is mostly unknown. In fungi the involvement of AS in gene expression and its effect on multi-cellularity and virulence is of great medical and economic interest. We present a genome-wide comparative study of AS in 23 informative fungi of different taxa, based on alignments of public transcript sequences. Random sampling of expressed sequence tags allows for robust and comparable estimations of AS rates. We find that a greater fraction of fungal genes than previously expected is associated with AS. We estimate that on average, 6.4% of the annotated genes are affected by AS, with Cryptococcus neoformans showing an extraordinary rate of 18%. The investigated Basidiomycota show higher average AS rates (8.6%) than the Ascomycota (6.0%), although not significant. We find that multi-cellular complexity and younger evolutionary age associate with higher AS rates. Furthermore, AS affects genes involved in pathogenic lifestyle, particularly in functions of stress response and dimorphic switching. Together, our analysis strongly supports the view that AS is a rather common phenomenon in fungi and associates with higher multi-cellular complexity. PMID:24122896

Grützmann, Konrad; Szafranski, Karol; Pohl, Martin; Voigt, Kerstin; Petzold, Andreas; Schuster, Stefan

2014-02-01

166

Cellulose utilization in forest litter and soil: identification of bacterial and fungal decomposers.  

PubMed

Organic matter decomposition in the globally widespread coniferous forests has an important role in the carbon cycle, and cellulose decomposition is especially important in this respect because cellulose is the most abundant polysaccharide in plant litter. Cellulose decomposition was 10 times faster in the fungi-dominated litter of Picea abies forest than in the bacteria-dominated soil. In the soil, the added (13)C-labelled cellulose was the main source of microbial respiration and was preferentially accumulated in the fungal biomass and cellulose induced fungal proliferation. In contrast, in the litter, bacterial biomass showed higher labelling after (13)C-cellulose addition and bacterial biomass increased. While 80% of the total community was represented by 104-106 bacterial and 33-59 fungal operational taxonomic units (OTUs), 80% of the cellulolytic communities of bacteria and fungi were only composed of 8-18 highly abundant OTUs. Both the total and (13)C-labelled communities differed substantially between the litter and soil. Cellulolytic bacteria in the acidic topsoil included Betaproteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Acidobacteria, whereas these typically found in neutral soils were absent. Most fungal cellulose decomposers belonged to Ascomycota; cellulolytic Basidiomycota were mainly represented by the yeasts Trichosporon and Cryptococcus. Several bacteria and fungi demonstrated here to derive their carbon from cellulose were previously not recognized as cellulolytic. PMID:22379979

Stursová, Martina; Zif?áková, Lucia; Leigh, Mary Beth; Burgess, Robert; Baldrian, Petr

2012-06-01

167

Endophytic fungi from Lycium chinense Mill and characterization of two new Korean records of Colletotrichum.  

PubMed

Chinese boxthorn or matrimony vine (Lycium chinense Mill) is found primarily in southeastern Europe and Asia, including Korea. The dried ripe fruits are commonly used as oriental medicinal purposes. Endophytic fungi were isolated from surface sterilized tissues and fruits of the medicinal plant in 2013 to identify the new or unreported species in Korea. Among 14 isolates, 10 morphospecies were selected for molecular identification with the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) gene. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all isolates belonged to Ascomycota including the genera Acremonium, Colletotrichum, Cochliobolus, Fusarium, Hypocrea and Nemania. Two Colletotrichum species were identified at the species level, using three genes including internal transcribed spacer (ITS), glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and Actin (ACT) for PCR and molecular data analysis along with morphological observations. The fungal isolates, CNU122031 and CNU122032 were identified as Colletotrichum fructicola and C. brevisporum, respectively. Morphological observations also well supported the molecular identification. C. brevisporum is represented unrecorded species in Korea and C. fructicola is the first record from the host plant. PMID:25170812

Paul, Narayan Chandra; Lee, Hyang Burm; Lee, Ji Hye; Shin, Kyu Seop; Ryu, Tae Hee; Kwon, Hye Ri; Kim, Yeong Kuk; Youn, Young Nam; Yu, Seung Hun

2014-01-01

168

The Distribution and Identity of Edaphic Fungi in the McMurdo Dry Valleys.  

PubMed

Contrary to earlier assumptions, molecular evidence has demonstrated the presence of diverse and localized soil bacterial communities in the McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica. Meanwhile, it remains unclear whether fungal signals so far detected in Dry Valley soils using both culture-based and molecular techniques represent adapted and ecologically active biomass or spores transported by wind. Through a systematic and quantitative molecular survey, we identified significant heterogeneities in soil fungal communities across the Dry Valleys that robustly correlate with heterogeneities in soil physicochemical properties. Community fingerprinting analysis and 454 pyrosequencing of the fungal ribosomal intergenic spacer region revealed different levels of heterogeneity in fungal diversity within individual Dry Valleys and a surprising abundance of Chytridiomycota species, whereas previous studies suggested that Dry Valley soils were dominated by Ascomycota and Basidiomycota. Critically, we identified significant differences in fungal community composition and structure of adjacent sites with no obvious barrier to aeolian transport between them. These findings suggest that edaphic fungi of the Antarctic Dry Valleys are adapted to local environments and represent an ecologically relevant (and possibly important) heterotrophic component of the ecosystem. PMID:25079129

Dreesens, Lisa L; Lee, Charles K; Cary, S Craig

2014-01-01

169

Two members of the Ustilago maydis velvet family influence teliospore development and virulence on maize seedlings.  

PubMed

Members of the fungal-specific velvet protein family regulate sexual and asexual spore production in the Ascomycota. We predicted, therefore, that velvet homologs in the basidiomycetous plant pathogen Ustilago maydis would regulate sexual spore development, which is also associated with plant disease progression in this fungus. To test this hypothesis, we studied the function of three U. maydis velvet genes, umv1, umv2 and umv3. Using a gene replacement strategy, deletion mutants were made in all three genes in compatible haploid strains, and additionally for umv1 and umv2 in the solopathogenic strain, SG200. None of the mutants showed novel morphological phenotypes during yeast-like, in vitro growth. However, the ?umv1 mutants failed to induce galls or teliospores in maize. Chlorazol black E staining of leaves infected with ?umv1 dikaryons revealed that the ?umv1 hyphae did not proliferate normally and were blocked developmentally before teliospore formation. The ?umv2 mutants were able to induce galls and teliospores in maize, but were slow to do so and thus reduced in virulence. The ?umv3 mutants were not affected in teliospore formation or disease progression. Complementation of the ?umv1 and ?umv2 mutations in the SG200 background produced disease indices similar to those of SG200. These results indicate that two U. maydis velvet family members, umv1 and umv2, are important for normal teliospore development and disease progression in maize seedlings. PMID:24064149

Karakkat, Brijesh B; Gold, Scott E; Covert, Sarah F

2013-12-01

170

Glucosylation and Other Biotransformations of T-2 Toxin by Yeasts of the Trichomonascus Clade  

PubMed Central

Trichothecenes are sesquiterpenoid toxins produced by Fusarium species. Since these mycotoxins are very stable, there is interest in microbial transformations that can remove toxins from contaminated grain or cereal products. Twenty-three yeast species assigned to the Trichomonascus clade (Saccharomycotina, Ascomycota), including four Trichomonascus species and 19 anamorphic species presently classified in Blastobotrys, were tested for their ability to convert the trichothecene T-2 toxin to less-toxic products. These species gave three types of biotransformations: acetylation to 3-acetyl T-2 toxin, glycosylation to T-2 toxin 3-glucoside, and removal of the isovaleryl group to form neosolaniol. Some species gave more than one type of biotransformation. Three Blastobotrys species converted T-2 toxin into T-2 toxin 3-glucoside, a compound that has been identified as a masked mycotoxin in Fusarium-infected grain. This is the first report of a microbial whole-cell method for producing trichothecene glycosides, and the potential large-scale availability of T-2 toxin 3-glucoside will facilitate toxicity testing and development of methods for detection of this compound in agricultural and other products. PMID:23042183

Price, Neil P. J.; Kurtzman, Cletus P.

2012-01-01

171

Diversity of fungal isolates from three Hawaiian marine sponges.  

PubMed

Sponges harbor diverse prokaryotic and eukaryotic microbes. However, the nature of sponge-fungal association and diversity of sponge-derived fungi have barely been addressed. In this study, the cultivation-dependent approach was applied to study fungal diversity in the Hawaiian sponges Gelliodes fibrosa, Haliclona caerulea, and Mycale armata. The cultivated fungal isolates were representatives of 8 taxonomic orders, belonging to at least 25 genera of Ascomycota and 1 of Basidiomycota. A portion of these isolates (n=15, 17%) were closely affiliated with fungal isolates isolated from other marine habitats; the rest of the isolates had affiliation with terrestrial fungal strains. Cultivated fungal isolates were classified into 3 groups: 'sponge-generalists'-found in all sponge species, 'sponge-associates'-found in more than one sponge species, and 'sponge-specialists'-found only in one sponge species. Individuals of G. fibrosa collected at two different locations shared the same group of 'sponge-specialists'. Also, representatives of 15 genera were identified for the first time in marine sponges. Large-scale phylogenetic analysis of sponge-derived fungi may provide critical information to distinguish between 'resident fungi' and 'transient fungi' in sponges as it has been done in other marine microbial groups. This is the first report of the host specificity analysis of culturable fungal communities in marine sponges. PMID:17681460

Li, Quanzi; Wang, Guangyi

2009-01-01

172

Kohninia linnaeicola, a new genus and species of the Sclerotiniaceae pathogenic to Linnaea borealis.  

PubMed

A new genus and species is described to accommodate a newly discovered fungus pathogenic to Linnaea borealis. The fungus forms true sclerotia on stems and leaves of its host and apothecia arise singly or gregariously on the surface of ripe sclerotia. The new fungus was collected together with a stromatic conidiomal fungus that occurred on the same host. A putative teleomorph-anamorph connection of the observed taxa was ruled out by sequence comparison of the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer DNA sequences (ITS rDNA). Based on morphology and pathogenicity, the new fungus belongs in the family Sclerotiniaceae, Helotiales, Ascomycota. A phylogenetic analysis of ITS rDNA sequences from 26 taxa of the family Sclerotiniaceae was performed to conclude on the systematic position of the new fungus. The small tuberoid sclerotia, brownish subsessile to substipitate apothecia, four-spored asci, ellipsoid to isthmoid ascospores, inability to grow on PDA culture media and a number of ITS rDNA sequence autapomorphies characterize and distinguish the fungus from other taxa of the Sclerotiniaceae. PMID:21148835

Holst-Jensen, Arne; Vrålstad, Trude; Schumacher, Trond

2004-01-01

173

Microbial hitchhikers on intercontinental dust: catching a lift in Chad  

PubMed Central

Ancient mariners knew that dust whipped up from deserts by strong winds travelled long distances, including over oceans. Satellite remote sensing revealed major dust sources across the Sahara. Indeed, the Bodélé Depression in the Republic of Chad has been called the dustiest place on earth. We analysed desert sand from various locations in Chad and dust that had blown to the Cape Verde Islands. High throughput sequencing techniques combined with classical microbiological methods showed that the samples contained a large variety of microbes well adapted to the harsh desert conditions. The most abundant bacterial groupings in four different phyla included: (a) Firmicutes—Bacillaceae, (b) Actinobacteria—Geodermatophilaceae, Nocardiodaceae and Solirubrobacteraceae, (c) Proteobacteria—Oxalobacteraceae, Rhizobiales and Sphingomonadaceae, and (d) Bacteroidetes—Cytophagaceae. Ascomycota was the overwhelmingly dominant fungal group followed by Basidiomycota and traces of Chytridiomycota, Microsporidia and Glomeromycota. Two freshwater algae (Trebouxiophyceae) were isolated. Most predominant taxa are widely distributed land inhabitants that are common in soil and on the surfaces of plants. Examples include Bradyrhizobium spp. that nodulate and fix nitrogen in Acacia species, the predominant trees of the Sahara as well as Herbaspirillum (Oxalobacteraceae), a group of chemoorganotrophic free-living soil inhabitants that fix nitrogen in association with Gramineae roots. Few pathogenic strains were found, suggesting that African dust is not a large threat to public health. PMID:23254516

Favet, Jocelyne; Lapanje, Ales; Giongo, Adriana; Kennedy, Suzanne; Aung, Yin-Yin; Cattaneo, Arlette; Davis-Richardson, Austin G; Brown, Christopher T; Kort, Renate; Brumsack, Hans-Jurgen; Schnetger, Bernhard; Chappell, Adrian; Kroijenga, Jaap; Beck, Andreas; Schwibbert, Karin; Mohamed, Ahmed H; Kirchner, Timothy; de Quadros, Patricia Dorr; Triplett, Eric W; Broughton, William J; Gorbushina, Anna A

2013-01-01

174

The Polyketide Synthase Gene pks4 of Trichoderma reesei Provides Pigmentation and Stress Resistance  

PubMed Central

Species of the fungal genus Trichoderma (Hypocreales, Ascomycota) are well-known for their production of various secondary metabolites. Nonribosomal peptides and polyketides represent a major portion of these products. In a recent phylogenomic investigation of Trichoderma polyketide synthase (PKS)-encoding genes, the pks4 from T. reesei was shown to be an orthologue of pigment-forming PKSs involved in synthesis of aurofusarin and bikaverin in Fusarium spp. In this study, we show that deletion of this gene in T. reesei results in loss of green conidial pigmentation and in pigmentation alteration of teleomorph structures. It also has an impact on conidial cell wall stability and the antagonistic abilities of T. reesei against other fungi, including formation of inhibitory metabolites. In addition, deletion of pks4 significantly influences the expression of other PKS-encoding genes of T. reesei. To our knowledge, this is the first indication that a low-molecular-weight pigment-forming PKS is involved in defense, mechanical stability, and stress resistance in fungi. PMID:24036343

Atanasova, Lea; Knox, Benjamin P.; Kubicek, Christian P.; Baker, Scott E.

2013-01-01

175

[Isolation of wood-decaying fungi and evaluation of their enzymatic activity (Quindío, Colombia)].  

PubMed

White rot fungi (Ascomycota and Basidiomycota) were collected on fallen trunks with different decay stages, in a subandean forest (La Montaña del Ocaso nature reserve), and it was evaluated their ligninolitic activity. They were cultured on malt extract agar. Then it was performed semiquantitative tests for laccase and cellobiose dehydrogenase (CDH) activity using ABTS and DCPIP as enzymatic inducers. Based on the results of these tests, the fungi with higher activities from trunks with different decay stages were selected: Cookeina sulcipes (for stage 1), a fungus from the family Corticiaceae (for stage 2), Xylaria polymorpha (for stage 3) and Earliella sp. (for stage 4). A fermentation was performed at 28 degrees C, during 11 days, in a rotatory shaker at 150 rpm. Biomass, glucose, proteins and enzyme activities measurements were performed daily. The fungi that were in the trunks with decay states from 1 to 3, showed higher laccase activity as the state of decay increased. A higher DCH activity was also associated with a higher. Also, there was a positive relationship between both enzymes' activities. Erliella was the fungus which presented the highest biomass production (1140,19 g/l), laccase activity (157 UL(-1)) and CDH activity (43,50 UL(-1)). This work is the first report of laccase and CDH activity for Cookeina sulcipes and Earliella sp. Moreover, it gives basis for the use of these native fungi in biotechnological applications and the acknowledgment of their function in the wood decay process in native forest. PMID:19796977

Chaparro, Deisy Fernanda; Rosas, Diana Carolina; Varela, Amanda

2009-12-31

176

Diversity of Culturable Soil Micro-fungi along Altitudinal Gradients of Eastern Himalayas  

PubMed Central

Very few studies have addressed the phylogenetic diversity of fungi from Northeast India under the Eastern Himalayan range. In the present study, an attempt has been made to study the phylogenetic diversity of culturable soil fungi along the altitudinal gradients of eastern Himalayas. Soil samples from 24 m above sea level to 2,000 m above sea level altitudes of North-East India were collected to investigate soil micro-fungal community structure and diversity. Molecular characterization of the isolates was done by PCR amplification of 18S rDNA using universal primers. Phylogenetic analysis using BLAST revealed variation in the distribution and richness of different fungal biodiversity over a wide range of altitudes. A total of 107 isolates were characterized belonging to the phyla Ascomycota and Zygomycota, corresponding to seven orders (Eurotiales, Hypocreales, Calosphaeriales, Capnodiales, Pleosporales, Mucorales, and Mortierellales) and Incertae sedis. The characterized isolates were analysed for richness, evenness and diversity indices. Fungal diversity had significant correlation with soil physico-chemical parameters and the altitude. Eurotiales and Hypocreales were most diverse and abundant group of fungi along the entire altitudinal stretch. Species of Penicillium (D = 1.44) and Aspergillus (D = 1.288) were found to have highest diversity index followed by Talaromyces (D = 1.26) and Fusarium (D = 1.26). Fungal distribution showed negative correlation with altitude and soil moisture content. Soil temperature, pH, humidity and ambient temperature showed positive correlation with fungal distribution. PMID:23115506

Devi, Lamabam Sophiya; Khaund, Polashree; Nongkhlaw, Fenella M. W.

2012-01-01

177

Endohyphal bacterium enhances production of indole-3-acetic acid by a foliar fungal endophyte.  

PubMed

Numerous plant pathogens, rhizosphere symbionts, and endophytic bacteria and yeasts produce the important phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), often with profound effects on host plants. However, to date IAA production has not been documented among foliar endophytes -- the diverse guild of primarily filamentous Ascomycota that live within healthy, above-ground tissues of all plant species studied thus far. Recently bacteria that live within hyphae of endophytes (endohyphal bacteria) have been detected, but their effects have not been studied previously. Here we show not only that IAA is produced in vitro by a foliar endophyte (here identified as Pestalotiopsis aff. neglecta, Xylariales), but that IAA production is enhanced significantly when the endophyte hosts an endohyphal bacterium (here identified as Luteibacter sp., Xanthomonadales). Both the endophyte and the endophyte/bacterium complex appear to rely on an L-tryptophan dependent pathway for IAA synthesis. The bacterium can be isolated from the fungus when the symbiotic complex is cultivated at 36°C. In pure culture the bacterium does not produce IAA. Culture filtrate from the endophyte-bacterium complex significantly enhances growth of tomato in vitro relative to controls and to filtrate from the endophyte alone. Together these results speak to a facultative symbiosis between an endophyte and endohyphal bacterium that strongly influences IAA production, providing a new framework in which to explore endophyte-plant interactions. PMID:24086270

Hoffman, Michele T; Gunatilaka, Malkanthi K; Wijeratne, Kithsiri; Gunatilaka, Leslie; Arnold, A Elizabeth

2013-01-01

178

Intraspecific and interspecific tolerance to copper sulphate in five Iberian amphibian species at two developmental stages.  

PubMed

Intraspecific and interspecific variations have been observed across many taxa with respect to resistance to natural environmental stressors. It has already been well documented that amphibians are sensitive to habitat degradation and are regarded as bioindicators of aquatic and agricultural ecosystems. In southern Spain, different toxic substances, including copper sulphate, which is used to control Cycloconium oleaginum (Fungi, Ascomycota, Venturiaceae) during spring and autumn, are used in intensive olive tree agriculture. In this context, many wetlands are affected by a diffuse pollution process. Thus, toxicological studies using different species living in wetlands surrounded by agricultural activity are needed to understand the alterations suffered by these ecosystems. To achieve this understanding, individuals of five amphibian species (Bufo bufo, Epidalea calamita, Discoglossus jeanneae, Pelobates cultripes, and Pelophylax perezi) at Gosner developmental stages 19 and 25 were exposed to different copper sulphate concentrations in 96 h acute toxicity tests. Exposure to copper sulphate had a negative effect on total larval length reached at the end of the experimental period and generated approximately 30% of growth reduction respect to control treatments. P. perezi was the most tolerant species studied and showed no mortality at the maximum concentration tested (0.20 mg Cu L(-1)), whereas the most sensitive species (B. bufo, E. calamita, and D. jeanneae) showed approximately 90% mortality at the same concentration. These results indicates that the sole presence in wetlands of P. perezi, the most abundant species in southeast of Iberian Peninsula, might be correlated with its high tolerance to agrochemicals. PMID:20162266

García-Muñoz, E; Guerrero, F; Parra, G

2010-08-01

179

Patterns of fungal diversity and composition along a salinity gradient  

PubMed Central

Estuarine salinity gradients are known to influence plant, bacterial and archaeal community structure. We sequenced 18S rRNA genes to investigate patterns in sediment fungal diversity (richness and evenness of taxa) and composition (taxonomic and phylogenetic) along an estuarine salinity gradient. We sampled three marshes—a salt, brackish and freshwater marsh—in Rhode Island. To compare the relative effect of the salinity gradient with that of plants, we sampled fungi in plots with Spartina patens and in plots from which plants were removed 2 years prior to sampling. The fungal sediment community was unique compared with previously sampled fungal communities; we detected more Ascomycota (78%), fewer Basidiomycota (6%) and more fungi from basal lineages (16%) (Chytridiomycota, Glomeromycota and four additional groups) than typically found in soil. Across marshes, fungal composition changed substantially, whereas fungal diversity differed only at the finest level of genetic resolution, and was highest in the intermediate, brackish marsh. In contrast, the presence of plants had a highly significant effect on fungal diversity at all levels of genetic resolution, but less of an effect on fungal composition. These results suggest that salinity (or other covarying parameters) selects for a distinctive fungal composition, and plants provide additional niches upon which taxa within these communities can specialize and coexist. Given the number of sequences from basal fungal lineages, the study also suggests that further sampling of estuarine sediments may help in understanding early fungal evolution. PMID:20882058

Mohamed, Devon J; Martiny, Jennifer BH

2011-01-01

180

Body plan evolution of ascomycetes, as inferred from an RNA polymerase II phylogeny  

PubMed Central

The mode of evolution of the biologically diverse forms of ascomycetes is not well understood, largely because the descent relationships remain unresolved. By using sequences of the nuclear gene RPB2, we have inferred with considerable resolution the phylogenetic relationships between major groups within the phylum Ascomycota. These relationships allow us to deduce a historical pattern of body plan evolution. Within Taphrinomycotina, the most basal group, two simple body plans exist: uncovered asci with unicellular growth, or rudimentary ascoma with hyphal growth. Ancestral ascomycetes were filamentous; hyphal growth was lost independently in the yeast forms of Taphrinomycotina and Saccharomycotina. Pezizomycotina, the sister group to Saccharomycotina, retained mycelial growth while elaborating two basic ontogenetic pathways for ascoma formation and centrum development. The RPB2 phylogeny shows with significant statistical support that taxa in Pezizomycotina with ascohymenial ontogeny (ascoma generally forms after nuclear pairing) are ancestral and paraphyletic, whereas ascolocular fungi with fissitunicate asci are a clade derived from them. Ascolocular lichens are polyphyletic, whereas ascohymenial lichens comprise a monophyletic group that includes the Lecanorales. Our data are not consistent with a derived origin of Eurotiomycetes including Aspergillus and Trichophyton from within a lichen-forming ancestral group. For these reasons, the results of this study are considerably at variance with the conclusion that major fungal lineages are derived from lichensymbiotic ancestors. Interpretation of our results in the context of early work suggests that ascoma ontogeny and centrum characters are not in conflict with the molecular data. PMID:15070748

Liu, Yajuan J.; Hall, Benjamin D.

2004-01-01

181

Taxon-specific metagenomics of Trichoderma reveals a narrow community of opportunistic species that regulate each other's development.  

PubMed

In this paper, we report on the in situ diversity of the mycotrophic fungus Trichoderma (teleomorph Hypocrea, Ascomycota, Dikarya) revealed by a taxon-specific metagenomic approach. We designed a set of genus-specific internal transcribed spacer (ITS)1 and ITS2 rRNA primers and constructed a clone library containing 411 molecular operational taxonomic units (MOTUs). The overall species composition in the soil of the two distinct ecosystems in the Danube floodplain consisted of 15 known species and two potentially novel taxa. The latter taxa accounted for only 1.5?% of all MOTUs, suggesting that almost no hidden or uncultivable Hypocrea/Trichoderma species are present at least in these temperate forest soils. The species were unevenly distributed in vertical soil profiles although no universal factors controlling the distribution of all of them (chemical soil properties, vegetation type and affinity to rhizosphere) were revealed. In vitro experiments simulating infrageneric interactions between the pairs of species that were detected in the same soil horizon showed a broad spectrum of reactions from very strong competition over neutral coexistence to the pronounced synergism. Our data suggest that only a relatively small portion of Hypocrea/Trichoderma species is adapted to soil as a habitat and that the interaction between these species should be considered in a screening for Hypocrea/Trichoderma as an agent(s) of biological control of pests. PMID:22075025

Friedl, Martina A; Druzhinina, Irina S

2012-01-01

182

Molecular Phylogenetic Analysis Reveals the New Genus Hemisphaericaspora of the Family Debaryomycetaceae  

PubMed Central

Four strains of a novel ascomycetous yeast species were recovered from the frass of wood-boring beetles collected from the Baotianman Nature Reserve and the Laojieling Nature Reserve in Henan Province, China. This species produced unconjugated and deliquescent asci with hemispheroid or helmet-shaped ascospores. Analysis of gene sequences for the D1/D2 domain of the large subunit (LSU) rRNA, as well as analysis of concatenated gene sequences for the nearly complete small subunit (SSU) rRNA and D1/D2 domain of the large subunit (LSU) rRNA placed the novel species in a small clade including only one recognised species, Candida insectamans, in the family Debaryomycetaceae (Saccharomycotina, Ascomycota). DNA sequence analyses demonstrated that the novel species was distinct from all currently recognised teleomorphic yeast genus. The name Hemisphaericaspora nanyangensis gen nov., sp. nov. is proposed to accommodate the novel genus and species. The new genus can be distinguished from closely related teleomorphic genera Lodderomyces and Spathaspora through sequence comparison and ascospore morphology. The ex-type strain of H. nanyangensis is CBS 13020T (?=?CICC 33021?=?NYNU 13717). Furthermore, based on phenotypic and genotypic characteristics, C. insectamans is transferred to the newly described genus as Hemisphaericaspora insectamans comb. nov., in accordance with the changes in the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants. PMID:25075963

Hui, Fengli; Ren, Yongcheng; Chen, Liang; Li, Ying; Zhang, Lin; Niu, Qiuhong

2014-01-01

183

Sodiomyces alkalinus, a new holomorphic alkaliphilic ascomycete within the Plectosphaerellaceae.  

PubMed

In this study we reassess the taxonomic reference of the previously described holomorphic alkaliphilic fungus Heleococcum alkalinum isolated from soda soils in Russia, Mongolia and Tanzania. We show that it is not an actual member of the genus Heleococcum (order Hypocreales) as stated before and should, therefore, be excluded from it and renamed. Multi-locus gene phylogeny analyses (based on nuclear ITS, 5.8S rDNA, 28S rDNA, 18S rDNA, RPB2 and TEF1-alpha) have displayed this fungus as a new taxon at the genus level within the family Plectosphaerellaceae, Hypocreomycetidae, Ascomycota. The reference species of actual Heleococcum members showed clear divergence from the strongly supported Heleococcum alkalinum position within the Plectosphaerellaceae, sister to the family Glomerellaceae. Eighteen strains isolated from soda lakes around the world show remarkable genetic similarity promoting speculations on their possible evolution in harsh alkaline environments. We established the pH growth optimum of this alkaliphilic fungus at c. pH 10 and tested growth on 30 carbon sources at pH 7 and 10. The new genus and species, Sodiomyces alkalinus gen. nov. comb. nov., is the second holomorphic fungus known within the family, the first one being Plectosphaerella - some members of this genus are known to be alkalitolerant. We propose the Plectosphaerellaceae family to be the source of alkaliphilic filamentous fungi as also the species known as Acremonium alcalophilum belongs to this group. PMID:24761040

Grum-Grzhimaylo, A A; Debets, A J M; van Diepeningen, A D; Georgieva, M L; Bilanenko, E N

2013-12-01

184

Roles of Forkhead-box Transcription Factors in Controlling Development, Pathogenicity, and Stress Response in Magnaporthe oryzae  

PubMed Central

Although multiple transcription factors (TFs) have been characterized via mutagenesis to understand their roles in controlling pathogenicity and infection-related development in Magnaporthe oryzae, the causal agent of rice blast, if and how forkhead-box (FOX) TFs contribute to these processes remain to be characterized. Four putative FOX TF genes were identified in the genome of M. oryzae, and phylogenetic analysis suggested that two of them (MoFKH1 and MoHCM1) correspond to Ascomycota-specific members of the FOX TF family while the others (MoFOX1 and MoFOX2) are Pezizomycotina-specific members. Deletion of MoFKH1 (?Mofkh1) resulted in reduced mycelial growth and conidial germination, abnormal septation and stress response, and reduced virulence. Similarly, ?Mohcm1 exhibited reduced mycelial growth and conidial germination. Conidia of ?Mofkh1 and ?Mohcm1 were more sensitive to one or both of the cell cycle inhibitors hydroxyurea and benomyl, suggesting their role in cell cycle control. On the other hand, loss of MoFOX1 (?Mofox1) did not show any noticeable changes in development, pathogenicity, and stress response. Deletion of MoFOX2 was not successful even after repeated attempts. Taken together, these results suggested that MoFKH1 and Mo-HCM1 are important in fungal development and that MoFKH1 is further implicated in pathogenicity and stress response in M. oryzae.

Park, Jaejin; Kong, Sunghyung; Kim, Seryun; Kang, Seogchan; Lee, Yong-Hwan

2014-01-01

185

Fungal succession in an in-vessel composting system characterized using 454 pyrosequencing.  

PubMed

Fungi are known to have an important role in the composting process as degraders of recalcitrant materials such as cellulose and lignin. Previous attempts to study the diversity and succession of fungi in compost systems have relied on the use of culture-dependent analyses and low-resolution DNA-fingerprinting techniques, lacking the necessary depth to analyse such a rich ecosystem. In this study, 454 pyrosequencing was used to characterize the fungal community composition at the different stages of an in-vessel composting process. A complex succession of fungi was revealed, with 251 fungal OTUs identified throughout the monitoring period. The Ascomycota were the dominant phylum (82.5% of all sequences recovered), followed by the Basidiomycota (10.4%) and the subphylum Mucoromycotina (4.9%). In the starting materials and early stages of the process, yeast species from the Saccharomycetales were abundant, while in latter stages and in the high temperature regions of the pile, fungi from the orders Eurotiales, Sordariales, Mucorales, Agaricales and Microascales were the most prominent. This study provides an improved understanding of the fungal diversity occurring during the composting of municipal solid waste, and this knowledge can lead to the development of more efficient composting practices and a better evaluation of the end-product quality. PMID:24490666

Langarica-Fuentes, Adrian; Zafar, Urooj; Heyworth, Alan; Brown, Thomas; Fox, Graeme; Robson, Geoffrey D

2014-05-01

186

PCR primers with enhanced specificity for nematode-trapping fungi (Orbiliales).  

PubMed

Nematode-trapping fungi, a monophyletic lineage within the Orbiliales (Ascomycota), use specialized structures to capture and consume nematodes in soil, leaf litter, and other substrates. These fungi have been studied both because of their unique predatory life history and because they are potential control agents of important plant- and animal-parasitic nematodes. Ecological studies of nematode-trapping fungi have primarily used culture-based methods, but molecular detection techniques are now available and should be useful for studying this group. We developed Orbiliales-specific PCR primers for the ITS and 28s rDNA to directly detect nematode-trapping fungi without culturing and also to screen fungal isolates for phylogenetic placement in the Orbiliales. We used these primers to selectively amplify, clone, and sequence Orbiliales DNA extracted from soil, litter, and wood, and we compared the results of molecular detection with those obtained using a culture-based method. Of the eight species of nematode-trapping Orbiliales detected with the culture-based assay, only three were detected with PCR. The molecular assay, however, detected 18 species of uncultured Orbiliales, many of which are closely related to nematode-trapping fungi and fungal parasites of nematode eggs. Our results suggest that the combined use of Orbiliales-specific primers and culture-based techniques may benefit future studies of nematophagous fungi. PMID:18931821

Smith, Matthew E; Jaffee, Bruce A

2009-07-01

187

gfsA encodes a novel galactofuranosyltransferase involved in biosynthesis of galactofuranose antigen of O-glycan in Aspergillus nidulans and A. fumigatus  

PubMed Central

The cell walls of filamentous fungi in the genus Aspergillus have galactofuranose-containing polysaccharides and glycoconjugates, including O-glycans, N-glycans, fungal-type galactomannan, and glycosylinositolphosphoceramide, which are important for cell wall integrity. Here, we attempted to identify galactofuranosyltransferases that couple galactofuranose monomers onto other wall components in Aspergillus nidulans. Using reverse-genetic and biochemical approaches, we identified that the AN8677 gene encoded a galactofuranosyltransferase, which we called GfsA, involved in galactofuranose (Galf) antigen biosynthesis. Disruption of gfsA reduced binding of ?-Galf-specific antibody EB-A2 to O-glycosylated WscA protein and galactomannoproteins. The results of an in-vitro galactofuranose antigen synthase assay revealed that GfsA has ?1,5- or ?1,6- galactofuranosyltransferase activity for O-glycans in glycoproteins, uses UDP-D-galactofuranose as a sugar donor, and requires a divalent manganese cation for activity. GfsA was found to be localized at the Golgi apparatus based on cellular fractionation experiments. ?gfsA cells exhibited an abnormal morphology characterized by poor hyphal extension, hyphal curvature, and limited formation of conidia. Several gfsA orthologs were identified in members of the Pezizomycotina subphylum of Ascomycota, including the human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus. To our knowledge, this is the first characterization of a fungal ?-galactofuranosyltransferase, which was shown to be involved in galactofuranose antigen biosynthesis of O-glycans in the Golgi. PMID:24118544

Futagami, Taiki; Kizjakina, Karina; Sobrado, Pablo; Ekino, Keisuke; Takegawa, Kaoru; Goto, Masatoshi; Nomura, Yoshiyuki; Oka, Takuji

2013-01-01

188

High Diversity of Fungi in Air Particulate Matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fungal spores account for large proportions of air particulate matter, and they influence the hydrological cycle and climate as nuclei for water droplets and ice crystals in clouds, fog and precipitation. Moreover, some fungi are major pathogens and allergens. The diversity of airborne fungi is, however, hardly known. By DNA analysis we found pronounced differences in the relative abundance and seasonal cycles of various groups of fungi in coarse and fine particulate matter, with more plant pathogens in the coarse and more human pathogens and allergens in the respirable fine particle fraction (< 3 µm). Moreover, the ratio of Basidiomycota to Ascomycota was found to be much higher than previously assumed, which might also apply to the biosphere. References: Després, V.R., J.F. Nowoisky, M. Klose, R. Conrad, M.O. Andreae, U. Pöschl, Characterization of primary biogenic aerosol particles in urban, rural, and high-alpine air by DNA sequence and restriction fragment analysis of ribosomal RNA genes, Biogeosciences, 4, 1127-1141, 2007. Elbert, W., P. E. Taylor, M. O. Andreae, U. Pöschl, Contribution of fungi to primary biogenic aerosols in the atmosphere: wet and dry discharged spores, carbohydrates, and inorganic ions, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 7, 4569-4588, 2007. Fröhlich-Nowoisky, J. Despres, V.R., Pöschl, U.: High diversity of fungi in air particulate matter, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, submitted, 2008.

Fröhlich-Nowoisky, J.; Despres, V. R.; Pöschl, U.

2009-04-01

189

Spores of many common airborne fungi reveal no ice nucleation activity in oil immersion freezing experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fungal spores are ubiquitous biological aerosols, which are considered to act as ice nuclei. In this study the ice nucleation (IN) activity of spores harvested from 29 fungal strains belonging to 21 different species was tested in the immersion freezing mode by microscopic observation of water-in-oil emulsions. Spores of 8 of these strains were also investigated in a microdroplet freezing array instrument. The focus was laid on species of economical, ecological or sanitary significance. Besides common molds (Ascomycota), some representatives of the widespread group of mushrooms (Basidiomycota) were also investigated. Fusarium avenaceum was the only sample showing IN activity at relatively high temperatures (about 264 K), while the other investigated fungal spores showed no freezing above 248 K. Many of the samples indeed froze at homogeneous ice nucleation temperatures (about 237 K). In combination with other studies, this suggests that only a limited number of species may act as atmospheric ice nuclei. This would be analogous to what is already known for the bacterial ice nuclei. Apart from that, we selected a set of fungal strains from different sites and exposed them to occasional freezing stress during their cultivation. This was in order to test if the exposure to a cold environment encourages the expression of ice nuclei during growth as a way of adaptation. Although the total protein expression was altered by this treatment, it had no significant impact on the IN activity.

Pummer, B. G.; Atanasova, L.; Bauer, H.; Bernardi, J.; Druzhinina, I. S.; Fröhlich-Nowoisky, J.; Grothe, H.

2013-12-01

190

Curation of characterized glycoside hydrolases of Fungal origin  

PubMed Central

Fungi produce a wide range of extracellular enzymes to break down plant cell walls, which are composed mainly of cellulose, lignin and hemicellulose. Among them are the glycoside hydrolases (GH), the largest and most diverse family of enzymes active on these substrates. To facilitate research and development of enzymes for the conversion of cell-wall polysaccharides into fermentable sugars, we have manually curated a comprehensive set of characterized fungal glycoside hydrolases. Characterized glycoside hydrolases were retrieved from protein and enzyme databases, as well as literature repositories. A total of 453 characterized glycoside hydrolases have been cataloged. They come from 131 different fungal species, most of which belong to the phylum Ascomycota. These enzymes represent 46 different GH activities and cover 44 of the 115 CAZy GH families. In addition to enzyme source and enzyme family, available biochemical properties such as temperature and pH optima, specific activity, kinetic parameters and substrate specificities were recorded. To simplify comparative studies, enzyme and species abbreviations have been standardized, Gene Ontology terms assigned and reference to supporting evidence provided. The annotated genes have been organized in a searchable, online database called mycoCLAP (Characterized Lignocellulose-Active Proteins of fungal origin). It is anticipated that this manually curated collection of biochemically characterized fungal proteins will be used to enhance functional annotation of novel GH genes. Database URL: http://mycoCLAP.fungalgenomics.ca/ PMID:21622642

Murphy, Caitlin; Powlowski, Justin; Wu, Min; Butler, Greg; Tsang, Adrian

2011-01-01

191

The Trichoderma harzianum demon: complex speciation history resulting in coexistence of hypothetical biological species, recent agamospecies and numerous relict lineages  

PubMed Central

Background The mitosporic fungus Trichoderma harzianum (Hypocrea, Ascomycota, Hypocreales, Hypocreaceae) is an ubiquitous species in the environment with some strains commercially exploited for the biological control of plant pathogenic fungi. Although T. harzianum is asexual (or anamorphic), its sexual stage (or teleomorph) has been described as Hypocrea lixii. Since recombination would be an important issue for the efficacy of an agent of the biological control in the field, we investigated the phylogenetic structure of the species. Results Using DNA sequence data from three unlinked loci for each of 93 strains collected worldwide, we detected a complex speciation process revealing overlapping reproductively isolated biological species, recent agamospecies and numerous relict lineages with unresolved phylogenetic positions. Genealogical concordance and recombination analyses confirm the existence of two genetically isolated agamospecies including T. harzianum sensu stricto and two hypothetical holomorphic species related to but different from H. lixii. The exact phylogenetic position of the majority of strains was not resolved and therefore attributed to a diverse network of recombining strains conventionally called 'pseudoharzianum matrix'. Since H. lixii and T. harzianum are evidently genetically isolated, the anamorph - teleomorph combination comprising H. lixii/T. harzianum in one holomorph must be rejected in favor of two separate species. Conclusions Our data illustrate a complex speciation within H. lixii - T. harzianum species group, which is based on coexistence and interaction of organisms with different evolutionary histories and on the absence of strict genetic borders between them. PMID:20359347

2010-01-01

192

Predation success by a plant-ant indirectly favours the growth and fitness of its host myrmecophyte.  

PubMed

Mutualisms, or interactions between species that lead to net fitness benefits for each species involved, are stable and ubiquitous in nature mostly due to "byproduct benefits" stemming from the intrinsic traits of one partner that generate an indirect and positive outcome for the other. Here we verify if myrmecotrophy (where plants obtain nutrients from the refuse of their associated ants) can explain the stability of the tripartite association between the myrmecophyte Hirtella physophora, the ant Allomerus decemarticulatus and an Ascomycota fungus. The plant shelters and provides the ants with extrafloral nectar. The ants protect the plant from herbivores and integrate the fungus into the construction of a trap that they use to capture prey; they also provide the fungus and their host plant with nutrients. During a 9-month field study, we over-provisioned experimental ant colonies with insects, enhancing colony fitness (i.e., more winged females were produced). The rate of partial castration of the host plant, previously demonstrated, was not influenced by the experiment. Experimental plants showed higher ?(15)N values (confirming myrmecotrophy), plus enhanced vegetative growth (e.g., more leaves produced increased the possibility of lodging ants in leaf pouches) and fitness (i.e., more fruits produced and more flowers that matured into fruit). This study highlights the importance of myrmecotrophy on host plant fitness and the stability of ant-myrmecophyte mutualisms. PMID:23516632

Dejean, Alain; Orivel, Jérôme; Rossi, Vivien; Roux, Olivier; Lauth, Jérémie; Malé, Pierre-Jean G; Céréghino, Régis; Leroy, Céline

2013-01-01

193

Ice Nucleation Activity in the Widespread Soil Fungus Mortierella alpina  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biological residues in soil dust are a potentially strong source of atmospheric ice nuclei (IN). So far, however, the abundance, diversity, sources, seasonality, and role of biological - in particular, fungal - IN in soil dust have not been characterized. By analysis of the culturable fungi in topsoils, from a range of different land use and ecosystem types in south-east Wyoming, we found ice nucleation active (INA) fungi to be both widespread and abundant, particularly in soils with recent inputs of decomposable organic matter. Across all investigated soils, 8% of fungal isolates were INA. All INA isolates initiated freezing at -5 to -6 °C, and belonged to a single zygomycotic species, Mortierella alpina (Mortierellales, Mortierellomycotina). By contrast, the handful of fungal species so far reported as INA all belong within the Ascomycota or Basidiomycota phyla. M. alpina is known to be saprobic, widespread in soil and present in air and rain. Sequencing of the ITS region and the gene for ?-linolenic-elongase revealed four distinct clades, affiliated to different soil types. The IN produced by M. alpina seem to be proteinaceous, <300 kDa in size, and can be easily washed off the mycelium. Ice nucleating fungal mycelium will ramify topsoils and probably also release cell-free IN into it. If these IN survive decomposition or are adsorbed onto mineral surfaces, their contribution might accumulate over time, perhaps to be transported with soil dust and influencing its ice nucleating properties.

Fröhlich-Nowoisky, J.; Hill, T. C. J.; Pummer, B. G.; Franc, G. D.; Pöschl, U.

2014-08-01

194

Geographic mosaic of symbiont selectivity in a genus of epiphytic cyanolichens  

PubMed Central

In symbiotic systems, patterns of symbiont diversity and selectivity are crucial for the understanding of fundamental ecological processes such as dispersal and establishment. The lichen genus Nephroma (Peltigerales, Ascomycota) has a nearly cosmopolitan distribution and is thus an attractive model for the study of symbiotic interactions over a wide range of spatial scales. In this study, we analyze the genetic diversity of Nephroma mycobionts and their associated Nostoc photobionts within a global framework. The study is based on Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) sequences of fungal symbionts and tRNALeu (UAA) intron sequences of cyanobacterial symbionts. The full data set includes 271 Nephroma and 358 Nostoc sequences, with over 150 sequence pairs known to originate from the same lichen thalli. Our results show that all bipartite Nephroma species associate with one group of Nostoc different from Nostoc typically found in tripartite Nephroma species. This conserved association appears to have been inherited from the common ancestor of all extant species. While specific associations between some symbiont genotypes can be observed over vast distances, both symbionts tend to show genetic differentiation over wide geographic scales. Most bipartite Nephroma species share their Nostoc symbionts with one or more other fungal taxa, and no fungal species associates solely with a single Nostoc genotype, supporting the concept of functional lichen guilds. Symbiont selectivity patterns within these lichens are best described as a geographic mosaic, with higher selectivity locally than globally. This may reflect specific habitat preferences of particular symbiont combinations, but also the influence of founder effects. PMID:23139887

Fedrowitz, Katja; Kaasalainen, Ulla; Rikkinen, Jouko

2012-01-01

195

Fungal Endophytes from Three Cultivars of Panax ginseng Meyer Cultivated in Korea  

PubMed Central

In order to investigate the diversity of endophytes, fungal endophytes in Panax ginseng Meyer cultivated in Korea were isolated and identified using internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences of ribosomal DNA. Three cultivars of 3-year-old ginseng roots (Chunpoong, Yunpoong, and Gumpoong) were used to isolate fungal endophytes. Surface sterilized ginseng roots were placed on potato dextrose agar plates supplemented with ampicilin and streptomycin to inhibit bacterial growth. Overall, 38 fungal endophytes were isolated from 12 ginseng roots. According to the sequence analysis of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2, 38 fungal isolates were classified into 4 different fungal species, which were Phoma radicina, Fusarium oxysporum, Setophoma terrestris and Ascomycota sp. 2-RNK. The most dominant fungal endophyte was P. radicina in 3 cultivars. The percentage of dominant endophytes of P. radicina was 65.8%. The percentage of colonization frequency of P. radicina was 80%, 52.9%, and 75% in Chunpoong, Yunpoong, and Gumpoong, respectively. The second most dominant fungal endophyte was F. oxysporum. The diversity of the fungal endophytes was low and no ginseng cultivar specificity among endophytes was detected in this study. The identified endophytes can be potential fungi for the production of bioactive compounds and control against ginseng pathogens. PMID:23717111

Park, Sang Un; Lim, Hyoun-Sub; Park, Kee-Choon; Park, Young-Hwan; Bae, Hanhong

2012-01-01

196

Expanding genomics of mycorrhizal symbiosis  

PubMed Central

The mycorrhizal symbiosis between soil fungi and plant roots is a ubiquitous mutualism that plays key roles in plant nutrition, soil health, and carbon cycling. The symbiosis evolved repeatedly and independently as multiple morphotypes [e.g., arbuscular mycorrhizae (AM), ectomycorrhizal (ECM)] in multiple fungal clades (e.g., phyla Glomeromycota, Ascomycota, Basidiomycota). The accessibility and cultivability of many mycorrhizal partners make them ideal models for symbiosis studies. Alongside molecular, physiological, and ecological investigations, sequencing led to the first three mycorrhizal fungal genomes, representing two morphotypes and three phyla. The genome of the ECM basidiomycete Laccaria bicolor showed that the mycorrhizal lifestyle can evolve through loss of plant cell wall-degrading enzymes (PCWDEs) and expansion of lineage-specific gene families such as short secreted protein (SSP) effectors. The genome of the ECM ascomycete Tuber melanosporum showed that the ECM type can evolve without expansion of families as in Laccaria, and thus a different set of symbiosis genes. The genome of the AM glomeromycete Rhizophagus irregularis showed that despite enormous phylogenetic distance and morphological difference from the other two fungi, symbiosis can involve similar solutions as symbiosis-induced SSPs and loss of PCWDEs. The three genomes provide a solid base for addressing fundamental questions about the nature and role of a vital mutualism. PMID:25408690

Kuo, Alan; Kohler, Annegret; Martin, Francis M.; Grigoriev, Igor V.

2014-01-01

197

Three European species of Hypocrea with reddish brown stromata and green ascospores  

PubMed Central

The European species Hypocrea epimyces (Hypocreales, Ascomycota, Fungi) is redescribed based on the holotype including the drawing on its envelope by Saccardo and freshly collected material. The holomorphs of two closely related species, H. alni and H. brunneoviridis, are described as new species of the genus. They are characterized with morphological and molecular methods, including culture studies and phylogenetic analyses with internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2 as a part of the ribosomal RNA gene cluster, calmodulin, endochitinase, intron 4 of the translation elongation factor 1-alpha gene, and a part of the RNA polymerase II subunit B gene as phylogenetic markers. All species described here have green ascospores. Although phylogenetically closely related to H. lixii, they form reddish brown instead of green to black stromata. Except for H. brunneoviridis, forming nearly gliocladium-like conidiophores, the anamorphs of these species are similar to each other but vary in the angles of conidiophore branches and phialides, in phenotypic arrangement of conidiation on growth plates and in growth rates of cultures. PMID:18959165

Jaklitsch, Walter M.; Kubicek, Christian P.; Druzhinina, Irina S.

2011-01-01

198

The Distribution and Identity of Edaphic Fungi in the McMurdo Dry Valleys  

PubMed Central

Contrary to earlier assumptions, molecular evidence has demonstrated the presence of diverse and localized soil bacterial communities in the McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica. Meanwhile, it remains unclear whether fungal signals so far detected in Dry Valley soils using both culture-based and molecular techniques represent adapted and ecologically active biomass or spores transported by wind. Through a systematic and quantitative molecular survey, we identified significant heterogeneities in soil fungal communities across the Dry Valleys that robustly correlate with heterogeneities in soil physicochemical properties. Community fingerprinting analysis and 454 pyrosequencing of the fungal ribosomal intergenic spacer region revealed different levels of heterogeneity in fungal diversity within individual Dry Valleys and a surprising abundance of Chytridiomycota species, whereas previous studies suggested that Dry Valley soils were dominated by Ascomycota and Basidiomycota. Critically, we identified significant differences in fungal community composition and structure of adjacent sites with no obvious barrier to aeolian transport between them. These findings suggest that edaphic fungi of the Antarctic Dry Valleys are adapted to local environments and represent an ecologically relevant (and possibly important) heterotrophic component of the ecosystem. PMID:25079129

Dreesens, Lisa L.; Lee, Charles K.; Cary, S. Craig

2014-01-01

199

Endohyphal Bacterium Enhances Production of Indole-3-Acetic Acid by a Foliar Fungal Endophyte  

PubMed Central

Numerous plant pathogens, rhizosphere symbionts, and endophytic bacteria and yeasts produce the important phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), often with profound effects on host plants. However, to date IAA production has not been documented among foliar endophytes -- the diverse guild of primarily filamentous Ascomycota that live within healthy, above-ground tissues of all plant species studied thus far. Recently bacteria that live within hyphae of endophytes (endohyphal bacteria) have been detected, but their effects have not been studied previously. Here we show not only that IAA is produced in vitro by a foliar endophyte (here identified as Pestalotiopsis aff. neglecta, Xylariales), but that IAA production is enhanced significantly when the endophyte hosts an endohyphal bacterium (here identified as Luteibacter sp., Xanthomonadales). Both the endophyte and the endophyte/bacterium complex appear to rely on an L-tryptophan dependent pathway for IAA synthesis. The bacterium can be isolated from the fungus when the symbiotic complex is cultivated at 36°C. In pure culture the bacterium does not produce IAA. Culture filtrate from the endophyte-bacterium complex significantly enhances growth of tomato in vitro relative to controls and to filtrate from the endophyte alone. Together these results speak to a facultative symbiosis between an endophyte and endohyphal bacterium that strongly influences IAA production, providing a new framework in which to explore endophyte-plant interactions. PMID:24086270

Hoffman, Michele T.; Gunatilaka, Malkanthi K.; Wijeratne, Kithsiri; Gunatilaka, Leslie; Arnold, A. Elizabeth

2013-01-01

200

Fungal Alternative Splicing is Associated with Multicellular Complexity and Virulence: A Genome-Wide Multi-Species Study  

PubMed Central

Alternative splicing (AS) is a cellular process that increases a cell's coding capacity from a limited set of genes. Although AS is common in higher plants and animals, its prevalence in other eukaryotes is mostly unknown. In fungi the involvement of AS in gene expression and its effect on multi-cellularity and virulence is of great medical and economic interest. We present a genome-wide comparative study of AS in 23 informative fungi of different taxa, based on alignments of public transcript sequences. Random sampling of expressed sequence tags allows for robust and comparable estimations of AS rates. We find that a greater fraction of fungal genes than previously expected is associated with AS. We estimate that on average, 6.4% of the annotated genes are affected by AS, with Cryptococcus neoformans showing an extraordinary rate of 18%. The investigated Basidiomycota show higher average AS rates (8.6%) than the Ascomycota (6.0%), although not significant. We find that multi-cellular complexity and younger evolutionary age associate with higher AS rates. Furthermore, AS affects genes involved in pathogenic lifestyle, particularly in functions of stress response and dimorphic switching. Together, our analysis strongly supports the view that AS is a rather common phenomenon in fungi and associates with higher multi-cellular complexity. PMID:24122896

Grutzmann, Konrad; Szafranski, Karol; Pohl, Martin; Voigt, Kerstin; Petzold, Andreas; Schuster, Stefan

2014-01-01

201

Characterization of early microbial communities on volcanic deposits along a vegetation gradient on the island of Miyake, Japan.  

PubMed

The 2000 eruption of Mount Oyama on the island of Miyake (Miyake-jima) created a unique opportunity to study the early ecosystem development on newly exposed terrestrial substrates. In this study, bacterial and fungal communities on 9- and 11-year-old volcanic deposits at poorly to fully vegetation-recovered sites in Miyake-jima, Japan, were characterized by conventional culture-based methods and pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA and 18S rRNA genes. Despite the differences in the vegetation cover, the upper volcanic deposit layer samples displayed low among-site variation for chemical properties (pH, total organic carbon, and total nitrogen) and microbial population densities (total direct count and culturable count). Statistical analyses of pyrosequencing data revealed that the microbial communities of volcanic deposit samples were phylogenetically diverse, in spite of very low-carbon environmental conditions, and their diversity was comparable to that in the lower soil layer (buried soil) samples. Comparing with the microbial communities in buried soil, the volcanic deposit communities were characterized by the presence of Betaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria as the main bacterial class, Deinococcus- Thermus as the minor bacterial phyla, and Ascomycota as the major fungal phyla. Multivariate analysis revealed that several bacterial families and fungal classes correlated positively or negatively with plant species. PMID:24463576

Guo, Yong; Fujimura, Reiko; Sato, Yoshinori; Suda, Wataru; Kim, Seok-won; Oshima, Kenshiro; Hattori, Masahira; Kamijo, Takashi; Narisawa, Kazuhiko; Ohta, Hiroyuki

2014-01-01

202

A novel fungal family of oligopeptide transporters identified by functional metatranscriptomics of soil eukaryotes  

PubMed Central

Functional environmental genomics has the potential to identify novel biological functions that the systematic sequencing of microbial genomes or environmental DNA may fail to uncover. We targeted the functions expressed by soil eukaryotes using a metatranscriptomic approach based on the use of soil-extracted polyadenylated messenger RNA to construct environmental complementary DNA expression libraries. Functional complementation of a yeast mutant defective in di/tripeptide uptake identified a novel family of oligopeptide transporters expressed by fungi. This family has a patchy distribution in the Basidiomycota and Ascomycota and is present in the genome of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine strain. High throughput phenotyping of yeast mutants expressing two environmental transporters showed that they both displayed broad substrate specificity and could transport more than 60–80 dipeptides. When expressed in Xenopus oocytes one environmental transporter induced currents upon dipeptide addition, suggesting proton-coupled co-transport of dipeptides. This transporter was also able to transport specifically cysteine. Deletion of the two copies of the corresponding gene family members in the genome of the wine yeast strain severely reduced the number of dipeptides that it could assimilate. These results demonstrate that these genes are functional and can be used by fungi to efficiently scavenge the numerous, low concentration, oligopeptides continuously generated in soils by proteolysis. PMID:21654847

Damon, Coralie; Vallon, Laurent; Zimmermann, Sabine; Haider, Muhammad Z; Galeote, Virginie; Dequin, Sylvie; Luis, Patricia; Fraissinet-Tachet, Laurence; Marmeisse, Roland

2011-01-01

203

Biology, systematics, and clinical manifestations of Zygomycota infections.  

PubMed

Fungi cause opportunistic, nosocomial, and community-acquired infections. Among fungal infections (mycoses) zygomycoses are exceptionally severe, with a mortality rate exceeding 50%. Immunocompromised hosts, transplant recipients, and diabetic patients with uncontrolled keto-acidosis and high iron serum levels are at risk. Zygomycota are capable of infecting hosts immune to other filamentous fungi. The infection often follows a progressive pattern, with angioinvasion and metastases. Moreover, current antifungal therapy frequently has an unfavorable outcome. Zygomycota are resistant to some of the routinely used antifungals, among them azoles (except posaconazole) and echinocandins. The typical treatment consists of surgical debridement of the infected tissues accompanied by amphotericin B administration. The latter has strong nephrotoxic side effects, which make it unsuitable for prophylaxis. Delayed administration of amphotericin and excision of mycelium-containing tissues worsens survival prognoses. More than 30 species of Zygomycota are involved in human infections, among them Mucorales is the most abundant. Prognosis and treatment suggestions differ for each species, which makes fast and reliable diagnosis essential. Serum sample PCR-based identification often gives false-negative results; culture-based identification is time-consuming and not always feasible. With the dawn of Zygomycota sequencing projects significant advancement is expected, as in the case of treatment of Ascomycota infections. PMID:24615580

Muszewska, A; Paw?owska, J; Krzy?ciak, P

2014-08-01

204

Systematic Search for Cultivatable Fungi That Best Deconstruct Cell Walls of Miscanthus and Sugarcane in the Field ? †  

PubMed Central

The goals of our project were to document the diversity and distributions of cultivable fungi associated with decaying Miscanthus and sugarcane plants in nature and to further assess biodegradation of host plant cell walls by these fungi in pure cultures. Late in 2008 and early in 2009 we collected decaying Miscanthus and Saccharum from 8 sites in Illinois and 11 sites in Louisiana, respectively. To recover fungi that truly decay plants and to recover slow-growing fungi, we washed the plant material repeatedly to remove spores and cultivated fungi from plant fragments small enough to harbor at most one mycelium. We randomly selected 950 fungal colonies out of 4,560 microwell colonies and used molecular identification to discover that the most frequently recovered fungal species resided in Hypocreales (Sordariomycetes), Pleosporales (Dothideomycetes), and Chaetothryiales (Eurotiomycetes) and that only a few weedy species were recovered. We were particularly interested in Pleosporales and Chaetothyriales, groups that have not been mined for plant decay fungi. To confirm that we had truly recovered fungi that deconstruct plant cell walls, we assayed the capacity of the fungi to consume whole, alkali-pretreated, ground Miscanthus. Solid substrate cultures of the nine most commonly encountered Ascomycota resulted in Miscanthus weight loss of 8 to 13% over 4 weeks. This is the first systematic, high-throughput, isolation and biodegradation assessment of fungi isolated from decaying bioenergy grasses. PMID:21685162

Shrestha, Prachand; Szaro, Timothy M.; Bruns, Thomas D.; Taylor, John W.

2011-01-01

205

Essential role of eIF5-mimic protein in animal development is linked to control of ATF4 expression  

PubMed Central

Translational control of transcription factor ATF4 through paired upstream ORFs (uORFs) plays an important role in eukaryotic gene regulation. While it is typically induced by phosphorylation of eIF2?, ATF4 translation can be also induced by expression of a translational inhibitor protein, eIF5-mimic protein 1 (5MP1, also known as BZW2) in mammals. Here we show that the 5MP gene is maintained in eukaryotes under strong purifying selection, but is uniquely missing in two major phyla, nematoda and ascomycota. The common function of 5MP from protozoa, plants, fungi and insects is to control translation by inhibiting eIF2. The affinity of human 5MP1 to eIF2? was measured as being equivalent to the published value of human eIF5 to eIF2?, in agreement with effective competition of 5MP with eIF5 for the main substrate, eIF2. In the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, RNA interference studies indicate that 5MP facilitates expression of GADD34, a downstream target of ATF4. Furthermore, both 5MP and ATF4 are essential for larval development. Finally, 5MP and the paired uORFs allowing ATF4 control are conserved in the entire metazoa except nematoda. Based on these findings, we discuss the phylogenetic and functional linkage between ATF4 regulation and 5MP expression in this group of eukaryotes. PMID:25147208

Hiraishi, Hiroyuki; Oatman, Jamie; Haller, Sherry L.; Blunk, Logan; McGivern, Benton; Morris, Jacob; Papadopoulos, Evangelos; Gutierrez, Wade; Gordon, Michelle; Bokhari, Wahaj; Ikeda, Yuka; Miles, David; Fellers, John; Asano, Masayo; Wagner, Gerhard; Tazi, Loubna; Rothenburg, Stefan; Brown, Susan J.; Asano, Katsura

2014-01-01

206

Insect peptide metchnikowin confers on barley a selective capacity for resistance to fungal ascomycetes pathogens.  

PubMed

The potential of metchnikowin, a 26-amino acid residue proline-rich antimicrobial peptide synthesized in the fat body of Drosophila melanogaster was explored to engineer disease resistance in barley against devastating fungal plant pathogens. The synthetic peptide caused strong in vitro growth inhibition (IC(50) value approximately 1 muM) of the pathogenic fungus Fusarium graminearum. Transgenic barley expressing the metchnikowin gene in its 52-amino acid pre-pro-peptide form under the control of the inducible mannopine synthase (mas) gene promoter from the T(i) plasmid of Agrobacterium tumefaciens displayed enhanced resistance to powdery mildew as well as Fusarium head blight and root rot. In response to these pathogens, metchnikowin accumulated in plant apoplastic space, specifying that the insect signal peptide is functional in monocotyledons. In vitro and in vivo tests revealed that the peptide is markedly effective against fungal pathogens of the phylum Ascomycota but, clearly, less active against Basidiomycota fungi. Importantly, germination of the mutualistic basidiomycete mycorrhizal fungus Piriformospora indica was affected only at concentrations beyond 50 muM. These results suggest that antifungal peptides from insects are a valuable source for crop plant improvements and their differential activities toward different phyla of fungi denote a capacity for insect peptides to be used as selective measures on specific plant diseases. PMID:19734262

Rahnamaeian, Mohammad; Langen, Gregor; Imani, Jafargholi; Khalifa, Walaa; Altincicek, Boran; von Wettstein, Diter; Kogel, Karl-Heinz; Vilcinskas, Andreas

2009-01-01

207

Identification of Cellulose-Responsive Bacterial and Fungal Communities in Geographically and Edaphically Different Soils by Using Stable Isotope Probing  

PubMed Central

Many bacteria and fungi are known to degrade cellulose in culture, but their combined response to cellulose in different soils is unknown. Replicate soil microcosms amended with [13C]cellulose were used to identify bacterial and fungal communities responsive to cellulose in five geographically and edaphically different soils. The diversity and composition of the cellulose-responsive communities were assessed by DNA-stable isotope probing combined with Sanger sequencing of small-subunit and large-subunit rRNA genes for the bacterial and fungal communities, respectively. In each soil, the 13C-enriched, cellulose-responsive communities were of distinct composition compared to the original soil community or 12C-nonenriched communities. The composition of cellulose-responsive taxa, as identified by sequence operational taxonomic unit (OTU) similarity, differed in each soil. When OTUs were grouped at the bacterial order level, we found that members of the Burkholderiales, Caulobacteriales, Rhizobiales, Sphingobacteriales, Xanthomonadales, and the subdivision 1 Acidobacteria were prevalent in the 13C-enriched DNA in at least three of the soils. The cellulose-responsive fungi were identified as members of the Trichocladium, Chaetomium, Dactylaria, and Arthrobotrys genera, along with two novel Ascomycota clusters, unique to one soil. Although similarities were identified in higher-level taxa among some soils, the composition of cellulose-responsive bacteria and fungi was generally unique to a certain soil type, suggesting a strong potential influence of multiple edaphic factors in shaping the community. PMID:22287013

Eichorst, Stephanie A.

2012-01-01

208

[Clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of dermatophytosis].  

PubMed

Dermatophytes are a group of closely related fungi that have keratinase and can therefore cause infections in keratinised human and animal tissues (skin, hair and nails), leading to a disease known as dermatophytosis. This group is composed by the genera Epidermophyton, Trichophyton and Microsporum, forming an approximated total of 40 species. Depending on the source of the keratin used, dermatophytes can be divided in geophilic (soil), zoophilic (animals) and anthropophilic (human), with soil, some animals and humans being their primary habitats. Many dermatophytes can be present in both anamorphic (asexual state) or imperfect and teleomorphic state (with sexual reproduction) or perfect fungi. Anamorphic states (genera Epidermophyton, Microsporum and Trichophyton ) belong to the Hyphomycetes and phylum Deuteromycota class and teleomorphic states (the majority of geophilic and zoophilic species of Microsporum and Trichophyton) are classified in the teleomorphic genus Arthroderma, order Onygenales, phylum Ascomycota, and are usually found in their anamorphic state. Dermatophytes have a worldwide distribution, being responsible for most of the skin mycoses in both healthy and immunocompromised patients. The diagnosis and treatment of dermatophytosis are well known by most microbiologists and scientists in general. However, we describe recent techniques for their diagnosis and up-to-date treatments. The main purpose of this review is to provide a detailed description of the three genera of dermatophytes, with special mention of Epidermophyton floccosum, a object of the SEIMC's mycology quality control (M-2/09). PMID:21458709

Molina de Diego, Araceli

2011-03-01

209

Increasing ecological inference from high throughput sequencing of fungi in the environment through a tagging approach.  

PubMed

High throughput sequencing methods are widely used in analyses of microbial diversity, but are generally applied to small numbers of samples, which precludes characterization of patterns of microbial diversity across space and time. We have designed a primer-tagging approach that allows pooling and subsequent sorting of numerous samples, which is directed to amplification of a region spanning the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacers and partial large subunit from fungi in environmental samples. To test the method for phylogenetic biases, we constructed a controlled mixture of four taxa representing the Chytridiomycota, Zygomycota, Ascomycota and Basidiomycota. Following cloning and colony restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, we found no significant difference in representation in 19 of the 23 tested primers. We also generated a clone library from two soil DNA extracts using two primers for each extract and compared 456 clone sequences. Community diversity statistics and contingency table tests applied to counts of operational taxonomic units revealed that the two DNA extracts differed significantly, while the pairs of tagged primers from each extract were indistinguishable. Similar results were obtained using UniFrac phylogenetic comparisons. Together, these results suggest that the pig-tagged primers can be used to increase ecological inference in high throughput sequencing projects on fungi. PMID:21585882

Taylor, D Lee; Booth, Michael G; McFarland, Jack W; Herriott, Ian C; Lennon, Niall J; Nusbaum, Chad; Marr, Thomas G

2008-07-01

210

Diversity and saline resistance of endophytic fungi associated with Pinus thunbergii in coastal shelterbelts of Korea.  

PubMed

The Black Pine, Pinus thunbergii, is widely distributed along the eastern coast of Korea and its importance as a shelterbelt was highlighted after tsunamis in Indonesia and Japan. The root endophytic diversity of P. thunbergii was investigated in three coastal regions; Goseong, Uljin, and Busan. Fungi were isolated from the root tips, and growth rates of pure cultures were measured and compared between PDA with and without 3% NaCl to determine their saline resistance. A total of 259 isolates were divided into 136 morphotypes, of which internal transcribed spacer region sequences identified 58 species. Representatives of each major fungi phylum were present: 44 Ascomycota, 8 Zygomycota, and 6 Basidiomycota. Eighteen species exhibited saline resistance, many of which were Penicillium and Trichoderma species. Shoreline habitats harbored higher saline-tolerant endophytic diversity compared with inland sites. This investigation indicates that endophytes of P. thunbergii living closer to the coast may have higher resistance to salinity and potentially have specific relationships with P. thunbergii. PMID:24317482

Min, Young Ju; Park, Myung Soo; Fong, Jonathan J; Quan, Ying; Jung, Sungcheol; Lim, Young Woon

2014-03-28

211

Phylogenetic relationships of Gomphillaceae and Asterothyriaceae: evidence from a combined Bayesian analysis of nuclear and mitochondrial sequences.  

PubMed

The phylogeny and systematic position of Gomphillaceae was reconstructed using a combined Bayesian analysis of nuclear LSU rDNA and mitochondrial SSU rDNA sequences. Twenty-four partial sequences of 12 taxa (11 Gomphillaceae and one Asterothyriaceae) plus two new sequences of Stictis radiata (Ostropales outgroup) were generated and aligned with the corresponding sequences retrieved from GenBank, resulting in an alignment of 82 taxa that was analyzed using a Bayesian approach with Markov chain Monte Carlo (B/MCMC) methods. Our results confirm Gomphillaceae sensu Vezda and Poelt plus Asterothyriaceae to be a monophyletic group, with an unresolved relationship between the two families. Placement of Gomphillaceae and Asterothyriaceae within Ostropales sensu Kauff and Lutzoni, as sister of Thelotremataceae, also is strongly supported. Alternative hypotheses placing Gomphillaceae in Lecanorales (Cladoniaceae), Agyriales (Baeomycetaceae) or within bitunicate Ascomycota (Arthoniomycetes, Chaetothyriomycetes, Dothideomycetes) were rejected with our dataset. After recent synonymization of Dimerella with Coenogonium (Ostropales: Coenogoniaceae), we propose the new combination Coenogonium pineti (one of our Ostropales outgroup taxa in this analysis). PMID:21148855

Lücking, Robert; Stuart, Bryan L; Lumbsch, H Thorsten

2004-01-01

212

Taxonomic revision of the Lecania cyrtella group based on molecular and morphological evidence.  

PubMed

This investigation elucidates relationships within the Lecania cyrtella group (Ramalinaceae, lichenized Ascomycota) by employing morphological, anatomical and molecular methods. The morphological studies included eleven species of Lecania, L. cyrtella, L. cyrtellina, L. dubitans, L. erysibe, L. hutchinsiae, L. leprosa, L. madida, L. prasinoides, L. sambucina, L. sordida and L. sylvestris, and a key to the species plus species descriptions are provided. Lecania madida, a new species from the Pacific Northwest of North America, L. leprosa, a new species from eastern Europe, and L. sordida, a new species from Europe, are described here. The known range of L. prasinoides is greatly extended to include the Baltic countries, Nordic countries and western Canada. Lectotypes are designated for L. cyrtella and L. sambucina. Molecular relationships within the group were examined with haplotype network estimations and phylogenetic reconstructions. Part of the IGS region as well as the complete ITS region were sequenced and analyzed. Both the haplotype network and the phylogenetic analyses indicate that the included species, as conceived in the morphological examinations, all are monophyletic. PMID:18751548

Naesborg, Rikke Reese

2008-01-01

213

Widespread horizontal transfer of the cerato-ulmin gene between Ophiostoma novo-ulmi and Geosmithia species.  

PubMed

Previous work had shown that a sequence homologous to the gene encoding class II hydrophobin cerato-ulmin from the fungus Ophiostoma novo-ulmi, the causal agent of Dutch Elm Disease (DED), was present in a strain of the unrelated species Geosmithia species 5 (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) isolated from Ulmus minor affected by DED. As both fungi occupy the same habitat, even if different ecological niches, the occurrence of horizontal gene transfer was proposed. In the present work we have analysed for the presence of the cerato-ulmin gene 70 Geosmithia strains representing 29 species, isolated from different host plants and geographic locations. The gene was found in 52.1 % of the strains derived from elm trees, while none of those isolated from nonelms possessed it. The expression of the gene in Geosmithia was also assessed by real time PCR in different growth conditions (liquid culture, solid culture, elm sawdust, dual culture with O. novo-ulmi), and was found to be extremely low in all conditions tested. On the basis of these results we propose that the cerato-ulmin gene is not functional in Geosmithia, but can be considered instead a marker of more extensive transfers of genetic material as shown in other fungi. PMID:25110129

Bettini, Priscilla P; Frascella, Arcangela; Kola?ík, Miroslav; Comparini, Cecilia; Pepori, Alessia L; Santini, Alberto; Scala, Felice; Scala, Aniello

2014-08-01

214

Investigations of biodeterioration by fungi in historic wooden churches of Chiloé, Chile.  

PubMed

The use of wood in construction has had a long history and Chile has a rich cultural heritage of using native woods for building churches and other important structures. In 2000, UNESCO designated a number of the historic churches of Chiloé, built entirely of native woods, as World Heritage Sites. These unique churches were built in the late 1700 s and throughout the 1800 s, and because of their age and exposure to the environment, they have been found to have serious deterioration problems. Efforts are underway to better understand these decay processes and to carryout conservation efforts for the long-term preservation of these important structures. This study characterized the types of degradation taking place and identified the wood decay fungi obtained from eight historic churches in Chiloé, seven of them designated as UNESCO World Heritage sites. Micromorphological observations identified white, brown and soft rot in the structural woods and isolations provided pure cultures of fungi that were identified by sequencing of the internal transcribed region of rDNA. Twenty-nine Basidiomycota and 18 Ascomycota were found. These diverse groups of fungi represent several genera and species not previously reported from Chile and demonstrates a varied microflora is causing decay in these historic buildings. PMID:24407313

Ortiz, Rodrigo; Párraga, Mario; Navarrete, José; Carrasco, Ivo; de la Vega, Eduardo; Ortiz, Manuel; Herrera, Paula; Jurgens, Joel A; Held, Benjamin W; Blanchette, Robert A

2014-04-01

215

First Record of Fusarium verticillioides as an Entomopathogenic Fungus of Grasshoppers  

PubMed Central

Fusarium verticillioides (Saccardo) Nirenberg (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) is the most common fungus reported on infected corn kernels and vegetative tissues, but has not yet been documented as being entomopathogenic for grasshoppers. Grasshoppers and locusts represent a large group of insects that cause economic damage to forage and crops. Tropidacris collaris (Stoll) (Orthoptera: Acridoidea: Romaleidae) is a large and voracious grasshopper that in recent years has become an increasingly recurrent and widespread pest in progressively more greatly extended areas of some of in Argentina's northern provinces, with chemical insecticides being currently the only means of control. During February and March of 2008–09, nymphs and adults of T. collaris were collected with sweep nets in dense woodland vegetation at a site near Tres Estacas in western Chaco Province, Argentina, and kept in screened cages. F. verticillioides was isolated from insects that died within 10 days and was cultured in PGA medium. Pathogenicity tests were conducted and positive results recorded. Using traditional and molecular-biological methods, an isolate of F. verticillioides was obtained from T. collaris, and its pathogenecity in the laboratory was shown against another harmful grasshopper, Ronderosia bergi (Stål) (Acridoidea: Acrididae: Melanoplinae). The mortality caused by F. verticillioides on R. bergi reached 58 ± 6.53% by 10 days after inoculation. This is the first record of natural infection caused by F. verticillioides in grasshoppers. PMID:21867437

Pelizza, SA; Stenglein, SA; Cabello, MN; Dinolfo, MI; Lange, CE

2011-01-01

216

Systematic gene deletions evidences that laccases are involved in several stages of wood degradation in the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina.  

PubMed

Transformation of plant biomass into biofuels may supply environmentally friendly alternative biological sources of energy. Laccases are supposed to be involved in the lysis of lignin, a prerequisite step for efficient breakdown of cellulose into fermentable sugars. The role in development and plant biomass degradation of the nine canonical laccases belonging to three different subfamilies and one related multicopper oxidase of the Ascomycota fungus Podospora anserina was investigated by targeted gene deletion. The 10 genes were inactivated singly, and multiple mutants were constructed by genetic crosses. lac6(?), lac8(?) and mco(?) mutants were significantly reduced in their ability to grow on lignin-containing materials, but also on cellulose and plastic. Furthermore, lac8(?), lac7(?), mco(?) and lac6(?) mutants were defective towards resistance to phenolic substrates and H2 O2 , which may also impact lignocellulose breakdown. Double and multiple mutants were generally more affected than single mutants, evidencing redundancy of function among laccases. Our study provides the first genetic evidences that laccases are major actors of wood utilization in a fungus and that they have multiple roles during this process apart from participation in lignin lysis. PMID:24102726

Xie, Ning; Chapeland-Leclerc, Florence; Silar, Philippe; Ruprich-Robert, Gwenaël

2014-01-01

217

Characterization of a cassiicolin-encoding gene from Corynespora cassiicola, pathogen of rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis).  

PubMed

Corynespora Leaf Fall (CLF) is a major disease of rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) caused by the Ascomycota Corynespora cassiicola. Here we describe the cloning and characterization of a gene encoding cassiicolin (Cas), a glycosylated cystein-rich small secreted protein (SSP) identified as a potential CLF disease effector in rubber tree. Three isolates with contrasted levels of aggressiveness were analyzed comparatively. The cassiicolin gene was detected - and the toxin successfully purified - from the isolates with high and medium aggressiveness (CCP and CCAM3 respectively) but not from the isolate with the lowest aggressiveness (CCAM1), suggesting the existence of a different disease effector in the later. CCP and CCAM3 carried strictly identical cassiicolin genes and produced toxins of identical mass, as evidence by mass spectrometry analysis, thus suggesting conserved post-translational modifications in addition to sequence identity. The differences in aggressiveness between CCP and CCAM3 may be attributed to differences in cassiicolin transcript levels rather than qualitative variations in cassiicolin structure. Cassiicolin may play an important role in the early phase of infection since a peak of cassiicolin transcripts occurred in 1 or 2 days after inoculation (before the occurrence of the first symptoms), in both the tolerant and the susceptible cultivars. PMID:22325885

Déon, Marine; Bourré, Yanice; Gimenez, Stéphanie; Berger, Angélique; Bieysse, Daniel; de Lamotte, Frédéric; Poncet, Joël; Roussel, Véronique; Bonnot, François; Oliver, Gérald; Franchel, Jérôme; Seguin, Marc; Leroy, Thierry; Roeckel-Drevet, Patricia; Pujade-Renaud, Valérie

2012-04-01

218

Cyanobacteria cause black staining of the National Museum of the American Indian Building, Washington, DC, USA.  

PubMed

Microbial deterioration of stone is a widely recognised problem affecting monuments and buildings all over the world. In this paper, dark-coloured staining, putatively attributed to microorganisms, on areas of the National Museum of the American Indian Building, Washington, DC, USA, were studied. Observations by optical and electron microscopy of surfaces and cross sections of limestone indicated that biofilms, which penetrated up to a maximum depth of about 1 mm, were mainly composed of cyanobacteria, with the predominance of Gloeocapsa and Lyngbya. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis revealed that the microbial community also included eukaryotic algae (Trebouxiophyceae) and fungi (Ascomycota), along with a consortium of bacteria. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis showed the same elemental composition in stained and unstained areas of the samples, indicating that the discolouration was not due to abiotic chemical changes within the stone. The dark pigmentation of the stone was correlated with the high content of scytonemin, which was found in all samples. PMID:22435895

Cappitelli, Francesca; Salvadori, Ornella; Albanese, Domenico; Villa, Federica; Sorlini, Claudia

2012-01-01

219

Endophytic Fungi from Lycium chinense Mill and Characterization of Two New Korean Records of Colletotrichum  

PubMed Central

Chinese boxthorn or matrimony vine (Lycium chinense Mill) is found primarily in southeastern Europe and Asia, including Korea. The dried ripe fruits are commonly used as oriental medicinal purposes. Endophytic fungi were isolated from surface sterilized tissues and fruits of the medicinal plant in 2013 to identify the new or unreported species in Korea. Among 14 isolates, 10 morphospecies were selected for molecular identification with the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) gene. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all isolates belonged to Ascomycota including the genera Acremonium, Colletotrichum, Cochliobolus, Fusarium, Hypocrea and Nemania. Two Colletotrichum species were identified at the species level, using three genes including internal transcribed spacer (ITS), glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and Actin (ACT) for PCR and molecular data analysis along with morphological observations. The fungal isolates, CNU122031 and CNU122032 were identified as Colletotrichum fructicola and C. brevisporum, respectively. Morphological observations also well supported the molecular identification. C. brevisporum is represented unrecorded species in Korea and C. fructicola is the first record from the host plant. PMID:25170812

Paul, Narayan Chandra; Lee, Hyang Burm; Lee, Ji Hye; Shin, Kyu Seop; Ryu, Tae Hee; Kwon, Hye Ri; Kim, Yeong Kuk; Youn, Young Nam; Yu, Seung Hun

2014-01-01

220

Novel neogala-series glycosphingolipids with terminal mannose and glucose residues from Hirsutella rhossiliensis, an aureobasidin A-resistant ascomycete fungus.  

PubMed

Hirsutella rhossiliensis, a nematophagous fungus belonging to the Ascomycota, is resistant to aureobasidin A (AbA). In this fungus, the biosynthetic pathway leading to mannosylinositolphosphoceramides, which is inhibited by AbA, was not detected. Instead, this fungus contains neutral complex glycosphingolipids (GSLs) and monoglycosylceramides. Except for monoglycosylceramides, neutral GSLs share a neogala-series core structure, Galbeta1-6Galbeta1-Cer. Among the GSLs of H. rhossiliensis, three novel GSLs with terminal Man and Glc residues on the sugar chain were elucidated. We analyzed GSL structure using compositional sugar, fatty acid, and sphingoid analyses, methylation analysis, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight/mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), and (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR). The following structures were determined: Manalpha1-3Galbeta1-6Galbeta1-6Galbeta1-Cer; Glcalpha1-2Galbeta1-6Galbeta1-6Galbeta1-Cer; and Manalpha1-3Galbeta1-6(Glcalpha1-4)Galbeta1-6Galbeta1-Cer. In the ceramides, the fatty acids were predominantly saturated h24:0-acids and the sphingoids were predominately t18:0- or t18:1-sphingoids. In contrast, the ceramides of Glcbeta1-Cer contained d18:2- and d19:2-sphingoids. These findings indicate the presence of a novel biosynthetic pathway of neogala-series GSLs in fungi. PMID:20007186

Tani, Yasushi; Funatsu, Tori; Ashida, Hisashi; Ito, Masahiro; Itonori, Saki; Sugita, Mutsumi; Yamamoto, Kenji

2010-01-01

221

Morphological and Molecular Characterization of a Fungus, Hirsutella sp., Isolated from Planthoppers and Psocids in Argentina  

PubMed Central

A mycosed planthopper, Oliarus dimidiatus Berg (Hemiptera: Cixiidae), and two psocids, Heterocaecilius sp. (Psocodea: Pseudocaeciliidae) and Ectopsocus sp. (Ectopsocidae), were collected from Los Hornos and La Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina between February and September 2007. Observations of mycelia growing on the host revealed that the putative fungal parasite had synnemata supporting monophialidic conidiogenous cells. Likewise, in vitro fungal cultures presented characteristics typical of the fungus Hirsutella citriformis Speare (Ascomycota: Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae). The identity of the isolated fungi characterized based on morphological aspects was complemented by means of the internal transcribed spacer sequences. The sequences of both isolates were highly homologous to those of Cordyceps sp. (Fries) Link and Ophiocordyceps sinensis (Berkely) G.H. Sung, J.M. Sung, Hywel-Jones, and Spatafora (Ophiocordycipitaceae). We additionally confirmed that both isolates had the ability to infect and kill adults of Delphacodes kuscheli Fennah (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) after 10 days. Therefore, based on the morphology of the isolated fungi, their ribosomal internal transcribed spacer sequence, and their ability to parasite insects, we conclude that the fungi isolated belong to the genus Hirsutella and might have biotechnological potential. PMID:23885970

Toledo, Andrea V.; Simurro, Maria E.; Balatti, Pedro A.

2013-01-01

222

The oldest fossil evidence of animal parasitism by fungi supports a Cretaceous diversification of fungal-arthropod symbioses.  

PubMed

Paleoophiocordyceps coccophagus, a fungal parasite of a scale insect from the Early Cretaceous (Upper Albian), is reported and described here. This fossil not only provides the oldest fossil evidence of animal parasitism by fungi but also contains morphological features similar to asexual states of Hirsutella and Hymenostilbe of the extant genus Ophiocordyceps (Ophiocordycipitaceae, Hypocreales, Sordariomycetes, Pezizomycotina, Ascomycota). Because species of Hypocreales collectively exhibit a broad range of nutritional modes and symbioses involving plants, animals and other fungi, we conducted ancestral host reconstruction coupled with phylogenetic dating analyses calibrated with P.coccophagus. These results support a plant-based ancestral nutritional mode for Hypocreales, which then diversified ecologically through a dynamic process of intra- and interkingdom host shifts involving fungal, higher plant and animal hosts. This is especially evident in the families Cordycipitaceae, Clavicipitaceae and Ophiocordycipitaceae, which are characterized by a high occurrence of insect pathogens. The ancestral ecologies of Clavicipitaceae and Ophiocordycipitaceae are inferred to be animal pathogens, a trait inherited from a common ancestor, whereas the ancestral host affiliation of Cordycipitaceae was not resolved. Phylogenetic dating supports both a Jurassic origin of fungal-animal symbioses within Hypocreales and parallel diversification of all three insect pathogenic families during the Cretaceous, concurrent with the diversification of insects and angiosperms. PMID:18817884

Sung, Gi-Ho; Poinar, George O; Spatafora, Joseph W

2008-11-01

223

Ophiocordyceps unilateralis  

PubMed Central

Ophiocordyceps unilateralis (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) is a specialized parasite that infects, manipulates and kills formicine ants, predominantly in tropical forest ecosystems. We have reported previously, based on a preliminary study in remnant Atlantic Forest in Minas Gerais (Brazil), that O. unilateralis represents a species complex. On each of the four species of infected carpenter ant (Camponotus) collected, the fungus—characterized macroscopically by a single stalk arising from the dorsal neck region on which the sexual structures (stromatal plates) are borne laterally—can readily be distinguished both microscopically and functionally. Here, we describe and discuss the biology, life cycle and infection strategies of O. unilateralis s.l. and hypothesize that there may be hundreds of species within the complex parasitizing formicine ants worldwide. We then address the diversity within related hypocrealean fungi, with particular reference to symbionts (mutualists through to parasites), and argue that the widely-quoted total of extant fungi (1.5 million species) may be grossly underestimated. PMID:22046474

Elliot, Simon L; Hughes, David P

2011-01-01

224

Morphological and molecular characterization of a fungus, Hirsutella sp., isolated from planthoppers and psocids in Argentina.  

PubMed

A mycosed planthopper, Oliarus dimidiatus Berg (Hemiptera: Cixiidae), and two psocids, Heterocaecilius sp. (Psocodea: Pseudocaeciliidae) and Ectopsocus sp. (Ectopsocidae), were collected from Los Hornos and La Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina between February and September 2007. Observations of mycelia growing on the host revealed that the putative fungal parasite had synnemata supporting monophialidic conidiogenous cells. Likewise, in vitro fungal cultures presented characteristics typical of the fungus Hirsutella citriformis Speare (Ascomycota: Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae). The identity of the isolated fungi characterized based on morphological aspects was complemented by means of the internal transcribed spacer sequences. The sequences of both isolates were highly homologous to those of Cordyceps sp. (Fries) Link and Ophiocordyceps sinensis (Berkely) G.H. Sung, J.M. Sung, Hywel-Jones, and Spatafora (Ophiocordycipitaceae). We additionally confirmed that both isolates had the ability to infect and kill adults of Delphacodes kuscheli Fennah (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) after 10 days. Therefore, based on the morphology of the isolated fungi, their ribosomal internal transcribed spacer sequence, and their ability to parasite insects, we conclude that the fungi isolated belong to the genus Hirsutella and might have biotechnological potential. PMID:23885970

Toledo, Andrea V; Simurro, María E; Balatti, Pedro A

2013-01-01

225

Culturable fungal endophytes in roots of Enkianthus campanulatus (Ericaceae).  

PubMed

Roots of plants in the genus Enkianthus, which belongs to the earliest diverging lineage in the Ericaceae, are commonly colonized by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. We documented the community of fungal root endophytes associated with Enkianthus species using a culture-based method for better understanding the members of root-colonizing fungi, except for AM fungi. Fungal isolates were successfully obtained from 610 out of 3,599 (16.9 %) root segments. Molecular analysis of fungal cultures based on ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences yielded 63 operational taxonomical units (OTUs: 97 % sequence similarity cutoff) from 315 representative isolates. Further phylogenetic analysis showed that most (296 isolates) belonged to Ascomycota and were either members of Helotiales (Dermataceae, Hyaloscyphaceae, Phialocephala and Rhizoscyphus ericae aggregate), Oidiodendron, or other Pezizomycotina. Twenty-three out of 63 OTUs, which mainly consisted of Leotiomycetes, showed high similarities with reference sequences derived from roots of other ericaceous plants such as Rhododendron. The results indicated that Enkianthus houses variable root mycobionts including putative endophytic and mycorrhizal fungi in addition to AM fungi. PMID:24795166

Obase, Keisuke; Matsuda, Yosuke

2014-11-01

226

DIRS and Ngaro Retrotransposons in Fungi  

PubMed Central

Retrotransposons with a tyrosine recombinase (YR) have been discovered recently and lack thorough annotation in fungi. YR retrotransposons are divided into 3 groups: DIRS, Ngaro and VIPER (known only from kinetoplastida). We used comparative genomics to investigate the evolutionary patterns of retrotransposons in the fungal kingdom. The identification of both functional and remnant elements provides a unique view on both recent and past transposition activity. Our searches covering a wide range of fungal genomes allowed us to identify 2241 YR retrotransposons. Based on CLANS clustering of concatenated sequences of the reverse transcriptase (RT), RNase H (RH), DNA N-6-adenine-methyltransferase (MT) and YR protein domains we propose a revised classification of YR elements expanded by two new categories of Ngaro elements. A phylogenetic analysis of 477 representatives supports this observation and additionally demonstrates that DIRS and Ngaro abundance changed independently in Basidiomycota and Blastocladiomycota/Mucoromycotina/Kixellomycotina. Interestingly, a single remnant Ngaro element could be identified in an Ascomycota genome. Our analysis revealed also that 3 Pucciniomycotina taxa, known for their overall mobile element abundance and big genome size, encode an elevated number of Ngaro retrotransposons. Considering the presence of DIRS elements in all analyzed Mucoromycotina, Kickxellomycotina and Blastocladiomycota genomes one might assume a common origin of fungal DIRS retrotransposons with a loss in Dicarya. Ngaro elements described to date from Opisthokonta, seem to have invaded the common ancestor of Agaricomycotina and Pucciniomycotina after Ustilagomycotina divergence. Yet, most of analyzed genomes are devoid of YR elements and most identified retrotransposons are incomplete. PMID:24086727

Muszewska, Anna; Steczkiewicz, Kamil; Ginalski, Krzysztof

2013-01-01

227

Essential role of eIF5-mimic protein in animal development is linked to control of ATF4 expression.  

PubMed

Translational control of transcription factor ATF4 through paired upstream ORFs (uORFs) plays an important role in eukaryotic gene regulation. While it is typically induced by phosphorylation of eIF2?, ATF4 translation can be also induced by expression of a translational inhibitor protein, eIF5-mimic protein 1 (5MP1, also known as BZW2) in mammals. Here we show that the 5MP gene is maintained in eukaryotes under strong purifying selection, but is uniquely missing in two major phyla, nematoda and ascomycota. The common function of 5MP from protozoa, plants, fungi and insects is to control translation by inhibiting eIF2. The affinity of human 5MP1 to eIF2? was measured as being equivalent to the published value of human eIF5 to eIF2?, in agreement with effective competition of 5MP with eIF5 for the main substrate, eIF2. In the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, RNA interference studies indicate that 5MP facilitates expression of GADD34, a downstream target of ATF4. Furthermore, both 5MP and ATF4 are essential for larval development. Finally, 5MP and the paired uORFs allowing ATF4 control are conserved in the entire metazoa except nematoda. Based on these findings, we discuss the phylogenetic and functional linkage between ATF4 regulation and 5MP expression in this group of eukaryotes. PMID:25147208

Hiraishi, Hiroyuki; Oatman, Jamie; Haller, Sherry L; Blunk, Logan; McGivern, Benton; Morris, Jacob; Papadopoulos, Evangelos; Gutierrez, Wade; Gordon, Michelle; Bokhari, Wahaj; Ikeda, Yuka; Miles, David; Fellers, John; Asano, Masayo; Wagner, Gerhard; Tazi, Loubna; Rothenburg, Stefan; Brown, Susan J; Asano, Katsura

2014-12-01

228

A Five-Year Survey of Dematiaceous Fungi in a Tropical Hospital Reveals Potential Opportunistic Species  

PubMed Central

Dematiaceous fungi (black fungi) are a heterogeneous group of fungi present in diverse environments worldwide. Many species in this group are known to cause allergic reactions and potentially fatal diseases in humans and animals, especially in tropical and subtropical climates. This study represents the first survey of dematiaceous fungi in Malaysia and provides observations on their diversity as well as in vitro response to antifungal drugs. Seventy-five strains isolated from various clinical specimens were identified by morphology as well as an internal transcribed spacer (ITS)-based phylogenetic analysis. The combined molecular and conventional approach enabled the identification of three classes of the Ascomycota phylum and 16 genera, the most common being Cladosporium, Cochliobolus and Neoscytalidium. Several of the species identified have not been associated before with human infections. Among 8 antifungal agents tested, the azoles posaconazole (96%), voriconazole (90.7%), ketoconazole (86.7%) and itraconazole (85.3%) showed in vitro activity (MIC ?1 µg/mL) to the largest number of strains, followed by anidulafungin (89.3%), caspofungin (74.7%) and amphotericin B (70.7%). Fluconazole appeared to be the least effective with only 10.7% of isolates showing in vitro susceptibility. Overall, almost half (45.3%) of the isolates showed reduced susceptibility (MIC >1 µg/mL) to at least one antifungal agent, and three strains (one Pyrenochaeta unguis-hominis and two Nigrospora oryzae) showed potential multidrug resistance. PMID:25098697

Yew, Su Mei; Chan, Chai Ling; Lee, Kok Wei; Na, Shiang Ling; Tan, Ruixin; Hoh, Chee-Choong; Yee, Wai-Yan; Ngeow, Yun Fong; Ng, Kee Peng

2014-01-01

229

The halotolerant fungus Glomerobolus gelineus is a member of the Ostropales.  

PubMed

Glomerobolus gelineus is a halotolerant species with a unique method of ballistic propagation. The absence of both sexual and asexual spores made reliable placement of this species, based on morphology alone, within the current fungal classification problematical. A phylogenetic analysis of the large and small nuclear ribosomal subunit and the second largest subunit of RNA polymerase II placed this fungus within the Ostropales, an order comprising lichenized and saprobic species, with good statistical support. Subsequently, a more detailed analysis that combined the nuc LSU rDNA and the mt SSU rDNA confirmed a close relationship to the Stictidaceae. The phylogenetic placement of G. gelineus is also supported by morphological characters. We postulate that the hyphoma lobes of Glomerobolus correspond to the periphysoidal layer in the apothecium of Stictis, and the propagule to the hymenium. Moreover, the presence of crystals in the outer lobes of G. gelineus is another indication of its relationship with Ostropales, which have characteristic crystalliferous hyphae. The placement of Glomerobolus within the Ostropales further expands the ecological diversity exhibited by this order. It also provides a phylogenetic hypothesis for assessing the homology of the enigmatic hyphomal morphology with apothecia-forming Ascomycota. PMID:16431093

Schoch, Conrad L; Kohlmeyer, Jan; Volkmann-Kohlmeyer, Brigitte; Tsui, Clement K M; Spatafora, Joseph W

2006-03-01

230

A functional selection model explains evolutionary robustness despite plasticity in regulatory networks  

PubMed Central

Evolutionary rewiring of regulatory networks is an important source of diversity among species. Previous evidence suggested substantial divergence of regulatory networks across species. However, systematically assessing the extent of this plasticity and its functional implications has been challenging due to limited experimental data and the noisy nature of computational predictions. Here, we introduce a novel approach to study cis-regulatory evolution, and use it to trace the regulatory history of 88 DNA motifs of transcription factors across 23 Ascomycota fungi. While motifs are conserved, we find a pervasive gain and loss in the regulation of their target genes. Despite this turnover, the biological processes associated with a motif are generally conserved. We explain these trends using a model with a strong selection to conserve the overall function of a transcription factor, and a much weaker selection over the specific genes it targets. The model also accounts for the turnover of bound targets measured experimentally across species in yeasts and mammals. Thus, selective pressures on regulatory networks mostly tolerate local rewiring, and may allow for subtle fine-tuning of gene regulation during evolution. PMID:23089682

Habib, Naomi; Wapinski, Ilan; Margalit, Hanah; Regev, Aviv; Friedman, Nir

2012-01-01

231

ITS-1 versus ITS-2 pyrosequencing: a comparison of fungal populations in truffle grounds.  

PubMed

In a recent study pyrosequencing of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer-1 (ITS-1) has validated the effectiveness of such technology in the survey of soil fungal diversity. Here we compare the two ITS regions, ITS-1 and ITS-2, of the fungal populations occurring in Tuber melanosporum/Quercus pubescens truffle grounds and sampled in two areas, one devoid of vegetation ("burned", brulé in French) where T. melanosporum fruiting bodies are usually collected, and outside the brulé. TS1F/ITS2 and ITS3/ITS4 were used respectively for the amplification of the ITS-1 and ITS-2 regions. Two amplicon libraries were built, one for inside and the other for outside. A set of 15.788 reads was obtained. After the removal of low quality sequences, 3568 and 3156 sequences were obtained from inside the brulé with the ITS-1 and ITS-2 primers respectively. The sequences obtained from outside the brulé were 4490 with the ITS-1 primers and 2432 with the ITS-2 primers. Most of the sequences obtained for both ITS fragments could be attributed to fungal organisms. The pair of primers, ITS1-F/ITS2, was more selective, producing fewer non-fungal sequences (1% inside, 3% outside), in addition to a higher number of sequences, than the pair ITS3/ITS4 (6% inside, 11% outside). Although differences are present in the taxa percentages between ITS-1 and ITS-2, both reveal that Ascomycota were the dominant fungal phylum and that their number decreased moving from inside the brulé to outside, while the number of Basidiomycota increased. Taken together, both the short ITS-1 and ITS-2 reads obtained by the high throughput 454 sequencing provide adequate information for taxon assignment and are suitable to correlate the dynamics of the fungal populations to specific environments. PMID:21700633

Mello, Antonietta; Napoli, Chiara; Murat, Claude; Morin, Emmanuelle; Marceddu, Giuseppe; Bonfante, Paola

2011-01-01

232

A Phylogenetic Analysis of the Globins in Fungi  

PubMed Central

Background All globins belong to one of three families: the F (flavohemoglobin) and S (sensor) families that exhibit the canonical 3/3 ?-helical fold, and the T (truncated 3/3 fold) globins characterized by a shortened 2/2 ?-helical fold. All eukaryote 3/3 hemoglobins are related to the bacterial single domain F globins. It is known that Fungi contain flavohemoglobins and single domain S globins. Our aims are to provide a census of fungal globins and to examine their relationships to bacterial globins. Results Examination of 165 genomes revealed that globins are present in >90% of Ascomycota and ?60% of Basidiomycota genomes. The S globins occur in Blastocladiomycota and Chytridiomycota in addition to the phyla that have FHbs. Unexpectedly, group 1 T globins were found in one Blastocladiomycota and one Chytridiomycota genome. Phylogenetic analyses were carried out on the fungal globins, alone and aligned with representative bacterial globins. The Saccharomycetes and Sordariomycetes with two FHbs form two widely divergent clusters separated by the remaining fungal sequences. One of the Saccharomycete groups represents a new subfamily of FHbs, comprising a previously unknown N-terminal and a FHb missing the C-terminal moiety of its reductase domain. The two Saccharomycete groups also form two clusters in the presence of bacterial FHbs; the surrounding bacterial sequences are dominated by Proteobacteria and Bacilli (Firmicutes). The remaining fungal FHbs cluster with Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria. The Sgbs cluster separately from their bacterial counterparts, except for the intercalation of two Planctomycetes and a Proteobacterium between the Fungi incertae sedis and the Blastocladiomycota and Chytridiomycota. Conclusion Our results are compatible with a model of globin evolution put forward earlier, which proposed that eukaryote F, S and T globins originated via horizontal gene transfer of their bacterial counterparts to the eukaryote ancestor, resulting from the endosymbiotic events responsible for the origin of mitochondria and chloroplasts. PMID:22384087

Hoogewijs, David; Dewilde, Sylvia; Vierstraete, Andy; Moens, Luc; Vinogradov, Serge N.

2012-01-01

233

Molecular Characterization of a Heterothallic Mating System in Pseudogymnoascus destructans, the Fungus Causing White-Nose Syndrome of Bats  

PubMed Central

White-nose syndrome (WNS) of bats has devastated bat populations in eastern North America since its discovery in 2006. WNS, caused by the fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans, has spread quickly in North America and has become one of the most severe wildlife epidemics of our time. While P. destructans is spreading rapidly in North America, nothing is known about the sexual capacity of this fungus. To gain insight into the genes involved in sexual reproduction, we characterized the mating-type locus (MAT) of two Pseudogymnoascus spp. that are closely related to P. destructans and homothallic (self-fertile). As with other homothallic Ascomycota, the MAT locus of these two species encodes a conserved ?-box protein (MAT1-1-1) as well as two high-mobility group (HMG) box proteins (MAT1-1-3 and MAT1-2-1). Comparisons with the MAT locus of the North American isolate of P. destructans (the ex-type isolate) revealed that this isolate of P. destructans was missing a clear homolog of the conserved HMG box protein (MAT1-2-1). These data prompted the discovery and molecular characterization of a heterothallic mating system in isolates of P. destructans from the Czech Republic. Both mating types of P. destructans were found to coexist within hibernacula, suggesting the presence of mating populations in Europe. Although populations of P. destructans in North America are thought to be clonal and of one mating type, the potential for sexual recombination indicates that continued vigilance is needed regarding introductions of additional isolates of this pathogen. PMID:25053709

Palmer, Jonathan M.; Kubatova, Alena; Novakova, Alena; Minnis, Andrew M.; Kolarik, Miroslav; Lindner, Daniel L.

2014-01-01

234

Ion Torrent PGM as Tool for Fungal Community Analysis: A Case Study of Endophytes in Eucalyptus grandis Reveals High Taxonomic Diversity  

PubMed Central

The Kingdom Fungi adds substantially to the diversity of life, but due to their cryptic morphology and lifestyle, tremendous diversity, paucity of formally described specimens, and the difficulty in isolating environmental strains into culture, fungal communities are difficult to characterize. This is especially true for endophytic communities of fungi living in healthy plant tissue. The developments in next generation sequencing technologies are, however, starting to reveal the true extent of fungal diversity. One of the promising new technologies, namely semiconductor sequencing, has thus far not been used in fungal diversity assessments. In this study we sequenced the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) nuclear encoded ribosomal RNA of the endophytic community of the economically important tree, Eucalyptus grandis, from South Africa using the Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine (PGM). We determined the impact of various analysis parameters on the interpretation of the results, namely different sequence quality parameter settings, different sequence similarity cutoffs for clustering and filtering of databases for removal of sequences with incomplete taxonomy. Sequence similarity cutoff values only had a marginal effect on the identified family numbers, whereas different sequence quality filters had a large effect (89 vs. 48 families between least and most stringent filters). Database filtering had a small, but statistically significant, effect on the assignment of sequences to reference sequences. The community was dominated by Ascomycota, and particularly by families in the Dothidiomycetes that harbor well-known plant pathogens. The study demonstrates that semiconductor sequencing is an ideal strategy for environmental sequencing of fungal communities. It also highlights some potential pitfalls in subsequent data analyses when using a technology with relatively short read lengths. PMID:24358124

Kemler, Martin; Garnas, Jeff; Wingfield, Michael J.; Gryzenhout, Marieka; Pillay, Kerry-Anne; Slippers, Bernard

2013-01-01

235

Candida albicans Scavenges Host Zinc via Pra1 during Endothelial Invasion  

PubMed Central

The ability of pathogenic microorganisms to assimilate essential nutrients from their hosts is critical for pathogenesis. Here we report endothelial zinc sequestration by the major human fungal pathogen, Candida albicans. We hypothesised that, analogous to siderophore-mediated iron acquisition, C. albicans utilises an extracellular zinc scavenger for acquiring this essential metal. We postulated that such a “zincophore” system would consist of a secreted factor with zinc-binding properties, which can specifically reassociate with the fungal cell surface. In silico analysis of the C. albicans secretome for proteins with zinc binding motifs identified the pH-regulated antigen 1 (Pra1). Three-dimensional modelling of Pra1 indicated the presence of at least two zinc coordination sites. Indeed, recombinantly expressed Pra1 exhibited zinc binding properties in vitro. Deletion of PRA1 in C. albicans prevented fungal sequestration and utilisation of host zinc, and specifically blocked host cell damage in the absence of exogenous zinc. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that PRA1 arose in an ancient fungal lineage and developed synteny with ZRT1 (encoding a zinc transporter) before divergence of the Ascomycota and Basidiomycota. Structural modelling indicated physical interaction between Pra1 and Zrt1 and we confirmed this experimentally by demonstrating that Zrt1 was essential for binding of soluble Pra1 to the cell surface of C. albicans. Therefore, we have identified a novel metal acquisition system consisting of a secreted zinc scavenger (“zincophore”), which reassociates with the fungal cell. Furthermore, functional similarities with phylogenetically unrelated prokaryotic systems indicate that syntenic zinc acquisition loci have been independently selected during evolution. PMID:22761575

Citiulo, Francesco; Jacobsen, Ilse D.; Miramón, Pedro; Schild, Lydia; Brunke, Sascha; Zipfel, Peter; Brock, Matthias; Hube, Bernhard; Wilson, Duncan

2012-01-01

236

Prevalence of Beauveria pseudobassiana among entomopathogenic fungi isolated from the hard tick, Ixodes ricinus.  

PubMed

Human and animal disease-transmitting hard ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) are of great concern for public health and animal farming. Alternatives to tick control by chemical acaricides are urgently needed, and one intensively evaluated biocontrol strategy is based on the use of tick-pathogenic filamentous fungi. An indispensable prerequisite for the development of tick-derived fungal isolates into registered myco-acaricides is their sound taxonomic characterisation. A set of fungal strains isolated from ixodid ticks in the Republic of Moldova was genetically characterised at the genus and species level together with further tick-derived fungal isolates from different geographic locations in Europe and North America. In a previous study, the same isolates had been assigned to the species Beauveria bassiana. Using a recent molecular taxonomic approach based on phylogenetic reconstruction from both internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and protein-encoding gene sequences, all fungi investigated were conclusively assigned to one of the two "hyphomycete" genera, Beauveria or Isaria (Ascomycota; Hypocreales; Cordycipitaceae). Within the genus Isaria, two species, Isaria farinosa and Isaria fumosorosea, were equally represented. Within the genus Beauveria, the comparatively rare species Beauveria pseudobassiana was found to strongly prevail among the isolates from Moldova, and one of the two tick-derived Beauveria strains from North America could be assigned to this species as well. In particular, the previous classification as B. bassiana could not be confirmed for any of the characterised tick pathogens from Europe and North America. The data presented here lend support to the hypothesis that within the genus Beauveria specific adaptation to ticks might have occurred within the species B. pseudobassiana. To test this hypothesis, a more extensive molecular taxonomic survey carefully reconsidering previous taxonomic assignments of tick-derived fungal isolates is needed. PMID:25065606

Munteanu, Natalia V; Mitkovets, Polina V; Mitina, Galina V; Movila, Alexandru; Tokarev, Yuri S; Leclerque, Andreas

2014-10-01

237

Taxonomic assessment and enzymes production by yeasts isolated from marine and terrestrial Antarctic samples.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to investigate the taxonomic identity of yeasts isolated from the Antarctic continent and to evaluate their ability to produce enzymes (lipase, protease and xylanase) at low and moderate temperatures. A total of 97 yeast strains were recovered from marine and terrestrial samples collected in the Antarctica. The highest amount of yeast strains was obtained from marine sediments, followed by lichens, ornithogenic soils, sea stars, Salpa sp., algae, sea urchin, sea squirt, stone with lichens, Nacella concinna, sea sponge, sea isopod and sea snail. Data from polyphasic taxonomy revealed the presence of 21 yeast species, distributed in the phylum Ascomycota (n = 8) and Basidiomycota (n = 13). Representatives of encapsulated yeasts, belonging to genera Rhodotorula and Cryptococcus were recovered from 7 different Antarctic samples. Moreover, Candida glaebosa, Cryptococcus victoriae, Meyerozyma (Pichia) guilliermondii, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa and R. laryngis were the most abundant yeast species recovered. This is the first report of the occurrence of some species of yeasts recovered from Antarctic marine invertebrates. Additionally, results from enzymes production at low/moderate temperatures revealed that the Antarctic environment contains metabolically diverse cultivable yeasts, which could be considered as a target for biotechnological applications. Among the evaluated yeasts in the present study 46.39, 37.11 and 14.43 % were able to produce lipase (at 15 °C), xylanase (at 15 °C) and protease (at 25 °C), respectively. The majority of lipolytic, proteolytic and xylanolytic strains were distributed in the phylum Basidiomycota and were mainly recovered from sea stars, lichens, sea urchin and marine sediments. PMID:24114281

Duarte, A W F; Dayo-Owoyemi, I; Nobre, F S; Pagnocca, F C; Chaud, L C S; Pessoa, A; Felipe, M G A; Sette, L D

2013-11-01

238

Endophytic fungi associated with Macrosolen tricolor and its host Camellia oleifera.  

PubMed

Endophytic fungi play an important role in terrestrial ecosystem, while little is known about those in hemi-parasitic plants, a group of special plants which absorb nutrients from its hosts by haustoria. The relationship of the endophytes in the two parts of the bipartite systems (hemiparasites together with their hosts) is also poorly understood. Endophytic fungi of a hemi-parasitic plant Macrosolen tricolor, and its host plant Camellia oleifera were investigated and compared in this study. M. tricolor contained rich and diversified endophytic fungi (H' = 2.829), which consisted mainly of ascomycetes, distributed in more than ten orders of four classes (Sordariomycetes, Dothideomycetes, Leotiomycetes and Eurotiomycetes) besides Incertae sedis strains (23.2 % of total). In addition, 2.2 % of isolates were identified to be Basidiomycota, all of which belonged to Agaricomycetes. Obvious differences were observed between the endophytic fungal assembles in the leaves and those in the branches of M. tricolor. The endophytic fungi isolated from C. oleifera distributed in nearly same orders of the four classes of Ascomycota and one class (Agaricomycetes) of Basidiomycota as those from M. tricolor with similar proportion. For both M. tricolor and C. oleifera, Valsa sp. was the dominant endophyte species in the leaves, Torula sp. 1 and Fusarium sp. 1 were the dominant endophytic fungi in the branches. The similarity coefficient of the endophyte assembles in the two host was 64.4 %. Canonical correspondence analysis showed that the endophyte assembles of M. tricolor and C. oleifera were significantly different (p < 0.01). PMID:24442818

Sheng-Liang, Zhou; Shu-Zhen, Yan; Zhen-Ying, Wu; Shuang-Lin, Chen

2014-06-01

239

Changes in Bacterial and Fungal Communities across Compost Recipes, Preparation Methods, and Composting Times  

PubMed Central

Compost production is a critical component of organic waste handling, and compost applications to soil are increasingly important to crop production. However, we know surprisingly little about the microbial communities involved in the composting process and the factors shaping compost microbial dynamics. Here, we used high-throughput sequencing approaches to assess the diversity and composition of both bacterial and fungal communities in compost produced at a commercial-scale. Bacterial and fungal communities responded to both compost recipe and composting method. Specifically, bacterial communities in manure and hay recipes contained greater relative abundances of Firmicutes than hardwood recipes with hay recipes containing relatively more Actinobacteria and Gemmatimonadetes. In contrast, hardwood recipes contained a large relative abundance of Acidobacteria and Chloroflexi. Fungal communities of compost from a mixture of dairy manure and silage-based bedding were distinguished by a greater relative abundance of Pezizomycetes and Microascales. Hay recipes uniquely contained abundant Epicoccum, Thermomyces, Eurotium, Arthrobotrys, and Myriococcum. Hardwood recipes contained relatively abundant Sordariomycetes. Holding recipe constant, there were significantly different bacterial and fungal communities when the composting process was managed by windrow, aerated static pile, or vermicompost. Temporal dynamics of the composting process followed known patterns of degradative succession in herbivore manure. The initial community was dominated by Phycomycetes, followed by Ascomycota and finally Basidiomycota. Zygomycota were associated more with manure-silage and hay than hardwood composts. Most commercial composters focus on the thermophilic phase as an economic means to insure sanitation of compost from pathogens. However, the community succeeding the thermophilic phase begs further investigation to determine how the microbial dynamics observed here can be best managed to generate compost with the desired properties. PMID:24278144

Neher, Deborah A.; Weicht, Thomas R.; Bates, Scott T.; Leff, Jonathan W.; Fierer, Noah

2013-01-01

240

The dermatophytes.  

PubMed Central

The etiologic agents of the dermatophytoses (ringworm) are classified in three anamorphic (asexual or imperfect) genera, Epidermophyton, Microsporum, and Trichophyton. Species capable of reproducing sexually belong in the teleomorphic genus, Arthroderma, of the Ascomycota. On the basis of primary habitat association, they may be grouped as geophilic (soil associated), zoophilic, and anthropophilic. Adaptation to growth on humans by most geophilic species resulted in diminished loss of sporulation, sexuality, and other soil-associated characteristics. The dermatophytes have the ability to invade keratinized tissue (skin, hair, and nails) but are usually restricted to the nonliving cornified layer of the epidermis because of their inability to penetrate viable tissue of an immunocompetent host. However, invasion does elicit a host response ranging from mild to severe. Acid proteinases, elastase, keratinases, and other proteinases reportedly act as virulence factors. The development of cell-mediated immunity correlated with delayed hypersensitivity and an inflammatory response is associated with clinical cure, whereas the lack of or a defective cell-mediated immunity predisposes the host to chronic or recurrent dermatophyte infection. Chronic dermatophytosis is mostly caused by Trichophyton rubrum, and there is some evidence that mannan produced by this fungus suppresses or diminishes the inflammatory response. Since dermatophytes cause a communicable disease, modes of transmission and control are discussed as well as a survey of recent trends in therapy. Collection of specimens, culture media, and tests for identification are also presented. Genetic studies have led to an understanding of incompatibility mechanisms, pleomorphism and variation, resistance to griseofulvin, and virulence. Molecular biology has contributed to our knowledge of the taxonomy and phylogenetic relationships of dermatophytes. PMID:7621400

Weitzman, I; Summerbell, R C

1995-01-01

241

Role of the Zinc Finger Transcription Factor SltA in Morphogenesis and Sterigmatocystin Biosynthesis in the Fungus Aspergillus nidulans  

PubMed Central

Potassium, a widely accepted macronutrient, is vital for many physiological processes such as regulation of cell volume, maintenance of intracellular pH, synthesis of proteins and activation of enzymes in filamentous fungi. Another cation, calcium, plays an essential role in many signaling processes from lower to higher eukaryotes. Imbalance in the intracellular ionic levels of potassium or calcium causes adverse effects on cell growth, morphology and development, and eventually death. Previous studies on the adaptation of Aspergillus nidulans to salt and osmotic stress conditions have revealed the role of SltA, a C2H2 zinc finger transcription factor in cation homeostasis. SltA is highly conserved in the Ascomycota phylum with no identifiable homolog in S. cerevisiae and other yeast-like fungi, and prevents toxicity by the cations Na+, K+, Li+, Cs+ and Mg2+, but not by Ca2+. However its role in morphology and biosynthesis of natural products such as mycotoxins remained unknown. This study shows the first characterization of the role of calcium and SltA fungal homologs in morphogenesis using the model system A. nidulans. Addition of potassium to sltA deletion mutants resulted in decreased levels of sterigmatocystin production. A similar phenotype was observed for both types of mutants in veA1 and veA+ genetic background. Expression of the sterigmatocystin genes aflR and stcU was strongly reduced in sltA deletion mutant when K+ was added. Additionally, increased concentrations of K+ drastically reduced sexual and asexual development, as well as radial growth in deletion sltA colonies. This reduction was accompanied by lower expression of the morphology related genes nsdD, steA and brlA. Interestingly, addition of calcium was able to stimulate asexual and sexual development and remediate the deletion sltA phenotype, including defects in morphology and toxin production. PMID:23840895

Shantappa, Sourabha; Dhingra, Sourabh; Hernandez-Ortiz, Patricia; Espeso, Eduardo A.; Calvo, Ana M.

2013-01-01

242

Identification of a Fungi-Specific Lineage of Protein Kinases Closely Related to Tyrosine Kinases  

PubMed Central

Tyrosine kinases (TKs) specifically catalyze the phosphorylation of tyrosine residues in proteins and play essential roles in many cellular processes. Although TKs mainly exist in animals, recent studies revealed that some organisms outside the Opisthokont clade also contain TKs. The fungi, as the sister group to animals, are thought to lack TKs. To better understand the origin and evolution of TKs, it is important to investigate if fungi have TK or TK-related genes. We therefore systematically identified possible TKs across the fungal kingdom by using the profile hidden Markov Models searches and phylogenetic analyses. Our results confirmed that fungi lack the orthologs of animal TKs. We identified a fungi-specific lineage of protein kinases (FslK) that appears to be a sister group closely related to TKs. Sequence analysis revealed that members of the FslK clade contain all the conserved protein kinase sub-domains and thus are likely enzymatically active. However, they lack key amino acid residues that determine TK-specific activities, indicating that they are not true TKs. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the last common ancestor of fungi may have possessed numerous members of FslK. The ancestral FslK genes were lost in Ascomycota and Ustilaginomycotina and Pucciniomycotina of Basidiomycota during evolution. Most of these ancestral genes, however, were retained and expanded in Agaricomycetes. The discovery of the fungi-specific lineage of protein kinases closely related to TKs helps shed light on the origin and evolution of TKs and also has potential implications for the importance of these kinases in mushroom fungi. PMID:24587055

Zhao, Zhongtao; Jin, Qiaojun; Xu, Jin-Rong; Liu, Huiquan

2014-01-01

243

Variation, Evolution, and Correlation Analysis of C+G Content and Genome or Chromosome Size in Different Kingdoms and Phyla  

PubMed Central

C+G content (GC content or G+C content) is known to be correlated with genome/chromosome size in bacteria but the relationship for other kingdoms remains unclear. This study analyzed genome size, chromosome size, and base composition in most of the available sequenced genomes in various kingdoms. Genome size tends to increase during evolution in plants and animals, and the same is likely true for bacteria. The genomic C+G contents were found to vary greatly in microorganisms but were quite similar within each animal or plant subkingdom. In animals and plants, the C+G contents are ranked as follows: monocot plants>mammals>non-mammalian animals>dicot plants. The variation in C+G content between chromosomes within species is greater in animals than in plants. The correlation between average chromosome C+G content and chromosome length was found to be positive in Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria (but not in other analyzed bacterial phyla), Ascomycota fungi, and likely also in some plants; negative in some animals, insignificant in two protist phyla, and likely very weak in Archaea. Clearly, correlations between C+G content and chromosome size can be positive, negative, or not significant depending on the kingdoms/groups or species. Different phyla or species exhibit different patterns of correlation between chromosome-size and C+G content. Most chromosomes within a species have a similar pattern of variation in C+G content but outliers are common. The data presented in this study suggest that the C+G content is under genetic control by both trans- and cis- factors and that the correlation between C+G content and chromosome length can be positive, negative, or not significant in different phyla. PMID:24551092

Li, Xiu-Qing; Du, Donglei

2014-01-01

244

A molecular phylogeny of thermophilic fungi.  

PubMed

Sequences from 86 fungal genomes and from the two outgroup genomes Arabidopsis thaliana and Drosophila melanogaster were analyzed to construct a robust molecular phylogeny of thermophilic fungi, which are potentially rich sources of industrial enzymes. To provide experimental reference points, growth characteristics of 22 reported thermophilic or thermotolerant fungi, together with eight mesophilic species, were examined at four temperatures: 22 °C, 34 °C, 45 °C, and 55 °C. Based on the relative growth performances, species with a faster growth rate at 45 °C than at 34 °C were classified as thermophilic, and species with better or equally good growth at 34 °C compared to 45 °C as thermotolerant. We examined the phylogenetic relationships of a diverse range of fungi, including thermophilic and thermotolerant species, using concatenated amino acid sequences of marker genes mcm7, rpb1, and rpb2 obtained from genome sequencing projects. To further elucidate the phylogenetic relationships in the thermophile-rich orders Sordariales and Eurotiales, we used nucleotide sequences from the nuclear ribosomal small subunit (SSU), the 5.8S gene with internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2 (ITS 1 and 2), and the ribosomal large subunit (LSU) to include additional species for analysis. These phylogenetic analyses clarified the position of several thermophilic taxa. Thus, Myriococcum thermophilum and Scytalidium thermophilum fall into the Sordariales as members of the Chaetomiaceae, Thermomyces lanuginosus belongs to the Eurotiales, Malbranchea cinnamomea is a member of the Onygenales, and Calcarisporiella thermophila is assigned to the basal fungi close to the Mucorales. The mesophilic alkalophile Acremonium alcalophilum clusters with Verticillium albo-atrum and Verticillium dahliae, placing them in the recently established order Glomerellales. Taken together, these data indicate that the known thermophilic fungi are limited to the Sordariales, Eurotiales, and Onygenales in the Ascomycota and the Mucorales with possibly an additional order harbouring C. thermophila in the basal fungi. No supporting evidence was found for thermophilic species belonging to the Basidiomycota. PMID:22483047

Morgenstern, Ingo; Powlowski, Justin; Ishmael, Nadeeza; Darmond, Corinne; Marqueteau, Sandrine; Moisan, Marie-Claude; Quenneville, Geneviève; Tsang, Adrian

2012-04-01

245

The complete mitochondrial genome of the vascular wilt fungus Verticillium dahliae: a novel gene order for Verticillium and a diagnostic tool for species identification.  

PubMed

The complete sequence (27,184 bp) of the mitochondrial (mt) genome of the phytopathogenic fungus Verticillium dahliae has been determined. It contains 14 protein-coding genes related to oxidative phosphorylation, two rRNA genes and a set of 25 tRNA genes. A single intron, that harbors an intronic ORF coding for a putative ribosomal protein (rps), is located within the large rRNA gene (rnl). Gene order comparisons of V. dahliae mtDNA and complete mt genomes of Pezizomycotina revealed four units of synteny for Sordariomycetes, namely rnl-trn ((11-12))-nad2-nad3, nad4L-nad5-cob-cox1, nad1-nad4-atp8-atp6 and rns-trn ((1-5))-cox3-trn ((1-5))-nad6-trn ((2-5)). These four units, in different combinations, merged to single continuous unit in the orders of Hypocreales and Sordariales. V. dahliae (Phyllachorales) and all members of the genus showed a unique feature which is the translocation of the nad1-nad4-atp8-atp6-rns-cox3-nad6 region in between genes nad3 and atp9 of the Hypocreales mtDNA gene order. Analysis of mt intergenic sequences of Verticillium species permitted the design of a species-specific primer allowing the discrimination of V. longisporum against V. dahliae and V. albo-atrum. By considering the protein-coding gene sequences as one unit, a phylogenetic comparison with representatives of Ascomycota complete mtDNA was performed. PMID:16733756

Pantou, Malena P; Kouvelis, Vassili N; Typas, Milton A

2006-08-01

246

Microbial diversity of a Mediterranean soil and its changes after biotransformed dry olive residue amendment.  

PubMed

The Mediterranean basin has been identified as a biodiversity hotspot, about whose soil microbial diversity little is known. Intensive land use and aggressive management practices are degrading the soil, with a consequent loss of fertility. The use of organic amendments such as dry olive residue (DOR), a waste produced by a two-phase olive-oil extraction system, has been proposed as an effective way to improve soil properties. However, before its application to soil, DOR needs a pre-treatment, such as by a ligninolytic fungal transformation, e.g. Coriolopsis floccosa. The present study aimed to describe the bacterial and fungal diversity in a Mediterranean soil and to assess the impact of raw DOR (DOR) and C. floccosa-transformed DOR (CORDOR) on function and phylogeny of soil microbial communities after 0, 30 and 60 days. Pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene demonstrated that bacterial diversity was dominated by the phyla Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, and Actinobacteria, while 28S-rRNA gene data revealed that Ascomycota and Basidiomycota accounted for the majority of phyla in the fungal community. A Biolog EcoPlate experiment showed that DOR and CORDOR amendments decreased functional diversity and altered microbial functional structures. These changes in soil functionality occurred in parallel with those in phylogenetic bacterial and fungal community structures. Some bacterial and fungal groups increased while others decreased depending on the relative abundance of beneficial and toxic substances incorporated with each amendment. In general, DOR was observed to be more disruptive than CORDOR. PMID:25058610

Siles, José A; Rachid, Caio T C C; Sampedro, Inmaculada; García-Romera, Inmaculada; Tiedje, James M

2014-01-01

247

MYT3, A Myb-Like Transcription Factor, Affects Fungal Development and Pathogenicity of Fusarium graminearum  

PubMed Central

We previously characterized members of the Myb protein family, MYT1 and MYT2, in Fusarium graminearum. MYT1 and MYT2 are involved in female fertility and perithecium size, respectively. To expand knowledge of Myb proteins in F. graminearum, in this study, we characterized the functions of the MYT3 gene, which encodes a putative Myb-like transcription factor containing two Myb DNA-binding domains and is conserved in the subphylum Pezizomycotina of Ascomycota. MYT3 proteins were localized in nuclei during most developmental stages, suggesting the role of MYT3 as a transcriptional regulator. Deletion of MYT3 resulted in impairment of conidiation, germination, and vegetative growth compared to the wild type, whereas complementation of MYT3 restored the wild-type phenotype. Additionally, the ?myt3 strain grew poorly on nitrogen-limited media; however, the mutant grew robustly on minimal media supplemented with ammonium. Moreover, expression level of nitrate reductase gene in the ?myt3 strain was decreased in comparison to the wild type and complemented strain. On flowering wheat heads, the ?myt3 strain exhibited reduced pathogenicity, which corresponded with significant reductions in trichothecene production and transcript levels of trichothecene biosynthetic genes. When the mutant was selfed, mated as a female, or mated as a male for sexual development, perithecia were not observed on the cultures, indicating that the ?myt3 strain lost both male and female fertility. Taken together, these results demonstrate that MYT3 is required for pathogenesis and sexual development in F. graminearum, and will provide a robust foundation to establish the regulatory networks for all Myb-like proteins in F. graminearum. PMID:24722578

Son, Hokyoung; Choi, Gyung Ja; Kim, Jin-Cheol; Lee, Yin-Won

2014-01-01

248

Comparative analysis of fungal genomes reveals different plant cell wall degrading capacity in fungi  

PubMed Central

Background Fungi produce a variety of carbohydrate activity enzymes (CAZymes) for the degradation of plant polysaccharide materials to facilitate infection and/or gain nutrition. Identifying and comparing CAZymes from fungi with different nutritional modes or infection mechanisms may provide information for better understanding of their life styles and infection models. To date, over hundreds of fungal genomes are publicly available. However, a systematic comparative analysis of fungal CAZymes across the entire fungal kingdom has not been reported. Results In this study, we systemically identified glycoside hydrolases (GHs), polysaccharide lyases (PLs), carbohydrate esterases (CEs), and glycosyltransferases (GTs) as well as carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs) in the predicted proteomes of 103 representative fungi from Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Chytridiomycota, and Zygomycota. Comparative analysis of these CAZymes that play major roles in plant polysaccharide degradation revealed that fungi exhibit tremendous diversity in the number and variety of CAZymes. Among them, some families of GHs and CEs are the most prevalent CAZymes that are distributed in all of the fungi analyzed. Importantly, cellulases of some GH families are present in fungi that are not known to have cellulose-degrading ability. In addition, our results also showed that in general, plant pathogenic fungi have the highest number of CAZymes. Biotrophic fungi tend to have fewer CAZymes than necrotrophic and hemibiotrophic fungi. Pathogens of dicots often contain more pectinases than fungi infecting monocots. Interestingly, besides yeasts, many saprophytic fungi that are highly active in degrading plant biomass contain fewer CAZymes than plant pathogenic fungi. Furthermore, analysis of the gene expression profile of the wheat scab fungus Fusarium graminearum revealed that most of the CAZyme genes related to cell wall degradation were up-regulated during plant infection. Phylogenetic analysis also revealed a complex history of lineage-specific expansions and attritions for the PL1 family. Conclusions Our study provides insights into the variety and expansion of fungal CAZyme classes and revealed the relationship of CAZyme size and diversity with their nutritional strategy and host specificity. PMID:23617724

2013-01-01

249

Diversity of Fungal Endophytes in Various Tissues of Panax ginseng Meyer Cultivated in Korea  

PubMed Central

Endophytic fungi were isolated from various tissues (root, stem, petiole, leaf, and fl ower stalk) of 3- and 4-year-old ginseng plants (Panax ginseng Meyer) cultivated in Korea. The isolated endophytic fungi were identified based on the sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS), 1-5.8-ITS 2. A morphological characterization was also conducted using microscopic observations. According to the identification, 127 fungal isolates were assigned to 27 taxa. The genera of Phoma, Alternaria and Colletotrichum were the most frequent isolates, followed by Fusarium, Entrophospora and Xylaria. Although 19 of the 27 taxa were identified at the species level, the remainder were classified at the genus level (6 isolates), phylum level (Ascomycota, 1 isolate), and unknown fungal species (1 isolate). Endophytic fungi of 13 and 19 species were isolated from 3- and 4-year-old ginseng plants, respectively, and Phoma radicina and Fusarium solani were the most frequently isolated species colonizing the tissues of the 3- and 4-year-old ginseng plants, respectively. The colonization frequency (CF%) was dependant on the age and tissue examined: the CFs of the roots and stems in the 3-year-old ginseng were higher than the CF of tissues in the 4-year-old plants. In contrast, higher CFs were observed in the leaves and petioles of 4-year-old plants, and endophytic fungi in the flower stalks were only detected in the 4-year-old plants. In conclusion, we detected diverse endophytic fungi in ginseng plants, which were distributed differently depending on the age and tissue examined. PMID:23717122

Park, Young-Hwan; Lee, Soon-Gu; Ahn, Doek Jong; Kwon, Tae Ryong; Park, Sang Un; Lim, Hyoun-Sub; Bae, Hanhong

2012-01-01

250

Detrimental and neutral effects of a wild grass-fungal endophyte symbiotum on insect preference and performance.  

PubMed

Seed-borne Epichloë/Neotyphodium Glenn, Bacon, Hanlin (Ascomycota: Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) fungal endophytes in temperate grasses can provide protection against insect attack with the degree of host resistance related to the grass-endophyte symbiotum and the insect species involved in an interaction. Few experimental studies with wild grass-endophyte symbiota, compared to endophyte-infected agricultural grasses, have tested for anti-insect benefits, let alone for resistance against more than one insect species. This study quantified the preference and performance of the bird cherry oat-aphid, Rhopalosiphum padi (L.) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and the cereal leaf beetle, Oulema melanopus (L.) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), two important pests of forage and cereal grasses, on Neotyphodium-infected (E+) and uninfected (E-) plants of the wild grass Alpine timothy, Phleum alpinum L. (Poales: Poaceae). The experiments tested for both constitutive and wound-induced resistance in E+ plants to characterize possible plasticity of defense responses by a wild E+ grass. The aphid, R. padi preferred E- over E+ test plants in choice experiments and E+ undamaged test plants constitutively expressed antibiosis resistance to this aphid by suppressing population growth. Prior damage of E+ test plants did not induce higher levels of resistance to R. padi. By contrast, the beetle, O. melanopus showed no preference for E+ or E- test plants and endophyte infection did not adversely affect the survival and development of larvae. These results extend the phenomenon of variable effects of E+ wild grasses on the preference and performance of phytophagous insects. The wild grass- Neotyphodium symbiotum in this study broadens the number of wild E+ grasses available for expanded explorations into the effects of endophyte metabolites on insect herbivory. PMID:21867443

Clement, Stephen L; Hu, Jinguo; Stewart, Alan V; Wang, Bingrui; Elberson, Leslie R

2011-01-01

251

Detrimental and Neutral Effects of a Wild Grass-Fungal Endophyte Symbiotum on Insect Preference and Performance  

PubMed Central

Seed-borne Epichloë/Neotyphodium Glenn, Bacon, Hanlin (Ascomycota: Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) fungal endophytes in temperate grasses can provide protection against insect attack with the degree of host resistance related to the grass—endophyte symbiotum and the insect species involved in an interaction. Few experimental studies with wild grass—endophyte symbiota, compared to endophyte-infected agricultural grasses, have tested for anti-insect benefits, let alone for resistance against more than one insect species. This study quantified the preference and performance of the bird cherry oat-aphid, Rhopalosiphum padi (L.) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and the cereal leaf beetle, Oulema melanopus (L.) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), two important pests of forage and cereal grasses, on Neotyphodium-infected (E+) and uninfected (E-) plants of the wild grass Alpine timothy, Phleum alpinum L. (Poales: Poaceae). The experiments tested for both constitutive and wound-induced resistance in E+ plants to characterize possible plasticity of defense responses by a wild E+ grass. The aphid, R. padi preferred E- over E+ test plants in choice experiments and E+ undamaged test plants constitutively expressed antibiosis resistance to this aphid by suppressing population growth. Prior damage of E+ test plants did not induce higher levels of resistance to R. padi. By contrast, the beetle, O. melanopus showed no preference for E+ or E- test plants and endophyte infection did not adversely affect the survival and development of larvae. These results extend the phenomenon of variable effects of E+ wild grasses on the preference and performance of phytophagous insects. The wild grass— Neotyphodium symbiotum in this study broadens the number of wild E+ grasses available for expanded explorations into the effects of endophyte metabolites on insect herbivory. PMID:21867443

Clement, Stephen L.; Hu, Jinguo; Stewart, Alan V.; Wang, Bingrui; Elberson, Leslie R.

2011-01-01

252

Use of drift substrates to characterize marine fungal communities from the west coast of Portugal.  

PubMed

This survey reports the occurrence, diversity and similarity of marine fungi associated with five categories of drift substrates (Arundo donax, Phragmites australis, Spartina maritima, "other stems" and driftwood) collected on four sandy beaches of the western coast of Portugal. "Other stems" and driftwood are composite samples with a variety of identified and unidentified pieces of non-woody and woody substrates respectively. Fifty-six taxa were identified, including 38 Ascomycota and 18 anamorphic fungi. Twenty-six taxa were generalists; however several cases of "substrate recurrence" were identified. The very frequent fungi differed among the categories of studied substrates, with the exception of Corollospora maritima, very frequent on four categories. Except for S. maritima, P. australis and driftwood, cases of multiple fungal colonization were rare. S. maritima was the single substrate with five different marine fungi on one sample, as well as with the highest number of very frequent fungi, highest percentage of colonization and average number of fungi per sample. Driftwood presented the highest value of fungal richness (37 taxa) and A. donax the lowest (22 taxa). ANOSIM analysis of similarity showed that all substrates supported different fungal communities with the exception of the pair P. australis/"other stems". The effect of sample size on estimated fungal richness was tested, and the results let us conclude that, although most of the sporadic fungi (<1% occurrence) will be detected only in a very large number of samples, 60 samples of A. donax and "other stems" and 70 samples of all the other substrates may suffice to assess their respective representative marine mycota. PMID:22241614

Azevedo, Egidia; Rebelo, Rui; Caeiro, Maria Filomena; Barata, Margarida

2012-01-01

253

Changes in bacterial and fungal communities across compost recipes, preparation methods, and composting times.  

PubMed

Compost production is a critical component of organic waste handling, and compost applications to soil are increasingly important to crop production. However, we know surprisingly little about the microbial communities involved in the composting process and the factors shaping compost microbial dynamics. Here, we used high-throughput sequencing approaches to assess the diversity and composition of both bacterial and fungal communities in compost produced at a commercial-scale. Bacterial and fungal communities responded to both compost recipe and composting method. Specifically, bacterial communities in manure and hay recipes contained greater relative abundances of Firmicutes than hardwood recipes with hay recipes containing relatively more Actinobacteria and Gemmatimonadetes. In contrast, hardwood recipes contained a large relative abundance of Acidobacteria and Chloroflexi. Fungal communities of compost from a mixture of dairy manure and silage-based bedding were distinguished by a greater relative abundance of Pezizomycetes and Microascales. Hay recipes uniquely contained abundant Epicoccum, Thermomyces, Eurotium, Arthrobotrys, and Myriococcum. Hardwood recipes contained relatively abundant Sordariomycetes. Holding recipe constant, there were significantly different bacterial and fungal communities when the composting process was managed by windrow, aerated static pile, or vermicompost. Temporal dynamics of the composting process followed known patterns of degradative succession in herbivore manure. The initial community was dominated by Phycomycetes, followed by Ascomycota and finally Basidiomycota. Zygomycota were associated more with manure-silage and hay than hardwood composts. Most commercial composters focus on the thermophilic phase as an economic means to insure sanitation of compost from pathogens. However, the community succeeding the thermophilic phase begs further investigation to determine how the microbial dynamics observed here can be best managed to generate compost with the desired properties. PMID:24278144

Neher, Deborah A; Weicht, Thomas R; Bates, Scott T; Leff, Jonathan W; Fierer, Noah

2013-01-01

254

Rich and cold: diversity, distribution and drivers of fungal communities in patterned-ground ecosystems of the North American Arctic.  

PubMed

Fungi are abundant and functionally important in the Arctic, yet comprehensive studies of their diversity in relation to geography and environment are not available. We sampled soils in paired plots along the North American Arctic Transect (NAAT), which spans all five bioclimatic subzones of the Arctic. Each pair of plots contrasted relatively bare, cryoturbated patterned-ground features (PGFs) and adjacent vegetated between patterned-ground features (bPGFs). Fungal communities were analysed via sequencing of 7834 ITS-LSU clones. We recorded 1834 OTUs - nearly half the fungal richness previously reported for the entire Arctic. These OTUs spanned eight phyla, 24 classes, 75 orders and 120 families, but were dominated by Ascomycota, with one-fifth belonging to lichens. Species richness did not decline with increasing latitude, although there was a decline in mycorrhizal taxa that was offset by an increase in lichen taxa. The dominant OTUs were widespread even beyond the Arctic, demonstrating no dispersal limitation. Yet fungal communities were distinct in each subzone and were correlated with soil pH, climate and vegetation. Communities in subzone E were distinct from the other subzones, but similar to those of the boreal forest. Fungal communities on disturbed PGFs differed significantly from those of paired stable areas in bPGFs. Indicator species for PGFs included lichens and saprotrophic fungi, while bPGFs were characterized by ectomycorrhizal and pathogenic fungi. Our results suggest that the Arctic does not host a unique mycoflora, while Arctic fungi are highly sensitive to climate and vegetation, with potential to migrate rapidly as global change unfolds. PMID:24689939

Timling, I; Walker, D A; Nusbaum, C; Lennon, N J; Taylor, D L

2014-07-01

255

Extensive Intra-Kingdom Horizontal Gene Transfer Converging on a Fungal Fructose Transporter Gene  

PubMed Central

Comparative genomics revealed in the last decade a scenario of rampant horizontal gene transfer (HGT) among prokaryotes, but for fungi a clearly dominant pattern of vertical inheritance still stands, punctuated however by an increasing number of exceptions. In the present work, we studied the phylogenetic distribution and pattern of inheritance of a fungal gene encoding a fructose transporter (FSY1) with unique substrate selectivity. 109 FSY1 homologues were identified in two sub-phyla of the Ascomycota, in a survey that included 241 available fungal genomes. At least 10 independent inter-species instances of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) involving FSY1 were identified, supported by strong phylogenetic evidence and synteny analyses. The acquisition of FSY1 through HGT was sometimes suggestive of xenolog gene displacement, but several cases of pseudoparalogy were also uncovered. Moreover, evidence was found for successive HGT events, possibly including those responsible for transmission of the gene among yeast lineages. These occurrences do not seem to be driven by functional diversification of the Fsy1 proteins because Fsy1 homologues from widely distant lineages, including at least one acquired by HGT, appear to have similar biochemical properties. In summary, retracing the evolutionary path of the FSY1 gene brought to light an unparalleled number of independent HGT events involving a single fungal gene. We propose that the turbulent evolutionary history of the gene may be linked to the unique biochemical properties of the encoded transporter, whose predictable effect on fitness may be highly variable. In general, our results support the most recent views suggesting that inter-species HGT may have contributed much more substantially to shape fungal genomes than heretofore assumed. PMID:23818872

Coelho, Marco A.; Goncalves, Carla; Sampaio, Jose Paulo; Goncalves, Paula

2013-01-01

256

Phylogenetic and evolutionary aspects of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis reveal a long coexistence with animal hosts that explain several biological features of the pathogen.  

PubMed

The habitat of the mycelial saprobic form of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, which produces the infectious propagula, has not been determined and has proven difficult for mycologists to describe. The fungus has been rarely isolated from the environment, the disease has a prolonged latency period and no outbreaks have been reported. These facts have precluded the adoption of preventive measures to avoid infection. The confirmation of natural infections in nine-banded armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus) with P. brasiliensis, in high frequency and wide geographic distribution, has opened new avenues for the study and understanding of its ecology. Armadillos belong to the order Xenarthra, which has existed in South America ever since the Paleocene Era (65 million years ago), when the South American subcontinent was still a detached land, before the consolidation of what is now known as the American continent. On the other hand, strong molecular evidence suggests that P. brasiliensis and other dimorphic pathogenic fungi--such as Blastomyces dermatitidis, Coccidioides immitis and Histoplasma capsulatum--belong to the family Onygenaceae sensu lato (order Onygenales, Ascomycota), which appeared around 150 million years ago. P. brasiliensis ecology and relation to its human host are probably linked to the fungal evolutionary past, especially its long coexistence with and adaptation to animal hosts other than Homo sapiens, of earlier origin. Instead of being a blind alley, the meaning of parasitism for dimorphic pathogenic fungi should be considered as an open two-way avenue, in which the fungus may return to the environment, therefore contributing to preserve its teleomorphic (sexual) and anamorphic (asexual) forms in a defined and protected natural habitat. PMID:16473563

Bagagli, Eduardo; Bosco, Sandra M G; Theodoro, Raquel Cordeiro; Franco, Marcello

2006-09-01

257

The Putative Protein Methyltransferase LAE1 of Trichoderma atroviride Is a Key Regulator of Asexual Development and Mycoparasitism  

PubMed Central

In Ascomycota the protein methyltransferase LaeA is a global regulator that affects the expression of secondary metabolite gene clusters, and controls sexual and asexual development. The common mycoparasitic fungus Trichoderma atroviride is one of the most widely studied agents of biological control of plant-pathogenic fungi that also serves as a model for the research on regulation of asexual sporulation (conidiation) by environmental stimuli such as light and/or mechanical injury. In order to learn the possible involvement of LAE1 in these two traits, we assessed the effect of deletion and overexpression of lae1 gene on conidiation and mycoparasitic interaction. In the presence of light, conidiation was 50% decreased in a ?lae1 and 30–50% increased in lae1-overexpressing (OElae1) strains. In darkness, ?lae1 strains did not sporulate, and the OElae1 strains produced as much spores as the parent strain. Loss-of-function of lae1 also abolished sporulation triggered by mechanical injury of the mycelia. Deletion of lae1 also increased the sensitivity of T. atroviride to oxidative stress, abolished its ability to defend against other fungi and led to a loss of mycoparasitic behaviour, whereas the OElae1 strains displayed enhanced mycoparasitic vigor. The loss of mycoparasitic activity in the ?lae1 strain correlated with a significant underexpressionn of several genes normally upregulated during mycoparasitic interaction (proteases, GH16 ß-glucanases, polyketide synthases and small cystein-rich secreted proteins), which in turn was reflected in the partial reduction of formation of fungicidal water soluble metabolites and volatile compounds. Our study shows T. atroviride LAE1 is essential for asexual reproduction in the dark and for defense and parasitism on other fungi. PMID:23826217

Aghcheh, Razieh Karimi; Druzhinina, Irina S.; Kubicek, Christian P.

2013-01-01

258

Fungal community on decomposing leaf litter undergoes rapid successional changes  

PubMed Central

Fungi are considered the primary decomposers of dead plant biomass in terrestrial ecosystems. However, current knowledge regarding the successive changes in fungal communities during litter decomposition is limited. Here we explored the development of the fungal community over 24 months of litter decomposition in a temperate forest with dominant Quercus petraea using 454-pyrosequencing of the fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region and cellobiohydrolase I (cbhI) genes, which encode exocellulases, to specifically address cellulose decomposers. To quantify the involvement of phyllosphere fungi in litter decomposition, the fungal communities in live leaves and leaves immediately before abscission were also analysed. The results showed rapid succession of fungi with dramatic changes in the composition of the fungal community. Furthermore, most of the abundant taxa only temporarily dominated in the substrate. Fungal diversity was lowest at leaf senescence, increased until month 4 and did not significantly change during subsequent decomposition. Highly diverse community of phyllosphere fungi inhabits live oak leaves 2 months before abscission, and these phyllosphere taxa comprise a significant share of the fungal community during early decomposition up to the fourth month. Sequences assigned to the Ascomycota showed highest relative abundances in live leaves and during the early stages of decomposition. In contrast, the relative abundance of sequences assigned to the Basidiomycota phylum, particularly basidiomycetous yeasts, increased with time. Although cellulose was available in the litter during all stages of decomposition, the community of cellulolytic fungi changed substantially over time. The results indicate that litter decomposition is a highly complex process mediated by various fungal taxa. PMID:23051693

Voriskova, Jana; Baldrian, Petr

2013-01-01

259

A Multifactor Analysis of Fungal and Bacterial Community Structure in the Root Microbiome of Mature Populus deltoides Trees  

PubMed Central

Bacterial and fungal communities associated with plant roots are central to the host health, survival and growth. However, a robust understanding of the root-microbiome and the factors that drive host associated microbial community structure have remained elusive, especially in mature perennial plants from natural settings. Here, we investigated relationships of bacterial and fungal communities in the rhizosphere and root endosphere of the riparian tree species Populus deltoides, and the influence of soil parameters, environmental properties (host phenotype and aboveground environmental settings), host plant genotype (Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) markers), season (Spring vs. Fall) and geographic setting (at scales from regional watersheds to local riparian zones) on microbial community structure. Each of the trees sampled displayed unique aspects to its associated community structure with high numbers of Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) specific to an individual trees (bacteria >90%, fungi >60%). Over the diverse conditions surveyed only a small number of OTUs were common to all samples within rhizosphere (35 bacterial and 4 fungal) and endosphere (1 bacterial and 1 fungal) microbiomes. As expected, Proteobacteria and Ascomycota were dominant in root communities (>50%) while other higher-level phylogenetic groups (Chytridiomycota, Acidobacteria) displayed greatly reduced abundance in endosphere compared to the rhizosphere. Variance partitioning partially explained differences in microbiome composition between all sampled roots on the basis of seasonal and soil properties (4% to 23%). While most variation remains unattributed, we observed significant differences in the microbiota between watersheds (Tennessee vs. North Carolina) and seasons (Spring vs. Fall). SSR markers clearly delineated two host populations associated with the samples taken in TN vs. NC, but overall host genotypic distances did not have a significant effect on corresponding communities that could be separated from other measured effects. PMID:24146861

Shakya, Migun; Gottel, Neil; Castro, Hector; Yang, Zamin K.; Gunter, Lee; Labbé, Jessy; Muchero, Wellington; Bonito, Gregory; Vilgalys, Rytas; Tuskan, Gerald; Podar, Mircea; Schadt, Christopher W.

2013-01-01

260

Phylogenetically diverse cultivable fungal community and polyketide synthase (PKS), non-ribosomal peptide synthase (NRPS) genes associated with the South China Sea sponges.  

PubMed

Compared with sponge-associated bacteria, the phylogenetic diversity of fungi in sponge and the association of sponge fungi remain largely unknown. Meanwhile, no detection of polyketide synthase (PKS) or non-ribosomal peptide synthase (NRPS) genes in sponge-associated fungi has been attempted. In this study, diverse and novel cultivable fungi including 10 genera (Aspergillus, Ascomycete, Fusarium, Isaria, Penicillium, Plectosphaerella, Pseudonectria, Simplicillium, Trichoderma, and Volutella) in four orders (Eurotiales, Hypocreales, Microascales, and Phyllachorales) of phylum Ascomycota were isolated from 10 species marine sponges in the South China Sea. Eurotiales and Hypocreales fungi were suggested as sponge generalists. The predominant isolates were Penicillium and Aspergillus in Eurotiales followed by Volutella in Hypocreales. Based on the conserved Beta-ketosynthase of PKS and A domain of NRPS, 15 polyketide synthases, and four non-ribosomal peptides synthesis genes, including non-reducing and reducing PKSs and hybrid PKS-NRPS, were detected in these fungal isolates. A lateral gene transfer event was indicated in the comparison between the phylogenetic diversity of 18S rRNA genes and ?-ketoacyl synthase domain sequences. Some fungi, especially those with PKS or NRPS genes, showed antimicrobial activity against P. fluorescens, S. aureus and B. subtilis. It was the first time to investigate PKS and NRPS genes in sponge-associated fungi. Based on the detected antibiotics biosynthesis-related PKS and NRPS genes and antimicrobial activity, the potential ecological role of sponge-associated fungi in the chemical defense for sponge host was suggested. This study extended our knowledge of sponge-associated fungal phylogenetic diversity and their potential roles in the chemical defense. PMID:21519913

Zhou, Kang; Zhang, Xia; Zhang, Fengli; Li, Zhiyong

2011-10-01

261

Fungal diversity from deep marine subsurface sediments (IODP 317, Canterbury Basin, New Zealand)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent years have seen a growing interest regarding micro-eukaryotic communities in extreme environments as a third microbial domain after Bacteria and Archaea. However, knowledge is still scarce and the diversity of micro-eukaryotes in such environments remains hidden and their ecological role unknown. Our research program is based on the deep sedimentary layers of the Canterbury Basin in New Zealand (IODP 317) from the subsurface to the record depth of 1884 meters below seafloor. The objectives of our study are (i) to assess the genetic diversity of fungi in deep-sea sediments and (ii) identify the functional part in order to better understand the origin and the ecological role of fungal communities in this extreme ecosystem. Fingerprinting-based methods using capillary electrophoresis single-strand conformation polymorphism and denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography were used as a first step to raise our objectives. Molecular fungal diversity was assessed using amplification of ITS1 (Internal Transcribed Spacer 1) as a biomarker on 11 samples sediments from 3.76 to 1884 meters below seafloor. Fungal molecular signatures were detected throughout the sediment core. The phyla Ascomycota and Basidiomycota were revealed with DNA as well as cDNA. Most of the phylotypes are affiliated to environmental sequences and some to common fungal cultured species. The discovery of a present and metabolically active fungal component in this unique ecosystem allows some interesting first hypotheses that will be further combined to culture-based methods and deeper molecular methods (454 pyrosequencing) to highlight essential informations regarding physiology and ecological role of fungal communities in deep marine sediments.

Redou, V.; Arzur, D.; Burgaud, G.; Barbier, G.

2012-12-01

262

Biofouling of reverse-osmosis membranes during tertiary wastewater desalination: microbial community composition.  

PubMed

Reverse-osmosis (RO) desalination is frequently used for the production of high-quality water from tertiary treated wastewater (TTWW). However, the RO desalination process is often hampered by biofouling, including membrane conditioning, microbial adhesion, and biofilm growth. The vast majority of biofilm exploration concentrated on the role of bacteria in biofouling neglecting additional microbial contributors, i.e., fungi and archaea. To better understand the RO biofouling process, bacterial, archaeal and fungal diversity was characterized in a laboratory-scale RO desalination plant exploring the TTWW (RO feed), the RO membrane and the RO feed tube biofilms. We sequenced 77,400 fragments of the ribosome small subunit-encoding gene (16S and 18S rRNA) to identify the microbial community members in these matrices. Our results suggest that the bacterial, archaeal but not fungal community significantly differ from the RO membrane biofouling layer to the feedwater and tube biofilm (P < 0.01). Moreover, the RO membrane supported a more diverse community compared to the communities monitored in the feedwater and the biofilm attached to the RO feedwater tube. The tube biofilm was dominated by Actinobacteria (91.2 ± 4.6%), while the Proteobacteria phylum dominated the feedwater and RO membrane (at relative abundance of 92.3 ± 4.4% and 71.5 ± 8.3%, respectively), albeit comprising different members. The archaea communities were dominated by Crenarchaeota (53.0 ± 6.9%, 32.5 ± 7.2% and 69%, respectively) and Euryarchaeota (43.3 ± 6.3%, 23.2 ± 4.8% and 24%, respectively) in all three matrices, though the communities' composition differed. But the fungal communities composition was similar in all matrices, dominated by Ascomycota (97.6 ± 2.7%). Our results suggest that the RO membrane is a selective surface, supporting unique bacterial, and to a lesser extent archaeal communities, yet it does not select for a fungal community. PMID:24231030

Al Ashhab, Ashraf; Herzberg, Moshe; Gillor, Osnat

2014-03-01

263

Yet More "Weeds" in the Garden: Fungal Novelties from Nests of Leaf-Cutting Ants  

PubMed Central

Background Symbiotic relationships modulate the evolution of living organisms in all levels of biological organization. A notable example of symbiosis is that of attine ants (Attini; Formicidae: Hymenoptera) and their fungal cultivars (Lepiotaceae and Pterulaceae; Agaricales: Basidiomycota). In recent years, this mutualism has emerged as a model system for studying coevolution, speciation, and multitrophic interactions. Ubiquitous in this ant-fungal symbiosis is the “weedy” fungus Escovopsis (Hypocreales: Ascomycota), known only as a mycoparasite of attine fungal gardens. Despite interest in its biology, ecology and molecular phylogeny—noting, especially, the high genetic diversity encountered—which has led to a steady flow of publications over the past decade, only two species of Escovopsis have formally been described. Methods and Results We sampled from fungal gardens and garden waste (middens) of nests of the leaf-cutting ant genus Acromyrmex in a remnant of subtropical Atlantic rainforest in Minas Gerais, Brazil. In culture, distinct morphotypes of Escovopsis sensu lato were recognized. Using both morphological and molecular analyses, three new species of Escovopsis were identified. These are described and illustrated herein—E. lentecrescens, E. microspora, and E. moelleri—together with a re-description of the genus and the type species, E. weberi. The new genus Escovopsioides is erected for a fourth morphotype. We identify, for the first time, a mechanism for horizontal transmission via middens. Conclusions The present study makes a start at assigning names and formal descriptions to these specific fungal parasites of attine nests. Based on the results of this exploratory and geographically-restricted survey, we expect there to be many more species of the genus Escovopsis and its relatives associated with nests of both the lower and higher Attini throughout their neotropical range, as suggested in previous studies. PMID:24376525

Augustin, Juliana O.; Groenewald, Johannes Z.; Nascimento, Robson J.; Mizubuti, Eduardo S. G.; Barreto, Robert W.; Elliot, Simon L.; Evans, Harry C.

2013-01-01

264

Hypocrea rufa/Trichoderma viride: a reassessment, and description of five closely related species with and without warted conidia  

PubMed Central

The type species of the genus Hypocrea (Hypocreaceae, Hypocreales, Ascomycota, Fungi), H. rufa, is re-defined and epitypified using a combination of phenotype (morphology of teleomorphs and anamorphs, and characteristics in culture) and phylogenetic analyses of the translation-elongation factor 1? gene. Its anamorph, T. viride, the type species of Trichoderma, is re-described and epitypified. Eidamia viridescens is combined as Trichoderma viridescens and is recognised as one of the most morphologically and phylogenetically similar relatives of T. viride. Its teleomorph is newly described as Hypocrea viridescens. Contrary to frequent citations of H. rufa and T. viride in the literature, this species is relatively rare. Although both T. viride and T. viridescens have a wide geographic distribution, their greatest genetic diversity appears to be in Europe and North America. Hypocrea vinosa is characterised and its anamorph, T. vinosum sp. nov., is described. Conidia of T. vinosum are subglobose and warted. The new species T. gamsii is proposed. It shares eidamia-like morphology of conidiophores with T. viridescens, but it has smooth, ellipsoidal conidia that have the longest L/W ratio that we have seen in Trichoderma. Trichoderma scalesiae, an endophyte of trunks of Scalesia pedunculata in the Galapagos Islands, is described as new. It only produces conidia on a low-nutrient agar to which filter paper has been added. Additional phylogenetically distinct clades are recognised and provisionally delimited from the species here described. Trichoderma neokoningii, a T. koningii-like species, is described from a collection made in Peru on a fruit of Theobroma cacao infected with Moniliophthora roreri. PMID:18490991

Jaklitsch, Walter M.; Samuels, Gary J.; Dodd, Sarah L.; Lu, Bing-Sheng; Druzhinina, Irina S.

2006-01-01

265

Comparative Analysis of P450 Signature Motifs EXXR and CXG in the Large and Diverse Kingdom of Fungi: Identification of Evolutionarily Conserved Amino Acid Patterns Characteristic of P450 Family  

PubMed Central

Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s) are heme-thiolate proteins distributed across the biological kingdoms. P450s are catalytically versatile and play key roles in organisms primary and secondary metabolism. Identification of P450s across the biological kingdoms depends largely on the identification of two P450 signature motifs, EXXR and CXG, in the protein sequence. Once a putative protein has been identified as P450, it will be assigned to a family and subfamily based on the criteria that P450s within a family share more than 40% homology and members of subfamilies share more than 55% homology. However, to date, no evidence has been presented that can distinguish members of a P450 family. Here, for the first time we report the identification of EXXR- and CXG-motifs-based amino acid patterns that are characteristic of the P450 family. Analysis of P450 signature motifs in the under-explored fungal P450s from four different phyla, ascomycota, basidiomycota, zygomycota and chytridiomycota, indicated that the EXXR motif is highly variable and the CXG motif is somewhat variable. The amino acids threonine and leucine are preferred as second and third amino acids in the EXXR motif and proline and glycine are preferred as second and third amino acids in the CXG motif in fungal P450s. Analysis of 67 P450 families from biological kingdoms such as plants, animals, bacteria and fungi showed conservation of a set of amino acid patterns characteristic of a particular P450 family in EXXR and CXG motifs. This suggests that during the divergence of P450 families from a common ancestor these amino acids patterns evolve and are retained in each P450 family as a signature of that family. The role of amino acid patterns characteristic of a P450 family in the structural and/or functional aspects of members of the P450 family is a topic for future research. PMID:24743800

Syed, Khajamohiddin; Mashele, Samson Sitheni

2014-01-01

266

Fungal community on decomposing leaf litter undergoes rapid successional changes.  

PubMed

Fungi are considered the primary decomposers of dead plant biomass in terrestrial ecosystems. However, current knowledge regarding the successive changes in fungal communities during litter decomposition is limited. Here we explored the development of the fungal community over 24 months of litter decomposition in a temperate forest with dominant Quercus petraea using 454-pyrosequencing of the fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region and cellobiohydrolase I (cbhI) genes, which encode exocellulases, to specifically address cellulose decomposers. To quantify the involvement of phyllosphere fungi in litter decomposition, the fungal communities in live leaves and leaves immediately before abscission were also analysed. The results showed rapid succession of fungi with dramatic changes in the composition of the fungal community. Furthermore, most of the abundant taxa only temporarily dominated in the substrate. Fungal diversity was lowest at leaf senescence, increased until month 4 and did not significantly change during subsequent decomposition. Highly diverse community of phyllosphere fungi inhabits live oak leaves 2 months before abscission, and these phyllosphere taxa comprise a significant share of the fungal community during early decomposition up to the fourth month. Sequences assigned to the Ascomycota showed highest relative abundances in live leaves and during the early stages of decomposition. In contrast, the relative abundance of sequences assigned to the Basidiomycota phylum, particularly basidiomycetous yeasts, increased with time. Although cellulose was available in the litter during all stages of decomposition, the community of cellulolytic fungi changed substantially over time. The results indicate that litter decomposition is a highly complex process mediated by various fungal taxa. PMID:23051693

Vo?íšková, Jana; Baldrian, Petr

2013-03-01

267

Host identity impacts rhizosphere fungal communities associated with three alpine plant species.  

PubMed

Fungal diversity and composition are still relatively unknown in many ecosystems; however, host identity and environmental conditions are hypothesized to influence fungal community assembly. To test these hypotheses, we characterized the richness, diversity, and composition of rhizosphere fungi colonizing three alpine plant species, Taraxacum ceratophorum, Taraxacum officinale, and Polemonium viscosum. Roots were collected from open meadow and willow understory habitats at treeline on Pennsylvania Mountain, Colorado, USA. Fungal small subunit ribosomal DNA was sequenced using fungal-specific primers, sample-specific DNA tags, and 454 pyrosequencing. We classified operational taxonomic units (OTUs) as arbuscular mycorrhizal (AMF) or non-arbuscular mycorrhizal (non-AMF) fungi and then tested whether habitat or host identity influenced these fungal communities. Approximately 14% of the sequences represented AMF taxa (44 OTUs) with the majority belonging to Glomus groups A and B. Non-AMF sequences represented 186 OTUs belonging to Ascomycota (58%), Basidiomycota (26%), Zygomycota (14%), and Chytridiomycota (2%) phyla. Total AMF and non-AMF richness were similar between habitats but varied among host species. AMF richness and diversity per root sample also varied among host species and were highest in T. ceratophorum compared with T. officinale and P. viscosum. In contrast, non-AMF richness and diversity per root sample were similar among host species except in the willow understory where diversity was reduced in T. officinale. Fungal community composition was influenced by host identity but not habitat. Specifically, T. officinale hosted a different AMF community than T. ceratophorum and P. viscosum while P. viscosum hosted a different non-AMF community than T. ceratophorum and T. officinale. Our results suggest that host identity has a stronger effect on rhizosphere fungi than habitat. Furthermore, although host identity influenced both AMF and non-AMF, this effect was stronger for the mutualistic AMF community. PMID:22038036

Becklin, Katie M; Hertweck, Kate L; Jumpponen, Ari

2012-04-01

268

Plant and Fungal Diversity in Gut Microbiota as Revealed by Molecular and Culture Investigations  

PubMed Central

Background Few studies describing eukaryotic communities in the human gut microbiota have been published. The objective of this study was to investigate comprehensively the repertoire of plant and fungal species in the gut microbiota of an obese patient. Methodology/Principal Findings A stool specimen was collected from a 27-year-old Caucasian woman with a body mass index of 48.9 who was living in Marseille, France. Plant and fungal species were identified using a PCR-based method incorporating 25 primer pairs specific for each eukaryotic phylum and universal eukaryotic primers targeting 18S rRNA, internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and a chloroplast gene. The PCR products amplified using these primers were cloned and sequenced. Three different culture media were used to isolate fungi, and these cultured fungi were further identified by ITS sequencing. A total of 37 eukaryotic species were identified, including a Diatoms (Blastocystis sp.) species, 18 plant species from the Streptophyta phylum and 18 fungal species from the Ascomycota, Basidiomycota and Chytridiocomycota phyla. Cultures yielded 16 fungal species, while PCR-sequencing identified 7 fungal species. Of these 7 species of fungi, 5 were also identified by culture. Twenty-one eukaryotic species were discovered for the first time in human gut microbiota, including 8 fungi (Aspergillus flavipes, Beauveria bassiana, Isaria farinosa, Penicillium brevicompactum, Penicillium dipodomyicola, Penicillium camemberti, Climacocystis sp. and Malassezia restricta). Many fungal species apparently originated from food, as did 11 plant species. However, four plant species (Atractylodes japonica, Fibraurea tinctoria, Angelica anomala, Mitella nuda) are used as medicinal plants. Conclusions/Significance Investigating the eukaryotic components of gut microbiota may help us to understand their role in human health. PMID:23555039

Gouba, Nina; Raoult, Didier; Drancourt, Michel

2013-01-01

269

Characterization of a New Clinical Yeast Species, Candida tunisiensis sp. nov., Isolated from a Strain Collection from Tunisian Hospitals  

PubMed Central

From a collection of yeast isolates isolated from patients in Tunisian hospitals between September 2006 and July 2010, the yeast strain JEY63 (CBS 12513), isolated from a 50-year-old male that suffered from oral thrush, could not be identified to the species level using conventional methods used in clinical laboratories. These methods include matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), germ tube formation, and the use of CHROMagar Candida and metabolic galleries. Sequence analysis of the nuclear rRNA (18S rRNA, 5.8S rRNA, and 26S rRNA) and internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS1 and ITS2) indicated that the ribosomal DNA sequences of this species were not yet reported. Multiple gene phylogenic analyses suggested that this isolate clustered at the base of the Dipodascaceae (Saccharomycetales, Saccharomycetes, and Ascomycota). JEY63 was named Candida tunisiensis sp. nov. according to several phenotypic criteria and its geographical origin. C. tunisiensis was able to grow at 42°C and does not form chlamydospores and hyphae but could grow as yeast and pseudohyphal forms. C. tunisiensis exhibited most probably a haploid genome with an estimated size of 10 Mb on at least three chromosomes. Using European Committee for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) and Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) Candida albicans susceptibility breakpoints as a reference, C. tunisiensis was resistant to fluconazole (MIC = 8 ?g/ml), voriconazole (MIC = 0.5 ?g/ml), itraconazole (MIC = 16 ?g/ml), and amphotericin B (MIC = 4 ?g/ml) but still susceptible to posaconazole (MIC = 0.008 ?g/ml) and caspofungin (MIC = 0.5 ?g/ml). In conclusion, MALDI-TOF MS permitted the early selection of an unusual isolate, which was still unreported in molecular databases but could not be unambiguously classified based on phylogenetic approaches. PMID:23077122

Eddouzi, Jamel; Hofstetter, Valerie; Groenewald, Marizeth; Manai, Mohamed

2013-01-01

270

Endophytic life strategies decoded by genome and transcriptome analyses of the mutualistic root symbiont Piriformospora indica.  

PubMed

Recent sequencing projects have provided deep insight into fungal lifestyle-associated genomic adaptations. Here we report on the 25 Mb genome of the mutualistic root symbiont Piriformospora indica (Sebacinales, Basidiomycota) and provide a global characterization of fungal transcriptional responses associated with the colonization of living and dead barley roots. Extensive comparative analysis of the P. indica genome with other Basidiomycota and Ascomycota fungi that have diverse lifestyle strategies identified features typically associated with both, biotrophism and saprotrophism. The tightly controlled expression of the lifestyle-associated gene sets during the onset of the symbiosis, revealed by microarray analysis, argues for a biphasic root colonization strategy of P. indica. This is supported by a cytological study that shows an early biotrophic growth followed by a cell death-associated phase. About 10% of the fungal genes induced during the biotrophic colonization encoded putative small secreted proteins (SSP), including several lectin-like proteins and members of a P. indica-specific gene family (DELD) with a conserved novel seven-amino acids motif at the C-terminus. Similar to effectors found in other filamentous organisms, the occurrence of the DELDs correlated with the presence of transposable elements in gene-poor repeat-rich regions of the genome. This is the first in depth genomic study describing a mutualistic symbiont with a biphasic lifestyle. Our findings provide a significant advance in understanding development of biotrophic plant symbionts and suggest a series of incremental shifts along the continuum from saprotrophy towards biotrophy in the evolution of mycorrhizal association from decomposer fungi. PMID:22022265

Zuccaro, Alga; Lahrmann, Urs; Güldener, Ulrich; Langen, Gregor; Pfiffi, Stefanie; Biedenkopf, Dagmar; Wong, Philip; Samans, Birgit; Grimm, Carolin; Basiewicz, Magdalena; Murat, Claude; Martin, Francis; Kogel, Karl-Heinz

2011-10-01

271

Align or not to align? Resolving species complexes within the Caloplaca saxicola group as a case study.  

PubMed

The Caloplaca saxicola group is the main group of saxicolous, lobed-effigurate species within genus Caloplaca (Teloschistaceae, lichen-forming Ascomycota). A recent monographic revision by the first author detected a wide range of morphological variation. To confront the phenotypically based circumscription of these taxa and to resolve their relationships morphological and ITS rDNA data were obtained for 56 individuals representing eight Caloplaca species belonging to the C. saxicola group. We tested the monophyly of these eight morphospecies by performing maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and two different types of Bayesian analyses (with and without a priori alignments). Restricting phylogenetic analyses to unambiguously aligned portions of ITS was sufficient to resolve, with high bootstrap support, five of the eight previously recognized species within the C. saxicola group. However, phylogenetic resolution of all or most of the eight species currently included as two distinct subgroups within the C. saxicola group was possible only by combining morphological characters and signal from ambiguously aligned regions with the unambiguously aligned ITS sites or when the entire ITS1 and 2 regions were not aligned a priori and included as an integral component of a Bayesian analysis (BAli-Phy). The C. arnoldii subgroup includes C. arnoldii, comprising four subspecies, and the C. saxicola subgroup encompasses seven species. Contrary to the C. saxicola subgroup, monophyly of taxa included within the C. arnoldii subgroup and their relationships could not be resolved with combined ITS and morphological data. Unequivocal morphological synapomorphies for all species except C. arnoldii and C. pusilla are recognized and presented. PMID:21139031

Gaya, Ester; Redelings, Benjamin D; Navarro-Rosinés, Pere; Llimona, Xavier; De Cáceres, Miquel; Lutzoni, François

2011-01-01

272

Sloth Hair as a Novel Source of Fungi with Potent Anti-Parasitic, Anti-Cancer and Anti-Bacterial Bioactivity  

PubMed Central

The extraordinary biological diversity of tropical forests harbors a rich chemical diversity with enormous potential as a source of novel bioactive compounds. Of particular interest are new environments for microbial discovery. Sloths – arboreal mammals commonly found in the lowland forests of Panama – carry a wide variety of micro- and macro-organisms on their coarse outer hair. Here we report for the first time the isolation of diverse and bioactive strains of fungi from sloth hair, and their taxonomic placement. Eighty-four isolates of fungi were obtained in culture from the surface of hair that was collected from living three-toed sloths (Bradypus variegatus, Bradypodidae) in Soberanía National Park, Republic of Panama. Phylogenetic analyses revealed a diverse group of Ascomycota belonging to 28 distinct operational taxonomic units (OTUs), several of which are divergent from previously known taxa. Seventy-four isolates were cultivated in liquid broth and crude extracts were tested for bioactivity in vitro. We found a broad range of activities against strains of the parasites that cause malaria (Plasmodium falciparum) and Chagas disease (Trypanosoma cruzi), and against the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7. Fifty fungal extracts were tested for antibacterial activity in a new antibiotic profile screen called BioMAP; of these, 20 were active against at least one bacterial strain, and one had an unusual pattern of bioactivity against Gram-negative bacteria that suggests a potentially new mode of action. Together our results reveal the importance of exploring novel environments for bioactive fungi, and demonstrate for the first time the taxonomic composition and bioactivity of fungi from sloth hair. PMID:24454729

Higginbotham, Sarah; Wong, Weng Ruh; Linington, Roger G.; Spadafora, Carmenza; Iturrado, Liliana; Arnold, A. Elizabeth

2014-01-01

273

Endophytic Life Strategies Decoded by Genome and Transcriptome Analyses of the Mutualistic Root Symbiont Piriformospora indica  

PubMed Central

Recent sequencing projects have provided deep insight into fungal lifestyle-associated genomic adaptations. Here we report on the 25 Mb genome of the mutualistic root symbiont Piriformospora indica (Sebacinales, Basidiomycota) and provide a global characterization of fungal transcriptional responses associated with the colonization of living and dead barley roots. Extensive comparative analysis of the P. indica genome with other Basidiomycota and Ascomycota fungi that have diverse lifestyle strategies identified features typically associated with both, biotrophism and saprotrophism. The tightly controlled expression of the lifestyle-associated gene sets during the onset of the symbiosis, revealed by microarray analysis, argues for a biphasic root colonization strategy of P. indica. This is supported by a cytological study that shows an early biotrophic growth followed by a cell death-associated phase. About 10% of the fungal genes induced during the biotrophic colonization encoded putative small secreted proteins (SSP), including several lectin-like proteins and members of a P. indica-specific gene family (DELD) with a conserved novel seven-amino acids motif at the C-terminus. Similar to effectors found in other filamentous organisms, the occurrence of the DELDs correlated with the presence of transposable elements in gene-poor repeat-rich regions of the genome. This is the first in depth genomic study describing a mutualistic symbiont with a biphasic lifestyle. Our findings provide a significant advance in understanding development of biotrophic plant symbionts and suggest a series of incremental shifts along the continuum from saprotrophy towards biotrophy in the evolution of mycorrhizal association from decomposer fungi. PMID:22022265

Zuccaro, Alga; Lahrmann, Urs; Guldener, Ulrich; Langen, Gregor; Pfiffi, Stefanie; Biedenkopf, Dagmar; Wong, Philip; Samans, Birgit; Grimm, Carolin; Basiewicz, Magdalena; Murat, Claude; Martin, Francis; Kogel, Karl-Heinz

2011-01-01

274

Effects of Bromelia pinguin (Bromeliaceae) on soil ecosystem function and fungal diversity in the lowland forests of Costa Rica  

PubMed Central

Background Bromelia pinguin (Bromeliaceae) is a terrestrial bromeliad commonly found under forest stands throughout the Neotropics that has been shown to have antifungal activity in vitro. We have hypothesized that this bromeliad would also have an effect on the fungal populations in nearby soil by decreasing fungaldiversity and negatively impacting C and N cycle-related activities. A previous study in the lowland forest of Costa Rica showed the soil beneath these bromeliads had decreased fungal ITS DNA and differences in C and N levels compared to adjacent primary forest soils. Results In this follow-up study, we found that the bromeliad soils had lower rates of C and N biomass development and lower phenol oxidase activity (suggesting less decreased fungal decomposition activity). The results of T-RFLP and cloning-based taxonomic analyses showed the community level diversity and abundance of fungal ITS DNA was less in bromeliad soils. Sequence analysis of fungal ITS DNA clones showed marked differences in fungal community structure between habitats of Basidiomycota (Tremellales, Agricales, Thelephorales), Ascomycota (Helotiales), and Zycomycota populations. Conclusions The data show there to be differences in the soil nutrient dynamics and fungal community structure and activity associated with these bromeliads, as compared to the adjacent primary forest. This suggests the possibility that the anti-fungal activity of the bromeliad extends into the soil. The bromeliad-dense regions of these primary forest habitats provide a unique natural micro-habitat within the forests and the opportunity to better identify the role of fungal communities in the C and N cycles in tropical soils. PMID:24885984

2014-01-01

275

Lineage-specific expansions of TET/JBP genes and a new class of DNA transposons shape fungal genomic and epigenetic landscapes  

PubMed Central

TET/JBP dioxygenases oxidize methylpyrimidines in nucleic acids and are implicated in generation of epigenetic marks and potential intermediates for DNA demethylation. We show that TET/JBP genes are lineage-specifically expanded in all major clades of basidiomycete fungi, with the majority of copies predicted to encode catalytically active proteins. This pattern differs starkly from the situation in most other organisms that possess just a single or a few copies of the TET/JBP family. In most basidiomycetes, TET/JBP genes are frequently linked to a unique class of transposons, KDZ (Kyakuja, Dileera, and Zisupton) and appear to have dispersed across chromosomes along with them. Several of these elements typically encode additional proteins, including a divergent version of the HMG domain. Analysis of their transposases shows that they contain a previously uncharacterized version of the RNase H fold with multiple distinctive Zn-chelating motifs and a unique insert, which are predicted to play roles in structural stabilization and target sequence recognition, respectively. We reconstruct the complex evolutionary history of TET/JBPs and associated transposons as involving multiple rounds of expansion with concomitant lineage sorting and loss, along with several capture events of TET/JBP genes by different transposon clades. On a few occasions, these TET/JBP genes were also laterally transferred to certain Ascomycota, Glomeromycota, Viridiplantae, and Amoebozoa. One such is an inactive version, calnexin-independence factor 1 (Cif1), from Schizosaccharomyces pombe, which has been implicated in inducing an epigenetically transmitted prion state. We argue that this unique transposon-TET/JBP association is likely to play important roles in speciation during evolution and epigenetic regulation. PMID:24398522

Iyer, Lakshminarayan M.; Zhang, Dapeng; de Souza, Robson F.; Pukkila, Patricia J.; Rao, Anjana; Aravind, L.

2014-01-01

276

Genome characterization of the oleaginous fungus Mortierella alpina.  

PubMed

Mortierella alpina is an oleaginous fungus which can produce lipids accounting for up to 50% of its dry weight in the form of triacylglycerols. It is used commercially for the production of arachidonic acid. Using a combination of high throughput sequencing and lipid profiling, we have assembled the M. alpina genome, mapped its lipogenesis pathway and determined its major lipid species. The 38.38 Mb M. alpina genome shows a high degree of gene duplications. Approximately 50% of its 12,796 gene models, and 60% of genes in the predicted lipogenesis pathway, belong to multigene families. Notably, M. alpina has 18 lipase genes, of which 11 contain the class 2 lipase domain and may share a similar function. M. alpina's fatty acid synthase is a single polypeptide containing all of the catalytic domains required for fatty acid synthesis from acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA, whereas in many fungi this enzyme is comprised of two polypeptides. Major lipids were profiled to confirm the products predicted in the lipogenesis pathway. M. alpina produces a complex mixture of glycerolipids, glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids. In contrast, only two major sterol lipids, desmosterol and 24(28)-methylene-cholesterol, were detected. Phylogenetic analysis based on genes involved in lipid metabolism suggests that oleaginous fungi may have acquired their lipogenic capacity during evolution after the divergence of Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Chytridiomycota and Mucoromycota. Our study provides the first draft genome and comprehensive lipid profile for M. alpina, and lays the foundation for possible genetic engineering of M. alpina to produce higher levels and diverse contents of dietary lipids. PMID:22174787

Wang, Lei; Chen, Wei; Feng, Yun; Ren, Yan; Gu, Zhennan; Chen, Haiqin; Wang, Hongchao; Thomas, Michael J; Zhang, Baixi; Berquin, Isabelle M; Li, Yang; Wu, Jiansheng; Zhang, Huanxin; Song, Yuanda; Liu, Xiang; Norris, James S; Wang, Suriguga; Du, Peng; Shen, Junguo; Wang, Na; Yang, Yanlin; Wang, Wei; Feng, Lu; Ratledge, Colin; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Yong Q

2011-01-01

277

Genome Characterization of the Oleaginous Fungus Mortierella alpina  

PubMed Central

Mortierella alpina is an oleaginous fungus which can produce lipids accounting for up to 50% of its dry weight in the form of triacylglycerols. It is used commercially for the production of arachidonic acid. Using a combination of high throughput sequencing and lipid profiling, we have assembled the M. alpina genome, mapped its lipogenesis pathway and determined its major lipid species. The 38.38 Mb M. alpina genome shows a high degree of gene duplications. Approximately 50% of its 12,796 gene models, and 60% of genes in the predicted lipogenesis pathway, belong to multigene families. Notably, M. alpina has 18 lipase genes, of which 11 contain the class 2 lipase domain and may share a similar function. M. alpina's fatty acid synthase is a single polypeptide containing all of the catalytic domains required for fatty acid synthesis from acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA, whereas in many fungi this enzyme is comprised of two polypeptides. Major lipids were profiled to confirm the products predicted in the lipogenesis pathway. M. alpina produces a complex mixture of glycerolipids, glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids. In contrast, only two major sterol lipids, desmosterol and 24(28)-methylene-cholesterol, were detected. Phylogenetic analysis based on genes involved in lipid metabolism suggests that oleaginous fungi may have acquired their lipogenic capacity during evolution after the divergence of Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Chytridiomycota and Mucoromycota. Our study provides the first draft genome and comprehensive lipid profile for M. alpina, and lays the foundation for possible genetic engineering of M. alpina to produce higher levels and diverse contents of dietary lipids. PMID:22174787

Feng, Yun; Ren, Yan; Gu, Zhennan; Chen, Haiqin; Wang, Hongchao; Thomas, Michael J.; Zhang, Baixi; Berquin, Isabelle M.; Li, Yang; Wu, Jiansheng; Zhang, Huanxin; Song, Yuanda; Liu, Xiang; Norris, James S.; Wang, Suriguga; Du, Peng; Shen, Junguo; Wang, Na; Yang, Yanlin; Wang, Wei; Feng, Lu; Ratledge, Colin; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Yong Q.

2011-01-01

278

Erasing the Past: A New Identity for the Damoclean Pathogen Causing South American Leaf Blight of Rubber  

PubMed Central

Background South American leaf blight (SALB) of rubber has been the main constraint to production in its neotropical centre of origin since commercial plantations were first established. The fungal causal agent was identified and described more than a century ago but its precise placement within the Ascomycota still remains uncertain. Indeed, such is the ambiguity surrounding the pathogen that each of the spore morphs would, according to their present classification, be placed in different ascomycete families: the Microcyclus sexual morph in the Planistromellaceae and the two purported asexual morphs - Fusicladium and Aposphaeria – in the Venturiaceae and Lophiostomataceae, respectively. Given the historical importance of the fungus and the ever-menacing threat that it poses to rubber production in the Palaeotropics – and, thus to the rubber industry and to the global economy – its phylogeny, as well as its biology, should be resolved as a matter of urgency. Methods and Results Here, six genomic regions (LSU rRNA, mtSSU, MCM7, EF-1?, Act and ITS) were used for reconstructing the molecular phylogeny of the SALB fungus based on material collected throughout Brazil. The analyses support the classification of the fungus in the family Mycosphaerellaceae s. str. (Capnodiales, Dothideomycetes) and place it firmly within the clade Pseudocercospora s. str., now accepted as one of the distinct genera within Mycosphaerellaceae. The new combination Pseudocercospora ulei is proposed and the life cycle of the fungus is confirmed, based on both experimental and phylogenetic evidence, with the Aposphaeria morph shown to have a spermatial rather than an infective-dispersal function. Conclusions Because the phylogeny of the SALB fungus has now been clarified, new insights of its epidemiology and genomics can be gained following comparison with closely-related, better-researched crop pathogens. PMID:25126853

da Hora Junior, Braz Tavares; de Macedo, Davi Mesquita; Barreto, Robert Weingart; Evans, Harry C.; Mattos, Carlos Raimundo Reis; Maffia, Luiz Antonio; Mizubuti, Eduardo S. G.

2014-01-01

279

Identification and Differentiation of Verticillium Species and V. longisporum Lineages by Simplex and Multiplex PCR Assays  

PubMed Central

Accurate species identification is essential for effective plant disease management, but is challenging in fungi including Verticillium sensu stricto (Ascomycota, Sordariomycetes, Plectosphaerellaceae), a small genus of ten species that includes important plant pathogens. Here we present fifteen PCR assays for the identification of all recognized Verticillium species and the three lineages of the diploid hybrid V. longisporum. The assays were based on DNA sequence data from the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region, and coding and non-coding regions of actin, elongation factor 1-alpha, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and tryptophan synthase genes. The eleven single target (simplex) PCR assays resulted in amplicons of diagnostic size for V. alfalfae, V. albo-atrum, V. dahliae including V. longisporum lineage A1/D3, V. isaacii, V. klebahnii, V. nonalfalfae, V. nubilum, V. tricorpus, V. zaregamsianum, and Species A1 and Species D1, the two undescribed ancestors of V. longisporum. The four multiple target (multiplex) PCR assays simultaneously differentiated the species or lineages within the following four groups: Verticillium albo-atrum, V. alfalfae and V. nonalfalfae; Verticillium dahliae and V. longisporum lineages A1/D1, A1/D2 and A1/D3; Verticillium dahliae including V. longisporum lineage A1/D3, V. isaacii, V. klebahnii and V. tricorpus; Verticillium isaacii, V. klebahnii and V. tricorpus. Since V. dahliae is a parent of two of the three lineages of the diploid hybrid V. longisporum, no simplex PCR assay is able to differentiate V. dahliae from all V. longisporum lineages. PCR assays were tested with fungal DNA extracts from pure cultures, and were not evaluated for detection and quantification of Verticillium species from plant or soil samples. The DNA sequence alignments are provided and can be used for the design of additional primers. PMID:23823707

Inderbitzin, Patrik; Davis, R. Michael; Bostock, Richard M.; Subbarao, Krishna V.

2013-01-01

280

Prerequisites for amplicon pyrosequencing of microbial methanol utilizers in the environment  

PubMed Central

The commercial availability of next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies facilitated the assessment of functional groups of microorganisms in the environment with high coverage, resolution, and reproducibility. Soil methylotrophs were among the first microorganisms in the environment that were assessed with molecular tools, and nowadays, as well with NGS technologies. Studies in the past years re-attracted notice to the pivotal role of methylotrophs in global conversions of methanol, which mainly originates from plants, and is involved in oxidative reactions and ozone formation in the atmosphere. Aerobic methanol utilizers belong to Bacteria, yeasts, Ascomycota, and molds. Numerous bacterial methylotrophs are facultatively aerobic, and also contribute to anaerobic methanol oxidation in the environment, whereas strict anaerobic methanol utilizers belong to methanogens and acetogens. The diversity of enzymes catalyzing the initial oxidation of methanol is considerable, and comprises at least five different enzyme types in aerobes, and one in strict anaerobes. Only the gene of the large subunit of pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ)-dependent methanol dehydrogenase (MDH; mxaF) has been analyzed by environmental pyrosequencing. To enable a comprehensive assessment of methanol utilizers in the environment, new primers targeting genes of the PQQ MDH in Methylibium (mdh2), of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent MDH (mdh), of the methanol oxidoreductase of Actinobacteria (mdo), of the fungal flavin adenine nucleotide-dependent alcohol oxidase (mod1, mod2, and homologs), and of the gene of the large subunit of the methanol:corrinoid methyltransferases (mtaC) in methanogens and acetogens need to be developed. Combined stable isotope probing of nucleic acids or proteins with amplicon-based NGS are straightforward approaches to reveal insights into functions of certain methylotrophic taxa in the global methanol cycle. PMID:24046766

Kolb, Steffen; Stacheter, Astrid

2013-01-01

281

High Diversity of the Fungal Community Structure in Naturally-Occurring Ophiocordyceps sinensis  

PubMed Central

Background Ophiocordyceps sinensis (syn. Cordyceps sinensis), which is a parasite of caterpillars and is endemic to alpine regions on the Tibetan Plateau, is one of the most valuable medicinal fungi in the world. “Natural O. sinensis specimens” harbor various other fungi. Several of these other fungi that have been isolated from natural O. sinensis specimens have similar chemical components and/or pharmaceutical effects as O. sinensis. Nevertheless, the mycobiota of natural O. sinensis specimens has not been investigated in detail. Methodology/Principal Findings Based on the technique of PCR-single-strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP), the mycobiota of three different sections (stromata, sclerotia, and mycelial cortices) from natural O. sinensis specimens were investigated using both culture-dependent and -independent methods. For the culture-dependent method, 572 fungal strains were isolated, and 92 putative operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were identified from 226 sequenced strains with the threshold of 97%. For the culture-independent method, 490 fungal clones were identified from about 3000 clones of ITS fragments from the whole-community DNA; based on PCR-SSCP analyses, 266 of these clones were selected to be sequenced, and 118 putative OTUs were detected. The overwhelming majority of isolates/clones and OTUs were detected from mycelial cortices; only a few were detected from stromata and sclerotia. The most common OTUs detected with both methods belonged to Ascomycota; however, only 13 OTUs were detected simultaneously by both methods. Potential novel lineages were detected by each of the two methods. Conclusions/Significance A great number of fungal species present in the mycobiota of naturally-occurring O. sinensis specimens were detected, and many of them may represent undescribed lineages. That only a few of the same OTUs were detected by both methods indicated that different methods should be used. This study increased our understanding about the fungal community structure of this valuable medicinal herb. PMID:21179540

Zhang, Yongjie; Zhang, Shu; Wang, Mu; Bai, Fengyan; Liu, Xingzhong

2010-01-01

282

Soil suppressiveness to fusarium disease: shifts in root microbiome associated with reduction of pathogen root colonization.  

PubMed

Soil suppressiveness to Fusarium disease was induced by incubating sandy soil with debris of wild rocket (WR; Diplotaxis tenuifolia) under field conditions. We studied microbial dynamics in the roots of cucumber seedlings following transplantation into WR-amended or nonamended soil, as influenced by inoculation with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-cucumerinum. Disease symptoms initiated in nonamended soil 6 days after inoculation, compared with 14 days in WR-amended soil. Root infection by F. oxysporum f. sp. radicis-cucumerinum was quantified using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Target numbers were similar 3 days after inoculation for both WR-amended and nonamended soils, and were significantly lower (66%) 6 days after inoculation and transplanting into the suppressive (WR-amended) soil. This decrease in root colonization was correlated with a reduction in disease (60%) 21 days after inoculation and transplanting into the suppressive soil. Fungal community composition on cucumber roots was assessed using mass sequencing of fungal internal transcribed spacer gene fragments. Sequences related to F. oxysporum, Fusarium sp. 14005, Chaetomium sp. 15003, and an unclassified Ascomycota composed 96% of the total fungal sequences in all samples. The relative abundances of these major groups were highly affected by root inoculation with F. oxysporum f. sp. radicis-cucumerinum, with a 10-fold increase in F. oxysporum sequences, but were not affected by the WR amendment. Quantitative analysis and mass-sequencing methods indicated a qualitative shift in the root's bacterial community composition in suppressive soil, rather than a change in bacterial numbers. A sharp reduction in the size and root dominance of the Massilia population in suppressive soil was accompanied by a significant increase in the relative abundance of specific populations; namely, Rhizobium, Bacillus, Paenibacillus, and Streptomyces spp. Composition of the Streptomyces community shifted significantly, as determined by PCR denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, resulting in an increase in the dominance of a specific population in suppressive soils after only 3 days. This shift was related mainly to the increase in Streptomyces humidus, a group previously described as antagonistic to phytopathogenic fungi. Thus, suitable soil amendment resulted in a shift in the root's bacterial communities, and infection by a virulent pathogen was contained by the root microbiome, leading to a reduced disease rate. PMID:22950737

Klein, Eyal; Ofek, Maya; Katan, Jaacov; Minz, Dror; Gamliel, Abraham

2013-01-01

283

Metagenomic profiles of free-living archaea, bacteria and small eukaryotes in coastal areas of Sichang island, Thailand  

PubMed Central

Background Tha Wang and Tham Phang coasts, though situated at similar oceanographic positions on Sichang island, Chonburi province, Thailand, are different in bay geography and amount of municipal disturbances. These affect the marine ecosystems. The study used metagenomics combined with 16S and 18S rDNA pyrosequencing to identify types and distributions of archaea, bacteria, fungi and small eukaryotes of sizes ranges 0.45 and ~30 ?m. Results Following the open bay geography and minimal municipal sewages, Tham Phang coast showed the cleaner water properties, described by color, salinity, pH, conductivity and percent dissolved oxygen. The 16S and 18S rDNA metagenomic profiles for Tha Wang and Tham Phang coasts revealed many differences, highlighting by low Lennon and Yue & Clayton theta similarity indices (66.03-73.03% for 16S rDNA profiles, 2.85-25.38% for 18S rDNA profiles). For 16S rDNA, the percent compositions of species belonging to Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Cyanobacteria, Firmicutes, Verrucomicrobia, Gammatimonadetes, Tenericutes, Acidobacteria, Spirochaetes, Chlamydiae, Euryarchaeota, Nitrospirae, Planctomycetes, Thermotogae and Aquificae were higher or distinctly present in Tha Wang. In Tham Phang, except Actinobacteria, the fewer number of prokaryotic species existed. For 18S rDNA, fungi represented 74.745% of the species in Tha Wang, whereas only 6.728% in Tham Phang. Basidiomycota (71.157%) and Ascomycota (3.060%) were the major phyla in Tha Wang. Indeed, Tha Wang-to-Tham Phang percent composition ratios for fungi Basidiomycota and Chytridiomycota were 1264.701 and 25.422, respectively. In Tham Phang, Brachiopoda (lamp shells) and Mollusca (snails) accounted for 80.380% of the 18S rDNA species detected, and their proportions were approximately tenfold greater than those in Tha Wang. Overall, coastal Tham Phang comprised abundant animal species. Conclusions Tha Wang contained numerous archaea, bacteria and fungi, many of which could synthesize useful biotechnology gas and enzymes that could also function in high-saline and high-temperature conditions. Tham Phang contained less abundant archaea, bacteria and fungi, and the majority of the extracted metagenomes belonged to animal kingdom. Many microorganisms in Tham Phang were essential for nutrient-recycling and pharmaceuticals, for instances, Streptomyces, Pennicilium and Saccharomyces. Together, the study provided metagenomic profiles of free-living prokaryotes and eukaryotes in coastal areas of Sichang island. PMID:23282134

2012-01-01

284

Succession of fungi colonizing porous and compact limestone exposed to subtropical environments.  

PubMed

Little is known about the dynamics of succession of fungi on limestone exposed in subtropical environments. In this study, the colonization of experimental blocks of compact and porous limestone by a fungal community derived from natural biofilms occurring on Structure X from the archaeological site of Becán (México), was studied using a cultivation-dependent approach after short-term (9 m) exposure in order to provide a preliminary insight of the colonization process under seminatural conditions. Microbial growth seen as the change of colour of stone surfaces to black/dark green was more abundant on the porous limestone. There was a fairly clear difference in microbial colonization between the onset of the experiment and the 6th month for both limestone types, but no significant increase in the colonization of coupons occurred between months 6 and 9. This could be related to the low rainfall expected for this period, corresponding to the dry season. A total of 977 isolates were obtained. From these, 138 sterile fungi were unidentified, 380 could only be assigned to the order Sphaeropsidales; the remaining isolates (459) were grouped into 27 genera and 99 different species. Nearly all detected fungal species belonged to the Ascomycota (90 %). Rare taxa (species represented by one to three isolates) included the recently described genus Elasticomyces, several species of genera Hyalodendron, Monodyctis, Papulospora, Curvularia, and Septoria. Other taxa were Minimedusa and Gliomastix luzulae, which have not been previously described for stone environments. Abundant fungi included several species of the common genera Cladosporium, Alternaria, and Taeniolella typical for a range of habitats. Succession of populations was observed for certain taxa, this shift in the composition of fungal communities was more evident in porous limestone. After 6 m of exposure, species of the genera Scolecobasidium, Hyalodendron, and Taeniolella were predominant, while after 9 m, the predominant species belonged to the genera Curvularia and Alternaria, particularly on porous stone. These results suggest that Curvularia and Alternaria replaced other fungi, due to a higher tolerance towards low levels of available water during the dry season. Higher levels of water within the porous stone, keep longer periods of microbial activity, minimizing the impact of desiccation. This study contributes to understand the diversity of fungal communities in stone surfaces in subtropical settings and the dynamics of colonization on limestone. PMID:23063185

Gómez-Cornelio, Sergio; Mendoza-Vega, Jorge; Gaylarde, Christine C; Reyes-Estebanez, Manuela; Morón-Ríos, Alejandro; De la Rosa-García, Susana Del Carmen; Ortega-Morales, Benjamín Otto

2012-10-01

285

Re-annotation of the CAZy genes of Trichoderma reesei and transcription in the presence of lignocellulosic substrates  

PubMed Central

Background Trichoderma reesei is a soft rot Ascomycota fungus utilised for industrial production of secreted enzymes, especially lignocellulose degrading enzymes. About 30 carbohydrate active enzymes (CAZymes) of T. reesei have been biochemically characterised. Genome sequencing has revealed a large number of novel candidates for CAZymes, thus increasing the potential for identification of enzymes with novel activities and properties. Plenty of data exists on the carbon source dependent regulation of the characterised hydrolytic genes. However, information on the expression of the novel CAZyme genes, especially on complex biomass material, is very limited. Results In this study, the CAZyme gene content of the T. reesei genome was updated and the annotations of the genes refined using both computational and manual approaches. Phylogenetic analysis was done to assist the annotation and to identify functionally diversified CAZymes. The analyses identified 201 glycoside hydrolase genes, 22 carbohydrate esterase genes and five polysaccharide lyase genes. Updated or novel functional predictions were assigned to 44 genes, and the phylogenetic analysis indicated further functional diversification within enzyme families or groups of enzymes. GH3 ?-glucosidases, GH27 ?-galactosidases and GH18 chitinases were especially functionally diverse. The expression of the lignocellulose degrading enzyme system of T. reesei was studied by cultivating the fungus in the presence of different inducing substrates and by subjecting the cultures to transcriptional profiling. The substrates included both defined and complex lignocellulose related materials, such as pretreated bagasse, wheat straw, spruce, xylan, Avicel cellulose and sophorose. The analysis revealed co-regulated groups of CAZyme genes, such as genes induced in all the conditions studied and also genes induced preferentially by a certain set of substrates. Conclusions In this study, the CAZyme content of the T. reesei genome was updated, the discrepancies between the different genome versions and published literature were removed and the annotation of many of the genes was refined. Expression analysis of the genes gave information on the enzyme activities potentially induced by the presence of the different substrates. Comparison of the expression profiles of the CAZyme genes under the different conditions identified co-regulated groups of genes, suggesting common regulatory mechanisms for the gene groups. PMID:23035824

2012-01-01

286

Contribution of fungi to primary biogenic aerosols in the atmosphere: active discharge of spores, carbohydrates, and inorganic ions by Asco- and Basidiomycota  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spores and related chemical compounds from actively spore-discharging Ascomycota (AAM) and actively spore-discharging Basidiomycota (ABM) are primary biogenic components of air particulate matter (characteristic size range 1-10 ?m). Measurement results and budget calculations based on investigations in Amazonia (Balbina, Brazil, July 2001) indicate that the forcible discharge of fungal spores may account for a large proportion of coarse air particulate matter in tropical rainforest regions during the wet season. For the particle diameter range of 1-10 ?m, the estimated proportions are ~25% during day-time, ~45% at night, and ~35% on average. For the sugar alcohol, mannitol, the budget calculations indicate that it is suitable for use as a molecular tracer for actively discharged basidiospores (ABS), and that the literature-derived emission ratio of about 5 pg per ABS may be taken as a representative average. ABM emissions may account for most of the atmospheric abundance of mannitol, and can explain the observed diurnal cycle (higher abundance at night). ABM emissions of hexose carbohydrates might also account for a significant proportion of glucose and fructose in air particulate matter, but the literature-derived ratios are not consistent with the observed diurnal cycle (lower abundance at night). AAM emissions appear to account for a large proportion of potassium in air particulate matter over tropical rainforest regions during the wet season, and they can also explain the observed diurnal cycle (higher abundance at night). The results of our investigations and budget calculations for tropical rainforest aerosols are consistent with measurements performed at other locations. Based on the average abundance of mannitol in particulate matter, which is consistent with the above emission ratio and the observed abundance of ABS, we have also calculated a value of ~17 Tg yr-1 as a first estimate for the global average emission rate of ABS over land surfaces. Comparisons with estimated rates of emission and formation of other major types of organic aerosol (~47 Tg yr-1 of anthropogenic primary organic aerosol; 12-70 Tg yr-1 of secondary organic aerosol) indicate that emissions from actively spore-discharging fungi should be taken into account as a significant source of organic aerosol. Their effects might be particularly important in tropical regions, where both physicochemical processes in the atmosphere and biological activity at the Earth's surface are particularly intense, and where the abundance of fungal spores and related chemical compounds are typically higher than in extratropical regions.

Elbert, W.; Taylor, P. E.; Andreae, M. O.; Pöschl, U.

2006-11-01

287

Trehalose synthesis in Aspergillus niger: characterization of six homologous genes, all with conserved orthologs in related species  

PubMed Central

Background The disaccharide trehalose is a major component of fungal spores and is released upon germination. Moreover, the sugar is well known for is protective functions, e.g. against thermal stress and dehydration. The properties and synthesis of trehalose have been well investigated in the bakers’ yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In filamentous fungi, such knowledge is limited, although several gene products have been identified. Results Using Aspergillus niger as a model fungus, the aim of this study was to provide an overview of all genes involved in trehalose synthesis. This fungus has three potential trehalose-6-phosphate synthase encoding genes, tpsA-C, and three putative trehalose phosphate phosphatase encoding genes, tppA-C, of which two have not previously been identified. Expression of all six genes was confirmed using real-time PCR, and conserved orthologs could be identified in related Aspergilli. Using a two-hybrid approach, there is a strong indication that four of the proteins physically interact, as has previously been shown in S. cerevisiae. When creating null mutants of all the six genes, three of them, ?tpsA, ?tppA and ?tppB, had lower internal trehalose contents. The only mutant with a pronounced morphological difference was ?tppA, in which sporulation was severely reduced with abnormal conidiophores. This was also the only mutant with accumulated levels of trehalose-6-phosphate, indicating that the encoded protein is the main phosphatase under normal conditions. Besides ?tppA, the most studied deletion mutant in this work was ?tppB. This gene encodes a protein conserved in filamentous Ascomycota. The ?tppB mutant displayed a low, but not depleted, internal trehalose content, and conidia were more susceptible to thermal stress. Conclusion A. niger contains at least 6 genes putatively involved in trehalose synthesis. Gene expressions related to germination have been quantified and deletion mutants characterized: Mutants lacking tpsA, tppA or tppB have reduced internal trehalose contents. Furthermore, tppA, under normal conditions, encodes the functional trehalose-6-phosphate-phosphatase. PMID:24725382

2014-01-01

288

Symbiotic fungal associations in 'lower' land plants.  

PubMed

An analysis of the current state of knowledge of symbiotic fungal associations in 'lower' plants is provided. Three fungal phyla, the Zygomycota, Ascomycota and Basidiomycota, are involved in forming these associations, each producing a distinctive suite of structural features in well-defined groups of 'lower' plants. Among the 'lower' plants only mosses and Equisetum appear to lack one or other of these types of association. The salient features of the symbioses produced by each fungal group are described and the relationships between these associations and those formed by the same or related fungi in 'higher' plants are discussed. Particular consideration is given to the question of the extent to which root fungus associations in 'lower' plants are analogous to 'mycorrhizas' of 'higher' plants and the need for analysis of the functional attributes of these symbioses is stressed. Zygomycetous fungi colonize a wide range of extant lower land plants (hornworts, many hepatics, lycopods, Ophioglossales, Psilotales and Gleicheniaceae), where they often produce structures analogous to those seen in the vesicular-arbuscular (VA) mycorrhizas of higher plants, which are formed by members of the order Glomales. A preponderance of associations of this kind is in accordance with palaeohbotanical and molecular evidence indicating that glomalean fungi produced the archetypal symbioses with the first plants to emerge on to land. It is shown, probably for the first time, that glomalean fungi forming typical VA mycorrhiza with a higher plant (Plantago lanceolata) can colonize a thalloid liverwort (Pellia epiphylla), producing arbuscules and vesicles in the hepatic. The extent to which these associations, which are structurally analogous to mycorrhizas, have similar functions remains to be evaluated. Ascomycetous associations are found in a relatively small number of families of leafy liverworts. The structural features of the fungal colonization of rhizoids and underground axes of these plants are similar to those seen in mycorrhizal associations of ericaceous plants like Vaccinium. Cross inoculation experiments have confirmed that a typical mycorrhizal endophyte of ericaceous plants, Hymenoscyphus ericae, will form associations in liverworts which are structurally identical to those seen in nature. Again, the functional significance of these associations remains to be examined. Some members of the Jungermanniales and Metzgeriales form associations with basidiomycetous fungi. These produce intracellular coils of hyphae, which are similar to the pelotons seen in orchid mycorrhizas, which also involve basidiomycetes. The fungal associates of the autotrophic Aneura and of its heterotrophic relative Cryptothallus mirabilis have been isolated. In the latter case it has been shown that the fungal symbiont is an ectomycorrhizal associate of Betula, suggesting that the apparently obligate nature of the association between the hepatic and Betula in nature is based upon requirement for this particular heterotroph. PMID:10905611

Read, D J; Ducket, J G; Francis, R; Ligron, R; Russell, A

2000-06-29

289

Correction: Comparative analysis of fungal genomes reveals different plant cell wall degrading capacity in fungi  

PubMed Central

Abstract The version of this article published in BMC Genomics 2013, 14: 274, contains 9 unpublished genomes (Botryobasidium botryosum, Gymnopus luxurians, Hypholoma sublateritium, Jaapia argillacea, Hebeloma cylindrosporum, Conidiobolus coronatus, Laccaria amethystina, Paxillus involutus, and P. rubicundulus) downloaded from JGI website. In this correction, we removed these genomes after discussion with editors and data producers whom we should have contacted before downloading these genomes. Removing these data did not alter the principle results and conclusions of our original work. The relevant Figures 1, 2, 3, 4 and 6; and Table 1 have been revised. Additional files 1, 3, 4, and 5 were also revised. We would like to apologize for any confusion or inconvenience this may have caused. Background Fungi produce a variety of carbohydrate activity enzymes (CAZymes) for the degradation of plant polysaccharide materials to facilitate infection and/or gain nutrition. Identifying and comparing CAZymes from fungi with different nutritional modes or infection mechanisms may provide information for better understanding of their life styles and infection models. To date, over hundreds of fungal genomes are publicly available. However, a systematic comparative analysis of fungal CAZymes across the entire fungal kingdom has not been reported. Results In this study, we systemically identified glycoside hydrolases (GHs), polysaccharide lyases (PLs), carbohydrate esterases (CEs), and glycosyltransferases (GTs) as well as carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs) in the predicted proteomes of 94 representative fungi from Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Chytridiomycota, and Zygomycota. Comparative analysis of these CAZymes that play major roles in plant polysaccharide degradation revealed that fungi exhibit tremendous diversity in the number and variety of CAZymes. Among them, some families of GHs and CEs are the most prevalent CAZymes that are distributed in all of the fungi analyzed. Importantly, cellulases of some GH families are present in fungi that are not known to have cellulose-degrading ability. In addition, our results also showed that in general, plant pathogenic fungi have the highest number of CAZymes. Biotrophic fungi tend to have fewer CAZymes than necrotrophic and hemibiotrophic fungi. Pathogens of dicots often contain more pectinases than fungi infecting monocots. Interestingly, besides yeasts, many saprophytic fungi that are highly active in degrading plant biomass contain fewer CAZymes than plant pathogenic fungi. Furthermore, analysis of the gene expression profile of the wheat scab fungus Fusarium graminearum revealed that most of the CAZyme genes related to cell wall degradation were up-regulated during plant infection. Phylogenetic analysis also revealed a complex history of lineage-specific expansions and attritions for the PL1 family. Conclusions Our study provides insights into the variety and expansion of fungal CAZyme classes and revealed the relationship of CAZyme size and diversity with their nutritional strategy and host specificity. PMID:24422981

2014-01-01

290

A new approach to species delimitation in Septoria  

PubMed Central

Septoria is a large genus of asexual morphs of Ascomycota causing leaf spot diseases of many cultivated and wild plants. Host specificity has long been a decisive criterium in species delimitation in Septoria, mainly because of the paucity of useful morphological characters and the high level of variation therein. This study aimed at improving the species delimitation of Septoria by adopting a polyphasic approach, including multilocus DNA sequencing and morphological analyses on the natural substrate and in culture. To this end 365 cultures preserved in CBS, Utrecht, The Netherlands, among which many new isolates obtained from fresh field specimens were sequenced. Herbarium material including many types was also studied. Full descriptions of the morphology in planta and in vitro are provided for 57 species. DNA sequences were generated for seven loci, viz. nuclear ITS and (partial) LSU ribosomal RNA genes, RPB2, actin, calmodulin, Btub, and EF. The robust phylogeny inferred showed that the septoria-like fungi are distributed over three main clades, establishing the genera Septoria s. str., Sphaerulina, and Caryophylloseptoria gen. nov. Nine new combinations and one species, Sphaerulina tirolensis sp. nov. were proposed. It is demonstrated that some species have wider host ranges than expected, including hosts from more than one family. Septoria protearum, previously only associated with Proteaceae was found to be also associated with host plants from six additional families of phanerogams and cryptogams. To our knowledge this is the first study to provide DNA-based evidence that multiple family-associations occur for a single species in Septoria. The distribution of host families over the phylogenetic tree showed a highly dispersed pattern for 10 host plant families, providing new insight into the evolution of these fungi. It is concluded that trans-family host jumping is a major force driving the evolution of Septoria and Sphaerulina. Taxonomic novelties: New genus - Caryophylloseptoria Verkley, Quaedvlieg & Crous; New species - Sphaerulina tirolensis Verkley, Quaedvlieg & Crous; New combinations - Caryophylloseptoria lychnidis (Desm.) Verkley, Quaedvlieg & Crous, Caryophylloseptoria silenes (Westend.) Verkley, Quaedvlieg & Crous, Caryophylloseptoria spergulae (Westend.) Verkley, Quaedvlieg & Crous, Sphaerulina aceris (Lib.) Verkley, Quaedvlieg & Crous, Sphaerulina cornicola (DC.: Fr.) Verkley, Quaedvlieg & Crous, Sphaerulina gei (Roberge ex Desm.) Verkley, Quaedvlieg & Crous, Sphaerulina hyperici (Roberge ex Desm.) Verkley, Quaedvlieg & Crous, Sphaerulina frondicola (Fr.) Verkley, Quaedvlieg & Crous, Sphaerulina socia (Pass.) Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous; Epitypifications (basionyms) - Ascochyta lysimachiae Lib., Septoria astragali Roberge ex Desm., Septoria cerastii Roberge ex Desm., Septoria clematidis Roberge ex Desm., Septoria cruciatae Roberge ex Desm., Septoria spergulae Westend., Septoria epilobii Westend., Septoria galeopsidis Westend., Septoria gei Roberge ex Desm., Septoria hyperici Roberge ex Desm., Septoria rubi Westend., Septoria senecionis Westend., Septoria urticae Roberge ex Desm. PMID:24014901

Verkley, G.J.M.; Quaedvlieg, W.; Shin, H.-D.; Crous, P.W.

2013-01-01

291

Sex, drugs and recombination: the wild life of Aspergillus.  

PubMed

Throughout the eukaryotes, sexual reproduction is an almost universal phenomenon. However, within the Kingdom Fungi, this relationship is not so clear-cut. Fungi exhibit a spectrum of reproductive modes and life-cycles; amongst the better known species, sexual reproduction is often facultative, can be rare, and in over half of the known Ascomycota (the moulds) is unknown (Taylor et al. 1999). However, over the last decade, it has become apparent that many of these asexual mitosporic taxa undergo cryptic recombination via unobserved mechanisms and that wholly asexual fungi are, in fact, a rarity (Taylor et al. 1999, 2001; Heitman 2010). This revolution in our understanding of fungal sexuality has come about in two ways: Firstly, sexual reproduction leaves an imprint on fungal genomes by maintaining genes required for mating and by generating patterns of mutation and recombination restricted to meiotic processes. Secondly, scientists have become better at catching fungi in flagrante delicto. The genus Aspergillus is one such fungus where a combination of population genetics, genomics and taxonomy has been able to intuit the existence of sex, then to catch the fungus in the act and formally describe their sexual stages. So, why are sexy moulds exciting? One species in particular, Aspergillus flavus, is notorious for its ability to produce a diverse array of secondary metabolites, of which the polyketide aflatoxins (AF) are carcinogenic and others (such as cyclopiazonic acid) are toxigenic. Because of the predilection of A. flavus to grow on crops, such as peanuts, corn and cotton, biocontrol is widely used to mitigate infection by pre-applying nonaflatoxigenic (AF-) strains to competitively exclude the wild-type AF+ strains. However, the eventual fate in nature of these biocontrol strains is not known. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Olarte et al. (2012) make an important contribution by using laboratory crosses of A. flavus to show that not only is AF highly heritable, but AF- strains can become AF+ via crossing over during meiosis. This observation has raised the spectre of cross-breeding and non-mendelian inheritance of AF between native and biocontrol strains of the fungus, leading to an increase in the natural diversity of the fungus with perhaps unanticipated consequences. PMID:22393930

Fisher, Matthew C; Henk, Daniel A

2012-03-01

292

Microbial Pathogens in the Fungal Kingdom  

PubMed Central

The fungal kingdom is vast, spanning ~1.5 to as many as 5 million species diverse as unicellular yeasts, filamentous fungi, mushrooms, lichens, and both plant and animal pathogens. The fungi are closely aligned with animals in one of the six to eight supergroups of eukaryotes, the opisthokonts. The animal and fungal kingdoms last shared a common ancestor ~1 billion years ago, more recently than other groups of eukaryotes. As a consequence of their close evolutionary history and shared cellular machinery with metazoans, fungi are exceptional models for mammalian biology, but prove more difficult to treat in infected animals. The last common ancestor to the fungal/metazoan lineages is thought to have been unicellular, aquatic, and motile with a posterior flagellum, and certain extant species closely resemble this hypothesized ancestor. Species within the fungal kingdom were traditionally assigned to four phyla, including the basal fungi (Chytridiomycota, Zygomycota) and the more recently derived monophyletic lineage, the dikarya (Ascomycota, Basidiomycota). The fungal tree of life project has revealed that the basal lineages are polyphyletic, and thus there are as many as eight to ten fungal phyla. Fungi that infect vertebrates are found in all of the major lineages, and virulence arose multiple times independently. A sobering recent development involves the species Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis from the basal fungal phylum, the Chytridiomycota, which has emerged to cause global amphibian declines and extinctions. Genomics is revolutionizing our view of the fungal kingdom, and genome sequences for zygomycete pathogens (Rhizopus, Mucor), skin-associated fungi (dermatophytes, Malassezia), and the Candida pathogenic species clade promise to provide insights into the origins of virulence. Here we survey the diversity of fungal pathogens and illustrate key principles revealed by genomics involving sexual reproduction and sex determination, loss of conserved pathways in derived fungal lineages that are retained in basal fungi, and shared and divergent virulence strategies of successful human pathogens, including dimorphic and trimorphic transitions in form. The overarching conclusion is that fungal pathogens of animals have arisen repeatedly and independently throughout the fungal tree of life, and while they share general properties, there are also unique features to the virulence strategies of each successful microbial pathogen. PMID:21528015

Heitman, Joseph

2011-01-01

293

Symbiotic fungal associations in 'lower' land plants.  

PubMed Central

An analysis of the current state of knowledge of symbiotic fungal associations in 'lower' plants is provided. Three fungal phyla, the Zygomycota, Ascomycota and Basidiomycota, are involved in forming these associations, each producing a distinctive suite of structural features in well-defined groups of 'lower' plants. Among the 'lower' plants only mosses and Equisetum appear to lack one or other of these types of association. The salient features of the symbioses produced by each fungal group are described and the relationships between these associations and those formed by the same or related fungi in 'higher' plants are discussed. Particular consideration is given to the question of the extent to which root fungus associations in 'lower' plants are analogous to 'mycorrhizas' of 'higher' plants and the need for analysis of the functional attributes of these symbioses is stressed. Zygomycetous fungi colonize a wide range of extant lower land plants (hornworts, many hepatics, lycopods, Ophioglossales, Psilotales and Gleicheniaceae), where they often produce structures analogous to those seen in the vesicular-arbuscular (VA) mycorrhizas of higher plants, which are formed by members of the order Glomales. A preponderance of associations of this kind is in accordance with palaeohbotanical and molecular evidence indicating that glomalean fungi produced the archetypal symbioses with the first plants to emerge on to land. It is shown, probably for the first time, that glomalean fungi forming typical VA mycorrhiza with a higher plant (Plantago lanceolata) can colonize a thalloid liverwort (Pellia epiphylla), producing arbuscules and vesicles in the hepatic. The extent to which these associations, which are structurally analogous to mycorrhizas, have similar functions remains to be evaluated. Ascomycetous associations are found in a relatively small number of families of leafy liverworts. The structural features of the fungal colonization of rhizoids and underground axes of these plants are similar to those seen in mycorrhizal associations of ericaceous plants like Vaccinium. Cross inoculation experiments have confirmed that a typical mycorrhizal endophyte of ericaceous plants, Hymenoscyphus ericae, will form associations in liverworts which are structurally identical to those seen in nature. Again, the functional significance of these associations remains to be examined. Some members of the Jungermanniales and Metzgeriales form associations with basidiomycetous fungi. These produce intracellular coils of hyphae, which are similar to the pelotons seen in orchid mycorrhizas, which also involve basidiomycetes. The fungal associates of the autotrophic Aneura and of its heterotrophic relative Cryptothallus mirabilis have been isolated. In the latter case it has been shown that the fungal symbiont is an ectomycorrhizal associate of Betula, suggesting that the apparently obligate nature of the association between the hepatic and Betula in nature is based upon requirement for this particular heterotroph. PMID:10905611

Read, D J; Ducket, J G; Francis, R; Ligron, R; Russell, A

2000-01-01

294

Genome Sequencing and Comparative Genomics of the Broad Host-Range Pathogen Rhizoctonia solani AG8  

PubMed Central

Rhizoctonia solani is a soil-borne basidiomycete fungus with a necrotrophic lifestyle which is classified into fourteen reproductively incompatible anastomosis groups (AGs). One of these, AG8, is a devastating pathogen causing bare patch of cereals, brassicas and legumes. R. solani is a multinucleate heterokaryon containing significant heterozygosity within a single cell. This complexity posed significant challenges for the assembly of its genome. We present a high quality genome assembly of R. solani AG8 and a manually curated set of 13,964 genes supported by RNA-seq. The AG8 genome assembly used novel methods to produce a haploid representation of its heterokaryotic state. The whole-genomes of AG8, the rice pathogen AG1-IA and the potato pathogen AG3 were observed to be syntenic and co-linear. Genes and functions putatively relevant to pathogenicity were highlighted by comparing AG8 to known pathogenicity genes, orthology databases spanning 197 phytopathogenic taxa and AG1-IA. We also observed SNP-level “hypermutation” of CpG dinucleotides to TpG between AG8 nuclei, with similarities to repeat-induced point mutation (RIP). Interestingly, gene-coding regions were widely affected along with repetitive DNA, which has not been previously observed for RIP in mononuclear fungi of the Pezizomycotina. The rate of heterozygous SNP mutations within this single isolate of AG8 was observed to be higher than SNP mutation rates observed across populations of most fungal species compared. Comparative analyses were combined to predict biological processes relevant to AG8 and 308 proteins with effector-like characteristics, forming a valuable resource for further study of this pathosystem. Predicted effector-like proteins had elevated levels of non-synonymous point mutations relative to synonymous mutations (dN/dS), suggesting that they may be under diversifying selection pressures. In addition, the distant relationship to sequenced necrotrophs of the Ascomycota suggests the R. solani genome sequence may prove to be a useful resource in future comparative analysis of plant pathogens. PMID:24810276

Hane, James K.; Anderson, Jonathan P.; Williams, Angela H.; Sperschneider, Jana; Singh, Karam B.

2014-01-01

295

Field Observations of Bioaerosols: What We've Learned from Fluorescence, Genetic, and Microscopic Techniques (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biogenic aerosols are ubiquitous in the Earth’s atmosphere, influencing atmospheric chemistry and physics, the biosphere, climate, and public health. They play an important role in the spread of biological organisms, and they can cause or enhance human, animal, and plant diseases. Moreover, they can initiate the formation of clouds and precipitation as cloud condensation and ice nuclei (CCN, IN). Primary biogenic aerosol particles (PBAP) such as pollen, fungal spores, and bacteria are emitted directly from the biosphere to the atmosphere. Microscopic investigations have shown that PBAP account for up to ~30% of fine and up to ~70% of coarse particulate matter in rural and rain forest air, and the estimates of PBA emissions range from ~60 Tg a-1 of fine particles up to ~1000 Tg a-1 of total particulate matter. Fungal spores account for a large proportion of PBA with typical number and mass concentrations of ~104 m-3 and ~1 ?g m-3 in continental boundary layer air and estimated global emissions of the order of ~50 Tg a-1 and 200 m-2 s-1, respectively [1]. The actual abundance, variability and diversity of PBAP are still poorly understood and quantified, however. By measuring fluorescence at excitation and emission wavelengths specific to viable cells, online techniques with time resolution of minutes are able to detect fluorescent biological aerosol particles (FBAP), which represent a lower limit for the actual abundance of coarse (> 1 ?m) PBAP [2]. Continuous sampling (1 - 4 months) was performed at various locations including pristine rain forest, rural and polluted urban sites. Each study exhibited a similar average particle number distribution dominated by a peak at ~3 ?m, with coarse FBAP concentrations of the order of ~5x104 m-3 and ~1 ?g m-3. Recent advances in the DNA analysis and molecular genetic characterization of aerosol filter samples yield new information about the sources and composition of PBA and provide new insight into regional and global biodiversity [3,4]. Filters collected at a semi-urban site in Germany for approximately one year determined that ~34% of the airborne fungal species were Ascomycota (sac fungi), 64% were Basidiomycota (club fungi), and that their relative proportions changed seasonally. Numerical simulations with state-of-the-art atmospheric chemistry and climate models are helping to unravel the regional and global distribution and transport of PBA [5]. The atmospheric abundance and environmental effects of PBA are particularly pronounced in tropical regions, where both the biological activity at the Earth’s surface and the physicochemical processes in the atmosphere are particularly intense and important for the Earth system and global climate. If climate change and human activities lead to changes in the abundance and properties of PBA, this might influence the hydrological cycle and provide a feedback to climate change [1]. [1] Elbert et al. (2007) Atmos. Chem. Phys., 7, 4569 - 4588. [2] Huffman et al. (2009) Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 9, 17705 - 17751. [3] Després et al. (2007) Biogeosciences, 4, 1127-1141. [4] Fröhlich-Nowoisky et al. (2009) Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., 106, 12814 - 12819. [5] Burrows et al. (2009) Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 9, 10829 - 10881.

Huffman, J. A.; Fröhlich-Nowoisky, J.; Després, V. R.; Elbert, W.; Sinha, B.; Andreae, M. O.; Pöschl, U.

2009-12-01

296

Mycobiota of biological soil crusts in the Negev desert, Israel - differences on a regional and local scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On a regional scale, we examined variations in microfungal communities inhabiting the biological soil crusts (BSC) and non-crusted soil of the northern and central Negev desert in 10 locations along a southward rainfall gradient (from 325 mm to 81 mm of annual rainfall). A total of 87 species from 49 genera were isolated using the soil dilution plate method. The mycobiota of BSC (80 species) was characterized by dominance of melanin-containing fungi, remarkable contribution of sexual Ascomycota, and low abundance of the typical soil genera Penicillium and Aspergillus. Morphological adaptations to the stressful desert environment were expressed in the prevalence of dark-colored microfungi with large, many-celled spores in the localities of the "drier" part of the rainfall gradient and in dark thick-walled fruit bodies of sexual ascomycetes. The abundance of melanin-containing species with multicellular spores was the only characteristic showed a highly significant (negative) correlation with the rainfall amount. We assume that the main factor influencing the content of these species was the latitudinal position of the locations, determining also the intensity of solar (UV) radiation. In the BSC communities, the xeric "desert" component (melanics, slow-reproducing fungi with large, thick-walled spores) was significantly more pronounced and the mesic "forest" component (Penicillium, fast-reproducing fungi with small, light-colored, and thin-walled spores) was much less represented than in the non-crusted shrub communities. In BSC, density of fungal isolates which can be considered an indirect characteristic of fungal biomass was significantly lower than in the non-crusted soil. Cluster analysis indicated that in most cases, the BSC and shrub localities, separated only by a few meters or less, differed on microfungal community structure much more significantly than BSC or shrub localities in the distance of tens of kilometers. The results of this analysis, together with the fact that the rainfall amount weakly influenced spatial variations of the most observed mycological characteristics, indicated that microenvironmental (edaphic) factors played a more essential role in the formation of studied communities than macroenvironmental (climatic) factors. On a local scale, we studied variations in microfungal communities from different crust types (cyanobacterial - moss-dominated) at the Nizzana research station, the western Negev Desert, and their relationship with moisture retention time and intensity of solar radiation. A total of 78 species from 48 genera was isolated. Microfungal communities in the Nizzana crusts were also dominated by melanin-containing species with large, thick-walled and multi-celled conidia. Abundance of this xeric group significantly increased with the increase of radiation intensity, while abundance of mesic Penicillium spp. and Zygomycota displayed the opposite trend. Density of microfungal isolates showed significant positive non-linear relationship with moisture retention time. The moss dominated crust differed markedly from the cyanobacterial crusts on species relative abundances, diversity level, and isolate density. The study showed the parallelism between structure of crust microfungal communities along a regional precipitation gradient in the Negev desert and within a small drainage basin of the Nizzana research station.

Grishkan, I.; Zaady, E.; Kidron, G.

2012-04-01

297

Ectomycorrhizal lifestyle in fungi: global diversity, distribution, and evolution of phylogenetic lineages.  

PubMed

The ectomycorrhizal (EcM) symbiosis involves a large number of plant and fungal taxa worldwide. During studies on EcM diversity, numerous misidentifications, and contradictory reports on EcM status have been published. This review aims to: (1) critically assess the current knowledge of the fungi involved in the EcM by integrating data from axenic synthesis trials, anatomical, molecular, and isotope studies; (2) group these taxa into monophyletic lineages based on molecular sequence data and published phylogenies; (3) investigate the trophic status of sister taxa to EcM lineages; (4) highlight other potentially EcM taxa that lack both information on EcM status and DNA sequence data; (5) recover the main distribution patterns of the EcM fungal lineages in the world. Based on critically examining original reports, EcM lifestyle is proven in 162 fungal genera that are supplemented by two genera based on isotopic evidence and 52 genera based on phylogenetic data. Additionally, 33 genera are highlighted as potentially EcM based on habitat, although their EcM records and DNA sequence data are lacking. Molecular phylogenetic and identification studies suggest that EcM symbiosis has arisen independently and persisted at least 66 times in fungi, in the Basidiomycota, Ascomycota, and Zygomycota. The orders Pezizales, Agaricales, Helotiales, Boletales, and Cantharellales include the largest number of EcM fungal lineages. Regular updates of the EcM lineages and genera therein can be found at the UNITE homepage http://unite.ut.ee/EcM_lineages . The vast majority of EcM fungi evolved from humus and wood saprotrophic ancestors without any obvious reversals. Herbarium records from 11 major biogeographic regions revealed three main patterns in distribution of EcM lineages: (1) Austral; (2) Panglobal; (3) Holarctic (with or without some reports from the Austral or tropical realms). The holarctic regions host the largest number of EcM lineages; none are restricted to a tropical distribution with Dipterocarpaceae and Caesalpiniaceae hosts. We caution that EcM-dominated habitats and hosts in South America, Southeast Asia, Africa, and Australia remain undersampled relative to the north temperate regions. In conclusion, EcM fungi are phylogenetically highly diverse, and molecular surveys particularly in tropical and south temperate habitats are likely to supplement to the present figures. Due to great risk of contamination, future reports on EcM status of previously unstudied taxa should integrate molecular identification tools with axenic synthesis experiments, detailed morphological descriptions, and/or stable isotope investigations. We believe that the introduced lineage concept facilitates design of biogeographical studies and improves our understanding about phylogenetic structure of EcM fungal communities. PMID:20191371

Tedersoo, Leho; May, Tom W; Smith, Matthew E

2010-04-01

298

Contribution of fungi to primary biogenic aerosols in the atmosphere: wet and dry discharged spores, carbohydrates, and inorganic ions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biogenic aerosols play important roles in atmospheric chemistry physics, the biosphere, climate, and public health. Here, we show that fungi which actively discharge their spores with liquids into the air, in particular actively wet spore discharging Ascomycota (AAM) and actively wet spore discharging Basidiomycota (ABM), are a major source of primary biogenic aerosol particles and components. We present the first estimates for the global average emission rates of fungal spores. Measurement results and budget calculations based on investigations in Amazonia (Balbina, Brazil, July 2001) indicate that the spores of AAM and ABM may account for a large proportion of coarse particulate matter in tropical rainforest regions during the wet season (0.7-2.3 ?g m-3). For the particle diameter range of 1-10 ?m, the estimated proportions are ~25% during day-time, ~45% at night, and ~35% on average. For the sugar alcohol mannitol, the budget calculations indicate that it is suitable for use as a molecular tracer for actively wet discharged basidiospores (ABS). ABM emissions seem to account for most of the atmospheric abundance of mannitol (10-68 ng m-3), and can explain the observed diurnal cycle (higher abundance at night). ABM emissions of hexose carbohydrates might also account for a significant proportion of glucose and fructose in air particulate matter (7-49 ng m-3), but the literature-derived ratios are not consistent with the observed diurnal cycle (lower abundance at night). AAM emissions appear to account for a large proportion of potassium in air particulate matter over tropical rainforest regions during the wet season (17-43 ng m-3), and they can also explain the observed diurnal cycle (higher abundance at night). The results of our investigations and budget calculations for tropical rainforest aerosols are consistent with measurements performed at other locations. Based on the average abundance of mannitol reported for extratropical continental boundary layer air (~25 ng m-3), we have also calculated a value of ~17 Tg yr-1 as a first estimate for the global average emission rate of ABS over land surfaces, which is consistent with the typically observed concentrations of ABS (~10³-104 m-3; ~0.1-1 ?g m-3). The global average atmospheric abundance and emission rate of total fungal spores, including wet and dry discharged species, are estimated to be higher by a factor of about three, i.e. 1 ?g m-3 and ~50 Tg yr-1. Comparisons with estimated rates of emission and formation of other major types of organic aerosol (~47 Tg yr-1 of anthropogenic primary organic aerosol; 12-70 Tg yr-1 of secondary organic aerosol) indicate that emissions from fungi should be taken into account as a significant global source of organic aerosol. The effects of fungal spores and related chemical components might be particularly important in tropical regions, where both physicochemical processes in the atmosphere and biological activity at the Earth's surface are particularly intense, and where the abundance of fungal spores and related chemical compounds are typically higher than in extratropical regions.

Elbert, W.; Taylor, P. E.; Andreae, M. O.; Pöschl, U.

2007-09-01

299

Characterization of Acremonium and Isaria ice nuclei  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Until recently, the only known fungal ice nuclei (IN) were a few exponents of lichen mycobionts and Fusarium spp. [Kieft and Ruscetti 1990, Pouleur et al. 1992, Hasegawa et al. 1994, Tsumuki et al. 1995], as well as two strains of mold [Jayaweera and Flanagan 1982]. Other investigated species did not show any IN activity [Pouleur et al. 1992, Iannone et al. 2011, Pummer et al. 2013]. In the last few years, IN-activity has been discovered in some rust and smut fungi [Morris et al. 2013, Haga et al. 2013], Acremonium implicatum (Acr.) and Isaria farinosa (Isa.) [Huffman et al. 2013] and a handful of other airborne and soil fungi [unpublished data]. We started characterizing the IN of Acr. and Isa.: Like other non-bacterial biological IN, they can be easily separated from the cells in aqueous suspension, and keep their activity. The IN-active aqueous suspensions were processed by filtration (5 ?m, 0.1 ?m, 300 kDa, 100 kDa) and exposure to heat (60° C) or guanidinium chloride (6 M). The IN activity of the processed samples was measured by a freezing assay of droplets, as described by Pummer et al. [2013]. Via the Vali formula, we calculated the amount of IN per gram of mycelium, which is higher than 105 g-1. The initial freezing temperature was -4° C for Isaria and -8° C for Acremonium IN. Both were completely knocked out by 60° C or guanidinium chloride. The Acremonium IN are in a mass range between 100 and 300 kDa. The Isaria IN seem to be either a bit larger, or more attached to larger particles, since not all of them pass through the 300-kDa-filter. It is likely that both of these new IN are proteinaceous like the IN of Fusarium spp. and lichen mycobionts, which belong to the Ascomycota phylum. Since the Isaria IN show a high onset freezing temperature and are rather large for single molecules, they might be agglomerates. Haga D.I. et al. (2013) J. Geophys. Res.: Atm. 118, 7260-7272 Hasegawa Y. et al. (1994) Biosci. Biotech. Biochem. 58, 2273-2274 Huffman A.J. et al. (2013) Atmos. Chem. Phys. 13, 6151-6164 Iannone R. et al. (2011) Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11, 1191-1201 Jayaweera K. and Flanagan P. (1982) Geophys. Res. Lett. 9, 94-97 Kieft T.L. and Ruscetti T. (1990) J. Bacteriol. 172, 3519-3523 Morris C.E. et al. (2013) Atmos. Chem. Phys. 13, 4223-4233 Pouleur S. et al. (1992) Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 58, 2960-2964 Pummer B. et al. (2013) Biogeosci. 10, 8083-8091 Tsumuki H. et al. (1995) Ann. Phytopathol. Soc. Jpn. 61, 334-339

Pummer, Bernhard G.; Pöschl, Ulrich; Fröhlich-Nowoisky, Janine

2014-05-01

300

New species of ice nucleating fungi in soil and air  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Primary biological aerosol particles (PBAP) are ubiquitous in the atmosphere (1,2). Several types of PBAP have been identified as ice nuclei (IN) that can initiate the formation of ice at relatively high temperatures (3, 4). The best-known biological IN are common plant-associated bacteria. The IN activity of these bacteria is due to a surface protein on the outer cell membrane that catalyses ice formation, for which the corresponding gene has been identified and detected by DNA analysis (3). Fungal spores or hyphae can also act as IN, but the biological structures responsible for their IN activity have not yet been elucidated. Furthermore, the abundance, diversity, sources, seasonality, properties, and effects of fungal IN in the atmosphere have neither been characterized nor quantified. Recent studies have shown that airborne fungi are highly diverse (1), and that atmospheric transport leads to efficient exchange of species among different ecosystems (5, 6). The results presented in Fröhlich-Nowoisky et al. 2012 (7) clearly demonstrate the presence of geographic boundaries in the global distribution of microbial taxa in air, and indicate that regional differences may be important for the effects of microorganisms on climate and public health. DNA analyses of aerosol samples collected during rain events showed higher diversity and frequency of occurrence for fungi belonging to the Sordariomycetes, than samples that were collected under dry conditions (8). Sordariomycetes is the class that comprises known ice nucleation active species (Fusarium spp.). By determination of freezing ability of fungal colonies isolated from air samples two species of ice nucleation active fungi that were not previously known as biological ice nucleators were found. By DNA-analysis they were identified as Isaria farinosa and Acremonium implicatum. Both fungi belong to the phylum Ascomycota, produce fluorescent spores in the range of 1-4 µm in diameter, and induced freezing at -4 and -8°C. The IN seem not be bound to cells because they can be easily washed off the mycelium. They pass through a 0.1 µm filter and can be inactivated by 60°C treatment. Ongoing investigations of various soil and air samples indicate that diverse ice nucleation active fungi from more than one phylum are not only present in air and soil but can also be abundant components of the cultivable community. A recently discovered group of IN fungi in soil was also found to possess easily suspendable IN smaller than 300 kDa. Ice nucleating fungal mycelium may ramify topsoils and release cell-free IN into it. If some of these IN survive decomposition or are adsorbed onto mineral surfaces this contribution will accumulate over time, perhaps to be transported with soil dust and influencing its ice nucleating properties. Thanks for collaboration and support to M.O. Andreae, B. Baumgartner, I. Germann-Müller, T. Godwill, L.E. Hanson, A.T. Kunert, J. Meeks, T. Pooya, S. Lelieveld, J. Odhiambo Obuya, C. Ruzene-Nespoli, and D. Sebazungu. The Max Planck Society (MPG), Ice Nuclei research UnIT (INUIT), the German Research Foundation (PO1013/5-1), and the National Science Foundation (NSF, grant 0841542) are acknowledged for financial support. 1. Fröhlich-Nowoisky, J., et al. (2009) Proc. Natl Acad. Sci., 106, 12814-12819 2. Després, V. R., et al. (2012) Tellus B, 64, 15598 3. Georgakopoulos, D.G., et al. (2009) Biogeosciences, 6, 721-737 4. Pouleur, S., et al. (1992) Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 58, 2960-2964 5. Burrows, S.M., et al. (2009a) Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, (23), 9281-9297 6. Burrows, S.M., et al. (2009b) Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, (23), 9263-9280 7. Fröhlich-Nowoisky, J., et al. (2012) Biogeosciences, 9, 1125-1136 8. Huffman A. J. et al. (2013) Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 6151-6164

Fröhlich-Nowoisky, Janine; Hill, Thomas C. J.; Pummer, Bernhard G.; Franc, Gray D.; Pöschl, Ulrich

2014-05-01

301

Soil Communities of Central Park, New York City: A Biodiversity Melting Pot  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The majority of earth's biodiversity lives in and makes up the soil, but the majority of soil biodiversity has yet to be characterized or even quantified. This may be especially true of urban soil systems. The last decade of advances in molecular, technical and bioinformatic techniques have contributed greatly to our understanding of belowground biodiversity, from global distribution to species counts. Yet, much of this work has been done in ';natural' systems and it is not known if established patterns of distribution, especially in relation to soil factors hold up in urban soils. Urban soils are intensively managed and disturbed, often by effects unique to urban settings. It remains unclear how urban pressures influence soil biodiversity, or if there is a defined or typical ';urban soil community'. Here we describe a study to examine the total soil biodiversity - Bacteria, Archaea and Eukarya- of Central Park, New York City and test for patterns of distribution and relationships to soil characteristics. We then compare the biodiversity of Central Park to 57 global soils, spanning a number of biomes from Alaska to Antarctica. In this way we can identify similarities and differences in soil communities of Central Park to soils from ';natural' systems. To generate a broad-scale survey of total soil biodiversity, 596 soil samples were collected from across Central Park (3.41 km2). Soils varied greatly in vegetation cover and soil characteristics (pH, moisture, soil C and soil N). Using high-throughput Illumina sequencing technology we characterized the complete soil community from 16S rRNA (Bacteria and Archaea) and 18S rRNA gene sequences (Eukarya). Samples were rarified to 40,000 sequences per sample. To compare Central Park to the 57 global soils the complete soil community of the global soils was also characterized using Illumina sequencing technology. All samples were rarified to 40,000 sequences per sample. The total measured biodiversity in Central Park was high: >540,000 bacterial and archaeal species; and >97,000 eukaryotic species (as determined using a 97% sequence similarity cutoff). The most dominant bacterial phyla include Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Verrucomicrobia and Actinobacteria, and Archaea represent 1-8% of the sequences. Additionally, the distribution patterns of Acidobacteria and consequently beta-diversity, was strongly related to soil pH. The most dominant eukaryotic taxa include many Protists (Rhizara, Gregarinia), Fungi (Basidiomycota, Ascomycota), and Metazoa (Nematodes, Rotifers, Arthropods and Annelids). No single soil factor could predict eukaryotic distribution. Central Park soil diversity was strikingly similar to the diversity of the 57 global soils. Central Park and the global soils had similarities in alpha diversity, taxon abundances. Interestingly, there was significant overlap in a number of dominant species between Central Park and the global soils. Together these results represent the most comprehensive analysis of soil biodiversity conducted to date. Our data suggest that even well-studied locations like Central Park harbor very high levels of unexplored biodiversity, and that Central Park biodiversity is comparable to soil biodiversity found globally.

Ramirez, K. S.; Leff, J. W.; Wall, D. H.; Fierer, N.

2013-12-01

302

Biodiversity of Soil Microbial Communities Following Woody Plant Invasion of Grassland: An Assessment Using Molecular Methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Woody plants have encroached into grasslands, savannas, and other grass-dominated ecosystems throughout the world during the last century. This dramatic vegetation change is likely driven by livestock grazing, altered fire frequencies, elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations, and/or changes in atmospheric deposition patterns. Woody invasion often results in significant changes in ecosystem function, including alterations in above- and belowground primary productivity, soil C, N, and P storage and turnover, and the size and activity of the soil microbial biomass pool. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships and interactions between plant communities and soil microbial communities in the Rio Grande Plains region of southern Texas where grasslands have been largely replaced by woodlands. Research was conducted along a successional chronosequence representing the stages of woody plant encroachment from open grassland to closed-canopy woodland. To characterize soil microbial community composition, soil samples (0-7.5 cm) were collected in remnant grasslands (representing time 0) and near the centers of woody plant clusters, groves, and drainage woodlands ranging in age from 10 to 130 yrs. Ages of woody plant stands were determined by dendrochronology. Community DNA was extracted from each soil sample with a MoBio PowerMax Soil DNA isolation kit. The DNA concentrations were quantified on a NanoDrop ND-1000 spectrophotometer and diluted to a standard concentration. Pyrosequencing was performed by the Research and Testing Laboratory (Lubbock, TX) according to Roche 454 Titanium chemistry protocols. Samples were amplified with primers 27F and 519R for bacteria, and primers ITS1F and ITS4 for fungi. Sequences were aligned using BioEdit and the RDP Pipeline and analyzed in MOTHUR. Non-metric multidimensional scaling of the operational taxonomic units identified by pyrosequencing revealed that both bacterial and fungal community composition were significantly different between remnant grasslands and all woody plant community types. Phylum-level classification of the 16S bacterial sequences showed that five phyla (Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Gemmatiomonadetes) represented 85-91% of classifiable sequences in all landscape elements. The relative abundances of Acidobacteria were significantly higher (p<0.05) in grassland samples (29.5%) than in all wooded landscape elements (17.1-25.6%), while the relative abundances of Actinobacteria was lower in grasslands (8.8%) than wooded areas (16.1-19.7%). Phylum-level classification of fungal sequences showed that four phyla accounted for 61.8 to 86.3% of identified sequences. Ascomycota was the most common phylum in all samples (55.8-62.1%), with significant contributions from Basidiomycota, Chytridiomycota, and Blastocladiomycota. The largest change in fungal community composition at the phylum level was observed in the Chytridiomycota, which declined from 4.0% in the grasslands to 0.8-1.4% in the wooded landscape elements. These significant changes in microbial community composition that occur following grassland to woodland conversion may have important implications for key biogeochemical processes that influence ecosystem structure and function in this region.

Kantola, I. B.; Gentry, T. J.; Filley, T. R.; Boutton, T. W.

2012-12-01