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Sample records for camp canada evidence

  1. The Bunkhouse Man. A Study of Work and Pay in the Camps of Canada 1903-1914.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradwin, Edmund W.

    The book describes working and living conditions among migrant laborers in the northern Canadian work camps, 1903-1914. The early chapters sketch the development of Canada's transportation systems from the mid-19th century as the setting for the development of labor camps, and describe the contract system in railway construction. The heart of the…

  2. Tourism climatology for camping: a case study of two Ontario parks (Canada)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hewer, Micah J.; Scott, Daniel; Gough, William A.

    2015-08-01

    Climate and weather act as central motivators for the travel decisions of tourists. Due to their seasonality, these factors determine the availability and quality of certain outdoor recreational activities. Park visitation in Ontario, Canada, has been identified as a weather sensitive tourism and recreation activity. This study used a survey-based approach to identify and compare stated weather preferences and thresholds, as well as weather-related decision-making for campers at two provincial parks in Ontario, Canada. The two parks were selected for differing physical and environmental characteristics (forested lake versus coastal beach). Statistically significant differences were detected between the two parks in relation to the importance of weather and weather-based decision-making. Specific temperatures that were considered ideal and thresholds that were too cool and too warm were identified for both parks, both during the day and the night. Heavy rain and strong winds were the most influential factors in weather-related decision-making and on-site behavioural adaptations. Beach campers placed greater importance on the absence of rain and the presence of comfortable temperatures compared to forest campers. In addition, beach campers were more likely to leave the park early due to incremental weather changes. The results of this study suggest that beach campers are more sensitive to weather than forest campers.

  3. Observational Evidence of an Intensifying Hydrological Cycle in Northern Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Déry, S. J.; Hernández-Henríquez, M. A.; Mlynowski, T. J.; Burford, J. E.; Wood, E. F.

    2009-05-01

    This talk will present an overview of recent trends and variability of river discharge in northern Canada, with a focus on our contributions to the IPY project "Arctic Freshwater Systems". We will first introduce the pan-Arctic domain, with a focus on northern Canada, and its hydroclimatology. Trends and variability in the 1964-2007 annual streamflow for 45 rivers spanning 5.2 × 106 km2 of northern Canada will then be discussed. We will present a trend analysis for the 44-year period that reveals a modest increase in the annual flows, with a recent trend reversal owing to much-above average values recorded over the past decade. Trends in the coefficient of variation computed from 11-year moving windows of annual streamflows exhibit spatially coherent signals with increasing variability across most of northern Canada, excluding some rivers with outlets to the Labrador Sea and eastern James Bay. This study therefore provides observational evidence of an intensifying hydrological cycle in northern Canada.

  4. Reinventing The Wheel Of Medical Evidence: How The Boot Camp Translation Process Is Making Gains.

    PubMed

    Westfall, John M; Zittleman, Linda; Felzien, Maret; Norman, Ned; Tamez, Montelle; Backlund-Jarquin, Paige; Nease, Don

    2016-04-01

    Medical guidelines use language and concepts that are not understood by many patients, which makes it difficult for patients to choose the best treatment. The High Plains Research Network's Community Advisory Council, made up of farmers, teachers, and other community members in eastern Colorado, identified a lack of community knowledge about colon cancer and developed a process the council named Boot Camp Translation to turn complex screening guidelines into locally relevant messages. This article provides a brief history of the process and describes how it has been used to translate and disseminate evidence-based medical guidelines. The Colorado Clinical and Translational Sciences Institute tested the Boot Camp Translation process on multiple topics in communities throughout the United States from 2012 to 2015. During that period the institute used the process more than twenty-five times, addressing the topics of cancer prevention, hypertension, asthma, diabetes, and mental health. Multiple studies show that use of the process has led to improvement in cancer testing, asthma management, and hypertension control. Policies that support the translation of medical evidence into local programs will improve the health of patients. PMID:27044960

  5. CCI: A Worldwide Camping Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fawver, Gary Keith

    1992-01-01

    Describes the efforts of Christian Camping International (CCI), an alliance of Christian camping associations from Australia, Canada, the Far East, Latin America, New Zealand, United States, South Africa, Japan, and Brazil. The purpose of CCI is to help develop effective Christian camps, conferences, and retreat ministries. (LP)

  6. Evidence-informed health policy making in Canada: past, present, and future.

    PubMed

    Boyko, Jennifer A

    2015-11-01

    Evidence-informed health policy making (EIHP) is becoming a necessary means to achieving health system reform. Although Canada has a rich and well documented history in the field of evidence-based medicine, a concerted effort to capture Canada's efforts to support EIHP in particular has yet to be realized. This paper reports on the development of EIHP in Canada, including promising approaches being used to support the use of evidence in policy making about complex health systems issues. In light of Canada's contributions, this paper suggests that scholars in Canada will continue engaging in the field of EIHP through further study of interventions underway, as well as by sharing knowledge within and beyond Canada's borders about approaches that support EIHP. PMID:26275217

  7. The Key Tuffite, Matagami Camp, Abitibi Greenstone Belt, Canada: petrogenesis and implications for VMS formation and exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genna, Dominique; Gaboury, Damien; Roy, Gilles

    2014-04-01

    The Key Tuffite is a stratigraphic marker unit for most of the zinc-rich volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits of the Matagami Camp in the Abitibi Greenstone Belt. This 2- to 6-m-thick unit was previously interpreted as a mixture of ash fall (andesitic to rhyolitic tuffaceous components) and volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS)-related chemical seafloor precipitate (exhalative component). Previous attempts to develop geochemical exploration vectoring tools using metal content within the Key Tuffite were mostly inconclusive due to the complex nature of the Key Tuffite unit and a poor understanding of its composition, origin and relationship with the VMS-forming hydrothermal systems. Detailed mapping and thorough lithogeochemistry of the Key Tuffite in the vicinity of the Perseverance and Bracemac-McLeod deposits indicate that the Key Tuffite is a homogeneous calc-alkaline, andesitic tuff that was deposited before the VMS deposits were formed. The unit is mostly devoid of exhalative component, but it is strongly hydrothermally altered close to orebodies. This is characterized by a strong proximal chloritization and a distal sericitization, which grades laterally into the unaltered Key Tuffite. Neither the Key Tuffite nor the ore was formed by seafloor exhalative processes for the two studied deposits. This probably explains why previously proposed exploration models based on metal scavenging proved unsuccessful and suggests that a re-evaluation of the exhalative model should be done at the scale of the mining camp. However, as shown in this study, hydrothermal alteration can be used to vector towards ore along the Key Tuffite.

  8. Youth Development Outcomes of the Camp Experience: Evidence for Multidimensional Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurber, Christopher A.; Scanlin, Marge M.; Scheuler, Leslie; Henderson, Karla A.

    2007-01-01

    Three thousand, three hundred and ninety-five families, whose child attended one of 80 different day or resident summer camps for at least one week, completed customized questionnaires that measured growth from precamp to postcamp in four domains: Positive Identity, Social Skills, Physical & Thinking Skills, and Positive Values & Spirituality.…

  9. DIRECTORY OF CAMPS FOR THE HANDICAPPED.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Easter Seal Society for Crippled Children and Adults, Chicago, IL.

    ONE HUNDRED AND SEVENTY-SEVEN RESIDENT CAMPS IN THE UNITED STATES AND CANADA AND 77 DAY CAMPS IN THE UNITED STATES WHICH SERVE CHILDREN OR ADULTS WITH PHYSICAL, MENTAL, SOCIAL, AND EMOTIONAL HANDICAPS ARE LISTED ALPHABETICALLY BY STATE. FOR EACH CAMP, INFORMATION ON TYPES OF THE HANDICAPPED WHO ARE ACCEPTED, SPECIFIC EXCLUSIONS, AGE RANGE, NUMBER…

  10. Canada.

    PubMed

    1987-03-01

    In 1986, Canada's population stood at 25.5 million, with an annual growth rate of 1.2%. The infant mortality rate is 15/1000, and life expectancy is 69 years for males and 76 years for females. Of the labor force of 12.9 million, 3.5% are engaged in agriculture, 52% work in industry and commerce, 28.4% are in the services sector, and 5.9% are employed by the government. The gross national product was US$367.2 billion in 1986, with a per capita income of about $13,000. Canada is a constitutional monarchy with a bilingual federal system, a parliamentary form of government, and strong democratic traditions. The spectacular growth of Canadian manufacturing in recent decades has transformed the country from a rural agricultural society into a primarily urban and industrial society. The mineral industry has been a major factor in Canada's economic development. PMID:12178065

  11. Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Robert F.; Ghosh, Ratna

    1986-01-01

    Discusses Canada's problems in searching for a national identity and the controversy of the Federal policy of multiculturalism. Presents its objectives within a bilingual framework and the contradictions involved. Suggests a workable model involving assimilation conditioned by regional or local circumstances, useful also as a development strategy.…

  12. Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillham, Virginia

    1991-01-01

    Lists and annotates 130 publications from the federal government of Canada and from the various Canadian provinces. Major topics include environmental concerns, particularly ecologically responsible forestry, global warming, and waste disposal/recycling; education at all levels, including bilingual concerns; and the Belanger-Campeau report, which…

  13. Differential effects on cAMP on the MAP kinase cascade: evidence for a cAMP-insensitive step that can bypass Raf-1.

    PubMed Central

    Faure, M; Bourne, H R

    1995-01-01

    Because cAMP exerts opposite effects on cell proliferation in different cell types, we undertook to study its effect on the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway in three cell lines (Rat-1, Swiss-3T3, and COS-7) chosen for their different mitogenic responses to cAMP. We measured the effect of cAMP on MAPK, MEK, and Raf-1 activities after stimulation by agonists acting through a tyrosine kinase receptor (epidermal growth factor) or a G protein-coupled receptor (lysophosphatidic acid). In Rat-1 cells we found that cAMP strongly inhibited all three activities (MAPK, MEK, and Raf-1), in good agreement with its effect on cell proliferation in these cells. In Swiss-3T3 and COS-7 cells, on the contrary, cAMP did not inhibit epidermal growth factor- and lysophosphatidic acid-induced stimulation of MAPK and MEK activities, and even stimulated MAPK activity slightly on its own. Again these results are in good agreement with the proliferative effect of cAMP in Swiss-3T3 cells. Raf-1 activity on the hand, was inhibited by cAMP in Swiss-3T3 and COS-7 as it was in Rat-1 cells. This result indicates that signaling pathways in Swiss-3T3 and COS-7 cells can activate MEK and MAPK in a Raf-1-independent and cAMP-insensitive manner. Our results add to growing evidence for the existence of Ras- and/or Raf-1-independent pathways leading to MEK and MAPK activation. Images PMID:7579705

  14. Camp Chinkapin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crook County School District, Prineville, OR.

    The Camp Chinkapin program, begun in 1957-58 as a pilot program for the State of Oregon, provides all sixth grade students in Crook County (Oregon) with a 5-day session in a resident camp setting in the early summer. The book serves as an introduction to and workbook for students attending the Crook County Outdoor Classroom at Suttle Lake. The…

  15. Camp for Youth With Type 1 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Fegan-Bohm, Kelly; Weissberg-Benchell, Jill; DeSalvo, Daniel; Gunn, Sheila; Hilliard, Marisa

    2016-08-01

    Camps for youth with type 1 diabetes (T1D) have grown in size and scope since they first emerged in the 1920s. Anecdotal evidence suggests that attending camp with other youth with T1D is beneficial, largely attributed to sharing fun, active experiences and removing the isolation of living with diabetes. However, few studies have evaluated the psychosocial and medical impacts of T1D camp attendance during and after camp sessions. In addition, T1D camps have been a setting for numerous studies on a variety of T1D-related research questions not related to camp itself, such as testing novel diabetes management technologies in an active, non-laboratory setting. This paper reviews the evidence of psychosocial and medical outcomes associated with T1D camp attendance across the globe, provides an overview of other research conducted at camp, and offers recommendations for future research conducted at T1D camp. PMID:27292106

  16. Astro Camp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Children who attend NASA's summer Astro Camp at Stennis Space Center enjoy a week of fun-filled activities. Campers learn what it is like to be a couple of inches taller in space and go through an astronaut obstacle course. They also learn how to build their own model rockets, which are launched on the last day of each camp. Campers also attend field trips to places such as the Challenger Learning Center at the Louisiana Arts and Science Center in Baton Rouge. Four weeks of Astro Camp are held during the summer each year-two camps for 8- to 10-year-olds and two for 11- to 13-year olds.

  17. Astro Camp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Children who attend NASA's summer Astro Camp at Stennis Space Center enjoy a week of fun-filled activities. Campers learn what it feels like to be a couple of inches taller in space and treck through an astronaut obstacle course. They also have the opportunity to build their own model rockets, which are then launched on the last day of each camp. Campers also travel on field trips to places such as the Challenger Learning Center at the Louisiana Arts and Science Center in Baton Rouge. Four weeks of Astro Camp are held each year during the summer-two camps for 8- to 10-year-olds and two for 11- to 13-year olds.

  18. Evidence that the cAMP pathway controls emergence of both primary and appressorial germ tubes of barley powdery mildew.

    PubMed

    Kinane, J; Dalvin, S; Bindslev, L; Hall, A; Gurr, S; Oliver, R

    2000-05-01

    Development of conidia of barley powdery mildew involves the formation of a primary germ tube (PGT), an appressorial germ tube (AGT), and an appressorium. Previously, it was found that cyclic AMP (cAMP) was involved in these developmental processes. Comparison of development on the host surface with two types of cellulose membrane revealed that frequency of PGT emergence was surface independent. On one type of cellulose, where the frequencies of both AGT and appressorial differentiation were similar to that on the host surface, cAMP levels and protein kinase A (PKA) activities had a biphasic pattern with peaks at 15 min and 4 h after inoculation (prior to PGT and AGT emergence, respectively). The effect of manipulating cAMP levels was tested on another type of cellulose membrane, which stimulated a lower degree of AGT and appressorial formation than the host surface. Cholera toxin and forskolin, activators of adenylyl cyclase, significantly increased PGT emergence, but cAMP did not. Cholera toxin, forskolin, and cAMP increased the frequency of AGT and appressorial formation, but in a time-dependent manner. PMID:10796015

  19. [Hemophilia camps.

    PubMed

    Juárez-Sierra, Julieta; Del Pilar Torres-Arreola, Laura; Marín-Palomares, Teresa; Dueñas-González, María Teresa; Monteros-Rincón, Martha Patricia; Osorio-Guzmán, Maricela

    2013-01-01

    We reported the experience of hemophilia camps which was accomplished with patients from hospitals of the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social. The aim was to prepare the families and patients regarding the disease treatment, in order to promote the self sufficiency and to know the impact of the program on the course of the disease. Surveys were applied about treatment items and personal opinions were collected. The results of the national hemophilia camp were: group of 56 patients, average 14 years, 2 % women, 51 % severe hemophilia and 43 % had hemophilic brothers. Benefits: patients increased their knowledge about earlier bleeding identification and the self-infusion method; they became aware on their responsibility in self care, timely treatment and duties at home. Hemophilia camps with patients are an option for attitude change before disease complications. Social network creation and the increase in self-sufficiency are other benefits. PMID:24290020

  20. Marketing Your Day Camp.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, George

    1997-01-01

    Marketing strategies for day camps include encouraging camp staff to get involved in organizations involving children, families, and communities; holding camp fairs; offering the use of camp facilities to outside groups; hosting sport leagues and local youth outings; planning community fairs; and otherwise involving the camp in the community. (LP)

  1. Building research capacity for evidence-informed tobacco control in Canada: a case description.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Paul W; Viehbeck, Sarah; Robinson, Sarah J; Leatherdale, Scott T; Nykiforuk, Candace Ij; Jolin, Mari Alice

    2009-01-01

    Tobacco use remains the leading cause of death and disability in Canada. Insufficient research capacity can inhibit evidence-informed decision making for tobacco control. This paper outlines a Canadian project to build research capacity, defined as a community's ability to produce research that adequately informs practice, policy, and future research in a timely, practical manner. A key component is that individuals and teams within the community must mutually engage around common, collectively negotiated goals to address specific practices, policies or programs of research. An organizing framework, a set of activities to build strategic recruitment, productivity tools, and procedures for enhancing social capital are described. Actions are intended to facilitate better alignment between research and the priorities of policy developers and service providers, enhance the external validity of the work performed, and reduce the time required to inform policy and practice. PMID:19664224

  2. CAMPing by the sea: Evidence for synchrony of volcanism and the end-Triassic extinction and carbon isotope anomaly from a marine Triassic-Jurassic boundary section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pálfy, J.; Zajzon, N.

    2012-04-01

    The end-Triassic extinction (ETE) is one of the five largest Phanerozoic mass extinctions, associated with and likely triggered by rapid and severe environmental change. Volcanism in the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) has been proposed as the main trigger, but direct evidence for this linkage is scarce. To help constrain scenarios for the Triassic-Jurassic boundary (TJB) events, we obtained a temporally highly resolved, multidisciplinary dataset from the Kendlbachgraben section in the Northern Calcareous Alps in Austria. The section belongs to the same paleogeographic unit (Eiberg Basin) and share similar stratigraphies with the newly selected base Jurassic GSSP at Kuhjoch. The topmost beds of the Rhaetian Kössen Formation yielded an REE pattern that differs from all other levels in an enrichment of heavy REEs, hinting at some minor contribution from mantle-derived magmatic material to the sedimentary basin. Micromineralogy of the same bed revealed pseudomorphs of altered, euhedral pyroxene and amphibole crystals. Their well-faceted morphology excludes any terrestrial weathering and transport, but is consistent with their origin from air-fallen distal mafic volcanic ash. Peculiar spherical or rounded grains, altered to illite/aluminoceladonite were also observed, likely representing altered volcanic glass. The dominant clay mineral of this bed is low- to medium-charged smectite, accompanied by vermiculite, both typical alteration products of mafic rocks. These features from a bed deposited very near to the TJB are interpreted as direct evidence of CAMP volcanism, immediately preceding the main extinction event and the initial negative carbon isotope anomaly. Clay mineralogy of the Rhaetian-Hettangian Kendlbach Formation (overlying the Kössen Formation) reveals a kaolinite-dominated interval at the base of the formation, followed by an illite-dominated interval. Thus a hot and humid period may have characterized the TJB, in agreement with a previously

  3. A Review of e-Learning in Canada: A Rough Sketch of the Evidence, Gaps and Promising Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrami, Philip C.; Bernard, Robert M.; Wade, Anne; Schmid, Richard F.; Borokhovski, Eugene; Tamim, Rana; Surkes, Michael; Lowerison, Gretchen; Zhang, Dai; Nicolaidou, Iolie; Newman, Sherry; Wozney, Lori; Peretiatkowicz, Anna

    2006-01-01

    This review provides a rough sketch of the evidence, gaps and promising directions in e-learning from 2000 onwards, with a particular focus on Canada. The authors searched a wide range of sources and document types to ensure that we represented, comprehensively, the arguments surrounding e-learning. Overall, there were 2,042 entries in their…

  4. Astro Camp Plus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Stennis Space Center's new Astro Camp Plus camp kicked off June 19 for teens ages 13-15. The new camp delves more deeply into the science, math and technology concepts introduced in the center's popular Astro Camp series. Campers including Jasmyne White (left) and Dana Yingst, both of Slidell, La., learn how NASA uses 'podcasting' to broadcast video, and made their own podcasts.

  5. Victory Junction Gang Camp

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shell, Ryan

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the Victory Junction Gang Camp, a not-for-profit, NASCAR-themed camp for children with chronic medical conditions that serves 24 different disease groups. The mission of the camp is to give children life-changing camping experiences that are exciting, fun, and empowering in a safe and medically sound environment. While doing…

  6. Camp through the Decades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicodemus, Teresa

    2003-01-01

    Camp pioneers relate how camping has grown to become more diverse, environmentally aware, safe, and conscious of its responsibility to promote healthy development of children. Changing trends in clothing, transportation, and food preparation at camp are described. The joys, discoveries, and teachable moments that camp offers children have endured.…

  7. Improving community health and safety in Canada through evidence-based policies on illegal drugs

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Evan; McKinnon, Moira; Strang, Robert; Kendall, Perry R

    2012-01-01

    Illegal drug use remains a serious threat to community health in Canada, yet there has been a remarkable discordance between scientific evidence and policy in this area, with most resources going to drug use prevention and drug law enforcement activities that have proven ineffective. Conversely, evidence-based drug treatment programs have been chronically underfunded, despite their cost-effectiveness. Similarly, various harm reduction strategies, such as needle exchange, supervised injecting programs and opioid substitution therapy, have also proven effective at reducing drug-related harm but receive limited government support. Accordingly, Canadian society would greatly benefit from reorienting its drug policies on addiction, with consideration of addiction as a health issue, rather than primarily a criminal justice issue. In this context, and in light of the simple reality that drug prohibition has not effectively reduced the availability of most illegal drugs and has instead contributed to a vast criminal enterprise and related violence, among other harms, alternatives should be prioritized for evaluation. PMID:22567081

  8. The Tectonic Evolution of SE Canada: Seismic Evidence from the QM-III Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastow, I. D.; Boyce, A.; Darbyshire, F. A.; Levin, V. L.; Menke, W. H.; Ellwood, A.

    2014-12-01

    Much of the geological record can be interpreted in the context of processes operating today at plate boundaries. This works well to explain processes and products during the Phanerozoic era; during Precambrian times when the oldest rocks were forming, however, conditions on the younger, hotter, more ductile Earth were likely very different, making analogies with modern day tectonics less certain. Gathering evidence preserved deep within the plates in the shields is thus essential to improve our understanding of the early Earth. Shields are usually underlain by thick, seismically fast roots that are absent beneath younger portions of Earth's surface. The thermochemically distinct nature of cratonic roots is often associated with Archean processes such as the extraction of komatiitic magmas. However, the cratonic core of North America does not fit easily into this Archean formation paradigm: part of the Canadian shield extends beneath the Archean Superior craton, but much of it persists beneath younger Proterozoic crust as well. We present here a relative arrival-time tomographic study of mantle seismic structure using data from a new seismograph network operating in SE Canada. Our stations extend from the Archean Superior craton around the southern tip of Hudson Bay, through Proterozoic Grenville terranes, and into Paleozoic coastal Maine and Nova Scotia. Tomographic images display three broad zones of mantle wavespeed: slow in the Appalachian terranes; fast in the Grenville Province; very fast within the Superior craton. Archean lithosphere has been modified by the Great Meteor hotspot, but we find no evidence for major plate-scale underthrusting during the Grenville orogeny. The abrupt wavespeed transition from Archean to Proterozoic mantle is thus consistent with the emerging consensus that keels form in two stages: a chemically depleted layer in Archean times followed by the thermal development of a less-depleted lithosphere during Proterozoic times.

  9. Michelle: Growing Through Camping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ouellet, Annette M.

    1977-01-01

    A mother, whose physically handicapped 7-year-old daughter has prosthetic feet, describes how her child adjusted well first to a summer day camp and then to a week long camping program run by the Girl Scouts. (GW)

  10. A Summer Camp Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratte, Janice L.; DiNardi, Salvatore R.

    1979-01-01

    Reported are the results of a project assessing the impact of a revised Massachusetts sanitary code on 500 summer camps for children. The study compared camp compliances with the proposed regulations to the level of compliance with existing regulations. (BT)

  11. Camp is a Celebration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Dakota Farmers Union, Jamestown. Dept. of Youth Activities.

    A camping workbook provides materials for use in discussion of 3 important aspects of farm living: rural power, communication, and conservation. It is intended that this material be used in class sessions held during a junior youth camp. A sample of the youth camp schedule reveals 3 forty-five minute time periods during the day designated as class…

  12. Evidence-based guidelines for universal counselling and offering of HIV testing in pregnancy in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Samson, L; King, S

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To provide Canadian health care workers with evidence-based guidelines for universal counselling about HIV testing and the offering of such testing to all pregnant women. OPTIONS: Universal counselling and offering of HIV testing to all pregnant women versus targeted testing of only pregnant women at high risk for HIV infection. Antiretroviral treatment protocols for HIV-positive mothers and their infants are discussed as the intervention to reduce mother-to-child transmission rates. OUTCOMES: Main outcomes are mother-to-child HIV transmission rates and consequences of HIV testing on the mother and infant. EVIDENCE: Articles published from January 1985 to March 1997 identified through a MEDLINE search; articles published in pertinent medical journals in 1996 and 1997 identified through a manual search; and abstracts presented at international HIV/AIDS conferences. BENEFITS, HARMS AND COSTS: Early diagnosis of HIV infection in a pregnant woman optimizes her medical and psychosocial care, decreases the incidence of mother-to-child transmission and decreases the risk of horizontal transmission to sexual partners. New, third-generation HIV tests have reduced false-positive rates and thus diminished the harm of screening. RECOMMENDATIONS: A screening strategy consisting of universal counselling and offering of HIV testing is recommended for all pregnant women in Canada (grade B recommendation). Targeted testing of only pregnant women at high risk for HIV infection fails to identify a substantial proportion of HIV-positive pregnant women and is therefore not recommended (grade D recommendation). Women who identify themselves as being at high risk and whose initial HIV test result is negative should be counselled about the reduction of high-risk behaviours and retested in 6 months (grade B recommendation). Treatment of seropositive women and infants with zidovudine to prevent mother-to-child transmission is recommended (grade A or B recommendation depending on

  13. Creating healthy camp experiences.

    PubMed

    Walton, Edward A; Tothy, Alison S

    2011-04-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics has created recommendations for health appraisal and preparation of young people before participation in day or resident camps and to guide health and safety practices for children at camp. These recommendations are intended for parents, primary health care providers, and camp administration and health center staff. Although camps have diverse environments, there are general guidelines that apply to all situations and specific recommendations that are appropriate under special conditions. This policy statement has been reviewed and is supported by the American Camp Association. PMID:21444589

  14. Hospital Expenditure as a Major Driver of Nurse Labour Force Participation: Evidence from a 10-Year Period in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Vujicic, Marko; Onate, Kanecy; Laporte, Audrey; Deber, Raisa

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines trends in the nursing labour market in Canada over a period of dramatic fluctuations in hospital expenditures. We add to previous analysis that covered the period 1991–1996 and use Census data from 2001 to examine the relationship between hospital expenditure and nurse labour force participation. We find that shifts in labour force participation over the period 1991–2001 had a significant impact on the nursing supply in Canada. Individuals who were trained in nursing but were working outside the profession in 1996 because of budgetary reductions and layoffs in hospitals had largely been reabsorbed back into nursing jobs by 2001. Our analysis provides further empirical evidence that the labour force participation among individuals trained in nursing is driven to a large extent by demand-side factors. PMID:22548099

  15. Lesbian camp: An unearthing.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Elly-Jean

    2016-01-01

    Camp-a sensibility, a style, and a form of artistic self-expression-is an elusive concept said to be in the eye of the beholder. To refute Susan Sontag's ( 1966 ) claims that camp is apolitical and not especially homosexual, a number of recent scholarly works have been geared toward revealing camp's fundamental gayness. With the odd footnote aside, lesbian camp has been collapsed into the category of gay male camp, if not eclipsed entirely. Despite the negligible efforts made to legitimize lesbian camp, there are numerous salient cultural examples one might draw on to illustrate, typify, and substantiate a lesbian camp sensibility. I lay the ground work for this scholarly exercise by outlining various definitions and critiques of camp, and by discussing its history and application to queer theory. Then, to unveil lesbian camp, three non-mutually exclusive categories are discussed: classic, erotic, and radical. By gathering various strands of inquiry, and various textual examples (e.g., photography, artistic performances, and literary tropes), this article attempts to reach a more inclusive and nuanced understanding of lesbian camp. PMID:26701773

  16. Education and Entrepreneurship in Canada: Evidence from (Repeated) Cross-Sectional Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masakure, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    This paper estimates the causal effect of education on entrepreneurship choice in Canada taking into account the endogeneity of education. The data come from the General and Social Surveys (2000-2009). We consider the effect of two extreme education levels: university and some/no education. Regressions are based on fixed effects with two-stage…

  17. Developing Social Skills of Summer Campers with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Case Study of Camps on TRACKS Implementation in an Inclusive Day-Camp Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maich, Kimberly; Hall, Carmen L.; van Rhijn, Tricia Marie; Quinlan, Laurie

    2015-01-01

    This research provides preliminary results of an exploratory case study conducted of the Camps on TRACKS program in an inclusive, municipal day-camp program in southwestern Ontario, Canada. Positive changes are demonstrated in the social skills of nine day campers with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who participated in the program. In this…

  18. Probiotic products in Canada with clinical evidence: What can gastroenterologists recommend?

    PubMed Central

    Reid, Gregor; Anukam, Kingsley; Koyama, Tara

    2008-01-01

    Probiotics, defined as ‘live microorganisms, which when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host’, are finally becoming an option for gastroenterologists in Canada, after being available for many years in Japan, Europe and the United States of America. Unfortunately, Health Canada and the US Food and Drug Administration have not controlled the use of the term ‘probiotic’ or put into place United Nations and World Health Organization guidelines. The net result is that a host of products called ‘probiotics’ are available but are not truly probiotic. The aim of the present review was to discuss the rationale for probiotics in gastroenterology, and specifically examine which products are options for physicians in Canada, and which ones patients might be using. It is hoped that by clarifying what probiotics are, and the strengths and limitations of their use, specialists will be better placed to make recommendations on the role of these products in patient care. In due course, more clinically documented probiotics will emerge, some with therapeutic effects based on a better understanding of disease processes. PMID:18299736

  19. Union Camp`s deinking evolution

    SciTech Connect

    White, K.M.

    1995-12-01

    When Union Camp Corp. (Wayne, NJ) opened its fiber recycling plant in Franklin, VA, in December 1994, it was on the cutting edge of a new type of deinking mill that has sprung up in the US during the past few years. Designed to handle a lower-quality feedstock that was once a threat to deinking facilities, the mill is processing 400 tpd of mixed office waste paper. Although mill operators eventually hope to switch to a higher-quality feedstock, the mill has successfully been processing all its incoming fiber into 100% recycled pulp. This pulp is used for the company`s various recycled-content papers, which are manufactured at Union Camp`s paper mill, also located in Franklin, or sold on the open market. Combined with modern technology and teamwork, these factors have led to a deinking facility that is exceeding plant operators` expectations for both capacity and throughput.

  20. Summer camps for children with burn injuries: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Maslow, Gary R; Lobato, Debra

    2010-01-01

    The first summer camps for children with burn injuries started over 25 years ago, and as of 2008, there were 60 camps worldwide. This review examines the literature on summer pediatric burn camps. The authors describe common characteristics of burn camp structure, activities, and staffing and then examine the scientific evidence regarding the effect of burn camp programs on campers and camp staff volunteers. A search of Pubmed and Psychinfo databases from 1970 to 2008 for articles related to pediatric burn summer camps identified 17 articles, of which 13 fit the inclusion criteria. Existing literature consists primarily of qualitative studies, suggesting that burn camp can decrease camper isolation, improve self-esteem, and promote coping and social skills. Studies examining volunteer staff at burn camp have consistently found that there are both personal and professional benefits. Quantitative studies of self-esteem have yielded equivocal results. No studies have examined safety or the effect of burn camp on medical or rehabilitation outcomes. For the past 25 years, pediatric summer camps for children with burn injuries have played an important rehabilitation role and provided a strong community that benefits both campers and staff. Future research using more rigorous research methods and examining a broader range of outcomes (eg, safety and medical/rehabilitation outcomes) is recommended. PMID:20644489

  1. Physical Fitness at Camp.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steen, Thomas B.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Describes decline in youth fitness, emphasizing role of camping programs in youth fitness education. Describes Michigan camp's fitness program, consisting of daily workouts, fitness education, and record keeping. Describes fitness consultants' role in program. Discusses program's highlights and problems, suggesting changes for future use. Shows…

  2. Maximizing Camp Property.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Clifford

    1987-01-01

    Provides selected 14-item outdoor-environmental education bibliography and 20-item checklist of factors weekend/summer camp directors should consider when pondering entry into the outdoor education market. Covers issues of camp philosophy, staff, facilities additions/alterations, equipment, food service, competition, environmental impact,…

  3. Camp Nursing: Student Internships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harwood, Catherine Hoe; Van Hofwegen, Lynn

    2002-01-01

    Camps can meet or supplement their health care delivery needs by using student nurses. Three models for student nurse internships, basic information about nursing education, and tips for negotiating student nurse internships are described. Sidebars present resources for camp health centers, nursing student competence characteristics, types of…

  4. Foreign Language Camps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griswold, Jean S.

    The Colorado State University Foreign Language Weekend Camps (also called the "Poor Man's Study Abroad") are described in this report. Developed to provide an international component and a mini foreign experience for the university's students, the camps are designed to accomplish several purposes including: to offer both foreign and United States…

  5. Marketing for Camp Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biddle, Alicia

    1998-01-01

    To effectively market a camp, current trends and issues must be considered: specialty programming, the Americans With Disabilities Act, competing recreational programs, changes in the school year, programming for seniors, and accountability. Camps should have a marketing strategy that includes public relations, a marketing plan, a pricing…

  6. Camp Joy: Embracing Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krehbiel, Amy

    2001-01-01

    Camp Joy (Ohio) offers a racially integrated program to disadvantaged inner-city foster children. To attract quality minority staff, the camp recruits through former campers, word of mouth, a leader-in-training program, job and internship fairs, and networking with nearby colleges and social agencies. Staff training and the intrinsic rewards of…

  7. Today's Child - Tomorrow's Camp.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ditter, Robert B.

    1988-01-01

    Are camps solely in the business of providing fun, or are they facilitators of crucial life skills? A social worker explores the fun versus character-building debate, concluding that though camp is not group therapy, it contributes to overall personal growth and to the social and emotional development of all children. (JMM)

  8. Friends' Discovery Camp

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seymour, Seth

    2008-01-01

    This article features Friends' Discovery Camp, a program that allows children with and without autism spectrum disorder to learn and play together. In Friends' Discovery Camp, campers take part in sensory-rich experiences, ranging from hands-on activities and performing arts to science experiments and stories teaching social skills. Now in its 7th…

  9. Adapting and retesting evidence-based child maltreatment prevention programs: a case study in Canada.

    PubMed

    Mikton, C

    2015-01-01

    This special issue of Health Promotion and Chronic Disease Prevention in Canada is timely, as child maltreatment is a significant public health problem; globally, the number affected is at least in the hundreds of millions. One-quarter of adults report having been physically abused and over one-third emotionally abused as children; one in 5 women and one in 13 men report having been sexually abused. Recent national surveys of violence against children conducted in Africa and in other low- and middle-income countries reveal rates of childhood physical, sexual and emotional abuse even higher than the global rates. PMID:26605566

  10. The Easter Seal Directory of Resident Camps for Persons with Special Health Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Easter Seal Society for Crippled Children and Adults, Chicago, IL.

    The directory describes approximately 260 resident camps in 44 states and Canada for children and adults with physical, mental, social, and/or emotional handicaps which have been compiled by the National Easter Seal Society for Crippled Children and Adults. Organized alphabetically by state, each camp listing includes information on impairments…

  11. Foreign Language Camps: Camp Waskowitz. Teacher's Guide and Planning Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baudin, Phil; And Others

    This guide to running a foreign language camp is intended to cover all aspects of camp administration and program planning. The philosophy of language camps is set forth. The chairperson's responsibilities regarding staff recruitment, staff assignments, and handling finances are outlined. Sample schedules for French, Spanish, and German camps are…

  12. Paleoecological evidence for abrupt cold reversals during peak Holocene warmth on Baffin Island, Arctic Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Axford, Yarrow; Briner, Jason P.; Miller, Gifford H.; Francis, Donna R.

    2009-03-01

    A continuous record of insect (Chironomidae) remains preserved in lake sediments is used to infer temperature changes at a small lake in Arctic Canada through the Holocene. Early Holocene summers at the study site were characterized by more thermophilous assemblages and warmer inferred temperatures than today, presumably in response to the positive anomaly in Northern Hemisphere summer insolation. Peak early Holocene warmth was interrupted by two cold reversals between 9.5 and 8 cal ka BP, during which multiple cold-stenothermous chironomid taxa appeared in the lake. The earlier reversal appears to correlate with widespread climate anomalies around 9.2 cal ka BP; the age of the younger reversal is equivocal but it may correlate with the 8.2 cal ka BP cold event documented elsewhere. Widespread, abrupt climate shifts in the early Holocene illustrate the susceptibility of the climate system to perturbations, even during periods of enhanced warmth in the Northern Hemisphere.

  13. Better Positioning Those Camp Jobs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Karla A.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses summer camps' difficulties in recruiting college students as staff, suggesting camps have "image problem." Describes study of job descriptions to evaluate whether camps offer useful career experiences. Examines frequency and types of job tasks. Examines how camp directors might use job descriptions to recruit more effectively. (TES)

  14. Camp Invention Connects to Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krebs, Danute V.; Clark, Barbara D.

    2000-01-01

    This article describes Camp Invention, a national creativity day camp that integrates science, math, social studies, and the arts. The one week camp for children entering grades 2-6 attracts many academically gifted children because of its hands-on curriculum. The camp's curriculum and activities are discussed. (Contains two references.) (CR)

  15. Camping in the Snow.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Constance

    1979-01-01

    Describes the experience of winter snow camping. Provides suggestions for shelter, snow kitchens, fires and stoves, cooking, latrines, sleeping warm, dehydration prevention, and clothing. Illustrated with full color photographs. (MA)

  16. Hitler's Death Camps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wieser, Paul

    1995-01-01

    Presents a high school lesson on Hitler's death camps and the widespread policy of brutality and oppression against European Jews. Includes student objectives, instructional procedures, and a chart listing the value of used clothing taken from the Jews. (CFR)

  17. Pre-Camp Checklists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camping Magazine, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Provides checklists to prepare for camp opening. Covers such areas as health histories of all campers and staff, staff credentials, condition of facilities and equipment, staff training, horse stables and equipment, and safety of swimming areas. (LP)

  18. Astro Camp Counselors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Barbara Marino (left), Stennis Space Center education technology specialist, shows Astro Camp Counselor Beverly Fitzsimmons a LEGO model during a teambuilding exercise May 29 at SSC's North Gate computer lab as a part of the counselors' `new hire' orientation.

  19. Rescuing lesbian camp.

    PubMed

    Hemmings, Clare

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores the limits of lesbian camp as it is currently conceived within Lesbian Studies. I argue, in what I hope is a rather circuitous way, that a reliance on repudiative models of identity formation fixes gender as complementary and sexuality as oppositional, irrespective of intention. In this context, I imagine instead what it would take to theorize femininity itself as camp, and femme subjects as ideal for working this through at the level of praxis. PMID:17804378

  20. Medical dominance and neoliberalisation in maternal care provision: The evidence from Canada and Australia

    PubMed Central

    Benoit, Cecilia; Zadoroznyj, Maria; Hallgrimsdottir, Helga; Treloar, Adrienne; Taylor, Kara

    2015-01-01

    Since the 1970s, governments in many high-income countries have implemented a series of reforms in their health care systems to improve efficiency and effectiveness. Many of these reforms have been of a market-oriented character, involving the deregulation of key services, the creation of competitive markets, and the privatization of health and social care. Some scholars have argued that these “neoliberal” reforms have unseated the historical structural embeddedness of medicine, and in some cases even resulted in the proletarianisation of physicians. Other scholars have challenged this view, maintaining that medical hegemony continues to shape health care provision in most high-income countries. In this paper we examine how policy reforms may have altered medical dominance over maternity care in two comparatively similar countries – Canada and Australia. Our findings indicate that neoliberal reforms in these two countries have not substantially changed the historically hegemonic role medicine has played in maternity care provision. We discuss the implications of this outcome for the increased medicalisation of human reproduction. PMID:20570030

  1. Evidence for the alkaline nature of parental carbonatite melts at Oka complex in Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wei; Kamenetsky, Vadim S.; Simonetti, Antonio

    2013-10-01

    The Earth’s sole active carbonatite volcano, Oldoinyo Lengai (Tanzania), is presently erupting unique natrocarbonatite lavas that are characterized by Na- and K-bearing magmatic carbonates of nyerereite [Na2Ca(CO3)2] and gregoryite [(Na2,K2,Ca)CO3]. Contrarily, the vast majority of older, plutonic carbonatite occurrences worldwide are dominated by Ca-(calcite) or Mg-(dolomite)-rich magmatic carbonates. Consequently, this leads to the conundrum as to the composition of primary, mantle-derived carbonatite liquids. Here we report a detailed chemical investigation of melt inclusions associated with intrusive (plutonic) calcite-rich carbonatites from the ~120 Ma carbonatite complex of Oka (Canada). Melt inclusions are hosted by magnetite (Fe3O4), which crystallizes through a significant period of carbonatite melt solidification. Our results indicate mineral assemblages within the melt inclusions that are consistent with those documented in natrocarbonatite lavas. We propose therefore that derivation of alkali-enriched parental carbonatite melts has been more prevalent than that preserved in the geological record.

  2. Evidence for the alkaline nature of parental carbonatite melts at Oka complex in Canada.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Kamenetsky, Vadim S; Simonetti, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    The Earth's sole active carbonatite volcano, Oldoinyo Lengai (Tanzania), is presently erupting unique natrocarbonatite lavas that are characterized by Na- and K-bearing magmatic carbonates of nyerereite [Na2Ca(CO3)2] and gregoryite [(Na2,K2,Ca)CO3]. Contrarily, the vast majority of older, plutonic carbonatite occurrences worldwide are dominated by Ca-(calcite) or Mg-(dolomite)-rich magmatic carbonates. Consequently, this leads to the conundrum as to the composition of primary, mantle-derived carbonatite liquids. Here we report a detailed chemical investigation of melt inclusions associated with intrusive (plutonic) calcite-rich carbonatites from the ~120 Ma carbonatite complex of Oka (Canada). Melt inclusions are hosted by magnetite (Fe3O4), which crystallizes through a significant period of carbonatite melt solidification. Our results indicate mineral assemblages within the melt inclusions that are consistent with those documented in natrocarbonatite lavas. We propose therefore that derivation of alkali-enriched parental carbonatite melts has been more prevalent than that preserved in the geological record. PMID:24173270

  3. Learning Through New Approaches to Forest Governance: Evidence from Harrop-Procter Community Forest, Canada.

    PubMed

    Egunyu, Felicitas; Reed, Maureen G; Sinclair, John A

    2016-04-01

    Collaborative forest governance arrangements have been viewed as promising for sustainable forestry because they allow local communities to participate directly in management and benefit from resource use or protection. Such arrangements are strengthened through social learning during management activities that can enhance capacity to solve complex problems. Despite significant research on social learning in collaborative environmental governance, it is not clear how social learning evolves over time, who influences social learning, and whether learning influences management effectiveness. This study investigates how social learning outcomes change over time, using an in-depth study of a community forest in Canada. Personal interviews, focus group meetings, and participant observation revealed that most participants started engaging in community forestry with limited knowledge and learned as they participated in management activities. However, as the community forest organization became effective at complying with forestry legislation, learning opportunities and outcomes became more restricted. Our results run contrary to the prevalent view that opportunities for and outcomes of social learning become enlarged over time. In our case, learning how to meet governmental requirements increased professionalism and reduced opportunities for involvement and learning to a smaller group. Our findings suggest the need to further test propositions about social learning and collaborative governance, particularly to determine how relationships evolve over time. PMID:26725053

  4. Evidence for large-scale effects of competition: niche displacement in Canada lynx and bobcat

    PubMed Central

    Peers, Michael J. L.; Thornton, Daniel H.; Murray, Dennis L.

    2013-01-01

    Determining the patterns, causes and consequences of character displacement is central to our understanding of competition in ecological communities. However, the majority of competition research has occurred over small spatial extents or focused on fine-scale differences in morphology or behaviour. The effects of competition on broad-scale distribution and niche characteristics of species remain poorly understood but critically important. Using range-wide species distribution models, we evaluated whether Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) or bobcat (Lynx rufus) were displaced in regions of sympatry. Consistent with our prediction, we found that lynx niches were less similar to those of bobcat in areas of sympatry versus allopatry, with a stronger reliance on snow cover driving lynx niche divergence in the sympatric zone. By contrast, bobcat increased niche breadth in zones of sympatry, and bobcat niches were equally similar to those of lynx in zones of sympatry and allopatry. These findings suggest that competitively disadvantaged species avoid competition at large scales by restricting their niche to highly suitable conditions, while superior competitors expand the diversity of environments used. Our results indicate that competition can manifest within climatic niche space across species’ ranges, highlighting the importance of biotic interactions occurring at large spatial scales on niche dynamics. PMID:24174116

  5. A systematic review of the evidence for Canada's Physical Activity Guidelines for Adults

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    This systematic review examines critically the scientific basis for Canada's Physical Activity Guide for Healthy Active Living for adults. Particular reference is given to the dose-response relationship between physical activity and premature all-cause mortality and seven chronic diseases (cardiovascular disease, stroke, hypertension, colon cancer, breast cancer, type 2 diabetes (diabetes mellitus) and osteoporosis). The strength of the relationship between physical activity and specific health outcomes is evaluated critically. Literature was obtained through searching electronic databases (e.g., MEDLINE, EMBASE), cross-referencing, and through the authors' knowledge of the area. For inclusion in our systematic review articles must have at least 3 levels of physical activity and the concomitant risk for each chronic disease. The quality of included studies was appraised using a modified Downs and Black tool. Through this search we identified a total of 254 articles that met the eligibility criteria related to premature all-cause mortality (N = 70), cardiovascular disease (N = 49), stroke (N = 25), hypertension (N = 12), colon cancer (N = 33), breast cancer (N = 43), type 2 diabetes (N = 20), and osteoporosis (N = 2). Overall, the current literature supports clearly the dose-response relationship between physical activity and the seven chronic conditions identified. Moreover, higher levels of physical activity reduce the risk for premature all-cause mortality. The current Canadian guidelines appear to be appropriate to reduce the risk for the seven chronic conditions identified above and all-cause mortality. PMID:20459783

  6. Learning Through New Approaches to Forest Governance: Evidence from Harrop-Procter Community Forest, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egunyu, Felicitas; Reed, Maureen G.; Sinclair, John A.

    2016-04-01

    Collaborative forest governance arrangements have been viewed as promising for sustainable forestry because they allow local communities to participate directly in management and benefit from resource use or protection. Such arrangements are strengthened through social learning during management activities that can enhance capacity to solve complex problems. Despite significant research on social learning in collaborative environmental governance, it is not clear how social learning evolves over time, who influences social learning, and whether learning influences management effectiveness. This study investigates how social learning outcomes change over time, using an in-depth study of a community forest in Canada. Personal interviews, focus group meetings, and participant observation revealed that most participants started engaging in community forestry with limited knowledge and learned as they participated in management activities. However, as the community forest organization became effective at complying with forestry legislation, learning opportunities and outcomes became more restricted. Our results run contrary to the prevalent view that opportunities for and outcomes of social learning become enlarged over time. In our case, learning how to meet governmental requirements increased professionalism and reduced opportunities for involvement and learning to a smaller group. Our findings suggest the need to further test propositions about social learning and collaborative governance, particularly to determine how relationships evolve over time.

  7. Analysis of a novel cyclic Amp inducible prespore gene in Dictyostelium discoideum: evidence for different patterns of cAMP regulation.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, A; Sloger, M S; Oyama, M; Blumberg, D D

    1994-09-01

    The D7 cDNA clone hybridizes to a 2.8 kb mRNA which first appears at the mound stage of development in the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. This gene which is cyclic AMP (cAMP) inducible and is expressed specifically in the prespore cells contains an open reading frame interrupted by only one intron. The predicted amino acid sequence indicates a novel prespore protein which differs from all of the previously described prespore proteins in that it contains no internal repeats and does not share any homology with any of the other prespore genes. The amino acid sequence predicts a protein of 850 amino acids with a molecular weight of 95,343 daltons and an isoelectric point of 4.25. The protein is very rich in glutamine (13.8%), asparagine (10.6%) and glutamic acid (10.4%) with one potential glycosylation site and 28 possible sites for phosphorylation. The amino terminus is hydrophobic with characteristics of a signal sequence while the entire carboxyl half of the protein is notable for its hydrophilicity. Comparison of cAMP regulation of the D7 gene with the regulation of two other cAMP regulated prespore genes, the PL3(SP87) gene and the Psa(D19), reveals some striking differences. Disaggregation in the presence of cAMP results in transient degradation of mRNA for all three genes. The transcription rate for the D7 and PsA(D19) genes remains relatively unaffected by disaggregation but there is a rapid although transient decline in the transcription rate of the PL3(SP87) gene. Although the accumulation of all three mRNAs is first detectable at mound stage, transcription of the D7 and PsA(D19) genes is detected earlier in development, at rippling aggregate stage several hours prior to the earliest time when transcription of the PL3(SP87) gene is detected. Analysis of the promoter region of the D7 gene reveals three CA like boxes flanked by direct repeats as well as four G rich regions that may serve as regulatory elements. PMID:7988791

  8. Age of Sexual Consent Law in Canada: Population-Based Evidence for Law and Policy

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Bonnie B.; Cox, David N.; Saewyc, Elizabeth M.

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the implications of the 2008 increase in age for sexual consent in Canada using a population health survey of Canadian adolescents. Government rationales for the increase asserted younger adolescents were more likely to experience sexual exploitation and engage in risky sexual behaviour than adolescents 16 and older. Using data from sexually experienced adolescents in the 2008 British Columbia Adolescent Health Survey (BC AHS, N=6,262; age range 12 – 19; 52% female), analyses documented the scope of first intercourse partners who were not within the ‘close in age’ exemptions, then compared sexual behaviours of younger teens (14 and 15 years) with older teens (16 and 17) navigating their first year of sexual activity. Comparisons included: forced sex, sex under the influence of alcohol or drugs, multiple partners, condom use, effective contraception use, self-reported sexually transmitted infections, and pregnancy involvement. Results showed very few 14- and 15-year-olds had first intercourse partners who were not within the ‘close in age’ exemptions based on age (boys: <2%, girls: 3–5%). In contrast, among 12- and 13-year-olds (a group unaffected by the law’s change) between 25% and 50% had first intercourse partners who were not within the ‘close in age’ exemptions, and almost 40% of teens who first had sex before age 12 reported a first partner age 20 years or more. In their first year of intercourse, 14- and 15-year-olds were slightly more likely to report forced sex and 3 or more partners than older teens, but otherwise made similarly healthy decisions. This study demonstrates the feasibility of evaluating policy using population health data and shows that better strategies are needed to protect children 13 and under from sexual abuse. PMID:27087775

  9. Variability and origin of seismic anisotropy across eastern Canada: Evidence from shear wave splitting measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darbyshire, F. A.; Bastow, I. D.; Forte, A. M.; Hobbs, T. E.; Calvel, A.; Gonzalez-Monteza, A.; Schow, B.

    2015-12-01

    Measurements of seismic anisotropy in continental regions are frequently interpreted with respect to past tectonic processes, preserved in the lithosphere as "fossil" fabrics. Models of the present-day sublithospheric flow (often using absolute plate motion as a proxy) are also used to explain the observations. Discriminating between these different sources of seismic anisotropy is particularly challenging beneath shields, whose thick (≥200 km) lithospheric roots may record a protracted history of deformation and strongly influence underlying mantle flow. Eastern Canada, where the geological record spans ˜3 Ga of Earth history, is an ideal region to address this issue. We use shear wave splitting measurements of core phases such as SKS to define upper mantle anisotropy using the orientation of the fast-polarization direction ϕ and delay time δt between fast and slow shear wave arrivals. Comparison with structural trends in surface geology and aeromagnetic data helps to determine the contribution of fossil lithospheric fabrics to the anisotropy. We also assess the influence of sublithospheric mantle flow via flow directions derived from global geodynamic models. Fast-polarization orientations are generally ENE-WSW to ESE-WNW across the region, but significant lateral variability in splitting parameters on a ≤100 km scale implies a lithospheric contribution to the results. Correlations with structural geologic and magnetic trends are not ubiquitous, however, nor are correlations with geodynamically predicted mantle flow directions. We therefore consider that the splitting parameters likely record a combination of the present-day mantle flow and older lithospheric fabrics. Consideration of both sources of anisotropy is critical in shield regions when interpreting splitting observations.

  10. Evidence for Early Pleistocene Glaciation obtained from borecores collected in East-Central Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barendregt, R. W.; Andriashek, L. D.; Jackson, L. E.

    2014-12-01

    Borecores collected from the east-central region of Alberta, Canada have recently been sub-sampled and studied for paleomagnetic remanence characteristics. A preliminary magnetostratigraphy has been established for sediments previously assumed to represent multiple continental (Laurentide) glaciations, but for which no geochronology was available for the pre-late Wisconsin units. Comprised primarily of tills and lesser thicknesses of interbedded glacio-lacustrine and outwash sediments, the record is extensive, reaching to thicknesses of 300 metres within buried valleys. Most of the sampled units are not accessible from outcrop, and their sedimentology and stratigraphy is derived from core data only. The lowermost tills are reversely magnetized in the majority of borecores sampled to date. These tills are underlain by Empress Formation sediments and/or Colorado Group shales, and overlain by normally magnetized sediments. Both tills contain substantial weathering horizons at their surface, suggesting that interglacial or nonglacial conditions persisted for some time after each period of till deposition. Whether these tills represent a single Early Pleistocene glaciation, or perhaps two, will require additional borecore measurements. This new record of Early Pleistocene glaciation(s) in east-central Alberta places the westernmost extent of earliest Laurentide ice some 300 km farther westward from its previously established limit in the Saskatoon to Regina region of the western Canadian prairies, but still well short of the all-time limit and elevation reached during the Late Wisconsin (Late Pleistocene) in the foothills of the Alberta and Montana Rocky Mountains. Key Words: East-Central Alberta glacial history, Early Pleistocene (Laurentide) glaciation, till magnetostratigraphy, Quaternary history of Western Canadian Prairies, continental glaciations of North America.

  11. cAMP phosphodiesterase and activator protein of mammalian cAMP phosphodiesterase from Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, M F; Zingales, B; Colli, W

    1980-04-01

    Epimastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi contain a soluble cAMP phosphodiesterase. Optimal activity was found at pH 8.0 and in the presence of 5 mM Mn2+. Other cations were less efficient and did not give rise to an additional stimulation when added in the presence of optimal concentrations of Mn2+. The enzyme is not Ca2+ dependent. The apparent Km of the enzyme for the substrate is 40 microM and no kinetic evidence for the existence of two enzymes has been found. Theophylline and caffein did not inhibit the T. cruzi cAMP phosphodiesterase. The enzyme activity does not change during cell growth suggesting that the fluctuation observed in the levels of cAMP are largely a response to variations in adenylyl cyclase activity. The intracellular concentrations of cAMP ranged between 0.04--0.15 microM. No evidence that the T. cruzi cAMP phosphodiesterase is regulated by an endogenous activator could be found. However, T. cruzi contains a heat-stable, low molecular weight, non-dialysable protein that activates mammalian cAMP phosphodiesterase in the presence of Ca2+. The properties so far studied of such an activator suggest that it might be equivalent to other Ca2+-dependent regulators described in vertebrate and invertebrate species. PMID:6255327

  12. The Submarine 4-km diameter Corossol Crater, Eastern Canada: Evidence for an impact origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higgins, Michael D.; Lajeunesse, Patrick; St-Onge, Guillaume; Locat, Jacques; Sanfacon, Richard; Duchesne, Mathieu J.

    2014-05-01

    The newly-discovered Corossol Crater lies in the northwestern Gulf of St. Lawrence (Eastern Canada; 50°3'N, 66°23'W) and was found in 40-185 metres of water using high-resolution multibeam sonar. It is a 4 km in diameter complex circular structure with a central uplift and concentric rings. Glacial resurfacing indicates that it predates the last phase of glaciation in this area. Dredging on the central uplift recovered many angular clasts of hard grey limestone, which forms the bedrock in much of this area. One 4 cm clast of limestone breccia is somewhat different from the other blocks and has characteristics that suggest that it is an impact breccia. The block comprises fragments of calcite limestone up to 2 mm long. In many parts of the block these fragments have thin black rims. At the edges of the block these rims are brown, presumably reflecting aqueous alteration. Mineral grains in the rims are too small to characterize, but the fact that the ensemble can be oxidized suggests that it contains sulfides. In places the block is cut by veins of fine-grained calcite with euhedral dolomite crystals. The most unusual component is rare droplets up to 2 mm long, commonly fragmented. The droplets comprise a glassy matrix with a composition very close to fluorapatite and opaque crystals that have a composition close to pyrite. A few droplets have up to 5% vesicles. Fluorapatite requires fusion temperatures of about 1600 C, which cannot be achieved at the surface of the Earth by endogenous processes. A single fragmented quartz crystal with planar features was found close to one droplet. Universal stage measurements of the orientation of the planar features give an angle of 42 degrees which is close to that of {10-13} planes. This is the most common set of deformation planes produced during shock metamorphism of quartz. Unfortunately no other grains were found with similar planes. The glassy droplets and shocked quartz together suggest that the clast was produced by an

  13. Evidence review and clinical guidance for the use of ziprasidone in Canada

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    While indicated for schizophrenia and acute mania, ziprasidone’s evidence base and use in clinical practice extends beyond these regulatory approvals. We, an invited panel of experts led by a working group of 3, critically examined the evidence and our collective experience regarding the effectiveness, tolerability and safety of ziprasidone across its clinical uses. There was no opportunity for manufacturer input into the content of the review. As anticipated, ziprasidone was found to be effective for its indicated uses, although its utility in mania and mixed states lacked comparative data. Beyond these uses, the available data were either unimpressive or were lacking. An attractive characteristic is its neutral effect on weight thereby providing patients with a non-obesogenic long-term treatment option. Key challenges in practice include the need for dosing on a full stomach and managing its early onset adverse effect of restlessness. Addressing these issues are critical to its long-term success PMID:23347694

  14. Cigarette Taxes and Smoking Participation: Evidence from Recent Tax Increases in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Azagba, Sunday; Sharaf, Mesbah

    2011-01-01

    Using the Canadian National Population Health Survey and the recent tax variation across Canadian provinces, this paper examines the impact of cigarette taxes on smoking participation. Consistent with the literature, we find evidence of a heterogeneous response to cigarette taxes among different groups of smokers. Contrary to most studies, we find that the middle age group—which constitutes the largest fraction of smokers in our sample—is largely unresponsive to taxes. While cigarette taxes remain popular with policy makers as an anti-smoking measure, identifying the socio-demographic characteristics of smokers who respond differentially to tax increase will help in designing appropriate supplementary measures to reduce smoking. PMID:21655139

  15. Are diabetes camps effective?

    PubMed

    Barone, Mark Thomaz Ugliara; Vivolo, Marco Antonio; Madden, Paul B

    2016-04-01

    In the present article data about Diabetes Camps (DC) from all continents were reviewed in order to answer the title question "are diabetes camps effective?". Articles from peer reviewed journals and abstracts published in international conferences proceedings were raised. The effectiveness was considered in terms of knowledge acquisition, and psychosocial and physiological changes. Even though expected improvements were not found in all studies, in a deeper and wider analysis the aspects that influence the most toward gains are identified. Among them are: number of participations in a DC, post-camp educational opportunities, staff training, and program oriented toward campers' autonomy. To conclude, practical recommendations are addressed intending to amplify DC's potential. PMID:27103364

  16. How Green Is Camping? Environmental Stewardship in North Carolina Camps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Roger; Bingham, Cindy

    1994-01-01

    A survey of 47 residential camps in North Carolina revealed that most camps had written environmental objectives, practiced recycling, attempted to reduce water use and energy consumption, practiced low-impact camping, included environmental issues in staff training, and provided environmental education to campers. Includes survey questions. (LP)

  17. A Camping We Will Go.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAnaney, Kate Divine

    1989-01-01

    The mother of a physically disabled child encourages the participation of such children in mainstream camping programs. Suggestions to maximize the benefits of the camping experience are offered. (DB)

  18. Changing healthcare capital-to-labor ratios: evidence and implications for bending the cost curve in Canada and beyond.

    PubMed

    Nauenberg, Eric

    2014-12-01

    Healthcare capital-to-labor ratios are examined for the 10 provincial single-payer health care plans across Canada. The data show an increasing trend-particularly during the period 1997-2009 during which the ratio as much as doubled from 3 to 6 %. Multivariate analyses indicate that every percentage point uptick in the rate of increase in this ratio is associated with an uptick in the rate of increase of real per capita provincial government healthcare expenditures by approximately $31 ([Formula: see text] 0.01). While the magnitude of this relationship is not large, it is still substantial enough to warrant notice: every percentage point decrease in the upward trend of the capital-to-labor ratio might be associated with a one percentage point decrease in the upward trend of per capita government healthcare expenditures. An uptick since 1997 in the rate of increase in per capita prescription drug expenditures is also associated with a decline in the trend of increasing per capita healthcare costs. While there has been some recent evidence of a slowing in the rate of health care expenditure increase, it is still unclear whether this reflects just a pause, after which the rate of increase will return to its baseline level, or a long-term shift; therefore, it is important to continue to explore various policy avenues to affect the rate of change going forward. PMID:25129110

  19. Astro Camp 2000 Rocketry Exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Children at Astro Camp at the John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., launch rockets as one of their activities in the weeklong camp. Each week during the summer, approximately 30 children ages 9-12 from across Mississippi and Louisiana spend a week learning about space flight. Astro Camp Saturday offers a condensed version of Astro Camp on the third Saturday of each month from January through May 2001.

  20. Children's Camps in the Adirondacks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, Hallie E.

    2003-01-01

    In the late 19th century, camps in the Adirondacks responded to concerns that the American character was softening. Much camping philosophy came from the progressive movement in education. Aspects of Indian culture were adopted because they seemed to fit naturally in the Adirondacks, and children loved them. Adirondack camps have always been…

  1. Outdoor Education, Camp Casey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stansberry, Steve; And Others

    A curriculum guide for the Camp Casey Outdoor Education program is contained in this document. Designed for fifth grade students and teachers in Northshore School District, Bothell, Washington, it emphasizes learning activities for use in the outdoors. General understandings relevant to the objectives of the program form the frame into which the…

  2. Saving the Camping Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Jean S.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses developmental encroachment on isolated caves near Pittsford, Vermont. Describes cooperative effort by recreational camps and other agencies to acquire land surrounding cave entrances for conservation. Details successes and hurdles of land acquisition. Describes ongoing work by local campers to maintain and enjoy caves and property. (TES)

  3. Summer Fish Camp.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Remick, Dennis; Pulu, Tupou L.

    The booklet presents a description and illustrates, with photographs, the Eskimo lifestyle and the kinds of activities that occur at a summer fish camp on the Yukon River. Eleven suggested activities are listed for the teacher to present when using the booklet. Activities include studying the map of Alaska; tracing the life cycle of the fish;…

  4. A Flying Summer Camp

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercurio, Frank X.

    1975-01-01

    Describes a five-day summer camp which provided 12 children, ages 9-14, with a complete flying experience. The training consisted of ground school and one hour actual flying time, including the basics of aircraft control and a flight prepared and executed by the students. (MLH)

  5. Camp Animal Crackers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMillan, Erin; And Others

    This guide contains profiles of 16 activities for young children to participate in while attending camp. Each profile contains the theme of the activity, a list of materials needs, a description of the activity itself, and an explanation of the teacher's role in the activity. The activities focus on: (1) songs and dances; (2) dramatic play; (3)…

  6. Recycling at Camp.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummins, William M.

    1988-01-01

    Outlines a Michigan summer camp's efforts to reduce solid waste disposal by recycling cardboard, tin, glass, aluminum, and plastic milk containers. Points out variables affecting the success of such efforts. Discusses Michigan state funding for the development of recycling programs. (SV)

  7. The impact of criminalization of HIV non-disclosure on the healthcare engagement of women living with HIV in Canada: a comprehensive review of the evidence

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Sophie E; Milloy, M-J; Ogilvie, Gina; Greene, Saara; Nicholson, Valerie; Vonn, Micheal; Hogg, Robert; Kaida, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In 2012, the Supreme Court of Canada ruled that people living with HIV (PLWH) must disclose their HIV status to sexual partners prior to sexual activity that poses a “realistic possibility” of HIV transmission for consent to sex to be valid. The Supreme Court deemed that the duty to disclose could be averted if a person living with HIV both uses a condom and has a low plasma HIV-1 RNA viral load during vaginal sex. This is one of the strictest legal standards criminalizing HIV non-disclosure worldwide and has resulted in a high rate of prosecutions of PLWH in Canada. Public health advocates argue that the overly broad use of the criminal law against PLWH undermines efforts to engage individuals in healthcare and complicates gendered barriers to linkage and retention in care experienced by women living with HIV (WLWH). Methods We conducted a comprehensive review of peer-reviewed and non-peer-reviewed evidence published between 1998 and 2015 evaluating the impact of the criminalization of HIV non-disclosure on healthcare engagement of WLWH in Canada across key stages of the cascade of HIV care, specifically: HIV testing and diagnosis, linkage and retention in care, and adherence to antiretroviral therapy. Where available, evidence pertaining specifically to women was examined. Where these data were lacking, evidence relating to all PLWH in Canada or other international jurisdictions were included. Results and discussion Evidence suggests that criminalization of HIV non-disclosure may create barriers to engagement and retention within the cascade of HIV care for PLWH in Canada, discouraging access to HIV testing for some people due to fears of legal implications following a positive diagnosis, and compromising linkage and retention in healthcare through concerns of exposure of confidential medical information. There is a lack of published empirical evidence focused specifically on women, which is a concern given the growing population of WLWH in

  8. Paleoproterozoic paleosol formation, Schreiber Beach, Ontario, Canada: Evidence for a warm, humid continental climate at ca.1.9 Ga

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polat, A.; Longstaffe, F. J.

    2012-12-01

    We report the occurrence of a new subaerial weathering profile below a Paleoproterozoic unconformity separating ca. 2.7 Ga pillow basalts and ca. 1.88 Ga Gunflint Formation and basal conglomerates at Schreiber Beach, Ontario, Canada. Rocks at Schreiber Beach are characterized by pillow cores, pillow rims, hyaloclastites, weathered red basalts, and weathered brown to green basalts. There are gradual textural, mineralogical, and geochemical transitions from unweathered pillow basalts to intensely weathered hematite-bearing basalts with stratigraphic height, consistent with uplift and subaerial weathering of Neorachean greenstones prior to deposition of the Gunflint Formation. Pillow basalts underwent seafloor hydrothermal alteration and greenschist facies regional metamorphism in the Neoarchean. Following the subaerial weathering, they were buried and re-metamorphosed to greenschist facies in the Paleoproterozoic. Pillow rims and hyaloclastites are characterized by moderate losses or gains of many major and trace elements during Neoarchean seafloor alteration. Alteration of these rocks at relatively low temperatures is indicated by enrichment in 18O (δ=+10.4 to +12.7‰) relative to fresh basalt (δ=~ +5.5‰). Subaerial weathering resulted in significant textural, mineralogical, and geochemical variations in metamorphosed basalts, causing additional redistribution of most major and trace elements and further enrichment in 18O. Many elements, including LILE, REE and HFSE, are strongly enriched (>100%) or depleted (up to 96%) relative to their original abundances. Alkaline metasomatism, which is a characteristic of Precambrian paleosols, is also evident at Schreiber Beach, where extreme enrichment in K (280 to 1000%), Rb (390 to 660%), and Cs (1160 to 2560%) occurs in the weathering profile. We interpret the weathered red basalts indicative of a warm, humid Paleoproterozoic continental climate.

  9. Evidence that insulin and isoprenaline activate the cGMP-inhibited low-Km cAMP phosphodiesterase in rat fat cells by phosphorylation

    SciTech Connect

    Degerman, E.; Smith, C.J.; Tornqvist, H.; Vasta, V.; Belfrage, P.; Manganiello, V.C. )

    1990-01-01

    Incubation of intact rat fat cells with maximally effective concentrations of insulin (1 nM, 12 min) or isoprenaline (300 nM, 3 min) increased particulate cGMP- and cilostamide-inhibited, low-Km cAMP phosphodiesterase (cAMP-PDE) activity by about 50% and 100%, respectively. In 32P-labeled cells, these agents induced serine 32P-phosphorylation of a 135-kDa particulate protein and, to a variable and lesser extent, a 44-kDa protein, which were selectively immunoprecipitated by anti-cAMP-PDE, as analyzed by SDS/PAGE and autoradiography. In the absence of hormonal stimulation, little phosphorylation was detected (less than 10% of that with the hormones). The two phosphoproteins were identified as cAMP-PDE or a closely related molecule (in the case of the 44-kDa species, perhaps a proteolytic fragment) since (i) amounts of 32P in the immunoprecipitated 135-kDa protein paralleled enzyme inactivation, (ii) prior incubation of the anti-cAMP-PDE with the pure rat or bovine enzyme selectively blocked the immunoprecipitation of the phosphoproteins, (iii) 135- and 44-kDa proteins reacted with the anti-cAMP-PDE on Western immunoblots, and (iv) the two phosphoproteins copurified with cAMP-PDE activity through DEAE-Sephacel chromatography and were isolated by highly selective affinity chromatography on cilostamide-agarose. Thus, in fat cells, catecholamine- and insulin-induced activation of the cAMP-PDE may be mediated via phosphorylation by cAMP-dependent protein kinase and an insulin-activated serine protein kinase, respectively.

  10. Age-related changes in the response of rat adipocytes to insulin: evidence for a critical role for inositol phosphoglycans and cAMP.

    PubMed

    Kunjara, Sirilaksana; Greenbaum, A Leslie; Rademacher, Thomas W; McLean, Patricia

    2010-08-01

    Adipose tissue plays a pivotal role in ageing and longevity; many studies, both human and animal, have focussed on the effects of food limitation. Here we present a new model based on striking differences between two 'normal' inbred strains of albino Wistar rats the Charles River (CR) and Harlan Olac (HO) that have marked differences in age-related accumulation of fat and insulin-stimulated rates of glucose incorporation into lipid in the epididymal fat pads (EFP). The incorporation [U-(14)C]glucose into lipid by adipocytes showed that the CR group had a twofold higher basal rate of lipogenesis and a greater response to insulin in vitro, exceptionally, adipocytes from CR group maintained the high response to insulin to late adulthood while retaining the lower EFP weight/100 g body weight. Inositol phosphoglycan A-type (IPG-A), a putative insulin second messenger, was 3.5-fold higher and cAMP significantly lower per EFP in the CR versus HO groups. Plasma insulin levels were similar and plasma leptin higher in CR versus HO groups. The anomaly of a higher rate of lipogenesis and response to insulin and lower EFP weight in the CR group is interpreted as the resultant effect of a faster turnover of lipid and stimulating effect of leptin in raising fatty acid oxidation by muscle, potentially key to the lower accumulation of visceral fat. The metabolic profile of the CR strain provides a template that could be central to therapies that may lead to the lowering of both adipose and non-adipocyte lipid accumulation in humans in ageing. PMID:20336370

  11. Interprofessional Flight Camp.

    PubMed

    Alfes, Celeste M; Rowe, Amanda S

    2016-01-01

    The Dorothy Ebersbach Academic Center for Flight Nursing in Cleveland, OH, holds an annual flight camp designed for master's degree nursing students in the acute care nurse practitioner program, subspecializing in flight nursing at the Frances Payne Bolton School of Nursing at Case Western Reserve University. The weeklong interprofessional training is also open to any health care provider working in an acute care setting and focuses on critical care updates, trauma, and emergency care within the critical care transport environment. This year, 29 graduate nursing students enrolled in a master's degree program from Puerto Rico attended. Although the emergency department in Puerto Rico sees and cares for trauma patients, there is no formal trauma training program. Furthermore, the country only has 1 rotor wing air medical transport service located at the Puerto Rico Medical Center in San Juan. Flight faculty and graduate teaching assistants spent approximately 9 months planning for their participation in our 13th annual flight camp. Students from Puerto Rico were extremely pleased with the learning experiences at camp and expressed particular interest in having more training time within the helicopter flight simulator. PMID:27021671

  12. Foreign Language Camps at the College Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griswold, Jean S.

    Information on Colorado State University's foreign language camps for college students is presented. Advantages of the following two models for camps are identified: a single language camp, and a combination multi-language camp with four languages (Spanish, French, German, and Chinese). Features of the camps include: speaking in the foreign…

  13. Astro Camp Goes to Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Katie Craig, daughter of former Stennis Space Center Deputy Director Mark Craig, launches a 'balloon rocket' with the help of Rebecca Compretta, Astro Camp coordinator at SSC. SSC took Astro Camp on the road to Florida this week to engage children and their parents during activities surrounding the Aug. 8 launch of Space Shuttle Endeavour on NASA's STS-118 mission to the International Space Station. Astro Camp is SSC's popular space camp program designed to inspire and educate students using science and math principles.

  14. THE ABC TRANSPORTER, AbcB3, MEDIATES cAMP EXPORT IN D. DISCOIDEUM DEVELOPMENT

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Edward Roshan; Nam, Edward A.; Kuspa, Adam; Shaulsky, Gad

    2014-01-01

    Extracellular cAMP functions as a primary ligand for cell surface cAMP receptors throughout Dictyostelium discoideum development, controlling chemotaxis and morphogenesis. The developmental consequences of cAMP signaling and the metabolism of cAMP have been studied in great detail, but it has been unclear how cells export cAMP across the plasma membrane. Here we show pharmacologically and genetically that ABC transporters mediate cAMP export. Using an evolutionary-developmental biology approach, we identified several candidate abc genes and characterized one of them, abcB3, in more detail. Genetic and biochemical evidence suggest that AbcB3 is a component of the cAMP export mechanism in D. discoideum development. PMID:25448698

  15. No ordinary boot camp.

    PubMed

    Tichy, N M

    2001-04-01

    Many companies now run boot camps--comprehensive orientation programs designed to help new hires hit the ground running. They're intense and intimidating, and new employees emerge from them with strong bonds to other recruits and to the organization. But at Trilogy, organizational consultant Noel Tichy discovered one program that's a breed apart. In this article, Tichy gives us a detailed tour of Trilogy's boot camp, Trilogy University, to demonstrate why it's so different--and so effective. Like the best boot camps, it serves as an immersion in both the technical skills new recruits will need for their jobs and Trilogy's corporate culture, which emphasizes risk-taking, teamwork, humility, and a strong customer focus. But this is a new-employee orientation session that's so fundamental to the company as a whole that it's presided over by the CEO and top corporate executives for fully six months of the year. Why? In two three-month sessions, these top executives hone their own strategic thinking about the company as they decide what to teach the new recruits each session. They also find the company's next generation of new products as they judge the innovative ideas the recruits are tasked with developing--making the program Trilogy's main R&D engine. And they pull the company's rising technical stars into mentoring roles for the new recruits, helping to build the next generation of top leadership. After spending months on-site studying Trilogy University, Tichy came away highly impressed by the power of the virtuous teaching cycle the program has set in motion. Leaders of the organization are learning from recruits at the same time that the recruits are learning from the leaders. It's a model, he argues, that other companies would do well to emulate. PMID:11299694

  16. The Camp Health Manual. An Excellent Reference Written Especially for Organized Camps. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldring, David; Middelkamp, J. Neal

    This book is a guide to the diagnosis and care of sick children in organized camping situations. This book presents health care information for the management of medical and surgical problems by the camp counselor, camp director, camp nurse, and camp physician. The chapters are: (1) Camp Standards; (2) The Infirmary; (3) Infirmary Supplies; (4)…

  17. Blending Technology with Camp Tradition: Technology Can Simplify Camp Operations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salzman, Jeff

    2000-01-01

    Discusses uses of technology appropriate for camps, which are service organizations based on building relationships. Describes relationship marketing and how it can be enhanced through use of Web sites, interactive brochures, and client databases. Outlines other technology uses at camp: automated dispensing of medications, satellite tracking of…

  18. Camp Greentop's Adventure Camp: We Ain't No Rudypoo's.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groff, Diane; Albright, Brian; Purvis, Katie; Creamer, Justin; Pease, Alicia

    2002-01-01

    A day-by-day account describes Camp Greentop's first 5-day adventure camping trip, which was attended by five individuals with disabilities and their counselors. The first day was spent in games and initiatives designed to develop communication, teamwork, and dependability. Other days were devoted to hiking, rock climbing, and whitewater rafting.…

  19. Summer Camp as Therapeutic Context: The Camp Logan Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCammon, Susan; And Others

    These symposium papers describe various aspects of the Camp Logan, South Carolina, program, a therapeutic summer residential program for children, ages 8-14, who have significant behavior problems. The philosophy and advantages of the therapeutic camping model are discussed, e.g., structure during the summer, controlled though informal…

  20. Public Perceptions of Child Care in Alberta, Canada: Evidence for Policies and Practice from a Cross-Sectional Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tough, Suzanne; Rikhy, Shivani; Benzies, Karen; Vekved, Monica; Kehler, Heather; Johnston, David W.

    2013-01-01

    Research Findings: This study assessed public perceptions of child care and its providers in a Canadian province where government funding for child care includes subsidies and a voluntary accreditation process. In 2007-2008, 1,443 randomly selected adults in Alberta, Canada, completed a telephone survey. Individuals were eligible to participate if…

  1. Public Subsidies to Private Schools Do Make a Difference for Achievement in Mathematics: Longitudinal Evidence from Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lefebvre, Pierre; Merrigan, Philip; Verstraete, Matthieu

    2011-01-01

    Selection into private schools is the principal cause of bias when estimating the effect of private schooling on academic achievement. By exploiting the generous public subsidizing of private high schools in the province of Quebec, the second most populous province in Canada, we identify the causal impact of attendance in a private high school on…

  2. Effects of a Driver Cellphone Ban on Overall, Handheld, and Hands-Free Cellphone Use While Driving: New Evidence from Canada.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Christopher S; Nguyen, Hai V

    2015-11-01

    We provide new evidence on the effects of increasingly common driver cellphone bans on self-reported overall, handheld, and hands-free cellphone use while driving by studying Ontario, Canada, which instituted a 3-month education campaign in November 2009 followed by a binding driver cellphone ban in February 2010. Using residents of Alberta as a control group in a difference-in-differences framework, we find visual and regression-based evidence that Ontario's cellphone ban significantly reduced overall and handheld cellphone use. We also find that the policies significantly increased hands-free cellphone use. The reductions in overall and handheld use are driven exclusively by women, whereas the increases in hands-free use are much larger for men. Our results provide the first direct evidence that cellphone bans have the unintended effect of inducing substitution to hands-free devices. PMID:25208808

  3. A summer day camp approach to adolescent weight loss.

    PubMed

    Southam, M A; Kirkley, B G; Murchison, A; Berkowitz, R I

    1984-01-01

    Twenty-five overweight adolescents completed a summer weight loss day camp program on the Stanford University campus. All participants attended camp four days per week for four hours to learn and practice eating and exercise skills conducive to weight loss. Parents met weekly to discuss the program content and to explore their role in their adolescent's weight management. At posttreatment, reductions were achieved in weight, percent overweight, and skinfold, with greater changes observed for the eight-week group than for the four-week group. Improvements were also evident in participants' self-reported habits and knowledge of weight management concepts. Parent and participant assessment of the camp experience was very positive. The results of the summer weight loss day camp suggest that an intensive program of eating and exercise habit instruction, practice, and monitoring, which allows the participants to remain in the home setting, may provide benefits not found in other more traditional approaches to adolescent weight loss. PMID:6516934

  4. Explaining the Value of Camp.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chenery, Mary Faeth

    1994-01-01

    Overviews the philosophy and theory of camp experiences and discusses the special benefits of camps, including experiences that can lead to significant life-changing outcomes, sound educational goals, a sense of psychological and physical safety, and helping children to deal with social problems such as the degradation of the environment and human…

  5. Camping and the Nuclear Drama.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Karla A.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Outlines effects on children of nuclear war threat and suggests that camping experiences can give children reasons to hope for and ways to work toward a peaceful world. Recommends 11 ways for camp staff to involve campers in social changes necessary to address nuclear issues. Includes resources list. (LFL)

  6. Kids Camping Takes the Challenge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Vickie L.; Hohnbaum, Claudia

    2002-01-01

    A Wisconsin Girl Scout camp integrated The Healthy Kids Challenge into its program. The camp evaluated policies related to meals, snacks, physical activities, team building, and self-esteem. Staff inservice training resulted in healthier meals on the same budget and developed ownership of the program. Campers and families had opportunities to…

  7. Finding the Right Music Camp.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockhart, Gene R.

    1984-01-01

    Many factors go into selecting a camp. Location, cost, and health facilities are all important considerations. The musical development and objectives of the child and the camp's particular instructional, emotional, recreational, physical, and geographical requirements are all important in the selection process. (CS)

  8. Encountering Child Abuse at Camp.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durall, John K.

    1997-01-01

    Defines child abuse, including the three categories: physical, sexual, and psychological. Presents characteristics and behaviors of each type of abuse, and long-term effects. Discusses how to handle abuse that occurs at camp, and the effects on the camp. Sidebars present abuse statistics, 15 activities that promote psychological wellness, and 8…

  9. Perspectives on Camp Administration. Readings for Camp Director Education. Camp Administration Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farley, Elizabeth, Ed.

    The publication includes 47 selected readings for camp directors who are interested in reviewing the current status of the profession and who want to be a part of shaping its future. The articles, selected from periodicals directly related to camping and, where appropriate, from related journals, were selected and organized to support the American…

  10. Character, paleoenvironment, rate of accumulation, and evidence for seismic triggering of Holocene turbidites, Canada Abyssal Plain, Arctic Ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grantz, A.; Phillips, R.L.; Mullen, M.W.; Starratt, S.W.; Jones, Glenn A.; Naidu, A.S.; Finney, B.P.

    1996-01-01

    Four box cores and one piston core show that Holocene sedimentation on the southern Canada Abyssal Plain for the last 8010??120 yr has consisted of a continuing rain of pelagic organic and ice-rafted elastic sediment with a net accumulation rate during the late Holocene of ???10 mm/1000 yr, and episodically emplaced turbidites 1-5 m thick deposited at intervals of 830 to 3450 yr (average 2000 yr). The average net accumulation rate of the mixed sequence of turbidites and thin pelagite interbeds in the cores is about 1.2 m/1000 yr. Physiography suggests that the turbidites originated on the Mackenzie Delta or its clinoform, and ??13C values of -27 to - 25??? in the turbidites are compatible with a provenance on a delta. Extant displaced neritic and lower slope to basin plain calcareous benthic foraminifers coexist in the turbidite units. Their joint occurence indicates that the turbidites originated on the modern continental shelf and entrained sediment from the slope and rise enroute to their final resting place on the Canada Abyssal Plain. The presence of Middle Pleistocene diatoms in the turbidites suggests, in addition, that the turbidites may have originated in shallow submarine slides beneath the upper slope or outer shelf. Small but consistent differences in organic carbon content and ??13C values between the turbidite units suggest that they did not share an identical provenance, which is at least compatible with an origin in slope failures. The primary provenance of the ice-rafted component of the pelagic beds was the glaciated terrane of northwestern Canada; and the provenance of the turbidite units was Pleistocene and Holocene sedimentary deposits on the outer continental shelf and upper slope of the Mackenzie Delta. Largely local derivation of the sediment of the Canada Abyssal Plain indicates that sediment accumulation rates in the Arctic Ocean are valid only for regions with similar depositional sources and processes, and that these rates cannot be

  11. Regulation of cAMP by Phosphodiesterases in Erythrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Adderley, Shaquria P.; Sprague, Randy S.; Stephenson, Alan H.; Hanson, Madelyn S.

    2010-01-01

    The erythrocyte, a cell responsible for carrying and delivering oxygen in the body, has often been regarded as simply a vehicle for the circulation of hemoglobin. However, it has become evident that this cell also participates in the regulation of vascular caliber in the microcirculation via release of the potent vasodilator, adenosine triphosphate (ATP). The regulated release of ATP from erythrocytes occurs via a defined signaling pathway and requires increases in cyclic 3’ 5’ adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). It is well recognized that cAMP is a critical second messenger in diverse signaling pathways. In all cells increases in cAMP are localized and regulated by the activity of phosphodiesterases (PDEs). In erythrocytes activation of either β adrenergic receptors (β 2AR) or the prostacyclin receptor (IPR) results in increases in cAMP and ATP release. Receptor-mediated increases in cAMP are tightly regulated by distinct PDEs associated with each signaling pathway as shown by the finding that selective inhibitors of the PDEs localized to each pathway potentiate both increases in cAMP and ATP release. Here we review the profile of PDEs identified in erythrocytes, their association with specific signaling pathways and their role in the regulation of ATP release from these cells. Understanding the contribution of PDEs to the control of ATP release from erythrocytes identifies this cell as a potential target for the development of drugs for the treatment of vascular disease. PMID:20631411

  12. Evidence for an important tectonostratigraphic seismic marker across Canada Basin and southern Alpha Ridge of the Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimeld, J.; Chian, D.; Jackson, R.; Hutchinson, D. R.; Mosher, D. C.; Wade, J.; Chapman, B.

    2010-12-01

    Using a modern ice-strengthened seismic acquisition system, more than 12,000 km of high quality 16-channel, vertical incidence seismic reflection and wide-angle sonobuoy data, along with single- and multibeam bathymetric soundings and gravimetric profiles have been acquired across Canada Basin and the southern flank of Alpha Ridge. These datasets are being used to determine the crustal types, rifting processes, subsidence history, and sedimentary sequences of this poorly known region. More than a dozen regional seismostratigraphic units are identified, exceeding ~6.5 km in total sediment thickness in the south, thinning northward toward Alpha Ridge. The oldest regionally mappable unit is informally named “bisque” and is characterized by high-amplitude, continuous, parallel and subparallel internal reflections. The bisque unit averages ~600 m thick, with significant local variability. Along southern Alpha Ridge, the base of the bisque unit is marked by a prominent angular unconformity which can be traced southwards into Canada Basin before becoming obscured by thick overlying units. Though affected by faulting and compaction drape, the bisque unit appears to be concordant with the topography of the underlying acoustic basement. It is also spatially and temporally associated with large structures that are interpreted to be volcanic edifices. Most of the 129 available sonobuoy records show clear wide-angle refractions/reflections from sedimentary and upper and lower crustal layers, which can be ray-traced and velocity modeled using constraints from coincident reflection profiles. Slight ray angle dependent anisotropy is found to best describe these observed data, and is used for conversion between two-way travel time and vertical depth domains. Two distinct features are identified for the bisque layer: 1) a wide-angle reflection observed on nearly all sonobuoy data; and 2) S waves (named PsP), doubly converted at the bisque layer. P-wave refractors from bisque

  13. 1970s: Camping in Tough Times.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camping Magazine, 1999

    1999-01-01

    In the 1970s, camps were challenged by economic recession, growing administrative demands, and changing attitudes and interests of campers and staff. An illustrative article from 1972, "Facing the Camping Future with Confidence" (Michael F. Buynak), discusses hidden costs in camp operation and the need for camp administration to shift from…

  14. American Camping Association Annual Report, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Camping Association, Martinsville, IN.

    Founded in 1910 as the Camp Directors' Association of America, the American Camping Association (ACA) is the largest organization serving the organized camping industry. Over 5,500 members come from all segments of the camp profession. This annual report for 1999 describes ACA activities in support of organizational commitments. These commitments…

  15. Easter Seal Guide to Special Camping Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crane, Helen B., Ed.

    Intended for organizations having or planning to establish resident resident camping programs for people with special needs, this guide supplements the American Camping Association's Standards. The philosophy, aims, and objectives of specialized camping programs are considered, and the following are discussed: administration, camp site selection,…

  16. Day Camp Manual: Administration. Book I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babcock, William

    The first book in a 5-book manual on day camping focuses on summer day camp administration. The book defines day camps as organized group experiences in outdoor living on a day-by-day basis and under trained leadership. It includes a philosophy of day camping, noting benefits to the campers. The book is divided into further chapters that describe…

  17. Foreign Language Weekend Camp Administrative Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Bow, M. Denise

    A procedure for undertaking a foreign language weekend camp is presented. Responsibilities before and after the camp are identified for the foreign language council, the administrators in charge of the camp program for each language, the camp director, participating teachers, and assistants. It is suggested that a minimum of three planning…

  18. Camp Courageous of Iowa Staff Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camp Courageous of Iowa, Monticello.

    Designed as a useful and practical tool for the staff at Camp Courageous of Iowa, a year-round residential camp serving all handicapped individuals, the manual outlines safety rules for camp activities, characteristics of the mentally and physically handicapped, and a general description of the camp and its objectives. Contents of the manual…

  19. Self-Concept Change in Camp Staff.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Karla A.; Bialeschki, M. Deborah

    The 1981 study ascertained whether the self-concept of 66 camp staff from 2 Wisconsin camps changed more than a control group of 18 college students attending summer school; if differences in self-concept were based on a particular characteristic (age, gender, staff position, years at camp); and in what ways, if any, self-concept of camp staff…

  20. Basic Camp Management: An Introduction to Camp Administration. Revised 3rd Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Armand; Ball, Beverly

    This book is the primary text for the Certified Camp Director Program and the Basic Camp Directors Course sponsored by the American Camping Association (Indiana). It provides an orientation for new and prospective camp directors and a quick reference for experienced camp directors. The book covers the following topics: (1) an historical overview…

  1. Electrostatic steering enhances the rate of cAMP binding to phosphodiesterase: Brownian dynamics modeling.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu-ming M; Huber, Gary; McCammon, J Andrew

    2015-11-01

    Signaling in cells often involves co-localization of the signaling molecules. Most experimental evidence has shown that intracellular compartmentalization restricts the range of action of the second messenger, 3'-5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), which is degraded by phosphodiesterases (PDEs). The objective of this study is to understand the details of molecular encounter that may play a role in efficient operation of the cAMP signaling apparatus. The results from electrostatic potential calculations and Brownian dynamics simulations suggest that positive potential of the active site from PDE enhances capture of diffusing cAMP molecules. This electrostatic steering between cAMP and the active site of a PDE plays a major role in the enzyme-substrate encounter, an effect that may be of significance in sequestering cAMP released from a nearby binding site or in attracting more freely diffusing cAMP molecules. PMID:26346301

  2. Von Braun's Dream: Space Camp.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, C. C.

    1982-01-01

    Describes the "Space Camp" program for boys and girls at the Alabama Space and Rocket Center (Huntsville, Alabama), including typical activities. Includes address for obtaining information on participation in the program. (JN)

  3. Camping Out On An Asteroid

    NASA Video Gallery

    An astronaut and a geologist recently spent three days camping out as though they were on an asteroid. They were inside NASA's Space Exploration Vehicle prototype, flying it virtually in a digital ...

  4. Three-dimensional measurement of cAMP gradients using hyperspectral confocal microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rich, Thomas C.; Annamdevula, Naga; Britain, Andrea L.; Mayes, Samuel; Favreau, Peter F.; Leavesley, Silas J.

    2016-03-01

    Cyclic AMP (cAMP) is a ubiquitous second messenger known to differentially regulate many cellular functions over a wide range of timescales. Several lines of evidence have suggested that the distribution of cAMP within cells is not uniform, and that cAMP compartmentalization is largely responsible for signaling specificity within the cAMP signaling pathway. However, to date, no studies have experimentally measured three dimensional (3D) cAMP distributions within cells. Here we use both 2D and 3D hyperspectral microscopy to visualize cAMP gradients in endothelial cells from the pulmonary microvasculature (PMVECs). cAMP levels were measured using a FRETbased cAMP sensor comprised of a cAMP binding domain from EPAC sandwiched between FRET donors and acceptors -- Turquoise and Venus fluorescent proteins. Data were acquired using either a Nikon A1R spectral confocal microscope or custom spectral microscopy system. Analysis of hyperspectral image stacks from a single confocal slice or from summed images of all slices (2D analysis) indicated little or no cAMP gradients were formed within PMVECs under basal conditions or following agonist treatment. However, analysis of hyperspectral image stacks from 3D cellular geometries (z stacks) demonstrate marked cAMP gradients from the apical to basolateral membrane of PMVECs. These results strongly suggest that 2D imaging studies of cAMP compartmentalization -- whether epifluorescence or confocal microscopy -- may lead to erroneous conclusions about the existence of cAMP gradients, and that 3D studies are required to assess mechanisms of signaling specificity.

  5. Project REACH: Field Guides 1-4. No. 1: Camp Secretary, No. 2: Camp Nurse, No. 3: Camp Food Services, No. 4: Camp Maintenance Supervisor. Appendices Q 1-4. Camp Staff Training Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robb, Gary; And Others

    Resulting from a 3 year project to develop competency based programs for camp personnel working with the physically handicapped, the four field guides task analyze the roles of the camp secretary, camp nurse, camp food services staff, and camp maintenance supervisor. All guides contain an introduction and information on general duties, job…

  6. The impacts of intergovernmental grants on municipal infrastructure: Evidence from the Canada-Quebec infrastructure works 2000 program.

    PubMed

    Mehiriz, Kaddour

    2016-10-01

    This article reports the results of a study on the outcomes of the Canada-Quebec Infrastructure Works 2000 Program (CQIWP), an infrastructure grant program to Quebec municipalities. The focus of this study is on the effects of the CQIWP on municipal investment and physical conditions of drinking water systems and, as such, it goes beyond the usual emphasis on the fiscal consequences of intergovernmental grants. The study results show that the CQIWP was an efficient tool to induce municipalities to increase investment and to reduce the number of aqueduct breakdowns. In light of these findings, this study suggests that upper levels of governments can rely on infrastructure grants to fill the gap in municipal investment and, therefore, to improve the availability and quality of municipal infrastructure. PMID:27423038

  7. 1985 Parents' Guide to Accredited Camps. Ninth Annual Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Camping Association, Martinsville, IN.

    The ninth annual edition of the listing of American Camping Association camps provides information for parents on choosing a camp, brief descriptions of approximately 1,900 camps, and 5 indexes. A narrative section offers information on how to look for a camp, special needs campers, kinds of camps, accreditation, contacting a camp, budgeting,…

  8. Environmental Change in the Prelude to a Neoproterozoic Ice Age: Sulfur Isotope Evidence from the Shaler Supergroup, Northwest Territories, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufman, A. J.; Williams, B. P.; Johnston, D. T.; Farquhar, J.; Knoll, A. H.; Butterfield, N. J.; Rainbird, R.

    2006-05-01

    The >723 Ma Shaler Supergroup on Victoria Island in the Northwest Territories of Canada is unusual for marginal marine Neoproterozoic successions insofar as thickly bedded sulfate evaporites are preserved. This unique sedimentary window for the Neoproterozoic allows us to investigate isotopic changes in the oxidized sulfur reservoir in the run up to a potential ice age, which is evidenced by a strong negative δ13C excursion in Kilian Formation carbonates at the top of the interval. Similar carbon isotope anomalies are recorded in carbonates beneath glacial diamictites of broadly the same age from the Mackenzie Mountains in Canada and in the Otavi Group of northern Namibia. Stratigraphically coincident with the 8‰ drop in 13C abundances in the Kilian Formation is a 15‰ rise in 34S of bedded sulfates, to a maximum of near +30‰. Anti-correlated isotope trends of smaller magnitude are recorded in mixed carbonates and evaporites at the top of the underlying Minto Inlet Formation. Comparison of 33S and 34S abundances of Shaler sulfates with values modeled from the results of culture experiments suggests that both anaerobic sulfate reducers and aerobic sulfur disproportionators populated the shallow open ocean. Notably, the profound 34S enrichment in the Kilian Formation is not coupled with similar enrichments in 33S. This observation is consistent with a system primarily driven by an increase in pyrite burial. Given the presence of shallow marine evaporites it is unlikely that sulfate concentrations were limited at this time. We hypothesize that this flux was enhanced during sea level fall at the onset of an ensuing ice age by the spread of anoxic conditions in deep oceans populated by sulfate reducing bacteria.

  9. Silver at an old mining camp: Cobalt, Ontario, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, J.R.; Adams, N.W.H.; Manolopoulos, H.; Collins, P.V.

    1999-01-01

    Aqueous Ag(I) in different size fractions, <5 {micro}m, <0.2 {micro}m, and <10 kDa, was analyzed in a low dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and a high DOC environment. The sediment and tailings, contacting the water, were elevated in silver from mining. The area is buffered at pH 6 to 8 by carbonate mineral gangue. Aqueous Ag(I) is present at nanogram per liter levels. Significant amounts of Ag are found in the colloidal and are nondetectable or a few nanograms per liter in the <10-kDa fraction. Acid-volatile sulfide (AVS) was found in most (oxic) water samples at the nanomolar level. Ag(I) does not accumulate in plants probably due to the strong binding of Ag(I-) with S(II-). One exception occurs for cattails, when the aqueous AVS concentration is less than the colloidal AG(I) concentration.

  10. Brock BaseCamp--Outdoor Orientation Programs Come to Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connell, Tim

    2011-01-01

    What exactly is an "outdoor orientation program?" First offered in the United States in the 1930s by Dartmouth College, outdoor orientation programs (OOPs) use adventure programming to help incoming students adjust to university or college. Typically, these programs are conducted in a wilderness or backcountry setting, are several days long and…

  11. Hydromania: Summer Science Camp Curriculum.

    SciTech Connect

    Moura, Joan

    1995-07-01

    In 1992, Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the US Department of Energy (DOE) began a collaborative pilot project with the Portland Parks and Recreation Community Schools Program and others to provide summer science camps to children in Grades 4--6. Camps run two weeks in duration between late June and mid-August. Sessions are five days per week, from 9 a.m. to 3 p.m. In addition to hands-on science and math curriculum, at least three field trips are incorporated into the educational learning experience. The purpose of the BPA/DOE summer camps is to make available opportunities for fun, motivating experiences in science to students who otherwise would have difficulty accessing them. This includes inner city, minority, rural and low income students. Public law 101-510, which Congress passed in 1990, authorizes DOE facilities to establish collaborative inner-city and rural partnership programs in science and math. A primary goal of the BPA summer hands on science camps is to bring affordable science camp experiences to students where they live. It uses everyday materials to engage students` minds and to give them a sense that they have succeeded through a fun hands-on learning environment.

  12. Half-century evidence from western Canada shows forest dynamics are primarily driven by competition followed by climate

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jian; Huang, Shongming; He, Fangliang

    2015-01-01

    Tree mortality, growth, and recruitment are essential components of forest dynamics and resiliency, for which there is great concern as climate change progresses at high latitudes. Tree mortality has been observed to increase over the past decades in many regions, but the causes of this increase are not well understood, and we know even less about long-term changes in growth and recruitment rates. Using a dataset of long-term (1958–2009) observations on 1,680 permanent sample plots from undisturbed natural forests in western Canada, we found that tree demographic rates have changed markedly over the last five decades. We observed a widespread, significant increase in tree mortality, a significant decrease in tree growth, and a similar but weaker trend of decreasing recruitment. However, these changes varied widely across tree size, forest age, ecozones, and species. We found that competition was the primary factor causing the long-term changes in tree mortality, growth, and recruitment. Regional climate had a weaker yet still significant effect on tree mortality, but little effect on tree growth and recruitment. This finding suggests that internal community-level processes—more so than external climatic factors—are driving forest dynamics. PMID:25775576

  13. Clay mineralogical evidence of a bioclimatically-affected soil, Rouge River basin, South-Central Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahaney, W. C.

    2015-01-01

    Holocene soils in drainage basins of South-Central Ontario, Canada, are generally Fluvisols (Entisols) in floodplains transitioning to Brunisols (Inceptisols), Luvisols (Alfisols) and Podzols (Spodosols) in older terraces and in the glaciated tableland. A single landslide sourced from the highest fluvial terrace in the Rouge basin, with a rubble drop of ~ 12 m emplaced a lobe-shaped mass of reworked stream gravel, glaciolacustrine sediment and till, emplaced approximately 6 m above mean water level at a height roughly equivalent to previously dated mid-Holocene terraces and soils. Clay mineralogy of the soil formed in this transported regolith produced the usual semi-detrital/pedogenic distribution of 1:1 (Si:Al = 1:1), 2:1 and 2:1:1 clay minerals as well as primary minerals consisting of plagioclase feldspar, quartz, mica and calcite. Unexpectedly, the presence of moderate amounts of Ca-smectite in the Bk and Ck horizons, relative to a clay-mineral depleted parent material (Cuk), argues for a soil hydrological change affecting the wetting depth in the deposit. The presence of the uncommon 'maidenhair fern' (Adiantum pedantum) in the mass wasted deposit, a plant capable of high evapotranspiration, is interpreted as producing a bioclimatic disruption limiting soil water penetration to near root depth (wetting depth), thus producing a clay mineral anomaly.

  14. Half-century evidence from western Canada shows forest dynamics are primarily driven by competition followed by climate.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian; Huang, Shongming; He, Fangliang

    2015-03-31

    Tree mortality, growth, and recruitment are essential components of forest dynamics and resiliency, for which there is great concern as climate change progresses at high latitudes. Tree mortality has been observed to increase over the past decades in many regions, but the causes of this increase are not well understood, and we know even less about long-term changes in growth and recruitment rates. Using a dataset of long-term (1958-2009) observations on 1,680 permanent sample plots from undisturbed natural forests in western Canada, we found that tree demographic rates have changed markedly over the last five decades. We observed a widespread, significant increase in tree mortality, a significant decrease in tree growth, and a similar but weaker trend of decreasing recruitment. However, these changes varied widely across tree size, forest age, ecozones, and species. We found that competition was the primary factor causing the long-term changes in tree mortality, growth, and recruitment. Regional climate had a weaker yet still significant effect on tree mortality, but little effect on tree growth and recruitment. This finding suggests that internal community-level processes-more so than external climatic factors-are driving forest dynamics. PMID:25775576

  15. Youth development and the camp experience.

    PubMed

    Garst, Barry A; Browne, Laurie P; Bialeschki, M Deborah

    2011-01-01

    The organized camp experience has been an important part of the lives of children, youth, and adults for over 150 years. The camp experience is a way for young people to explore and search for an authenticity often missing in other parts of their lives that contributes to their healthy transition into adulthood. Over the past decade, tremendous growth in the volume and rigor of camp-related research has occurred, facilitated by a targeted research agenda conducted by the American Camp Association. This agenda was founded on three national research projects conducted between 2003 and 2007: a study to identify the developmental outcomes of the camp experience, a benchmarking study of the youth development supports and opportunities provided through camp experiences, and a program improvement project directed toward enhancing supports and opportunities provided by camps. The findings from these research projects suggest that camp experiences promote developmental outcomes in both campers and staff and that camps provide the supports and opportunities needed for positive youth development. This article explores the developmental outcomes of the camp experience and the characteristics of the supports and opportunities afforded by camp experiences, including settings, structures, and programs and activities, as a way to provide a clearer understanding of camp as a positive youth development setting. Innovations and opportunities in research related to the provision of quality camp experiences are also considered. PMID:21786411

  16. Energy Efficiency as a Preferred Resource: Evidence from Utility Resource Plans in the Western United States and Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Hopper, Nichole; Barbose, Galen; Goldman, Charles; Schlegel, Jeff

    2008-09-15

    This article examines the future role of energy efficiency as a resource in the Western United States and Canada, as envisioned in the most recent resource plans issued by 16 utilities, representing about 60percent of the region's load. Utility and third-party administered energy efficiency programs proposed by 15 utilities over a ten-year horizon would save almost 19,000 GWh annually, about 5.2percent of forecast load. There are clear regional trends in the aggressiveness of proposed energy savings. California's investor-owned utilities (IOUs) had the most aggressive savings targets, followed by IOUs in the Pacific Northwest, and the lowest savings were proposed by utilities in Inland West states and by two public utilities on the West coast. The adoption of multiple, aggressive policies targeting energy efficiency and climate change appear to produce sizeable energy efficiency commitments. Certain specific policies, such as mandated energy savings goals for California's IOUs and energy efficiency provisions in Nevada's Renewable Portfolio Standard had a direct impact on the level of energy savings included in the resource plans. Other policies, such as revenue decoupling and shareholder incentives, and voluntary or legislatively mandated greenhouse gas emission reduction policies, may have also impacted utilities' energy efficiency commitments, though the effects of these policies are not easily measured. Despite progress among the utilities in our sample, more aggressive energy efficiency strategies that include high-efficiency standards for additional appliances and equipment, tighter building codes for new construction and renovation, as well as more comprehensive ratepayer-funded energy efficiency programs are likely to be necessary to achieve a region-wide goal of meeting 20percent of electricity demand with efficiency in 2020.

  17. Diabetes in pregnancy among indigenous women in Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the United States: a systematic review of the evidence for screening in early pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Chamberlain, Catherine; McNamara, Bridgette; Williams, Emily D; Yore, Daniel; Oldenburg, Brian; Oats, Jeremy; Eades, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Recently proposed international guidelines for screening for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) recommend additional screening in early pregnancy for sub-populations at a high risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), such as indigenous women. However, there are criteria that should be met to ensure the benefits outweigh the risks of population-based screening. This review examines the published evidence for early screening for indigenous women as related to these criteria. Any publications were included that referred to diabetes in pregnancy among indigenous women in Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the United States (n = 145). The risk of bias was appraised. There is sufficient evidence describing the epidemiology of diabetes in pregnancy, demonstrating that it imposes a significant disease burden on indigenous women and their infants at birth and across the lifecourse (n = 120 studies). Women with pre-existing T2DM have a higher risk than women who develop GDM during pregnancy. However, there was insufficient evidence to address the remaining five criteria, including the following: understanding current screening practice and rates (n = 7); acceptability of GDM screening (n = 0); efficacy and cost of screening for GDM (n = 3); availability of effective treatment after diagnosis (n = 6); and effective systems for follow-up after pregnancy (n = 5). Given the impact of diabetes in pregnancy, particularly undiagnosed T2DM, GDM screening in early pregnancy offers potential benefits for indigenous women. However, researchers, policy makers and clinicians must work together with communities to develop effective strategies for implementation and minimizing the potential risks. Evidence of effective strategies for primary prevention, GDM treatment and follow-up after pregnancy are urgently needed. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:23315909

  18. Going Camping? A Basic Guide to Camping with Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1977

    Beginning with the "often overlooked areas", this guide to camping trips for secondary students presents initial planning procedures such as: site selection; number of leaders per number of students (2 leaders for each group of 10-12); parental permission forms; transportation arrangements; public school announcements; medical aid expertise and…

  19. Making Camp Environmentally Friendly: How Two Camps Did It.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westerman, Martin; Griner-Johnson, Russ

    1991-01-01

    Describes the efforts of two camps administered by the Brandeis-Bardin Institute (Brandeis, California) in implementing water and energy conservation programs, involving recycling, composting, and landfill savings. Programs were successful in eliminating excess waste and teaching campers to care more about their environments at home and at work.…

  20. Starting a Technology Camp for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litowitz, Len S.; Baylor, Steven C.

    1997-01-01

    Presents information for starting and maintaining a technology camp for students. Includes selecting topics, identifying participants, marketing, managing the camp, budgeting, and benefits to students and host institutions. (JOW)

  1. Reading Camps for Teenagers in Hungary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagy, Attila

    1991-01-01

    Describes reading camps in Hungary, which numbered around 140 in the late 1980s and lasted from 10 to 14 days each summer. Notes that these camps arouse interest through a series of conversations between equal partners. (RS)

  2. Including People with Disabilities in Camp Programs: A Resource for Camp Directors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roswal, Glenn M., Ed.; Dowd, Karen J., Ed.; Bynum, Jerry W., Ed.

    Written primarily by camp administrators affiliated with the National Easter Seal Society, this publication is designed to help camp directors meet the challenges of including campers of all abilities in their camp programs. The first section provides an overview of the inclusion concept in general and at camp, and discusses legal and medical…

  3. Significance of first-order faults in folding mechanically isotropic layers: evidence from the Sudbury Basin, Canada.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Martin; Riller, Ulrich

    2016-04-01

    The Sudbury Basin in Canada is a fold basin demarcated by the Sudbury Igneous Complex (SIC). Folding of the SIC is particularly notable due to its petrographically distinct but mechanically similar layers that are hardly strained when compared to folded strata in other deformed terranes. The Sudbury Basin has three ranges, the North Range, the South Range, and the East Range. The East Range differs from the other ranges by inclosing a remarkably shorter SIC segment with a strong concave curvature. Lacking significant mechanical anisotropy and solid-state strain within the SIC brings to question how the SIC in the East Range acquired its curvature. To address this question, we analyzed the orientation of prominent km-scale faults and their slip vectors. These faults transect the SIC at low angles and mimic its plan view curvature suggesting that the faults were folded along with the SIC. We have developed a G.I.S.-based workflow to address this problem that harnesses high-resolution LiDAR data to generate near surface fault geometries, and combines these geometries with local fault-slip inversions of slickensides to identify slip vectors of prominent curved faults. Analysis of slip vectors along curved faults yields clusters of slip vectors with normal and reverse slip motion in the northern and southern fault segments, respectively. The variation in slip vectors is interpreted to be non-primary and thus shows a temporal relationship between faulting and folding of the SIC. Therefore, prominent curved faults in the East Range must have occurred as a pre-folding brittle response to horizontal shortening. These faults later assumed the role of mechanical anisotropic elements necessary for folding of the SIC layers to occur. This interpretation is corroborated by two sets of principal strain axes inferred from fault-slip inversions. The first set is characterized by its principal axis of shortening oriented NW-SE, comparable in orientation to regional shortening as

  4. 22 CFR 62.30 - Camp counselors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Camp counselors. 62.30 Section 62.30 Foreign... Provisions § 62.30 Camp counselors. (a) Introduction. In order to promote diverse opportunities for... sponsors to facilitate the entry of foreign nationals to serve as counselors in U.S. summer camps....

  5. 22 CFR 62.30 - Camp counselors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Camp counselors. 62.30 Section 62.30 Foreign... Provisions § 62.30 Camp counselors. (a) Introduction. In order to promote diverse opportunities for... sponsors to facilitate the entry of foreign nationals to serve as counselors in U.S. summer camps....

  6. The Elementary Camp Experience: An ARC Partnership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krzemien, Marta; Krotzer, Kate

    2012-01-01

    Foreign Language Elementary Summer Camp is a fantastic way to spend part of the summer. For the past ten years in Glastonbury, Connecticut, the authors have offered a variety of foreign language elementary camps that meet daily for three hours for three to four weeks during July. Currently, they offer camps for Chinese, English Language Learners…

  7. 22 CFR 62.30 - Camp counselors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Camp counselors. 62.30 Section 62.30 Foreign... Provisions § 62.30 Camp counselors. (a) Introduction. In order to promote diverse opportunities for... sponsors to facilitate the entry of foreign nationals to serve as counselors in U.S. summer camps....

  8. The Economic Impact of Organized Camps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Karla A.; Bialeschki, M. Deborah

    1982-01-01

    Organized camping for youth and adults has demonstrated economic benefits for many communities. A questionnaire was sent to various agencies and private individuals to collect information on the economic feasibility of organized camps. The data indicated that 300 organized camps in Wisconsin contributed approximately $51 million to the state's…

  9. Language Camps: Thirteen Years of Minor Miracles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Jean

    A language camp program that began with a small group of 10- to 12-year-olds whose faculty parents wanted them to retain the German learned on sabbaticals abroad has developed into a program of annual week-long day and resident camps for 150 children, aged 9 to 14 years, learning German, French, Spanish, and Norwegian. The camp was originally…

  10. Camping & the Whirl of Insurance Cycles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milgrim, Darrow

    1988-01-01

    Suggests possible responses for summer camp operators facing insurance rate increases and other insurance industry changes. Examines areas of risk in summer camping and suggests general ways that camps can become more desirable to the insurance industry as "insurable groups." (TES)

  11. Day Camp Manual: Program. Book IV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babcock, William

    Book IV in a 5-book day camp manual discusses the camp program. Section I describes the organization, definition, and elements essential to successful day camp programs. Section II, which addresses the benefits and special considerations of mass programs, includes rainy day contingencies, materials to have on hand, and activity suggestions.…

  12. Camping for Youth with Chronic Illnesses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Joanna L.; Keller, M. Jean

    1994-01-01

    Camp Fortnight brought 25 British children with cystic fibrosis to experience a 2-week camping program in Texas. Campers (ages 11-15) participated in wilderness experiences, a challenge course, fishing, horseback riding, creative arts, cooking, hiking, outdoor camping, and field trips. Profiles campers and their experiences. (LP)

  13. Extension Sustainability Camp: Design, Implementation, and Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brain, Roslynn; Upton, Sally; Tingey, Brett

    2015-01-01

    Sustainability Camps provide an opportunity for Extension educators to be in the forefront of sustainability outreach and to meet the growing demand for sustainability education. This article shares development, implementation, and evaluation of an Extension Sustainability Camp for youth, grades 4-6. Camp impact was measured via daily pre-and…

  14. 36 CFR 13.1208 - Lake Camp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lake Camp. 13.1208 Section 13... § 13.1208 Lake Camp. Leaving a boat, trailer, or vehicle unattended for more than 72 hours at the facilities associated with the Lake Camp launching ramp is prohibited without authorization from...

  15. 36 CFR 13.1208 - Lake Camp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lake Camp. 13.1208 Section 13... § 13.1208 Lake Camp. Leaving a boat, trailer, or vehicle unattended for more than 72 hours at the facilities associated with the Lake Camp launching ramp is prohibited without authorization from...

  16. AVTC Hosts TechnoCamp

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miner, Brenda

    2006-01-01

    The Area Vo-Tech Center (AVTC) in Russellville, Arkansas, recently hosted its first TechnoCamp to encourage enrollment based on the aptitude and interest level of the students enrolling in the various programs. The center currently offers student enrollment in auto technology, computer engineering, cosmetology, construction technology, drafting…

  17. A Successful French Weekend Camp.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baughin, Judith A.

    A weekend immersion French language camp was organized by Raymond Walters College of the University of Cincinnati with the cooperation of a group of interested high school French teachers. The extensive planning and the activities of the weekend are described in detail. The most important aspects of the planning process are noted. These were (1)…

  18. Winter Wilderness Travel and Camping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilchrest, Norman

    Knowledge and skill are needed for safe and enjoyable travel and camping in the wilderness in winter. The beauty of snow and ice, reduced human use, and higher tolerance of animals toward humans make the wilderness attractive during winter. The uniqueness of winter travel presents several challenges that are not present in other seasons. Safety is…

  19. Applications of Research to Camping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Karla A.

    1987-01-01

    Considers contributions of basic/theoretical, applied/practical, and marketing research to the field of camping. Outlines research concerns: application of qualitative methods, practical application of marketing research, effective research dissemination, and focus on longitudinal studies using larger samples. Affirms role of research to document…

  20. Lyme Disease Comes to Camp.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Michael

    1989-01-01

    Describes one summer camp's plan for dealing with Lyme disease. Describes the disease and the deer tick. Recommends avoiding tick exposure through clothing, frequent examination, showers, and avoiding high grass and brushy areas, and using chemical insect repellents and chemicals to kill ticks in deer mouse nests. (DHP)

  1. Sleep At Camp: A Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pravda, Myra

    1997-01-01

    Among 40 camp directors surveyed, the majority believed that campers get enough sleep, but that staff members and directors do not get enough sleep. Addresses how sleep deprivation can affect job performance and offers strategies for helping staff understand the importance of sleep to keep them alert and functioning in their job. Includes…

  2. Interplay of Ca2+ and cAMP signaling in the insulin-secreting MIN6 beta-cell line.

    PubMed

    Landa, Luis R; Harbeck, Mark; Kaihara, Kelly; Chepurny, Oleg; Kitiphongspattana, Kajorn; Graf, Oliver; Nikolaev, Viacheslav O; Lohse, Martin J; Holz, George G; Roe, Michael W

    2005-09-01

    Ca2+ and cAMP are important second messengers that regulate multiple cellular processes. Although previous studies have suggested direct interactions between Ca2+ and cAMP signaling pathways, the underlying mechanisms remain unresolved. In particular, direct evidence for Ca2+-regulated cAMP production in living cells is incomplete. Genetically encoded fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based biosensors have made possible real-time imaging of spatial and temporal gradients of intracellular cAMP concentration in single living cells. Here, we used confocal microscopy, fluorescence resonance energy transfer, and insulin-secreting MIN6 cells expressing Epac1-camps, a biosynthetic unimolecular cAMP indicator, to better understand the role of intracellular Ca2+ in cAMP production. We report that depolarization with high external K+, tolbutamide, or glucose caused a rapid increase in cAMP that was dependent on extracellular Ca2+ and inhibited by nitrendipine, a Ca2+ channel blocker, or 2',5'-dideoxyadenosine, a P-site antagonist of transmembrane adenylate cyclases. Stimulation of MIN6 cells with glucose in the presence of tetraethylammonium chloride generated concomitant Ca2+ and cAMP oscillations that were abolished in the absence of extracellular Ca2+ and blocked by 2',5'-dideoxyadenosine or 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine, an inhibitor of phosphodiesterase. Simultaneous measurements of Ca2+ and cAMP concentrations with Fura-2 and Epac1-camps, respectively, revealed a close temporal and causal interrelationship between the increases in cytoplasmic Ca2+ and cAMP levels following membrane depolarization. These findings indicate highly coordinated interplay between Ca2+ and cAMP signaling in electrically excitable endocrine cells and suggest that Ca2+-dependent cAMP oscillations are derived from an increase in adenylate cyclase activity and periodic activation and inactivation of cAMP-hydrolyzing phosphodiesterase. PMID:15987680

  3. The evolution of calcite-bearing kimberlites by melt-rock reaction: evidence from polymineralic inclusions within clinopyroxene and garnet megacrysts from Lac de Gras kimberlites, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bussweiler, Y.; Stone, R. S.; Pearson, D. G.; Luth, R. W.; Stachel, T.; Kjarsgaard, B. A.; Menzies, A.

    2016-07-01

    Megacrystic (>1 cm) clinopyroxene (Cr-diopside) and garnet (Cr-pyrope) xenocrysts within kimberlites from Lac de Gras (Northwest Territories, Canada) contain fully crystallized melt inclusions. These `polymineralic inclusions' have previously been interpreted to form by necking down of melts at mantle depths. We present a detailed petrographical and geochemical investigation of polymineralic inclusions and their host crystals to better understand how they form and what they reveal about the evolution of kimberlite melt. Genetically, the megacrysts are mantle xenocrysts with peridotitic chemical signatures indicating an origin within the lithospheric mantle (for the Cr-diopsides studied here ~4.6 GPa, 1015 °C). Textural evidence for disequilibrium between the host crystals and their polymineralic inclusions (spongy rims in Cr-diopside, kelyphite in Cr-pyrope) is consistent with measured Sr isotopic disequilibrium. The preservation of disequilibrium establishes a temporal link to kimberlite eruption. In Cr-diopsides, polymineralic inclusions contain phlogopite, olivine, chromite, serpentine, and calcite. Abundant fluid inclusion trails surround the inclusions. In Cr-pyropes, the inclusions additionally contain Al-spinel, clinopyroxene, and dolomite. The major and trace element compositions of the inclusion phases are generally consistent with the early stages of kimberlite differentiation trends. Extensive chemical exchange between the host phases and the inclusions is indicated by enrichment of the inclusions in major components of the host crystals, such as Cr2O3 and Al2O3. This chemical evidence, along with phase equilibria constraints, supports the proposal that the inclusions within Cr-diopside record the decarbonation reaction: dolomitic melt + diopside → forsterite + calcite + CO2, yielding the observed inclusion mineralogy and producing associated (CO2-rich) fluid inclusions. Our study of polymineralic inclusions in megacrysts provides clear mineralogical

  4. Targeting brain tumor cAMP: the case for sex-specific therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Warrington, Nicole M.; Sun, Tao; Rubin, Joshua B.

    2015-01-01

    A relationship between cyclic adenosine 3′, 5′-monophosphate (cAMP) levels and brain tumor biology has been evident for nearly as long as cAMP and its synthetase, adenylate cyclase (ADCY) have been known. The importance of the pathway in brain tumorigenesis has been demonstrated in vitro and in multiple animal models. Recently, we provided human validation for a cooperating oncogenic role for cAMP in brain tumorigenesis when we found that SNPs in ADCY8 were correlated with glioma (brain tumor) risk in individuals with Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). Together, these studies provide a strong rationale for targeting cAMP in brain tumor therapy. However, the cAMP pathway is well-known to be sexually dimorphic, and SNPs in ADCY8 affected glioma risk in a sex-specific fashion, elevating the risk for females while protecting males. The cAMP pathway can be targeted at multiple levels in the regulation of its synthesis and degradation. Sex differences in response to drugs that target cAMP regulators indicate that successful targeting of the cAMP pathway for brain tumor patients is likely to require matching specific mechanisms of drug action with patient sex. PMID:26283963

  5. The ACA Standards Organizer. A Tool for the Preparation of Camps for Visitation for American Camping Association Camp Accreditation and Site Approval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chenery, Mary Faeth

    This comprehensive guide helps camp administrators prepare for camp accreditation and site approval visits by the American Camping Association (ACA). The introductory sections outline the purpose and administration of the standards program and provide definitions of camping terms. Standards are organized under one section for camp accreditation…

  6. Trends and structural shifts in health tourism: evidence from seasonal time-series data on health-related travel spending by Canada during 1970-2010.

    PubMed

    Loh, Chung-Ping A

    2015-05-01

    There has been a growing interest in better understanding the trends and determinants of health tourism activities. While much of the expanding literature on health tourism offers theoretical or qualitative discussion, empirical evidences has been lacking. This study employs Canada's outbound health tourism activities as an example to examine the trends in health tourism and its association with changing domestic health care market characteristics. A time-series model that accounts for potential structural changes in the trend is employed to analyze the quarterly health-related travel spending series reported in the Balance of Payments Statistics (BOPS) during 1970-2010 (n = 156). We identified a structural shift point which marks the start of an accelerated growth of health tourism and a flattened seasonality in such activities. We found that the health tourism activities of Canadian consumers increase when the private investment in medical facilities declines or when the private MPI increases during the years following the structural-change. We discussed the possible linkage of the structural shift to the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS), which went into effect in January, 1995. PMID:25818378

  7. North to Alaska: Evidence for conveyor belt transport of Dungeness crab larvae along the west coast of the United States and Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Park, W.; Douglas, D.C.; Shirley, T.C.

    2007-01-01

    We propose and evaluate the hypothesis that Dungeness crab (Cancer magister) larvae from the northwestern coast of the United States and Canada can be transported northward to southeastern Alaska. Larvae collected in southeastern Alaska during May and June 1997–2004 had abundances and stages that varied seasonally, interannually, and spatially. An unexpected presence of late-stage larvae in spring raises a question regarding their origin, and the most plausible explanation is that they hatched off the northern Washington and British Columbia coasts and were transported to southeastern Alaska. Buoy drift tracks support the hypothesis that larvae released off the northern Washington and British Columbia coasts during the peak hatching season can be physically transported to southeastern Alaska, arriving as late-stage larvae in May and June, when local larvae are only beginning to hatch. A northward spring progression of monthly mean 7°C SST isotherms and phytoplankton blooms provide further evidence that environmental conditions are conducive for larval growth and metabolism during the transport period. The proposed larval transport suggests possible unidirectional gene flow between southern and northern populations of Dungeness crabs in southeastern Alaska.

  8. Nutrient Status and Criteria Development for the Saint John River, Canada, Using a Weight of Evidence Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Culp, J. M.; Luiker, E. A.; Noel, L.; Curry, A. R.; Hryn, D.; Heard, K.

    2005-05-01

    The Saint John River is the largest in Maine/New Brunswick (673 km in length, draining 55,000 km2) with a history of natural resource use and nutrient effluent release to the watershed since the late 17th century. Our objective was to obtain a basic understanding of the contemporary nutrient conditions of the non-tidal portion of the river in relation to historical conditions, and to consider how the contemporary river is affected by point and non-point source nutrient loadings. The study included review of historical provincial and federal water quality databases dating back to the 1960s. Current water quality monitoring programs have focused on nitrogen (nitrite, nitrate, ammonia, TKN), phosphorus (total, dissolved, and soluble reactive phosphorus), DIC/DOC, and biomass of periphyton and phytoplankton. To determine nutrient limitation, nutrient diffusing substrate studies were conducted in river reaches of known nutrient enrichment. Oxygen stable isotopes were also used to provide information on the photosynthesis to respiration ratio. A weight of evidence approach combining the results of these studies was used to determine trophic status of river reaches and to highlight areas of eutrophication. From this information nutrient criteria for the Saint John River will be proposed.

  9. Thermochemical Structure and Stratification of the Hudson Bay Lithosphere, Northern Canada: Evidence from Multi-Observable Probabilistic Inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darbyshire, F. A.; Afonso, J. C.

    2014-12-01

    The Paleoproterozoic Trans-Hudson Orogeny (THO) was a Himalayan-style collision that marked an important stage of assembly of the Canadian Shield. Today, the THO is largely concealed beneath the Hudson Bay intracratonic basin. Regional seismic tomography shows a thick, high-wavespeed cratonic keel beneath the region, but also includes significant local heterogeneity that may be associated with the imprint of the THO, providing clues to Precambrian plate-tectonic processes. In this study, we use multi-observable probabilistic inversions to investigate the thermal and compositional state of the Hudson Bay lithosphere, to explain the seismic wavespeed variations and to constrain in more detail potential signatures of the oldest cratonic cores and the THO collision. Rayleigh wave dispersion curves, surface heatflow, geoid anomalies and topography are jointly inverted to give a pseudo-3D model of the upper mantle beneath the region. Low temperatures are pervasive across the region, leading to a thick thermal lithosphere whose base lies at depths of 250 km or greater. The data are best explained by stratification of the lithosphere into (at least) two layers, with the top layer extremely depleted and the bottom layer generally more fertile, though still depleted with respect to the sublithospheric mantle. Across the Bay and Hudson Strait, a narrow zone of lowered depletion is observed in the top layer. The position of this anomaly coincides geographically with the THO and with the wavespeed reduction noted in previous seismic studies. It is likely that this feature represents juvenile material trapped between the cratonic cores in the final stages of the THO. We also find evidence for anomalous mid-lithospheric compositions in certain areas, notably west of Hudson Bay. Additionally, some of the long-period surface wave data requires lower than average seismic wavespeeds below the lithosphere, suggesting localised regions of higher temperature/attenuation in the upper

  10. Sedimentological and palynological evidence of regional climatic changes in the Campanian to Paleocene sediments of the Rocky Mountain Foothills, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jerzykiewicz, T.; Sweet, A. R.

    1988-09-01

    Evidence of paleoclimatic variations in the upper Campanian to lower Paleocene post-Wapiabi sequence of strata is visible both laterally between the central and southern Foothills, and vertically in the stratigraphic record. These differences are expressed by the distribution of climatically sensitive sediments, i.e. coal and caliche, and associated palynological assemblages within floodplain facies, as well as by changes in the style of fluvial channels. The interpretation of a semi-arid environment for mature caliche paleosols is supported by the impoverished character of the associated palynological assemblages, both in terms of diversity and the number of specimens recovered, and by the conspicuous presence of Classopollis. The lateral extent of the semiarid floodplain facies and associated broad and mobile channel deposits is limited to the southern part of the basin. No signs of a caliche facies have been found in the post-Wapiabi strata of the central Foothills. Instead, some of the floodplain deposits associated with meandering streams in this part of the basin contain numerous, thick, coal-bearing intervals. The relative climatic differences between the more humid central part and the drier southern part of the basin prevailed throughout the entire post-Wapiabi interval. As this cannot be satisfactorily explained by the position of the sea shore or by orographic influences alone, there was probably another external factor. This could have been the pattern of atmospheric circulation, such as that responsible for the present-day climatic differences existing between the southern and central Foothills. Semiarid floodplain facies occur at two levels in the stratigraphic column of the southern Foothills (in the late Campanian, Belly River Formation and in the upper Maastrichtian to lower Paleocene, Willow Creek Formation). They correspond to regressive episodes of the epicontinental seaway. Intervening between these semiarid floodplain facies are the marine

  11. Sulfur and oxygen isotopic evidence of country rock contamination in the Voisey's Bay Ni Cu Co deposit, Labrador, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ripley, Edward M.; Park, Young-Rok; Li, Chusi; Naldrett, Anthony J.

    1999-06-01

    The emplacement of basaltic magma into sulfide-bearing country rocks provides a favorable geologic environment for magmatic sulfide ore formation related either directly to assimilation of country rock sulfur or indirectly to a depression of sulfide solubility caused by assimilation-induced changes in magma composition. Pelitic country rocks of the Proterozoic Tasiuyak Gneiss in the area of the Voisey's Bay Ni-Cu-Co deposit contain sulfidic layers that may have provided sulfur to basaltic magmas during emplacement of the Voisey's Bay intrusion. Sulfur isotopic compositions of the Tasiuyak Gneiss range from -0.9 to -17.0‰, values typical for sulfides produced via bacterial sulfate reduction in an open marine environment. Archean gneisses in the area contain low amounts of sulfide and are less likely to have served as a source of externally-derived sulfur. Sulfur isotopic compositions of the sulfide minerals from the Voisey's Bay deposit show consistent variations, both spatially and with rock types. Disseminated and massive sulfides show a decrease in δ 34S to the west, with values typically between 0 and -2‰ in the Eastern Deeps, Ovoid, and Discovery Hill zone, and between -2 and -4‰ in the Reid Brook zone. δ 34S values of the Mushua intrusion to the north and the Normal Troctolite in the Eastern Deeps are more positive, ranging between -0.5 and 1.8‰. This range is taken to represent the isotopic composition of primary mantle-derived sulfur in the area because the Mushua intrusion and Normal Troctolite show the least geochemical evidence for contamination by country rocks. Sulfur isotopic data from the Reid Brook zone are consistent with up to a 50% sulfur contribution from the Tasiuyak Gneiss. Correspondingly lower proportions are indicated for the eastern portion of the deposit where country rocks are predominantly low-sulfide enderbitic and quartzofeldspathic gneisses. Oxygen isotopic values of gneiss fragments in the Basal Breccia Sequence and Feeder

  12. Cryofacies evidences of a Yedoma (?) development during the last glacial maximum in Yukon (Canada) along the current Alaska border

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephani, E.; Fortier, D.; Shur, Y.

    2012-12-01

    In some areas that remained unglaciated during the Late Pleistocene, inorganic and organic sedimentation supported syngenetic upward permafrost development and the creation of so-called yedoma deposits (Ice Complex). This type of periglacial deposit is usually very ice-rich and is highly unstable upon thawing. As this deposit thaws, the landscape goes from a carbon sink to a carbon and inorganic sediment source. This carbon can be released into the environment or transformed to CH4. Yedoma deposits have been extensively studied in Russia and more recently in Alaska. However, very few studies have focused on yedomas of Yukon. With the objective to provide regional information on yedoma distribution in North America, we present here preliminary field evidences of a yedoma deposit near Beaver Creek, close to current Alaska border. 28 boreholes were core-drilled, and cores were described and analyzed in the laboratory. Well-developed microlenticular cryostructures in silt and numerous small rootlets are typical of yedoma deposit. Tiny ice lenses are formed in fine-grained sediment by cryosuction and rootlets gets incorporated into the permafrost as the table rises syngenetically in response to surface sedimentation. During sedimentary accumulation, when sedimentation slows down, peat layers can be formed at the surface. This change in material properties often lead to the development of belt-like cryostructures (thick ice lenses separated by reticulate ice veins). At Beaver Creek, the microlenticular and belt-like cryofacies with rootlets (typical of syngenetic ice-rich yedoma) were abundant in Units 2A and 2C. The average ice content of Units 2A and 2C was respectively 91 % and 109 %, and the organic matter content (loss on ignition) was 6 % and 8 %. Significant thaw strain was measured in Units 2A (50%) and 2C (35%). Interestingly Unit 2B was very ice-poor (gravimetric ice content: 47 %, thaw strain: 9 %) and showed only porous cryostructure (interstitial ice) in

  13. Mantle derivation of Archean amphibole-bearing granitoid and associated mafic rocks: evidence from the southern Superior Province, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutcliffe, Richard H.; Smith, Alan R.; Doherty, William; Barnett, Robert L.

    1990-08-01

    O/ (MgO+0.9 FeOTOTAL) from 0.60 to 0.70 and CT >150 ppm) are comagmatic with the evolved granitoids and indicate that the suites are mantle-derived. Isotopic studies of Archean monzodioritic rocks have shown LREE enrichment and initial 143Nd/144Nd ratios indicating derivation from mantle sources enriched in large ion lithophile elements (LILE) shortly before melting. Mineral assemblages record lower PH2O with increased alkali contents of the suites. This evidence, in conjunction with experimental studies, suggests that increased alkali contents may reflect decreased PH2O during mantle melting. These features indicate that ˜2.73 Ga tonalitic rocks are derived from more hydrous mantle sources than ˜2.68 Ga syenitic rocks, and that the spectrum of late Archean juvenile granitoid rocks is broader than previously recognized. Comparison with Phanerozoic and recent plutonic suites suggests that these Archean suites are subduction related.

  14. Base camp personnel exposure to particulate matter during wildland fire suppression activities.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Marcy L; Semmens, Erin O; Gaskill, Steven; Palmer, Charles; Noonan, Curtis W; Ward, Tony J

    2012-01-01

    Wildland fire base camps commonly house thousands of support personnel for weeks at a time. The selection of the location of these base camps is largely a strategic decision that incorporates many factors, one of which is the potential impact of biomass smoke from the nearby fire event. Biomass smoke has many documented adverse health effects due, primarily, to high levels of fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)). Minimizing particulate matter exposure to potentially susceptible individuals working as support personnel in the base camp is vital. In addition to smoke from nearby wildland fires, base camp operations have the potential to generate particulate matter via vehicle emissions, dust, and generator use. We monitored particulate matter at three base camps during the fire season of 2009 in Washington, Oregon, and California. During the sampling events, 1-min time-weighted averages of PM(2.5) and particle counts from three size fractions (0.3-0.5 microns, 0.5-1.0 microns, and 1.0-2.5 microns) were measured. Results showed that all PM size fractions (as well as overall PM(2.5) concentrations) were higher during the overnight hours, a trend that was consistent at all camps. Our results provide evidence of camp-based, site-specific sources of PM(2.5) that could potentially exceed the contributions from the nearby wildfire. These exposures could adversely impact wildland firefighters who sleep in the camp, as well as the camp support personnel, who could include susceptible individuals. A better understanding of the sources and patterns of poor air quality within base camps would help to inform prevention strategies to reduce personnel exposures. PMID:22364357

  15. Boot Camp Translation: A Method For Building a Community of Solution

    PubMed Central

    Norman, Ned; Bennett, Chris; Cowart, Shirley; Felzien, Maret; Flores, Martha; Flores, Rafael; Haynes, Connie; Hernandez, Mike; Rodriquez, Mary Petra; Sanchez, Norah; Sanchez, Sergio; Winkelman, Kathy; Winkelman, Steve; Zittleman, Linda; Westfall, John M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The National Institutes of Health (NIH) spend billions of dollars annually on biomedical research. A crucial, yet currently insufficient step is the translation of scientific evidence-based guidelines and recommendations into constructs and language accessible to every-day patients and community members. By building a community of solution that integrates primary care with public health and community-based organizations, evidence-based medical care can be translated into language and constructs accessible to community members and readily implemented to improve health. Methods Using a community-based participatory research approach, the High Plains Research Network (HPRN) and its Community Advisory Council developed a multi-component process to translate evidence into messages and dissemination methods to improve health in rural Colorado. This process, called Boot Camp Translation has brought together various community members, organizations, and primary care to build a community of solution to address local health problems. Results The HPRN has conducted 4 Boot Camp Translations on topics including colon cancer prevention, asthma diagnosis and management, hypertension treatment and management, and the patient-centered medical home. Each Boot Camp follows a standard agenda that requires flexibility and creativity. Thus far, the HPRN has used Boot Camp Translation to engage over a thousand rural community members and providers. Dissemination of Boot Camp messaging through the community of solution has led to increased colon cancer screening, improved care for asthma, and increased rates of controlled blood pressure. Conclusions Boot Camp translation successfully engages community members in a process to translate evidence-based medical care into locally relevant, culturally appropriate language and constructs. Boot Camp Translation is an appropriate method for engaging community members in patient-centered outcomes research. Boot Camp Translation may be an

  16. Experimental evidence of site specific preferential processing of either ice algae or phytoplankton by benthic macroinfauna in Lancaster Sound and North Water Polynyas, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mäkelä, Anni; Witte, Ursula; Archambault, Philippe

    2016-04-01

    Rapid warming is dramatically reducing the extent and thickness of summer sea ice of the Arctic Ocean, changing both the quantity and type of marine primary production as the longer open water period favours phytoplankton growth and reduces ice algal production. The benthic ecosystem is dependent on this sinking organic matter for source of energy, and ice algae is thought to be a superior quality food source due to higher essential fatty acid content. The resilience of the benthos to changing quality and quantity of food was investigated through sediment incubation experiments in the summer 2013 in two highly productive Arctic polynyas in the North Water and Lancaster Sound, Canada. The pathways of organic matter processing and contribution of different organisms to these processes was assessed through 13C and 15N isotope assimilation into macroinfaunal tissues. In North Water Polynya, the total and biomass specific uptake of ice algal derived C and N was higher than the uptake of phytoplankton, whereas an opposite trend was observed in Lancaster Sound. Polychaetes, especially individuals of families Sabellidae and Spionidae, unselectively ingested both algal types and were significant in the overall organic matter processing at both sites. Feeding preference was observed in crustaceans, which preferentially fed on ice algae at Lancaster Sound, but preferred phytoplankton in North Water Polynya. Bivalves also had a significant role in the organic matter processing overall, but only showed preferential feeding on phytoplankton at Lancaster Sound polynya. Overall the filter feeders and surface deposit feeders occupying lowest trophic levels were responsible for majority of the processing of both algal types. The results provide direct evidence of preferential resource utilisation by benthic macrofauna and highlight spatial differences in the processes. This helps to predict future patterns of nutrient cycling in Arctic sediments, with implications to benthic

  17. US SPACE CAMP CALIFORNIA - DAY CAMP GRAND OPENING WITH KEVIN JONES (WHISMAN SCHOOL) AND LUCRETIA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    US SPACE CAMP CALIFORNIA - DAY CAMP GRAND OPENING WITH KEVIN JONES (WHISMAN SCHOOL) AND LUCRETIA SUTHERLIN (MCNAIR SCHOOL). AMES SPONSORED STUDENTS AND RACHAEL QUIRING (STAFF) - AUTOGRAPH SIGNING BY Astronaut Wally Schirra

  18. Stories from Camp: Understanding the Impact of What We Do.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeGraaf, Don; Glover, Jessie

    2002-01-01

    A study examining the impacts of camp on staff interviewed 29 former seasonal camp staff. All respondents reported positive benefits in their personal and professional lives and the strong influence of camp in shaping career choices. Reflections on camp fell into three categories: uniqueness of camp, making memories for kids, and freedom. (TD)

  19. A Day in the Life of Three Special Needs Camps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winbaum, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about three special needs camps--Camp Kirk, Camp Talisman and Camp Caglewood. Camp Kirk's philosophy is to encourage their children to take risks in a structured setting, like high ropes courses, rock climbing wall, martial arts, and traditional activities like swimming, arts and craft, drama, and others. Once…

  20. College Camp Fairs: Tips for Hosts, Directors, and Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaskill, Paul L.; Campbell, Don

    1995-01-01

    Camp fairs are held on college campuses to recruit students for summer camp positions. Provides marketing and promotion strategies, recruiting suggestions for camp directors, tips for students helping to organize the fair, and suggestions for students who want to secure a summer camp position. Includes a sample camp fair evaluation. (LP)

  1. Gold in the Brunswick No. 12 volcanogenic massive sulfide deposit, Bathurst Mining Camp, Canada: Evidence from bulk ore analysis and laser ablation ICP-MS data on sulfide phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClenaghan, Sean H.; Lentz, David R.; Martin, Jillian; Diegor, Wilfredo G.

    2009-07-01

    The 329-Mt Brunswick No. 12 volcanogenic massive sulfide deposit (total resource of 163 Mt at 10.4% Zn, 4.2% Pb, 0.34% Cu, and 115 g/t Ag) is hosted within a Middle Ordovician bimodal volcanic and sedimentary sequence. Massive sulfides are for the most part syngenetic, and the bulk of the sulfide ore occurs as a Zn-Pb-rich banded sulfide facies that forms an intimate relationship with a laterally extensive Algoma-type iron formation and defines the Brunswick Horizon. Zone refining of stratiform sulfides is considered to have resulted in the development of a large replacement-style Cu-rich basal sulfide facies, which is generally confined between the banded sulfide facies and an underlying stringer sulfide zone. Complex polyphase deformation and associated lower- to upper-greenschist facies regional metamorphism is responsible for the present geometry of the deposit. Textural modification has resulted in a general increase in grain size through the development of pyrite and arsenopyrite porphyroblasts, which tend to overprint primary mineral assemblages. Despite the heterogeneous ductile deformation, primary features have locally been preserved, such as fine-grained colloform pyrite and base and precious metal zonation within the Main Zone. Base metal and trace element abundances in massive sulfides from the Brunswick No. 12 deposit indicate two distinct geochemical associations. The basal sulfide facies, characterized by a proximal high-temperature hydrothermal signature (Cu-Co-Bi-Se), contains generally low Au contents averaging 0.39 ppm ( n = 34). Conversely, Au is enriched in the banded sulfide facies, averaging 1.1 ppm Au ( n = 21), and is associated with an exhalative suite of elements (Zn-Pb-As-Sb-Ag-Sn). Finely laminated sulfide lenses hosted by iron formation at the north end of the Main Zone are further enriched in Au, averaging 1.7 ppm ( n = 41) and ranging up to 8.2 ppm. Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analyses of pyrite ( n = 97) from the north end of the Main Zone average 2.6 ppm Au and range from the detection limit (0.015 ppm) to 21 ppm. Overall, these analyses reveal a distinct Au-Sb-As-Ag-Hg-Mn association within pyrite grains. Gold is strongly enriched in large pseudo-primary masses of pyrite that exhibit relict banding and fine-grained cores; smaller euhedral pyrite porphyroblasts, and euhedral rims of metamorphic origin surrounding the pyrite masses, contain much less Au, Sb, Ag, As, and Sn. Arsenopyrite, occurring chiefly as late porphyroblasts, contains less Au, averaging 1.0 ppm and ranging from the detection limit (0.027 ppm) to 6.9 ppm. Depth profiles for single-spot laser ablation ICP-MS analyses of pyrite and arsenopyrite display uniform values of Au and an absence of discrete microscopic inclusions of Au-bearing minerals, which is consistent with chemically bonded Au in the sulfide structure. The pervasive correlation of Au with Sn in the Zn-Pb-rich banded sulfide facies suggests similar hydrothermal behavior during the waxing stages of deposition on the seafloor. Under high temperature (>350ºC) and moderate- to low-pH conditions, Au and Sn in hydrothermal fluids would be transported as chlorocomplexes. An abrupt decrease in temperature and aH2S, accompanied by an increase in fO2 and pH during mixing with seawater, would lead to the simultaneous destabilization of both Au and Sn chlorocomplexes. The enrichment of Au in fine-grained laminated sulfides on the periphery of the deposit, accompanied by sporadic occurrences of barite and Fe-poor sphalerite, supports lower hydrothermal fluid temperatures analogous to white smoker activity on the flanks of a large volcanogenic massive sulfide system. In lower temperature (<350ºC) and mildly acidic hydrothermal fluids, Au would be transported by thiocomplexes, which exhibit multifunctional (retrograde-prograde) solubility and a capacity to mobilize Au to the outer parts of the sulfide mound. The sluggish nature of this low-temperature venting together with larger variations in ambient fO2 could lead to a sharp enrichment of Au towards the stratigraphic hanging wall of massive sulfide deposits.

  2. cAMP signaling microdomains and their observation by optical methods

    PubMed Central

    Calebiro, Davide; Maiellaro, Isabella

    2014-01-01

    The second messenger cyclic AMP (cAMP) is a major intracellular mediator of many hormones and neurotransmitters and regulates a myriad of cell functions, including synaptic plasticity in neurons. Whereas cAMP can freely diffuse in the cytosol, a growing body of evidence suggests the formation of cAMP gradients and microdomains near the sites of cAMP production, where cAMP signals remain apparently confined. The mechanisms responsible for the formation of such microdomains are subject of intensive investigation. The development of optical methods based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), which allow a direct observation of cAMP signaling with high temporal and spatial resolution, is playing a fundamental role in elucidating the nature of such microdomains. Here, we will review the optical methods used for monitoring cAMP and protein kinase A (PKA) signaling in living cells, providing some examples of their application in neurons, and will discuss the major hypotheses on the formation of cAMP/PKA microdomains. PMID:25389388

  3. Odor-induced cAMP production in Drosophila melanogaster olfactory sensory neurons.

    PubMed

    Miazzi, Fabio; Hansson, Bill S; Wicher, Dieter

    2016-06-15

    Insect odorant receptors are seven transmembrane domain proteins that form cation channels, whose functional properties such as receptor sensitivity are subject to regulation by intracellular signaling cascades. Here, we used the cAMP fluorescent indicator Epac1-camps to investigate the occurrence of odor-induced cAMP production in olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) of Drosophila melanogaster We show that stimulation of the receptor complex with an odor mixture or with the synthetic agonist VUAA1 induces a cAMP response. Moreover, we show that while the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration influences cAMP production, the OSN-specific receptor OrX is necessary to elicit cAMP responses in Ca(2+)-free conditions. These results provide direct evidence of a relationship between odorant receptor stimulation and cAMP production in olfactory sensory neurons in the fruit fly antenna and show that this method can be used to further investigate the role that this second messenger plays in insect olfaction. PMID:27045092

  4. The psychological and social impact of camp for children with chronic illnesses: a systematic review update.

    PubMed

    Moola, F J; Faulkner, G E J; White, L; Kirsh, J A

    2014-09-01

    Advances in medicine have reduced mortality among children with complex medical conditions, resulting in a growing number of young patients living with chronic illnesses. Despite an improved prognosis, these children experience significant psychosocial morbidity, such as depression and anxiety. Therapeutic summer recreation camps have been proposed as an intervention to enhance quality of life among these children. The purpose of this systematic review was to assess the psychosocial impact of camp for children with chronic illnesses. A systematic review of central databases was undertaken using key words, and a rating tool – the Effective Public Health Practice Project (EPHPP) Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies – was employed to rate methodological quality. 21 studies were included in this systematic review. Although overall methodological quality was weak, camp participation appeared to offer short-term psychosocial benefits on some parameters in children with a variety of chronic illnesses. There was some consistency in improved social outcomes, such as social interaction and acceptance. Based on the available evidence, it is premature to make robust claims regarding the psychosocial impact of camp as a therapeutic intervention. Theoretically informed camp programs, long-term follow-up, and incorporating camp-based messaging into routine hospital care,may enhance the utility of camp as a potential psychosocial intervention in paediatrics. PMID:25250399

  5. Program evaluation of Protovation Camp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Healy, Laurel Lynell Martin

    The purpose of this program evaluation was to determine the extent to which Protovation Camp utilized the combined resources of multiple institutions to impact student learning in science, technology, engineering, and math. The partnership consisted of multiple institutions: the university, providing graduate students to facilitate inquiry-based lessons; the science center, allowing the use of their facilities and resources; and the elementary school, contributing rising third through fifth grade campers. All of these components were examined. The mixed-methods approach used post hoc quantitative data for campers, which consisted of pre-test and post-test scores on the Test of Science-Related Attitudes (TOSRA), the Draw-A-Scientist Test, and content tests based on the camp activities. Additionally, TOSRA scores and current survey results for the graduate students were used along with qualitative data collected from plusdelta charts to determine the impact of participation in Protovation Camp on teachers and students. Results of the program evaluation indicated that when students were taught inquiry-based lessons that ignite wonder, both their attitudes toward science and their knowledge about science improved. An implication for teacher preparation programs was that practicing inquiry-based lessons on actual students (campers) was an important component for teachers (graduate students) as they prepare to positively impact student learning in their own classrooms. Immediate feedback from the campers in the form of pre-test and post-test scores and from peers on plusdelta charts allowed the graduate students the opportunity to make needed adjustments to improve effectiveness before using the lesson with a new set of campers or later in their own classrooms. Keywords. Teacher preparation, Inquiry-based instruction, STEM instructions, University and museum partnerships

  6. Themes from a Camp Maintenance Network: Camp Maintenance and Property Personnel Share Their Insights and Challenges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whyman, Wynne

    2003-01-01

    A camp maintenance survey was completed by maintenance personnel from 99 camps. Results highlighted several important considerations: ensuring sufficient maintenance funds for aging infrastructure, including camp/property personnel in decision making, publicizing completed maintenance projects, examining long-term needs of the land, and adopting…

  7. Camp Programs Provide Community Opportunities: Camp Henry Helps Community with Youth Diversion Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vander Kooi, Gregory; Astle, Judy Hughes; Jacobs, Jeff

    2001-01-01

    A Michigan program gives juvenile first-offenders in alcohol, drug, or tobacco crimes the option of completing a youth diversion program at a local camp as an alternative to traditional juvenile justice. Considerations for the camp included board support, compatibility with camp philosophy, and staff competence. The program has lower recidivism…

  8. δD and δ18O evidence for inputs to groundwater at a wetland coastal boundary in the southern Great Lakes region of Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huddart, P. A.; Longstaffe, F. J.; Crowe, A. S.

    1999-01-01

    The stable isotope compositions ( δ18O and δD) of water have been used to determine the relative contributions of different water sources to the groundwater in a barrier sand-bar that separates a coastal freshwater marsh from Lake Erie, Canada. An extensive groundwater study was initiated by Environment Canada at Point Pelee National Park after elevated nutrient concentrations were measured in the park's marsh, located on a spit of land that extends 15 km south into Lake Erie. As part of this larger study, which includes groundwater and nutrient modelling, the stable isotope compositions ( δ18O and δD) of water have been used to independently determine the nature and extent of groundwater flow within sand deposits that separate the marsh from Lake Erie. One of the two study sites chosen for this investigation is located near a large septic-system tile-bed that receives human waste from a public toilet facility within the park, and could potentially release nutrients to the marsh via the groundwater. Both transects studied are well suited to isotopic investigation because they are located between two potentially recharging surface water bodies with temporally variable isotopic compositions, and because the transects are subject to recharge by local precipitation, which exhibits large seasonal isotopic variations. These differing isotopic compositions, when considered spatially and temporally, make it possible to establish the source and movement of groundwater within the transects. The oxygen and hydrogen isotopic compositions of surface waters from the Point Pelee marsh and Lake Erie lie on an evaporation line with a slope of 5.7. The isotopic composition of Lake Erie remained relatively stable for over 21 months ( δ18O=-7.5‰ to -6.7‰) whereas the marsh exhibited considerable spatial and temporal variability ( δ18O=-8.4‰ to -0.1‰). The δD and δ18O values of precipitation samples vary seasonally with local surface temperatures, and constitute a local

  9. Cis-Lunar Base Camp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merrill, Raymond G.; Goodliff, Kandyce E.; Mazanek, Daniel D.; Reeves, John D., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    Historically, when mounting expeditions into uncharted territories, explorers have established strategically positioned base camps to pre-position required equipment and consumables. These base camps are secure, safe positions from which expeditions can depart when conditions are favorable, at which technology and operations can be tested and validated, and facilitate timely access to more robust facilities in the event of an emergency. For human exploration missions into deep space, cis-lunar space is well suited to serve as such a base camp. The outer regions of cis-lunar space, such as the Earth-Moon Lagrange points, lie near the edge of Earth s gravity well, allowing equipment and consumables to be aggregated with easy access to deep space and to the lunar surface, as well as more distant destinations, such as near-Earth Asteroids (NEAs) and Mars and its moons. Several approaches to utilizing a cis-lunar base camp for sustainable human exploration, as well as some possible future applications are identified. The primary objective of the analysis presented in this paper is to identify options, show the macro trends, and provide information that can be used as a basis for more detailed mission development. Compared within are the high-level performance and cost of 15 preliminary cis-lunar exploration campaigns that establish the capability to conduct crewed missions of up to one year in duration, and then aggregate mass in cis-lunar space to facilitate an expedition from Cis-Lunar Base Camp. Launch vehicles, chemical propulsion stages, and electric propulsion stages are discussed and parametric sizing values are used to create architectures of in-space transportation elements that extend the existing in-space supply chain to cis-lunar space. The transportation options to cis-lunar space assessed vary in efficiency by almost 50%; from 0.16 to 0.68 kg of cargo in cis-lunar space for every kilogram of mass in Low Earth Orbit (LEO). For the 15 cases, 5-year campaign

  10. Youth Development and the Camp Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garst, Barry A.; Browne, Laurie P.; Bialeschki, M. Deborah

    2011-01-01

    The organized camp experience has been an important part of the lives of children, youth, and adults for over 150 years and is a social institution that touches more lives than any other except for schools. Camp is more than a location or a program; it encompasses the affective, cognitive, behavioral, physical, social, and spiritual benefits that…

  11. What Happens to Campers at Camp?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Gwynn M.

    2003-01-01

    A study of 66 children with cancer and 43 siblings attending the Ronald McDonald Camp found that disease-specific camps allow children membership in a community of peers, which enhances self-esteem and social acceptance. A separate, longitudinal study of 38 beginning and experienced campers found that campers' intrapersonal and interpersonal…

  12. Summer Camp of Mathematical Modeling in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tian, Xiaoxi; Xie, Jinxing

    2013-01-01

    The Summer Camp of Mathematical Modeling in China is a recently created experience designed to further Chinese students' academic pursuits in mathematical modeling. Students are given more than three months to research on a mathematical modeling project. Researchers and teams with outstanding projects are invited to the Summer Camp to present…

  13. Suicides in the Nazi Concentration Camps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryn, Zdzislaw

    1986-01-01

    On the basis of psychiatric interviews with 69 former prisoners of the Auschwitz-Birkenau concentration camp, this paper describes the circumstances, motives, and ways of committing suicide in the camp. The interviews made it clear that thousands of prisoners perished by suicide. The number of committed suicides was larger than that of attempted…

  14. Incontinent Children Discover Hope at Camp Oakhurst.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raps, Marvin A.

    1991-01-01

    Describes summer-camp experiences of young people who are incontinent because of spina bifida. Focuses on residential camp program as encouragement for youth to learn independent incontinence management. Describes self-catheterization program and process as minor inconvenience and positive alternative to soiled clothing and accompanying…

  15. Passenger Vans: A Transportation Concern for Camps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gentle, Don; Gordon, Harold; Schainman, Steve

    2002-01-01

    In April 2002, the National Transportation Safety Board reissued a cautionary warning about the high accident potential of 15-passenger vans; some states have prohibited their use for transporting children. Three camp directors discuss legal and cost considerations for camps, possible alternative transportation, additional staff training needs,…

  16. Measuring Mindfulness in Summer Camp Staff

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillard, Ann; Roark, Mark F.; Nyaga, Lewis Ramsey Kanyiba; Bialeschki, M. Deborah

    2011-01-01

    Examining mindfulness in a non-clinical and non-therapeutic setting such as a summer camp is an area of growing interest. Our study tested three mindfulness scales with staff in a summer camp setting, and we conducted preliminary reliability and validity analyses for any modifications needed in the scales. Results indicated two major findings: (a)…

  17. Teen Moms and Babies Benefit from Camping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goode, Marsha; Broesamle, Barbara

    1987-01-01

    Describes nine-day residential camp for Michigan teenage mothers/babies to enhance personal growth and develop responsible social skills. Outlines goals, pre-camp planning, staff, activities, evaluation. Reports 31 teen moms (ages 13-21) and 35 babies attended in 1986. Indicates participants were in therapy, experienced abuse, had low self-esteem,…

  18. Children with Cancer: Positive Benefits of Camp.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winfree, Christy; Williams, Richard; Powell, Gwynn M.

    2002-01-01

    A relatively new method of helping pediatric cancer patients cope with their illness is specially designed summer camps. Camp helps children with cancer address psychological effects of the disease, bodily changes, and self-concept, and helps parents and siblings cope. Sidebars present resources and tips on incorporating children with cancer into…

  19. Foreign Language Camps: A Success Story.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shrum, Judith

    The foreign language camps, operated by Virginia Tech since 1981, offer high school students a one-week foreign language experience in French, German, or Spanish. The camps bring together native speakers, high school students and teachers, and university students and faculty to experience learning situations similar to those encountered in a…

  20. LANGUAGE CAMPS IN THE UNITED STATES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BOUNIOL, EILEEN C.

    A SUMMARY IS GIVEN OF AN INFORMAL SURVEY MADE OF STATE FOREIGN LANGUAGE SUPERVISORS TO DETERMINE THE EXTENT AND NATURE OF LANGUAGE CAMPS IN THE UNITED STATES. DATA FROM QUESTIONNAIRES RETURNED BY THE SUPERVISORS REVEALED INFORMATION ABOUT THE NAMES AND LOCATIONS OF 12 SUMMER CAMPS, PERTINENT DETAILS OF EACH PROGRAM, SPONSORING INSTITUTIONS, DATES…

  1. Smart Kids at CAMP-US

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinatra, Richard

    2004-01-01

    This article describes the summer literacy, athletic, and computer program know as CAMP-US. Each year, CAMP-US serves approximately 500 children in 10-day sessions. The first half of each day is devoted to literacy and computer instruction, while the second half is spent engaging in recreational activities such as swimming, soccer, softball,…

  2. Tim Horton Camps: Spotlight on Onondaga Farms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evanson, Jason

    2003-01-01

    Tim Horton Children's Foundation operates camps for disadvantaged children that build their self-confidence. The newest camp, Onondaga Farms in Ontario, is also a year-round outdoor education center. Its five program streams--environmental education, creative arts, agriculture, adventure, and recreation--all have direct links to Ontario's…

  3. A Kid's Guide to Family Camping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regimbal, Celia; Kasakow, Nancy

    Fifth and sixth grade students of the University School at the University of Wyoming participated in a successful week's overnight outdoor experience in September 1983. Because results of a pre-camp questionnaire indicated that most students had minimal knowledge of the planning necessary for camping, activities and classes were organized to…

  4. Cedar Ridge Camp: Using the Local Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Grayson

    2007-01-01

    In 2007 Cedar Ridge Camp opened for its first season as a traditional co-ed summer camp and year-round outdoor education and recreation centre. The mission would centre on creating a program that would encourage personal development and growth through a shared outdoor experience. Cedar Ridge's main goals were to promote the formation of close…

  5. Camping Safety--Bring 'Em Back Alive.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Ernest F.

    1980-01-01

    A "prioritized" list of dangers of the woods is discussed and suggestions for safety in organized camping are listed. Available from: Center for Environmental, Camping and Outdoor Education; University of North Carolina at Greensboro; Pine Lake Field Campus; 4016 Blumenthal Road; Greensboro, NC, 27406. (AN)

  6. 36 CFR 327.7 - Camping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Camping. 327.7 Section 327.7... GOVERNING PUBLIC USE OF WATER RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS ADMINISTERED BY THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS § 327.7...) Camping at one or more campsites at any one water resource project for a period longer than 14 days...

  7. American Camping Association. Annual Report, 1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Camping Association, Martinsville, IN.

    The 1985 American Camping Association (ACA) annual report reviews trends and successes of the year. The document is in the format of a calendar covering the period October 1985 through September 1986. Calendar pages, on which relevant camping events are noted, alternate with pages of text. An introductory message from ACA President Jean McMullan…

  8. 1940s: Camping in the War Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camping Magazine, 1999

    1999-01-01

    Camps continued to operate during World War II, but young male counselors, food, and supplies were difficult to obtain. An illustrative article from 1943, "Meal Planning for Summer Camps in Wartime" (Agnes B. Peterson), presents a guide to planning nutritious meals for campers despite shortages caused by wartime rationing, increased food costs,…

  9. Celebrations: American Camping Association Annual Report 1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Camping Association, Martinsville, IN.

    The 1986 American Camping Association (ACA) annual report reviews the year's achievements and outlines goals for the future. An introductory message from ACA President Jean McMullan notes successful fund raising to improve the association's national headquarters, passage of federal legislation exempting camps from paying federal unemployment…

  10. Creating a Sun-Safe Camp.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landrey, Ann

    1996-01-01

    Strategies for minimizing sun exposure of campers and staff include educating campers about the sun's effect on their skin, scheduling activities when the sun is less intense, creating shade at the camp site, incorporating sun protection into camp dress code, and training staff regarding sun protection. Addresses OSHA and liability issues. (LP)

  11. Science Camp: Just for the Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2007-01-01

    Research shows that girls tend to lose interest in science and math as they move through the education pipeline--a retreat that often begins during middle school. Summer science camps can be part of reversing that trend, some say. Academic camps are on the rise across the country, including ones to get adolescent girls excited about the…

  12. 1980s: Camp in a Computer Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camping Magazine, 1999

    1999-01-01

    Important issues for camps in the 1980s included soaring land values, high insurance rates, the spread of computers, and growing demand for specialized services. An illustrative article from 1985, "Yuppies Are Coming" (Tim Duffield), discusses the willingness of baby-boomer parents to pay for high-quality enrichment experiences at camp and other…

  13. Forest Fire: A Crisis Reality for Camp.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Don; Mickelson, Rhonda

    2002-01-01

    Two camp directors were interviewed about evacuations from their camps due to forest fires. Topics covered include descriptions of the events; actions taken; aspects of advance planning that proved helpful; unexpected portions of the experience and resultant changes made in plans; relations with outside agencies, the media, and parents; working…

  14. Prevention of Potential Juvenile Delinquency Through Camping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiddie Kamp Corp., Boston, MA.

    A two-year demonstration project, to determine whether a short-term (30 days) summer camp experience could contribute to prevention of juvenile delinquency, found that camping induced positive attitudinal change and improved adjustment to school. The project involved 200 adolescent boys from varied social backgrounds who were selected on evidence…

  15. Tech Camp Unleashes Creativity and Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bardin, Joe

    2008-01-01

    Each August, teachers from around the state gather for the Arizona K-12 Center's Tech Camp, a week-long immersion in technology for the classroom. The Arizona K-12 Center's mission is to improve teaching and learning in Arizona's schools through high-quality professional development and teacher leadership. The formula Tech Camp follows is a simple…

  16. Teenagers and Risk-Taking at Camp.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Ann

    2002-01-01

    Teen risk-taking is normal, healthy developmental behavior. Teens act out their fantasies--good and bad--at camp because it is a safe place away from parents. Signs of unhealthy risk-taking, camp staff responses, and how the September 11 tragedy might affect risk-taking are discussed. Sidebars describe tips for understanding adolescent behavior…

  17. Why It's Good to Go to Camp

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    In the author's fourth year of undergraduate studies at the University of Waterloo he had the opportunity to explore the benefits attained by children attending a summer camp by way of an academic literature review. The author worked with Dr. Troy Glover who has been commissioned by a group of camping associations to perform a study on the…

  18. Dealing with World Issues in Camp.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kujawa, Charles

    1986-01-01

    Discusses dealing with global issues in the camp setting in a way that broadens young people's world views. Topics include the educational advantages of the camp setting, desired outcomes for campers, guidelines for staff, and program ideas for dealing with issues such as environmental awareness, racism, and economic justice. (JHZ)

  19. Residential Camping for At Risk Preschoolers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosberg, Bernard; Mellins, Claude A.; Pubentz, Jennifer L.

    A combination of experiential education and residential camping can have positive effects on preschool children with emotional, behavioral, and learning problems. Preschool Prep at Ramapo Anchorage Camp (Rhinebeck, New York) was developed to meet the specific needs of high-risk children aged 4-6. Many of the children come from unsafe urban…

  20. Accounting Boot Camp for College Juniors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myring, Mark; Wrege, William; Van Alst, Lucinda

    2008-01-01

    We describe a day-long introduction to new accounting majors, which we call a boot camp. Boot camp it is an effort to make juniors more aware of their identity, career purposes and learning resources that are now parts of their world, much of which is not covered explicitly in the accounting curriculum. This paper provides an overview of the…

  1. Using the Internet To Promote Your Camp.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schenk, Tom

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the benefits of camps having a World Wide Web site and tips for choosing a Web provider. Offers recommendations for creating a Web page, including determining a goal, outlining content, choosing a graphic style and colors, testing the Web design, and promoting the Web site in camp brochures. Includes sample Web sites and Web resources.…

  2. [Medicine in the Soviet labor camps].

    PubMed

    Supady, J

    1998-01-01

    The existence of medical attention in Soviet labour camps was dictated not by humane reasons but by economical motives. It was just a wish to regenerate physical strength of some labour camp's slaves in order to exploit them to work out definite production as well as ideological plans. However, despite the lack of medicines, equipment, proper housing conditions and qualified staff, employed in labour camp's medical service people--doctors, hospital attendants, nurses, etc.--that were mostly recruited from amongst prisoners, showed a great deal of kindness and did their best to come to unwell and ill patients' assistance. Prisoners' lives were not uncommonly saved through exemption from work by a doctor's decision sending to hospital or transfer to another health category. In comparison with gehenna of labour camp's slave everyday life a sojourn in camp hospital seemed a paradise and a rescue from death to prisoners. PMID:10216383

  3. Camp Blanding Lightning Mapping Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blakeslee,Richard; Christian, Hugh; Bailey, Jeffrey; Hall, John; Uman, Martin; Jordan, Doug; Krehbiel, Paul; Rison, William; Edens, Harald

    2011-01-01

    A seven station, short base-line Lightning Mapping Array was installed at the Camp Blanding International Center for Lightning Research and Testing (ICLRT) during April 2011. This network will support science investigations of Terrestrial Gamma-Ray Flashes (TGFs) and lightning initiation using rocket triggered lightning at the ICLRT. The network operations and data processing will be carried out through a close collaboration between several organizations, including the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, University of Alabama in Huntsville, University of Florida, and New Mexico Tech. The deployment was sponsored by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). The network does not have real-time data dissemination. Description, status and plans will be discussed.

  4. "It's not Just Camp!": Understanding the Meaning of Children's Cancer Camps for Children and Families.

    PubMed

    Laing, Catherine M; Moules, Nancy J

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this philosophical hermeneutic inquiry was to understand the meaning of children's cancer camps for the child with cancer and the family. Six childhood cancer families and 5 cancer camp counselors were interviewed, in order to bring understanding to this topic. Findings from this research revealed that camp means different things for different families, and that much is at play in the cancer camp experience: the healing and developmental power of play, finding acceptance and fit, grief as something to live with versus "get over," storytelling as a means of reshaping and understanding traumatic experiences, and the solidarity of the community as one that creates intense, healing bonds. Children's cancer camps, we conclude, should be considered a necessity, versus a luxury, and could even be thought of as a psychosocial intervention for some children and families. Barriers such as structure of funding and access to resources are present and likely due to the separateness of camps from hospital programs. PMID:25643975

  5. cAMP controls rod photoreceptor sensitivity via multiple targets in the phototransduction cascade

    PubMed Central

    Astakhova, Luba A.; Samoiliuk, Evgeniia V.; Govardovskii, Victor I.

    2012-01-01

    In early studies, both cyclic AMP (cAMP) and cGMP were considered as potential secondary messengers regulating the conductivity of the vertebrate photoreceptor plasma membrane. Later discovery of the cGMP specificity of cyclic nucleotide–gated channels has shifted attention to cGMP as the only secondary messenger in the phototransduction cascade, and cAMP is not considered in modern schemes of phototransduction. Here, we report evidence that cAMP may also be involved in regulation of the phototransduction cascade. Using a suction pipette technique, we recorded light responses of isolated solitary rods from the frog retina in normal solution and in the medium containing 2 µM of adenylate cyclase activator forskolin. Under forskolin action, flash sensitivity rose more than twofold because of a retarded photoresponse turn-off. The same concentration of forskolin lead to a 2.5-fold increase in the rod outer segment cAMP, which is close to earlier reported natural day/night cAMP variations. Detailed analysis of cAMP action on the phototransduction cascade suggests that several targets are affected by cAMP increase: (a) basal dark phosphodiesterase (PDE) activity decreases; (b) at the same intensity of light background, steady background-induced PDE activity increases; (c) at light backgrounds, guanylate cyclase activity at a given fraction of open channels is reduced; and (d) the magnitude of the Ca2+ exchanger current rises 1.6-fold, which would correspond to a 1.6-fold elevation of [Ca2+]in. Analysis by a complete model of rod phototransduction suggests that an increase of [Ca2+]in might also explain effects (b) and (c). The mechanism(s) by which cAMP could regulate [Ca2+]in and PDE basal activity is unclear. We suggest that these regulations may have adaptive significance and improve the performance of the visual system when it switches between day and night light conditions. PMID:23008435

  6. Institutionalized Adolescents' Perceptions of a Summer Camp Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herr, David E.

    1977-01-01

    Describes the use of the facilities of Camp Easter Seal, Virginia, for institutionalized adolescents from different hospitals in Virginia. Also includes the attitudes of the patients toward their camping experience, their camp counselors, and what they learned from their camping experience. (Author/RK)

  7. Summer Camps: A Fun Way to Reinforce Math Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tichenor, Mercedes; Plavchan, Joan

    2010-01-01

    Faculty members from a university teacher education department partnered with a local school district to develop a summer camp program for children at-risk. This four week summer camp for elementary students provides reading and math intervention to rising first graders. This article discusses the math aspects of the camp, including camp lessons,…

  8. Why Do Counselors Return to Work at Camp?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, William A.

    The reasons that counselors in resident summer camps return to work are explored, taking into account the differences between private and agency camps, and differing attitudes of male and female camp counselors. A random sample of returning counselors at 15 private and 15 agency camps in the Northeast were selected for the study. Six attitudinal…

  9. Whatever Happened to School Camping? An Occasional Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donaldson, George W.; Donaldson, Louise E.

    1982-01-01

    School camping began with three movements in American society: children's camping, which has been traced back as far as 1823; the Nature Study Movement, which is thought to have begun as early as 1839; and the holistic "new education." In 1940, L. B. Sharp opened National Camp in New Jersey and Julian W. Smith initiated the Clear Lake camp near…

  10. (Compendium of State Laws and Regulations for Youth Camps).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookhiser, Judy, Comp.; van der Smissen, Betty, Comp.

    State laws and regulations applicable to youth camp operations provided by state agencies are organized in this Compendium under ten major headings; personnel; program safety; personal health, first aid, and medical services; site and facilities; sanitation; food service; transportation; primitive camping and out-of-camp trips; day camping; and…

  11. Accreditation Standards for Camp Programs and Services. Revised 1998 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Camping Association, Martinsville, IN.

    The American Camping Association (ACA) accreditation program aims to educate camp owners and directors in the administration of key aspects of camp operation, particularly those related to program quality and the health and safety of campers and staff, and to assist the public in selecting camps that meet industry-accepted and…

  12. Alabama State Lodging Tax: A Lesson for All Camps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sieckmann, Amy

    2003-01-01

    A dispute between an Alabama business conference center and a nearby camp prompted the state's revenue department to charge camps an old lodging tax that had never been applied to them before. The state camping association members worked together to have the tax law and regulations amended so that nonprofit camps were exempt from the tax in most…

  13. Site and Facilities: A Resource Book for Camps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Armand, Ed.; Ball, Beverly, Ed.

    This resource book draws together articles on the development and maintenance of camp sites and facilities. The articles, previously published by "Camping Magazine" and "Journal of Christian Camping," cover (1) site planning and long-range development, including redesigning multiple camp facilities for year-round programs, remodeling and…

  14. Design and Development Issues for Educational Robotics Training Camps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ucgul, Memet; Cagiltay, Kursat

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore critical design issues for educational robotics training camps and to describe how these factors should be implemented in the development of such camps. For this purpose, two robotics training camps were organized for elementary school students. The first camp had 30 children attendees, and the second had 22. As…

  15. Western Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Hay, P.W.; Robertson, D.C.

    1981-10-01

    In 1980, a third successive all-time drilling record was set in western Canada, with 8865 wells being drilled, up 20% since 1979. Exploratory drilling increased 30%, to 3744 wells, and development drilling increased 14%, to 5121 wells. The exploratory success rate increased to 66% in 1980, based on 1017 oil discoveries and 1463 gas discoveries. The development success rate increased marginally to 89%, with 1774 oil discoveries and 2778 gas discoveries. Average well depth increased in all four western provinces, and total land sales reached the record $1 billion mark in Alberta and a record $78 million in Saskatchewan. British Columbia land sales declined slightly to $181 million. Alberta drilling activity continued in the deeper portions of the Alberta basin and foothills, with major gas discoveries at Hanlan, Big Mountain, Blackstone, and Elmworth. Significant oil discoveries were made in the West Pembina Nisku pinnacle reefs, in the Upper Devonian at Del Bonita and Eaglesham, and in the Lower Cretaceous glauconite river channels in southern Alberta between Countess and Grand Forks. British Columbia successes occurred as the Elmworth Deep Basin play spilled over into British Columbia with gas discoveries at Tupper and Steeprock. Gas finds were also made at West Sierra and Murray. The Arctic Islands continued to yield the largest discoveries. Two major successes occurred in the Beaufort Sea, in an oil and gas discovery by Esso at Issungnak and a reentry oil discovery by Dome at Tarsuit. However, 1980 will especially be remembered for the introduction of the federal government's National Energy Program during October, with new taxes on revenue, lower than expected wellhead price increases, and major emphasis on increasing Canadian ownership and self-sufficiency. Industry and provincial government reaction was highly critical, and a major downturn in exploration is expected in western Canada in 1981. 3 figures, 8 tables.

  16. The Mackenzie River magnetic anomaly, Yukon and Northwest Territories, Canada-Evidence for Early Proterozoic magmatic arc crust at the edge of the North American craton

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pilkington, M.; Saltus, R.W.

    2009-01-01

    We characterize the nature of the source of the high-amplitude, long-wavelength, Mackenzie River magnetic anomaly (MRA), Yukon and Northwest Territories, Canada, based on magnetic field data collected at three different altitudes: 300??m, 3.5??km and 400??km. The MRA is the largest amplitude (13??nT) satellite magnetic anomaly over Canada. Within the extent of the MRA, source depth estimates (8-12??km) from Euler deconvolution of low-altitude aeromagnetic data show coincidence with basement depths interpreted from reflection seismic data. Inversion of high-altitude (3.5??km) aeromagnetic data produces an average magnetization of 2.5??A/m within a 15- to 35-km deep layer, a value typical of magmatic arc complexes. Early Proterozoic magmatic arc rocks have been sampled to the southeast of the MRA, within the Fort Simpson magnetic anomaly. The MRA is one of several broad-scale magnetic highs that occur along the inboard margin of the Cordillera in Canada and Alaska, which are coincident with geometric changes in the thrust front transition from the mobile belt to stable cratonic North America. The inferred early Proterozoic magmatic arc complex along the western edge of the North American craton likely influenced later tectonic evolution, by acting as a buttress along the inboard margin of the Cordilleran fold-and-thrust belt. Crown Copyright ?? 2008.

  17. Retarded Children at Camp with Normal Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flax, Norman; Peters, Edward N.

    1969-01-01

    Statistical analysis of data from written forms and scales (designed to measure children's behavior in groups), observations, and interviews indicated that many educalble mentally retarded children can participate successfully in camp activities with normal children. (DR)

  18. A Lightning Safety Primer for Camps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attarian, Aram

    1992-01-01

    Provides the following information about lightning, which is necessary for camp administrators and staff: (1) warning signs of lightning; (2) dangers of lightning; (3) types of lightning injuries; (4) prevention of lightning injury; and (5) helpful training tips. (KS)

  19. Standards for Day and Resident Camps: The Accreditation Programs of the American Camping Association. 1990 Edition, Revised 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Camping Association, Martinsville, IN.

    This book outlines standards that provide a basis for camp accreditation and site approval by the American Camping Association (ACA), Inc. The purpose of the ACA accreditation programs is to educate camp owners and directors in the administration of key aspects of camp operation, particularly those related to program quality and the health and…

  20. Catch the Dream of Camping: Albuquerque Keynoters Share Insight into the Future of Camping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Marla

    2000-01-01

    Highlights the views of three keynote speakers who will share their insights into the future of the camp experience at the next American Camping Association National Conference. Environmentalist Bill McKibben, educator Cynthia Tobias, and futurist Ira Blumenthal focus, respectively, on connecting children to the natural world, understanding…

  1. Allegheny National Forest, CCC Camp ANF1 , The camp’s main ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Allegheny National Forest, CCC Camp ANF-1 , The camp’s main entrance is located at the intersection of Duhring Road (ANF 131) and ANF 124, Pennsylvania, with the interior site road known as Trail Ride Drive., Marienville, Forest County, PA

  2. Business and Finance: A Resource Book for Camps. Camp Administration Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Armand, Ed.; Ball, Beverly, Ed.

    this resource book contains 35 articles designed to present general information concerning camp business and financial management to directors or administrators. Typically a specialist is employed to supervise camp business and finance, but the administrator needs to have a broad understanding of five specific business topics: (1) liability and…

  3. Discrimination and the health of immigrants and refugees: exploring Canada's evidence base and directions for future research in newcomer receiving countries.

    PubMed

    Edge, Sara; Newbold, Bruce

    2013-02-01

    Research and practice increasingly suggests discrimination compromises health. Yet the unique experiences and effects facing immigrant and refugee populations remain poorly understood in Canada and abroad. We review current knowledge on discrimination against newcomers in Canada, emphasizing impacts upon health status and service access to identify gaps and research needs. Existing knowledge centers around experiences within health-care settings, differences in perception and coping, mental health impacts, and debates about "non-discriminatory" health-care. There is need for comparative analyses within and across ethno-cultural groups and newcomer classes to better understand factors shaping how discrimination and its health effects are differentially experienced. Women receive greater attention in the literature given their compounded vulnerability. While this must continue, little is known about the experiences of youth and men. Governance and policy discourse analyses would elucidate how norms, institutions and practices shape discriminatory attitudes and responses. Finally, "non-discriminatory health-care" interventions require critical evaluation to determine their effectiveness. PMID:22729289

  4. Exploring Wait List Prioritization and Management Strategies for Publicly Funded Ambulatory Rehabilitation Services in Ontario, Canada: Further Evidence of Barriers to Access for People with Chronic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Passalent, Laura A.; Landry, Michel D.; Cott, Cheryl A.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Timely access to publicly funded health services is a priority issue across the healthcare continuum in Canada. The purpose of this study was to examine wait list management strategies for publicly funded ambulatory rehabilitation services in Ontario, Canada. Methods: Ambulatory rehabilitation services were defined as community occupational therapy (OT) and physiotherapy (PT) services. A mailed self-administered questionnaire was sent to all 374 Ontario publicly funded sites. Descriptive statistics were used to explore management strategies. Results: The response rate was 57.2%. Client acuity was the most common method used to prioritize access across all settings. The most frequently reported methods to manage wait lists included teaching self-management strategies (85.0%), implementing attendance policies (69.5%) and conducting wait list audits (67.3%). Conclusion: Ambulatory rehabilitation settings have implemented a number of strategies for wait list management. The results of this study suggest that an increasing number of Ontarians encounter barriers when accessing publicly funded ambulatory rehabilitation services. PMID:21532763

  5. Stockholm's Cafe 84: A Unique Day Program for Jewish Survivors of Concentration Camps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fried, Hedi; Waxman, Howard M.

    1988-01-01

    Describes Cafe 84, a day program in Sweden for survivors of German concentration camps, which offers organized but informal activities so that members can socialize and discuss current feelings and memories. Claims large membership as well as reports of reduced symptoms and increased well-being are evidence of program's success. (Author/ABL)

  6. The cAMP pathway and the control of adrenocortical development and growth

    PubMed Central

    de Joussineau, Cyrille; Sahut-Barnola, Isabelle; Levy, Isaac; Saloustros, Emmanouil; Val, Pierre; Stratakis, Constantine A.; Martinez, Antoine

    2013-01-01

    In the last 10 years, extensive studies showed that the cAMP pathway is deregulated in patients suffering from adrenocortical tumours, and particularly in primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD). Here we describe how evidence arising from the analysis of patients’ data, mouse models and in vitro experiments, have shed light on the cAMP pathway as a central player in adrenal physiopathology. We also show how novel data generated from mouse models may point to new targets for potential therapies. PMID:22019902

  7. Visitor Evaluations of Management Actions at a Highly Impacted Appalachian Trail Camping Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniels, Melissa L.; Marion, Jeffrey L.

    2006-12-01

    Protected area management involves balancing environmental and social objectives. This is particularly difficult at high-use/high-impact recreation sites, because resource protection objectives may require substantial site management or visitor regulation. This study examined visitors’ reactions to both of these types of actions at Annapolis Rocks, Maryland, a popular Appalachian Trail camping area. We surveyed visitors before and after implementation of camping policies that included shifting camping to designated newly constructed campsites and prohibiting campfires. Survey results reveal that visitors were more satisfied with all social and environmental indicators after the changes were enacted. An Importance-Performance analysis also determined that management actions improved conditions for factors of greatest concern to campers prior to the changes. Posttreatment visitors were least satisfied with factors related to reduced freedom and to some characteristics of the constructed campsites. Although there was evidence of visitor displacement, the camping changes met management goals by protecting the camping area’s natural resources and improving social conditions.

  8. Visitor evaluations of management actions at a highly impacted Appalachian Trail camping area.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Melissa L; Marion, Jeffrey L

    2006-12-01

    Protected area management involves balancing environmental and social objectives. This is particularly difficult at high-use/high-impact recreation sites, because resource protection objectives may require substantial site management or visitor regulation. This study examined visitors' reactions to both of these types of actions at Annapolis Rocks, Maryland, a popular Appalachian Trail camping area. We surveyed visitors before and after implementation of camping policies that included shifting camping to designated newly constructed campsites and prohibiting campfires. Survey results reveal that visitors were more satisfied with all social and environmental indicators after the changes were enacted. An Importance-Performance analysis also determined that management actions improved conditions for factors of greatest concern to campers prior to the changes. Posttreatment visitors were least satisfied with factors related to reduced freedom and to some characteristics of the constructed campsites. Although there was evidence of visitor displacement, the camping changes met management goals by protecting the camping area's natural resources and improving social conditions. PMID:17001509

  9. Visitor evaluations of management actions at a highly impacted Appalachian Trail camping area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Daniels, M.L.; Marion, J.L.

    2006-01-01

    Protected area management involves balancing environmental and social objectives. This is particularly difficult at high-use/high-impact recreation sites, because resource protection objectives may require substantial site management or visitor regulation. This study examined visitors? reactions to both of these types of actions at Annapolis Rocks, Maryland, a popular Appalachian Trail camping area. We surveyed visitors before and after implementation of camping policies that included shifting camping to designated newly constructed campsites and prohibiting campfires. Survey results reveal that visitors were more satisfied with all social and environmental indicators after the changes were enacted. An Importance-Performance analysis also determined that management actions improved conditions for factors of greatest concern to campers prior to the changes. Posttreatment visitors were least satisfied with factors related to reduced freedom and to some characteristics of the constructed campsites. Although there was evidence of visitor displacement, the camping changes met management goals by protecting the camping area?s natural resources and improving social conditions.

  10. A Novel Conditional Genetic System Reveals That Increasing Neuronal cAMP Enhances Memory and Retrieval

    PubMed Central

    Isiegas, Carolina; McDonough, Conor; Huang, Ted; Havekes, Robbert; Fabian, Sara; Wu, Long-Jun; Xu, Hui; Zhao, Ming-Gao; Kim, Jae-Ick; Lee, Yong-Seok; Lee, Hye-Ryeon; Ko, Hyoung-Gon; Lee, Nuribalhae; Choi, Sun-Lim; Lee, Jeong-Sik; Son, Hyeon; Zhuo, Min; Kaang, Bong-Kiun; Abel, Ted

    2010-01-01

    Consistent evidence from pharmacological and genetic studies shows that cAMP is a critical modulator of synaptic plasticity and memory formation. However, the potential of the cAMP signaling pathway as a target for memory enhancement remains unclear because of contradictory findings from pharmacological and genetic approaches. To address these issues, we have developed a novel conditional genetic system in mice based on the heterologous expression of an Aplysia octopamine receptor, a G-protein-coupled receptor whose activation by its natural ligand octopamine leads to rapid and transient increases in cAMP. We find that activation of this receptor transgenically expressed in mouse forebrain neurons induces a rapid elevation of hippocampal cAMP levels, facilitates hippocampus synaptic plasticity, and enhances the consolidation and retrieval of fear memory. Our findings clearly demonstrate that acute increases in cAMP levels selectively in neurons facilitate synaptic plasticity and memory, and illustrate the potential of this heterologous system to study cAMP-mediated processes in mammalian systems. PMID:18550764