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Sample records for campion silene latifolia

  1. Identification of white campion (Silene latifolia) guaiacol O-methyltransferase involved in the biosynthesis of veratrole, a key volatile for pollinator attraction

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Silene latifolia and its pollinator, the noctuid moth Hadena bicruris, represent an open nursery pollination system wherein floral volatiles, especially veratrole (1, 2-dimethoxybenzene), lilac aldehydes, and phenylacetaldehyde are of key importance for floral signaling. Despite the important role of floral scent in ensuring reproductive success in S. latifolia, the molecular basis of scent biosynthesis in this species has not yet been investigated. Results We isolated two full-length cDNAs from S. latifolia that show similarity to rose orcinol O-methyltransferase. Biochemical analysis showed that both S. latifolia guaiacol O-methyltransferase1 (SlGOMT1) &S. latifolia guaiacol O-methyltransferase2 (SlGOMT2) encode proteins that catalyze the methylation of guaiacol to form veratrole. A large Km value difference between SlGOMT1 (~10 μM) and SlGOMT2 (~501 μM) resulted that SlGOMT1 is 31-fold more catalytically efficient than SlGOMT2. qRT-PCR expression analysis showed that the SlGOMT genes are specifically expressed in flowers and male S. latifolia flowers had 3- to 4-folds higher level of GOMT gene transcripts than female flower tissues. Two related cDNAs, S. dioica O-methyltransferase1 (SdOMT1) and S. dioica O-methyltransferase2 (SdOMT2), were also obtained from the sister species Silene dioica, but the proteins they encode did not methylate guaiacol, consistent with the lack of veratrole emission in the flowers of this species. Our evolutionary analysis uncovered that SlGOMT1 and SlGOMT2 genes evolved under positive selection, whereas SdOMT1 and SdOMT2 genes show no evidence for selection. Conclusions Altogether, we report the identification and functional characterization of the gene, SlGOMT1 that efficiently catalyzes veratrole formation, whereas another copy of this gene with only one amino acid difference, SlGOMT2 was found to be less efficient for veratrole synthesis in S. latifolia. PMID:22937972

  2. Effects of pollination timing and distance on seed production in a dioecious weed Silene latifolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Jay F.; Duddu, Hema S. N.; Shirtliffe, Steven J.; Benaragama, Dilshan; Syrovy, Lena D.; Stanley, Katherine A.; Haile, Teketel A.

    2015-11-01

    Silene latifolia Poir. (white cockle or white campion) is an important invasive weed in North American agriculture. It exhibits dioecy, therefore, both male and female plants are required in order for seed production to occur. However, dioecious species being invasive is not common because of their limitations in pollination and subsequent seed production. The objective of this study is to determine the effect of pollination timing and distance on seed production of Silene latifolia. A series of experiments including pollination exclusion, timing and pollination distance were conducted in 2009 and 2010 at or around Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. For pollination exclusion, exclosures were built around the natural female plants for exclosure, sham-exclosure, and male and female combined treatments. Pollination timing was studied by applying exclosure, non-exclosure, night-exclosure, and day-exclosure treatments to individual female plants. Female plants were transplanted along a linear interval at six different distances from the pollen source to study the effect of pollination distance. S. latifolia was exclusively insect-pollinated and pollination occurred both day and night; however, in one year, pollination occurred mainly at night. Female plants that were in the range of 0-4 m from a compatible pollen source experienced no limitation to pollination. However, when the distance was increased further up to 128 m, pollination levels and subsequent seed production were declined. Moreover, there were differences in seed production between years suggesting that pollination was affected by the environmental conditions during pollination and the crop that white cockle was grown in. These experiments indicate that seed production in S. latifolia is limited by insect-pollination. Although there was pollination limitation for seed production at greater distances from a pollen source, the high fecundity rate (3000-18000 seeds per plant) resulted in a large seed output. Thus, we

  3. Identification of a novel retrotransposon with sex chromosome-specific distribution in Silene latifolia.

    PubMed

    Kralova, Tereza; Cegan, Radim; Kubat, Zdenek; Vrana, Jan; Vyskot, Boris; Vogel, Ivan; Kejnovsky, Eduard; Hobza, Roman

    2014-01-01

    Silene latifolia is a dioecious plant species with chromosomal sex determination. Although the evolution of sex chromosomes in S. latifolia has been the subject of numerous studies, a global view of X chromosome structure in this species is still missing. Here, we combine X chromosome microdissection and BAC library screening to isolate new X chromosome-linked sequences. Out of 8 identified BAC clones, only BAC 86M14 showed an X-preferential signal after FISH experiments. Further analysis revealed the existence of the Athila retroelement which is enriched in the X chromosome and nearly absent in the Y chromosome. Based on previous data, the Athila retroelement belongs to the CL3 group of most repetitive sequences in the S. latifolia genome. Structural, transcriptomics and phylogenetic analyses revealed that Athila CL3 represents an old clade in the Athila lineage. We propose a mechanism responsible for Athila CL3 distribution in the S. latifolia genome. PMID:24751661

  4. Fungal Infection Induces Sex-Specific Transcriptional Changes and Alters Sexual Dimorphism in the Dioecious Plant Silene latifolia

    PubMed Central

    Zemp, Niklaus; Tavares, Raquel; Widmer, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Sexual dimorphism, including differences in morphology, behavior and physiology between females and males, is widespread in animals and plants and is shaped by gene expression differences between the sexes. Such expression differences may also underlie sex-specific responses of hosts to pathogen infections, most notably when pathogens induce partial sex reversal in infected hosts. The genetic changes associated with sex-specific responses to pathogen infections on the one hand, and sexual dimorphism on the other hand, remain poorly understood. The dioecious White Campion (Silene latifolia) displays sexual dimorphism in floral traits and infection with the smut fungus Micobrotryum lychnidis-dioicae induces a partial sex reversal in females. We find strong sex-specific responses to pathogen infection and reduced sexual dimorphism in infected S. latifolia. This provides a direct link between pathogen-mediated changes in sex-biased gene expression and altered sexual dimorphism in the host. Expression changes following infection affected mainly genes with male-biased expression in healthy plants. In females, these genes were up-regulated, leading to a masculinization of the transcriptome. In contrast, infection in males was associated with down-regulation of these genes, leading to a demasculinization of the transcriptome. To a lesser extent, genes with female-biased expression in healthy plants were also affected in opposite directions in the two sexes. These genes were overall down-regulated in females and up-regulated in males, causing, respectively, a defeminization in infected females and a feminization of the transcriptome in infected males. Our results reveal strong sex-specific responses to pathogen infection in a dioecious plant and provide a link between pathogen-induced changes in sex-biased gene expression and sexual dimorphism. PMID:26448481

  5. Fungal Infection Induces Sex-Specific Transcriptional Changes and Alters Sexual Dimorphism in the Dioecious Plant Silene latifolia.

    PubMed

    Zemp, Niklaus; Tavares, Raquel; Widmer, Alex

    2015-10-01

    Sexual dimorphism, including differences in morphology, behavior and physiology between females and males, is widespread in animals and plants and is shaped by gene expression differences between the sexes. Such expression differences may also underlie sex-specific responses of hosts to pathogen infections, most notably when pathogens induce partial sex reversal in infected hosts. The genetic changes associated with sex-specific responses to pathogen infections on the one hand, and sexual dimorphism on the other hand, remain poorly understood. The dioecious White Campion (Silene latifolia) displays sexual dimorphism in floral traits and infection with the smut fungus Micobrotryum lychnidis-dioicae induces a partial sex reversal in females. We find strong sex-specific responses to pathogen infection and reduced sexual dimorphism in infected S. latifolia. This provides a direct link between pathogen-mediated changes in sex-biased gene expression and altered sexual dimorphism in the host. Expression changes following infection affected mainly genes with male-biased expression in healthy plants. In females, these genes were up-regulated, leading to a masculinization of the transcriptome. In contrast, infection in males was associated with down-regulation of these genes, leading to a demasculinization of the transcriptome. To a lesser extent, genes with female-biased expression in healthy plants were also affected in opposite directions in the two sexes. These genes were overall down-regulated in females and up-regulated in males, causing, respectively, a defeminization in infected females and a feminization of the transcriptome in infected males. Our results reveal strong sex-specific responses to pathogen infection in a dioecious plant and provide a link between pathogen-induced changes in sex-biased gene expression and sexual dimorphism. PMID:26448481

  6. The X chromosome is necessary for somatic development in the dioecious Silene latifolia: cytogenetic and molecular evidence and sequencing of a haploid genome.

    PubMed

    Soukupova, Magda; Nevrtalova, Eva; Cížková, Jana; Vogel, Ivan; Cegan, Radim; Hobza, Roman; Vyskot, Boris

    2014-01-01

    Silene latifolia (or white campion) possesses a well-established sex determination system with a dominant Y chromosome in males (the mammalian type). The heteromorphic sex chromosomes X and Y in S. latifolia largely stopped recombination; thus, we can expect a gradual genetic degeneration of the Y chromosome. It is well proven that neither diploid nor polyploid S. latifolia sporophytes can survive without at least one X, so the only life stage possessing the Y as the sole sex chromosome is the male gametophyte (pollen tube), while the female gametophyte seems to be X-dependent. Previous studies on anther-derived plants of this species showed that the obtained plants (largely haploid or dihaploid) were phenotypically and cytologically female. In this paper, we provide molecular evidence for the inviability of plants lacking the X chromosome. Using sex-specific PCR primers, we show that all plantlets and plants derived from anther cultures are female. In studying anther-derived diploid females by sequencing of X-linked markers, we demonstrate that these plants are really homozygous dihaploids. A haploid regenerant plant was sequenced (8× genome coverage) using Illumina technology. Genome data are disposable in the EMBL database as a standard for full genome and X chromosome assembly in this model species. Homozygous dihaploids were back-crossed with males to yield a progeny useful for the study of the evolution of the Y chromosome. PMID:24993893

  7. Glacial Refugia in Pathogens: European Genetic Structure of Anther Smut Pathogens on Silene latifolia and Silene dioica

    PubMed Central

    Vercken, Elodie; Fontaine, Michael C.; Gladieux, Pierre; Hood, Michael E.; Jonot, Odile; Giraud, Tatiana

    2010-01-01

    Climate warming is predicted to increase the frequency of invasions by pathogens and to cause the large-scale redistribution of native host species, with dramatic consequences on the health of domesticated and wild populations of plants and animals. The study of historic range shifts in response to climate change, such as during interglacial cycles, can help in the prediction of the routes and dynamics of infectious diseases during the impending ecosystem changes. Here we studied the population structure in Europe of two Microbotryum species causing anther smut disease on the plants Silene latifolia and Silene dioica. Clustering analyses revealed the existence of genetically distinct groups for the pathogen on S. latifolia, providing a clear-cut example of European phylogeography reflecting recolonization from southern refugia after glaciation. The pathogen genetic structure was congruent with the genetic structure of its host species S. latifolia, suggesting dependence of the migration pathway of the anther smut fungus on its host. The fungus, however, appeared to have persisted in more numerous and smaller refugia than its host and to have experienced fewer events of large-scale dispersal. The anther smut pathogen on S. dioica also showed a strong phylogeographic structure that might be related to more northern glacial refugia. Differences in host ecology probably played a role in these differences in the pathogen population structure. Very high selfing rates were inferred in both fungal species, explaining the low levels of admixture between the genetic clusters. The systems studied here indicate that migration patterns caused by climate change can be expected to include pathogen invasions that follow the redistribution of their host species at continental scales, but also that the recolonization by pathogens is not simply a mirror of their hosts, even for obligate biotrophs, and that the ecology of hosts and pathogen mating systems likely affects recolonization

  8. Veratrole biosynthesis in white campion.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Tariq A; Pichersky, Eran

    2013-05-01

    White campion (Silene latifolia) is a dioecious plant that emits 1,2-dimethoxybenzene (veratrole), a potent pollinator attractant to the nocturnal moth Hadena bicruris. Little is known about veratrole biosynthesis, although methylation of 2-methoxyphenol (guaiacol), another volatile emitted from white campion flowers, has been proposed. Here, we explore the biosynthetic route to veratrole. Feeding white campion flowers with [(13)C9]l-phenylalanine increased guaiacol and veratrole emission, and a significant portion of these volatile molecules contained the stable isotope. When white campion flowers were treated with the phenylalanine ammonia lyase inhibitor 2-aminoindan-2-phosphonic acid, guaiacol and veratrole levels were reduced by 50% and 63%, respectively. Feeding with benzoic acid (BA) or salicylic acid (SA) increased veratrole emission 2-fold, while [(2)H5]BA and [(2)H6]SA feeding indicated that the benzene ring of both guaiacol and veratrole is derived from BA via SA. We further report guaiacol O-methyltransferase (GOMT) activity in the flowers of white campion. The enzyme was purified to apparent homogeneity, and the peptide sequence matched that encoded by a recently identified complementary DNA (SlGOMT1) from a white campion flower expressed sequence tag database. Screening of a small population of North American white campion plants for floral volatile emission revealed that not all plants emitted veratrole or possessed GOMT activity, and SlGOMT1 expression was only observed in veratrole emitters. Collectively these data suggest that veratrole is derived by the methylation of guaiacol, which itself originates from phenylalanine via BA and SA, and therefore implies a novel branch point of the general phenylpropanoid pathway. PMID:23547102

  9. Next Generation Sequencing-Based Analysis of Repetitive DNA in the Model Dioceous Plant Silene latifolia

    PubMed Central

    Macas, Jiří; Kejnovský, Eduard; Neumann, Pavel; Novák, Petr; Koblížková, Andrea; Vyskot, Boris

    2011-01-01

    Background Silene latifolia is a dioceous plant with well distinguished X and Y chromosomes that is used as a model to study sex determination and sex chromosome evolution in plants. However, efficient utilization of this species has been hampered by the lack of large-scale sequencing resources and detailed analysis of its genome composition, especially with respect to repetitive DNA, which makes up the majority of the genome. Methodology/Principal Findings We performed low-pass 454 sequencing followed by similarity-based clustering of 454 reads in order to identify and characterize sequences of all major groups of S. latifolia repeats. Illumina sequencing data from male and female genomes were also generated and employed to quantify the genomic proportions of individual repeat families. The majority of identified repeats belonged to LTR-retrotransposons, constituting about 50% of genomic DNA, with Ty3/gypsy elements being more frequent than Ty1/copia. While there were differences between the male and female genome in the abundance of several repeat families, their overall repeat composition was highly similar. Specific localization patterns on sex chromosomes were found for several satellite repeats using in situ hybridization with probes based on k-mer frequency analysis of Illumina sequencing data. Conclusions/Significance This study provides comprehensive information about the sequence composition and abundance of repeats representing over 60% of the S. latifolia genome. The results revealed generally low divergence in repeat composition between the sex chromosomes, which is consistent with their relatively recent origin. In addition, the study generated various data resources that are available for future exploration of the S. latifolia genome. PMID:22096552

  10. Size Does Matter: Staging of Silene latifolia Floral Buds for Transcriptome Studies

    PubMed Central

    Toh, Su San; Perlin, Michael H.

    2015-01-01

    Dioecious plants in the Caryophyllaceae family are susceptible to infection by members of the anthericolous smut fungi. In our studies of the Silene latifolia/Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae pathosystem, we were interested in characterizing the plant-pathogen interaction at the molecular level before and during teliosporogenesis. This takes place during floral bud development, and we hoped to capture the interaction by Illumina Next-Gen RNA-Sequencing. Using previous literature that documented the stages of the floral buds for S. latifolia, we examined the floral buds from plants grown and infected under growth chamber conditions, using the disserting microscope to determine the stage of floral buds based on the morphology. We compiled the information and determined the size of floral buds that correspond to the desired stages of development for tissue collection, for the purpose of RNA-sequencing. This offers a practical approach for researchers who require a large number of floral buds/tissue categorized by stages of development, ascertaining whether infected/uninfected buds are at comparable stages of development and whether this also holds true for male vs. female buds. We also document our experience in infecting the plants and some of the unusual morphologies we observed after infection. PMID:26378529

  11. Expansion of the Pseudo-autosomal Region and Ongoing Recombination Suppression in the Silene latifolia Sex Chromosomes

    PubMed Central

    Bergero, Roberta; Qiu, Suo; Forrest, Alan; Borthwick, Helen; Charlesworth, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    There are two very interesting aspects to the evolution of sex chromosomes: what happens after recombination between these chromosome pairs stops and why suppressed recombination evolves. The former question has been intensively studied in a diversity of organisms, but the latter has been studied largely theoretically. To obtain empirical data, we used codominant genic markers in genetic mapping of the dioecious plant Silene latifolia, together with comparative mapping of S. latifolia sex-linked genes in S. vulgaris (a related hermaphrodite species without sex chromosomes). We mapped 29 S. latifolia fully sex-linked genes (including 21 newly discovered from transcriptome sequencing), plus 6 genes in a recombining pseudo-autosomal region (PAR) whose genetic map length is ∼25 cM in both male and female meiosis, suggesting that the PAR may contain many genes. Our comparative mapping shows that most fully sex-linked genes in S. latifolia are located on a single S. vulgaris linkage group and were probably inherited from a single autosome of an ancestor. However, unexpectedly, our maps suggest that the S. latifolia PAR region expanded through translocation events. Some genes in these regions still recombine in S. latifolia, but some genes from both addition events are now fully sex-linked. Recombination suppression is therefore still ongoing in S. latifolia, and multiple recombination suppression events have occurred in a timescale of few million years, much shorter than the timescale of formation of the most recent evolutionary strata of mammal and bird sex chromosomes. PMID:23733786

  12. Comparative analysis of a plant pseudoautosomal region (PAR) in Silene latifolia with the corresponding S. vulgaris autosome

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The sex chromosomes of Silene latifolia are heteromorphic as in mammals, with females being homogametic (XX) and males heterogametic (XY). While recombination occurs along the entire X chromosome in females, recombination between the X and Y chromosomes in males is restricted to the pseudoautosomal region (PAR). In the few mammals so far studied, PARs are often characterized by elevated recombination and mutation rates and high GC content compared with the rest of the genome. However, PARs have not been studied in plants until now. In this paper we report the construction of a BAC library for S. latifolia and the first analysis of a > 100 kb fragment of a S. latifolia PAR that we compare to the homologous autosomal region in the closely related gynodioecious species S. vulgaris. Results Six new sex-linked genes were identified in the S. latifolia PAR, together with numerous transposable elements. The same genes were found on the S. vulgaris autosomal segment, with no enlargement of the predicted coding sequences in S. latifolia. Intergenic regions were on average 1.6 times longer in S. latifolia than in S. vulgaris, mainly as a consequence of the insertion of transposable elements. The GC content did not differ significantly between the PAR region in S. latifolia and the corresponding autosomal region in S. vulgaris. Conclusions Our results demonstrate the usefulness of the BAC library developed here for the analysis of plant sex chromosomes and indicate that the PAR in the evolutionarily young S. latifolia sex chromosomes has diverged from the corresponding autosomal region in the gynodioecious S. vulgaris mainly with respect to the insertion of transposable elements. Gene order between the PAR and autosomal region investigated is conserved, and the PAR does not have the high GC content observed in evolutionarily much older mammalian sex chromosomes. PMID:22681719

  13. Patterns of cyto-nuclear linkage disequilibrium in Silene latifolia: genomic heterogeneity and temporal stability

    PubMed Central

    Fields, P D; McCauley, D E; McAssey, E V; Taylor, D R

    2014-01-01

    Non-random association of alleles in the nucleus and cytoplasmic organelles, or cyto-nuclear linkage disequilibrium (LD), is both an important component of a number of evolutionary processes and a statistical indicator of others. The evolutionary significance of cyto-nuclear LD will depend on both its magnitude and how stable those associations are through time. Here, we use a longitudinal population genetic data set to explore the magnitude and temporal dynamics of cyto-nuclear disequilibria through time. We genotyped 135 and 170 individuals from 16 and 17 patches of the plant species Silene latifolia in Southwestern VA, sampled in 1993 and 2008, respectively. Individuals were genotyped at 14 highly polymorphic microsatellite markers and a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the mitochondrial gene, atp1. Normalized LD (D′) between nuclear and cytoplasmic loci varied considerably depending on which nuclear locus was considered (ranging from 0.005–0.632). Four of the 14 cyto-nuclear associations showed a statistically significant shift over approximately seven generations. However, the overall magnitude of this disequilibrium was largely stable over time. The observed origin and stability of cyto-nuclear LD is most likely caused by the slow admixture between anciently diverged lineages within the species' newly invaded range, and the local spatial structure and metapopulation dynamics that are known to structure genetic variation in this system. PMID:24002238

  14. Determinants of Genetic Structure in a Nonequilibrium Metapopulation of the Plant Silene latifolia

    PubMed Central

    Fields, Peter D.; Taylor, Douglas R.

    2014-01-01

    Population genetic differentiation will be influenced by the demographic history of populations, opportunities for migration among neighboring demes and founder effects associated with repeated extinction and recolonization. In natural populations, these factors are expected to interact with each other and their magnitudes will vary depending on the spatial distribution and age structure of local demes. Although each of these effects has been individually identified as important in structuring genetic variance, their relative magnitude is seldom estimated in nature. We conducted a population genetic analysis in a metapopulation of the angiosperm, Silene latifolia, from which we had more than 20 years of data on the spatial distribution, demographic history, and extinction and colonization of demes. We used hierarchical Bayesian methods to disentangle which features of the populations contributed to among population variation in allele frequencies, including the magnitude and direction of their effects. We show that population age, long-term size and degree of connectivity all combine to affect the distribution of genetic variance; small, recently-founded, isolated populations contributed most to increase FST in the metapopulation. However, the effects of population size and population age are best understood as being modulated through the effects of connectivity to other extant populations, i.e. FST diminishes as populations age, but at a rate that depends how isolated the population is. These spatial and temporal correlates of population structure give insight into how migration, founder effect and within-deme genetic drift have combined to enhance and restrict genetic divergence in a natural metapopulation. PMID:25198341

  15. Genomic Diversity in Two Related Plant Species with and without Sex Chromosomes - Silene latifolia and S. vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Cegan, Radim; Vyskot, Boris; Kejnovsky, Eduard; Kubat, Zdenek; Blavet, Hana; Šafář, Jan; Doležel, Jaroslav; Blavet, Nicolas; Hobza, Roman

    2012-01-01

    Background Genome size evolution is a complex process influenced by polyploidization, satellite DNA accumulation, and expansion of retroelements. How this process could be affected by different reproductive strategies is still poorly understood. Methodology/Principal Findings We analyzed differences in the number and distribution of major repetitive DNA elements in two closely related species, Silene latifolia and S. vulgaris. Both species are diploid and possess the same chromosome number (2n = 24), but differ in their genome size and mode of reproduction. The dioecious S. latifolia (1C = 2.70 pg DNA) possesses sex chromosomes and its genome is 2.5× larger than that of the gynodioecious S. vulgaris (1C = 1.13 pg DNA), which does not possess sex chromosomes. We discovered that the genome of S. latifolia is larger mainly due to the expansion of Ogre retrotransposons. Surprisingly, the centromeric STAR-C and TR1 tandem repeats were found to be more abundant in S. vulgaris, the species with the smaller genome. We further examined the distribution of major repetitive sequences in related species in the Caryophyllaceae family. The results of FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization) on mitotic chromosomes with the Retand element indicate that large rearrangements occurred during the evolution of the Caryophyllaceae family. Conclusions/Significance Our data demonstrate that the evolution of genome size in the genus Silene is accompanied by the expansion of different repetitive elements with specific patterns in the dioecious species possessing the sex chromosomes. PMID:22393373

  16. On flavonoid accumulation in different plant parts: variation patterns among individuals and populations in the shore campion (Silene littorea)

    PubMed Central

    del Valle, José C.; Buide, Ma L.; Casimiro-Soriguer, Inés; Whittall, Justen B.; Narbona, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    The presence of anthocyanins in flowers and fruits is frequently attributed to attracting pollinators and dispersers. In vegetative organs, anthocyanins and other non-pigmented flavonoids such as flavones and flavonols may serve protective functions against UV radiation, cold, heat, drought, salinity, pathogens, and herbivores; thus, these compounds are usually produced as a plastic response to such stressors. Although, the independent accumulation of anthocyanins in reproductive and vegetative tissues is commonly postulated due to differential regulation, the accumulation of flavonoids within and among populations has never been thoroughly compared. Here, we investigated the shore campion (Silene littorea, Caryophyllaceae) which exhibits variation in anthocyanin accumulation in its floral and vegetative tissues. We examined the in-situ accumulation of flavonoids in floral (petals and calyxes) and vegetative organs (leaves) from 18 populations representing the species' geographic distribution. Each organ exhibited considerable variability in the content of anthocyanins and other flavonoids both within and among populations. In all organs, anthocyanin and other flavonoids were correlated. At the plant level, the flavonoid content in petals, calyxes, and leaves was not correlated in most of the populations. However, at the population level, the mean amount of anthocyanins in all organs was positively correlated, which suggests that the variable environmental conditions of populations may play a role in anthocyanin accumulation. These results are unexpected because the anthocyanins are usually constitutive in petals, yet contingent to environmental conditions in calyxes and leaves. Anthocyanin variation in petals may influence pollinator attraction and subsequent plant reproduction, yet the amount of anthocyanins may be a direct response to environmental factors. In populations on the west coast, a general pattern of increasing accumulation of flavonoids toward

  17. On flavonoid accumulation in different plant parts: variation patterns among individuals and populations in the shore campion (Silene littorea).

    PubMed

    Del Valle, José C; Buide, Ma L; Casimiro-Soriguer, Inés; Whittall, Justen B; Narbona, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    The presence of anthocyanins in flowers and fruits is frequently attributed to attracting pollinators and dispersers. In vegetative organs, anthocyanins and other non-pigmented flavonoids such as flavones and flavonols may serve protective functions against UV radiation, cold, heat, drought, salinity, pathogens, and herbivores; thus, these compounds are usually produced as a plastic response to such stressors. Although, the independent accumulation of anthocyanins in reproductive and vegetative tissues is commonly postulated due to differential regulation, the accumulation of flavonoids within and among populations has never been thoroughly compared. Here, we investigated the shore campion (Silene littorea, Caryophyllaceae) which exhibits variation in anthocyanin accumulation in its floral and vegetative tissues. We examined the in-situ accumulation of flavonoids in floral (petals and calyxes) and vegetative organs (leaves) from 18 populations representing the species' geographic distribution. Each organ exhibited considerable variability in the content of anthocyanins and other flavonoids both within and among populations. In all organs, anthocyanin and other flavonoids were correlated. At the plant level, the flavonoid content in petals, calyxes, and leaves was not correlated in most of the populations. However, at the population level, the mean amount of anthocyanins in all organs was positively correlated, which suggests that the variable environmental conditions of populations may play a role in anthocyanin accumulation. These results are unexpected because the anthocyanins are usually constitutive in petals, yet contingent to environmental conditions in calyxes and leaves. Anthocyanin variation in petals may influence pollinator attraction and subsequent plant reproduction, yet the amount of anthocyanins may be a direct response to environmental factors. In populations on the west coast, a general pattern of increasing accumulation of flavonoids toward

  18. FAST-FISH with laser beam microdissected DOP-PCR probe distinguishes the sex chromosomes of Silene latifolia.

    PubMed

    Hobza, Roman; Lengerova, Martina; Cernohorska, Halina; Rubes, Jiri; Vyskot, Boris

    2004-01-01

    We present an improved FISH strategy for differentiating the sex chromosomes of the dioecious model plant, Silene latifolia. Fixed mitotic protoplasts were dropped on a polyethylene naphthalate membrane, the X or Y chromosomes were isolated using nitrogen laser beam microdissection, catapulted by laser pressure, and amplified by DOP-PCR. A modified FAST-FISH protocol based on a short hybridization time combined with a low concentration of probe was used. The success of this approach is demonstrated by the differential labeling of the X and Y chromosomes and it could represent a quick method for comparing organization of plant genomes. PMID:15125638

  19. Rapid De Novo Evolution of X Chromosome Dosage Compensation in Silene latifolia, a Plant with Young Sex Chromosomes

    PubMed Central

    Deschamps, Clothilde; Mousset, Sylvain; Widmer, Alex; Marais, Gabriel A. B.

    2012-01-01

    Silene latifolia is a dioecious plant with heteromorphic sex chromosomes that have originated only ∼10 million years ago and is a promising model organism to study sex chromosome evolution in plants. Previous work suggests that S. latifolia XY chromosomes have gradually stopped recombining and the Y chromosome is undergoing degeneration as in animal sex chromosomes. However, this work has been limited by the paucity of sex-linked genes available. Here, we used 35 Gb of RNA-seq data from multiple males (XY) and females (XX) of an S. latifolia inbred line to detect sex-linked SNPs and identified more than 1,700 sex-linked contigs (with X-linked and Y-linked alleles). Analyses using known sex-linked and autosomal genes, together with simulations indicate that these newly identified sex-linked contigs are reliable. Using read numbers, we then estimated expression levels of X-linked and Y-linked alleles in males and found an overall trend of reduced expression of Y-linked alleles, consistent with a widespread ongoing degeneration of the S. latifolia Y chromosome. By comparing expression intensities of X-linked alleles in males and females, we found that X-linked allele expression increases as Y-linked allele expression decreases in males, which makes expression of sex-linked contigs similar in both sexes. This phenomenon is known as dosage compensation and has so far only been observed in evolutionary old animal sex chromosome systems. Our results suggest that dosage compensation has evolved in plants and that it can quickly evolve de novo after the origin of sex chromosomes. PMID:22529744

  20. A new physical mapping approach refines the sex-determining gene positions on the Silene latifolia Y-chromosome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazama, Yusuke; Ishii, Kotaro; Aonuma, Wataru; Ikeda, Tokihiro; Kawamoto, Hiroki; Koizumi, Ayako; Filatov, Dmitry A.; Chibalina, Margarita; Bergero, Roberta; Charlesworth, Deborah; Abe, Tomoko; Kawano, Shigeyuki

    2016-01-01

    Sex chromosomes are particularly interesting regions of the genome for both molecular genetics and evolutionary studies; yet, for most species, we lack basic information, such as the gene order along the chromosome. Because they lack recombination, Y-linked genes cannot be mapped genetically, leaving physical mapping as the only option for establishing the extent of synteny and homology with the X chromosome. Here, we developed a novel and general method for deletion mapping of non-recombining regions by solving “the travelling salesman problem”, and evaluate its accuracy using simulated datasets. Unlike the existing radiation hybrid approach, this method allows us to combine deletion mutants from different experiments and sources. We applied our method to a set of newly generated deletion mutants in the dioecious plant Silene latifolia and refined the locations of the sex-determining loci on its Y chromosome map.

  1. A new physical mapping approach refines the sex-determining gene positions on the Silene latifolia Y-chromosome

    PubMed Central

    Kazama, Yusuke; Ishii, Kotaro; Aonuma, Wataru; Ikeda, Tokihiro; Kawamoto, Hiroki; Koizumi, Ayako; Filatov, Dmitry A.; Chibalina, Margarita; Bergero, Roberta; Charlesworth, Deborah; Abe, Tomoko; Kawano, Shigeyuki

    2016-01-01

    Sex chromosomes are particularly interesting regions of the genome for both molecular genetics and evolutionary studies; yet, for most species, we lack basic information, such as the gene order along the chromosome. Because they lack recombination, Y-linked genes cannot be mapped genetically, leaving physical mapping as the only option for establishing the extent of synteny and homology with the X chromosome. Here, we developed a novel and general method for deletion mapping of non-recombining regions by solving “the travelling salesman problem”, and evaluate its accuracy using simulated datasets. Unlike the existing radiation hybrid approach, this method allows us to combine deletion mutants from different experiments and sources. We applied our method to a set of newly generated deletion mutants in the dioecious plant Silene latifolia and refined the locations of the sex-determining loci on its Y chromosome map. PMID:26742857

  2. Veratrole Biosynthesis in White Campion1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Akhtar, Tariq A.; Pichersky, Eran

    2013-01-01

    White campion (Silene latifolia) is a dioecious plant that emits 1,2-dimethoxybenzene (veratrole), a potent pollinator attractant to the nocturnal moth Hadena bicruris. Little is known about veratrole biosynthesis, although methylation of 2-methoxyphenol (guaiacol), another volatile emitted from white campion flowers, has been proposed. Here, we explore the biosynthetic route to veratrole. Feeding white campion flowers with [13C9]l-phenylalanine increased guaiacol and veratrole emission, and a significant portion of these volatile molecules contained the stable isotope. When white campion flowers were treated with the phenylalanine ammonia lyase inhibitor 2-aminoindan-2-phosphonic acid, guaiacol and veratrole levels were reduced by 50% and 63%, respectively. Feeding with benzoic acid (BA) or salicylic acid (SA) increased veratrole emission 2-fold, while [2H5]BA and [2H6]SA feeding indicated that the benzene ring of both guaiacol and veratrole is derived from BA via SA. We further report guaiacol O-methyltransferase (GOMT) activity in the flowers of white campion. The enzyme was purified to apparent homogeneity, and the peptide sequence matched that encoded by a recently identified complementary DNA (SlGOMT1) from a white campion flower expressed sequence tag database. Screening of a small population of North American white campion plants for floral volatile emission revealed that not all plants emitted veratrole or possessed GOMT activity, and SlGOMT1 expression was only observed in veratrole emitters. Collectively these data suggest that veratrole is derived by the methylation of guaiacol, which itself originates from phenylalanine via BA and SA, and therefore implies a novel branch point of the general phenylpropanoid pathway. PMID:23547102

  3. Evolutionary Strata on the X Chromosomes of the Dioecious Plant Silene latifolia: Evidence From New Sex-Linked Genes

    PubMed Central

    Bergero, Roberta; Forrest, Alan; Kamau, Esther; Charlesworth, Deborah

    2007-01-01

    Despite its recent evolutionary origin, the sex chromosome system of the plant Silene latifolia shows signs of progressive suppression of recombination having created evolutionary strata of different X–Y divergence on sex chromosomes. However, even after 8 years of effort, this result is based on analyses of five sex-linked gene sequences, and the maximum divergence (and thus the age of this plant's sex chromosome system) has remained uncertain. More genes are therefore needed. Here, by segregation analysis of intron size variants (ISVS) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), we identify three new Y-linked genes, one being duplicated on the Y chromosome, and test for evolutionary strata. All the new genes have homologs on the X and Y chromosomes. Synonymous divergence estimated between the X and Y homolog pairs is within the range of those already reported. Genetic mapping of the new X-linked loci shows that the map is the same in all three families that have been studied so far and that X–Y divergence increases with genetic distance from the pseudoautosomal region. We can now conclude that the divergence value is saturated, confirming the cessation of X–Y recombination in the evolution of the sex chromosomes at ∼10–20 MYA. PMID:17287532

  4. X Linkage of AP3A, a Homolog of the Y-Linked MADS-Box Gene AP3Y in Silene latifolia and S. dioica

    PubMed Central

    Penny, Rebecca H.; Montgomery, Benjamin R.; Delph, Lynda F.

    2011-01-01

    Background The duplication of autosomal genes onto the Y chromosome may be an important element in the evolution of sexual dimorphism.A previous cytological study reported on a putative example of such a duplication event in a dioecious tribe of Silene (Caryophyllaceae): it was inferred that the Y-linked MADS-box gene AP3Y originated from a duplication of the reportedly autosomal orthologAP3A. However, a recent study, also using cytological methods, indicated that AP3A is X-linked in Silenelatifolia. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we hybridized S. latifolia and S. dioicato investigate whether the pattern of X linkage is consistent among distinct populations, occurs in both species, and is robust to genetic methods. We found inheritance patterns indicative of X linkage of AP3A in widely distributed populations of both species. Conclusions/Significance X linkage ofAP3A and Y linkage of AP3Yin both species indicates that the genes' ancestral progenitor resided on the autosomes that gave rise to the sex chromosomesand that neither gene has moved between chromosomes since species divergence.Consequently, our results do not support the contention that inter-chromosomal gene transfer occurred in the evolution of SlAP3Y from SlAP3A. PMID:21533056

  5. Ultrastructural analysis of the behavior of the dimorphic fungus Microbotryum violaceum in fungus-induced anthers of female Silene latifolia flowers.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Wakana; Matsunaga, Sachihiro; Kawano, Shigeyuki

    2005-12-01

    The development of male organs is induced in female flowers of the dioecious plant Silene latifolia by infection with the fungus Microbotryum violaceum. Stamens in a healthy female flower grow only to stage 6, whereas those in an infected female flower develop to the mature stage (stage 12), at which the stamens are filled with fungal teliospores instead of pollen grains. To investigate these host-parasite interactions, young floral buds and fungus-induced anthers of infected female flowers were examined by electron microscopy following fixation by a high-pressure freezing method. Using this approach, we found that parasitic hyphae of this fungus contain several extracellular vesicles and have a consistent appearance up to stage 8. At that stage, parasitic hyphae are observed adjacent to dying sporogenous cells in the infected female anther. At stage 9, an increased number of dead and dying sporogenous cells is observed, among which the sporogenous hyphae of the fungus develop and form initial teliospores. Several types of electron-dense material are present in proximity to some fungi at this stage. The initial teliospores contain two types of vacuoles, and the fungus cell wall contains abundant carbohydrate, as revealed by silver protein staining. The sporogenous cell is probably sensitive to infection by the fungus, resulting in disruption. In addition, the fungus accelerates cell death in the anther and utilizes constituents of the dead host cell to form the mature teliospore. PMID:16333578

  6. Plant population size and isolation affect herbivory of Silene latifolia by the specialist herbivore Hadena bicruris and parasitism of the herbivore by parasitoids.

    PubMed

    Elzinga, Jelmer A; Turin, Hans; van Damme, Jos M M; Biere, Arjen

    2005-07-01

    Habitat fragmentation can affect levels of herbivory in plant populations if plants and herbivores are differentially affected by fragmentation. Moreover, if herbivores are top-down controlled by predators or parasitoids, herbivory may also be affected by differential effects of fragmentation on herbivores and their natural enemies. We used natural Silene latifolia populations to examine the effects of plant population size and isolation on the level of herbivory by the seed predating noctuid Hadena bicruris and the rate of parasitism of the herbivore by its parasitoids. In addition, we examined oviposition rate, herbivory and parasitism in differently sized experimental populations. In natural populations, the level of herbivory increased and the rate of parasitism decreased with decreasing plant population size and increasing degree of isolation. The number of parasitoid species also declined with decreasing plant population size. In the experimental populations, the level of herbivory was also higher in smaller populations, in accordance with higher oviposition rates, but was not accompanied by lower rates of parasitism. Similarly, oviposition rate and herbivory, but not parasitism rate, increased near the edges of populations. These results suggests that in this system with the well dispersing herbivore H. bicruris, habitat fragmentation increases herbivory of the plant through a behavioural response of the moth that leads to higher oviposition rates in fragmented populations with a reduced population size, increased isolation and higher edge-to-interior ratio. Although the rate of parasitism and the number of parasitoid species declined with decreasing population size in the natural populations, we argue that in this system it is unlikely that this decline made a major contribution to increased herbivory. PMID:15891816

  7. The large-X effect in plants: increased species divergence and reduced gene flow on the Silene X-chromosome.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xin-Sheng; Filatov, Dmitry A

    2016-06-01

    The disproportionately large involvement of the X-chromosome in the isolation of closely related species (the large-X effect) has been reported for many animals, where X-linked genes are mostly hemizygous in the heterogametic sex. The expression of deleterious recessive mutations is thought to drive the frequent involvement of the X-chromosome in hybrid sterility, as well as to reduce interspecific gene flow for X-linked genes. Here, we evaluate the role of the X-chromosome in the speciation of two closely related plant species - the white and red campions (Silene latifolia and S. dioica) - that hybridize widely across Europe. The two species evolved separate sexes and sex chromosomes relatively recently (~10(7)  years), and unlike most animal species, most X-linked genes have intact Y-linked homologs. We demonstrate that the X-linked genes show a very small and insignificant amount of interspecific gene flow, while gene flow involving autosomal loci is significant and sufficient to homogenize the gene pools of the two species. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis of the large-X effect in Silene and comprise the first report of this effect in plants. Nonhemizygosity of many X-linked genes in Silene males indicates that exposure of recessive mutations to selection may not be essential for the occurrence of the large-X effect. Several possible causes of the large-X effect in Silene are discussed. PMID:26479725

  8. Differences in style length confer prezygotic isolation between two dioecious species of Silene in sympatry

    PubMed Central

    Nista, Phil; Brothers, Amanda N; Delph, Lynda F

    2015-01-01

    One fundamental signature of reinforcement is elevated prezygotic reproductive isolation between related species in sympatry relative to allopatry. However, this alone is inadequate evidence for reinforcement, as traits conferring reproductive isolation can occur as a by-product of other forces. We conducted crosses between Silene latifolia and S. diclinis, two closely related dioecious flowering plant species. Crosses with S. latifolia mothers from sympatry exhibited lower seed set than mothers from five allopatric populations when S. diclinis was the father. However, two other allopatric populations also exhibited low seed set. A significant interaction between style length and sire species revealed that seed set declined as style length increased when interspecific, but not intraspecific, fathers where used. Moreover, by varying the distance pollen tubes had to traverse, we found interspecific pollen placement close to the ovary resulted in seed set in both long- and short-styled S. latifolia mothers. Our results reveal that the long styles of S. latifolia in sympatry with S. diclinis contribute to the prevention of hybrid formation. We argue that forces other than reinforcing selection are likely to be responsible for the differences in style length seen in sympatry. PMID:26257882

  9. Carbon starvation increases endoglycosidase activities and production of "unconjugated N-glycans" in Silene alba cell-suspension cultures.

    PubMed Central

    Lhernould, S; Karamanos, Y; Priem, B; Morvan, H

    1994-01-01

    We previously reported the occurrence of oligomannosides and xylomannosides corresponding to unconjugated N-glycans (UNGs) in the medium of a white campion (Silene alba) cell suspension. Attention has been focused on these oligosaccharides since it was shown that they confer biological activities in plants. In an attempt to elucidate the origin of these oligosaccharides, we studied two endoglycosidase activities, putative enzymes involved in their formation. The previously described peptide-N4-(N-acetyl-glucosaminyl) asparagine amidase activity and the endo-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase activity described in this paper were both quantified in white campion cells during the culture cycle with variable initial concentrations of sucrose. The lower the sucrose supply, the higher the two activities. Furthermore, endoglycosidase activities were greatly enhanced after the disappearance of sugar from the medium. The production of UNGs in the culture medium rose correlatively. These data strongly suggest that the production of UNGs in our white campion cell-suspension system is due to the increase of these endoglycosidase activities, which reach their highest levels of activity during conditions of carbon starvation. PMID:7991689

  10. 'Junk' DNA and long-term phenotypic evolution in Silene section Elisanthe (Caryophyllaceae).

    PubMed Central

    Meagher, Thomas R; Costich, Denise E

    2004-01-01

    Nuclear DNA content variation over orders of magnitude across species has been attributed to 'junk' repetitive DNA with limited adaptive significance. By contrast, our previous work on Silene latifolia showed that DNA content is negatively correlated with flower size, a character of clear adaptive relevance. The present paper explores this relationship in a broader phylogenetic context to investigate the long-term evolutionary impacts of DNA content variation. The relationship between nuclear DNA content and phenotype variation was determined for four closely related species of Silene section Elisanthe (Caryophyllaceae). In addition to a consistent sexual dimorphism in DNA content across all of the species, we found DNA content variation among populations within, as well as among, species. We also found a general trend towards a negative correlation between DNA content and flower and leaf size over all four species, within males and females as well as overall. These results indicate that repetitive DNA may play a role in long-term phenotypic evolution. PMID:15801614

  11. Do Flower Color and Floral Scent of Silene Species affect Host Preference of Hadena bicruris, a Seed-Eating Pollinator, under Field Conditions?

    PubMed Central

    Page, Paul; Favre, Adrien; Schiestl, Florian P.; Karrenberg, Sophie

    2014-01-01

    Specialization in plant–insect interactions is an important driver of evolutionary divergence; yet, plant traits mediating such interactions are poorly understood. In this study, we investigated how flower color and floral scent are related to seed predation by a seed-eating pollinator. We used field-transplanted recombinant F2 hybrids between Silene latifolia and S. dioica that are the preferred and alternative hosts of the moth Hadena bicruris and crosses within these species for comparison. We scored seed predation and flower color and analyzed floral scent. Pinker S. dioica-like flowers and emission of α-pinene decreased the odds of seed predation while emission of benzyl acetate and 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one increased the odds of seed predation. Emission of these compounds did not differ significantly between the two Silene species. Our results suggest that flower color plays an important role in the specific interaction of H. bicruris with its preferred host S. latifolia. The compounds α-pinene, benzyl acetate and 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one could represent non-specific deterrents and attractants to ovipositing moths. Alternatively, emission of these compounds could be related to herbivory or pathogen attack and act as a signal for host quality. This would weaken the predictability of the plant's costs and benefits of the interaction and act to maintain an imperfect degree of specialization. PMID:24905986

  12. SUSPENSION CULTURE AND PLANT REGENERATION OF TYPHA LATIFOLIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study is the first reported attempt to generate a growth curve from Typha latifolia L. (broadleaf cattail) callus cells in suspension culture. Several media and hormone combinations were tested for their capacity to induce callus cell formation from T. latifolia leaf section...

  13. Silene latifolia temporal patterns of volatile induction and suppression after floral interaction by the nursery pollinator, Hadena bicruris (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    1. Plant VOC emission can be induced or suppressed after herbivory, oviposition, or pollination, which may influence other trophic levels. Sometimes, a single insect species has multiple roles when interacting with a plant, e.g. as pollinator and herbivore. 2. Two experiments tested whether 14 selec...

  14. Oleanane-type triterpenoid saponins from Silene armeria.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Li, Wei; Koike, Kazuo

    2016-09-01

    Twelve triterpenoid saponins, including seven compounds (i.e., armerosides A-G) hitherto unknown, were isolated from whole plants of Silene armeria. Their structures were established based on extensive spectroscopic analyses and chemical methods. From a biosynthetic perspective, C-23 oxidation of the sapogenin appears to be a key factor in the glycosylation pathway. PMID:27460531

  15. A new isoflavone from the fruits of Madhuca latifolia.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Bina S; Khan, Shazia; Nadeem Kardar, M

    2010-01-01

    A new isoflavone, 3',4'-dihydroxy-5,2'-dimethoxy-6,7-methylendioxy isoflavone, was isolated from the Madhuca latifolia fruit coatings. The structure was elucidated on the basis of spectral and chemical evidence. PMID:20013476

  16. SILENE Benchmark Critical Experiments for Criticality Accident Alarm Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Thomas Martin; Reynolds, Kevin H.

    2011-01-01

    In October 2010 a series of benchmark experiments was conducted at the Commissariat a Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA) Valduc SILENE [1] facility. These experiments were a joint effort between the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the French CEA. The purpose of these experiments was to create three benchmarks for the verification and validation of radiation transport codes and evaluated nuclear data used in the analysis of criticality accident alarm systems (CAASs). This presentation will discuss the geometric configuration of these experiments and the quantities that were measured and will present some preliminary comparisons between the measured data and calculations. This series consisted of three single-pulsed experiments with the SILENE reactor. During the first experiment the reactor was bare (unshielded), but during the second and third experiments it was shielded by lead and polyethylene, respectively. During each experiment several neutron activation foils and thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) were placed around the reactor, and some of these detectors were themselves shielded from the reactor by high-density magnetite and barite concrete, standard concrete, and/or BoroBond. All the concrete was provided by CEA Saclay, and the BoroBond was provided by Y-12 National Security Complex. Figure 1 is a picture of the SILENE reactor cell configured for pulse 1. Also included in these experiments were measurements of the neutron and photon spectra with two BICRON BC-501A liquid scintillators. These two detectors were provided and operated by CEA Valduc. They were set up just outside the SILENE reactor cell with additional lead shielding to prevent the detectors from being saturated. The final detectors involved in the experiments were two different types of CAAS detectors. The Babcock International Group provided three CIDAS CAAS detectors, which measured photon dose and dose rate with a Geiger-Mueller tube. CIDAS detectors are currently in

  17. Sixteen polymorphic microsatellite markers from Zizania latifolia Turcz. (Poaceae).

    PubMed

    Quan, Zhiwu; Pan, Lei; Ke, Weidong; Liu, Yiman; Ding, Yi

    2009-05-01

    Sixteen polymorphic microsatellite markers were isolated and identified in Zizania latifolia Turcz. (Poaceae), a perennial aquatic plant widespread in Eastern Asia. The microsatellite-enriched library was constructed using the fast isolation by AFLP of sequences containing repeats method. These markers revealed two to 14 alleles, with an average of 5.6 alleles per locus. The observed and expected heterozygosities varied from 0.071 to 0.690 and from 0.174 to 0.812, respectively. These markers will be useful for studying of gene flow and evaluating the genetic diversity of the Zizania latifolia population. PMID:21564779

  18. United States Air Force 611th Civil Engineer Squadron, Elmendorf AFB, Alaska. Final remedial investigation report, Galena Airport and Campion Air Station, Alaska. Volume 1. Text

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    The U.S. Air Force (USAF) has conducted a Remedial Investigation (RI) at the Galena Airport (formerly Galena Air Force Station) and Campion Air Station (AS), Alaska. The purpose of this report is to summarize the activities and findings of the investigation and, on the basis of this information, make recommendations on future activities at the Galena Airport and Campion AS sites. Information from the RI at these sites was also used to support a baseline risk assessment.

  19. Disentangling the effects of mating systems and mutation rates on cytoplamic diversity in gynodioecious Silene nutans and dioecious Silene otites

    PubMed Central

    Lahiani, E; Dufaÿ, M; Castric, V; Le Cadre, S; Charlesworth, D; Van Rossum, F; Touzet, P

    2013-01-01

    Many flowering plant species exhibit a variety of distinct sexual morphs, the two most common cases being the co-occurrence of females and males (dioecy) or the co-occurrence of hermaphrodites and females (gynodioecy). In this study, we compared DNA sequence variability of the three genomes (nuclear, mitochondrial and chloroplastic) of a gynodioecious species, Silene nutans, with that of a closely related dioecious species, Silene otites. In the light of theoretical models, we expect cytoplasmic diversity to differ between the two species due to the selective dynamics that acts on cytoplasmic genomes in gynodioecious species: under an epidemic scenario, the gynodioecious species is expected to exhibit lower cytoplasmic diversity than the dioecious species, while the opposite is expected in the case of balancing selection maintaining sterility cytoplasms in the gynodioecious species. We found no difference between the species for nuclear gene diversity, but, for the cytoplasmic loci, the gynodioecious S. nutans had more haplotypes, and higher nucleotide diversity, than the dioecious relative, S. otites, even though the latter has a relatively high rate of mitochondrial synonymous substitutions, and therefore presumably a higher mutation rate. Therefore, as the mitochondrial mutation rate cannot account for the higher cytoplasmic diversity found in S. nutans, our findings support the hypothesis that gynodioecy in S. nutans has been maintained by balancing selection rather than by epidemic-like dynamics. PMID:23591518

  20. Makomotindoline from Makomotake, Zizania latifolia infected with Ustilago esculenta.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Tomohiro; Choi, Jae-Hoon; Kawaguchi, Takumi; Yamashita, Kimiko; Morita, Akio; Hirai, Hirofumi; Nagai, Kaoru; Hirose, Tomoyasu; Omura, Satoshi; Sunazuka, Toshiaki; Kawagishi, Hirokazu

    2012-07-01

    Makomotindoline (1) was isolated from Makomotake, Zizania latifolia infected with Ustilago esculenta. The structure was determined by the interpretation of spectroscopic data and synthesis. Makomotindoline (1), its l-Glc isomer (2) and its aglycon (3) were synthesized and their effects on rat glioma cells showed adverse effects on the cell growth. PMID:22672800

  1. Characterization of 14 microsatellite markers for Silene acaulis (Caryophyllaceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Eike; Hlaváčková, Iva; Svoen, Mildrid Elvik; Alsos, Inger Greve; Eidesen, Pernille Bronken

    2015-01-01

    Premise of the study: Fifty candidate microsatellite markers, generated using 454 shotgun sequencing, were tested for the widespread arctic/alpine herb Silene acaulis (Caryophyllaceae). Methods and Results: Fourteen out of 50 markers resulted in polymorphic products with profiles that enabled interpretation. The numbers of alleles per locus ranged from two to six, and the expected heterozygosity per locus ranged from 0.06 to 0.68. Analysis of F0 and F1 samples proved that one allele was always inherited maternally. Four multiplex mixes have been developed. Conclusions: Microsatellite markers for this species will be a valuable tool to study detailed small-scale genetic patterns in an arctic/alpine herb and to relate them to demographic parameters. PMID:26421249

  2. "Initial investigation into computer scoring of candidate essays for personnel selection": Correction to Campion et al. (2016).

    PubMed

    2016-07-01

    Reports an error in "Initial Investigation Into Computer Scoring of Candidate Essays for Personnel Selection" by Michael C. Campion, Michael A. Campion, Emily D. Campion and Matthew H. Reider (Journal of Applied Psychology, Advanced Online Publication, Apr 14, 2016, np). In the article the affiliations for Emily D. Campion and Matthew H. Reider were originally incorrect. All versions of this article have been corrected. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2016-18130-001.) Emerging advancements including the exponentially growing availability of computer-collected data and increasingly sophisticated statistical software have led to a "Big Data Movement" wherein organizations have begun attempting to use large-scale data analysis to improve their effectiveness. Yet, little is known regarding how organizations can leverage these advancements to develop more effective personnel selection procedures, especially when the data are unstructured (text-based). Drawing on literature on natural language processing, we critically examine the possibility of leveraging advances in text mining and predictive modeling computer software programs as a surrogate for human raters in a selection context. We explain how to "train" a computer program to emulate a human rater when scoring accomplishment records. We then examine the reliability of the computer's scores, provide preliminary evidence of their construct validity, demonstrate that this practice does not produce scores that disadvantage minority groups, illustrate the positive financial impact of adopting this practice in an organization (N ∼ 46,000 candidates), and discuss implementation issues. Finally, we discuss the potential implications of using computer scoring to address the adverse impact-validity dilemma. We suggest that it may provide a cost-effective means of using predictors that have comparable validity but have previously been too expensive for large-scale screening. (Psyc

  3. Arbutin derivatives from the seeds of Madhuca latifolia.

    PubMed

    Khan, Shazia; Kardar, M Nadeem; Siddiqui, Bina S

    2011-11-01

    A new arbutin derivative, madhuglucoside (1), along with three known arbutin derivatives were isolated from the seeds of Madhuca latifolia in addition to seven other known constituents. Their structures were established on the basis of spectral analysis. Compounds 1a, 2a and 3a were obtained in a pure state after acetylation of the mother fraction and characterized as their acetyl derivatives. PMID:22224283

  4. Genomic Resources Notes accepted 1 February 2015 - 31 March 2015.

    PubMed

    Arthofer, Wolfgang; Bertini, Laura; Caruso, Carla; Cicconardi, Francesco; Delph, Lynda F; Fields, Peter D; Ikeda, Minoru; Minegishi, Yuki; Proietti, Silvia; Ritthammer, Heike; Schlick-Steiner, Birgit C; Steiner, Florian M; Wachter, Gregor A; Wagner, Herbert C; Weingartner, Laura A

    2015-07-01

    This article documents the public availability of (i) raw transcriptome sequence data, assembled contigs and BLAST hits of the Antarctic plant Colobanthus quitensis grown in two different climatic conditions, (ii) the draft genome sequence data (raw reads, assembled contigs and unassembled reads) and RAD-tag read data of the marbled flounder Pseudopleuronectes yokohamae, (iii) transcriptome resources from four white campion (Silene latifolia) individuals from two morphologically divergent populations and (iv) nuclear DNA markers from 454 sequencing of reduced representation libraries (RRL) based on amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) PCR products of four species of ants in the genus Tetramorium. PMID:26095006

  5. Introgressive Hybridization between Anciently Diverged Lineages of Silene (Caryophyllaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Petri, Anna; Pfeil, Bernard E.; Oxelman, Bengt

    2013-01-01

    Hybridization has played a major role during the evolution of angiosperms, mediating both gene flow between already distinct species and the formation of new species. Newly formed hybrids between distantly related taxa are often sterile. For this reason, interspecific crosses resulting in fertile hybrids have rarely been described to take place after more than a few million years after divergence. We describe here the traces of a reproductively successful hybrid between two ancestral species of Silene, diverged for about six million years prior to hybridization. No extant hybrids between the two parental lineages are currently known, but introgression of the RNA polymerase gene NRPA2 provides clear evidence of a temporary and fertile hybrid. Parsimony reconciliation between gene trees and the species tree, as well as consideration of clade ages, help exclude gene paralogy and lineage sorting as alternative hypotheses. This may represent one of the most extreme cases of divergence between species prior to introgressive hybridization discovered yet, notably at a homoploid level. Although species boundaries are generally believed to be stable after millions of years of divergence, we believe that this finding may indicate that gene flow between distantly related species is merely largely undetected at present. PMID:23861793

  6. Genetic determination of male sterility in gynodioecious Silene nutans

    PubMed Central

    Garraud, C; Brachi, B; Dufay, M; Touzet, P; Shykoff, J A

    2011-01-01

    Gynodioecy, the coexistence of female and hermaphrodite plants within a species, is often under nuclear–cytoplasmic sex determination, involving cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) genes and nuclear restorers. A good knowledge of CMS and restorer polymorphism is essential for understanding the evolution and maintenance of gynodioecy, but reciprocal crossing studies remain scarce. Although mitochondrial diversity has been studied in a few gynodioecious species, the relationship between mitotype diversity and CMS status is poorly known. From a French sample of Silene nutans, a gynodioecious species whose sex determination remains unknown, we chose the four most divergent mitotypes that we had sampled at the cytochrome b gene and tested by reciprocal crosses whether they carry distinct CMS genes. We show that gynodioecy in S. nutans is under nuclear–cytoplasmic control, with at least two different CMSs and up to four restorers with epistatic interactions. Female occurrence and frequency were highly dependent on the mitotype, suggesting that the level of restoration varies greatly among CMSs. Two of the mitotypes, which have broad geographic distributions, represent different CMSs and are very unequally restored. We discuss the dynamics of gynodioecy at the large-scale meta-population level. PMID:20808324

  7. Characterization of 12 polymorphic microsatellite loci of Pityopsis graminifolia var. latifolia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pityopsis graminifolia (Michx.) Small var. latifolia (Fern.) Semple is an herbaceous perennial that grows in close proximity to the federally endangered species P. ruthii (Small) Small. Twelve polymorphic microsatellite loci were identified from 87 samples of P. graminifolia var. latifolia and addit...

  8. Gibberellins and stem growth as related to photoperiod Silene armeria L

    SciTech Connect

    Talon, M.; Zeevaart, J.A.D. )

    1990-04-01

    Stem growth and flowering in the long-day plant Silene armeria L. are induced by exposure to a minimum of 3 to 6 long days (LD). Stem growth continues in subsequent short days (SD), albeit at a reduced rate. The growth retardant tetcyclacis inhibited stem elongation induced by LD, but had no effect on flowering. This indicates that photoperiodic control of stem growth in Silene is mediated by gibberellins (GA). The objective of this study was to analyze the effects of photoperiod on the levels and distribution of endogenous GAs in Silene and to determine the nature of the photoperiodic after-effect on stem growth in this plant. The GAs identified in extracts from Silene by full-scan combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry are members of the early 13-hydroxylation pathway. All of these GAs were present in plants under SD as well as under LD conditions. The GA{sub 53} level was highest in plants in SD, and decreased in plants transferred to LD conditions. By contrast, GA{sub 19}, GA{sub 20}, and GA{sub 1} initially increased in plants transferred to LD, and then declined. Likewise, when Silene plants were returned from LD to SD, there was an increase in GA{sub 53}, and a decrease in GA{sub 19}, GA{sub 20}, and GA{sub 1} which ultimately reached levels similar to those found in plants kept in SD. Thus, measurements of GA levels in whole shoots of Silene as well as in individual parts of the plant suggest that the photoperiod modulates GA metabolism mainly through the rate of conversion of GA{sub 53}. As a result of LD induction, GA{sub 1} accumulates at its highest level in shoot tips which, in turn, results in stem elongation. In addition, LD also appear to increase the sensitivity of the tissue to GA, and this effect is presumably responsible for the photoperiodic after-effect on stem elongation in Silene.

  9. Antimycotic Activity and Genotoxic Evaluation of Citrus sinensis and Citrus latifolia Essential Oils.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Pérez, Nancy J; González-Ávila, Marisela; Sánchez-Navarrete, Jaime; Toscano-Garibay, Julia D; Moreno-Eutimio, Mario A; Sandoval-Hernández, Teresa; Arriaga-Alba, Myriam

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of essential oils (EOs) of Citrus sinensis (C. sinensis) and Citrus latifolia (C. latifolia) against five Candida species: Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata, Candida lusitaniae and Candida guilliermondii; and perform its genotoxic evaluation. The EOs of C. sinensis and C. latifolia were obtained from the peel by hydro-distillation. The major components determined by GC-MS were in C. sinensis, d-limonene (96%) and α-myrcene (2.79%); and in C. latifolia, d-limonene (51.64%), β-thujene (14.85%), β-pinene (12.79%) and γ-terpinene (12.8%). Antifungal properties were studied by agar diffusion method, where C. sinensis presented low activity and C. latifolia essential oil was effective to inhibit growing of C. lusitaniae and C. guilliermondii with IC50 of 6.90 and 2.92 μg respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) for C. sinensis were in a range of 0.42-3.71 μg and for C. latifolia of 0.22-1.30 μg. Genotoxic evaluation was done by Ames test where none of the oils induced point mutations. Flow cytometry was used to measure toxicity in human oral epithelial cells, C. sinensis was not cytotoxic and C. latifolia was toxic at 21.8 μg. These properties might bestow different odontological applications to each essential oil. PMID:27137128

  10. Diversity of sexual systems within different lineages of the genus Silene.

    PubMed

    Casimiro-Soriguer, Inés; Buide, Maria L; Narbona, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Species and populations can be categorized by their sexual systems, depending on the spatial distribution of female and male reproductive structures within and among plants. Although a high diversity of sexual systems exists in Silene, their relative frequency at the genus and infrageneric level is unknown. Here, we carried out an extensive literature search for direct or indirect descriptions of sexual systems in Silene species. We found descriptions of sexual systems for 98 Silene species, where 63 and 35 correspond to the phylogenetically supported subgenera Silene and Behenantha, respectively. Hermaphroditism was the commonest sexual system (58.2 %), followed by dioecy (14.3 %), gynodioecy (13.3 %) and gynodioecy-gynomonoecy (i.e. hermaphroditic, female and gynomonoecious plants coexisting in the same population; 12.2 %). The presence of these sexual systems in both subgenera suggests their multiple origins. In 17 species, the description of sexual systems varied, and in most cases these differences corresponded to variations within or among populations. Interestingly, the poorly studied gynodioecy-gynomonoecy sexual system showed similar frequency to dioecy and gynodioecy in both subgenera. In addition, the incidence of gynodioecy-gynomonoecy was analysed in the species of section Psammophilae (Silene littorea, S. psammitis, S. adscendens and S. cambessedesii), in a survey of 26 populations across the distribution area of the species. The four species showed gynomonoecy-gynodioecy in most populations. Hermaphrodites were the most frequent morph, with a low number of females and gynomonoecious plants in all populations. The frequency of sexual morphs varied significantly among the studied populations but not among species. Female plants generally produced smaller numbers of flowers than hermaphroditic or gynomonoecious plants, and the percentages of female flowers per population were low. All these findings suggest that the gynodioecious-gynomonoecious sexual

  11. Diversity of sexual systems within different lineages of the genus Silene

    PubMed Central

    Casimiro-Soriguer, Inés; Buide, Maria L.; Narbona, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Species and populations can be categorized by their sexual systems, depending on the spatial distribution of female and male reproductive structures within and among plants. Although a high diversity of sexual systems exists in Silene, their relative frequency at the genus and infrageneric level is unknown. Here, we carried out an extensive literature search for direct or indirect descriptions of sexual systems in Silene species. We found descriptions of sexual systems for 98 Silene species, where 63 and 35 correspond to the phylogenetically supported subgenera Silene and Behenantha, respectively. Hermaphroditism was the commonest sexual system (58.2 %), followed by dioecy (14.3 %), gynodioecy (13.3 %) and gynodioecy–gynomonoecy (i.e. hermaphroditic, female and gynomonoecious plants coexisting in the same population; 12.2 %). The presence of these sexual systems in both subgenera suggests their multiple origins. In 17 species, the description of sexual systems varied, and in most cases these differences corresponded to variations within or among populations. Interestingly, the poorly studied gynodioecy–gynomonoecy sexual system showed similar frequency to dioecy and gynodioecy in both subgenera. In addition, the incidence of gynodioecy–gynomonoecy was analysed in the species of section Psammophilae (Silene littorea, S. psammitis, S. adscendens and S. cambessedesii), in a survey of 26 populations across the distribution area of the species. The four species showed gynomonoecy–gynodioecy in most populations. Hermaphrodites were the most frequent morph, with a low number of females and gynomonoecious plants in all populations. The frequency of sexual morphs varied significantly among the studied populations but not among species. Female plants generally produced smaller numbers of flowers than hermaphroditic or gynomonoecious plants, and the percentages of female flowers per population were low. All these findings suggest that the gynodioecious

  12. Antiulcer activity of extracts of ecdysteroid-containing plants of genera Lychnis and Silene of the Caryophyllaceae family.

    PubMed

    Krylova, S G; Zueva, E P; Zibareva, L N; Amosova, E N; Razina, T G

    2014-12-01

    We studied antiulcer activity of the extracts of ecdysteroid-containing plants of the Caryophyllaceae family: Lychnis chalcedonica L., Silene viridiflora L.Sp.Pl., and Silene frivaldszkyana Hampe. Experiments on the model of neurogenic and aspirin-induced ulcerogenesis showed unidirectional and pronounced gastroprotective effects of S. viridiflora and L. chalcedonica extracts comparable to the efficacy of famotidine. In these models, a course of intragastric treatment with the extracts reduced ulcerative lesions of all types. PMID:25432278

  13. Toxicological evaluation of mowrah (Madhuca latifolia Macbride) seed meal.

    PubMed

    Cherian, K M; Gandhi, V M; Mulky, M J

    1996-01-01

    Mowrah (M. latifolia) seeds yield 40-50% edible fat and the meal contains saponins besides protein and high level of carbohydrates. The toxicity of the meal was evaluated as it has a potential for use in animal feedstuffs. The meal was fed to young and adult rats at levels of 10 to 40% in diet. The animals showed marked inhibition of feed intake and loss of body weight resulting in mortalities. Histopathological examination revealed a gradation of damage from slight erosion of the tip of villi of intestinal mucous membrane to complete necrosis and destruction of it, with increasing amounts of mowrah seed meal in diets. The other significant change was a severe vacuolar degeneration of kidney tubular cells. Detoxification or complete removal of the toxins is necessary for utilization of the meal as animal feedingstuff. PMID:8698410

  14. New flavonolignan glycosides from the aerial parts of Zizania latifolia.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung-Su; Baek, Nam-In; Baek, Yoon-Su; Chung, Dae-Kyun; Song, Myoung-Chong; Bang, Myun-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Two new flavonolignan glycosides, tricin-4'-O-(threo-β-guaiacylglyceryl) ether 7''-O-β-D-glucopyranose (4) and tricin-4'-O-(erythro-β-guaiacylglyceryl) ether 7''-O-β-D-glucopyranose (5) were isolated from the roots of Zizania latifolia, together with tricin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranose (1), tricin-4'-O-(threo-β-guaiacylglyceryl) ether 7-O-β-D-glucopyranose (2), and tricin-4'-O-(erythro-β-guaiacylglyceryl) ether 7-O-β-D-glucopyranose (3). Their structures were identified on the basis of spectroscopic techniques, including HR-ESI/MS, 1D-NMR (1H, 13C, DEPT), 2D-NMR (gCOSY, gHSQC, gHMBC), and IR spectroscopy. PMID:25830790

  15. Antimycotic Activity and Genotoxic Evaluation of Citrus sinensis and Citrus latifolia Essential Oils

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Pérez, Nancy J.; González-Ávila, Marisela; Sánchez-Navarrete, Jaime; Toscano-Garibay, Julia D.; Moreno-Eutimio, Mario A.; Sandoval-Hernández, Teresa; Arriaga-Alba, Myriam

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of essential oils (EOs) of Citrus sinensis (C. sinensis) and Citrus latifolia (C. latifolia) against five Candida species: Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata, Candida lusitaniae and Candida guilliermondii; and perform its genotoxic evaluation. The EOs of C. sinensis and C. latifolia were obtained from the peel by hydro-distillation. The major components determined by GC-MS were in C. sinensis, d-limonene (96%) and α-myrcene (2.79%); and in C. latifolia, d-limonene (51.64%), β-thujene (14.85%), β-pinene (12.79%) and γ-terpinene (12.8%). Antifungal properties were studied by agar diffusion method, where C. sinensis presented low activity and C. latifolia essential oil was effective to inhibit growing of C. lusitaniae and C. guilliermondii with IC50 of 6.90 and 2.92 μg respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) for C. sinensis were in a range of 0.42–3.71 μg and for C. latifolia of 0.22–1.30 μg. Genotoxic evaluation was done by Ames test where none of the oils induced point mutations. Flow cytometry was used to measure toxicity in human oral epithelial cells, C. sinensis was not cytotoxic and C. latifolia was toxic at 21.8 μg. These properties might bestow different odontological applications to each essential oil. PMID:27137128

  16. Pollinator specialization and pollination syndromes of three related North American Silene.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Richard J; Westbrook, M Jody; Rohde, Alexandra S; Cridland, Julie M; Fenster, Charles B; Dudash, Michele R

    2009-08-01

    Community and biogeographic surveys often conclude that plant-pollinator interactions are highly generalized. Thus, a central implication of the pollination syndrome concept, that floral trait evolution occurs primarily via specialized interactions of plants with their pollinators, has been questioned. However, broad surveys may not distinguish whether flower visitors are actual pollen vectors and hence lack power to assess the relationship between syndrome traits and the pollinators responsible for their evolution. Here we address whether the floral traits of three closely related hermaphroditic Silene spp. native to eastern North America (S. caroliniana, S. virginica, and S. stellata) correspond to predicted specialized pollination based on floral differences among the three species and the congruence of these floral features with recognized pollination syndromes. A nocturnal/diurnal pollinator exclusion experiment demonstrated that all three Silene spp. have diurnal pollinators, and only S. stellata has nocturnal pollinators. Multiyear studies of visitation rates demonstrated that large bees, hummingbirds, and nocturnal moths were the most frequent pollinators of S. caroliniana, S. virginica, and S. stellata, respectively. Estimates of pollen grains deposited and removed per visit generally corroborated the visitation rate results for all three species. However, the relatively infrequent diurnal hawkmoth pollinators of S. caroliniana were equally effective and more efficient than the most frequent large bee visitors. Pollinator importance (visitation X deposition) of each of the animal visitors to each species was estimated and demonstrated that in most years large bees and nocturnal moths were the most important pollinators of S. caroliniana and S. stellata, respectively. By quantifying comprehensive aspects of the pollination process we determined that S. virginica and S. stellata were specialized on hummingbirds and nocturnal moths, respectively, and S

  17. Hypoglycaemic activity of Nauclea latifolia Sm. (Rubiaceae) in experimental animals.

    PubMed

    Gidado, Abubakar; Ameh, Danladi A; Atawodi, Sunday E; Ibrahim, Sani

    2008-01-01

    Aqueous, ethanolic and hexane extracts of the leaves of Nauclea latifolia (Rubiaceae) were assessed for their fasting blood glucose lowering effect in normoglycaemic and streptozotocin-diabetic rats. Wistar strain albino rats were given different doses of the extracts after 18 hrs fast and their blood glucose measured at 0, 1, 2, 4 and 6 hours after treatment. The aqueous and ethanolic extracts significantly lowered the fasting blood glucose levels of the STZ-diabetic rats in a dose-dependent manner. The highest dose administered (400 mg/kg) lowered the fasting blood glucose of the diabetic rats by 31.7% (aqueous) and 36.1% (ethanolic) extracts. The aqueous extract did not significantly lower the glucose levels of normoglycaemic rats (maximum 6.6%), nor was any significant decrease seen in the rats administered with the hexane (maximum of 4.0% for normoglycaemic and 2.4% for diabetics) extract. The hypoglycaemic and antihyperglycaemic potentials of the aqueous and ethanolic extracts were comparable to that of glibenclamide (1 mg/kg).These results further support the traditional use of the plant in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. PMID:20161938

  18. Reproductive toxicology and nutritional studies on mahua oil (Madhuca latifolia).

    PubMed

    Rukmini, C

    1990-09-01

    Mahua (Madhuca latifolia, Sapotaceae) seed oil is a common ingredient of hydrogenated fat in India. It is obtained from the seed kernels (which contain 45% oil, w/w), and is a pale yellow, semi-solid fat at room temperature. It has palmitic (19%), stearic (15%), oleic (42%) and linoleic (24%) as a major fatty acids. The physicochemical parameters of the oil are similar to those of other edible oils. The unsaponifiable fraction contains several unidentified polyenes. Nutritional studies were carried out in groups of 15 weanling albino rats of each sex, fed for 14 wk on a 20% protein diet, adequate in all vitamins and minerals, containing 10% mahua oil. A similar (control) group was simultaneously maintained on the same basic diet containing 10% groundnut oil. The growth, fat absorption, and retention of nitrogen, calcium and phosphorus were similar in the two groups, as were the lipid profiles of the serum, liver and heart. Multigeneration reproduction studies in groups of 15 rats of each sex, fed a diet containing 10% mahua oil, as used in the above study, indicated poor reproductive performance in the second generation. All the male rats became sterile. Histological studies indicated bilateral testicular atrophy with degenerative changes in the seminiferous tubules in the affected animals. On withdrawal of mahua oil from the diet and rehabilitation, the male animals regained their fertility. These results indicate temporary male sterility on feeding mahua oil to rats. No other adverse toxicological effects were found. PMID:2272556

  19. Antipyretic and antinociceptive effects of Nauclea latifolia root decoction and possible mechanisms of action

    PubMed Central

    Taïwe, Germain Sotoing; Bum, Elisabeth Ngo; Talla, Emmanuel; Dimo, Théophile; Weiss, Norbert; Sidiki, Neteydji; Dawe, Amadou; Okomolo Moto, Fleur Clarisse; Dzeufiet, Paul Désiré; Waard, Michel De

    2011-01-01

    Context Nauclea latifolia Smith (Rubiacea) is a small tree, found in tropical areas in Africa. It is used in traditional medicine to treat malaria, epilepsy, anxiety, pain, fever etc. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Nauclea latifolia roots decoction on the peripheral and central nervous systems and its possible mechanisms of action. Materials and methods The analgesic investigation was carried out against acetic acid-induced writhing, formalin-induced pain, hot-plate and tail immersion tests. The antipyretic activity was studied in Brewer’s yeast-induced pyrexia in mice. Rota-rod test and bicuculline-induced hyperactivity were used for the assessment of locomotor activity. Results Nauclea latifolia induced hypothermia and had antipyretic effects in mice. The plant decoction produced significant antinociceptive activity in all analgesia animal models used. The antinociceptive effect exhibited by the decoction in the formalin test was reversed by the systemic administration of naloxone, Nω-L-nitro-arginine methyl ester or glibenclamide. In contrast, theophylline did not reverse this effect. Nauclea latifolia (antinociceptive doses) did not exhibit significant effect on motor coordination of the mice in rota-rod performance. Nauclea latifolia protected mice against bicuculline-induced behavioural excitation. Discussion and conclusion Overall, these results demonstrate that the central and peripheral effects of Nauclea latifolia roots decoction might partially or wholly be due to the stimulation of peripheric opioid receptors through the action of the nitric oxide-cyclic GMP-ATP-sensitive K+ (NO/cGMP/ATP)-channel pathway and/or facilitation of the GABAergic transmission. PMID:20822326

  20. A new triterpenoid, madhunolic acid, from the seeds of Madhuca latifolia.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, B S; Khan, S; Kardar, M N; Perwaiz, S

    2007-01-01

    A new triterpenoid, madhunolic acid, along with the three known constituents stigmasterol, 4-hydroxymethyl benzoate, and hydroquinone were isolated from the fruit seeds of Madhuca latifolia. The structure of the new compound was elucidated as 2beta,3beta,23-trihydroxyurs-5,12,20-trien-28-oic acid (1) on the basis of spectral data and chemical evidence. PMID:17566924

  1. Phytotoxicity of atrazine, s-metolachlor and permethrin to Typha latifolia (Linneaus) germination and seedling growth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytotoxicity assessments were performed to compare responses of Typha latifolia (L.) seeds to atrazine (only) and atrazine + S-metolachlor exposure concentrations of 0.03, 0.3, 3, and 30 mg L-1, as well as permethrin exposure concentrations of 0.008, 0.08, 0.8, and 8 mg L-1. All atrazine + S-metol...

  2. A host plant genome (Zizania latifolia) after a century-long endophyte infection.

    PubMed

    Guo, Longbiao; Qiu, Jie; Han, Zujing; Ye, Zihong; Chen, Chao; Liu, Chuanjun; Xin, Xiufang; Ye, Chu-Yu; Wang, Ying-Ying; Xie, Hongqing; Wang, Yu; Bao, Jiandong; Tang, She; Xu, Jie; Gui, Yijie; Fu, Fei; Wang, Weidi; Zhang, Xingchen; Zhu, Qianhua; Guang, Xuanmin; Wang, Chongzhi; Cui, Haifeng; Cai, Daguang; Ge, Song; Tuskan, Gerald A; Yang, Xiaohan; Qian, Qian; He, Sheng Yang; Wang, Jun; Zhou, Xue-Ping; Fan, Longjiang

    2015-08-01

    Despite the importance of host-microbe interactions in natural ecosystems, agriculture and medicine, the impact of long-term (especially decades or longer) microbial colonization on the dynamics of host genomes is not well understood. The vegetable crop 'Jiaobai' with enlarged edible stems was domesticated from wild Zizania latifolia (Oryzeae) approximately 2000 years ago as a result of persistent infection by a fungal endophyte, Ustilago esculenta. Asexual propagation via infected rhizomes is the only means of Jiaobai production, and the Z. latifolia-endophyte complex has been maintained continuously for two centuries. Here, genomic analysis revealed that cultivated Z. latifolia has a significantly smaller repertoire of immune receptors compared with wild Z. latifolia. There are widespread gene losses/mutations and expression changes in the plant-pathogen interaction pathway in Jiaobai. These results show that continuous long-standing endophyte association can have a major effect on the evolution of the structural and transcriptomic components of the host genome. PMID:26072920

  3. Evidence for asymmetrical hybridization despite pre- and post-pollination reproductive barriers between two Silene species

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jin-Ju; Montgomery, Benjamin R.; Huang, Shuang-Quan

    2016-01-01

    Interspecific hybridization is widespread among plants; nevertheless, pre- and post-zygotic isolating mechanisms may maintain species integrity for interfertile species in sympatry despite some gene flow. Interspecific hybridization and potential isolating barriers were evaluated between co-flowering Silene asclepiadea and Silene yunnanensis in an alpine community in southwest China. We investigated morphological and molecular (nuclear microsatellites and chloroplast gene sequence) variation in sympatric populations of S. asclepiadea and S. yunnanensis. Additionally, we analyzed pollinator behaviour and compared reproductive success between the putative hybrids and their parental species. Both the molecular and morphological data indicate that there were putative natural hybrids in the field, with S. asclepiadae the ovule parent and S. yunnanensis the pollen parent. Bumblebees were the primary visitors to S. asclepiadae and putative hybrids, while butterflies were the primary visitors to S. yunnanensis. Pollen production and viability were significantly lower in putative hybrids than the parental species. The direction of hybridization is quite asymmetric from S. yunnanensis to S. asclepiadea. Protandry combined with later peak flowering of S. yunnanensis, and pollinator preference may have contributed to the asymmetric pattern of hybridization, but putative hybrids were rare. Our results thus suggest that despite gene flow, S. asclepiadea and S. yunnanensis can maintain species boundaries, perhaps as a result of floral isolation and low fecundity of the hybrids. PMID:27178066

  4. Evidence for asymmetrical hybridization despite pre- and post-pollination reproductive barriers between two Silene species.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jin-Ju; Montgomery, Benjamin R; Huang, Shuang-Quan

    2016-01-01

    Interspecific hybridization is widespread among plants; nevertheless, pre- and post-zygotic isolating mechanisms may maintain species integrity for interfertile species in sympatry despite some gene flow. Interspecific hybridization and potential isolating barriers were evaluated between co-flowering Silene asclepiadea and Silene yunnanensis in an alpine community in southwest China. We investigated morphological and molecular (nuclear microsatellites and chloroplast gene sequence) variation in sympatric populations of S. asclepiadea and S. yunnanensis. Additionally, we analyzed pollinator behaviour and compared reproductive success between the putative hybrids and their parental species. Both the molecular and morphological data indicate that there were putative natural hybrids in the field, with S. asclepiadae the ovule parent and S. yunnanensis the pollen parent. Bumblebees were the primary visitors to S. asclepiadae and putative hybrids, while butterflies were the primary visitors to S. yunnanensis Pollen production and viability were significantly lower in putative hybrids than the parental species. The direction of hybridization is quite asymmetric from S. yunnanensis to S. asclepiadea Protandry combined with later peak flowering of S. yunnanensis, and pollinator preference may have contributed to the asymmetric pattern of hybridization, but putative hybrids were rare. Our results thus suggest that despite gene flow, S. asclepiadea and S. yunnanensis can maintain species boundaries, perhaps as a result of floral isolation and low fecundity of the hybrids. PMID:27178066

  5. Criticality accident dosimetry systems: an international intercomparison at the SILENE reactor in 2002.

    PubMed

    Médioni, R; Asselineau, B; Verrey, B; Trompier, F; Itié, C; Texier, C; Muller, H; Pelcot, G; Clairand, I; Jacquet, X; Pochat, J L

    2004-01-01

    In criticality accident dosimetry and more generally for high dose measurements, special techniques are used to measure separately the gamma ray and neutron components of the dose. To improve these techniques and to check their dosimetry systems (physical and/or biological), a total of 60 laboratories from 29 countries (America, Europe, Asia) participated in an international intercomparaison, which took place in France from 9 to 21 June 2002, at the SILENE reactor in Valduc and at a pure gamma source in Fontenay-aux-Roses. This intercomparison was jointly organised by the IRSN and the CEA with the help of the NEA/OCDE and was partly supported by the European Communities. This paper describes the aim of this intercomparison, the techniques used by the participants and the two radiation sources and their characteristics. The experimental arrangements of the dosemeters for the irradiations in free air or on phantoms are given. Then the dosimetric quantities measured and reported by the participants are summarised, analysed and compared with the reference values. The present paper concerns only the physical dosimetry and essentially experiments performed on the SILENE facility. The results obtained with the biological dosimetry are published in two other papers of this issue. PMID:15353686

  6. Phenotypic and genotypic components of growth and reproduction in Typha latifolia: experimental studies in three contrasting marshes

    SciTech Connect

    Grace, J.B.

    1980-01-01

    The magnitude and causes of intraspecific variation in biomass production and allocation, and morphology for Typha latifolia L. from three marshes which can be distinguished by their successional maturity were investigated. The first stage of investigation was to determine the environmental characteristics of the three marshes and the characteristics of the T. latifolia populations. Second, in situ studies of /sup 14/C fixation and allocation were used to determine the phenotypic variation in biomass production and allocation. Third, populations were sampled for genotypic variation in biomass allocation patterns by comparing growth in controlled garden experiments. Fourth, the growth of different biotypes was compared by transplantation into natural stands of T. latifolia. And fifth, the intraspecific variations were considered in terms of their consequences for the persistence of T. latifolia in habitats over successional time.

  7. Production of Triterpenoid Sapogenins in Hairy Root Cultures of Silene vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeon Bok; Reed, Darwin W; Covello, Patrick S

    2015-11-01

    Silene vulgaris (Moench) Garcke (Caryophyllaceae) is widely distributed in North America and contains bioactive oleanane-type saponins. In order to investigate in vitro production of triterpenoid saponins, hairy root cultures of S. vulgaris were established by infecting leaf explants with five strains of Agrobacterium rhizogenes (LBA9402, R1000, A4, 13333, and 15834). The A. rhizogenes strain LBA9402 had an infection of 100% frequency and induced the most hairy roots per plant. Methyl jasmonate (MeJA)-induced changes in triterpenoid saponins in S. vulgaris hairy roots were analyzed. Accumulation of segetalic acid and gypsogenic acid after MeJA treatment was 5-and 2-fold higher, respectively, than that of control root. We suggest that hairy root cultures of S. vulgaris could be an important alternative approach to the production of saponins. PMID:26749827

  8. Molecular characterisation of four double-flowered mutants of Silene dioica representing four centuries of variation

    PubMed Central

    Ingle, Elizabeth K. S.; Gilmartin, Philip M.

    2015-01-01

    Records of double-flowered Silene dioica date from the late sixteenth century and four named varieties are grown today, as previously, for their horticultural interest. Although double-flowered mutants have been characterized in several plants, their study in dioecious species is of particular interest due to influences of the homeotic mutation on the different floral whorl configurations in males and females. We have analysed four double-flowered varieties of Silene dioica: Flore Pleno and Rosea Plena date back to the seventeenth and nineteenth centuries, Thelma Kay and Firefly were recognized in the latter part of the twentieth and early twenty-first centuries. We have analysed the floral structure of the four varieties, which have distinct floral architectures. Based on Y chromosome-specific PCR analysis we show that Firefly is male and that the other three varieties are female: Random Amplification of Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analyses suggested a common origin for the three female varieties. The double-flowered phenotype in all four varieties is caused by mutation of the C-function MADS-box transcription factor gene SDM1. We show that Firefly carries a unique 44bp insertion into SDM1, revealing an independent origin for this variety. Comparative analysis of SDM1 cDNA and genomic sequences in Flore Pleno, Rosea Plena and Thelma Kay shows that all three are caused by the same 7bp insertion within SDM1 and therefore share a common origin. The three alleles also differ by several single nucleotide polymorphisms, which represent somatic mutations accumulated over four centuries of asexual propagation. PMID:25878355

  9. A preliminary study of the mechanism of hypoglycaemic activity of Nauclea latifolia leaf ethanolic extract.

    PubMed

    Gidado, Abubakar; Ameh, Danladi A; Atawodi, Sunday E; Ibrahim, Sani

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the possible underlying mechanism of the hypoglycaemic activity of the ethanolic extract of Nauclea latifolia leaves in rats. The extract, glibenclamide or water was administered orally in a glucose, sucrose and maltose tolerance tests. In addition, the effect of the extract on α-glucosidase enzymes was also studied. The ethanolic extract at 200mg/kg body weight inhibited the increase in glucose level after both oral and intraperitoneal glucose loads as did glibenclamide. The extract also dose dependently inhibited both maltase and sucrase activities in vitro but not in vivo. The hypoglycaemic effect of N. latifolia leaf ethanolic extract thus appears to be most probably exerted through a mechanism similar to that of glibenclamide which is related to increased insulin release from pancreatic β-cells. PMID:22944715

  10. Phytochemical constituents from the florets of tiger grass Thysanolaena latifolia from Nepal.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Sabina; Park, Ji-Hae; Cho, Jin-Gyeong; Lee, Dae-Young; Jeong, Rak-Hun; Song, Myoung-Chong; Cho, Somi Kim; Lee, Dong-Sun; Baek, Nam-In

    2016-02-01

    Phytochemical investigation on the florets of Thysanolaena latifolia leads to the isolation of a new compound 6″-O-acetylorientin-2″-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside (1), named amrisoside and other 34 known compounds. The chemical structures of the compounds were determined from the interpretation of spectroscopic data including NMR, MS, and IR. This is the first report of phytochemical constituents from the monotypic genus Thysanolaena. PMID:26230153

  11. Efficiency of Phragmites australis and Typha latifolia for heavy metal removal from wastewater.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Menka; Tripathi, B D

    2015-02-01

    A cost-effective and promising technology has been demonstrated for the removal of copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), iron (Fe), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) from urban sewage mixed with industrial effluents within 14 days. With the help of P. australis and T. latifolia grown alone and in combination batch experiments were designed to assess the removal of heavy metals from the wastewater collected from 5 sampling stations. The results revealed that P. australis performed better than T. latifolia for Cu, Cd, Cr, Ni, Fe, Pb and Zn removal, while mixing of the plant species further enhanced the removal of Cu to 78.0±1.2%, Cd to 60.0±1.2%, Cr to 68.1±0.4%, Ni to 73.8±0.6%, Fe to 80.1±0.3%, Pb to 61.0±1.2% and Zn to 61.0±1.2% for wastewater samples from Raj Ghat. Negative correlation coefficients of Cu, Cd, Cr, Ni, Fe, Pb and Zn concentrations in wastewater with the retention time revealed that there was an increase in the heavy metal removal rate with retention time. P. australis showed higher accumulative capacities for Cu, Cd, Cr, Ni and Fe than T. latifolia. P. australis and T. latifolia grown in combination can be used for the removal of Cu, Cd, Cr, Ni, Fe, Pb and Zn from the urban sewage mixed with industrial effluents within 14 days. PMID:25463857

  12. Volvalerine A, an unprecedented N-containing sesquiterpenoid dimer derivative from Valeriana officinalis var. latifolia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng-Cheng; Ran, Xin-Hui; Luo, Huai-Rong; Ma, Qing-Yun; Zhou, Jun; Hu, Jiang-Miao; Zhao, You-Xing

    2016-03-01

    Volvalerine A (1), a novel N-containing bisesquiterpenoid derivative with a dihydroisoxazole ring, and its possible biosynthetic precursor, 1-hydroxy-1,11,11-trimethyldecahydrocyclopropane azulene-10-one (2), were isolated from the roots of Valeriana officinalis var. latifolia. Their structures and relative configurations were identified using spectroscopic data and X-ray crystallography. A plausible biosynthetic pathway for 1 is also presented. PMID:26779941

  13. Lavandula angustifolia and Lavandula latifolia Essential Oils from Spain: Aromatic Profile and Bioactivities.

    PubMed

    Carrasco, Alejandro; Martinez-Gutierrez, Ramiro; Tomas, Virginia; Tudela, Jose

    2016-01-01

    Compositions of true lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) and spike lavender (Lavandula latifolia) essential oils, cultivated and extracted in the Southeast of Spain, were determined by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry detection, obtaining both relative (peak area) and absolute (using standard curves) concentrations. Linalool (37-54 %), linalyl acetate (21-36 %) and (E)-β-caryophyllene (1-3 %) were the most abundant components for L. angustifolia. Linalool (35-51 %), eucalyptol (26-32 %), camphor (10-18 %), α-pinene (1-2 %), α-terpineol (1-2 %) and α-bisabolene (1-2 %) were the most abundant components for L. latifolia. The characterization was completed with enantioselective gas chromatography, in which the determined main molecules were (-)-linalool, (-)-linalyl acetate and (+)-camphor. (S)-(-)-camphene, (R)-(+)-limonene, (1R, 9S)-(-)-(E)-β-caryophyllene and (1R, 4R, 6R, 10S)-(-)-caryophyllene oxide were found in this study as the predominant enantiomers in Spanish L. angustifolia. The characterised essential oils were tested for their antioxidant activity against free radicals ABTS, DPPH, ORAC, chelating, and reducing power. Inhibitory activity on lipoxygenase was observed indicating a possible anti-inflammatory activity, mainly due to linalool, camphor, p-cymene and limonene. These results can be the starting point for a future study of the potential use of L. angustifolia and L. latifolia essential oils as natural cosmetic and natural pharmaceutical ingredients for several skin diseases. PMID:26441063

  14. Distribution and population structure of the anther smut Microbotryum silenes-acaulis parasitizing an arctic-alpine plant.

    PubMed

    Bueker, Britta; Eberlein, Chris; Gladieux, Pierre; Schaefer, Angela; Snirc, Alodie; Bennett, Dominic J; Begerow, Dominik; Hood, Michael E; Giraud, Tatiana

    2016-02-01

    Cold-adapted organisms with current arctic-alpine distributions have persisted during the last glaciation in multiple ice-free refugia, leaving footprints in their population structure that contrast with temperate plants and animals. However, pathogens that live within hosts having arctic-alpine distributions have been little studied. Here, we therefore investigated the geographical range and population structure of a fungus parasitizing an arctic-alpine plant. A total of 1437 herbarium specimens of the plant Silene acaulis were examined, and the anther smut pathogen Microbotryum silenes-acaulis was present throughout the host's geographical range. There was significantly greater incidence of anther smut disease in more northern latitudes and where the host locations were less dense, indicating a major influence of environmental factors and/or host demographic structure on the pathogen distribution. Genetic analyses with seven microsatellite markers on recent collections of 195 M. silenes-acaulis individuals revealed three main genetic clusters, in North America, northern Europe and southern Europe, likely corresponding to differentiation in distinct refugia during the last glaciation. The lower genetic diversity in northern Europe indicates postglacial recolonization northwards from southern refugia. This study combining herbarium surveys and population genetics thus uniquely reveals the effects of climate and environmental factors on a plant pathogen species with an arctic-alpine distribution. PMID:26671732

  15. Cell-wall polysaccharide composition and glycanase activity of Silene vulgaris callus transformed with rolB and rolC genes.

    PubMed

    Günter, Elena A; Shkryl, Yury N; Popeyko, Oxana V; Veremeichik, Galina N; Bulgakov, Victor P

    2015-03-15

    The aim of this research is to investigate the effects of the Agrobacterium rhizogenes rol genes on the composition of cell-wall polysaccharides and glycanase activity in the campion callus. The expression of the rolC gene reduces the yield of campion pectin, while the expression of the rolB or rolC gene inhibits the volumetric production of both pectin and intracellular arabinogalactan. The rol genes are involved in regulating the activity of glycanases and esterases, thereby contributing to the modification of polysaccharide structures, their molecular weight (Mw) and the degree of pectin methyl esterification (DE). The increase in pectin arabinose residue appears to be connected to a decrease in intracellular and extracellular α-l-arabinofuranosidase activity in transgenic campion calluses. In transgenic calluses expressing the rolB and rolC genes, the increase in pectin galactose residue is likely due to a decrease in β-galactosidase activity. The decrease in the Mw of pectin and its d-galacturonic acid content appears to be connected to an increase in extracellular polygalacturonase activity. Finally, the increase in pectinesterase activity causes a decrease in the DE of pectin. Thus, the expression of rolB and rolC genes in campion callus has a considerable effect on pectin's sugar composition, DE and Mw, while it appears to have an insignificant influence on intracellular and extracellular arabinogalactans. PMID:25542107

  16. Comparative mapping of the wild perennial Glycine latifolia and soybean (G. max) reveals extensive chromosome rearrangements in the genus Glycine.

    PubMed

    Chang, Sungyul; Thurber, Carrie S; Brown, Patrick J; Hartman, Glen L; Lambert, Kris N; Domier, Leslie L

    2014-01-01

    Soybean (Glycine max L. Mer.), like many cultivated crops, has a relatively narrow genetic base and lacks diversity for some economically important traits. Glycine latifolia (Benth.) Newell & Hymowitz, one of the 26 perennial wild Glycine species related to soybean in the subgenus Glycine Willd., shows high levels of resistance to multiple soybean pathogens and pests including Alfalfa mosaic virus, Heterodera glycines Ichinohe and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary. However, limited information is available on the genomes of these perennial Glycine species. To generate molecular resources for gene mapping and identification, high-density linkage maps were constructed for G. latifolia using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers generated by genotyping by sequencing and evaluated in an F2 population and confirmed in an F5 population. In each population, greater than 2,300 SNP markers were selected for analysis and segregated to form 20 large linkage groups. Marker orders were similar in the F2 and F5 populations. The relationships between G. latifolia linkage groups and G. max and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) chromosomes were examined by aligning SNP-containing sequences from G. latifolia to the genome sequences of G. max and P. vulgaris. Twelve of the 20 G. latifolia linkage groups were nearly collinear with G. max chromosomes. The remaining eight G. latifolia linkage groups appeared to be products of multiple interchromosomal translocations relative to G. max. Large syntenic blocks also were observed between G. latifolia and P. vulgaris. These experiments are the first to compare genome organizations among annual and perennial Glycine species and common bean. The development of molecular resources for species closely related to G. max provides information into the evolution of genomes within the genus Glycine and tools to identify genes within perennial wild relatives of cultivated soybean that could be beneficial to soybean production. PMID

  17. Comparative high-throughput transcriptome sequencing and development of SiESTa, the Silene EST annotation database

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The genus Silene is widely used as a model system for addressing ecological and evolutionary questions in plants, but advances in using the genus as a model system are impeded by the lack of available resources for studying its genome. Massively parallel sequencing cDNA has recently developed into an efficient method for characterizing the transcriptomes of non-model organisms, generating massive amounts of data that enable the study of multiple species in a comparative framework. The sequences generated provide an excellent resource for identifying expressed genes, characterizing functional variation and developing molecular markers, thereby laying the foundations for future studies on gene sequence and gene expression divergence. Here, we report the results of a comparative transcriptome sequencing study of eight individuals representing four Silene and one Dianthus species as outgroup. All sequences and annotations have been deposited in a newly developed and publicly available database called SiESTa, the Silene EST annotation database. Results A total of 1,041,122 EST reads were generated in two runs on a Roche GS-FLX 454 pyrosequencing platform. EST reads were analyzed separately for all eight individuals sequenced and were assembled into contigs using TGICL. These were annotated with results from BLASTX searches and Gene Ontology (GO) terms, and thousands of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were characterized. Unassembled reads were kept as singletons and together with the contigs contributed to the unigenes characterized in each individual. The high quality of unigenes is evidenced by the proportion (49%) that have significant hits in similarity searches with the A. thaliana proteome. The SiESTa database is accessible at http://www.siesta.ethz.ch. Conclusion The sequence collections established in the present study provide an important genomic resource for four Silene and one Dianthus species and will help to further develop Silene as a

  18. Night life on the beach: selfing to avoid pollinator competition between two sympatric Silene species

    PubMed Central

    Buide, Mª Luisa; del Valle, José Carlos; Pissatto, Mônica; Narbona, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Evolution of autonomous selfing may be advantageous because it allows for reproductive assurance. In co-flowering plants competing for pollinators, the least common and/or attractive could suffer pollen limitations. Silene niceensis and S. ramosissima are taxonomically related species sharing the same habitat, although S. ramosissima is less abundant and has a more restricted distribution. They also have the same a priori nocturnal pollinator syndrome, and show an overlapping flowering phenology. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a selfing strategy in S. ramosissima allows it to avoid pollinator competition and/or interspecific pollen transfer with S. niceensis, which would thus enable both species to reach high levels of fruit and seed set. Methods The breeding system, petal colour, flower life span and degree of overlap between male and female phases, floral visitor abundance and visitation rates were analysed in two sympatric populations of S. niceensis and S. ramosissima in southern Spain. Key Results Autonomous selfing in S. ramosissima produced very high fruit and seed set, which was also similar to open-pollinated plants. Silene niceensis showed minimum levels of autonomous selfing, and pollen/ovule ratios were within the range expected for the breeding system. In contrast to S. niceensis, flower life span was much shorter in S. ramosissima, and male and female organs completely overlapped in space and time. Upper surface petals of both species showed differing brightness, chroma and hue. Flowers of S. niceensis were actively visited by moths, hawkmoths and syrphids, whereas those of S. ramosissima were almost never visited. Conclusions The findings show that different breeding strategies exist between the sympatric co-flowering S. niceensis and S. ramosissima, the former specializing in crepuscular–nocturnal pollination and the latter mainly based on autonomous selfing. These two strategies allow both species to share

  19. Indole Alkaloids of Alstonia angustifolia var. latifolia as Green Inhibitor for Mild Steel Corrosion in 1 M HCl Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raja, Pandian Bothi; Qureshi, Ahmad Kaleem; Rahim, Afidah Abdul; Awang, Khalijah; Mukhtar, Mat Ropi; Osman, Hasnah

    2013-04-01

    The inhibition effect of mild steel (MS) corrosion in 1 M HCl was studied by the addition of indole alkaloids (crude) isolated from Alstonia angustifolia var. latifolia ( A. latifolia) leaves at 303 K. Potentiodynamic polarization, impedance spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analyses were used for this study. Results show that the isolated alkaloid extract of A. latifolia is a good inhibitor and exhibited maximum inhibition efficiency (above 80%) at concentrations between 3 and 5 mg/L. Polarization measurements indicated that the inhibitor does not alter the mechanism of either anodic or cathodic reactions and acted as mixed-type inhibitor. The inhibition efficiencies of both electrochemical techniques are found to be in good agreement and adsorption of inhibitor follows Langmuir isotherm. Adsorption of inhibitor over metal surface was well supported by the SEM studies, while FTIR studies evidenced the presence of indole alkaloids as green inhibitor that reduces the rate of corrosion.

  20. Ilex latifolia Prevents Amyloid β Protein (25-35)-Induced Memory Impairment by Inhibiting Apoptosis and Tau Phosphorylation in Mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joo Youn; Lee, Hong Kyu; Jang, Ji Yeon; Yoo, Jae Kuk; Seong, Yeon Hee

    2015-12-01

    Ilex latifolia Thunb. (Aquifoliaceae), a Chinese bitter tea called "kudingcha," has been widely consumed as a health beverage and found to possess antioxidant, antidiabetic, antihypertensive, anti-inflammatory, and anti-ischemic activities. The aim of the present study was to investigate the neuroprotective effects of an ethanol extract of I. latifolia against amyloid β protein (Aβ)-induced memory impairment in mice and neurotoxicity in cultured rat cortical neurons. Memory impairment in mice was induced by intracerebroventricular injection of 15 nmol Aβ (25-35) and measured by the passive avoidance test and Morris water maze test. Chronic administration of I. latifolia (25-100 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly prevented Aβ (25-35)-induced memory loss. I. latifolia also prevented the decrease of glutathione concentrations, increased lipid peroxidation, expression of phosphorylated tau (p-tau), and changes in apoptosis-associated proteins in the memory-impaired mouse brain. Exposure of cultured cortical neurons to 10 μM Aβ (25-35) for 36 h induced neuronal apoptotic death. The neuronal cell death, elevation of intracellular Ca(2+) concentration, generation of reactive oxygen species, and expression of proapoptotic proteins caused by Aβ (25-35) in the cultured neurons were inhibited by treatment with I. latifolia (1-50 μg/mL). These results suggest that I. latifolia may have a possible therapeutic role in managing cognitive impairment associated with Alzheimer's disease. The underlying mechanism might involve the antiapoptotic effects mediated by antioxidant activity and inhibition of p-tau formation. PMID:26291170

  1. Nowhere to Invade: Rumex crispus and Typha latifolia Projected to Disappear under Future Climate Scenarios

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zhonglin; Feng, Zhaodong; Yang, Jianjun; Zheng, Jianghua; Zhang, Fang

    2013-01-01

    Future climate change has been predicted to affect the potential distribution of plant species. However, only few studies have addressed how invasive species may respond to future climate change despite the known effects of plant species invasion on nutrient cycles, ecosystem functions, and agricultural yields. In this study, we predicted the potential distributions of two invasive species, Rumex crispus and Typha latifolia, under current and future (2050) climatic conditions. Future climate scenarios considered in our study include A1B, A2, A2A, B1, and B2A. We found that these two species will lose their habitat under the A1B, A2, A2A, and B1 scenarios. Their distributions will be maintained under future climatic conditions related to B2A scenarios, but the total area will be less than 10% of that under the current climatic condition. We also investigated variations of the most influential climatic variables that are likely to cause habitat loss of the two species. Our results demonstrate that rising mean annual temperature, variations of the coldest quarter, and precipitation of the coldest quarter are the main factors contributing to habitat loss of R. crispus. For T. latifolia, the main factors are rising mean annual temperature, variations in temperature of the coldest quarter, mean annual precipitation, and precipitation of the coldest quarter. These results demonstrate that the warmer and wetter climatic conditions of the coldest season (or month) will be mainly responsible for habitat loss of R. crispus and T. latifolia in the future. We also discuss uncertainties related to our study (and similar studies) and suggest that particular attention should be directed toward the manner in which invasive species cope with rapid climate changes because evolutionary change can be rapid for species that invade new areas. PMID:23923020

  2. Phytochemical analysis and antioxidants activities of aqueous stem bark extract of Schotia latifolia Jacq

    PubMed Central

    Mbaebie, BO; Edeoga, HO; Afolayan, AJ

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the phytochemical constituents and antioxidant activities of aqueous extract of Schotia latifolia (S. latifolia) bark locally used for the treatment of oxidative stress-induced ailments in South Africa. Methods The antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of aqueous extract of the plant was assessed against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), nitric oxide (NO), 2,2′-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) and the ferric reducing agent. Total phenolics, flavonoids, flavonols and proanthocyanidins were also determined to assess their corresponding effect on the antioxidant activity of this plant. Results The activities of plant extract against DPPH, ABTS and NO radicals were concentration dependent with IC50 value of 0.06, 0.05 and 0.05 mg/mL, respectively. The reducing power of the extract was greater than that of butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT) and ascorbic acid which were used as standard drugs in a concentration dependent manner. The total phenolics content of the aqueous bark extract was (193.33±0.03 TE/g), followed by flavonoids (72.70±0.01 QE/g), proanthocyanidins (48.76±0.00 CE/g) and flavonols (47.76±0.21 QE/g). Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of percentage tannin (11.40±0.02), alkaloid (9.80±0.01), steroids (18.20±0.01), glycosides (29.80±0.01) and saponins (6.80±0.00). The results exhibited a positive linear correlation between these polyphenols and the free radical scavenging activities. Conclusions Our findings provide evidence that the crude aqueous extract of S. latifolia is a potential source of natural antioxidants and this justifies its uses in folkloric medicines. PMID:23569880

  3. Extensive alterations in DNA methylation and transcription in rice caused by introgression from Zizania latifolia.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhenlan; Wang, Yongming; Shen, Ye; Guo, Wanli; Hao, Shui; Liu, Bao

    2004-03-01

    It has been demonstrated that insertion of foreign DNA into mammalian genome can profoundly alter the patterns of DNA methylation and transcription of the host genome. Introgression of alien DNA into plant genomes through sexual crossing and genetic engineering are commonly used in breeding, but it is not known if plant genomes have similar responses to alien DNA introgression as those of animals. Two stable rice lines with introgression from wild rice, Zizania latifolia, were analyzed for patterns of cytosine DNA methylation and transcription of a set of selected sequences, including cellular genes and transposable element (TE)-related DNA segments. In 21 of the 30 studied sequences, marked changes in DNA methylation and/or transcription were observed compared with those of the rice parent. In all analyzed sequences, the absence of Zizania homologues in the introgression lines was confirmed. No change in DNA methylation and expression patterns was detected in randomly selected individuals of the rice parent nor in two sibling lines without introgressed Zizania DNA. The changed methylation patterns in both introgression lines were stably maintained in all five randomly sampled individuals of a given line, as well as in selfed progenies of the lines. Changed patterns in methylation and expression were also found in an independently produced asymmetric somatic nuclear hybrid (SH6) of rice and Z. latifolia that involves a different rice genotype but also contains a small amount of Z. latifolia DNA integrated into the rice genome. Thus, we have demonstrated that alien DNA introgression into a plant genome can induce extensive alterations in DNA methylation and transcription of both cellular genes and TE-related DNA segments in a genotype-independent manner. PMID:15316290

  4. Nowhere to invade: Rumex crispus and Typha latifolia projected to disappear under future climate scenarios.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhonglin; Feng, Zhaodong; Yang, Jianjun; Zheng, Jianghua; Zhang, Fang

    2013-01-01

    Future climate change has been predicted to affect the potential distribution of plant species. However, only few studies have addressed how invasive species may respond to future climate change despite the known effects of plant species invasion on nutrient cycles, ecosystem functions, and agricultural yields. In this study, we predicted the potential distributions of two invasive species, Rumex crispus and Typha latifolia, under current and future (2050) climatic conditions. Future climate scenarios considered in our study include A1B, A2, A2A, B1, and B2A. We found that these two species will lose their habitat under the A1B, A2, A2A, and B1 scenarios. Their distributions will be maintained under future climatic conditions related to B2A scenarios, but the total area will be less than 10% of that under the current climatic condition. We also investigated variations of the most influential climatic variables that are likely to cause habitat loss of the two species. Our results demonstrate that rising mean annual temperature, variations of the coldest quarter, and precipitation of the coldest quarter are the main factors contributing to habitat loss of R. crispus. For T. latifolia, the main factors are rising mean annual temperature, variations in temperature of the coldest quarter, mean annual precipitation, and precipitation of the coldest quarter. These results demonstrate that the warmer and wetter climatic conditions of the coldest season (or month) will be mainly responsible for habitat loss of R. crispus and T. latifolia in the future. We also discuss uncertainties related to our study (and similar studies) and suggest that particular attention should be directed toward the manner in which invasive species cope with rapid climate changes because evolutionary change can be rapid for species that invade new areas. PMID:23923020

  5. Expression response of duplicated metallothionein 3 gene to copper stress in Silene vulgaris ecotypes.

    PubMed

    Nevrtalova, Eva; Baloun, Jiri; Hudzieczek, Vojtech; Cegan, Radim; Vyskot, Boris; Dolezel, Jaroslav; Safar, Jan; Milde, David; Hobza, Roman

    2014-11-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) were identified as important players in metal metabolism. MT3 gene presents a key metallothionein controlling copper homeostasis in plants. We have selected one cupricolous and one non-cupricolous ecotype to isolate and analyse the MT3 gene in Silene vulgaris. For expression data comparison, we have also included other metal-tolerant ecotypes. Based on a S. vulgaris BAC library screening, we have identified and sequenced a genomic clone containing MT3 gene (SvMT3). We found that SvMT3 gene has been locally duplicated in a tandem arrangement. Expression analysis and complementation studies using yeast mutants showed that both copies of the SvMT3 gene were functional. Moreover, we examined the expression of MT3 gene(s) in selected ecotypes under different copper treatments to show the tissue-specific expression response to copper stress. We demonstrated that higher copper concentrations specifically affected MT3 expression among ecotypes. Our analysis shows that MT3a has similar expression pattern in cupricolous ecotypes while MT3b has common expression features shared by all metallophyte S. vulgaris ecotypes. Our data indicate that down-regulation of MT3b root expression in higher copper concentrations is associated with copper stress. We propose that there might be a specific regulation of SvMT3s transcription depending on the type of heavy metal tolerance. PMID:24748066

  6. Glutathione depletion due to copper-induced phytochelatin synthesis causes oxidative stress in Silene cucubalus

    SciTech Connect

    Ric De Vos, C.H.; Vonk, M.J.; Vooijs, R.; Schat, H. )

    1992-03-01

    The relation between loss of glutathione due to metal-induced phytochelatin synthesis and oxidative stress was studied in the roots of copper-sensitive and tolerant Silene cucubalus (L.) Wib., resistant to 1 and 40 micromolar Cu, respectively. The amount of nonprotein sulfhydryl compounds other then glutathione was taken as a measure of phytochelatins. At a supply of 20 micromolar Cu, which is toxic for sensitive plants only, phytochelatin synthesis and loss of total glutathione were observed only in sensitive plants within 6 h of exposure. When the plants were exposed to a range of copper concentrations for 3 d, a marked production of phytochelatins in sensitive plants was already observed at 0.5 micromolar Cu, whereas the production in tolerant plants was negligible at 40 micromolar or lower. The highest production in tolerant plants was only 40% of that in sensitive plants. In both varieties, the synthesis of phytochelatins was coupled to a loss of glutathione. Copper at toxic concentrations caused oxidative stress, as was evidenced by both the accumulation of lipid peroxidation products and a shift in the glutathione redox couple to a more oxidized state. Depletion of glutathione by pretreatment with buthionine sulfoximine significantly increased the oxidative damage by copper. At a comparably low glutathione level, cadmium had no effect on either lipid peroxidation or the glutathione redox couple in buthionine sulfoximine-treated plants. These results indicate that copper may specifically cause oxidative stress by depletion of the antioxidant glutathione due to phytochelatin synthesis.

  7. Marginal Likelihood Estimate Comparisons to Obtain Optimal Species Delimitations in Silene sect. Cryptoneurae (Caryophyllaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Aydin, Zeynep; Marcussen, Thomas; Ertekin, Alaattin Selcuk; Oxelman, Bengt

    2014-01-01

    Coalescent-based inference of phylogenetic relationships among species takes into account gene tree incongruence due to incomplete lineage sorting, but for such methods to make sense species have to be correctly delimited. Because alternative assignments of individuals to species result in different parametric models, model selection methods can be applied to optimise model of species classification. In a Bayesian framework, Bayes factors (BF), based on marginal likelihood estimates, can be used to test a range of possible classifications for the group under study. Here, we explore BF and the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) to discriminate between different species classifications in the flowering plant lineage Silene sect. Cryptoneurae (Caryophyllaceae). We estimated marginal likelihoods for different species classification models via the Path Sampling (PS), Stepping Stone sampling (SS), and Harmonic Mean Estimator (HME) methods implemented in BEAST. To select among alternative species classification models a posterior simulation-based analog of the AIC through Markov chain Monte Carlo analysis (AICM) was also performed. The results are compared to outcomes from the software BP&P. Our results agree with another recent study that marginal likelihood estimates from PS and SS methods are useful for comparing different species classifications, and strongly support the recognition of the newly described species S. ertekinii. PMID:25216034

  8. The effects of stress intensity and stress type on inbreeding depression in Silene vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Sandner, Tobias Michael; Matthies, Diethart

    2016-06-01

    Inbreeding depression (ID) is generally assumed to increase under stressful conditions, but a number of studies have found the opposite pattern, that is that crossed offspring were more capable of exploiting benign conditions. Alternatively, the phenotypic variation hypothesis predicts that not stress intensity, but enhanced phenotypic variation in an environment leads to increased ID. We subjected inbred and crossed offspring of Silene vulgaris to drought, simulated herbivory, copper contamination, and two levels of nutrient deficiency and shade. In contrast to the predominant expectation, most stress treatments decreased inbreeding depression. With increasing nutrient limitation, ID decreased strongly, whereas under increasing shade ID did not change. These differences may be due to purging in the population of origin where conditions are nutrient-poor and dry, but not shaded. In contrast to the greenhouse experiment, ID was higher in a field site than in a more benign common garden. However, the predictions of the phenotypic variation hypothesis were met in both the greenhouse and the field versus garden experiment. The results suggest that there may be no general relationship between ID and stress intensity, but specific effects of stress type and the novelty and variability of the environment. PMID:27110935

  9. Antibacterial and Antifungal Activities of Lectin Extracted from Fruiting Bodies of the Korean Cauliflower Medicinal Mushroom, Sparassis latifolia (Agaricomycetes).

    PubMed

    Chandrasekaran, Gayathri; Lee, Young-Chul; Park, Hyun; Wu, Yuanzheng; Shin, Hyun-Jae

    2016-01-01

    In this article we describe the isolation and characterization of a novel lectin from fruiting bodies of the mushroom Sparassis latifolia. The antibacterial activity of the purified lectin against Escherichia coli and resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa as well as the antifungal activity against Candida and Fusarium species were determined. Circular dichroism spectroscopy and the tryptophan blue shift assay indicated that the lectin interacts with microbial surfaces. This suggests the potential of the lectin isolated from S. latifolia, a valuable source of bioactive constituents, as a therapeutic in pharmaceutical agent. PMID:27481295

  10. Micropropagation of Madhuca longifolia (Koenig) MacBride var. latifolia Roxb.

    PubMed

    Rout, G R; Das, P

    1993-07-01

    Bud break and multiple shoots were induced in apical and axillary meristems derived from 10-d old seedlings of Madhuca longifolia var. latifolia on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/l N(6)-benzyladenine (BA) singly or in combinatiobn with 1-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). Excised shoots were rooted on half-strength MS with IBA (1.0 mg/l) after 18d of culture. Regenerated plantlets were acclimatized and successfully transferred to soil. PMID:24196112

  11. An Efficient In Vitro Plantlet Regeneration from Shoot Tip Cultures of Curculigo latifolia, a Medicinal Plant

    PubMed Central

    Babaei, Nahid; Psyquay Abdullah, Nur Ashikin; Saleh, Ghizan; Lee Abdullah, Thohirah

    2014-01-01

    A procedure was developed for in vitro propagation of Curculigo latifolia through shoot tip culture. Direct regeneration and indirect scalp induction of Curculigo latifolia were obtained from shoot tip grown on MS medium supplemented with different concentrations and combinations of thidiazuron and indole-3-butyric acid. Maximum response for direct regeneration in terms of percentage of explants producing shoot, shoot number, and shoot length was obtained on MS medium supplemented with combination of thidiazuron (0.5 mg L−1) and indole-3-butyric acid (0.25 mg L−1) after both 10 and 14 weeks of cultures. Indole-3-butyric acid in combination with thidiazuron exhibited a synergistic effect on shoot regeneration. The shoot tips were able to induce maximum scalp from basal end of explants on the medium with 2 mg L−1 thidiazuron. Cultures showed that shoot number, shoot length, and scalp size increased significantly after 14 weeks of culture. Transferring of the shoots onto the MS medium devoid of growth regulators resulted in the highest percentage of root induction and longer roots, while medium supplemented with 0.25 mg L−1 IBA produced more numbers of roots. PMID:24723799

  12. Nauclea latifolia: biological activity and alkaloid phytochemistry of a West African tree.

    PubMed

    Boucherle, Benjamin; Haudecoeur, Romain; Queiroz, Emerson Ferreira; De Waard, Michel; Wolfender, Jean-Luc; Robins, Richard J; Boumendjel, Ahcène

    2016-09-25

    Covering up to 2016Nauclea latifolia (syn. Sarcocephalus latifolius, Rubiaceae), commonly called the African pincushion tree, is a plant widely used in folk medicine in different regions of Africa for treating a variety of illnesses, including malaria, epilepsy and pain. N. latifolia has not only drawn the interest of traditional healers but also of phytochemists, who have identified a range of bioactive indole alkaloids in its tissue. More recently, following up on the traditional use of extracts in pain management, a bio-guided purification from the roots of the tree led to the identification of the active ingredient as tramadol, available as a synthetic analgesic since the 1970s. The discovery of this compound as a natural phytochemical was highlighted worldwide. This review focuses on the correlation between extracted compounds and pharmacological activities, paying special attention to infectious diseases and neurologically-related disorders. A critical analysis of the data reported so far on the natural origin of tramadol and its proposed biosynthesis is also presented. PMID:27346294

  13. An efficient in vitro plantlet regeneration from shoot tip cultures of Curculigo latifolia, a medicinal plant.

    PubMed

    Babaei, Nahid; Abdullah, Nur Ashikin Psyquay; Saleh, Ghizan; Abdullah, Thohirah Lee

    2014-01-01

    A procedure was developed for in vitro propagation of Curculigo latifolia through shoot tip culture. Direct regeneration and indirect scalp induction of Curculigo latifolia were obtained from shoot tip grown on MS medium supplemented with different concentrations and combinations of thidiazuron and indole-3-butyric acid. Maximum response for direct regeneration in terms of percentage of explants producing shoot, shoot number, and shoot length was obtained on MS medium supplemented with combination of thidiazuron (0.5 mg L(-1)) and indole-3-butyric acid (0.25 mg L(-1)) after both 10 and 14 weeks of cultures. Indole-3-butyric acid in combination with thidiazuron exhibited a synergistic effect on shoot regeneration. The shoot tips were able to induce maximum scalp from basal end of explants on the medium with 2 mg L(-1) thidiazuron. Cultures showed that shoot number, shoot length, and scalp size increased significantly after 14 weeks of culture. Transferring of the shoots onto the MS medium devoid of growth regulators resulted in the highest percentage of root induction and longer roots, while medium supplemented with 0.25 mg L(-1) IBA produced more numbers of roots. PMID:24723799

  14. GENETIC DIVERSITY OF TYPHA LATIFOLIA (TYPHACEAE) AND THE IMPACT OF POLLUTANTS EXAMINED WITH TANDEM-REPETITIVE DNA PROBES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Genetic diversity at variable-number-tandem-repeat (VNTR) loci was examined in the common cattail, Typha latifolia (Typhaceae), using three synthetic DNA probes composed of tandemly repeated "core" sequences (GACA, GATA, and GCAC). The principal objectives of this investigation w...

  15. Transcriptome and Biochemical Analysis of a Flower Color Polymorphism in Silene littorea (Caryophyllaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Casimiro-Soriguer, Inés; Narbona, Eduardo; Buide, M. L.; del Valle, José C.; Whittall, Justen B.

    2016-01-01

    Flower color polymorphisms are widely used as model traits from genetics to ecology, yet determining the biochemical and molecular basis can be challenging. Anthocyanin-based flower color variations can be caused by at least 12 structural and three regulatory genes in the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway (ABP). We use mRNA-Seq to simultaneously sequence and estimate expression of these candidate genes in nine samples of Silene littorea representing three color morphs (dark pink, light pink and white) across three developmental stages in hopes of identifying the cause of flower color variation. We identified 29 putative paralogs for the 15 candidate genes in the ABP. We assembled complete coding sequences for 16 structural loci and nine of ten regulatory loci. Among these 29 putative paralogs, we identified 622 SNPs, yet only nine synonymous SNPs in Ans had allele frequencies that differentiated pigmented petals (dark pink and light pink) from white petals. These Ans allele frequency differences were further investigated with an expanded sequencing survey of 38 individuals, yet no SNPs consistently differentiated the color morphs. We also found one locus, F3h1, with strong differential expression between pigmented and white samples (>42x). This may be caused by decreased expression of Myb1a in white petal buds. Myb1a in S. littorea is a regulatory locus closely related to Subgroup 7 Mybs known to regulate F3h and other loci in the first half of the ABP in model species. We then compare the mRNA-Seq results with petal biochemistry which revealed cyanidin as the primary anthocyanin and five flavonoid intermediates. Concentrations of three of the flavonoid intermediates were significantly lower in white petals than in pigmented petals (rutin, quercetin and isovitexin). The biochemistry results for rutin, quercetin, luteolin and apigenin are consistent with the transcriptome results suggesting a blockage at F3h, possibly caused by downregulation of Myb1a. PMID:26973662

  16. Transcriptome and Biochemical Analysis of a Flower Color Polymorphism in Silene littorea (Caryophyllaceae).

    PubMed

    Casimiro-Soriguer, Inés; Narbona, Eduardo; Buide, M L; Del Valle, José C; Whittall, Justen B

    2016-01-01

    Flower color polymorphisms are widely used as model traits from genetics to ecology, yet determining the biochemical and molecular basis can be challenging. Anthocyanin-based flower color variations can be caused by at least 12 structural and three regulatory genes in the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway (ABP). We use mRNA-Seq to simultaneously sequence and estimate expression of these candidate genes in nine samples of Silene littorea representing three color morphs (dark pink, light pink and white) across three developmental stages in hopes of identifying the cause of flower color variation. We identified 29 putative paralogs for the 15 candidate genes in the ABP. We assembled complete coding sequences for 16 structural loci and nine of ten regulatory loci. Among these 29 putative paralogs, we identified 622 SNPs, yet only nine synonymous SNPs in Ans had allele frequencies that differentiated pigmented petals (dark pink and light pink) from white petals. These Ans allele frequency differences were further investigated with an expanded sequencing survey of 38 individuals, yet no SNPs consistently differentiated the color morphs. We also found one locus, F3h1, with strong differential expression between pigmented and white samples (>42x). This may be caused by decreased expression of Myb1a in white petal buds. Myb1a in S. littorea is a regulatory locus closely related to Subgroup 7 Mybs known to regulate F3h and other loci in the first half of the ABP in model species. We then compare the mRNA-Seq results with petal biochemistry which revealed cyanidin as the primary anthocyanin and five flavonoid intermediates. Concentrations of three of the flavonoid intermediates were significantly lower in white petals than in pigmented petals (rutin, quercetin and isovitexin). The biochemistry results for rutin, quercetin, luteolin and apigenin are consistent with the transcriptome results suggesting a blockage at F3h, possibly caused by downregulation of Myb1a. PMID:26973662

  17. Investigating past range dynamics for a weed of cultivation, Silene vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Sebasky, Megan E; Keller, Stephen R; Taylor, Douglas R

    2016-07-01

    Since the last glacial maximum (LGM), many plant and animal taxa have expanded their ranges by migration from glacial refugia. Weeds of cultivation may have followed this trend or spread globally following the expansion of agriculture or ruderal habitats associated with human-mediated disturbance. We tested whether the range expansion of the weed Silene vulgaris across Europe fit the classical model of postglacial expansion from southern refugia, or followed known routes of the expansion of human agricultural practices. We used species distribution modeling to predict spatial patterns of postglacial expansion and contrasted these with the patterns of human agricultural expansion. A population genetic analysis using microsatellite loci was then used to test which scenario was better supported by spatial patterns of genetic diversity and structure. Genetic diversity was highest in southern Europe and declined with increasing latitude. Locations of ancestral demes from genetic cluster analysis were consistent with areas of predicted refugia. Species distribution models showed the most suitable habitat in the LGM on the southern coasts of Europe. These results support the typical postglacial northward colonization from southern refugia while refuting the east-to-west agricultural spread as the main mode of expansion for S. vulgaris. We know that S. vulgaris has recently colonized many regions (including North America and other continents) through human-mediated dispersal, but there is no evidence for a direct link between the Neolithic expansion of agriculture and current patterns of genetic diversity of S. vulgaris in Europe. Therefore, the history of range expansion of S. vulgaris likely began with postglacial expansion after the LGM, followed by more recent global dispersal by humans. PMID:27547314

  18. Species delimitation without prior knowledge: DISSECT reveals extensive cryptic speciation in the Silene aegyptiaca complex (Caryophyllaceae).

    PubMed

    Toprak, Zeynep; Pfeil, Bernard E; Jones, Graham; Marcussen, Thomas; Ertekin, Alaattin Selçuk; Oxelman, Bengt

    2016-09-01

    Species delimitation is a major focus of biosystematics. In recent years, considerable progress has been achieved with the development of the multispecies coalescent (MSC) model, where species constitute the branches of the species tree or network. However, researchers are faced with the limitation that the MSC method of choice often requires a priori assignment of individuals to species. This not only introduces subjectivitiy into the analyses, but may also lead to meaningless species tree hypotheses, if the allele-to-species assignments are inaccurate. DISSECT is a recently introduced method that does not require a priori allele-to-species assignments, but instead examines the posterior probabilities of groupings (clusterings) of individuals under study. Using the DISSECT approach, we analysed genetic data from 75 individual plants belonging to the Silene aegyptiaca species complex that has previously been divided into 3-5 species. Marginal likelihood estimates from (*)BEAST analyses, run with predefined species classifications, strongly favour those compatible with the DISSECT result over those from morphology- and geography-based taxonomy. We found at least nine species, including several cryptic ones, for which no clear geographical or morphological patterns are correlated. However, the limited data and the possibility of unmodelled processes mean there is still much uncertainty about the true number of MSC species, and for taxonomic purposes, other criteria might be relevant. Nevertheless, we argue that the approach signifies an important step towards objective and testable species delimitations in any organismal group. In particular, it makes it possible to avoid biologically irrelevant species classifications. PMID:27233442

  19. Characterization of the bacterial flora associated with root systems of Pinus contorta var. latifolia.

    PubMed

    Dangerfield, J A; Westlake, D W; Cook, F D

    1978-12-01

    Root systems of young and mature lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. var. latifolia Englem.) were removed from forest stands and the associated aerobic bacterial flora isolated. Characterization of rhizoplane and control soil isolates from these tree root systems demonstrated differences from that reported for agricultural crops. Ammonifying, proteolytic, and amylolytic organisms were proportionately reduced within the rhizoplane. The rhizoplane organisms grew more slowly than the control soil isolates, although they responded in greater numbers to the addition of an amino acid supplement to the growth media. The rhizoplane organisms also showed an increased ability to solubilize phosphate. The chitinolytic organisms were suppressed within the rhizoplane of the mature tree but were stimulated by the young trees. With this exception, the rhizoplane microflora of older and younger trees were similar. PMID:747813

  20. Ethanol fermentation of mahula (Madhuca latifolia L.) flowers using free and immobilized yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Swain, M R; Kar, S; Sahoo, A K; Ray, R C

    2007-01-01

    There is a growing interest to find alternate bioresources for production of ethanol, apart from cane/sugar beet molasses and starchy crops like sweet sorghum, cassava and sweet potato. Mahula (Madhuca latifolia L.) is a forest tree abundantly available in the Indian subcontinent and its flowers are very rich in fermentable sugars (28.1-36.3 g 100 g(-1)). Batch fermentation of fresh and 12-month-stored flowers with free (whole cells) and immobilized cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (strain CTCRI) was carried out in 2-l Erlenmeyer flasks. The ethanol yields were 193 and 148 g kg(-1) (using free cells) and 205 and 152 g kg(-1) (using immobilized cells) from fresh and 12-month-stored mahula flowers, respectively. PMID:16580830

  1. Bioflocculant exopolysaccharide production by Azotobacter indicus using flower extract of Madhuca latifolia L.

    PubMed

    Patil, Satish V; Salunkhe, Rahul B; Patil, Chandrashekhar D; Patil, Deepak M; Salunke, Bipinchandra K

    2010-10-01

    Efficacy of Azotobacter indicus ATCC 9540 strain for production exopolysaccharide (EPS) bioflocculant was investigated. Mahua flower extract (Madhuca latifolia L), a natural substrate at the concentration of 20 g L(-1), gave maximum recovery of EPS followed by sucrose and mannitol as compared to other carbon sources after 172 h. Yeast extract was found to be the most effective nitrogen source as compared to beef extract, sodium nitrate, ammonium sulfate, casein hydrolysate, and urea for the production of EPS. EPS production was increased in presence of nitrogen (5.51 g L(-1)) as compared to nitrogen-free medium (3.51 g L(-1)), and fermentation time was also reduced by 28 h. Maximum EPS production (6.10 g L(-1)) was found in the presence of 20 g L(-1) flower extract and 0.5 g L(-1) yeast extract containing Ashby's media with 180 rpm at 30 degrees C at 144 h, under controlled conditions in 2.5 L fermenter using optimized medium. The isolated EPS showed cation-dependent flocculating activity. Concentration of EPS played an important role in bioflocculating activity which increased in a concentration-dependent manner up to a certain limit, with the maximum flocculation of 72% at 500 mg L(-1) concentration but remained almost static after this concentration. Extracted polymer was characterized by different chemical tests, FT-IR spectroscopy, and TLC which showed presence of uronic acids, O-acetyl groups, and Orcinol with suggestive indication of alginate like polymer. This study suggests that use of M. latifolia L. flowers can be a potential alternative bioresource for production of exopolysaccharide. PMID:19921493

  2. Ultrastructural morphologic description of the wild rice species Oryza latifolia (Poaceae) in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Ethel; Montiel, Mayra; Espinoza, Ana M

    2003-06-01

    The wild rice species Oryza latifolia is endemic to Tropical America, allotetraploid and has a CCDD genome type. It belongs to the officinalis group of the genus Oryza. This species is widely distributed throughout the lowlands of Costa Rica and it is found on different life zones, having great morphologic diversity. The purpose of this research is to perform a morphologic description of O. latifolia samples of three Costa Rican localities (Carara, Liberia and Cañas) and to see if the phenotypic diversity of the species is reflected at the ultra-structure level. Structures such as the leaf blade, ligule, auricles and spikelet were analyzed. Leaf blade morphology of the specimens from the three localities is characterized by the presence of diamond-shaped stomata with papillae, zipper-like rows of silica cells; a variety of evenly distributed epicuticular wax papillae and bulky prickle trichomes. The central vein of the leaf blade from the Cañas populations is glabrous, while those from Carara and Liberia have abundant papillae. There are also differences among the borders of the leaf blade between these locations. Cañas and Liberia present alternating large and small prickle trichomes ca. 81 and 150 microns, while Carara exhibits even sized prickle trichomes of ca. 93 microns. Auricles from Cañas are rectangular and present long trichomes along the surface ca. 1.5 mm, while those of Liberia and Carara wrap the culm and exhibit trichomes only in the borders. The ligule from the plants of Carara has an acute distal tip, while that of Cañas and Liberia is blunt. The Liberia spikelet has large lignified spines while Cañas and Carara show flexible trichomes. PMID:15162727

  3. Reference dosimetry measurements for the international intercomparison of criticality accident dosimetry SILENE 9-21 June 2002.

    PubMed

    Asselineau, B; Trompier, F; Texier, C; Itié, C; Médioni, R; Tikunov, D; Muller, H; Pelcot, G

    2004-01-01

    An international intercomparison of criticality accident dosimetry systems took place in the SILENE reactor, in June 2002. Participants from 60 laboratories irradiated their dosemeters (physical and biological) using two different configurations of the reactor. In preparation for this intercomparison, the leakage radiation fields were characterised by spectrometry and dosimetry measurements using the ROSPEC spectrometer associated with a NE-213 scintillator, ionisation chambers, GM counters, diodes and thermoluminescence dosemeters (TLDs). For this intercomparison, a large area was required to irradiate the dosemeters both in free air and on phantoms. Therefore, measurements of the uniformity of the field were performed with activation detectors and TLDs for neutron and gammas, respectively. This paper describes the procedures used and the results obtained. PMID:15353691

  4. Phytochelatins in Cadmium-Sensitive and Cadmium-Tolerant Silene vulgaris (Chain Length Distribution and Sulfide Incorporation).

    PubMed Central

    De Knecht, J. A.; Van Dillen, M.; Koevoets, PLM.; Schat, H.; Verkleij, JAC.; Ernst, WHO.

    1994-01-01

    In response to a range of Cd concentrations, the root tips of Cd-tolerant plants of Silene vulgaris exhibit a lower rate of PC production accompanied by a lower rate of longer chain PC synthesis than those of Cd-sensitive plants. At the same Cd exposure level, stable PC-Cd complexes are more rapidly formed in the roots of Cd-sensitive plants than in those of tolerant plants. At an equal PC concentration in the roots, the PC composition and the amount of sulfide incorporated per unit of PC-thiol is the same in both populations. Although these compounds might play some role in mechanisms that contribute to Cd detoxification, the ability to produce these compounds in greater amounts is not, itself, the mechanism that produces increased Cd tolerance in tolerant S. vulgaris plants. PMID:12232077

  5. A mechanistic study of the addition of alcohol to a five-membered ring silene via a photochemical reaction.

    PubMed

    Su, Ming-Der

    2016-03-21

    The mechanism for the photochemical rearrangement of a cyclic divinyldisilane (1-Si) in its first excited state ((1)π → (1)π*) is determined using the CAS/6-311G(d) and MP2-CAS/6-311++G(3df,3pd) levels of theory. The photoproduct, a cyclic silene, reacts with various alcohols to yield a mixture of cis- and trans- adducts. The two reaction pathways are denoted as the cis- addition path (path A) and the trans-addition path (path B). These model studies demonstrate that conical intersections play a crucial role in the photo-rearrangements of cyclic divinyldisilanes. The theoretical evidence also demonstrates that the addition of alcohol to a cyclic divinyldisilane follows the reaction path: cyclic divinyldisilane → Franck-Condon region → conical intersection → photoproduct (cyclic silene) → local intermediate (with alcohol) → transition state → cis- or trans-adduct. The theoretical studies demonstrate that the steric effects as well as the concentrations of CH3OH must have a dominant role in determining the yields of the final adducts by stereochemistry. The same mechanism for the carbon derivative (1-C) is also considered in this work. However, the theoretical results indicate that 1-C does not undergo a methanol addition reaction via the photochemical reaction pathway, since its energy of conical intersection (S1/S0-CI-C) is more than that of its FC (FC-C). The reason for these phenomena could be that the atomic radius of carbon is much smaller than that of silicon (77 and 117 pm, respectively). As a result, the conformation for 1-C is more sterically congested than that for 1-Si, along the 1,3-silyl-migration pathway. PMID:26928893

  6. In vitro anti-Herpes simplex virus activity of crude extract of the roots of Nauclea latifolia Smith (Rubiaceae)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Nauclea latifolia Smith, a shrub belonging to the family Rubiaceae is a very popular medicinal plant in Cameroon and neighboring countries where it is used to treat jaundice, yellow fever, rheumatism, abdominal pains, hepatitis, diarrhea, dysentery, hypertension, as well as diabetes. The ethno-medicinal use against yellow fever, jaundice and diarrhea prompted us to investigate on the antiviral activity of the root bark of N. latifolia. In this study, HSV-2 was chosen as a viral model because of its strong impact on HIV transmission and acquisition. Methods The crude extract under study was prepared by maceration of air-dried and powdered roots barks of N. latifolia in CH2Cl2/MeOH (50:50) mixture for 48 hours, then it was subjected to filtration and evaporation under vacuum. A phytochemical analysis of the crude extract was performed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled with a photodiode array and mass spectrometry (HPLC-PDA-ESI-qMS). The anti-HSV-2 activity was assayed in vitro by plaque reduction and virus yield assays and the major mechanism of action was investigated by virucidal and time of addition assays. Data values were compared using the Extra sum of squares F test of program GraphPad PRISM 4. Results The main components detected in the extract belong to the class of indole alkaloids characteristic of Nauclea genus. Strictosamide, vincosamide and pumiloside were tentatively identified together with quinovic acid glycoside. N. latifolia crude extract inhibited both acyclovir sensitive and acyclovir resistant HSV-2 strains, with IC50 values of 5.38 μg/ml for the former and 7.17 μg/ml for the latter. The extract was found to be most active when added post-infection, with IC50 of 3.63 μg/ml. Conclusion The results of this work partly justify the empirical use of N. latifolia in traditional medicine for the treatment of viral diseases. This extract could be a promising rough material for the development of a new and more effective

  7. Mineralization of surfactants by microbiota of aquatic plants. [Lemna minor, Typha latifolia

    SciTech Connect

    Federle, T.W.; Schwab, B.S. )

    1989-08-01

    The biodegradation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) and linear alcohol ethoxylate (LAE) by the microbiota associated with duckweed (Lemna minor) and the roots of cattail (Typha latifolia) was investigated. Plants were obtained from a pristine pond and a pond receiving wastewater from a rural laundromat. Cattail roots and duckweed plants were incubated in vessels containing sterile water amended with ({sup 14}C)LAS, ({sup 14}C)LAE, or {sup 14}C-labeled mixed amino acids (MAA). Evolution of {sup 14}CO{sub 2} was determined over time. The microbiota of cattail roots from both ponds mineralized LAS, LAE, and MAA without lag periods, and the rates and extents of mineralization were not significantly affected by the source of the plants. Mineralization of LAS and LAE was more rapid in the rhizosphere than in nearby root-free sediments, which exhibited differences as a function of pond. The microbiota of duckweed readily mineralized LAE and MAA but not LAS. The rate and extent of mineralization were not affected by the source of the duckweed.

  8. Uptake, translocation and possible biodegradation of the antidiabetic agent metformin by hydroponically grown Typha latifolia.

    PubMed

    Cui, Hao; Schröder, Peter

    2016-05-01

    The increasing load of pharmaceutical compounds has raised concerns about their potential residues in aquatic environments and ecotoxicity. Metformin (MET), a widely prescribed antidiabetic II medicine, has been detected in high concentration in sewage and in wastewater treatment effluents. An uptake and translocation study was carried out to assess the ultimate fate of MET in phytoremediation. MET was removed from media by Typha latifolia, and the removal processes followed first order kinetics. After 28 days, the removal efficiencies were in a range of 74.0±4.1-81.1±3.3%. In roots, MET concentration was increasing during the first two weeks of the experiment but thereafter decreasing. In contrast, MET concentration was continuously increasing in rhizomes and leaves. Bioaccumulation of MET in roots was much higher than in leaves and rhizomes. As degradation product of metformin in the plant, methylbiguanide (MBG) was detected whereas guanylurea was undetectable. Moreover, MBG concentration in roots was increasing with exposure time. An enzymatic degradation experiment showed the degradation rate followed the order of MET

  9. Rooting and acclimatization of micropropagated marubakaido apple rootstock using Adesmia latifolia rhizobia.

    PubMed

    Muniz, Aleksander Westphal; de Sá, Enilson Luiz; Dalagnol, Gilberto Luíz; Filho, João Américo

    2013-01-01

    In vitro rooting and the acclimatization of micropropagated rootstocks of apple trees is essential for plant development in the field. The aim of this work was to assess the use of rhizobia of Adesmia latifolia to promote rooting and acclimatization in micropropagated Marubakaido apple rootstock. An experiment involving in vitro rooting and acclimatization was performed with four strains of rhizobium and two controls, one with and the other without the addition of synthetic indoleacetic acid. The inoculated treatments involved the use of sterile inoculum and inoculum containing live rhizobia. The most significant effects on the rooting rate, primary-root length, number of roots, root length, fresh-shoot biomass, and fresh-root biomass were obtained by inoculation with strain EEL16010B and with synthetic indole acetic acid. However, there was no difference in the growth of apple explants in the acclimatization experiments. Strain EEL16010B can be used to induce in vitro rooting of the Marubakaido rootstock and can replace the use of synthetic indoleacetic acid in the rooting of this cultivar. PMID:24102038

  10. Extensive de Novo genomic variation in rice induced by introgression from wild rice (Zizania latifolia Griseb.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong-Ming; Dong, Zhen-Ying; Zhang, Zhong-Juan; Lin, Xiu-Yun; Shen, Ye; Zhou, Daowei; Liu, Bao

    2005-08-01

    To study the possible impact of alien introgression on a recipient plant genome, we examined >6000 unbiased genomic loci of three stable rice recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from intergeneric hybridization between rice (cv. Matsumae) and a wild relative (Zizania latifolia Griseb.) followed by successive selfing. Results from amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis showed that, whereas the introgressed Zizania DNA comprised <0.1% of the genome content in the RILs, extensive and genome-wide de novo variations occurred in up to 30% of the analyzed loci for all three lines studied. The AFLP-detected changes were validated by DNA gel-blot hybridization and/or sequence analysis of genomic loci corresponding to a subset of the differentiating AFLP fragments. A BLAST analysis revealed that the genomic variations occurred in diverse sequences, including protein-coding genes, transposable elements, and sequences of unknown functions. Pairwise sequence comparison of selected loci between a RIL and its rice parent showed that the variations represented either base substitutions or small insertion/deletions. Genome variations were detected in all 12 rice chromosomes, although their distribution was uneven both among and within chromosomes. Taken together, our results imply that even cryptic alien introgression can be highly mutagenic to a recipient plant genome. PMID:15937131

  11. Synchrotron study of metal localization in Typha latifolia L. root sections

    SciTech Connect

    Qian, Yu; Jones, Keith W.; Feng, Huan; Gallagher, Frank J.; Zhu, Qingzhi; Wu, Meiyan; Liu, Chang -Jun; Tappero, Ryan V.

    2015-09-15

    Understanding mechanisms that control plant root metal assimilation in soil is critical to the sustainable management of metal-contaminated land. With the assistance of the synchrotron X-ray fluorescence technique, this study investigated possible mechanisms that control the localization of Fe, Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn in the root tissues of Typha latifolia L. collected from a contaminated wetland. Metal localizations especially in the case of Fe and Pb in the dermal tissue and the vascular bundles were different. Cluster analysis was performed to divide the dermal tissue into iron-plaque-enriched dermal tissue and regular dermal tissue based on the spatial distribution of Pb and Fe. Factor analysis showed that Cu and Zn were closely correlated to each other in the dermal tissues. The association of Cu, Zn and Mn with Fe was strong in both regular dermal tissue and iron-plaque-enriched dermal tissue, while significant (p < 0.05) correlation of Fe with Pb was only observed in tissues enriched with iron plaque. In the vascular bundles, Zn, Mn and Cu showed strong association, suggesting that the localization of these three elements was controlled by a similar mechanism. Iron plaque in the peripheral dermal tissues acted as a barrier for Pb and a buffer for Zn, Cu and Mn. Furthermore, the Casparian strip regulated the transportation of metals from dermal tissues to the vascular bundles. The results suggested that the mechanisms controlling metal localization in root tissues varied with both tissue types and metals.

  12. Synchrotron study of metal localization in Typha latifolia L. root sections.

    PubMed

    Qian, Yu; Feng, Huan; Gallagher, Frank J; Zhu, Qingzhi; Wu, Meiyin; Liu, Chang Jun; Jones, Keith W; Tappero, Ryan V

    2015-11-01

    Understanding mechanisms that control plant root metal assimilation in soil is critical to the sustainable management of metal-contaminated land. With the assistance of the synchrotron X-ray fluorescence technique, this study investigated possible mechanisms that control the localization of Fe, Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn in the root tissues of Typha latifolia L. collected from a contaminated wetland. Metal localizations especially in the case of Fe and Pb in the dermal tissue and the vascular bundles were different. Cluster analysis was performed to divide the dermal tissue into iron-plaque-enriched dermal tissue and regular dermal tissue based on the spatial distribution of Pb and Fe. Factor analysis showed that Cu and Zn were closely correlated to each other in the dermal tissues. The association of Cu, Zn and Mn with Fe was strong in both regular dermal tissue and iron-plaque-enriched dermal tissue, while significant (p < 0.05) correlation of Fe with Pb was only observed in tissues enriched with iron plaque. In the vascular bundles, Zn, Mn and Cu showed strong association, suggesting that the localization of these three elements was controlled by a similar mechanism. Iron plaque in the peripheral dermal tissues acted as a barrier for Pb and a buffer for Zn, Cu and Mn. The Casparian strip regulated the transportation of metals from dermal tissues to the vascular bundles. The results suggested that the mechanisms controlling metal localization in root tissues varied with both tissue types and metals. PMID:26524311

  13. Phytoremediation of wastewater with Limnocharis flava, Thalia geniculata and Typha latifolia in constructed wetlands.

    PubMed

    Anning, Alexander K; Korsah, Percy E; Addo-Fordjour, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Phytoremediation is thought to be the most sustainable wastewater treatment option for developing countries. However, its application is often limited by unavailability of suitable candidate species. In the present study, the potentials of Limnocharis flava, Thalia geniculata and Typha latifolia for remediation of heavy metal contaminated wastewater with a constructed wetland system were evaluated. The wetland consisted of three treatment lines each planted with sufficient and equal number of a species. Duplicate plant and water samples were collected bi-monthly and analyzed for Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb, and Hg using the atomic absorption spectrophotometer over a six month period. Bioaccumulation rates generally increased over time and varied among plants for these metals, with Fe (456-1549 mg kg1 roots; 20-183 mg kg(-1) shoot) being the most sequestered and Pb (1.2-7.6 mg kg(-1) roots; 1.55-3.95 mg kg(-1) shoot) the least. Translocation factors differed among the species but generally remained stable over time. L flava showed potential for hyperaccumulating Hg. Removal efficiencies varied for the studied metals (approximately 20-77 %) and were generally related to metal uptake by the plants. These results demonstrate the suitability of the species for phytoremediation, and the usefulness of the technique as an option for improving irrigation water quality in Ghana. PMID:23488171

  14. Antidiabetic and Hypolipidemic Activities of Curculigo latifolia Fruit:Root Extract in High Fat Fed Diet and Low Dose STZ Induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ishak, Nur Akmal; Ismail, Maznah; Hamid, Muhajir; Ahmad, Zalinah; Abd Ghafar, Siti Aisyah

    2013-01-01

    Curculigo latifolia fruit is used as alternative sweetener while root is used as alternative treatment for diuretic and urinary problems. The antidiabetic and hypolipidemic activities of C. latifolia fruit:root aqueous extract in high fat diet (HFD) and 40 mg streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats through expression of genes involved in glucose and lipid metabolisms were investigated. Diabetic rats were treated with C. latifolia fruit:root extract for 4 weeks. Plasma glucose, insulin, adiponectin, lipid profiles, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT), urea, and creatinine levels were measured before and after treatments. Regulations of selected genes involved in glucose and lipid metabolisms were determined. Results showed the significant (P < 0.05) increase in body weight, high density lipoprotein (HDL), insulin, and adiponectin levels and decreased glucose, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low density lipoprotein (LDL), urea, creatinine, ALT, and GGT levels in diabetic rats after 4 weeks treatment. Furthermore, C. latifolia fruit:root extract significantly increased the expression of IRS-1, IGF-1, GLUT4, PPARα, PPARγ, AdipoR1, AdipoR2, leptin, LPL, and lipase genes in adipose and muscle tissues in diabetic rats. These results suggest that C. latifolia fruit:root extract exerts antidiabetic and hypolipidemic effects through altering regulation genes in glucose and lipid metabolisms in diabetic rats. PMID:23762147

  15. Responses to Changes in Ca2+ Supply in Two Mediterranean Evergreens, Phillyrea latifolia and Pistacia lentiscus, During Salinity Stress and Subsequent Relief

    PubMed Central

    Tattini, Massimiliano; Traversi, Maria Laura

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims Changes in root-zone Ca2+ concentration affect a plant's performance under high salinity, an issue poorly investigated for Mediterranean xerophytes, which may suffer from transient root-zone salinity stress in calcareous soils. It was hypothesized that high-Ca2+ supply may affect differentially the response to salinity stress of species differing in their strategy of Na+ allocation at organ level. Phillyrea latifolia and Pistacia lentiscus, which have been reported to greatly differ for Na+ uptake and transport rates to the leaves, were studied. Methods In plants exposed to 0 mm or 200 mm NaCl and supplied with 2·0 mm or 8·0 mm Ca2+, under 100 % solar irradiance, measurements were conducted of (a) gas exchange, PSII photochemistry and plant growth; (b) water and ionic relations; (c) the activity of superoxide dismutase and the lipid peroxidation; and (d) the concentration of individual polyphenols. Gas exchange and plant growth were also estimated during a period of relief from salinity stress. Key Results The performance of Pistacia lentiscus decreased to a significantly smaller degree than that of Phillyrea latifolia because of high salinity. Ameliorative effects of high-Ca2+ supply were more evident in Phillyrea latifolia than in Pistacia lentiscus. High-Ca2+ reduced steeply the Na+ transport to the leaves in salt-treated Phillyrea latifolia, and allowed a faster recovery of gas exchange and growth rates as compared with low-Ca2+ plants, during the period of relief from salinity. Salt-induced biochemical adjustments, mostly devoted to counter salt-induced oxidative damage, were greater in Phillyrea latifolia than in Pistacia lentiscus. Conclusions An increased Ca2+ : Na+ ratio may be of greater benefit for Phillyrea latifolia than for Pistacia lentiscus, as in the former, adaptive mechanisms to high root-zone salinity are primarily devoted to restrict the accumulation of potentially toxic ions in sensitive shoot organs. PMID:18701601

  16. Regulation of photosynthetic performance and antioxidant capacity by ⁶⁰Co γ-irradiation in Zizania latifolia plants.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jing; Shi, Min; Huang, Jian-Zhong; Xu, Jie; Wang, Zhi-Dan; Guo, De-Ping

    2014-03-01

    The aim of the present work was to investigate the photosynthetic performance and antioxidant enzyme activities in response to γ-irradiation of an aquatic plant Zizania latifolia. The Z. latifolia seedlings at 6-leaf stage were exposed to 25, 50 and 100 Gy of γ rays from a (60)Co source. The growth parameters, chlorophyll contents, photosynthetic gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence, malondialdehyde (MDA) content, antioxidant enzyme activities and antioxidant contents were examined at 1-5 weeks post-irradiation (WPI). The results showed that plant height, leaf number and tiller (branch close to ground) number were significantly suppressed by 50 and 100 Gy irradiation at 5, 3-5 and 4-5 WPI, respectively, but they were not significantly different from control by 25 Gy irradiation. Chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and total chlorophyll contents were also found to be significantly decreased by irradiation. The net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (Gs), intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) and transpiration rate (Tr) generally declined in a dose-dependent manner. As for the chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, maximum quantum efficiency of PSII photochemistry (Fv/Fm), actual photochemical efficiency of PSII (Φ(PSII)) and photochemical quenching (qP) were observed to be significantly decreased compared to the control at 3 WPI, while non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) significantly increased by 100 Gy. γ-irradiation induced substantial increase in MDA content, ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity, reduced ascorbate (AsA) content and reduced glutathione (GSH) content, suggesting a protective mechanism of Z. latifolia plant against oxidative stress when exposed to γ-irradiation. PMID:24355402

  17. Anti-Microbial Evaluation of a Herbal Dental Remedy Stem Bark of Nuclea latifolia-Family Rubiaceae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abiodun, Falodun; Igwe, A.; Osahon, Obasuyi

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of the stem bark of Nuclea latifolia used as a dentrifice by the local populace. The crude powdered sample was evaluated for the chemical and antimicrobial effects. The methanolic and chloroform extracts were subjected to different organisms of clinical isolates Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Bacillus subtilis, Streptococcus varidans, Staphylococcus aerues, Penicillum nonatum, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC) were also obtained. The results of the study revealed significant antibacterial effect of the extracts. The study thus justifies the ethno medicinal use of the plant as a dental remedy.

  18. Phytophagous mite populations on Tahiti lime, Citrus latifolia, under induced drought conditions.

    PubMed

    Quiros-Gonzalez, M

    2000-01-01

    In the north-western region of Venezuela, Phyllocoptruta oleivora, Tetranychus mexicanus and Brevipalpus phoenicis are common plant-feeding mites on leaves, fruits and branches of Tahiti lime, Citrus latifolia. The population dynamics of these herbivores are affected by many factors, such as weekly treatments with wettable sulphur, particularly during the wet season, maintenance pruning of plants, irrigation with microsprinklers, induction of water stress by withholding irrigation and biotic and abiotic environmental factors. During October 1994-January 1995, 31 trees in a commercial orchard were sampled weekly in order to describe population fluctuations of plant-feeding mites (mean number of mites per leaf or fruit), before (4 weeks) and after (4 weeks) a period of 6 weeks of drought stress (no irrigation). The population density of P. oleivora increased progressively during the last 3 weeks of the irrigation period and reached a maximum of 24 mites per fruit. In contrast, the populations of the other two species, T. mexicanus and B. phoenicis, remained at the same low density as before the withholding-irrigation period. After 6 weeks without irrigation, only T. mexicanus increased, to a high mean value of 11 mites per leaf. The withholding-irrigation practice appears to affect the population size of P. oleivora towards the end of this period and that of T. mexicanus at the beginning of the re-establishment of the water supply. The highest proportion of trees (32%) was infested by T. mexicanus after the withholding-irrigation period, when irrigation was resumed, whereas the highest levels of infestation of trees by P. oleivora and B. phoenicis were 16 and 10%, respectively, during the last week of the water-stress period. Although factors affecting the dynamics of the mites in the orchard are likely to be complex, irrigation management apparently plays an important role. PMID:11354617

  19. Extensive Microsatellite Variation in Rice Induced by Introgression from Wild Rice (Zizania latifolia Griseb.)

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Zhenying; Wang, Hongyan; Dong, Yuzhu; Wang, Yongming; Liu, Wei; Miao, Gaojian; Lin, Xiuyun; Wang, Daqing; Liu, Bao

    2013-01-01

    Background It is widely accepted that interspecific hybridization may induce genomic instability in the resultant hybrids. However, few studies have been performed on the genomic analysis of homoploid hybrids and introgression lines. We have reported previously that by introgressive hybridization, a set of introgression lines between rice (Oryza sativa L.) and wild rice (Zizania latifolia Griseb.) was successfully generated, and which have led to the release of several cultivars. Methodology Using 96 microsatellite markers located in the nuclear and organelle genomes of rice, we investigated microsatellite stability in three typical introgression lines. Expression of a set of mismatch repair (MMR) genes and microsatellite-containing genes was also analyzed. Results/Conclusions Compared with the recipient rice cultivar (Matsumae), 55 of the 96 microsatellite loci revealed variation in one or more of the introgression lines, and 58.2% of the altered alleles were shared by at least two lines, indicating that most of the alterations had occurred in the early stages of introgression before their further differentiation. 73.9% of the non-shared variations were detected only in one introgression line, i.e. RZ2. Sequence alignment showed that the variations included substitutions and indels that occurred both within the repeat tracts and in the flanking regions. Interestingly, expression of a set of MMR genes altered dramatically in the introgression lines relative to their rice parent, suggesting participation of the MMR system in the generation of microsatellite variants. Some of the altered microsatellite loci are concordant with changed expression of the genes harboring them, suggesting their possible cis-regulatory roles in controlling gene expression. Because these genes bear meaningful homology to known-functional proteins, we conclude that the introgression-induced extensive variation of microsatellites may have contributed to the novel phenotypes in the

  20. Synchrotron study of metal localization in Typha latifolia L. root sections

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Qian, Yu; Jones, Keith W.; Feng, Huan; Gallagher, Frank J.; Zhu, Qingzhi; Wu, Meiyan; Liu, Chang -Jun; Tappero, Ryan V.

    2015-09-15

    Understanding mechanisms that control plant root metal assimilation in soil is critical to the sustainable management of metal-contaminated land. With the assistance of the synchrotron X-ray fluorescence technique, this study investigated possible mechanisms that control the localization of Fe, Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn in the root tissues of Typha latifolia L. collected from a contaminated wetland. Metal localizations especially in the case of Fe and Pb in the dermal tissue and the vascular bundles were different. Cluster analysis was performed to divide the dermal tissue into iron-plaque-enriched dermal tissue and regular dermal tissue based on the spatial distribution ofmore » Pb and Fe. Factor analysis showed that Cu and Zn were closely correlated to each other in the dermal tissues. The association of Cu, Zn and Mn with Fe was strong in both regular dermal tissue and iron-plaque-enriched dermal tissue, while significant (p < 0.05) correlation of Fe with Pb was only observed in tissues enriched with iron plaque. In the vascular bundles, Zn, Mn and Cu showed strong association, suggesting that the localization of these three elements was controlled by a similar mechanism. Iron plaque in the peripheral dermal tissues acted as a barrier for Pb and a buffer for Zn, Cu and Mn. Furthermore, the Casparian strip regulated the transportation of metals from dermal tissues to the vascular bundles. The results suggested that the mechanisms controlling metal localization in root tissues varied with both tissue types and metals.« less

  1. A glacial survivor of the alpine Mediterranean region: phylogenetic and phylogeographic insights into Silene ciliata Pourr. (Caryophyllaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Iriondo, José María; García-Fernández, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    Silene ciliata Pourr. (Caryophyllaceae) is a species with a highly disjunct distribution which inhabits the alpine mountains of the Mediterranean Basin. We investigated the phylogeny and phylogeography of the species to (a) clarify the long-suggested division of S. ciliata into two subspecies, (b) evaluate its phylogenetic origin and (c) assess whether the species’ diversification patterns were affected by the Mediterranean relief. For this purpose, we collected DNA from 25 populations of the species that inhabit the mountains of Portugal, Spain, France, Italy, former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Bulgaria and Greece and studied the plastid regions rbcL, rps16 and trnL. Major intraspecific variation was supported by all analyses, while the possibility of the existence of more varieties or subspecies was not favoured. Plastid DNA (cpDNA) evidence was in accordance with the division of S. ciliata into the two subspecies, one spreading west (Iberian Peninsula and Central Massif) and the other east of the Alps region (Italian and Balkan Peninsula). This study proposes that the species’ geographically disconnected distribution has probably derived from vicariance processes and from the Alps acting as a barrier to the species’ dispersal. The monophyletic origin of the species is highly supported. cpDNA patterns were shown independent of the chromosome evolution in the populations and could have resulted from a combination of geographic factors providing links and barriers, climatic adversities and evolutionary processes that took place during Quaternary glaciations. PMID:26312184

  2. Neutron Activation and Thermoluminescent Detector Responses to a Bare Pulse of the CEA Valduc SILENE Critical Assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Thomas Martin; Celik, Cihangir; McMahan, Kimberly L.; Lee, Yi-kang; Gagnier, Emmanuel; Authier, Nicolas; Piot, Jerome; Jacquet, Xavier; Rousseau, Guillaume; Reynolds, Kevin H.

    2015-09-01

    This benchmark experiment was conducted as a joint venture between the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the French Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique (CEA). Staff at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in the US and the Centre de Valduc in France planned this experiment. The experiment was conducted on October 11, 2010 in the SILENE critical assembly facility at Valduc. Several other organizations contributed to this experiment and the subsequent evaluation, including CEA Saclay, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), the Y-12 National Security Complex (NSC), Babcock International Group in the United Kingdom, and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The goal of this experiment was to measure neutron activation and thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) doses from a source similar to a fissile solution critical excursion. The resulting benchmark can be used for validation of computer codes and nuclear data libraries as required when performing analysis of criticality accident alarm systems (CAASs). A secondary goal of this experiment was to qualitatively test performance of two CAAS detectors similar to those currently and formerly in use in some US DOE facilities. The detectors tested were the CIDAS MkX and the Rocky Flats NCD-91. These detectors were being evaluated to determine whether they would alarm, so they were not expected to generate benchmark quality data.

  3. Genetic diversity and heavy metal tolerance in populations of Silene paradoxa L. (Caryophyllaceae): a random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis.

    PubMed

    Mengoni, A; Gonnelli, C; Galardi, F; Gabbrielli, R; Bazzicalupo, M

    2000-09-01

    Metal-contaminated sites can occur naturally in serpentine outcrops or as consequence of anthropogenic activities, such as mining deposits, aerial fallout from smelters and industrial processes. Serpentine outcrops are characterized by high levels of nickel, cobalt and chromium and present a typical vegetation which includes endemisms and plants which also live in uncontaminated soils. These latter metal-tolerant populations provide the opportunity to investigate the first steps in the differentiation of plant populations under severe selection pressure and to select plants to be used in the phytoremediation of industrially contaminated soils. In this report eight populations of Silene paradoxa L. (Caryophyllaceae) growing in copper mine deposits, in serpentine outcrops or in noncontaminated soil in central Italy, were analysed using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers to investigate the pattern of genetic variation. The genetic diversity observed in populations at copper mine deposits was found to be at least as high as that of the neighbouring serpentine populations. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) of the RAPD markers gave high statistical significance to the groupings of populations according: (i) with their geographical location; and (ii) with the metals present in the soil of origin (copper vs. nickel), indicating that RAPD markers detected a polymorphism related to the soil contamination by copper. Finally, two RAPD bands exclusive to copper-tolerant populations were identified. PMID:10972771

  4. Individual spatial aggregation correlates with between-population variation in fine-scale genetic structure of Silene ciliata (Caryophyllaceae).

    PubMed

    Lara-Romero, C; García-Fernández, A; Robledo-Arnuncio, J J; Roumet, M; Morente-López, J; López-Gil, A; Iriondo, J M

    2016-05-01

    Fine-scale genetic structure (FSGS) can vary among populations within species depending on multiple demographic and environmental factors. Theoretical models predict that FSGS should decrease in high-density populations and increase in populations where individuals are spatially aggregated. However, few empirical studies have compared FSGS between populations with different degrees of individual spatial aggregation and microhabitat heterogeneity. In this work, we studied the relationship between spatial and genetic structure in five populations of alpine specialist Silene ciliata Poiret (Caryophyllaceae). We mapped all individuals in each population and genotyped 96 of them using 10 microsatellite markers. We found significant FSGS consistent with an isolation-by-distance process in three of the five populations. The intensity of FSGS was positively associated with individual spatial aggregation. However, no association was found between FSGS and global population density or microhabitat heterogeneity. Overall, our results support theoretical studies indicating that stronger spatial aggregation tends to increase the magnitude of FSGS. They also highlight the relevance of characterizing local plant distribution and microhabitat to better understand the mechanisms that generate intraspecific variation in FSGS across landscapes. PMID:26604191

  5. Bioprospecting the Curculigoside-Cinnamic Acid-Rich Fraction from Molineria latifolia Rhizome as a Potential Antioxidant Therapeutic Agent.

    PubMed

    Ooi, Der Jiun; Chan, Kim Wei; Sarega, Nadarajan; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu; Ithnin, Hairuszah; Ismail, Maznah

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence from both experimental and clinical studies depicts the involvement of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of various diseases. Specifically, disruption of homeostatic redox balance in accumulated body fat mass leads to obesity-associated metabolic syndrome. Strategies for the restoration of redox balance, potentially by exploring potent plant bioactives, have thus become the focus of therapeutic intervention. The present study aimed to bioprospect the potential use of the curculigoside-cinnamic acid-rich fraction from Molineria latifolia rhizome as an antioxidant therapeutic agent. The ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) isolated from M. latifolia rhizome methanolic extract (RME) contained the highest amount of phenolic compounds, particularly curculigoside and cinnamic acid. EAF demonstrated glycation inhibitory activities in both glucose- and fructose-mediated glycation models. In addition, in vitro chemical-based and cellular-based antioxidant assays showed that EAF exhibited high antioxidant activities and a protective effect against oxidative damage in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Although the efficacies of individual phenolics differed depending on the structure and concentration, a correlational study revealed strong correlations between total phenolic contents and antioxidant capacities. The results concluded that enriched phenolic contents in EAF (curculigoside-cinnamic acid-rich fraction) contributed to the overall better reactivity. Our data suggest that this bioactive-rich fraction warrants therapeutic potential against oxidative stress-related disorders. PMID:27322226

  6. Investigation on the biotrophic interaction of Ustilago esculenta on Zizania latifolia found in the Indo-Burma biodiversity hotspot.

    PubMed

    Jose, Robinson C; Goyari, Sailendra; Louis, Bengyella; Waikhom, Sayanika D; Handique, Pratap J; Talukdar, Narayan C

    2016-09-01

    Ustilago esculenta is a uniquely flavored biotrophic smut fungus that forms a smut gall on the top internodal region of Zizania latifolia, a perennial wild rice found in the Indo-Burma biodiversity hotspot. The smut gall is an edible vegetable locally called "kambong" in Manipur, India. The life cycle of the fungus was studied in vitro and its biotrophism was observed during different stages of the plant growth starting from the bud stage to decaying stage using light, fluorescent and electron microscopy. The size of the smut gall and the number of internodes below the apical smut gall varied significantly (P < 0.05). Examination of various parts of infected plants using culture methods, microscopy and polymerase chain reaction revealed that Ustilago esculenta colonized Zizania latifolia in a non-systemic manner. Spores and fragmented hyphae of U. esculenta were present in the rhizome of infected plant throughout the year, but shoot interiors were without any fungal structures from April until September. The smut region of infected plants in early September to December were heavily sporulated with fragmented hyphae, while the nodal regions of infected plants had no spores and fragmented hyphae. Hyphae and spores were also absent in the internodes and membranes aboveground up to smut region of infected plants but were present in the old rhizomes. PMID:27334294

  7. Tricin derivatives as anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic constituents from the aerial part of Zizania latifolia.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung-Su; Baek, Yoon-Su; Eun, Cheong-Su; Yu, Mi-Hee; Baek, Nam-In; Chung, Dae-Kyun; Bang, Myun-Ho; Yang, Seun-Ah

    2015-01-01

    Methanol extract of Zizania latifolia was partitioned with EtOAc, n-BuOH, and H2O. From the EtOAc layers, a new flavonolignan along with a known flavone and three known flavonolignans, tricin (1), salcolin A (2), salcolin B (3), and salcolin C (4), were isolated through repeated silica gel and ODS column chromatography. The chemical structure of the new flavonolignan was determined to be tricin-4'-O-[erythro-β-guaiacyl-(7″-O-methyl)-glyceryl] ether and was named salcolin D (5) based on physicochemical and spectroscopic data, including FT-NMR and ESI-MS. All compounds were isolated for the first time from this plant. Compounds 2-5, tricin derivatives, all exhibited higher anti-inflammatory and anti-allergy activities than tricin. In particular, salcolin D (5) was shown to have the strongest inhibitory activity against LPS-induced NO production in RAW 264.7 cells as well as β-hexosaminidase release in IgE-sensitized RBL-2H3 cells. These results suggest that the presence of tricin derivatives conveys allergy and inflammation treatment ability to Z. latifolia. PMID:25559019

  8. Evaluation of the concrete shield compositions from the 2010 criticality accident alarm system benchmark experiments at the CEA Valduc SILENE facility

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Thomas Martin; Celik, Cihangir; Dunn, Michael E; Wagner, John C; McMahan, Kimberly L; Authier, Nicolas; Jacquet, Xavier; Rousseau, Guillaume; Wolff, Herve; Savanier, Laurence; Baclet, Nathalie; Lee, Yi-kang; Trama, Jean-Christophe; Masse, Veronique; Gagnier, Emmanuel; Naury, Sylvie; Blanc-Tranchant, Patrick; Hunter, Richard; Kim, Soon; Dulik, George Michael; Reynolds, Kevin H.

    2015-01-01

    In October 2010, a series of benchmark experiments were conducted at the French Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA) Valduc SILENE facility. These experiments were a joint effort between the United States Department of Energy Nuclear Criticality Safety Program and the CEA. The purpose of these experiments was to create three benchmarks for the verification and validation of radiation transport codes and evaluated nuclear data used in the analysis of criticality accident alarm systems. This series of experiments consisted of three single-pulsed experiments with the SILENE reactor. For the first experiment, the reactor was bare (unshielded), whereas in the second and third experiments, it was shielded by lead and polyethylene, respectively. The polyethylene shield of the third experiment had a cadmium liner on its internal and external surfaces, which vertically was located near the fuel region of SILENE. During each experiment, several neutron activation foils and thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) were placed around the reactor. Nearly half of the foils and TLDs had additional high-density magnetite concrete, high-density barite concrete, standard concrete, and/or BoroBond shields. CEA Saclay provided all the concrete, and the US Y-12 National Security Complex provided the BoroBond. Measurement data from the experiments were published at the 2011 International Conference on Nuclear Criticality (ICNC 2011) and the 2013 Nuclear Criticality Safety Division (NCSD 2013) topical meeting. Preliminary computational results for the first experiment were presented in the ICNC 2011 paper, which showed poor agreement between the computational results and the measured values of the foils shielded by concrete. Recently the hydrogen content, boron content, and density of these concrete shields were further investigated within the constraints of the previously available data. New computational results for the first experiment are now available that

  9. A preliminary study on population genetic structure and phylogeography of the wild and cultivated Zizania latifolia (Poaceae) based on Adh1a sequences.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xin-Wei; Ke, Wei-Dong; Yu, Xiao-Ping; Wen, Jun; Ge, Song

    2008-04-01

    Recent decades have witnessed growing interests in exploring the population genetics and phylogeography of crop plants and their wild relatives because of their important value as genetic resources. In this study, sequence variation of the nuclear Adh1a gene was used to investigate the genetic diversity and phylogeographic pattern of the wild and cultivated Zizania latifolia Turcz. Sequence data were obtained from 126 individuals representing 21 wild populations in China and 65 varieties of the cultivated Zizania latifolia. Low to medium level nucleotide diversity was found in the wild populations, with northeastern populations being the most variable. We detected significant population subdivision (F (ST) = 0.481) but no significant phylogeogaphical structure, suggesting limited gene flow and dispersal among populations. The current pattern of genetic variation in the wild populations might be explained by a fragmentation of ancient populations due to habitat destruction and degradation during recent decades. The heterogeneous levels and spatial apportionment of genetic diversity among wild populations also suggested a history of gradual colonization of Zizania latifolia populations from the northeast to the south of China. Interestingly, all 65 varieties of the cultivated Zizania latifolia possessed a single identical genotype, implying a single domestication associated with very few initial individuals. PMID:18283426

  10. The massive mitochondrial genome of the angiosperm Silene noctiflora is evolving by gain or loss of entire chromosomes

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhiqiang; Cuthbert, Jocelyn M.; Taylor, Douglas R.; Sloan, Daniel B.

    2015-01-01

    Across eukaryotes, mitochondria exhibit staggering diversity in genomic architecture, including the repeated evolution of multichromosomal structures. Unlike in the nucleus, where mitosis and meiosis ensure faithful transmission of chromosomes, the mechanisms of inheritance in fragmented mitochondrial genomes remain mysterious. Multichromosomal mitochondrial genomes have recently been found in multiple species of flowering plants, including Silene noctiflora, which harbors an unusually large and complex mitochondrial genome with more than 50 circular-mapping chromosomes totaling ∼7 Mb in size. To determine the extent to which such genomes are stably maintained, we analyzed intraspecific variation in the mitochondrial genome of S. noctiflora. Complete genomes from two populations revealed a high degree of similarity in the sequence, structure, and relative abundance of mitochondrial chromosomes. For example, there are no inversions between the genomes, and there are only nine SNPs in 25 kb of protein-coding sequence. Remarkably, however, these genomes differ in the presence or absence of 19 entire chromosomes, all of which lack any identifiable genes or contain only duplicate gene copies. Thus, these mitochondrial genomes retain a full gene complement but carry a highly variable set of chromosomes that are filled with presumably dispensable sequence. In S. noctiflora, conventional mechanisms of mitochondrial sequence divergence are being outstripped by an apparently nonadaptive process of whole-chromosome gain/loss, highlighting the inherent challenge in maintaining a fragmented genome. We discuss the implications of these findings in relation to the question of why mitochondria, more so than plastids and bacterial endosymbionts, are prone to the repeated evolution of multichromosomal genomes. PMID:25944937

  11. Characterization of the HMA7 gene and transcriptomic analysis of candidate genes for copper tolerance in two Silene vulgaris ecotypes.

    PubMed

    Baloun, Jiri; Nevrtalova, Eva; Kovacova, Viera; Hudzieczek, Vojtech; Cegan, Radim; Vyskot, Boris; Hobza, Roman

    2014-08-15

    Silene vulgaris possesses ecotype-specific tolerance to high levels of copper in the soil. Although this was reported a few decades ago, little is known about this trait on a molecular level. The aim of this study was to analyze the transcription response to elevated copper concentrations in two S. vulgaris ecotypes originating from copper-contrasting soil types - copper-tolerant Lubietova and copper-sensitive Stranska skala. To reveal if plants are transcriptionally affected, we first analyzed the HMA7 gene, a known key player in copper metabolism. Based on BAC library screening, we identified a BAC clone containing a SvHMA7 sequence with all the structural properties specific for plant copper-transporting ATPases. The functionality of the gene was tested using heterologous complementation in yeast mutants. Analyses of SvHMA7 transcription patterns showed that both ecotypes studied up-regulated SvHMA7 transcription after the copper treatment. Our data are supported by analysis of appropriate reference genes based on RNA-Seq databases. To identify genes specifically involved in copper response in the studied ecotypes, we analyzed transcription profiles of genes coding Cu-transporting proteins and genes involved in the prevention of copper-induced oxidative stress in both ecotypes. Our data show that three genes (APx, POD and COPT5) differ in their transcription pattern between the ecotypes with constitutively increased transcription in Lubietova. Taken together, we have identified transcription differences between metallifferous and non-metalliferous ecotypes of S. vulgaris, and we have suggested candidate genes participating in metal tolerance in this species. PMID:24973591

  12. Phylogeographic pattern of range expansion provides evidence for cryptic species lineages in Silene nutans in Western Europe.

    PubMed

    Martin, H; Touzet, P; Van Rossum, F; Delalande, D; Arnaud, J-F

    2016-03-01

    As a result of recent or past evolutionary processes, a single species might consist of distinct Evolutionary Significant Units (ESUs), even corresponding to cryptic species. Determining the underlying mechanisms of range shifts and the processes at work in the build-up of divergent ESUs requires elucidating the factors that contribute to population genetic divergence across a species' range. We investigated the large-scale patterns of genetic structure in the perennial herbaceous plant species Silene nutans (Caryophyllaceae) in Western Europe. We sampled and genotyped 111 populations using 13 nuclear microsatellite loci and 6 plastid single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Broad-scale spatial population genetic structure was examined using Bayesian clustering, spatial multivariate analyses and measures of hierarchical genetic differentiation. The genotypic structure of S. nutans was typical of a predominantly allogamous mating system. We also identified plastid lineages with no intra-population polymorphism, mirroring two genetically differentiated nuclear lineages. No evidence of admixture was found. Spatial trends in genetic diversity further suggested independent leading-edge expansion associated with founding events and subsequent genetic erosion. Overall, our findings suggested speciation processes in S. nutans and highlighted striking patterns of distinct stepwise recolonisation of Western Europe shaped by Quaternary climate oscillations. Two main potential ESUs can be defined in Western Europe, corresponding to Eastern and Western nuclear-plastid lineages. In situ preservation of populations and genetic rescue implying ex situ conservation techniques should take the lineage identity into account. This is particularly true in Great Britain, northern France and Belgium, where S. nutans is rare and where distinct lineages co-occur in close contact. PMID:26647652

  13. Expression of heavy metal tolerance in pollen and implications for gametophytic selection. [The plants used were clones of Silene dioica and Mimulus guttatus

    SciTech Connect

    Searcy, K.B.

    1984-01-01

    Many genes are expressed in both sporophytic and microgametophytic phases of the angiosperm life cycle. Thus, selection in one phase could modify gene frequency in both phases. An attempt was made to investigate microgametophytic selection in response to toxic concentrations of heavy metals and the effect of this selection upon the resultant sporophyte generation. The plants used were clones of a zinc-tolerant Silene dioica, closely related nontolerant S. alba, and copper tolerant and non-tolerant clones of Mimulus guttatus. First, the expression of metal tolerance in pollen was established by in vitro pollen germination and tube growth, and was found to be associated with the tolerance of the pollen source. Second, to test the extent to which the parallel expression of metal tolerance was determined by the gametophytic genotype, tolerant but segregating clones were grown with and without added metals. Finally, selection was applied during pollen germination, tube growth and fertilization. In Silene, neither the tolerance of the pollen nor the metal content of the styles affected pollen tube growth rate. In Mimulus, pollen from the nontolerant source grew faster, but the metal content of the floral tissue had no significant effect on pollen tube growth rate, and only slightly reduced the fertilization ability of pollen from the nontolerant clone.

  14. Root-zone acidity and nitrogen source affects Typha latifolia L. growth and uptake kinetics of ammonium and nitrate.

    PubMed

    Brix, Hans; Dyhr-Jensen, Kirsten; Lorenzen, Bent

    2002-12-01

    The NH(4)(+) and NO(3)(-) uptake kinetics by Typha latifolia L. were studied after prolonged hydroponics growth at constant pH 3.5, 5.0, 6.5 or 7.0 and with NH(4)(+) or NO(3)(-) as the sole N-source. In addition, the effects of pH and N source on H(+) extrusion and adenine nucleotide content were examined. Typha latifolia was able to grow with both N sources at near neutral pH levels, but the plants had higher relative growth rates, higher tissue concentrations of the major nutrients, higher contents of adenine nucleotides, and higher affinity for uptake of inorganic nitrogen when grown on NH(4)(+). Growth almost completely stopped at pH 3.5, irrespective of N source, probably as a consequence of pH effects on plasma membrane integrity and H(+) influx into the root cells. Tissue concentrations of the major nutrients and adenine nucleotides were severely reduced at low pH, and the uptake capacity for inorganic nitrogen was low, and more so for NO(3)(-)-fed than for NH(4)(+)-fed plants. The maximum uptake rate, V(max), was highest for NH(4)(+) at pH 6.5 (30.9 micro mol h(-1) g(-1) root dry weight) and for NO(3)(-) at pH 5.0 (31.7 micro mol h(-1) g(-1) root dry weight), and less than 10% of these values at pH 3.5. The affinity for uptake as estimated by the half saturation constant, K((1/2)), was lowest at low pH for NH(4)(+) and at high pH for NO(3)(-). The changes in V(max) and K((1/2)) were thus consistent with the theory of increasing competition between cations and H(+) at low pH and between anions and OH(-) at high pH. C(min) was independent of pH, but slightly higher for NO(3)(-) than for NH(4)(+) (C(min)(NH(4)(+)) approximately 0.8 mmol m(-3); C(min)(NO(3)(-)) approximately 2.8 mmol m(-3)). The growth inhibition at low pH was probably due to a reduced nutrient uptake and a consequential limitation of growth by nutrient stress. Typha latifolia seems to be well adapted to growth in wetland soils where NH(4)(+) is the prevailing nitrogen compound, but very low p

  15. The role of sand, marble chips and Typha latifolia in domestic wastewater treatment - a column study on constructed wetlands.

    PubMed

    Kadaverugu, Rakesh; Shingare, Rita P; Raghunathan, Karthik; Juwarkar, Asha A; Thawale, Prashant R; Singh, Sanjeev K

    2016-10-01

    The relative importance of sand, marble chips and wetland plant Typha latifolia is evaluated in constructed wetlands (CWs) for the treatment of domestic wastewater intended for reuse in agriculture. The prototype CWs for the experiments are realized in polyvinyl chloride columns, which are grouped into four treatments, viz. sand (<2 mm) + Typha latifolia (cattail), sand, marble chips (5-20 mm) + cattail and marble chips. The removal percentage of organic and nutritional pollutants from the wastewater is measured at varying hydraulic retention time in the columns. The statistical analysis suggests that the main effects of sand and cattail are found to be significant (p < .05) for the removal of biological oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand from the wastewater. The presence of cattail significantly (p < .01) contributes to the conversion of total nitrogen in wastewater into [Formula: see text] by fostering the growth of favorable microbes for the nitrification. The removal of [Formula: see text] and turbidity from the wastewater is significantly (p < .01) influenced by sand than the presence of cattail. The maximum [Formula: see text] adsorption capacity of the sand is estimated to be 2.5 mg/g. Marble chips have significantly (p < .01) influenced the removal of [Formula: see text]and its maximum removal capacity is estimated to be 9.3 mg/g. The negative correlation between the filter media biofilm and column hydraulic conductivity is also reported for all the treatments. Thus, the findings of this study elucidate the role of low-cost and easily available filter media and it will guide the environmental practitioners in designing cost-effective CWs for wastewater treatment. PMID:26878342

  16. The fate of arsenic, cadmium and lead in Typha latifolia: a case study on the applicability of micro-PIXE in plant ionomics.

    PubMed

    Lyubenova, Lyudmila; Pongrac, Paula; Vogel-Mikuš, Katarina; Mezek, Gašper Kukec; Vavpetič, Primož; Grlj, Nataša; Regvar, Marjana; Pelicon, Primož; Schröder, Peter

    2013-03-15

    Understanding the uptake, accumulation and distribution of toxic elements in plants is crucial to the design of effective phytoremediation strategies, especially in the case of complex multi-element pollution. Using micro-proton induced X-ray emission, the spatial distribution of Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Zn, As, Br, Rb, Sr, Cd and Pb have been quantitatively resolved in roots and rhizomes of an obligate wetland plant species, Typha latifolia, treated with a mixture of 100 μM each of As, Cd and Pb, together. The highest concentrations of As, Cd and Pb were found in the roots of the T. latifolia, with tissue-specific distributions. The As was detected in the root rhizodermis, and in the rhizome the majority of the As was within the vascular tissues, which indicates the high mobility of As within T. latifolia. The Cd was detected in the root exodermis, and in the vascular bundle and epidermis of the rhizome. The highest Pb concentrations were detected in the root rhizodermis and exodermis, and in the epidermis of the rhizome. These data represent an essential step in the resolution of fundamental questions in plant ionomics. PMID:23416480

  17. Transpositional reactivation of the Dart transposon family in rice lines derived from introgressive hybridization with Zizania latifolia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background It is widely recognized that interspecific hybridization may induce "genome shock", and lead to genetic and epigenetic instabilities in the resultant hybrids and/or backcrossed introgressants. A prominent component involved in the genome shock is reactivation of cryptic transposable elements (TEs) in the hybrid genome, which is often associated with alteration in the elements' epigenetic modifications like cytosine DNA methylation. We have previously reported that introgressants derived from hybridization between Oryza sativa (rice) and Zizania latifolia manifested substantial methylation re-patterning and rampant mobilization of two TEs, a copia retrotransposon Tos17 and a MITE mPing. It was not known however whether other types of TEs had also been transpositionally reactivated in these introgressants, their relevance to alteration in cytosine methylation, and their impact on expression of adjacent cellular genes. Results We document in this study that the Dart TE family was transpositionally reactivated followed by stabilization in all three studied introgressants (RZ1, RZ2 and RZ35) derived from introgressive hybridization between rice (cv. Matsumae) and Z. latifolia, while the TEs remained quiescent in the recipient rice genome. Transposon-display (TD) and sequencing verified the element's mobility and mapped the excisions and re-insertions to the rice chromosomes. Methylation-sensitive Southern blotting showed that the Dart TEs were heavily methylated along their entire length, and moderate alteration in cytosine methylation patterns occurred in the introgressants relative to their rice parental line. Real-time qRT-PCR quantification on the relative transcript abundance of six single-copy genes flanking the newly excised or inserted Dart-related TE copies indicated that whereas marked difference in the expression of all four genes in both tissues (leaf and root) were detected between the introgressants and their rice parental line under both normal

  18. Preliminary Screening of Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities and Establishment of an Efficient Callus Induction in Curculigo latifolia Dryand (Lemba)

    PubMed Central

    Farzinebrahimi, Reza; Mat Taha, Rosna; Rashid, Kamaludin A.; Ali Ahmed, Bakrudeen; Danaee, Mahmoud; Rozali, Shahril Efzueni

    2016-01-01

    Leaf, seed, and tuber explants of C. latifolia were inoculated on MS medium supplemented with various concentrations of BAP and IBA, alone or in combinations, to achieve in vitro plant regeneration. Subsequently, antioxidant and antibacterial activities were determined from in vitro and in vivo plant developed. No response was observed from seed culture on MS media with various concentrations of PGRs. The highest percentage of callus was observed on tuber explants (94%) and leaf explants (89%) when cultured on MS media supplemented with IBA in combination with BAP. A maximum of 88% shoots per tuber explant, with a mean number of shoots (8.8 ± 1.0), were obtained on MS medium supplemented with combinations of BAP and IBA (2.5 mg L−1). The best root induction (92%) and mean number (7.6 ± 0.5) from tuber explants were recorded on 2.5 mg L−1 IBA alone supplemented to MS medium. The higher antioxidant content (80%) was observed from in vivo tuber. However, tuber part from the intact plant showed higher inhibition zone in antibacterial activity compared to other in vitro and in vivo tested parts. PMID:27298625

  19. Shifts in root-associated microbial communities of Typha latifolia growing in naphthenic acids and relationship to plant health.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Lori A; Armstrong, Sarah A; Headley, John V; Greer, Charles W; Germida, James J

    2010-01-01

    Naphthenic acids (NAs) are a complex mixture of organic acid compounds released during the extraction of crude oil from oil sands operations. The accumulation of toxic NAs in tailings pond water (TPW) is of significant environmental concern, and phytoremediation using constructed wetlands is one remediation option being assessed. Since root-associated microorganisms are an important factor during phytoremediation of organic compounds, this study investigated the impact of NAs on the microbial communities associated with the macrophyte Typha latifolia (cattail). Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis revealed that the impact of NAs on microbial communities was niche dependent, with endophytic communities being the most stable and bulk water communities being the least stable. The type of NA used was significant to microbial response, with commercial NAs causing greater adverse changes than TPW NAs. In general, plant beneficial bacteria such as diazotrophs were favoured in cattails grown in TPW NAs, while potentially deleterious bacteria such as denitrifying Dechlorospirillum species increased in commercial NA treatments. These findings suggest that NAs may affect plant health by impacting root-associated microbial communities. A better understanding of these impacts may allow researchers to optimize those microbial communities that support plant health, and thus further optimize wetland treatment systems. PMID:21166345

  20. Size-controlled green synthesis of silver nanoparticles mediated by gum ghatti (Anogeissus latifolia) and its biological activity

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Gum ghatti is a proteinaceous edible, exudate tree gum of India and is also used in traditional medicine. A facile and ecofriendly green method has been developed for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles from silver nitrate using gum ghatti (Anogeissus latifolia) as a reducing and stabilizing agent. The influence of concentration of gum and reaction time on the synthesis of nanoparticles was studied. UV–visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analytical techniques were used to characterize the synthesized nanoparticles. Results By optimizing the reaction conditions, we could achieve nearly monodispersed and size controlled spherical nanoparticles of around 5.7 ± 0.2 nm. A possible mechanism involved in the reduction and stabilization of nanoparticles has been investigated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Conclusions The synthesized silver nanoparticles had significant antibacterial action on both the Gram classes of bacteria. As the silver nanoparticles are encapsulated with functional group rich gum, they can be easily integrated for various biological applications. PMID:22571686

  1. Transpositional activation of mPing in an asymmetric nuclear somatic cell hybrid of rice and Zizania latifolia was accompanied by massive element loss.

    PubMed

    Shan, X H; Ou, X F; Liu, Z L; Dong, Y Z; Lin, X Y; Li, X W; Liu, B

    2009-11-01

    We have reported previously that the most active miniature inverted terminal repeat transposable element (MITE) of rice, mPing, was transpositionally mobilized in several rice recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from an introgressive hybridization between rice and wild rice (Zizania latifolia Griseb.). To further study the phenomenon of hybridization-induced mPing activity, we undertook the present study to investigate the element's behavior in a highly asymmetric somatic nuclear hybrid (SH6) of rice and Z. latifolia, which is similar in genomic composition to that of the RILs, though probably contains more introgressed alien chromatins from the donor species than the RILs. We found that mPing, together with its transposase-donor, Pong, underwent rampant transpositional activation in the somatic hybrid (SH6). Because possible effects of protoplast isolation and cell culture can be ruled out, we attribute the transpositional activation of mPing and Pong in SH6 to the process of asymmetric somatic hybridization, namely, one-step introgression of multiple chromatin segments of the donor species Z. latifolia into the recipient rice genome. A salient feature of mPing transposition in the somatic hybrid is that the element's activation was accompanied by massive loss of its original copies, i.e., abortive transpositions, which was not observed in previously reported cases of mPing activity. These data not only corroborated our earlier finding that wide hybridization and introgression may trigger transpositional activation of otherwise quiescent transposable elements, but also suggest that transpositional mobilization of a MITE like mPing can be accompanied by dramatic reduction of its original copy numbers under certain conditions, thus provide novel insights into the dynamics of MITEs in the course of genome evolution. PMID:19711051

  2. Analysis of Active Components and Proteomics of Chinese Wild Rice (Zizania latifolia (Griseb) Turcz) and Indica Rice (Nagina22).

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ming-Xia; Zhai, Li-Jie; Yang, Hua; Zhai, Shu-Menghui; Zhai, Cheng-Kai

    2016-08-01

    The ancient Chinese wild rice (Zizania latifolia (Griseb) Turcz) (CWR) has valuable biological and medicinal functions. To assess the advantages lost in modern cultivated rice after domestication, we compared the composition of bioactive compounds and the results of proteomic analysis with those of Indica rice (N22). We used routine methods to determine the protein, total dietary fiber, amino acid, mineral substance, plant secondary metabolites, and amino acid composition of CWR and N22. The protein and mineral contents of CWR were two times that of N22, and the levels of calcium, potassium, magnesium, chromium, iron, and zinc were significantly higher than those of N22 (P < .05). There was ∼7.6 times more dietary fiber in CWR than in N22, but fewer carbohydrates (P < .05). Anthocyanins and chlorophyll were detected in CWR, but were absent from N22. Compared with N22, CWR had 53, 19, and 5.4 times higher (P < .05) levels of saponins, flavonoids, and plant sterols, respectively. The amino acid score of CWR was 66.6, which was significantly higher than N22. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) indicated that the main seed proteins of CWR were glutelins, including both acid and alkaline subunits, which were approximately twice those of N22. To investigate the differences in protein profiles between CWR and N22, we conducted two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) analysis of the total proteins in the seeds of the two rice species. 2-DE gels revealed 19 differentially expressed proteins. Information obtained from peptide mass fingerprinting indicates that glutelin precursor caffeoyl coenzyme A (CoA) O-methyltransferase and putative bithoraxoid-like protein can provide good gene sources for improving rice quality. PMID:27533651

  3. Decreased Membrane Integrity in Aging Typha latifolia L.Pollen (Accumulation of Lysolipids and Free Fatty Acids).

    PubMed Central

    Van Bilsen, DGJL.; Hoekstra, F. A.

    1993-01-01

    Aging of cattail (Typha latifolia L.) pollen was studied at 24[deg]C under conditions of 40 and 75% relative humidity (RH). The decline of viability coincides with increased leakage at imbibition; both processes develop much faster at the higher humidity condition. During aging phospholipids are deesterified and free fatty acids (FFAs) and lysophospholipids (LPLs) accumulate, again, much more rapidly at 75% RH than at 40% RH. The fatty acid composition of the remaining phospholipids hardly changes during aging, which suggests limited involvement of lipid peroxidation in the degradation process. Tests with phospholipase A2 revealed that the saturated fatty acids occur at the sn-1 position of the glycerol backbone of the phospholipids. The fatty acid composition of the LPLs is similar to that of the phospholipids from which they were formed, indicating that the deesterification occurs at random. This favors involvement of free radicals instead of phospholipases in the deesterification process. Liposome studies were carried out to characterize components in the lipid fraction that might account for the leakage associated with aging. Entrapped carboxyfluorescein leaked much more from liposomes when they were partly made up from total lipids from aged pollen than from nonaged pollen. The components causing the leakage were found in both the polar and the neutral lipid fractions. Further purification and subsequent interchanging of the FFAs and LPLs between extracts from aged and nonaged pollen revealed that in neutral lipid extracts the FFAs are entirely responsible for the leakage, whereas in the phospholipid fraction the LPLs are largely responsible for the leakage. The leakage from the liposomes is not caused by fusion. We suggest that the observed loss of viability and increased leakage during aging are due to the nonenzymic accumulation of FFAs and LPLs in the pollen membranes. PMID:12231723

  4. When is it worth being a self-compatible hermaphrodite? Context-dependent effects of self-pollination on female advantage in gynodioecious Silene nutans

    PubMed Central

    Lahiani, Emna; Touzet, Pascal; Billard, Emmanuelle; Dufay, Mathilde

    2015-01-01

    In gynodioecious plant species with nuclear-cytoplasmic sex determination, females and hermaphrodites plants can coexist whenever female have higher seed fitness than hermaphrodites. Although the effect of self fertilization on seed fitness in hermaphrodites has been considered theoretically, this effect is far from intuitive, because it can either increase the relative seed fitness of the females (if it leads hermaphrodites to produce inbred, low quality offspring) or decrease it (if it provides reproductive assurance to hermaphrodites). Hence, empirical investigation is needed to document whether relative seed fitness varies with whether pollen is or is not limiting to seed production. In the current study, we measured fruit set and seed production in both females and hermaphrodites and the selfing rate in hermaphrodites in two experimental patches that differed in sex ratios in the gynodioecious plant Silene nutans. We found an impact of plant gender, patch, and their interaction, with females suffering from stronger pollen limitation when locally frequent. In the most pollen-limited situation, the selfing rate of hermaphrodites increased and provided hermaphrodites with a type of reproductive assurance that is not available to females. By integrating both the beneficial (reproductive assurance) and costly effects (through inbreeding depression) of self-pollination, we showed that whether females did or did not exhibit higher seed fitness depended on the degree of pollen limitation on seed production. PMID:26140201

  5. Synchrotron micro-scale measurement of metal distributions in Phragmites australis and Typha latifolia root tissue from an urban brownfield site

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Feng, Huan; Qian, Yu; Gallagher, Frank J.; Zhang, Weiguo; Yu, Lizhong; Liu, Chang -Jun; Jones, Keith W.; Tappero, Ryan

    2015-11-01

    Liberty State Park in New Jersey, USA, is a “brownfield” site containing various levels of contaminants. To investigate metal uptake and distributions in plants on the brownfield site, Phragmites australis and Typha latifolia were collected in Liberty State Park during the growing season (May–September) in 2011 at two sites with the high and low metal loads, respectively. The objective of this study was to understand the metal (Fe, Mn, Cu, Pb and Zn) concentration and spatial distributions in P. australis and T. latifolia root systems with micro-meter scale resolution using synchrotron X-ray microfluorescence (μXRF) and synchrotron X-ray computed microtomography (μCMT)more » techniques. The root structure measurement by synchrotron μCMT showed that high X-ray attenuation substance appeared in the epidermis. Synchrotron μXRF measurement showed that metal concentrations and distributions in the root cross-section between epidermis and vascular tissue were statistically different. Significant correlations were found between metals (Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn) and Fe in the epidermis, implying that metals were scavenged by Fe oxides. The results from this study suggest that the expression of metal transport and accumulation within the root systems may be element specific. The information derived from this study can improve our current knowledge of the wetland plant ecological function in brownfield remediation.« less

  6. Synchrotron micro-scale measurement of metal distributions in Phragmites australis and Typha latifolia root tissue from an urban brownfield site.

    PubMed

    Feng, Huan; Qian, Yu; Gallagher, Frank J; Zhang, Weiguo; Yu, Lizhong; Liu, Changjun; Jones, Keith W; Tappero, Ryan

    2016-03-01

    Liberty State Park in New Jersey, USA, is a "brownfield" site containing various levels of contaminants. To investigate metal uptake and distributions in plants on the brownfield site, Phragmites australis and Typha latifolia were collected in Liberty State Park during the growing season (May-September) in 2011 at two sites with the high and low metal loads, respectively. The objective of this study was to understand the metal (Fe, Mn, Cu, Pb and Zn) concentration and spatial distributions in P. australis and T. latifolia root systems with micro-meter scale resolution using synchrotron X-ray microfluorescence (μXRF) and synchrotron X-ray computed microtomography (μCMT) techniques. The root structure measurement by synchrotron μCMT showed that high X-ray attenuation substance appeared in the epidermis. Synchrotron μXRF measurement showed that metal concentrations and distributions in the root cross-section between epidermis and vascular tissue were statistically different. Significant correlations were found between metals (Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn) and Fe in the epidermis, implying that metals were scavenged by Fe oxides. The results from this study suggest that the expression of metal transport and accumulation within the root systems may be element specific. The information derived from this study can improve our current knowledge of the wetland plant ecological function in brownfield remediation. PMID:26969063

  7. Extent and pattern of DNA methylation alteration in rice lines derived from introgressive hybridization of rice and Zizania latifolia Griseb.

    PubMed

    Dong, Z Y; Wang, Y M; Zhang, Z J; Shen, Y; Lin, X Y; Ou, X F; Han, F P; Liu, B

    2006-07-01

    We have reported previously that introgression by Zizania latifolia resulted in extensive DNA methylation changes in the recipient rice genome, as detected by a set of pre-selected DNA segments. In this study, using the methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) method, we globally assessed the extent and pattern of cytosine methylation alterations in three typical introgression lines relative to their rice parent at approximately 2,700 unbiased genomic loci each representing a recognition site cleaved by one or both of the isoschizomers, HpaII/MspI. Based on differential digestion by the isoschizomers, it is estimated that 15.9% of CCGG sites are either fully methylated at the internal Cs and/or hemi-methylated at the external Cs in the rice parental cultivar Matsumae. In comparison, a statistically significant increase in the overall level of both methylation types was detected in all three studied introgression lines (19.2, 18.6, 19.6%, respectively). Based on comparisons of MSAP profiles between the isoschizomers within the rice parent and between parent and the introgression lines, four major groups of MSAP banding patterns are recognized, which can be further divided into various subgroups as a result of inheritance of, or variation in, parental methylation patterns. The altered methylation patterns include hyper- and hypomethylation changes, as well as inter-conversion of hemi- to full-methylation, or vice versa, at the relevant CCGG site(s). Most alterations revealed by MSAP in low-copy loci can be validated by DNA gel blot analysis. The changed methylation patterns are uniform among randomly selected individuals for a given introgression line within or among selfed generations. Sequencing on 31 isolated fragments that showed different changing patterns in the introgression line(s) allowed their mapping onto variable regions on one or more of the 12 rice chromosomes. These segments include protein-coding genes, transposon/retrotransposons and

  8. Characterization and cloning of a stearoyl/oleoyl specific fatty acyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterase from the seeds of Madhuca longifolia (latifolia).

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Santosh K; Bhattacharjee, Ashish; Jha, Jyoti K; Mondal, Ashis K; Maiti, Mrinal K; Basu, Asitava; Ghosh, Dolly; Ghosh, Sudhamoy; Sen, Soumitra K

    2007-12-01

    Deposition of oleate, stearate and palmitate at the later stages of seed development in Mahua (Madhuca longifolia (latifolia)), a tropical non-conventional oil seed plant, has been found to be the characteristic feature of the regulatory mechanism that produces the saturated fatty acid rich Mahua seed fat (commonly known as Mowrah fat). Although, the content of palmitate has been observed to be higher than that of stearate at the initial stages of seed development, it goes down when the stearate and oleate contents consistently rise till maturity. The present study was undertaken in order to identify the kind of acyl-ACP thioesterase(s) that drives the characteristic composition of signature fatty acids (oleate 37%, palmitate 25%, stearate 23%, linoleate 12.5%) in its seed oil at maturity. The relative Fat activities in the crude protein extracts of the matured seeds towards three thioester substrates (oleoyl-, stearoyl- and palmitoyl-ACP) have been found to be present in the following respective ratio 100:31:8. Upon further purification of the crude extract, the search revealed the presence of two partially purified thioesterases: a long-chain oleoyl preferring house-keeping LC-Fat and a novel stearoyl-oleoyl preferring SO-Fat. The characteristic accumulation of oleate and linoleate in the M. latifolia seed fat is believed to be primarily due to the thioesterase activity of the LC-Fat or MlFatA. On the other hand, the SO-Fat showed almost equal substrate specificity towards stearoyl- and oleoyl-ACP, when its activity towards palmitoyl-ACP compared to stearoyl-ACP was only about 12%. An RT-PCR based technique for cloning of a DNA fragment from the mRNA pool of the developing seed followed by nucleotide sequencing resulted in the identification of a FatB type of thioesterase gene (MlFatB). This gene was found to exist as a single copy in the mother plant genome. Ectopic expression of this MlFatB gene product in E. coli strain fadD88 further proved that it induced a

  9. Fractionation of stable zinc isotopes in the field-grown zinc hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens and the zinc-tolerant plant Silene vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Tang, Ye-Tao; Cloquet, Christophe; Sterckeman, Thibault; Echevarria, Guillaume; Carignan, Jean; Qiu, Rong-Liang; Morel, Jean-Louis

    2012-09-18

    Stable Zn isotope signatures offer a potential tool for tracing Zn uptake and transfer mechanisms within plant-soil systems. Zinc isotopic compositions were determined in the Zn hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens collected at a Zn-contaminated site (Viviez), a serpentine site (Vosges), and a noncontaminated site (Sainte Eulalie) in France. Meanwhile, a Zn-tolerant plant ( Silene vulgaris ) was also collected at Viviez for comparison. While δ(66)Zn was substantially differentiated among N. caerulescens from the three localities, they all exhibited an enrichment in heavy Zn isotopes of 0.40-0.72‰ from soil to root, followed by a depletion in heavy Zn from root to shoot (-0.10 to -0.50‰). The enrichment of heavy Zn in roots is ascribed to the transport systems responsible for Zn absorption into root symplast and root-to-shoot translocation, while the depletion in heavy Zn in shoots is likely to be mediated by a diffusive process and an efficient translocation driven by energy-required transporters (e.g., NcHMA4). The mass balance yielded a bulk Zn isotopic composition between plant and soil (Δ(66)Zn(plant-soil)) of -0.01‰ to 0.63‰ in N. caerulescens , indicative of high- and/or low-affinity transport systems operating in the three ecotypes. In S. vulgaris , however, there was no significant isotope fractionation between whole plant and rhizosphere soil and between root and shoot, suggesting that this species appears to have a particular Zn homeostasis. We confirm that quantifying stable Zn isotopes is useful for understanding Zn accumulation mechanisms in plants. PMID:22891730

  10. The large-leaved Kudingcha (Ilex latifolia Thunb and Ilex kudingcha C.J. Tseng): a traditional Chinese tea with plentiful secondary metabolites and potential biological activities.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Xu, Li J; Ma, Gui Z; Dong, Yin M; Peng, Yong; Xiao, Pei G

    2013-07-01

    In China, Kudingcha has been used for almost 2,000 years as a tea to quench thirst, remove phlegm, refresh the mind, and improve eyesight. The group of large-leaved Kudingcha is coveted for its potential effects on lipid metabolism, which are attributed to the presence of characteristic ingredients. This contribution reviews studies from the past few decades regarding the plant characteristics, ethnobotanical usages, chemical constituents, and related biological activities of the large-leaved Kudingcha (Ilex latifolia Thunb and Ilex kudingcha C.J. Tseng). Triterpenoids, phenolic acids, flavonoids, and essential oils are the main metabolites in the large-leaved Kudingcha, and these ingredients protect the vascular system, regulate lipid metabolism, and have antioxidant, hypoglycemic, and anti-tumor effects. Moreover, large-leaved Kudingcha shares several properties with the popular green tea and the Yerba maté from South America. PMID:23529541

  11. Isolation and characterization of a set of disease resistance-gene analogs (RGAs) from wild rice, Zizania latifolia Griseb. I. Introgression, copy number lability, sequence change, and DNA methylation alteration in several rice-Zizania introgression lines.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu; Long, Likun; Lin, Xiuyun; Guo, Wanli; Liu, Bao

    2006-02-01

    Eight resistance-gene analogs (RGAs) were isolated from wild rice, Zizania latifolia Griseb., by degenerate primers designed according to conserved motifs at or around the nucleotide-binding site (NBS) of known NBS-containing plant resistance genes. The 8 RGAs were classified into 6 distinct groups based on their deduced amino acid sequence similarity of 60% or greater. Gel-blot hybridization of each of the RGAs to 4 rice - Z. latifolia intro gression lines indicated an array of changes at either introgressed Zizania RGAs or, more likely, their rice homologs. The changes included dramatic increase in copy number, modification at the primary DNA sequence, and alteration in DNA methylation patterns. PMID:16498465

  12. The composition and depth of green roof substrates affect the growth of Silene vulgaris and Lagurus ovatus species and the C and N sequestration under two irrigation conditions.

    PubMed

    Ondoño, S; Martínez-Sánchez, J J; Moreno, J L

    2016-01-15

    Extensive green roofs are used to increase the surface area covered by vegetation in big cities, thereby reducing the urban heat-island effect, promoting CO2 sequestration, and increasing biodiversity and urban-wildlife habitats. In Mediterranean semi-arid regions, the deficiency of water necessitates the use in these roofs of overall native plants which are more adapted to drought than other species. However, such endemic plants have been used scarcely in green roofs. For this purpose, we tested two different substrates with two depths (5 and 10 cm), in order to study their suitability with regard to adequate plant development under Mediterranean conditions. A compost-soil-bricks (CSB) (1:1:3; v:v:v) mixture and another made up of compost and bricks (CB) (1:4; v:v) were arranged in two depths (5 and 10 cm), in cultivation tables. Silene vulgaris (Moench) Garcke and Lagurus ovatus L. seeds were sown in each substrate. These experimental units were subjected, on the one hand, to irrigation at 40% of the registered evapotranspiration values (ET0) and, on the other, to drought conditions, during a nine-month trial. Physichochemical and microbiological substrate characteristics were studied, along with the physiological and nutritional status of the plants. We obtained significantly greater plant coverage in CSB at 10 cm, especially for L. ovatus (80-90%), as well as a better physiological status, especially in S. vulgaris (SPAD values of 50-60), under irrigation, whereas neither species could grow in the absence of water. The carbon and nitrogen fixation by the substrate and the aboveground biomass were also higher in CSB at 10 cm, especially under L. ovatus - in which 1.32 kg C m(-2) and 209 g N m(-2) were fixed throughout the experiment. Besides, the enzymatic and biochemical parameters assayed showed that microbial activity and nutrient cycling, which fulfill a key role for plant development, were higher in CSB. Therefore, irrigation of 40% can

  13. Mobilization of the active MITE transposons mPing and Pong in rice by introgression from wild rice (Zizania latifolia Griseb.).

    PubMed

    Shan, Xiaohui; Liu, Zhenlan; Dong, Zhenying; Wang, Yongming; Chen, Yu; Lin, Xiuyun; Long, Likun; Han, Fangpu; Dong, Yingshan; Liu, Bao

    2005-04-01

    Hybridization between different species plays an important role in plant genome evolution, as well as is a widely used approach for crop improvement. McClintock has predicted that plant wide hybridization constitutes a "genomic shock" whereby cryptic transposable elements may be activated. However, direct experimental evidence showing a causal relationship between plant wide hybridization and transposon mobilization has not yet been reported. The miniature-Ping (mPing) is a recently isolated active miniature inverted-repeat transposable element transposon from rice, which is mobilized by tissue culture and gamma-ray irradiation. We show herein that mPing, together with its putative transposase-encoding partner, Pong, is mobilized in three homologous recombinant inbred lines (RILs), derived from hybridization between rice (cultivar Matsumae) and wild rice (Zizania latifolia Griseb.), harboring introgressed genomic DNA from wild rice. In contrast, both elements remain immobile in two lines sharing the same parentage to the RILs but possessing no introgressed DNA. Thus, we have presented direct evidence that is consistent with McClintock's insight by demonstrating a causal link between wide hybridization and transposon mobilization in rice. In addition, we report an atypical behavior of mPing/Pong mobilization in these lines, i.e., the exclusive absence of footprints after excision. PMID:15647520

  14. Influence of spike lavender (Lavandula latifolia Med.) essential oil in the quality, stability and composition of soybean oil during microwave heating.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Nuno; Malheiro, Ricardo; Casal, Susana; Asensio-S-Manzanera, M Carmen; Bento, Albino; Pereira, José Alberto

    2012-08-01

    Lipids oxidation is one of the main factors leading to quality losses in foods. Its prevention or delay could be obtained by the addition of antioxidants. In this sense the present work intend to monitor the protective effects of Lavandula latifolia essential oil during soybean oil microwave heating. To achieve the proposed goal quality parameters (free acidity, peroxide value, specific coefficients of extinction and ΔK), fatty acids profile, tocopherols and tocotrienols composition, antioxidant activity and oxidative stability were evaluated in soybean oil with and without spike lavender essential oils (EO) submitted to different microwave heating exposure times (1, 3, 5, 10 and 15 min; 1000 Watt) with a standard domestic microwave equipment. Microwave heating induced severe quality and composition losses, mainly above 3 min of microwave heating, regardless the sample tested. However, spike lavender EO addition counteracts the oxidation comparatively to control oils, by presenting enhanced values in quality parameters. A higher protection in unsaturated fatty acids loss was also observed as well as a higher antioxidant activity and oxidative stability. The microwave heating effects were clearly different in the samples with essential oils addition, allowing discrimination from plain soybean oils by a principal component analysis, being also capable to discriminate the different heating times tested within each sample. PMID:22659463

  15. Up-regulation of an N-terminal truncated 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase enhances production of essential oils and sterols in transgenic Lavandula latifolia.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Bertomeu, Jesús; Sales, Ester; Ros, Roc; Arrillaga, Isabel; Segura, Juan

    2007-11-01

    Spike lavender (Lavandula latifolia) essential oil is widely used in the perfume, cosmetic, flavouring and pharmaceutical industries. Thus, modifications of yield and composition of this essential oil by genetic engineering should have important scientific and commercial applications. We generated transgenic spike lavender plants expressing the Arabidopsis thaliana HMG1 cDNA, encoding the catalytic domain of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase (HMGR1S), a key enzyme of the mevalonic acid (MVA) pathway. Transgenic T0 plants accumulated significantly more essential oil constituents as compared to controls (up to 2.1- and 1.8-fold in leaves and flowers, respectively). Enhanced expression of HMGR1S also increased the amount of the end-product sterols, beta-sitosterol and stigmasterol (average differences of 1.8- and 1.9-fold, respectively), but did not affect the accumulation of carotenoids or chlorophylls. We also analysed T1 plants derived from self-pollinated seeds of T0 lines that flowered after growing for 2 years in the greenhouse. The increased levels of essential oil and sterols observed in the transgenic T0 plants were maintained in the progeny that inherited the HMG1 transgene. Our results demonstrate that genetic manipulation of the MVA pathway increases essential oil yield in spike lavender, suggesting a contribution for this cytosolic pathway to monoterpene and sesquiterpene biosynthesis in leaves and flowers of the species. PMID:17714440

  16. Synchrotron micro-scale measurement of metal distributions in Phragmites australis and Typha latifolia root tissue from an urban brownfield site

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Huan; Qian, Yu; Gallagher, Frank J.; Zhang, Weiguo; Yu, Lizhong; Liu, Chang -Jun; Jones, Keith W.; Tappero, Ryan

    2015-11-01

    Liberty State Park in New Jersey, USA, is a “brownfield” site containing various levels of contaminants. To investigate metal uptake and distributions in plants on the brownfield site, Phragmites australis and Typha latifolia were collected in Liberty State Park during the growing season (May–September) in 2011 at two sites with the high and low metal loads, respectively. The objective of this study was to understand the metal (Fe, Mn, Cu, Pb and Zn) concentration and spatial distributions in P. australis and T. latifolia root systems with micro-meter scale resolution using synchrotron X-ray microfluorescence (μXRF) and synchrotron X-ray computed microtomography (μCMT) techniques. The root structure measurement by synchrotron μCMT showed that high X-ray attenuation substance appeared in the epidermis. Synchrotron μXRF measurement showed that metal concentrations and distributions in the root cross-section between epidermis and vascular tissue were statistically different. Significant correlations were found between metals (Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn) and Fe in the epidermis, implying that metals were scavenged by Fe oxides. The results from this study suggest that the expression of metal transport and accumulation within the root systems may be element specific. The information derived from this study can improve our current knowledge of the wetland plant ecological function in brownfield remediation.

  17. Role of vegetation (Typha latifolia) on nutrient removal in a horizontal subsurface-flow constructed wetland treating UASB reactor-trickling filter effluent.

    PubMed

    da Costa, Jocilene Ferreira; Martins, Weber Luiz Pinto; Seidl, Martin; von Sperling, Marcos

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of the work is to characterize the role of plants in a constructed wetland in the removal of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P). The experiments were carried out in a full-scale system in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil, with two parallel horizontal subsurface-flow constructed wetland units (one planted with Typha latifolia and one unplanted) treating the effluent from a system composed of an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor and a trickling filter (TF). Each wetland unit received a mean flow of approximately 8.5 m³ d⁻¹ (population equivalent around 60 inhabitants each), with a surface hydraulic loading rate 0.12 m³m⁻²d⁻¹. The experiments were conducted from September 2011 to July 2013. Mean effluent concentrations from the wetlands were: (a) planted unit total nitrogen (TN) 22 mg L⁻¹, ammonia-N 19 mg L⁻¹, nitrite-N 0.10 mg L⁻¹, nitrate-N 0.25 mg L⁻¹, P-total 1.31 mg L⁻¹; and (b) unplanted unit TN 24 mg L⁻¹, ammonia-N 20 mg L⁻¹, nitrite-N 0.54 mg mL⁻¹, nitrate-N 0.15 mg L⁻¹, P-total 1.31 mg L⁻¹. The aerial part of the plant contained mean values of 24.1 gN (kg dry matter)⁻¹ and 4.4 gP (kg dry matter)⁻¹, and the plant root zone was composed of 16.5 gN (kg dry matter)⁻¹ and 4.1 gP (kg dry matter)⁻¹. The mean extraction of N by the plant biomass was 726 kgN ha⁻¹y⁻¹, corresponding to 17% of the N load removed. For P, the extraction by the plant biomass was 105 kgP ha⁻¹y⁻¹, corresponding to 9% of the P load removed. These results reinforce the reports that N and P removal due to plant uptake is a minor mechanism in horizontal subsurface-flow constructed wetlands operating under similar loading rates, typical for polishing of sanitary effluent. PMID:25860702

  18. SILEN-C3, a Phase 2 Randomized Trial with Faldaprevir plus Pegylated Interferon α-2a and Ribavirin in Treatment-Naive Hepatitis C Virus Genotype 1-Infected Patients

    PubMed Central

    Asselah, Tarik; Guyader, Dominique; Berg, Thomas; Schuchmann, Marcus; Mauss, Stefan; Ratziu, Vlad; Ferenci, Peter; Larrey, Dominique; Maieron, Andreas; Stern, Jerry O.; Ozan, Melek; Datsenko, Yakov; Böcher, Wulf Otto; Steinmann, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    Faldaprevir is an investigational hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS3/4A protease inhibitor which, when administered for 24 weeks in combination with pegylated interferon α-2a and ribavirin (PegIFN/RBV) in treatment-naive patients in a prior study (SILEN-C1; M. S. Sulkowski et al., Hepatology 57:2143–2154, 2013, doi:10.1002/hep.26276), achieved sustained virologic response (SVR) rates of 72 to 84%. The current randomized, open-label, parallel-group study compared the efficacy and safety of 12 versus 24 weeks of 120 mg faldaprevir administered once daily, combined with 24 or 48 weeks of PegIFN/RBV, in 160 treatment-naive HCV genotype 1 patients. Patients with maintained rapid virologic response (HCV RNA of <25 IU/ml at week 4 and undetectable at weeks 8 and 12) stopped all treatment at week 24, otherwise they continued PegIFN/RBV to week 48. SVR was achieved by 67% and 74% of patients in the 12-week and 24-week groups, respectively. Virologic response rates were lower in the 12-week group from weeks 2 to 12, during which both groups received identical treatment. SVR rates were similar in both groups for patients achieving undetectable HCV RNA. Most adverse events were mild or moderate, and 6% of patients in each treatment group discontinued treatment due to adverse events. Once-daily faldaprevir at 120 mg for 12 or 24 weeks with PegIFN/RBV resulted in high SVR rates, and the regimen was well tolerated. Differences in the overall SVR rates between the 12-week and 24-week groups were not statistically significant and possibly were due to IL28B genotype imbalances; IL28B genotype was not tested, as its significance was not known at the time of the study. These results supported phase 3 evaluation. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT00984620). PMID:24709256

  19. SILEN-C3, a phase 2 randomized trial with faldaprevir plus pegylated interferon α-2a and ribavirin in treatment-naive hepatitis C virus genotype 1-infected patients.

    PubMed

    Dieterich, Douglas; Asselah, Tarik; Guyader, Dominique; Berg, Thomas; Schuchmann, Marcus; Mauss, Stefan; Ratziu, Vlad; Ferenci, Peter; Larrey, Dominique; Maieron, Andreas; Stern, Jerry O; Ozan, Melek; Datsenko, Yakov; Böcher, Wulf Otto; Steinmann, Gerhard

    2014-06-01

    Faldaprevir is an investigational hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS3/4A protease inhibitor which, when administered for 24 weeks in combination with pegylated interferon α-2a and ribavirin (PegIFN/RBV) in treatment-naive patients in a prior study (SILEN-C1; M. S. Sulkowski et al., Hepatology 57:2143-2154, 2013, doi:10.1002/hep.26276), achieved sustained virologic response (SVR) rates of 72 to 84%. The current randomized, open-label, parallel-group study compared the efficacy and safety of 12 versus 24 weeks of 120 mg faldaprevir administered once daily, combined with 24 or 48 weeks of PegIFN/RBV, in 160 treatment-naive HCV genotype 1 patients. Patients with maintained rapid virologic response (HCV RNA of <25 IU/ml at week 4 and undetectable at weeks 8 and 12) stopped all treatment at week 24, otherwise they continued PegIFN/RBV to week 48. SVR was achieved by 67% and 74% of patients in the 12-week and 24-week groups, respectively. Virologic response rates were lower in the 12-week group from weeks 2 to 12, during which both groups received identical treatment. SVR rates were similar in both groups for patients achieving undetectable HCV RNA. Most adverse events were mild or moderate, and 6% of patients in each treatment group discontinued treatment due to adverse events. Once-daily faldaprevir at 120 mg for 12 or 24 weeks with PegIFN/RBV resulted in high SVR rates, and the regimen was well tolerated. Differences in the overall SVR rates between the 12-week and 24-week groups were not statistically significant and possibly were due to IL28B genotype imbalances; IL28B genotype was not tested, as its significance was not known at the time of the study. These results supported phase 3 evaluation. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT00984620). PMID:24709256

  20. Metallocene Catalytic Insertion Polymerization of 1-Silene to Polycarbosilanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Yuelong; Ge, Min; Zhang, Weigang; Lv, Xiaoxu; Yu, Shouquan

    2015-11-01

    Metallocene of zirconium were used as a catalyst for an insertion polymerization of 1-methylsilene directly into pre-ceramic precursor polyzirconocenecarbosilane (PZCS) during dechlorination of dichlorodimethylesilane by sodium, which exhibits high catalytic effectiveness with the maximum conversion ratio of polycarbosilane up to 91%. The average molecular weights of polymers synthesized are less than 1400, all with very narrow polymolecularities. The mechanism of catalytic polymerization was assumed to be similar to a coordination insertion polymerization of 1-olefins by metallocenes. The obtained PZCS show high ceramic yields with formation of composite ceramics of ZrC-SiC, which are novel polymeric precursors of ultra-high temperature ceramic (UHTC) fiber and composite.

  1. Metallocene Catalytic Insertion Polymerization of 1-Silene to Polycarbosilanes

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Yuelong; Ge, Min; Zhang, Weigang; Lv, Xiaoxu; Yu, Shouquan

    2015-01-01

    Metallocene of zirconium were used as a catalyst for an insertion polymerization of 1-methylsilene directly into pre-ceramic precursor polyzirconocenecarbosilane (PZCS) during dechlorination of dichlorodimethylesilane by sodium, which exhibits high catalytic effectiveness with the maximum conversion ratio of polycarbosilane up to 91%. The average molecular weights of polymers synthesized are less than 1400, all with very narrow polymolecularities. The mechanism of catalytic polymerization was assumed to be similar to a coordination insertion polymerization of 1-olefins by metallocenes. The obtained PZCS show high ceramic yields with formation of composite ceramics of ZrC-SiC, which are novel polymeric precursors of ultra-high temperature ceramic (UHTC) fiber and composite. PMID:26541636

  2. PNNL Results from 2009 Silene Criticality Accident Dosimeter Intercomparison Exercise

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, Robin L.; Conrady, Matthew M.

    2010-06-30

    This document reports the results of testing of the Hanford Personnel Nuclear Accident Dosimeter (PNAD) during a criticality accident dosimeter intercomparison exercise at the CEA Valduc Center on October 13, 14, and 15, 2009.

  3. Possible mechanisms responsible for absence of a retrotransposon family on a plant Y chromosome.

    PubMed

    Kubat, Zdenek; Zluvova, Jitka; Vogel, Ivan; Kovacova, Viera; Cermak, Tomas; Cegan, Radim; Hobza, Roman; Vyskot, Boris; Kejnovsky, Eduard

    2014-04-01

    Some transposable elements (TEs) show extraordinary variance in abundance along sex chromosomes but the mechanisms responsible for this variance are unknown. Here, we studied Ogre long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons in Silene latifolia, a dioecious plant with evolutionarily young heteromorphic sex chromosomes. Ogre elements are ubiquitous in the S. latifolia genome but surprisingly absent on the Y chromosome. Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) were used to determine Ogre structure and chromosomal localization. Next generation sequencing (NGS) data were analysed to assess the transcription level and abundance of small RNAs. Methylation of Ogres was determined by bisulphite sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis was used to determine mobilization time and selection forces acting on Ogre elements. We characterized three Ogre families ubiquitous in the S. latifolia genome. One family is nearly absent on the Y chromosome despite all the families having similar structures and spreading mechanisms. We showed that Ogre retrotransposons evolved before sex chromosomes appeared but were mobilized after formation of the Y chromosome. Our data suggest that the absence of one Ogre family on the Y chromosome may be caused by 24-nucleotide (24-nt) small RNA-mediated silencing leading to female-specific spreading. Our findings highlight epigenetic silencing mechanisms as potentially crucial factors in sex-specific spreading of some TEs, but other possible mechanisms are also discussed. PMID:24456522

  4. The genomics of plant sex chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Vyskot, Boris; Hobza, Roman

    2015-07-01

    Around six percent of flowering species are dioecious, with separate female and male individuals. Sex determination is mostly based on genetics, but morphologically distinct sex chromosomes have only evolved in a few species. Of these, heteromorphic sex chromosomes have been most clearly described in the two model species - Silene latifolia and Rumex acetosa. In both species, the sex chromosomes are the largest chromosomes in the genome. They are hence easily distinguished, can be physically separated and analyzed. This review discusses some recent experimental data on selected model dioecious species, with a focus on S. latifolia. Phylogenetic analyses show that dioecy in plants originated independently and repeatedly even within individual genera. A cogent question is whether there is genetic degeneration of the non-recombining part of the plant Y chromosome, as in mammals, and, if so, whether reduced levels of gene expression in the heterogametic sex are equalized by dosage compensation. Current data provide no clear conclusion. We speculate that although some transcriptome analyses indicate the first signs of degeneration, especially in S. latifolia, the evolutionary processes forming plant sex chromosomes in plants may, to some extent, differ from those in animals. PMID:26025526

  5. The effects of inbreeding, genetic dissimilarity and phenotype on male reproductive success in a dioecious plant

    PubMed Central

    Austerlitz, Frédéric; Gleiser, Gabriela; Teixeira, Sara; Bernasconi, Giorgina

    2012-01-01

    Pollen fate can strongly affect the genetic structure of populations with restricted gene flow and significant inbreeding risk. We established an experimental population of inbred and outbred Silene latifolia plants to evaluate the effects of (i) inbreeding depression, (ii) phenotypic variation and (iii) relatedness between mates on male fitness under natural pollination. Paternity analysis revealed that outbred males sired significantly more offspring than inbred males. Independently of the effects of inbreeding, male fitness depended on several male traits, including a sexually dimorphic (flower number) and a gametophytic trait (in vitro pollen germination rate). In addition, full-sib matings were less frequent than randomly expected. Thus, inbreeding, phenotype and genetic dissimilarity simultaneously affect male fitness in this animal-pollinated plant. While inbreeding depression might threaten population persistence, the deficiency of effective matings between sibs and the higher fitness of outbred males will reduce its occurrence and counter genetic erosion. PMID:21561968

  6. Deciphering evolutionary strata on plant sex chromosomes and fungal mating-type chromosomes through compositional segmentation.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Ravi S; Azad, Rajeev K

    2016-03-01

    Sex chromosomes have evolved from a pair of homologous autosomes which differentiated into sex determination systems, such as XY or ZW system, as a consequence of successive recombination suppression between the gametologous chromosomes. Identifying the regions of recombination suppression, namely, the "evolutionary strata", is central to understanding the history and dynamics of sex chromosome evolution. Evolution of sex chromosomes as a consequence of serial recombination suppressions is well-studied for mammals and birds, but not for plants, although 48 dioecious plants have already been reported. Only two plants Silene latifolia and papaya have been studied until now for the presence of evolutionary strata on their X chromosomes, made possible by the sequencing of sex-linked genes on both the X and Y chromosomes, which is a requirement of all current methods that determine stratum structure based on the comparison of gametologous sex chromosomes. To circumvent this limitation and detect strata even if only the sequence of sex chromosome in the homogametic sex (i.e. X or Z chromosome) is available, we have developed an integrated segmentation and clustering method. In application to gene sequences on the papaya X chromosome and protein-coding sequences on the S. latifolia X chromosome, our method could decipher all known evolutionary strata, as reported by previous studies. Our method, after validating on known strata on the papaya and S. latifolia X chromosome, was applied to the chromosome 19 of Populus trichocarpa, an incipient sex chromosome, deciphering two, yet unknown, evolutionary strata. In addition, we applied this approach to the recently sequenced sex chromosome V of the brown alga Ectocarpus sp. that has a haploid sex determination system (UV system) recovering the sex determining and pseudoautosomal regions, and then to the mating-type chromosomes of an anther-smut fungus Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae predicting five strata in the non

  7. Aqueous pesticide mitigation efficiency of Typha Latifolia (L.), Leersia Oryzoides (L.) SW., and Sparganium Americanum Nutt

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural pesticide use is necessary to help meet the increased demand for a safe and secure food supply for the United States, as well as the global community. Even with proper application and careful management, the possibility of pesticide leaching and detachment in runoff still exists follow...

  8. United States Air Force 611th Civil Engineer Squadron, Elmendorf AFB, Alaska. Final remedial investigation report, Galena Airport and Campion Air Station, Alaska. Volume 2. Appendix A

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    ;Contents: Field Parameters for Water Samples (1992-3); Organic Analyses for Water and Soil Samples (1992-4); Inorganic Analyses for Water and Soil Samples (1992-4); Organic Analyses for Soil Samples (DRM, BLM-1993); and Inorganic Analyses for Soil Samples (DRM-1993).

  9. Plant sex chromosomes: molecular structure and function.

    PubMed

    Jamilena, M; Mariotti, B; Manzano, S

    2008-01-01

    Recent molecular and genomic studies carried out in a number of model dioecious plant species, including Asparagus officinalis, Carica papaya, Silene latifolia, Rumex acetosa and Marchantia polymorpha, have shed light on the molecular structure of both homomorphic and heteromorphic sex chromosomes, and also on the gene functions they have maintained since their evolution from a pair of autosomes. The molecular structure of sex chromosomes in species from different plant families represents the evolutionary pathway followed by sex chromosomes during their evolution. The degree of Y chromosome degeneration that accompanies the suppression of recombination between the Xs and Ys differs among species. The primitive Ys of A. officinalis and C. papaya have only diverged from their homomorphic Xs in a short male-specific and non-recombining region (MSY), while the heteromorphic Ys of S. latifolia, R. acetosa and M. polymorpha have diverged from their respective Xs. As in the Y chromosomes of mammals and Drosophila, the accumulation of repetitive DNA, including both transposable elements and satellite DNA, has played an important role in the divergence and size enlargement of plant Ys, and consequently in reducing gene density. Nevertheless, the degeneration process in plants does not appear to have reached the Y-linked genes. Although a low gene density has been found in the sequenced Y chromosome of M. polymorpha, most of its genes are essential and are expressed in the vegetative and reproductive organs in both male and females. Similarly, most of the Y-linked genes that have been isolated and characterized up to now in S. latifolia are housekeeping genes that have X-linked homologues, and are therefore expressed in both males and females. Only one of them seems to be degenerate with respect to its homologous region in the X. Sequence analysis of larger regions in the homomorphic X and Y chromosomes of papaya and asparagus, and also in the heteromorphic sex chromosomes

  10. A Gradual Process of Recombination Restriction in the Evolutionary History of the Sex Chromosomes in Dioecious Plants

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    To help understand the evolution of suppressed recombination between sex chromosomes, and its consequences for evolution of the sequences of Y-linked genes, we have studied four X-Y gene pairs, including one gene not previously characterized, in plants in a group of closely related dioecious species of Silene which have an X-Y sex-determining system (S. latifolia, S. dioica, and S. diclinis). We used the X-linked copies to build a genetic map of the X chromosomes, with a marker in the pseudoautosomal region (PAR) to orient the map. The map covers a large part of the X chromosomes—at least 50 centimorgans. Except for a recent rearrangement in S. dioica, the gene order is the same in the X chromosomes of all three species. Silent site divergence between the DNA sequences of the X and Y copies of the different genes increases with the genes' distances from the PAR, suggesting progressive restriction of recombination between the X and Y chromosomes. This was confirmed by phylogenetic analyses of the four genes, which also revealed that the least-diverged X-Y pair could have ceased recombining independently in the dioecious species after their split. Analysis of amino acid replacements vs. synonymous changes showed that, with one possible exception, the Y-linked copies appear to be functional in all three species, but there are nevertheless some signs of degenerative processes affecting the genes that have been Y-linked for the longest times. Although the X-Y system evolved quite recently in Silene (less than 10 million years ago) compared to mammals (about 320 million years ago), our results suggest that similar processes have been at work in the evolution of sex chromosomes in plants and mammals, and shed some light on the molecular mechanisms suppressing recombination between X and Y chromosomes. PMID:15630476

  11. The ENEA criticality accident dosimetry system: a contribution to the 2002 international intercomparison at the SILENE reactor.

    PubMed

    Gualdrini, G; Bedogni, R; Fantuzzi, E; Mariotti, F

    2004-01-01

    The present paper summarises the activity carried out at the ENEA Radiation Protection Institute for updating the methodologies employed for the evaluation of the neutron and photon dose to the exposed workers in case of a criticality accident, in the framework of the 'International Intercomparison of Criticality Accident Dosimetry Systems' (Silène reactor, IRSN-CEA-Valduc June 2002). The evaluation of the neutron spectra and the neutron dosimetric quantities relies on activation detectors and on unfolding algorithms. Thermoluminescent detectors are employed for the gamma dose measurement. The work is aimed at accurately characterising the measurement system and, at the same time, testing the algorithms. Useful spectral information were included, based on Monte Carlo simulations, to take into account the potential accident scenarios of practical interest. All along this exercise intercomparison a particular attention was devoted to the 'traceability' of all the experimental and computational parameters and therefore, aimed at an easy treatment by the user. PMID:15353692

  12. DNA polymorphism in recombining and non-recombing mating-type-specific loci of the smut fungus Microbotryum

    PubMed Central

    Votintseva, A A; Filatov, D A

    2011-01-01

    The population-genetic processes leading to the genetic degeneration of non-recombining regions have mainly been studied in animal and plant sex chromosomes. Here, we report population genetic analysis of the processes in the non-recombining mating-type-specific regions of the smut fungus Microbotryum violaceum. M. violaceum has A1 and A2 mating types, determined by mating-type-specific ‘sex chromosomes' that contain 1–2 Mb long non-recombining regions. If genetic degeneration were occurring, then one would expect reduced DNA polymorphism in the non-recombining regions of this fungus. The analysis of DNA diversity among 19 M. violaceum strains, collected across Europe from Silene latifolia flowers, revealed that (i) DNA polymorphism is relatively low in all 20 studied loci (π∼0.15%), (ii) it is not significantly different between the two mating-type-specific chromosomes nor between the non-recombining and recombining regions, (iii) there is substantial population structure in M. violaceum populations, which resembles that of its host species, S. latifolia, and (iv) there is significant linkage disequilibrium, suggesting that widespread selfing in this species results in a reduction of the effective recombination rate across the genome. We hypothesise that selfing-related reduction of recombination across the M. violaceum genome negates the difference in the level of DNA polymorphism between the recombining and non-recombining regions, and may possibly lead to similar levels of genetic degeneration in the mating-type-specific regions of the non-recombining ‘sex chromosomes' and elsewhere in the genome. PMID:21081967

  13. LC-MS and 1H NMR as an improved dereplication tool to identify antifungal diterpenoids from Sagittaria latifolia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A dereplication strategy using a combination of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H NMR) to facilitate compound identification towards antifungal natural product discovery is presented. This analytical approach takes advantage of th...

  14. Determination of alkanolamines in cattails (Typha latifolia) utilizing electrospray ionization with selected reaction monitoring and ion-exchange chromatography.

    PubMed

    Peru, Kerry M; Headley, John V; Doucette, William J

    2004-01-01

    Selected reaction monitoring (SRM) with electrospray ionization was used as a specific detection technique for the analysis of alkanolamines in plant tissue extracts. Ion-exchange chromatography was used as the method of separation. Quantification was based on monitoring the loss of either H2O or 2(H2O) from the protonated molecule [M+H]+. The method provided increased selectivity for all analytes and better detection limits for three of the six analytes investigated compared with an earlier method using selected ion monitoring with liquid chromatography. Instrumental detection limits ranged from 6-300 pg injected for monoethanolamine (MEA), monoisopropanolamine (MIPA), diethanolamine (DEA), methyldiethanolamine (MDEA), diisopropanolamine (DIPA), and triethanolamine (TEA). Method robustness and selectivity were demonstrated by the determination of DIPA and a known transformation product MIPA in over 35 plant extract samples derived from a laboratory study of plant uptake mechanisms. PMID:15282789

  15. Identification of high-quality single-nucleotide polymorphisms in Glycine latifolia using a heterologous reference genome sequence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Like most widely cultivated crops, soybean (Glycine max) has a relatively narrow genetic base, while its wild perennial relatives are more genetically diverse and can display desirable traits not present in cultivated soybean. For example, no sources of complete resistance to Sclerotinia...

  16. GENETIC DIVERSITY AND THE EFFECT OF POLLUTANTS IN TYPHA LATIFOLIA EXAMINED WITH SYNTHETIC TANDEM-REPETITIVE DNA PROBES. (R826602)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  17. 21 CFR 582.20 - Essential oils, oleoresins (solvent-free), and natural extractives (including distillates).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Laurus spp. Lavender Lavandula officinalis Chaix. Lavender, spike Lavandula latifolia Vill. Lavandin... (blackthorn berries) Prunus spinosa L. Spearmint Mentha spicata L. Spike lavender Lavandula latifolia...

  18. 21 CFR 582.20 - Essential oils, oleoresins (solvent-free), and natural extractives (including distillates).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Laurus spp. Lavender Lavandula officinalis Chaix. Lavender, spike Lavandula latifolia Vill. Lavandin... (blackthorn berries) Prunus spinosa L. Spearmint Mentha spicata L. Spike lavender Lavandula latifolia...

  19. 21 CFR 582.20 - Essential oils, oleoresins (solvent-free), and natural extractives (including distillates).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Laurus spp. Lavender Lavandula officinalis Chaix. Lavender, spike Lavandula latifolia Vill. Lavandin... (blackthorn berries) Prunus spinosa L. Spearmint Mentha spicata L. Spike lavender Lavandula latifolia...

  20. 21 CFR 582.20 - Essential oils, oleoresins (solvent-free), and natural extractives (including distillates).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Laurus spp. Lavender Lavandula officinalis Chaix. Lavender, spike Lavandula latifolia Vill. Lavandin... (blackthorn berries) Prunus spinosa L. Spearmint Mentha spicata L. Spike lavender Lavandula latifolia...

  1. 21 CFR 182.20 - Essential oils, oleoresins (solvent-free), and natural extractives (including distillates).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... spp. Lavender Lavandula officinalis Chaix. Lavender, spike Lavandula latifolia Vill. Lavandin Hybrids.... Spearmint Mentha spicata L. Spike lavender Lavandula latifolia Vill. Tamarind Tamarindus indica L....

  2. 21 CFR 582.20 - Essential oils, oleoresins (solvent-free), and natural extractives (including distillates).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Laurus spp. Lavender Lavandula officinalis Chaix. Lavender, spike Lavandula latifolia Vill. Lavandin... (blackthorn berries) Prunus spinosa L. Spearmint Mentha spicata L. Spike lavender Lavandula latifolia...

  3. United States Air Force 611th Civil Engineer Squadron, Elmendorf AFB, Alaska. Final remedial investigation report, Galena Airport and Campion Air Station, Alaska. Volume 6. Appendix C-G

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    ;Contents: Appendix C-Regulatory Discussion of Applicable or Relevant and Appropriate Requirement; Appendix D-Statistical Discussion; Appendix E-Field Documents, including Drilling Logs (1992-3), Monitoring Well Construction Diagrams (1992-3), Well Development Forms (1992-3), Ground Water Sampling Forms (1992-4), Water Level Survey Results, and Survey Data (1992-3); Appendix F-Hydrocarbon Recovery Testing at Galena Airport; and Appendix G-Geophysics and Soil Gas Reports.

  4. United States Air Force 611th Civil Engineer Squadron, Elmendorf AFB, Alaska. Final remedial investigation report, Galena Airport and Campion Air Station, Alaska. Volume 3. Appendix B, Part 1

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    ;Contents: 1992, 1993, and 1994 Quality Assurance/Quality Control Summary Reports; Detailed Listing of Blank Results (1992 Water and Soil Samples); Detailed Listing of Solid Spikes (1992 Soil Samples); Detailed Listing of Dupilcate Results (1992 Soil Samples); and Data and Batch Summary (1992 Soil Samples).

  5. Derivatization of phytochelatins from Silene vulgaris, induced upon exposure to arsenate and cadmium: comparison of derivatization with Ellman's reagent and monobromobimane.

    PubMed

    Sneller, F E; van Heerwaarden, L M; Koevoets, P L; Vooijs, R; Schat, H; Verkleij, J A

    2000-09-01

    Phytochelatins (PCs) are a family of thiol-rich peptides, with the general structure (gamma-Glu-Cys)(n)()-Gly, with n = 2-11, induced in plants upon exposure to excessive amounts of heavy metals and some metalloids, such as arsenic. Two types of PC analyses are currently used, i.e., acid extraction and separation on HPLC with either precolumn derivatization (pH 8.2) with monobromobimane (mBBr) or postcolumn derivatization (pH 7.8) with Ellman's reagent [5, 5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid), DTNB]. Although both methods were satisfactory for analysis of Cd-induced PCs, formation of (RS)(3)-As complexes during extraction of As-induced PCs rendered the DTNB method useless. This paper shows that precolumn derivatization with mBBr, during which the (RS)(3)-As complexes are disrupted, provides a qualitative and quantitative analysis of both Cd- and As-induced PCs. In addition, derivatization efficiencies of both methods for the oligomers with n = 2-4 (PC(2)(-)(4)) are compared. Derivatization efficiency decreased from 71.8% and 81.4% for mBBr and DTNB derivatization, respectively, for PC(2) to 27.4% and 50.2% for PC(4). This decrease is most likely due to steric hindrance. Correction of measured thiol concentration is therefore advised for better quantification of PC concentrations in plant material. PMID:10995306

  6. Chaos of Rearrangements in the Mating-Type Chromosomes of the Anther-Smut Fungus Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae

    PubMed Central

    Badouin, Hélène; Hood, Michael E.; Gouzy, Jérôme; Aguileta, Gabriela; Siguenza, Sophie; Perlin, Michael H.; Cuomo, Christina A.; Fairhead, Cécile; Branca, Antoine; Giraud, Tatiana

    2015-01-01

    Sex chromosomes in plants and animals and fungal mating-type chromosomes often show exceptional genome features, with extensive suppression of homologous recombination and cytological differentiation between members of the diploid chromosome pair. Despite strong interest in the genetics of these chromosomes, their large regions of suppressed recombination often are enriched in transposable elements and therefore can be challenging to assemble. Here we show that the latest improvements of the PacBio sequencing yield assembly of the whole genome of the anther-smut fungus, Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae (the pathogenic fungus causing anther-smut disease of Silene latifolia), into finished chromosomes or chromosome arms, even for the repeat-rich mating-type chromosomes and centromeres. Suppressed recombination of the mating-type chromosomes is revealed to span nearly 90% of their lengths, with extreme levels of rearrangements, transposable element accumulation, and differentiation between the two mating types. We observed no correlation between allelic divergence and physical position in the nonrecombining regions of the mating-type chromosomes. This may result from gene conversion or from rearrangements of ancient evolutionary strata, i.e., successive steps of suppressed recombination. Centromeres were found to be composed mainly of copia-like transposable elements and to possess specific minisatellite repeats identical between the different chromosomes. We also identified subtelomeric motifs. In addition, extensive signs of degeneration were detected in the nonrecombining regions in the form of transposable element accumulation and of hundreds of gene losses on each mating-type chromosome. Furthermore, our study highlights the potential of the latest breakthrough PacBio chemistry to resolve complex genome architectures. PMID:26044594

  7. Lower prevalence but similar fitness in a parasitic fungus at higher radiation levels near Chernobyl.

    PubMed

    Aguileta, Gabriela; Badouin, Helene; Hood, Michael E; Møller, Anders P; Le Prieur, Stephanie; Snirc, Alodie; Siguenza, Sophie; Mousseau, Timothy A; Shykoff, Jacqui A; Cuomo, Christina A; Giraud, Tatiana

    2016-07-01

    Nuclear disasters at Chernobyl and Fukushima provide examples of effects of acute ionizing radiation on mutations that can affect the fitness and distribution of species. Here, we investigated the prevalence of Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae, a pollinator-transmitted fungal pathogen of plants causing anther-smut disease in Chernobyl, its viability, fertility and karyotype variation, and the accumulation of nonsynonymous mutations in its genome. We collected diseased flowers of Silene latifolia from locations ranging by more than two orders of magnitude in background radiation, from 0.05 to 21.03 μGy/h. Disease prevalence decreased significantly with increasing radiation level, possibly due to lower pollinator abundance and altered pollinator behaviour. Viability and fertility, measured as the budding rate of haploid sporidia following meiosis from the diploid teliospores, did not vary with increasing radiation levels and neither did karyotype overall structure and level of chromosomal size heterozygosity. We sequenced the genomes of twelve samples from Chernobyl and of four samples collected from uncontaminated areas and analysed alignments of 6068 predicted genes, corresponding to 1.04 × 10(7)  base pairs. We found no dose-dependent differences in substitution rates (neither dN, dS, nor dN/dS). Thus, we found no significant evidence of increased deleterious mutation rates at higher levels of background radiation in this plant pathogen. We even found lower levels of nonsynonymous substitution rates in contaminated areas compared to control regions, suggesting that purifying selection was stronger in contaminated than uncontaminated areas. We briefly discuss the possibilities for a mechanistic basis of radio resistance in this nonmelanized fungus. PMID:27136128

  8. Wild vegetable mixes sold in the markets of Dalmatia (southern Croatia)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Dalmatia is an interesting place to study the use of wild greens as it lies at the intersection of influence of Slavs, who do not usually use many species of wild greens, and Mediterranean culinary culture, where the use of multiple wild greens is common. The aim of the study was to document the mixtures of wild green vegetables which are sold in all the vegetable markets of Dalmatia. Methods All vendors (68) in all 11 major markets of the Dalmatian coast were interviewed. The piles of wild vegetables they sold were searched and herbarium specimens taken from them. Results The mean number of species in the mix was 5.7. The most commonly sold wild plants are: Sonchus oleraceus L., Allium ampeloprasum L., Foeniculum vulgare Mill., Urospermum picroides F.W.Schmidt, Papaver rhoeas L., Daucus carota L., Taraxacum sp., Picris echioides L., Silene latifolia Poir. and Crepis spp. Also the cultivated beet (Beta vulgaris L.) and a few cultivated Brassicaceae varieties are frequent components. Wild vegetables from the mix are usually boiled for 20–30 minutes and dressed with olive oil and salt. Altogether at least 37 wild taxa and 13 cultivated taxa were recorded. Apart from the mixes, Asparagus acutifolius L. and Tamus communis L. shoots are sold in separate bunches (they are usually eaten with eggs), as well as some Asteraceae species, the latter are eaten raw or briefly boiled. Conclusions The rich tradition of eating many wild greens may result both from strong Venetian and Greek influences and the necessity of using all food resources available in the barren, infertile land in the past. Although the number of wild-collected green vegetables is impressive we hypothesize that it may have decreased over the years, and that further in-depth local ethnobotanical studies are needed in Dalmatia to record the disappearing knowledge of edible plants. PMID:23286393

  9. Influence of Multiple Infection and Relatedness on Virulence: Disease Dynamics in an Experimental Plant Population and Its Castrating Parasite

    PubMed Central

    Buono, Lorenza; López-Villavicencio, Manuela; Shykoff, Jacqui A.; Snirc, Alodie; Giraud, Tatiana

    2014-01-01

    The level of parasite virulence, i.e., the decrease in host's fitness due to a pathogen, is expected to depend on several parameters, such as the type of the disease (e.g., castrating or host-killing) and the prevalence of multiple infections. Although these parameters have been extensively studied theoretically, few empirical data are available to validate theoretical predictions. Using the anther smut castrating disease on Silene latifolia caused by Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae, we studied the dynamics of multiple infections and of different components of virulence (host death, non-recovery and percentage of castrated stems) during the entire lifespan of the host in an experimental population. We monitored the number of fungal genotypes within plants and their relatedness across five years, using microsatellite markers, as well as the rates of recovery and host death in the population. The mean relatedness among genotypes within plants remained at a high level throughout the entire host lifespan despite the dynamics of the disease, with recurrent new infections. Recovery was lower for plants with multiple infections compared to plants infected by a single genotype. As expected for castrating parasites, M. lychnidis-dioicae did not increase host mortality. Mortality varied across years but was generally lower for plants that had been diseased the preceding year. This is one of the few studies to have empirically verified theoretical expectations for castrating parasites, and to show particularly i) that castrated hosts live longer, suggesting that parasites can redirect resources normally used in reproduction to increase host lifespan, lengthening their transmission phase, and ii) that multiple infections increase virulence, here in terms of non-recovery and host castration. PMID:24892951

  10. Web-Based Dynamic Assessment: Taking Assessment as Teaching and Learning Strategy for Improving Students e-Learning Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Tzu-Hua

    2010-01-01

    This research combines the idea of cake format dynamic assessment defined by Sternberg and Grigorenko (2001) and the "graduated prompt approach" proposed by (Campione and Brown, 1985) and (Campione and Brown, 1987) to develop a multiple-choice Web-based dynamic assessment system. This research adopts a quasi-experimental design to investigate the…

  11. Protective potentials of wild rice (Zizania latifolia (Griseb) Turcz) against obesity and lipotoxicity induced by a high-fat/cholesterol diet in rats.

    PubMed

    Han, Shu-Fen; Zhang, Hong; Zhai, Cheng-Kai

    2012-07-01

    The study evaluates the protective potentials of wild rice against obesity and lipotoxicity induced by a high-fat/cholesterol diet in rats. In addition to the rats of low-fat diet group, others animals were exposed to a high-fat/cholesterol diet condition for 8 weeks. The city diet (CD) is based on the diet consumed by urban residents in modern China, which is rich in fat/cholesterol and high in carbohydrates from white rice and processed wheat starch. The chief source of dietary carbohydrates of wild rice diet (WRD) is from Chinese wild rice and other compositions are the same with CD. Rats fed CD showed elevated body and liver organ weights, lipid profiles, free fatty acids (FFA) and leptin comparable with rats fed high-fat/cholesterol diet (HFD) known to induce obesity and hyperlipidaemia in this species. However, rats consuming WRD suppressed the increase of lipid droplets accumulation, FFA, and leptin, and the decrease of lipoprotein lipase and adipose triglyceride lipase. Meanwhile, WRD prevented high-fat/cholesterol diet-induced elevation in protein expression of sterol-regulatory element binding protein-1c, and gene expression of fatty acid synthase and acetyl-CoA carboxylase. These findings indicate that wild rice as a natural food has the potentials of preventing obesity and liver lipotoxicity induced by a high-fat/cholesterol diet in rats. PMID:22579924

  12. Effects of Dietary Carbohydrate Replaced with Wild Rice (Zizania latifolia (Griseb) Turcz) on Insulin Resistance in Rats Fed with a High-Fat/Cholesterol Diet

    PubMed Central

    Han, Shufen; Zhang, Hong; Qin, Liqiang; Zhai, Chengkai

    2013-01-01

    Wild rice (WR) is a very nutritious grain that has been used to treat diabetes in Chinese medicinal practice. City diet (CD) is based on the diet consumed by Asian area residents in modern society, which is rich in saturated fats, cholesterol and carbohydrates. The present study was aimed at evaluating the effects of replacing white rice and processed wheat starch of CD with WR as the chief source of dietary carbohydrates on insulin resistance in rats fed with a high-fat/cholesterol diet. Except the rats of the low-fat (LF) diet group, the rats of the other three groups, including to high-fat/cholesterol (HFC) diet, CD and WR diet, were fed with high-fat/cholesterol diets for eight weeks. The rats fed with CD exhibited higher weight gain and lower insulin sensitivity compared to the rats consuming a HFC diet. However, WR suppressed high-fat/cholesterol diet-induced insulin resistance. WR decreased liver homogenate triglyceride and free fatty acids levels, raised serum adiponectin concentration and reduced serum lipocalin-2 and visfatin concentrations. In addition, the WR diet potently augmented the relative expressions of adiponectin receptor 2, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, alpha and gamma, and abated relative expressions of leptin and lipocalin-2 in the tissues of interest. These findings indicate that WR is effective in ameliorating abnormal glucose metabolism and insulin resistance in rats, even when the diet consumed is high in fat and cholesterol. PMID:23434909

  13. Wild rice ( Zizania latifolia (Griseb) Turcz) improves the serum lipid profile and antioxidant status of rats fed with a high fat/cholesterol diet.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong; Cao, Pei; Agellon, Luis B; Zhai, Cheng-Kai

    2009-12-01

    The diet consumed by urban residents in modern China has become rich in saturated fats and cholesterol. In addition, the diet is high in carbohydrates from white rice and processed wheat starch. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of replacing white rice and processed wheat starch with wild rice (WR) as the chief source of dietary carbohydrates. Rats fed with the diet patterned after the diet consumed by city residents of modern China showed elevated serum lipid levels comparable with rats consuming a high fat/cholesterol diet known to induce hyperlipidaemia in this species. Meanwhile, rats consuming the city diet with WR as the carbohydrate source suppressed the increase in serum TAG and total cholesterol, and the decrease in HDL cholesterol level. In addition, the rats fed the WR diet suppressed the build-up of oxidative stress by improving antioxidant capacity, increasing superoxide dismutase activity and reducing malondialdehyde concentration, both in the serum and liver. These findings illustrate that WR is effective in suppressing hyperlipidaemia and oxidative stress in rats even when the diet consumed is high in fat and cholesterol. PMID:19631021

  14. Effects of dietary carbohydrate replaced with wild rice (Zizania latifolia (Griseb) Turcz) on insulin resistance in rats fed with a high-fat/cholesterol diet.

    PubMed

    Han, Shufen; Zhang, Hong; Qin, Liqiang; Zhai, Chengkai

    2013-02-01

    Wild rice (WR) is a very nutritious grain that has been used to treat diabetes in Chinese medicinal practice. City diet (CD) is based on the diet consumed by Asian area residents in modern society, which is rich in saturated fats, cholesterol and carbohydrates. The present study was aimed at evaluating the effects of replacing white rice and processed wheat starch of CD with WR as the chief source of dietary carbohydrates on insulin resistance in rats fed with a high-fat/cholesterol diet. Except the rats of the low-fat (LF) diet group, the rats of the other three groups, including to high-fat/cholesterol (HFC) diet, CD and WR diet, were fed with high-fat/cholesterol diets for eight weeks. The rats fed with CD exhibited higher weight gain and lower insulin sensitivity compared to the rats consuming a HFC diet. However, WR suppressed high-fat/cholesterol diet-induced insulin resistance. WR decreased liver homogenate triglyceride and free fatty acids levels, raised serum adiponectin concentration and reduced serum lipocalin-2 and visfatin concentrations. In addition, the WR diet potently augmented the relative expressions of adiponectin receptor 2, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, alpha and gamma, and abated relative expressions of leptin and lipocalin-2 in the tissues of interest. These findings indicate that WR is effective in ameliorating abnormal glucose metabolism and insulin resistance in rats, even when the diet consumed is high in fat and cholesterol. PMID:23434909

  15. Effect of N:P ratio of influent on biomass, nutrient allocation, and recovery of Typha latifolia and Canna 'Bengal Tiger' in a laboratory-scale constructed wetland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Constructed wetlands (CWs) are an effective low-technology approach for treating agricultural, industrial, and municipal wastewater. Recovery of phosphorous by constructed wetland plants may be affected by wastewater nitrogen to phosphorous (N:P) ratios. Varying N:P ratios were supplied to Canna '...

  16. Effects of introgression on the genetic population structure of two ecologically and economically important conifer species: lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) and jack pine (Pinus banksiana).

    PubMed

    Cullingham, Catherine I; Cooke, Janice E K; Coltman, David W

    2013-10-01

    Forest trees exhibit a remarkable range of adaptations to their environment, but as a result of frequent and long-distance gene flow, populations are often only weakly differentiated. Lodgepole and jack pine hybridize in western Canada, which adds the opportunity for introgression through hybridization to contribute to population structure and (or) adaptive variation. Access to large sample size, high density SNP datasets for these species would improve our ability to resolve population structure, parameterize introgression, and separate the influence of demography from adaptation. To accomplish this, 454 transcriptome reads for lodgepole and jack pine were assembled using Newbler and MIRA, the assemblies mined for SNPs, and 1536 SNPs were selected for typing on lodgepole pine, jack pine, and their hybrids (N = 536). We identified population structure using both Bayesian clustering and discriminate analysis of principle components. Introgressed SNP loci were identified and their influence on observed population structure was assessed. We found that introgressed loci resulted in increased differentiation both within lodgepole and jack pine populations. These findings are timely given the recent mountain pine beetle population expansion in the hybrid zone, and will facilitate future studies of adaptive traits in these ecologically important species. PMID:24237338

  17. Health and safety plan, Kalakaket Creek, Radion Relay Station, Alaska. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    This Health and Safety Plan provides guidance for safe operations for field crew members performing activities at the Galena AFS and Campion AFS. It includes site descriptions, possible hazards, protective measures, and emergency procedures.

  18. Immunomodulation of RAW 264.7 murine macrophage functions and antioxidant activities of 11 plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Ghonime, Mohammed; Emara, Mohamed; Shawky, Riham; Soliman, Hesham; El-Domany, Ramadan; Abdelaziz, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    A group of 11 medicinal plants, including Lavandula pubescens, Trigonella foenugricium, Salsola schweinforthi, Calligonum comosum, Silene succulenta, Silene villosa, Bogonvillea glabra, Cakile maritime, Gomphrene celesoids, Mirabilis jalaba, and Silene nocturna growing in Egypt, were extracted and examined for their immunomodulatory and antioxidant activities. RAW 264.7 cells were recruited to investigate the immunomodulatory effect through multiple parameters analysis. First, the proliferation index of macrophages cells was evaluated revealing that Trigonella foenugricium, Silene succulenta and Silene villosa have a significant cytotoxic effect on RAW cells. Interestingly, we observed enhancement of macrophages phagocytic function of by all extracts except Cakile maritime, Gomphrena celosioides and Silene nocturna. Afterwards, macrophages were challenged by incubation with LPS and the effect of various extracts on inflammatory responses was investigated; the generation of NO from activated macrophage was substantially suppressed by 7 extracts namely, Trigonella foenugricium, Calligonum comosum, Silene succulenta, Bougainvillea glabra, Mirabilis jalaba, Gomphrena celosioides and Silene nocturna. TNF-α was decreased by percentage range from 3.8 to 85.8% and Trigonella foenugricium extract showed the highest inhibition of TNF-α release. All extracts except Trigonella foenugricium, Salsola schweinforthi, Silene succulenta and Mirabilis jalaba significantly inhibited COX-2 production from stimulated macrophage. Moreover, evaluating the potential antioxidant activity of these extracts showed that Trigonella foenugricium, Salsola schweinforthi, Calligonum comosum, Bogonvillea glabra and Mirabilis jalaba exhibited some antioxidant activities. Taken together, our results suggest that some of these extracts may have a considerable antinflammatory and antioxidant effects and may be a potential therapeutic choice in the treatment of inflammatory diseases. PMID:25564700

  19. Application of multi-way data analysis on excitation-emission spectra for plant identification

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ability to distinguish among diets fed to Damascus goats using excitation-emission luminescence spectra was investigated. These diets consisted of Medicago sativa L. (Alfalfa), Trifolium spp (Clover), Pistacia lentiscus (P. lentiscus), Phyllirea latifolia (P. latifolia), and Pinus brutia (P. bru...

  20. [In situ dynamics of phosphorus in the rhizosphere solution and organic acids exudation of two aquatic plants].

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhen-yu; Wen, Sheng-fang; Luo, Xian-xiang; Li, Ai-feng; Xing, Bao-shan; Li, Feng-min

    2009-08-15

    A mini-rhizotron experiment with Alternanthera philoxeroides and Typha latifolia was conducted to measure the spatial and temporal dynamics of phosphorus in the rhizosphere solution. The organic acids in the in situ rhizosphere soil solution were analyzed. A decreasing phosphorus concentration gradient in soil solution toward the root was observed for both A. philoxeroides and T. latifolia. The phosphorus concentration in the rhizosphere soil solution of A. philoxeroides (2.53 mg x L(-1)) was lower than that of T. latifolia (5.43 mg x L(-1)) in the forth sampling day. Compared to T. latifolia, A. philoxeroides released more malic acid (27.33 umol x L(-1)) which was more efficient in phosphorus mobilization. A. philoxeroides was more effective in phosphorus uptake in the rhizosphere than T. latifolia. PMID:19799282

  1. Pedagogical Praxis: The Professions as Models for Learning in the Age of the Smart Machine. WCER Working Paper No. 2003-6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaffer, David W.

    2003-01-01

    Successful curricula are not collections of isolated elements; rather, effective learning environments function as coherent systems (Brown & Campione, 1996; see also Papert, 1980; Shaffer, 1998). The theory of pedagogical praxis begins with the premise that computers and other information technologies make it easier for students to become active…

  2. The Historian as Computer Programmer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campion, Martin C.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses two type of computer programs--grade book programs and classroom simulations--and how they are used by teachers. Using instructor-developed programs as examples, Campion describes his experiences as a programer and encourages his fellow historians to investigate the possibility of programing for themselves. (GEA)

  3. Shakespeare, plant blindness and electronic media

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Use is made of a published (2005) survey of botanical literacy in modern London: Ten very common wild flowers (ragwort, cow parsley, foxglove, red campion, germander speedwell, primrose, lesser celandine, common dog violet, common daisy, and greater plantain) were seldom recogonized by A-level stude...

  4. Urban Schools' Teachers Enacting Project-Based Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tal, Tali; Krajcik, Joseph S.; Blumenfeld, Phyllis C.

    2006-01-01

    What teaching practices foster inquiry and promote students to learn challenging subject matter in urban schools? Inquiry-based instruction and successful inquiry learning and teaching in project-based science (PBS) were described in previous studies (Brown & Campione, [1990]; Crawford, [1999]; Krajcik, Blumenfeld, Marx, Bass, & Fredricks, [1998];…

  5. Implementation of Web-Based Dynamic Assessment in Facilitating Junior High School Students to Learn Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Tzu-Hua

    2011-01-01

    This research adopts the Graduated Prompting Assessment Module of the WATA system (GPAM-WATA) and applies it to the remedial teaching of junior high school mathematics. The theoretical basis of the development of GPAM-WATA is the idea of 'graduated prompt approach' proposed by Campione and Brown (1985; 1987, pp. 92-95). In GPAM-WATA, when…

  6. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (85th, Miami, Florida, August 5-8, 2002). Visual Communication Division.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    The Visual Communication Division of the proceedings contains the following 7 papers: "Photography Editors as Gatekeepers: Choosing Between Publishing or Self-Censoring Disturbing Images of 9-11" (Renee Martin Kratzer and Brian Kratzer); "Jane Campion's 'The Piano': The Female Gaze, the Speculum and the Chora within the H(y)st(e)rical Film" (Jaime…

  7. Phytoecdysteroids of the East Asian Caryophyllaceae

    PubMed Central

    Novozhilova, Elena; Rybin, Viacheslav; Gorovoy, Petr; Gavrilenko, Irina; Doudkin, Roman

    2015-01-01

    Background: Occurrence of integristerone A (1), 20-hydroxyecdysone (2), ecdysone (3), 2-deoxy-20-hydroxyecdysone (4) has been analyzed in 64 species of the East Asian Caryophyllaceae. Materials and Methods: Ecdysteroid content was determinate by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). HPLC with a high-resolution mass spectrometry was performed on Shimadzu LCMS-IT-TOF (Japan) system equipped with a LC-20A Prominence liquid chromatograph, a photodiode array detector SPD-M20A and ion-trap/time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Results: New sources of phytoecdysteroids: Melandriumsachalinense and Melandrium firmum have been revealed. It is the 1st time that two has been identified in M. sachalinense and M. firmum; 1 in the species: Lychnis fulgens, Silene repens, Silene foliosa, Silene stenophylla, Silene jenisseensis and M. sachalinense; 3 in Lychnis cognata; 4 in L. fulgens, S. stenophylla and S. jenisseensis (the tribe Lychnideae, the subfamily Caryophylloideae). Ecdysteroid-negative taxa are Spergularia rubra of the tribe Sperguleae; species of the genera Minuartia, Honckenya, Eremogone, Arenaria, Moehringia, Pseudostellaria, Fimbripetalum, Stellaria and Cerastium of the tribe Alsineae; Scleranthus annuus of the tribe Sclerantheae, as well as the East Asian representatives of the genera Gypsophila, Psammophiliela, Dianthus and Saponaria of the tribe Diantheae; Oberna and Agrostemma of the tribe Lychnideae. Conclusion: This investigation shows the most promising sources of ecdysteriods are species of genera Silene and Lychnis. PMID:26109770

  8. Potential for phosphate mitigation from agricultural runoff by three aquatic macrophytes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phosphate from agricultural runoff is considered a contributor to eutrophication. Three aquatic macrophyte species, Leersia oryzoides, Typha latifolia, and Sparganium americanum, were investigated for their phosphate mitigation ability. Mesocosms were exposed to flowing phosphate enriched water (1...

  9. Arnica

    MedlinePlus

    ... well as temperate climates in North America. The flowers of the plant are used in medicine. People ... Arnica cordifolia, Arnica des Montagnes, Arnica Flos, Arnica Flower, Arnica fulgens, Arnica latifolia, Arnica montana, Arnica sororia, ...

  10. MICROORGANISMS AND HIGHER PLANTS FOR WASTE WATER TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Batch experiments were conducted to compare the waste water treatment efficiencies of plant-free microbial filters with filters supporting the growth of reeds (Phragmites communis), cattail (Typha latifolia), rush (Juncus effusus), and bamboo (Bambusa multiplex). The experimental...

  11. 21 CFR 182.20 - Essential oils, oleoresins (solvent-free), and natural extractives (including distillates).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .... of Cola. Laurel berries Laurus nobilis L. Laurel leaves Laurus spp. Lavender Lavandula officinalis Chaix. Lavender, spike Lavandula latifolia Vill. Lavandin Hybrids between Lavandula officinalis Chaix... molle L. Sloe berries (blackthorn berries) Prunus spinosa L. Spearmint Mentha spicata L. Spike...

  12. 21 CFR 182.20 - Essential oils, oleoresins (solvent-free), and natural extractives (including distillates).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... of Cola. Laurel berries Laurus nobilis L. Laurel leaves Laurus spp. Lavender Lavandula officinalis Chaix. Lavender, spike Lavandula latifolia Vill. Lavandin Hybrids between Lavandula officinalis Chaix... molle L. Sloe berries (blackthorn berries) Prunus spinosa L. Spearmint Mentha spicata L. Spike...

  13. 21 CFR 182.20 - Essential oils, oleoresins (solvent-free), and natural extractives (including distillates).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... of Cola. Laurel berries Laurus nobilis L. Laurel leaves Laurus spp. Lavender Lavandula officinalis Chaix. Lavender, spike Lavandula latifolia Vill. Lavandin Hybrids between Lavandula officinalis Chaix... molle L. Sloe berries (blackthorn berries) Prunus spinosa L. Spearmint Mentha spicata L. Spike...

  14. 21 CFR 182.20 - Essential oils, oleoresins (solvent-free), and natural extractives (including distillates).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... of Cola. Laurel berries Laurus nobilis L. Laurel leaves Laurus spp. Lavender Lavandula officinalis Chaix. Lavender, spike Lavandula latifolia Vill. Lavandin Hybrids between Lavandula officinalis Chaix... molle L. Sloe berries (blackthorn berries) Prunus spinosa L. Spearmint Mentha spicata L. Spike...

  15. Anther smuts of Caryophyllaceae: molecular analyses reveal further new species.

    PubMed

    Lutz, Matthias; Piatek, Marcin; Kemler, Martin; Chlebicki, Andrzej; Oberwinkler, Franz

    2008-11-01

    Recent collections of Microbotryum (Pucciniomycotina, Basidiomycota) specimens inhabiting anthers of different caryophyllaceous host plants were analysed using LM and electron microscopy, as well as molecular phylogenetic analyses using rDNA (ITS and LSU) sequences. The phylogenetic relationships of caryophyllaceous anther parasites are discussed. Three new species, Microbotryum adenopetalae, M. minuartiae, and M. silenes-acaulis, are described based on morphological, ecological, and molecular characteristics. New host plants are reported for Microbotryum dianthorum (Dianthus jacquemontii and Petrorhagia saxifraga) and M. lychnidis-dioicae (Cucubalus baccifer and Silene zawadskii). For Microbotryum violaceum, a neotype is selected. PMID:18951773

  16. Differential Associations between Domains of Sibling Conflict and Adolescent Emotional Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campione-Barr, Nicole; Greer, Kelly Bassett; Kruse, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Issues of equality and fairness and invasion of the personal domain, 2 previously identified topic areas of adolescent sibling conflict (N. Campione-Barr & J. G. Smetana, 2010), were examined in 145 dyads ("M" [subscript first-born] = 14.97, "SD" = 1.69 years; "M" [subscript second-born] = 12.20, "SD" = 1.90 years) for their differential effects…

  17. Reaction studies of hot silicon and germanium radicals. Progress report, September 1, 1982-September 30, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Gaspar, P.P.

    1983-10-31

    Progress in three areas important to attaining the goals of this research program are briefly reviewed: (a) rearrangements interconverting divalent silicon species, silylenes, and molecules containing silicon-silicon double bonds, silenes; (b) the laser photolysis of polysilanes (c) the reactions of high energy recoiling carbon atoms.

  18. First report of anther smut caused by Microbotryum violaceum on forked catchfly in Turkey

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Forked catchfly (Silene dichotoma Ehrh.), family Caryophyllaceae, is a common and native plant in rangelands and pastures in Turkey. It is also an introduced plant that is widely distributed in North America. In May, 2007 about 20 forked catchfly plants on the campus of Ondokuz Mayis University, i...

  19. Central radio galaxies in groups: cavities, bubbles and the history of AGN heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giacintucci, S.; Venturi, T.; Raychaudhury, S.; Vrtilek, J.

    2008-10-01

    E' noto che le regioni centrali degli ammassi e gruppi di galassie costituiscono un ambiente in cui gas caldo e plasma radioemittente proveniente dalle galassie dominanti interagiscono tra loro. In particolare, si pensa che la radioemissione dell'AGN centrale ed i suoi possibili cicli di attivita', siano strettamente legati alla presenza di cavita' e "bubbles" nel gas intergalattico. Si presentera' lo status di un progetto osservativo effettuato con il Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT, India) su di un campione di 18 gruppi di galassie, osservati a tre frequenze radio (235 MHz, 325 MHz e 610 MHz). Lo studio della morfologia radio degli AGN centrali e la relativa analisi spettrale permettono di ottenere stime sull'eta' di questi oggetti, e sulla loro energia totale, che a loro volta sono in relazione con le proprieta' X dei gruppi stessi. Per tutti gli oggetti del campione sono disponibili osservazioni Chandra di proprieta'. Per due oggetti del campione, 4C+24.36 (al centro di AWM04) e NGC741 (al centro di RSOG17) verra' presentato uno studio dettagliato.

  20. Molecular Evidence for the Hybrid Origin of Ilex dabieshanensis (Aquifoliaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Lin; Li, Naiwei; Wang, Shuqiong; Zhou, Yubing; Huang, Weijie; Yang, Yuchen; Ma, Yongpeng; Zhou, Renchao

    2016-01-01

    Ilex, the largest genus of dioecious woody plants, is a good study system to assess the role of hybridization in speciation and evolution. Ilex dabieshanensis, a tree endemic to Dabieshan Mountains region, was initially described as a new species. Based on morphological intermediacy and sympatric distribution with its putative parental species, I. cornuta and I. latifolia, we proposed it as a natural hybrid between them. In this study, we sequenced one chloroplast intergenic spacer (trnH-psbA) and two nuclear genes (gapC and nepGS) in I. dabieshanensis and its putative parental species to test the hybrid origin hypothesis. Our results showed that there were one to two differentially fixed sequence differences between I. cornuta and I. latifolia at the two nuclear genes. Twelve of the 14 individuals of I. dabieshanensis exhibited additivity in chromatograms on these differentially fixed sites at both nuclear genes, and the remaining two exhibited additivity in chromatograms on the fixed site at only the nepGS gene. Except one haplotype of I. cornuta at the nepGS gene, all of the haplotypes of I. cornuta at the two nuclear genes were well separated from those of I. latifolia, and most haplotypes of I. dabieshanensis were shared with those of I. cornuta and I. latifolia. Phylogenetic analysis of these haplotypes was largely consistent with haplotype network analysis. I. cornuta and I. latifolia differed by two nucleotide substitutions in the chloroplast intergenic spacer, and 12 individuals of I. dabieshanensis had the same sequences as I. latifolia, while the remaining two were identical with I. cornuta. The molecular data provide convincing evidence for the hybrid origin of I. dabieshanensis and asymmetrical direction of hybridization. One haplotype of I. cornuta at the nepGS gene was nested with those of I. latifolia, indicating introgression to I. cornuta. PMID:26808531

  1. Molecular Evidence for the Hybrid Origin of Ilex dabieshanensis (Aquifoliaceae).

    PubMed

    Shi, Lin; Li, Naiwei; Wang, Shuqiong; Zhou, Yubing; Huang, Weijie; Yang, Yuchen; Ma, Yongpeng; Zhou, Renchao

    2016-01-01

    Ilex, the largest genus of dioecious woody plants, is a good study system to assess the role of hybridization in speciation and evolution. Ilex dabieshanensis, a tree endemic to Dabieshan Mountains region, was initially described as a new species. Based on morphological intermediacy and sympatric distribution with its putative parental species, I. cornuta and I. latifolia, we proposed it as a natural hybrid between them. In this study, we sequenced one chloroplast intergenic spacer (trnH-psbA) and two nuclear genes (gapC and nepGS) in I. dabieshanensis and its putative parental species to test the hybrid origin hypothesis. Our results showed that there were one to two differentially fixed sequence differences between I. cornuta and I. latifolia at the two nuclear genes. Twelve of the 14 individuals of I. dabieshanensis exhibited additivity in chromatograms on these differentially fixed sites at both nuclear genes, and the remaining two exhibited additivity in chromatograms on the fixed site at only the nepGS gene. Except one haplotype of I. cornuta at the nepGS gene, all of the haplotypes of I. cornuta at the two nuclear genes were well separated from those of I. latifolia, and most haplotypes of I. dabieshanensis were shared with those of I. cornuta and I. latifolia. Phylogenetic analysis of these haplotypes was largely consistent with haplotype network analysis. I. cornuta and I. latifolia differed by two nucleotide substitutions in the chloroplast intergenic spacer, and 12 individuals of I. dabieshanensis had the same sequences as I. latifolia, while the remaining two were identical with I. cornuta. The molecular data provide convincing evidence for the hybrid origin of I. dabieshanensis and asymmetrical direction of hybridization. One haplotype of I. cornuta at the nepGS gene was nested with those of I. latifolia, indicating introgression to I. cornuta. PMID:26808531

  2. Effects of plant species on soil microbial processes and CH4 emission from constructed wetlands.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanhua; Yang, Hao; Ye, Chun; Chen, Xia; Xie, Biao; Huang, Changchun; Zhang, Jixiang; Xu, Meina

    2013-03-01

    Methane (CH(4)) emission from constructed wetland has raised environmental concern. This study evaluated the influence of mono and polyculture constructed wetland and seasonal variation on CH(4) fluxes. Methane emission data showed large temporal variation ranging from 0 to 249.29 mg CH(4) m(-2) h(-1). Results indicated that the highest CH(4) flux was obtained in the polyculture system, planted with Phragmites australis, Zizania latifolia and Typha latifolia, reflecting polyculture system could stimulate CH(4) emission. FISH analysis showed the higher amount of methanotrophs in the profile of Z. latifolia in both mono and polyculture systems. The highest methanogens amount and relatively lower methanotrophs amount in the profile of polyculture system were obtained. The results support the characteristics of CH(4) fluxes. The polyculture constructed wetland has the higher potential of global warming. PMID:23291006

  3. Dose evaluation in criticality accident conditions using transient critical facilities fueled with a fissile solution.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, T; Tonoike, K; Miyoshi, Y

    2004-01-01

    Neutron dose measurement and evaluation techniques in criticality accident conditions using a thermo luminescence dosemeter (TLD) was studied at the Transient Experiment Critical Facility (TRACY) of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). In the present approach, the absorbed dose is derived from the ambient dose equivalent measured with a TLD, using the appropriate conversion factor given by computation. Using this technique, the neutron dose around the SILENE reactor of the Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) of France was measured in the Accident Dosimetry Intercomparison Exercise (June 10-21, 2002) organized by OECD/NEA and IRSN. In this exercise, the gamma dose was also measured with a TLD. In this report, measurements and evaluation results at TRACY and SILENE are presented. PMID:15353695

  4. NHC-Stabilized Silicon-Carbon Mixed Cumulene.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhendong; Zhang, Jianying; Li, Jianfeng; Cui, Chunming

    2016-08-24

    The NHC-stabilized silicon-carbon mixed cumulene (Me3Si)2C═Si(IPr)═Si(IPr)═C(SiMe3)2 (3, IPr = 1,3-diisopropyl-4,5-dimethyl-imidazol-2-ylidene) has been prepared by reaction of Ar(SiMe3)NK with the NHC-stabilized silene (Me3Si)2C═Si(SiMe3)Cl(IPr) (2) in toluene at low temperature via the elimination of trimethylsilyl and chloride groups from 2. X-ray crystal analysis of 3 indicated the formal C═Si═Si═C cumulene skeleton with the short Si-Si double bond distance of 2.1896(10) Å. DFT calculations disclosed its zwitterionic character. Reaction of 3 with diphenylacetylene resulted in the formation of a silatriafulvene with an exocyclic NHC-stabilized silene moiety. PMID:27513613

  5. Palatability of weeds from different European origins to the slugs Deroceras reticulatum Müller and Arion lusitanicus Mabille

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Michael; Kollmann, Johannes; Edwards, Peter J.

    1999-04-01

    As part of a study on the significance of seed provenances in schemes to enhance biodiversity in agricultural habitats, juvenile plants of Cichorium intybus, Daucus carota, Leucanthemum vulgare and Silene alba of different European origins were exposed to grazing by two slug species, Deroceras reticulatum and Arion lusitanicus. Living plants were offered in trays, either in a glasshouse ( Deroceras) or outdoors ( Arion). The amount of herbivory was origin-dependent, with higher losses for all four species from German and Hungarian provenances compared with English and Swiss plants. The main trend was similar for both slug species except in the case of Daucus, and there was a significant 'origin × plant species' interaction. We found strong correlations between provenance-specific herbivory and certain climatic characteristics of the corresponding regions, i.e. winter minimum temperatures, and dryness in spring and late summer, which are crucial for the development of slugs. The results can be interpreted in terms of a SW-NE European climatic gradient and may be a consequence of differences in the need for plant defences against herbivory by slugs. Additionally, the data on palatability were compared with susceptibility towards two parasites which occurred in a field experiment, a leaf miner on Leucanthemum vulgare and a rust fungus on Silene alba. While specific leaf mining frequencies on Leucanthemum contrasted with the palatability of the different provenances to slugs, the rust infection on Silene was low on local and German plants, and higher on the more distant provenances from England and Hungary.

  6. Phylogeny and biogeography of North-American wild rice (Zizania L.Poaceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The wild-rice genus Zizania includes four species disjunctly distributed in eastern Asia and North America, with three species (Z. aquatica, Z. palustris, and Z. texana) in North America and one (Z. latifolia) in eastern Asia. The phylogeny and biogeography of Zizania were explored using sequences o...

  7. A new species of Chaenusa Haliday sensu lato (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) from the Nearctic Region

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chaenusa psillosae Kula, new species from the Nearctic Region is described. Specimens upon which the new species is described were reared from an undetermined species of Hydrellia Robineau-Desvoidy infesting Sagittaria latifolia Willd. A key to the New World species of Chaenusa sensu lato is amended...

  8. EFFECT OF PHOSPHORUS CONCENTRATION ON THE GROWTH OF CATTAIL CALLUS CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This investigation examined the growth of Typha latifolia (cattail) callus cells grown in 5 different (0, 11, 22, 33, 44, jg/L(-1) phosphosur concentrations. The cells were grown for two successive subcultures on semi-solid media, and subsequently in suspension culture with the s...

  9. Ecosystem, location, and climate effects on foliar secondary metabolites of lodgepole pine populations from central British Columbia.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lodgepole pines (Pinus contorta Douglas ex Louden var. latifolia Engelm. ex S. Watson) are encountering increased abiotic stress and pest activity due to recent increases in temperature and changes in precipitation throughout their range. Pines counter these threats by producing secondary metabolite...

  10. Ammonium removal in constructed wetland microcosms as influenced by season and organic carbon load.

    PubMed

    Riley, Kate A; Stein, Otto R; Hook, Paul B

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated ammonium nitrogen removal and nitrogen transformations in three-year-old, batch-operated, subsurface wetland microcosms. Treatments included replicates of Typha latifolia, Carex rostrata, and unplanted controls when influent carbon was excluded, and C. rostrata with an influent containing organic carbon. A series of 10-day batch incubations were conducted over a simulated yearlong cycle of seasons. The presence of plants significantly enhanced ammonium removal during both summer (24 degrees C, active plant growth) and winter (4 degrees C, plant dormancy) conditions, but significant differences between plant species were evident only in summer when C. rostrata outperformed T. latifolia. The effect of organic carbon load was distinctly seasonal, enhancing C. rostrata ammonium removal in winter but having an inhibitory effect in summer. Season did not influence ammonium removal in T. latifolia or unplanted columns. Net production of organic carbon was evident year-round in units without an influent organic carbon source, but was enhanced in summer, especially for C. rostrata, which produced significantly more than T. latifolia and unplanted controls. No differences in production were evident between species in winter. COD values for C. rostrata microcosms with and without influent organic carbon converged within 24 hours in winter and 7 days in summer. Gravel sorption, microbial immobilization and sequential nitrification/denitrification appear to be the major nitrogen removal mechanisms. All evidence suggests differences between season and species are due to differences in seasonal variation of root-zone oxidation. PMID:15921269

  11. First report of Moroccan pepper virus in association with yellows on escarole in the US and world

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During the fall of 2013 endive (Cichorium endivia L.) and escarole (C. endivia L., var latifolia) fields within a 15-mile radius of Vineland, New Jersey were found with severe disease symptoms. The cores of the heads were necrotic and rotted, while outer leaves were chlorotic and had pronounced yell...

  12. Bioactivity of non-edible oil seed extracts and purified extracts against Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner).

    PubMed

    Pawar, Pushpa; Joseph, Mary; Tungikar, Vijay; Joshi, Swati

    2004-01-01

    Extracts and purified extracts of seeds of two plant species, Madhuca latifolia and Calophyllum inophyllum when evaluated against the 2nd instar larvae of Helicoverpa armigera reared on synthetic diet, exhibited high larval mortality, prolongation of developmental period, morphological deformities and highly significant reduction in adult emergence. The reduction in larval weights in the treatments was also highly significant. PMID:15274488

  13. Potentiometric Demonstration of Metal Biosorption by Nonliving Plants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velazquez-Jimenez, Litza Halla; Torres-Rodriguez, Luz Maria; Garcia-de la Cruz, Ramon Fernando; Montes-Rojas, Antonio; Lopez-Arteaga, Rafael Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    An electrochemical experiment is presented to illustrate biosorption to second-year and upper-division undergraduate students. The extraction of Cd[superscript 2+], Pb[superscript 2+], and Cu[superscript 2+] by nonliving "Typha latifolia" (cattail) roots can be monitored in real time by potentiometry determinations. The open circuit potential…

  14. [A case of fasciolasis hepatic in Zunyi City, Guizhou Province].

    PubMed

    Wang, Rui-feng; Tang, Ling-jing; Zhou, Ai-ming

    2014-04-01

    Four adults of Fasciola hepatica were found from the bile ducts of a patient diagnosed as biliary calculi during a surgical operation. We investigated retrospectively the infection source and concluded that the patient may be infected by eating raw or half-cooked Zizania latifolia, an aquatic plant, which was contaminated with metacercariae of F. hepatica. PMID:25051832

  15. Nitrous oxide emission from polyculture constructed wetlands: effect of plant species.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanhua; Inamori, Ryuhei; Kong, Hainan; Xu, Kaiqin; Inamori, Yuhei; Kondo, Takashi; Zhang, Jixiang

    2008-03-01

    Loss of nitrogen from the soil-plant system has raised environmental concern. This study assessed the fluxes of nitrous oxide (N2O) in the subsurface flow constructed wetlands (CWs). To better understand the mechanism of N2O emission, spatial distribution of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in four kinds of wetlands soil were compared. N2O emission data showed large temporal and spatial variation ranging from -5.5 to 32.7 mg N2O m(-2) d(-1). The highest N2O emission occurred in the cell planted with Phragmites australis and Zizania latifolia. Whereas, the lower emission rate were obtained in the cell planted with P. australis and Typha latifolia. These revealed that Z. latifolia stimulated the N2O emission. Transportation of more organic matter and oxygen for AOB growth may be the reason. The study of AOB also supported this result, indicating that the root structure of Z. latifolia was favored by AOB for N2O formation. PMID:17655987

  16. Inoculum density effects on infection of selected Eastern US forest species by Phytophthora ramorum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inoculum threshold information can be used to better understand the epidemiology of P. ramorum should it become established in the Eastern US. Detached leaves from Quercus prinus, Q. rubra, Acer rubrum, Kalmia latifolia ‘Hoffman’s K’, and Rhododendron ‘Cunningham’s White’ were exposed to sporangia ...

  17. Lodgepole pine provenances differ in chemical defense capacities against foliage and stem diseases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maximization of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Douglas ex Louden var. latifolia Engelm. ex S. Watson) growth in the face of climate change and new pest outbreaks requires an understanding of the natural variability of quantitative resistance to disease. We assessed trees for the severity of foliar d...

  18. In vivo antiplasmodial potentials of the combinations of four nigerian antimalarial plants.

    PubMed

    Adebajo, Adeleke Clement; Odediran, Samuel Akintunde; Aliyu, Fatimah Abosede; Nwafor, Paul Alozie; Nwoko, Ndifreke Thomas; Umana, Usenobong Samuel

    2014-01-01

    Various combinations of Nauclea latifolia root, Artocarpus altilis stem bark, Murraya koenigii leaf and Enantia chlorantha stem bark used in African ethnomedicine as decoctions for malaria and fevers, and combinations with standard drugs, were investigated for antiplasmodial activities using Plasmodium berghei berghei-infected mice. The respective prophylactic and curative ED50 values of 189.4 and 174.5 mg/kg for N. latifolia and chemosuppressive ED50 value of 227.2 mg/kg for A. altilis showed that they were the best antimalarial herbal drugs. A 1.6-fold increase of the survival time given by the negative control was elicited by M. koenigii, thereby confirming its curative activity. Pyrimethamine with an ED50 of 0.5 ± 0.1 mg/kg for the prophylactic, and chloroquine with ED50 = 2.2 ± 0.1 and 2.2 ± 0.0 mg/kg for the chemosuppressive and curative tests, respectively, were significantly (p < 0.05) more active. Co-administrations of N. latifolia with the standard drugs significantly reduced their prophylactic, chemosuppressive and curative actions, possibly increasing the parasites' resistance. Binary combinations of N. latifolia or M. koenigii with any of the other plants significantly increased the prophylactic and suppressive activities of their individual plants, respectively. Also, E. chlorantha with A. altilis or N. latifolia enhanced their respective prophylactic or curative activities, making these combinations most beneficial against malaria infections. Combinations of three and four extracts gave varied activities. Hence, the results justified the combinations of ethnomedicinal plants in antimalarial herbal remedies and showed the importance of the three in vivo models in establishing antimalarial activity. PMID:25162955

  19. Relationship between carbon and water economies and drought-vulnerability in two coexistent iso- and anisohydric species.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Forner, Núria; Biel, Carmen; Savé, Robert; Martínez-Vilalta, Jordi

    2016-04-01

    Stomata control carbon and water fluxes between leaves and the atmosphere. Isohydry (i.e., strong regulation of leaf water potential, Ψl) is commonly linked to 'early' stomatal closure under drought, which in turn is believed to imply lower hydraulic risk at the expense of reduced carbon assimilation. Hence, the iso/anisohydric classification has been widely used to assess drought-resistance and mortality mechanisms across species, but the underlying assumptions have been rarely tested. These include a direct correspondence between iso/anisohydric Ψl regulation and stomatal behavior across species, and similar vulnerability to xylem embolism in iso- and anisohydric species. Our objective is to assess the physiological mechanisms underlying drought-resistance differences under controlled, experimental conditions between two coexistent Mediterranean forest species with contrasted drought-vulnerability in the field: the resistant Phillyrea latifolia (anisohydric) and vulnerable Quercus ilex (isohydric). We hypothesize that lower Ψl in P. latifolia will not necessarily be associated with narrower hydraulic safety margins or longer periods of positive gas exchange under drought. Isohydric behavior was confirmed in Q. ilex, but did not imply lower hydraulic impairment, due to lower resistance to xylem embolism in this species. We found similar temporal patterns of stomatal conductance and assimilation between species. If anything, the anisohydric P. latifolia tended to show lower assimilation rates than Q. ilex under extreme drought. The fact that P. latifolia was as carbon-constrained as Q. ilex was also indicated by similar growth rates and carbon reserves dynamics in both species. Despite similarities in carbon management between species, after two years with no water supply P. latifolia mortality was less than half of Q. ilex mortality by this time. Our study warns against making direct connections between Ψl regulation, stomatal behavior and the mechanisms of

  20. Long-term dynamics of Typha populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grace, J.B.; Wetzel, R.G.

    1998-01-01

    The zonation of Typha populations in an experimental pond in Michigan was re-examined 15 years after the original sampling to gain insight into the long-term dynamics. Current distributions of Typha populations were also examined in additional experimental ponds at the site that have been maintained for 23 years. The zonation between T. latifolia and T. angustifolia in the previously studied pond 15 years after the initial sampling revealed that the density and distribution of shoots had not changed significantly. Thus, it appears that previously reported results (based on 7- year old populations) have remained consistent over time. Additional insight into the interaction between these two taxa was sought by comparing mixed and monoculture stands in five experimental ponds that have remained undisturbed for their 23-year history. The maximum depth of T. latifolia, the shallow- water species, was not significantly reduced when growing in the presence of the more flood tolerant T. angustifolia. In contrast, the minimum depth of T. angustifolia was reduced from 0 to 37 cm when in the presence of T. latifolia. When total populations were compared between monoculture and mixed stands, the average density of T. angustifolia shoots was 59.4 percent lower in mixed stands while the density of T. latifolia was 32 percent lower, with T. angustifolia most affected at shallow depths (reduced by 92 percent) and T. latifolia most affected at the deepest depths (reduced by 60 percent). These long-term observations indicate that competitive displacement between Typha taxa has remained stable over time.

  1. Distribution and dynamics of the evergreen understory layer in central Appalachian highland forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chastain, Robert A., Jr.

    Evergreen understory layer communities dominated by Rhododendron maximum L. and/or Kalmia latifolia L. may exert significant controls on regeneration of overstory trees, carbon sequestration, and nutrient retention in central Appalachian forests, but their distribution and ecological importance are poorly understood at the regional scale. The distribution, temporal dynamics, and biomass of the evergreen understory layer were examined in the Ridge and Valley and Allegheny Plateau physiographic provinces in the mid-Atlantic Highlands using plot data, remote sensing, dendrochronology, and modeling. First, leaf-off satellite remote sensing and topographic data were applied to map the spatial extent and distribution of R. maximum and K. latifolia with better than 80 percent accuracy. Second, plot data were used to determine the relevant environmental factors and species associations related to the distributions of K. latifolia and R. maximum and assess their influence on forest vertical structure. Cluster analysis and ordination revealed that topo-edaphic gradients and intensity of gypsy moth defoliation were associated with differences in the distribution of these two shrub species within and between the two study areas, and midstory volume was significantly lower where evergreen understory coverage was continuous. Third, variation in K. latifolia and R. maximum growth rates were examined using remote sensing change detection and dendrochronology, and trends were compared to the timing of climatic fluctuations and gypsy moth defoliation of canopy trees. Remote sensing showed that patterns of evergreen understory growth vigor correlated with both defoliation and topographically mediated drought stress. Dendrochronology revealed considerable within-site variability among individual shrubs. However, both releases and suppressions in growth were associated with the timing of gypsy moth defoliation for K. latifolia in both provinces and for R. maximum in the Allegheny

  2. Rocky Flats Neutron Detector Testing at Valduc, France

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, S S; Dulik, G M

    2011-01-03

    Recent program requirements of the US Department of Energy/NNSA have led to a need for a criticality accident alarm system to be installed at a newly activated facility. The Criticality Safety Group of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) was able to recover and store for possible future use approximately 200 neutron criticality detectors and 20 master alarm panels from the former Rocky Flats Plant in Golden, Colorado when the plant was closed. The Criticality Safety Group participated in a facility analysis and evaluation, the engineering design and review process, as well as the refurbishment, testing, and recalibration of the Rocky Flats criticality alarm system equipment to be used in the new facility. In order to demonstrate the functionality and survivability of the neutron detectors to the effects of an actual criticality accident, neutron detector testing was performed at the French CEA Valduc SILENE reactor from October 7 to October 19, 2010. The neutron detectors were exposed to three criticality events or pulses generated by the SILENE reactor. The first excursion was performed with a bare or unshielded reactor, and the second excursion was made with a lead shielded/reflected reactor, and the third excursion with a polyethylene reflected core. These tests of the Rocky Flats neutron detectors were performed as a part of the 2010 Criticality Accident Alarm System Benchmark Measurements at the SILENE Reactor. The principal investigators for this series of experiments were Thomas M. Miller and John C. Wagner of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, with Nicolas Authier and Nathalie Baclet of CEA Valduc. Several other organizations were also represented, including the Y-12 National Security Complex, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, CEA Saclay, and Babcock International Group.

  3. DNA profiling, telomere analysis and antioxidant properties as tools for monitoring ex situ seed longevity

    PubMed Central

    Donà, M.; Balestrazzi, A.; Mondoni, A.; Rossi, G.; Ventura, L.; Buttafava, A.; Macovei, A.; Sabatini, M. E.; Valassi, A.; Carbonera, D.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims The germination test currently represents the most used method to assess seed viability in germplasm banks, despite the difficulties caused by the occurrence of seed dormancy. Furthermore, seed longevity can vary considerably across species and populations from different environments, and studies related to the eco-physiological processes underlying such variations are still limited in their depth. The aim of the present work was the identification of reliable molecular markers that might help in monitoring seed deterioration. Methods Dry seeds were subjected to artificial ageing and collected at different time points for molecular/biochemical analyses. DNA damage was measured using the RAPD (random amplified polymorphic DNA) approach while the seed antioxidant profile was obtained using both the DPPH (1,1-diphenyl, 2-picrylhydrazyl) assay and the Folin–Ciocalteu reagent method. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) provided profiles of free radicals. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (QRT-PCR) was used to assess the expression profiles of the antioxidant genes MT2 (type 2 metallothionein) and SOD (superoxide dismutase). A modified QRT-PCR protocol was used to determine telomere length. Key Results The RAPD profiles highlighted different capacities of the two Silene species to overcome DNA damage induced by artificial ageing. The antioxidant profiles of dry and rehydrated seeds revealed that the high-altitude taxon Silene acaulis was characterized by a lower antioxidant specific activity. Significant upregulation of the MT2 and SOD genes was observed only in the rehydrated seeds of the low-altitude species. Rehydration resulted in telomere lengthening in both Silene species. Conclusions Different seed viability markers have been selected for plant species showing inherent variation of seed longevity. RAPD analysis, quantification of redox activity of non-enzymatic antioxidant compounds and gene expression profiling provide

  4. Vegetation ecology of the Princes' Islands, Istanbul-Turkey.

    PubMed

    Ozyigit, Serpil; Altay, Volkan; Ozyigit, Ibrahim Llker; Yarci, Celal

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to evaluate phytoecological and phytosociological characteristics of the vegetation distributed in Princes' Islands (Istanbul/Turkey). Field studies were carried out during 2002-2010 following the classical Braun-Blanquet method. The data obtained from the research area on characteristics of two associations belonging to maquis vegetation was analyzed. One of these associations was new and its detailed description, typification and syntaxonomy are mentioned. The associations identified were: Arbuto unedonis-Phillyretum latifoliae ass. nova and Phillyreo latifoliae-Pinetum brutiae. The physical and chemical characteristics of soil like saturation (%), pH, P20, (kg da-), K20 (kg da1), CaCO, (%), total salt (%) and organic matter (%) are presented as well. Relationship between vegetation, ecological characteristics and their protection against biotic pressures were discussed together with phytosociological and phytoecological features of the associations and was compared with similar other studies. PMID:26591890

  5. [The results of experimental study of phytoecdysteroids as erythropoiesis stimulators in laboratory animals].

    PubMed

    Syrov, V N; Nasyrova, S S; Khushbaktova, Z A

    1997-01-01

    Phytoecdysteroids alpha-ecdysone, 2-desoxyecdysterone, ecdysterone, sileneoside A, and turkesterone isolated from Rhaponticum carthamoides (Willd.) IIjin, Silene brahuica Boiss and Ajuga turkestanica (Rgl.) Repeated administration of brig increased the content of erythrocytes and hemoglobin in the blood of intact rats. The most active of them--ecdysterone, sileneoside A, and, particularly turkesterone, cause also a marked effect on red blood regeneration in hemotoxic phenylhydrazine anemia. In its capacity for simulating erythropoiesis turkesterone resembles the well-known steroidal anabolic drug nerobol. PMID:9324397

  6. [Estimation of the hypoglycemic effect of phytoecdysteroids].

    PubMed

    Syrov, V N; Iuldasheva, N Kh; Égamova, F R; Ismailova, G I; Abdullaev, N D; Khushbaktova, Z A

    2012-01-01

    A series of phytoecodysteroids, including alpha-ecdysone, 2-deoxy-alpha-ecdysone, and 2-deoxyecdysterone isolated from Silene praemixta, integristerone A and ecdysterone isolated from Rhaponticum carthamoides and 22-acetylcyasterone and turkesterone isolated from Ajuga turkestanica, exhibit a pronounced hypoglycemic effect in experiments on intact male rats. The most active compounds--ecdysteron and turkesterone--also produce an expressed hypoglycemic effect in animals with model hyperglycemia induced by the administration of glucose, adrenalin and alloxan. Phytoecdysteroids are substances possessing protein-anabolic activity and are somewhat similar to steranobols in this aspect. Phytoecdysteroids exhibit unidirectional effect and are well comparable with steranabol actionon the carbohydrate metabolism. PMID:22834126

  7. [Psicopatologia, fattori psicosociali e obesità].

    PubMed

    Pinna, Federica; Sardu, Claudia; Orrù, Walter; Velluzzi, Fernanda; Loviselli, Andrea; Contu, Paolo; Carpiniello, Bernardo

    2016-01-01

    RIASSUNTO. Scopi. Gli obiettivi di questo studio sono stati la valutazione dell'associazione tra obesità, variabili socio-demografiche e psicopatologiche in un campione clinico di pazienti afferenti a un centro per la diagnosi e il trattamento dell'obesità, confrontati con un campione omogeneo di controllo costituito da soggetti di peso normale. Metodi. Nel contesto di un progetto di ricerca riguardante obesità e psicopatologia, è stata applicata una regressione logistica multivariata per esaminare l'associazione tra obesità e variabili demografiche e cliniche relative a un campione consecutivo di 293 pazienti obesi (48 maschi, 245 femmine, età media: 45,41±13,55, indice di massa corporea [BMI] 35,6±6,2), confrontato con un gruppo di controllo omogeneo appaiato di 293 soggetti non obesi (48 maschi, 245 femmine, età media 45,66±13,86, BMI medio 21,8±2,06). Tutti i soggetti sono stati valutati mediante un'intervista clinica strutturata, la Structured Clinical Interview per la diagnosi di asse I del DSM-IV (SCID-I) e per l'asse II DSM-IV (SCID-II). Risultati. L'analisi statistica multivariata ha dimostrato che lo status di casalinga e la presenza "lifetime" di disturbi di asse I e II e in generale della presenza di una qualsiasi diagnosi psichiatrica, e, in particolare, delle diagnosi di disturbo depressivo, d'ansia, del comportamento alimentare e di alcuni disturbi di personalità, sono associate in modo significativo a una maggiore probabilità di essere in sovrappeso oppure obesi. Le probabilità di essere sovrappeso/obesi si modificano in rapporto alle diverse combinazioni di fattori di rischio, aumentando da un valore di 32,3% per un individuo non esposto ad alcun fattore di rischio, a un valore di 86,7% per i soggetti esposti a tutti i fattori di rischio considerati. Conclusioni. La presenza di una diagnosi di asse I e/o II e lo stato di casalinga è indipendentemente associata a un maggiore rischio di sovrappeso/obesità. L'interazione di questi

  8. [Purification capacity of ditch wetland to agricultural non-point pollutants].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Cui-ling; Cui, Guang-bo; Fan, Xiao-qiu; Zhang, Yi-bing

    2004-03-01

    Ditch wetlands have the capacity to remove and purify non-point pollutants from agricultural drainage by sediment retention, plant absorption and microorganism decomposition. Phragmites communis and Zizania latifolia are two main kinds of plants growing naturally in ditch wetlands in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River. They can absorb N and P efficiently, which is the main mechanism of non-point source pollutants purification by wetlands. The harvest of Phragmites communis and Zizania latifolia will take away 463-515 kg/hm2 of N and 127-149 kg/hm2 of P each year, it equal to N and P discharged from 2.3-3.2 hm2 and 1.3-3.0 hm2 of fields respectively in this area. The absorption and decomposition capacity of Zizania latifolia wetland is higher than Phragmites communis wetland. After harvest of plants, wetlands are uncovered to sunlight and oxygen that speeds the transportation and decomposition of nutrients. The amount of organic matters, TN and TP are higher in sediment of harvested area than in that of control. Therefore, seasonal harvest of plants is an efficient measure for wetlands to purify nutrients and alleviate eutrophication of lakes. PMID:15202249

  9. An efficient genetic manipulation protocol for Ustilago esculenta.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jiajia; Zhang, Yafen; Cui, Haifeng; Hu, Peng; Yu, Xiaoping; Ye, Zihong

    2015-06-01

    Ustilago esculenta grows within the flowering stem of the aquatic grass Zizania latifolia, resembling a fungal endophyte. The fungus colonizes Z. latifolia and induces swelling which results in the formation of galls near the base of the plant. Due to their unique flavor and textures these galls are considered as a delicacy in southern China. Efficient genetic manipulation is required to determine the relationship between U. esculenta and Z. latifolia. In this study, we report a protoplast-based transformation system for this unique fungal species. We have explored various factors (enzyme digesting conditions, osmotic pressure stabilizers, vectors and selection agents) that might impact protoplast yield and high frequencies of transformation. A haploid strain (UeT55) of U. esculenta was found to produce higher yields of protoplasts when treating with 15 mg mL(-1) lywallzyme in a sucrose-containing solution at 30°C for 3 h. The transformation frequencies were higher when fungal strain was transformed with a linear plasmid harboring hygromycin or carboxin resistance gene and regenerated on a sucrose-containing medium. A UeICL gene (coding isocitrate lyase) was disrupted and an EGFP (coding enhanced green fluorescent protein) gene was overexpressed successfully in the UeT55 strain using the developed conditions. The genetic manipulation system reported in this study will open up new opportunities for forward and reverse genetics in U. esculenta. PMID:26038251

  10. Use of cattails in treating wastewater from a Pb/Zn mine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Chongyu; Chen, Guizhu; Li, Liuchun; Wong, M. H.

    1992-01-01

    This article describes the use of a combined treatment system, which includes an aquatic treatment pond with Typha latifolia Linn. (Typhaceae) as the dominant species and a stabilization pond, to treat the wastewater from a Pn/Zn mine at Shaoguan, Guangdong Province, China. In 1983, it was noted that T. latifolia bloomed in areas affected by the wastewater emitted from the mine, hence a combined purification system was subsequently built. The influent contained high levels of total suspended solids (4635 mg/liter), chemical oxygen demand (14.5 mg/liter) as well as Pb (1.6 mg/liter) and Zn (1.9 mg/liter). The results of the effluent after treatment showed that the total suspended solids, chemical oxygen demand, Pb, and Zn had been reduced by 99%, 55%, 95%, and 80% respectively. The results of plant tissue analysis indicled that T. latifolia assimilated significant amounts of Pb and Zn, especially in the root portion. During 1986 several species of algae and fish were present in the pond, usually with a higher density in areas containing lower metal concentrations in the water.

  11. Control of the Diurnal Pattern of Methane Emission from Emergent Aquatic Macrophytes by Gas Transport Mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whiting, Gary J.; Chanton, Jeffrey P.

    1995-01-01

    Methane emissions from Typha latifolia (L.) showed a large mid-morning transient peak associated with rising light levels. This peak was also associated with a steep decline in lacunal CH, concentrations near the stem base. This pattern contrasted sharply with emissions from Peltandra virginica (L.) that gradually rose to a peak in the mid-afternoon corresponding to elevated air temperatures. Internal CH4 concentrations within P. virginica stems did not change significantly over the diurnal period. Stomatal conductance appeared to correlate directly with light levels in both plant types and were not associated with peak CH4 emission events in either plant. These patterns are consistent with a convective throughflow and diffusive gas ventilation systems for Typha and Peltandra, respectively. Further effects of the convective throughflow in T. latifolia were evident in the elevated CH4 concentrations measured within brown leaves as contrasted to the near ambient levels measured within live green leaves. Experimental manipulation of elevated and reduced CO2 levels in the atmosphere surrounding the plants and of light/dark periods suggested that stomatal aperture has little or no control of methane emissions from T. latifolia.

  12. Gender and letters of recommendation for academia: agentic and communal differences.

    PubMed

    Madera, Juan M; Hebl, Michelle R; Martin, Randi C

    2009-11-01

    In 2 studies that draw from the social role theory of sex differences (A. H. Eagly, W. Wood, & A. B. Diekman, 2000), the authors investigated differences in agentic and communal characteristics in letters of recommendation for men and women for academic positions and whether such differences influenced selection decisions in academia. The results supported the hypotheses, indicating (a) that women were described as more communal and less agentic than men (Study 1) and (b) that communal characteristics have a negative relationship with hiring decisions in academia that are based on letters of recommendation (Study 2). Such results are particularly important because letters of recommendation continue to be heavily weighted and commonly used selection tools (R. D. Arvey & T. E. Campion, 1982; R. M. Guion, 1998), particularly in academia (E. P. Sheehan, T. M. McDevitt, & H. C. Ross, 1998). PMID:19916666

  13. Self-presentation processes in job analysis: a field experiment investigating inflation in abilities, tasks, and competencies.

    PubMed

    Morgeson, Frederick P; Delaney-Klinger, Kelly; Mayfield, Melinda S; Ferrara, Philip; Campion, Michael A

    2004-08-01

    Although job analysis is a widely used organizational data collection technique, little research has investigated the extent to which job analysis information is affected by self-presentation processes. This study represents the first direct test of the propositions offered by F. P. Morgeson and M. A. Campion (1997) concerning self-presentation in job analysis measurement. Using an experimental design, the authors examined job incumbent response differences across ability, task, and competency statements. Results indicated that ability statements were more subject to inflation than were task statements across all rating scales. Greater endorsement of nonessential ability statements was responsible for the differences. This produced higher endorsement of ability items but lower mean ratings. Finally, frequency and importance ratings of global competency statements were generally higher than decomposed ability and task scales, but required-at-entry judgments demonstrated the opposite relationship. PMID:15327353

  14. Differential associations between domains of sibling conflict and adolescent emotional adjustment.

    PubMed

    Campione-Barr, Nicole; Greer, Kelly Bassett; Kruse, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Issues of equality and fairness and invasion of the personal domain, 2 previously identified topic areas of adolescent sibling conflict (N. Campione-Barr & J. G. Smetana, 2010), were examined in 145 dyads (Mfirst-born = 14.97, SD = 1.69 years; Msecond-born = 12.20, SD = 1.90 years) for their differential effects on youths' emotional adjustment over 1 year. The impact of internalizing symptoms on later sibling conflicts also was tested. Invasion of the personal domain conflicts were associated with higher levels of anxiety and lower self-esteem 1 year later, whereas Equality and Fairness issues were associated with greater depressed mood. Conversely, greater internalizing symptomatology and lower self-esteem predicted more of both types of conflict. Moderating influences of gender and ordinal position were also examined. PMID:23278528

  15. [Adhesion of Bacillus subtilis on the surface of pectin-calcium gel].

    PubMed

    Gunter, E A; Melekhin, A K

    2015-01-01

    Pectin-calcium gels obtained based on pectins of callus cultures are able to adhere to the surface of cells of Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis to various degrees and this is thanks to the structural features of pectin. Rapid adhesion of the cells to gels obtained from the pectin of Tanacetum vulgare (TVC) callus cultures is associated with a high content of the linear region in the carbohydrate chain of pectin, a high molecular weight, and a low degree of methyl etherification of pectin. The number of adherent cells on the surface of gels obtained from pectins of Silene vulgaris callus cultures (SVC), TVC, and Lemna minor (LMC) after 8 h of incubation was close, whereas the number of cells was minimal on a gel produced using the pectin of Silene tatarica (STC) callus culture. This was due to the higher degree of methyl etherification of STC pectin (45%) compared to other pectins (4-12%). The adhesion rate constant (k) of B. subtilis for TCV gel during the first 120 min was the highest in comparison with other gels; the k value for SVC, STC and LMC gels was similar. The lowest level of k was characteristic for the gel from commercial apple pectin. The obtained data can beused for the production of gels with adhesive and antiadhesive properties. PMID:25842905

  16. Evolutionary dynamics of the plastid inverted repeat: the effects of expansion, contraction, and loss on substitution rates.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Andan; Guo, Wenhu; Gupta, Sakshi; Fan, Weishu; Mower, Jeffrey P

    2016-03-01

    Rates of nucleotide substitution were previously shown to be several times slower in the plastid inverted repeat (IR) compared with single-copy (SC) regions, suggesting that the IR provides enhanced copy-correction activity. To examine the generality of this synonymous rate dependence on the IR, we compared plastomes from 69 pairs of closely related species representing 52 families of angiosperms, gymnosperms, and ferns. We explored the breadth of IR boundary shifts in land plants and demonstrate that synonymous substitution rates are, on average, 3.7 times slower in IR genes than in SC genes. In addition, genes moved from the SC into the IR exhibit lower synonymous rates consistent with other IR genes, while genes moved from the IR into the SC exhibit higher rates consistent with other SC genes. Surprisingly, however, several plastid genes from Pelargonium, Plantago, and Silene have highly accelerated synonymous rates despite their IR localization. Together, these results provide strong evidence that the duplicative nature of the IR reduces the substitution rate within this region. The anomalously fast-evolving genes in Pelargonium, Plantago, and Silene indicate localized hypermutation, potentially induced by a higher level of error-prone double-strand break repair in these regions, which generates substitutional rate variation. PMID:26574731

  17. The genus Aphidura (Hemiptera, Aphididae) in the collection of the Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle of Paris, with six new species.

    PubMed

    Nieto Nafría, Juan-Manuel; Mier Durante, Milagros-Pilar; Remaudière, Georges

    2013-01-01

    Specimens were studied of 65 samples of the genus Aphidura (Aphididae, Aphidinae, Macrosiphini) from the collection of the Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle (Paris). The possible synonymies of three pairs of species are discussed. New aphid host plant relationships are reported for Aphidura bozhkoae, Aphidura delmasi, Aphidura ornata, Aphidura pannonica and Aphidura picta; this last species is recorded for first time from Afghanistan. The record of Aphidura pujoli from Pakistan is refuted. The fundatrices, oviparous females and males of Aphidura delmasi are described. Six new species are established: Aphidura gallica sp. n. and Aphidura amphorosiphon sp. n. from specimens caught on species of Silene (Caryophyllaceae) from France and Iran, respectively, Aphidura pakistanensis sp. n., Aphidura graeca sp. n. and Aphidura urmiensis sp. n. from specimens caught on species of Dianthus, Gypsophila and Spergula (Caryophyllaceae) from Pakistan, Greece and Iran, respectively, and Aphidura iranensis sp. n. from specimens caught on Prunus sp. from Iran. Modifications are made to the keys by Blackman and Eastop to aphids living on Dianthus, Gypsophyla, Silene, Spergula and Prinsepia and Prunus (Rosaceae). An identification key to apterous viviparous females of species of Aphidura is also provided. PMID:23950674

  18. The genus Aphidura (Hemiptera, Aphididae) in the collection of the Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle of Paris, with six new species

    PubMed Central

    Nieto Nafría, Juan-Manuel; Mier Durante, Milagros-Pilar; Remaudière, Georges

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Specimens were studied of 65 samples of the genus Aphidura (Aphididae, Aphidinae, Macrosiphini) from the collection of the Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle (Paris). The possible synonymies of three pairs of species are discussed. New aphid host plant relationships are reported for Aphidura bozhkoae, Aphidura delmasi, Aphidura ornata, Aphidura pannonica and Aphidura picta; this last species is recorded for first time from Afghanistan. The record of Aphidura pujoli from Pakistan is refuted. The fundatrices, oviparous females and males of Aphidura delmasi are described. Six new species are established: Aphidura gallica sp. n. and Aphidura amphorosiphon sp. n. from specimens caught on species of Silene (Caryophyllaceae) from France and Iran, respectively, Aphidura pakistanensis sp. n., Aphidura graeca sp. n. and Aphidura urmiensis sp. n. from specimens caught on species of Dianthus, Gypsophila and Spergula (Caryophyllaceae) from Pakistan, Greece and Iran, respectively, and Aphidura iranensis sp. n. from specimens caught on Prunus sp. from Iran. Modifications are made to the keys by Blackman and Eastop to aphids living on Dianthus, Gypsophyla, Silene, Spergula and Prinsepia and Prunus (Rosaceae). An identification key to apterous viviparous females of species of Aphidura is also provided. PMID:23950674

  19. Quantifying hummingbird preference for floral trait combinations: The role of selection on trait interactions in the evolution of pollination syndromes.

    PubMed

    Fenster, Charles B; Reynolds, Richard J; Williams, Christopher W; Makowsky, Robert; Dudash, Michele R

    2015-05-01

    Darwin recognized the flower's importance for the study of adaptation and emphasized that the flower's functionality reflects the coordinated action of multiple traits. Here we use a multitrait manipulative approach to quantify the potential role of selection acting on floral trait combinations underlying the divergence and maintenance of three related North American species of Silene (Caryophyllaceae). We artificially generated 48 plant phenotypes corresponding to all combinations of key attractive traits differing among the three Silene species (color, height, inflorescence architecture, flower orientation, and corolla-tube width). We quantified main and interaction effects of trait manipulation on hummingbird visitation preference using experimental arrays. The main effects of floral display height and floral orientation strongly influenced hummingbird visitation, with hummingbirds preferring flowers held high above the ground and vertically to the sky. Hummingbirds also prefer traits in a nonadditive manner as multiple two-way and higher order interaction effects were important predictors of hummingbird visitation. Contemporary trait combinations found in hummingbird pollinated S. virginica are mostly preferred. Our study demonstrates the likelihood of pollination syndromes evolving due to selection on trait combinations and highlights the importance of trait interactions in understanding the evolution of complex adaptations. PMID:25765062

  20. Gas-phase reaction study of disilane pyrolysis: Applications to low pressure chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Johannes, J.E.; Ekerdt, J.G. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1994-08-01

    The gas-phase thermal reactions during disilane decomposition at low pressure chemical vapor deposition conditions were studied from 300 to 1,000 K using resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) and multiphoton ionization (MPI). REMPI of gas-phase Si, mass 28, was detected from 640 to 840 K and 1 to 10 Torr, with a maximum signal intensity between 700 to 720 K. During disilane decomposition, no SiH (427.8 nm), SiH[sub 2] (494-515 nm), or SiH[sub 3] (419.0 nm) was detected. MPI of higher silanes, silenes, and silylenes were detected through mass fragments 2, 32, and 60; these species reached a maximum signal intensity 20 degrees prior to the mass-28 maximum. Modeling studies that included a detailed low pressure gas-phase kinetic scheme predict relative gas-phase partial pressures generated during disilane pyrolysis. The model predicted experimental trends in the Si partial pressure and the higher silane, silene, and silylene partial pressures.

  1. An integrated approach shows different use of water resources from Mediterranean maquis species in a coastal dune ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mereu, S.; Salvatori, E.; Fusaro, L.; Gerosa, G.; Muys, B.; Manes, F.

    2009-11-01

    An integrated approach has been used to analyse the dependence of three Mediterranean species, A. unedo L., Q. ilex L., and P. latifolia L. co-occurring in a coastal dune ecosystem on two different water resources: groundwater and rainfed upper soil layers. The approach included leaf level gas exchanges, sap flow measurements and structural adaptations between 15 May and 31 July 2007. During this period it was possible to capture different species-specific response patterns to an environment characterized by a sandy soil, with a low water retention capacity, and the presence of a water table. The latter did not completely prevent the development of a drought response and, combined with previous studies in the same area, response differences between species have been partially attributed to different root distributions. Sap flow of A. unedo decreased rapidly with the decline of soil water content, while that of Q. ilex decreased only moderately. Midday leaf water potential of P. latifolia and A. unedo ranged between -2.2 and -2.7 MPa throughout the measuring period, while in Q. ilex it decreased down to -3.4 MPa at the end of the season. A. unedo was the only species that responded to drought with a decrease of its leaf area to sapwood area ratio from 23.9±1.2 (May) to 15.2±1.5 (July). While A. unedo also underwent an almost stepwise loss on hydraulic conductivity, such a loss did not occur for Q. ilex, whereas P. latifolia was able to slightly increase its hydraulic conducitivity. These differences show how different plant compartments coordinate differently between species in their responses to drought. The different responses appear to be mediated by different root distributions of the species and their relative resistances to drought are likely to depend on the duration of the periods in which water remains extractable in the upper soil layers.

  2. A whole plant approach to evaluate the water use of mediterranean maquis species in a coastal dune ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mereu, S.; Salvatori, E.; Fusaro, L.; Gerosa, G.; Muys, B.; Manes, F.

    2009-02-01

    An integrated approach has been used to analyse the water relations of three Mediterranean species, A. unedo L., Q. ilex L. and P. latifolia L. co-occurring in a coastal dune ecosystem. The approach considered leaf level gas exchange, sap flow measurements and structural adaptations between 15 May and 31 July 2007, and was necessary to capture the different response of the three species to the same environment. The complexity of the response was proportional to the complexity of the system, characterized by a sandy soil with a low water retention capacity and the presence of a water table. The latter did not completely prevent the development of a drought response, and species differences in this responses have been partially attributed to a different root distribution. Sap flow of A. unedo decreased rapidly in response to the decline of Soil Water Content, while that of Q. ilex decreased only moderately. Midday leaf water potential of P. latifolia and A. unedo was between 2.2 and 2.7 MPa through the measuring period, while in Q. ilex it reached a value of 3.4 MPa at the end of the season. A. unedo was the only species to decrease the leaf area to sapwood area ratio from 23.9±1.2 (May) to 15.2±1.5 (July), as a response to drought. A. unedo also underwent an almost stepwise loss on hydraulic conductivity, such a loss didn't occur for Q. ilex, while P. latifolia was able to slightly increase hydraulic conductivity, showing how different plant compartments coordinate differently between species as a response to drought. Such different coordination affects the gas exchange between vegetation and the atmosphere, and has implications for the response of the Mediterranean coastal dune ecosystems to climate change.

  3. Phylogeny and biogeography of the eastern Asian-North American disjunct wild-rice genus (Zizania L., Poaceae).

    PubMed

    Xu, Xinwei; Walters, Christina; Antolin, Michael F; Alexander, Mara L; Lutz, Sue; Ge, Song; Wen, Jun

    2010-06-01

    The wild-rice genus Zizania includes four species disjunctly distributed in eastern Asia and North America, with three species (Z. aquatica, Z. palustris, and Z. texana) in North America and one (Z. latifolia) in eastern Asia. The phylogeny of Zizania was constructed using sequences of seven DNA fragments (atpB-rbcL, matK, rps16, trnL-F, trnH-psbA, nad1, and Adh1a) from chloroplast, mitochondrial, and nuclear genomes. Zizania is shown to be monophyletic with the North American species forming a clade and the eastern Asian Z. latifolia sister to the North American clade. The divergence between the eastern Asian Z. latifolia and the North American clade was dated to be 3.74 (95% HPD: 1.04-7.23) million years ago (mya) using the Bayesian dating method with the combined atpB-rbcL, matK, rps16, trnL-F, and nad1 data. Biogeographic analyses using a likelihood method suggest the North American origin of Zizania and its migration into eastern Asia via the Bering land bridge. Among the three North American species, the organellar data and the haplotype network of the nuclear Adh1a gene show a close relationship between Z. palustris and the narrowly distributed endangered species Z. texana. Bayesian dating estimated the divergence of North American Zizania to be 0.71 (95% HPD: 0.12-1.54) mya in the Pleistocene. The non-monophyly of Z. palustris and Z. aquatica in the organellar and nuclear data is most likely caused by incomplete lineage sorting, yet low-frequency unidirectional introgression of Z. palustris into Z. aquatica is present in the nuclear data as well. PMID:19944174

  4. [Effect of intermittent artificial aeration on nitrogen and phosphorus removal in subsurface vertical-flow constructed wetlands].

    PubMed

    Tang, Xian-qiang; Li, Jin-zhong; Li, Xue-Ju; Liu, Xue-gong; Huang, Sui-liang

    2008-04-01

    Shale and T. latifolia were used as subsurface vertical-flow constructed wetland substrate and vegetation for eutrophic Jin River water treatment, and investigate the effect of intermittent aeration on nitrogen and phosphorus removal. In this study, hydraulic loading rate was equal to 800 mm/d, and ratio of air and water was 5:1. During the entire running period, maximal monthly mean ammonia-nitrogen (NH4+ -N), total nitrogen (TN), soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) and total phosphorus (TP) removal rates were observed in August 2006. In contrast to the non-aerated wetland, aeration enhanced ammonia-nitrogen, total nitrogen, soluble reactive phosphorus and total phosphorus removal: 10.1%, 4.7%, 10.2% and 8.8% for aeration in the middle, and 25.1%, 10.0%, 7.7% and 7.4% for aeration at the bottom of the substrate, respectively. However, aeration failed to improve the nitrate-nitrogen removal. During the whole experimental period, monthly mean NO3(-) -N removal rates were much lower for aerated constructed wetlands (regarding aeration in the middle and at the bottom) than those for non-aerated system. After finishing the experiment, aboveground plant biomass (stems and leaves) of T. latifolia was harvested, and its weight and nutrient content (total nitrogen and total phosphorus) were measured. Analysis of aboveground plant biomass indicated that intermittent aeration restrained the increase in biomass but stimulated assimilation of nitrogen and phosphorus into stems and leaves. Additional total nitrogen removal of 11.6 g x m(-2) and 12.6 g x m(-2) by aboveground T. latifolia biomass for intermittent artificial aeration in the middle and at the bottom of the wetland substrate, respectively, was observed. PMID:18637335

  5. Marcescent corollas as functional structures: effects on the fecundity of two insect-pollinated plants

    PubMed Central

    Herrera, Carlos M.

    2010-01-01

    Background and aims Persistence of withered corollas after anthesis (‘corolla marcescence’) is widespread in angiosperms, yet its functional significance does not seem to have been explored for any species. This note reports the results of experiments assessing the fecundity effects of marcescent corollas in two southern Spanish insect-pollinated plants, Lavandula latifolia (Lamiaceae) and Viola cazorlensis (Violaceae). Methods The effect of marcescent corollas on seed production was evaluated experimentally on wild-growing plants. Newly open flowers were randomly assigned to either control or treatment groups in experimental plants. After anthesis, withered corollas of treatment flowers were removed and those in control flowers were left in place. Fruits produced by treatment and control flowers were collected shortly before dehiscence and the number of seeds counted. Key Results In V. cazorlensis, removal of withered corollas had no effect on percentage of fruit set, but mean seeds per fruit increased from 9·5 to 11·4. In L. latifolia, corolla removal had no effect on the number of seeds per fruit, but reduced the proportion of flowers ripening fruit from 60 % to 40 %. The detrimental effect of corolla removal on L. latifolia fecundity resulted from the drastic increase in fruit infestation by seed-predatory cecidomyiid larvae, which occurred in 4 % and 34 % of control and treatment fruits, respectively. Conclusions Because of their potential effects on plant fecundity, marcescent corollas should not be dismissed a priori as biologically irrelevant leftovers from past floral functions. The simplicity of the experimental layout required to test for short-term fecundity effects of corolla marcescence should help to achieve a better understanding of the ecological and evolutionary correlates of this widespread but poorly understood trait. PMID:20870656

  6. Ability of four emergent macrophytes to remediate permethrin in mesocosm experiments.

    PubMed

    Moore, M T; Kröger, R; Cooper, C M; Smith, S

    2009-08-01

    Increased focus is being placed on the ability of native vegetation to mitigate potential harmful effects of agricultural runoff, especially pyrethroid insecticides. Replicate 379 L Rubbermaid tubs (1.25 m [l] x 0.6 m [w] x 0.8 m [h]) were planted with individual species of cutgrass (Leersia oryzoides), cattails (Typha latifolia), bur-reed (Sparganium americanum), and powdery alligator-flag (Thalia dealbata), all common wetland macrophytes found in the Mississippi Delta, USA, agricultural region. Permethrin-enriched water (target concentration, 5 microg L(-1)) was pumped in at a 4-h hydraulic retention time at one end of the tub and discharged at the far end. Water samples were collected from discharge at 1-h intervals for 12 h and analyzed for permethrin concentrations. Permethrin removal rates were compared for the four different plant treatments and nonvegetated sediment-water controls. Results indicated that no particular single plant species was more effective at removing permethrin in water relative to unplanted controls. Overall mass reductions (from inflow to outflow) for cis-permethrin ranged from 67% +/- 6% in T. latifolia to 71% +/- 2% in L. oryzoides. The trans-permethrin overall mass reductions ranged from 76% +/- 4% in S. americanum to 82% +/- 2% in the unplanted control. Sediment and plant samples collected at the study conclusion indicated that 77%-95% of measured permethrin mass was associated with sediment for mesocosms planted with L. oryzoides, T. latifolia, and T. dealbata. Conversely, mesocosms planted with S. americanum had 83% of measured mass associated with the plant material. Specific plant-pesticide retention studies can lead to improved planning for best management practices and remediation techniques such as constructed wetlands and vegetated agricultural drainage ditches. PMID:19458989

  7. Contrasting impacts of continuous moderate drought and episodic severe droughts on the aboveground-biomass increment and litterfall of three coexisting Mediterranean woody species.

    PubMed

    Liu, Daijun; Ogaya, Romà; Barbeta, Adrià; Yang, Xiaohong; Peñuelas, Josep

    2015-11-01

    Climate change is predicted to increase the aridity in the Mediterranean Basin and severely affect forest productivity and composition. The responses of forests to different timescales of drought, however, are still poorly understood because extreme and persistent moderate droughts can produce nonlinear responses in plants. We conducted a rainfall-manipulation experiment in a Mediterranean forest dominated by Quercus ilex, Phillyrea latifolia, and Arbutus unedo in the Prades Mountains in southern Catalonia from 1999 to 2014. The experimental drought significantly decreased forest aboveground-biomass increment (ABI), tended to increase the litterfall, and decreased aboveground net primary production throughout the 15 years of the study. The responses to the experimental drought were highly species-specific. A. unedo suffered a significant reduction in ABI, Q. ilex experienced a decrease during the early experiment (1999-2003) and in the extreme droughts of 2005-2006 and 2011-2012, and P. latifolia was unaffected by the treatment. The drought treatment significantly increased branch litterfall, especially in the extremely dry year of 2011, and also increased overall leaf litterfall. The drought treatment reduced the fruit production of Q. ilex, which affected seedling recruitment. The ABIs of all species were highly correlated with SPEI in early spring, whereas the branch litterfalls were better correlated with summer SPEIs and the leaf and fruit litterfalls were better correlated with autumn SPEIs. These species-specific responses indicated that the dominant species (Q. ilex) could be partially replaced by the drought-resistant species (P. latifolia). However, the results of this long-term study also suggest that the effect of drought treatment has been dampened over time, probably due to a combination of demographic compensation, morphological and physiological acclimation, and epigenetic changes. However, the structure of community (e.g., species composition

  8. Using aquatic vegetation to remediate nitrate, ammonium, and soluble reactive phosphorus in simulated runoff.

    PubMed

    Moore, M T; Locke, M A; Kröger, R

    2016-10-01

    Within the agriculturally-intensive Mississippi River Basin of the United States, significant conservation efforts have focused on management practices that reduce nutrient runoff into receiving aquatic ecosystems. Only a small fraction of those efforts have focused on phytoremediation techniques. Each of six different aquatic macrophytes were planted, in monoculture, in three replicate mesocosms (1.2 m × 0.15 m × 0.65 m). Three additional unvegetated mesocosms served as controls for a total number of 21 mesocosms. Over two years, mesocosms were amended once each summer with sodium nitrate, ammonium sulfate, and potassium phosphate dibasic to represent nitrogen and phosphorus in agricultural runoff. System retention was calculated using a simple aqueous mass balance approach. Ammonium retention in both years differed greatly, as Panicum hemitomon and Echinodorus cordifolius retentions were significantly greater than controls in the first year, while only Myriophyllum aquaticum and Typha latifolia were significantly greater than controls in the second year. Greater soluble reactive phosphorus retention was observed in T. latifolia compared to controls in both years. Several other significant differences were observed in either the first or second year, but not both years. In the first year's exposure, P. hemitomon was significantly more efficient than the control, Saururus cernuus, and T. latifolia for overall percent nitrate decrease. Results of this novel study highlight inherent variability within and among species for nutrient specific uptake and the temporal variations of species for nutrient retention. By examining this natural variability, scientists may design phytoremediation systems with greater impact on improving agricultural runoff water quality. PMID:27372264

  9. An enzyme immunoassay and immunoblot analysis for curculin, a new type of taste-modifying protein: cross-reactivity of curculin and miraculin to both antibodies.

    PubMed

    Nakajo, S; Akabane, T; Nakaya, K; Nakamura, Y; Kurihara, Y

    1992-02-01

    We have developed an enzyme immunoassay method for curculin, a new type of taste-modifying protein. This method can accurately quantify 0.05-20 ng of curculin, a sensitivity about 3000-times that of the psychometric method. The content of curculin in the fruit of Curculigo latifolia increased gradually until 3 weeks after artificial pollination and dramatically at 4 weeks, to finally reach 1.3 mg per fruit. Immunoblot analysis indicated that antiserum to curculin was faintly reactive with miraculin, but not with thaumatin or monellin. PMID:1737052

  10. Typifications and synonymy in Polystichum (Dryopteridaceae) from Chile and Argentina.

    PubMed

    Morero, Rita E; Barrington, David S; McHenry, Monique A; Condack, João P S; Barboza, Gloria E

    2016-01-01

    Polystichum Roth is one of the largest and most taxonomically challenging fern genera. South American species have a rich and complex nomenclatural history; many of the early names are inadequately typified. Based on extensive examination of original type material, we designate eleven lectotypes (including Aspidium mohrioides, Aspidium montevidense f. imbricata, Aspidium montevidense f. squamulosa, Aspidium plicatum, Aspidium pycnolepis, Dicksonia andina, Polystichum elegans, Polystichum mohrioides f. latifolia, Polystichum multifidum var. autranii, Polystichum platyphyllum var. kurtziana, and Polypodium polystichoides), and one neotype (Polystichum brongniartianum) for Polystichum taxa. Furthermore, three new synonyms are proposed. PMID:27489490

  11. Typifications and synonymy in Polystichum (Dryopteridaceae) from Chile and Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Morero, Rita E.; Barrington, David S.; McHenry, Monique A.; Condack, João P. S.; Barboza, Gloria E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Polystichum Roth is one of the largest and most taxonomically challenging fern genera. South American species have a rich and complex nomenclatural history; many of the early names are inadequately typified. Based on extensive examination of original type material, we designate eleven lectotypes (including Aspidium mohrioides, Aspidium montevidense f. imbricata, Aspidium montevidense f. squamulosa, Aspidium plicatum, Aspidium pycnolepis, Dicksonia andina, Polystichum elegans, Polystichum mohrioides f. latifolia, Polystichum multifidum var. autranii, Polystichum platyphyllum var. kurtziana, and Polypodium polystichoides), and one neotype (Polystichum brongniartianum) for Polystichum taxa. Furthermore, three new synonyms are proposed. PMID:27489490

  12. Improved phytoaccumulation of cadmium by genetically modified tobacco plants (Nicotiana tabacum L.). Physiological and biochemical response of the transformants to cadmium toxicity.

    PubMed

    Gorinova, N; Nedkovska, M; Todorovska, E; Simova-Stoilova, L; Stoyanova, Z; Georgieva, K; Demirevska-Kepova, K; Atanassov, A; Herzig, R

    2007-01-01

    The response of tobacco plants (Nicotiana tabacum L.)--non-transformed and transformed with a metallothionein gene MThis from Silene vulgaris L.--to increase cadmium supply in the nutrient solution was compared. The transgenic plants accumulated significantly more Cd both in the roots and the leaves. Visual toxicity symptoms and disturbance in water balance were correlated with Cd tissue content. Treatment with 300 microM CdCl(2) resulted in inhibition of photosynthesis and mobilization of the ascorbate-glutathione cycle. Treatment with 500 microM CdCl(2) led to irreversible damage of photosynthesis and oxidative stress. An appearance of a new peroxidase isoform and changes in the leaf polypeptide pattern were observed at the highest Cd concentration. The level of non-protein thiols gradually increased following the Cd treatment both in transgenic and non-transformed plants. PMID:16762468

  13. Paleobotanical analysis of materials from fossil gopher burrows and upper pleistocene host deposits, the Kolyma River lower reaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopatina, D. A.; Zanina, O. G.

    2006-10-01

    The comparative analysis of palynomorphs and plant megafossils (fruits, seeds, twigs, leaves) in the Upper Pleistocene host sediments and materials filling in fossil burrows of gophers, their coprolites included, at the Duvannyi Yar, Stanchikovskii Yar and Zelenyi Mys sites of the Kolyma Lowland is carried out. Genera Salix, Lychnis, Silene, Draba, Potentilla, Larix, and families Poaceae, Polygonaceae, Cyperaceae, Compositae, and Leguminosae are determined among palynological remains and megafossils. Factors responsible for qualitative and quantitative differences in taxonomic compositions of palynological and megafossil assemblages are biological peculiarities of plants, different character of fossilization of palynomorphs and large plant remains, geographic conditions, different genesis of assemblages (allochthonous for microfossils and autochthonous for megafossils), and inadequately known morphology of certain spore and pollen taxa. The comprehensive paleobotanical analysis leads to the conclusion that the study region was occupied in the Late Pleistocene by plant communities of humid to somewhat dryer tundra with separate areas of pioneering and steppe vegetation.

  14. The structural flexibility of the preferredoxin transit peptide.

    PubMed

    Wienk, H L; Czisch, M; de Kruijff, B

    1999-06-25

    In order to obtain insight into the structural flexibility of chloroplast targeting sequences, the Silene pratensis preferredoxin transit peptide was studied by circular dichroism and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. In water, the peptide is unstructured, with a minor propensity towards helix formation from Val-9 to Ser-12 and from Gly-30 to Ser-40. In 50% (v/v) trifluoroethanol, structurally independent N- and C-terminal helices are stabilized. The N-terminal helix appears to be amphipathic, with hydrophobic and hydroxylated amino acids on opposite sides. The C-terminal helix comprises amino acids Met-29-Gly-50 and is destabilized at Gly-39. No ordered tertiary structure was observed. The results are discussed in terms of protein import into chloroplasts, in which the possible interactions between the transit peptide and lipids are emphasized. PMID:10405168

  15. Fissile solution dynamics: Student research

    SciTech Connect

    Hetrick, D.L.

    1994-09-01

    There are two research projects in criticality safety at the University of Arizona: one in dynamic simulation of hypothetical criticality accidents in fissile solutions, and one in criticality benchmarks using transport theory. We have used the data from nuclear excursions in KEWB, CRAC, and SILENE to help in building models for solution excursions. An equation of state for liquids containing gas bubbles has been developed and coupled to point-reactor dynamics in an attempt to predict fission rate, yield, pressure, and kinetic energy. It appears that radiolytic gas is unimportant until after the first peak, but that it does strongly affect the shape of the subsequent power decrease and also the dynamic pressure.

  16. International intercomparison for criticality dosimetry: the case of biological dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Roy, L; Buard, V; Delbos, M; Durand, V; Paillole, N; Grégoire, E; Voisin, P

    2004-01-01

    The Institute of Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) organized a biological dosimetry international intercomparison with the purpose of comparing (i) dicentrics yield produced in human lymphocytes; (ii) the gamma and neutron dose estimate according to the corresponding laboratory calibration curve. The experimental reactor SILENE was used with different configurations: bare source 4 Gy, lead shield 1 and 2 Gy and a 60Co source 2 Gy. An increasing variation of dicentric yield per cell was observed between participants when there were more damages in the samples. Doses were derived from the observed dicentric rates according to the dose-effect relationship provided by each laboratory. Differences in dicentric rate values are more important than those in the corresponding dose values. The doses obtained by the participants were found to be in agreement with the given physical dose within 20%. The evaluation of the respective gamma and neutron dose was achieved only by four laboratories, with some small variations among them. PMID:15353693

  17. EPR dosimetry in a mixed neutron and gamma radiation field.

    PubMed

    Trompier, F; Fattibene, P; Tikunov, D; Bartolotta, A; Carosi, A; Doca, M C

    2004-01-01

    Suitability of Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectroscopy for criticality dosimetry was evaluated for tooth enamel, mannose and alanine pellets during the 'international intercomparison of criticality dosimetry techniques' at the SILENE reactor held in Valduc in June 2002, France. These three materials were irradiated in neutron and gamma-ray fields of various relative intensities and spectral distributions in order to evaluate their neutron sensitivity. The neutron response was found to be around 10% for tooth enamel, 45% for mannose and between 40 and 90% for alanine pellets according their type. According to the IAEA recommendations on the early estimate of criticality accident absorbed dose, analyzed results show the EPR potentiality and complementarity with regular criticality techniques. PMID:15353687

  18. Induction of flowering by 5-azacytidine in some plant species: relationship between the stability of photoperiodically induced flowering and flower-inducing effect of DNA demethylation.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Hiroshi; Miura, Takashi; Wada, Kaede C; Takeno, Kiyotoshi

    2007-11-01

    The flower-inducing effect of 5-azacytidine, a DNA demethylating reagent, was examined in several plant species with a stable or unstable photoperiodically induced flowering state under non-inductive photoperiodic conditions. The long day plant Silene armeria, whose flowering state is stable and the short day plant Pharbitis nil, whose flowering state is unstable were induced to flower by 5-azacytidine under a non-inductive condition. Thus, the replacement of photoinduction by 5-azacytidine treatment is not specific to Perilla frutescens. On the other hand, 5-azacytidine did not induce flowering in Xanthium strumarium whose flowering state is stable and Lemna paucicostata whose flowering state is unstable. Thus, epigenetics caused by DNA demethylation may be involved in the regulation of photoperiodic flowering irrespective of the stability of the photoperiodically induced flowering state. PMID:18251884

  19. Spatial and temporal heterogeneity explain disease dynamics in a spatially explicit network model.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Christopher P; Antonovics, Janis; Keitt, Timothy H

    2008-08-01

    There is an increasing recognition that individual-level spatial and temporal heterogeneity may play an important role in metapopulation dynamics and persistence. In particular, the patterns of contact within and between aggregates (e.g., demes) at different spatial and temporal scales may reveal important mechanisms governing metapopulation dynamics. Using 7 years of data on the interaction between the anther smut fungus (Microbotryum violaceum) and fire pink (Silene virginica), we show how the application of spatially explicit and implicit network models can be used to make accurate predictions of infection dynamics in spatially structured populations. Explicit consideration of both spatial and temporal organization reveals the role of each in spreading risk for both the host and the pathogen. This work suggests that the application of spatially explicit network models can yield important insights into how heterogeneous structure can promote the persistence of species in natural landscapes. PMID:18662121

  20. Evaluation of LLNL's Nuclear Accident Dosimeters at the CALIBAN Reactor September 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Hickman, D P; Wysong, A R; Heinrichs, D P; Wong, C T; Merritt, M J; Topper, J D; Gressmann, F A; Madden, D J

    2011-06-21

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory uses neutron activation elements in a Panasonic TLD holder as a personnel nuclear accident dosimeter (PNAD). The LLNL PNAD has periodically been tested using a Cf-252 neutron source, however until 2009, it was more than 25 years since the PNAD has been tested against a source of neutrons that arise from a reactor generated neutron spectrum that simulates a criticality. In October 2009, LLNL participated in an intercomparison of nuclear accident dosimeters at the CEA Valduc Silene reactor (Hickman, et.al. 2010). In September 2010, LLNL participated in a second intercomparison of nuclear accident dosimeters at CEA Valduc. The reactor generated neutron irradiations for the 2010 exercise were performed at the Caliban reactor. The Caliban results are described in this report. The procedure for measuring the nuclear accident dosimeters in the event of an accident has a solid foundation based on many experimental results and comparisons. The entire process, from receiving the activated NADs to collecting and storing them after counting was executed successfully in a field based operation. Under normal conditions at LLNL, detectors are ready and available 24/7 to perform the necessary measurement of nuclear accident components. Likewise LLNL maintains processing laboratories that are separated from the areas where measurements occur, but contained within the same facility for easy movement from processing area to measurement area. In the event of a loss of LLNL permanent facilities, the Caliban and previous Silene exercises have demonstrated that LLNL can establish field operations that will very good nuclear accident dosimetry results. There are still several aspects of LLNL's nuclear accident dosimetry program that have not been tested or confirmed. For instance, LLNL's method for using of biological samples (blood and hair) has not been verified since the method was first developed in the 1980's. Because LLNL and the other DOE

  1. Naturally-assisted metal phytoextraction by Brassica carinata: role of root exudates.

    PubMed

    Quartacci, Mike F; Irtelli, Barbara; Gonnelli, Cristina; Gabbrielli, Roberto; Navari-Izzo, Flavia

    2009-10-01

    Due to relatively high chelant dosages and potential environmental risks it is necessary to explore different approaches in the remediation of metal-contaminated soils. The present study focussed on the removal of metals (As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) from a multiple metal-contaminated soil by growing Brassica carinata plants in succession to spontaneous metallicolous populations of Pinus pinaster, Plantago lanceolata and Silene paradoxa. The results showed that the growth of the metallicolous populations increased the extractable metal levels in the soil, which resulted in a higher accumulation of metals in the above-ground parts of B. carinata. Root exudates of the three metallicolous species were analysed to elucidate their possible role in the enhanced metal availability. The presence of metals stimulated the exudation of organic and phenolic acids as well as flavonoids. It was suggested that root exudates played an important role in solubilising metals in soil and in favouring their uptake by roots. PMID:19497650

  2. Nectar sugar composition of European Caryophylloideae (Caryophyllaceae) in relation to flower length, pollination biology and phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Witt, T; Jürgens, A; Gottsberger, G

    2013-10-01

    Floral nectar composition has been explained as an adaptation to factors that are either directly or indirectly related to pollinator attraction. However, it is often unclear whether the sugar composition is a direct adaptation to pollinator preferences. Firstly, the lower osmolality of sucrose solutions means that they evaporate more rapidly than hexose solutions, which might be one reason why sucrose-rich nectar is typically found in flowers with long tubes (adapted to long-tongued pollinators), where it is better protected from evaporation than in open or short-tubed flowers. Secondly, it can be assumed that temperature-dependent evaporation is generally lower during the night than during the day so that selection pressure to secrete nectar with high osmolality (i.e. hexose-rich solutions) is relaxed for night-active flowers pollinated at night. Thirdly, the breeding system may affect selection pressure on nectar traits; that is, for pollinator-independent, self-pollinated plants, a lower selective pressure on nectar traits can be assumed, leading to a higher variability of nectar sugar composition independent of pollinator preferences, nectar accessibility and nectar protection. To analyse the relations between flower tube length, day vs. night pollination and self-pollination, the nectar sugar composition was investigated in 78 European Caryophylloideae (Caryophyllaceae) with different pollination modes (diurnal, nocturnal, self-pollination) using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). All Caryophylleae species (Dianthus and relatives) were found to have nectar with more than 50% sucrose, whereas the sugar composition of Sileneae species (Silene and relatives) ranged from 0% to 98.2%. In the genus Silene, a clear dichotomous distribution of sucrose- and hexose-dominant nectars is evident. We found a positive correlation between the flower tube length and sucrose content in Caryophylloideae, particularly in day-flowering species, using both conventional

  3. Interactions between a pollinating seed predator and its host plant: the role of environmental context within a population

    PubMed Central

    Kula, Abigail A R; Castillo, Dean M; Dudash, Michele R; Fenster, Charles B

    2014-01-01

    Plant–insect interactions often are important for plant reproduction, but the outcome of these interactions may vary with environmental context. Pollinating seed predators have positive and negative effects on host plant reproduction, and the interaction outcome is predicted to vary with density or abundance of the partners. We studied the interaction between Silene stellata, an herbaceous perennial, and Hadena ectypa, its specialized pollinating seed predator. Silene stellata is only facultatively dependent upon H. ectypa for pollination because other nocturnal moth co-pollinators are equally effective at pollen transfer. We hypothesized that for plants without conspecific neighbors, H. ectypa would have higher visitation rates compared to co-pollinators, and the plants would experience lower levels of H. ectypa pollen deposition. We predicted similar oviposition throughout the study site but greater H. ectypa predation in the area without conspecific neighbors compared to plants embedded in a naturally high density area. We found that H. ectypa had consistently higher visitation than moth co-pollinators in all host plant contexts. However, H. ectypa pollinator importance declined in areas with low conspecific density because of reduced pollen deposition, resulting in lower seed set. Conversely, oviposition was similar across the study site independent of host plant density. Greater likelihood of very high fruit predation combined with lower pollination by H. ectypa resulted in reduced S. stellata female reproductive success in areas with low conspecific density. Our results demonstrate local context dependency of the outcomes of pollinating seed predator interactions with conspecific host plant density within a population. PMID:25165527

  4. Promotion of exocyclic bond cleavages in the decomposition of 1,3-disilacyclobutane in the presence of a metal filament.

    PubMed

    Badran, I; Shi, Y J

    2015-01-29

    The primary decomposition of 1,3-disilacyclobutane (DSCB) on a tungsten filament and its secondary gas-phase reactions in a hot-wire chemical vapor deposition (CVD) reactor have been studied using laser ionization mass spectrometry. Under the collision-free conditions, DSCB decomposes on the W filament to produce H2 molecules with an activation energy of 43.6 ± 4.1 kJ·mol(-1). With the help of the isotope labeling and chemical trapping methods, the mechanistic details in the secondary gas-phase reactions important in the hot-wire CVD reactor setup have been examined. The dominant pathway has been demonstrated to be the insertion of the cyclic 1,3-disilacyclobut-1-ylidene, generated by exocyclic Si-H bond rupture, into the Si-H bond in DSCB to form 1,1'-bis(1,3-disilacyclobutane) (174 amu). The successful trapping of 1,3-disilacyclobut-1-ylidene by both 1,3-butadiene and trimethylsilane provides compelling evidence for the existence of this cyclic silylene species in the hot-wire CVD reactor with DSCB. Other reactions operating in the reactor include the DSCB cycloreversion to form silene and the ring opening of DSCB via 1,2-H shift to produce silene/methylsilylene and 1-methylsilene/silylene. The introduction of an additional Si atom in the four-membered ring monosilacyclobutane molecule has caused two major changes in the reaction chemistry assumed by DSCB: (1) The endocyclic cycloreversion reactions that dominate in the decomposition of monosilacyclobutane molecules only play a much less important role in the dissociation of DSCB; and (2) the exocyclic bond cleavages are promoted in DSCB due to the ring stabilization caused by the introduction of one additional Si atom. PMID:25560235

  5. The phytoremediation ability of a polyculture constructed wetland to treat boron from mine effluent.

    PubMed

    Türker, Onur Can; Böcük, Harun; Yakar, Anıl

    2013-05-15

    This study focuses on describing the ability of a small-scale, subsurface-flow-polyculture-constructed wetland (PCW) to treat boron (B) mine effluent from the world's largest borax mine (Kırka, Turkey) under field conditions. This application is among the first effluent treatment methods of this type in both Turkey and the world. This study represents an important resource on how subsurface-flow-constructed wetlands could be used to treat B mine effluents in the field conditions. To this end, an experimental wetland was vegetated with common reed (Phragmites australis) and cattails (Typha latifolia), and mine effluent was moved through the wetland. The results of the present study show that B concentrations of the mine effluent decreased from 187 to 123 mg l(-1) (32% removal rate) on average. The T. latifolia individuals absorbed a total of 250 mg kg(-1) whereas P. australis in the PCW absorbed a total of 38 mg kg(-1) B during the research period. PMID:23500796

  6. Constructed wetlands as green tools for management of boron mine wastewater.

    PubMed

    Türker, Onur Can; Türe, Cengiz; Böcük, Harun; Yakar, Anil

    2014-01-01

    Constructed wetlands are of increasing interest worldwide given that they represent an eco-technological solution to many environmental problems such as wastewater treatment. Turkey possesses approximately 70% of the world's total boron (B) reserves, and B contamination occurs in both natural and cultivated sites throughout Turkey, particularly in the north-west of the country. This study analyzes B removal and plant uptake of B in pilot plots of subsurface horizontal-flow constructed wetlands. Constructed wetlands were vegetated with Typha latifolia (referred to as CW1) and Phragmites australis (referred to as CW2) to treat wastewater from a borax reserve in Turkey--the largest of its type in the world and were assessed under field conditions. The B concentrations of water inflows to the systems were determined to be 10.2, 28.2, 84.6, 232.3, 716.4, and 2019.1 mg l(-1). The T. latifolia in the CW1 treatment group absorbed a total of 1300 mg kg(-1) B, whereas P. australis absorbed 839 mg kg(-1). As a result, CW1 had an average removal efficiency of 40.7%, while that of CW2 was 27.2%. Our results suggest that constructed wetlands are an effective, economic and eco-friendly solution to treating B mine wastewater and controlling the adverse environmental effects of B mining. PMID:24912241

  7. Correlations between some hazardous inorganic pollutants in the Gomti River and their accumulation in selected macrophytes under aquatic ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Shah, Abdul Barey; Rai, U N; Singh, Rana Pratap

    2015-06-01

    Water quality of the Gomti River and phytoremediation potential of native macrophytes dwelling therein at six different sites were evaluated. River water showed high biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, nitrate, ammonium and phosphate (12.84, 77.94, 36.88, 6.04 and 2.25 mg L(-1), respectively). Gomti water was found to be contaminated with different metals like Fe, Cd, Cu, Cr and Pb (5.54, 1.05, 3.74, 2.57 and 0.73 mg L(-1), respectively). Macrophytes growing in the river accumulated considerable amounts of Fe, Cd, Cu, Cr and Pb in different parts. Among the studied plants, Eichhornia crassipes showed maximum remediation potential for Fe, Cd and Pb; Jussiaea repens for Cr; and Pistia stratiotes for Cd. However, in Typha latifolia, Cu accumulation was maximum. Except for Fe, translocation factor of E. crassipes, P. stratiotes, Hydrilla verticellata and T. latifolia was >1 for the studied metals, showing their potential to accumulate multiple metals in different plant parts. PMID:25894347

  8. Root biomass production in populations of six rooted macrophytes in response to Cu exposure: intra-specific variability versus constitutive-like tolerance.

    PubMed

    Marchand, L; Nsanganwimana, F; Lamy, J B; Quintela-Sabaris, C; Gonnelli, C; Colzi, I; Fletcher, T; Oustrière, N; Kolbas, A; Kidd, P; Bordas, F; Newell, P; Alvarenga, P; Deletic, A; Mench, M

    2014-10-01

    Intra-specific variability of root biomass production (RP) of six rooted macrophytes, i.e. Juncus effusus, Phragmites australis, Schoenoplectus lacustris, Typha latifolia, Phalaris arundinacea, and Iris pseudacorus grown from clones, in response to Cu exposure was investigated. Root biomass production varied widely for all these macrophytes in control conditions (0.08 μM) according to the sampling site. Root biomass production of T. latifolia and I. pseudacorus in the 2.5-25 μM Cu range depended on the sampling location but not on the Cu dose in the growth medium. For P. australis, J. effusus, S. lacustris, and P. arundinacea, an intra-specific variability of RP depending on both the sampling location and the Cu-dose was evidenced. This intra-specific variability of RP depending on the sampling location and of Cu-tolerance for these last four species suggests that Cu constitutive tolerance for all rooted macrophytes is not a species-wide trait but it exhibits variability for some species. PMID:25058419

  9. Screening of 18 species for digestate phytodepuration.

    PubMed

    Pavan, Francesca; Breschigliaro, Simone; Borin, Maurizio

    2015-02-01

    This experiment assesses the aptitude of 18 species in treating the digestate liquid fraction (DLF) in a floating wetland treatment system. The pilot system was created in NE Italy in 2010 and consists of a surface-flow system with 180 floating elements (Tech-IA®) vegetated with ten halophytes and eight other wetland species. The species were transplanted in July 2011 in basins filled with different proportions of DLF/water (DLF/w); periodic increasing of the DLF/w ratio was imposed after transplanting, reaching the worst conditions for plants in summer 2012 (highest EC value 7.3 mS cm/L and NH4-N content 225 mg/L). It emerged that only Cynodon dactylon, Typha latifolia, Elytrigia atherica, Halimione portulacoides, Salicornia fruticosa, Artemisia caerulescens, Spartina maritima and Puccinellia palustris were able to survive under the system conditions. Halophytes showed higher dry matter production than other plants. The best root development (up to 40-cm depth) was recorded for Calamagrostis epigejos, Phragmites australis, T. latifolia and Juncus maritimus. The highest nitrogen (10-15 g/m(2)) and phosphorus (1-4 g/m(2)) uptakes were obtained with P. palustris, Iris pseudacorus and Aster tripolium. In conclusion, two halophytes, P. palustris and E. atherica, present the highest potential to be used to treat DLF in floating wetlands. PMID:25005162

  10. Variations in the Levels of Mulberroside A, Oxyresveratrol, and Resveratrol in Mulberries in Different Seasons and during Growth

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jin; Li, Shun-xiang; Wang, Wei; Guo, Xiao-yi; Lu, Xiang-yang; Yan, Xin-pei; Huang, Dan; Wei, Bao-yang; Cao, Liang

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the composition of three major stilbenes (mulberroside A, oxyresveratrol, and resveratrol) in different portions of mulberries collected in different seasons and their change molds during growth by high-performance liquid chromatography. Mulberroside A levels were the highest in the bark and roots of Morus atropurpurea Roxb, Morus alba Linn, and Morus latifolia Poir. Oxyresveratrol levels were the highest in roots and stem. Both of these high levels were in September. The amount of resveratrol was very low in all samples. In the stem, Morus latifolia Poir contained more mulberroside A than the other two mulberries. Mulberroside A was not detected in the leaves of the three mulberries. In Morus atropurpurea Roxb seedlings, the root tended to contain more of the three stilbenes than leaves. The temporal peaks of resveratrol were always ahead of those for oxyresveratrol. The levels of the stilbenes varied in different portions of the varieties of mulberries collected in different season and in the seedlings of Morus atropurpurea Roxb. PMID:24023529

  11. Root exudates of wetland plants influenced by nutrient status and types of plant cultivation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Fu Yong; Chung, Anna King Chuen; Tam, Nora Fung Yee; Wong, Ming Hung

    2012-07-01

    The present study investigated the amounts of root exudates and composition of organic acids released from two wetland plants (Typha latifolia and Vetiver zizanioides) under two nutrient treatments: low level (0.786 mM N and 0.032 mM P) and high level (7.86 mM N and 0.32 mM P) and two types of plant cultivation: monoculture and co-culture of the two plants. Low nutrient treatment significantly (p < 0.05) increased the root exudates of T. latifolia during the initial growth period (1-21 d) and those of V. zizanioides and the co-culture during the whole growth period. The concentrations of dissolved organic carbon in the root exudates of the co-culture in the low nutrient treatment were 3.23-7.91 times of those in the high nutrient treatment during the medium growth period (7-28 d). The compositions of organic acids varied between the two plant species and between the two nutrient treatments. The pattern of organic acids was also different between the co-culture and the monoculture. Oxalic acid was by far the major organic acid exuded from the two wetland plants. The present study on root exudates suggests that co-culture of wetland plant species would be more useful in the reclamation of waste water than a monoculture system. PMID:22908625

  12. Genetics of cattails in radioactively contaminated areas around Chornobyl.

    PubMed

    Tsyusko, Olga V; Smith, Michael H; Oleksyk, Taras K; Goryanaya, Julia; Glenn, Travis C

    2006-08-01

    Research on populations from radioactively contaminated areas around Chornobyl has produced ambiguous results for the presence of radiation effects. More studies are needed to provide information on whether radiation exposure at Chornobyl significantly affected genetic diversity in natural populations of various taxa. Eleven and nine variable microsatellite loci were used to test for differences in genetic diversity between reference and Chornobyl populations of two cattail species (Typha angustifolia and Typha latifolia, respectively) from Ukraine. Our purpose was to determine whether radiation had a significant impact on genetic diversities of the Chornobyl Typha populations, or if their genetic composition might be better explained by species demography and/or changes in population dynamics, mainly in sexual and asexual reproduction. Populations closest to the reactor had increased genetic diversities and high number of genets, which likely were due to factors other than radiation including increased gene flow among Chornobyl populations, enhanced sexual reproduction within populations, and/or origin of the genets from seed bank. Both Typha species also demonstrated small but significant effects associated with latitude, geographical regions, and watersheds. Typha's demography in Ukraine possibly varies with these three factors, and the small difference between Chornobyl and reference populations of T. latifolia detected after partitioning the total genetic variance between them is probably due primarily to these factors. However, the positive correlations of several genetic characteristics with radionuclide concentrations suggest that radiation may have also affected genetics of Chornobyl Typha populations but much less than was expected considering massive contamination of the Chornobyl area. PMID:16842431

  13. Bioaccumulation and translocation of metals in the natural vegetation growing on fly ash lagoons: a field study from Santaldih thermal power plant, West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Maiti, Subodh Kumar; Jaiswal, Shishir

    2008-01-01

    A field study was conducted in the fly ash lagoons of Santandih Thermal Power Plant located in West Bengal (India) to find out total, EDTA and DTPA extractable metals in fly ash and their bioaccumulation in root and shoot portion of the naturally growing vegetation. Fly ash sample has alkaline pH and low conductivity. The concentration of total Cu, Zn, Pb and Ni were found higher than weathered fly ash and natural soil, where as Co, Cd and Cr were found traces. Five dominant vegetation namely, Typha latifolia, Fimbristylis dichotoma, Amaranthus defluxes, Saccharum spontaenum and Cynodon dactylon were collected in the winter months (November-December). Bioaccumulation of metals in root and shoot portions were found varied significantly among the species, but all concentration were found within toxic limits. Correlation between total, DTPA and EDTA extractable metals viz. root and shoot metals concentration were studied. Translocation factor (TF) for Cu, Zn and Ni were found less than unity, indicates that these metals are immobilized in the root part of the plants. Metals like Mn have TF greater than unity. The study infers that natural vegetation removed Mn by phytoextraction mechanisms (TF > 1), while other metals like Zn, Cu, Pb and Ni were removed by rhizofiltration mechanisms (TF < 1). The field study revealed that T. latifolia and S. spontaenum plants could be used for bioremediation of fly ash lagoon. PMID:17429748

  14. Functional linkage between N acquisition strategies and aeration capacities of hydrophytes for efficient oxygen consumption in roots.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Motoka; Nakamura, Takatoshi; Tsuchiya, Takayoshi; Noguchi, Ko

    2013-02-01

    We evaluated the specific strategies of hydrophytes for root O(2) consumption in relation to N acquisition and investigated whether the strategies varied depending on the aeration capacity. Aeration capacity of roots is an important factor for determining hypoxia tolerance in plants. However, some hydrophytes possessing quite different aeration capacities often co-occur in wetlands, suggesting that root O(2) consumption also strongly affects hypoxia tolerance. We cultivated Phragmites australis with high aeration capacity and Zizania latifolia with low aeration capacity in hypoxic conditions with NH(4)(+) or NO(3)(-) treatment and compared the growth, N uptake, N assimilation and root respiration between the two species. In Z. latifolia grown with NH(4)(+) treatment, high N uptake activity and restrained root growth led to sufficient N acquisition and decrease in whole-root respiration rate. These characteristics consequently compensated for the low aeration capacity. In contrast, in P. australis, low N uptake activity was compensated by active root growth, but the whole-root respiration rate was high. This high root respiration rate was allowed by the high aeration capacity. The O(2) consumption-related traits of hydrophyte roots were closely correlated with N acquisition strategies, which consequently led to a compensational relationship with the root aeration capacity. It is likely that this functional linkage plays an important role as a core mechanism in the adaptation of plants to hypoxic soils. PMID:22575011

  15. Chiral response of Oryzeae and Paniceae plants in alpha-methylbenzyl-3-p-tolyl urea agar medium.

    PubMed

    Omokawa, Hiroyoshi; Murata, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Shoko

    2004-01-01

    The results presented here support the hypothesis that plants of the tribe Oryzeae respond enantioselectively and homogeneously to optically active 1-alpha-methylbenzyl-3-p-tolylurea (MBTU) in root growth inhibition, in contrast to Echinochloa species. The Oryzeae plants tested in this study belong to different genera (Oryza, Leersia, Chikusichloa and Zizania), to different species (O sativa, O glaberrima, O alta, O coarctata, O latifolia, O minuta, O rufipogon), to various ecospecies of Oryza (japonica, indica, japonica x indica, javanica) and to different levels of evolution [cultivated rice (O sativa and O glaberrima) and ancestral wild rice species]. In spite of their different phylogenic status and diverse sensitivity, the root growth of all members of the genus Oryza was inhibited more by R-MBTU than by S-MBTU. Zizania palustris, Z latifolia, Leersia oryzoides and Chikusichloa aquatica belonging to the tribe Oryzeae exhibited similar chiral recognition to the Oryza plants, suggesting that Oryzeae have a common chiral recognition mechanism in their response to optically active MBTUs. In contrast, Echinochloa plants (E crus-galli (L) Beauv var crus-galli and E colonum (L) Link), belonging into subfamily Panicoideae tribe Paniceae, responded in a different way, where their root growth was more sensitive to S-MBTU than to the antipodal R-MBTU. A reverse chiral response between the tribe Oryzeae and the genus Echinochloa was clearly indicated in this study. This diverse response may be relevant to Gramineae classification. PMID:14727742

  16. Effect of cyclic phytoremediation with different wetland plants on municipal wastewater.

    PubMed

    Farid, Mudassar; Irshad, Muhammad; Fawad, Muhammad; Ali, Zeshan; Eneji, A Egrinya; Aurangzeb, Naureen; Mohammad, Ashiq; Ali, Barkat

    2014-01-01

    Phytoremediation is a promising cleanup technology for contaminated soils, groundwater, and wastewater that is both low-tech and low-cost. The objective of this study was to investigate the ameliorative effect of phytoremediation on municipal wastewater (MWW). For this purpose, a phytoremediation garden was established using different aquatic plants species [Pistia stratiotes, Eichhornia crassipess, Hydrocotyle umbellatta, Lemna minor, Tyhpa latifolia, and Scirpus acutus] in seven earthen pond systems (P1-P7) for the cyclic treatment of MWW. The physico-chemical analysis of MWW was carried out before and after the cyclic phytoremediation. Results showed that pH, EC and turbidity of MWW were reduced by 5.5%, 33.7%, and 93.1%, respectively after treatment (from P1 to P7). Treatment system also reduced total dissolved solids (TDS) by 35.2%, Cl by 61%, HCO3 by 29.2%, hardness by 45.7%, Ca by 32.3% and Mg by 55.9%. Nitrate concentration was reduced by 77.6% but SO4 was enhanced slightly. An ameliorative combined effect of wetland plants namely L. minor, T. latifolia, and S. acutus on MWW was noticed. Sequential phytoremediation with a mixture of plants was more effective than that relying only on a single plant species. PMID:24912243

  17. Calorimetric Properties of Dehydrating Pollen (Analysis of a Desiccation-Tolerant and an Intolerant Species).

    PubMed Central

    Buitink, J.; Walters-Vertucci, C.; Hoekstra, F. A.; Leprince, O.

    1996-01-01

    The physical state of water in the desiccation-tolerant pollen of Typha latifolia L. and the desiccation-sensitive pollen of Zea mays L. was studied using differential scanning calorimetry in an attempt to further unravel the complex mechanisms of desiccation tolerance. Melting transitions of water were not observed at water content (wc) values less than 0.21 (T. latifolia) and 0.26 (Z. mays) g H2O/g dry weight. At moisture levels at which melting transitions were not observable, water properties could be characterized by changes in heat capacity. Three hydration regions could be distinguished with the defining wc values changing as a function of temperature. Shifts in baseline power resembling second-order transitions were observed in both species and were interpreted as glass-to-liquid transitions, the glass-transition temperatures being dependent on wc. Irrespective of the extent of desiccation tolerance, both pollens exhibited similar state diagrams. The viability of maize pollen at room temperature decreased gradually with the removal of the unfrozen water fraction. In maize, viability was completely lost before grains were sufficiently dried to enter into a glassy state. Apparently, the glassy state per se cannot provide desiccation tolerance. From the existing data, we conclude that, although no major differences in the physical behavior of water could be distinguished between desiccation-tolerant and -intolerant pollens, the physiological response to the loss of water varies between the two pollen types. PMID:12226289

  18. Anti-hyperglycemic effects of three medicinal plants in diabetic pregnancy: modulation of T cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Populations in Africa mostly rely on herbal concoctions for their primarily health care, but so far scientific studies supporting the use of plants in traditional medicine remain poor. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the anti-hyperglycemic effects of Picralima nitida (seeds), Nauclea latifolia (root and stem) and Oxytenanthera abyssinica (leaves) commonly used, in diabetic pregnancy. Methods Pregnant wistar rats, rendered diabetic by multiple low injections of streptozotocin, were treated with selected plant extracts based on their antioxidant activities. Vitamin C concentrations, fatty acid compositions and phytochemical analysis of plants extracts were determined. Effect of selected plant extracts on human T cell proliferation was also analysed. Results All analysed plant extracts exhibited substantial antioxidant activities probably related to their content in polyphenols. Picralima nitida exhibited the highest antioxidant capacity. Ethanolic and butanolic extracts of Picralima nitida, butanolic extract of Nauclea latifolia and ethanolic extract of Oxytenanthera abyssinica significantly decreased hyperglycemia in the diabetic pregnant rats. Butanolic extract of Picralima, also appeared to be the most potent immunosuppressor although all of the analysed extracts exerted an immunosuppressive effect on T cell proliferation probably due to their linolenic acid (C18:3n-3) and/or alkaloids content. Nevertheless, all analysed plants seemed to be good source of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids. Conclusion By having antioxidant, anti-hyperglycemic and immunosuppressive activities, these plants could be good candidates in the treatment of diabetes and diabetic pregnancy. PMID:23565805

  19. Water level, vegetation composition and plant productivity explain greenhouse gas fluxes in temperate cutover fens after inundation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minke, M.; Augustin, J.; Burlo, A.; Yarmashuk, T.; Chuvashova, H.; Thiele, A.; Freibauer, A.; Tikhonov, V.; Hoffmann, M.

    2015-10-01

    Rewetting of temperate continental cutover peatlands generally implies the creation of flooded areas, which are - dependent on water depth - colonized by helophytes such as Eriophorum angustifolium, Carex spp., Typha latifolia or Phragmites australis. Reeds of Typha and Phragmites are reported to be large sources of methane, but data on net CO2 uptake are contradictory for Typha and rare for Phragmites. This paper describes the effect of vegetation, water level and nutrient conditions on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for representative vegetation types along water level gradients at two rewetted cutover fens (mesotrophic and eutrophic) in Belarus. Greenhouse emissions were measured with manual chambers in weekly to few - weekly intervals over a two years period and interpolated by modelling. All sites had negligible nitrous oxide exchange rates. Most sites were carbon sinks and small GHG sources. Methane emissions were generally associated with net ecosystem CO2 uptake. Small sedges were minor methane emitters and net CO2 sinks, while Phragmites australis sites released large amounts of methane and sequestered very much CO2. Variability of both fluxes increased with site productivity. Floating mats composed of Carex tussocks and Typha latifolia were a source for both methane and CO2. We conclude that shallow, stable flooding is a better measure to arrive at low GHG emissions than deep flooding, and that the risk of high GHG emissions consequent on rewetting is larger for eutrophic than for mesotrophic peatlands.

  20. The population biology of fungal invasions.

    PubMed

    Gladieux, P; Feurtey, A; Hood, M E; Snirc, A; Clavel, J; Dutech, C; Roy, M; Giraud, T

    2015-05-01

    Fungal invasions are increasingly recognized as a significant component of global changes, threatening ecosystem health and damaging food production. Invasive fungi also provide excellent models to evaluate the generality of results based on other eukaryotes. We first consider here the reasons why fungal invasions have long been overlooked: they tend to be inconspicuous, and inappropriate methods have been used for species recognition. We then review the information available on the patterns and mechanisms of fungal invasions. We examine the biological features underlying invasion success of certain fungal species. We review population structure analyses, revealing native source populations and strengths of bottlenecks. We highlight the documented ecological and evolutionary changes in invaded regions, including adaptation to temperature, increased virulence, hybridization, shifts to clonality and association with novel hosts. We discuss how the huge census size of most fungi allows adaptation even in bottlenecked, clonal invaders. We also present new analyses of the invasion of the anther-smut pathogen on white campion in North America, as a case study illustrating how an accurate knowledge of species limits and phylogeography of fungal populations can be used to decipher the origin of invasions. This case study shows that successful invasions can occur even when life history traits are particularly unfavourable to long-distance dispersal and even with a strong bottleneck. We conclude that fungal invasions are valuable models to contribute to our view of biological invasions, in particular by providing insights into the traits as well as ecological and evolutionary processes allowing successful introductions. PMID:25469955

  1. Towards science educational spaces as dynamic and coauthored communities of practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhingra, Koshi

    2008-04-01

    In this essay review, four studies around the themes of identity and globalization are summarized and analyzed. The researchers' perspectives are generally grounded in Brown and Campione's ideas on situated knowledge ( Classroom lessons: Integrating cognitive theory and classroom practice (pp. 229-270). Cambridge: The MIT Press/Bradford Books, 1994) and Lave and Wenger's definition of learning as an activity fostered through participation in communities of practice ( Situated learning. Legitimate peripheral participation. Cambridge: University of Cambridge Press, 1991). Questions about the goals of science education spaces, the nature of globalization in relation to practices in schools, the role of identities-in-practice in relation to participation in communities of practice such as classrooms are explored. Recommendations for key design features in effective science educational spaces, based upon the findings presented in the collection of four studies, are offered. School, it is suggested here, functions best as a clearing house for the myriad science-related stories student participants generate in their various communities of practice (e.g., within popular culture, family, community, informal educational sites). In this way, school has the potential to construct bridges between multiple student experiences and identities-in-practice.

  2. Flow sorting of the Y sex chromosome in the dioecious plant Melandrium album

    SciTech Connect

    Veuskens, J.; Jacobs, M.; Negrutiu, I.

    1995-12-01

    The preparation of stable chromosome suspensions and flow cytometric sorting of both the Y sex chromosome of the white campion, Melandrium album, and the deleted Y chromosome of an asexual mutant, 5K63, is described. The principle has been to maintain transformed roots in vitro, synchronize and block mitosis, reduce cells to protoplasts, and lyse these to release chromosomes. Such in vitro material, unlike many cell suspensions, showed a stable karyotype. Factors critical to producing high-quality chromosome suspensions from protoplasts include osmolality of isolation solutions and choice of spindle toxin and of lysis buffer. Agrobacterium rhizogenes transformed young growing root cultures were synchronized at G1/S with 50 {mu}M aphidicolin for 24 h and released to a mitotic block with 30 {mu}M oryzalin for 11 h. Protoplast preparations from such tissue routinely had metaphase indices reaching 15%. Suspensions of intact metaphase chromosomes, with few chromatids, were obtained by lysing swollen mitotic protoplasts in a citric acid/disodium phosphate buffer. Except for the presence of clumps of autosomal chromosomes near the X and Y chromosome zones, monoparametric histograms of fluorescence intensities of suspensions stained with 4{prime},6-diamidino-2-phenylindole showed profiles similar to theoretical flow karyotypes. Two types of Y chromosomes, one full-length and one partially deleted (from the asexual mutant), could be sorted at 90% purity (21-fold enrichment of Y). These results are discussed in the context of sex determination and differentiation in higher plants. 45 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Macrophytes: ecosystem engineers in UK urban rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbs, H.; Gurnell, A.; Heppell, K.; Spencer, K.

    2012-04-01

    Macrophytes act as ecosystem engineers within river channels in that they have the ability to cause geomorphological and ecological change. They induce reductions in flow velocity and associated sediment accumulation, and their system of underground roots and rhizomes also reinforces the accumulated sediment reducing sediment erosion and resuspension and creating habitats. As sediments, particularly finer-grained, store contaminants including metals, this engineering means that in the specific context of urban rivers where sediments are more likely to be contaminated, macrophytes trap and hold contaminated sediments creating a potentially important sink of metals. However, depending on the ability for the macrophyte to reinforce the sediment and reduce erosion and resuspension, there is the potential for the sink to turn in to a source and metals to be released in to the overlying water. This research therefore looks at the ecosystem engineering ability of common macrophytes in UK urban rivers by looking at: (i) the effect upon flow velocity and sediment accumulation of Sparganium erectum (branched bur-reed); (ii) the sediment reinforcement ability of both S. erectum, Typha latifolia (bulrush) and Phalaris arundinacea (reed canary grass); and, (iii) the storage of metals within the sediment, overlying water and the macrophytes. Research was undertaken on the River Blackwater, an urban river in Surrey, UK which has extensive macrophyte growth. Flow velocity measurements and fine sediment depths were recorded both within and outside of dense stands of S. erectum. The uprooting resistance (as an indicator of sediment reinforcement) was measured for three species: S. erectum, T. latifolia and P. arundinacea. Additionally, some preliminary sampling was undertaken of the sediment, overlying water and the macrophytes to determine metal storage. Lower flow velocities and greater volumes of fine sediment were recorded within the stands of S. erectum as opposed to the

  4. A process-based model to estimate gas exchange and monoterpene emission rates in the mediterranean maquis - comparisons between modelled and measured fluxes at different scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitale, M.; Matteucci, G.; Fares, S.; Davison, B.

    2009-02-01

    This paper concerns the application of a process-based model (MOCA, Modelling of Carbon Assessment) as an useful tool for estimating gas exchange, and integrating the empirical algorithms for calculation of monoterpene fluxes, in a Mediterranean maquis of central Italy (Castelporziano, Rome). Simulations were carried out for a range of hypothetical but realistic canopies of the evergreen Quercus ilex (holm oak), Arbutus unedo (strawberry tree) and Phillyrea latifolia. More, the dependence on total leaf area and leaf distribution of monoterpene fluxes at the canopy scale has been considered in the algorithms. Simulation of the gas exchange rates showed higher values for P. latifolia and A. unedo (2.39±0.30 and 3.12±0.27 gC m-2 d-1, respectively) with respect to Q. ilex (1.67±0.08 gC m-2 d-1) in the measuring campaign (May-June). Comparisons of the average Gross Primary Production (GPP) values with those measured by eddy covariance were well in accordance (7.98±0.20 and 6.00±1.46 gC m-2 d-1, respectively, in May-June), although some differences (of about 30%) were evident in a point-to-point comparison. These differences could be explained by considering the non uniformity of the measuring site where diurnal winds blown S-SW direction affecting thus calculations of CO2 and water fluxes. The introduction of some structural parameters in the algorithms for monoterpene calculation allowed to simulate monoterpene emission rates and fluxes which were in accord to those measured (6.50±2.25 vs. 9.39±4.5μg g-1DW h-1 for Q. ilex, and 0.63±0.207μg g-1DW h-1 vs. 0.98±0.30μg g-1DW h-1 for P. latifolia). Some constraints of the MOCA model are discussed, but it is demonstrated to be an useful tool to simulate physiological processes and BVOC fluxes in a very complicated plant distributions and environmental conditions, and necessitating also of a low number of input data.

  5. Water level, vegetation composition, and plant productivity explain greenhouse gas fluxes in temperate cutover fens after inundation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minke, Merten; Augustin, Jürgen; Burlo, Andrei; Yarmashuk, Tatsiana; Chuvashova, Hanna; Thiele, Annett; Freibauer, Annette; Tikhonov, Vitalij; Hoffmann, Mathias

    2016-07-01

    Peat extraction leaves a land surface with a strong relief of deep cutover areas and higher ridges. Rewetting inundates the deep parts, while less deeply extracted zones remain at or above the water level. In temperate fens the flooded areas are colonized by helophytes such as Eriophorum angustifolium, Carex spp., Typha latifolia or Phragmites australis dependent on water depth. Reeds of Typha and Phragmites are reported as large sources of methane, but data on net CO2 uptake are contradictory for Typha and rare for Phragmites. Here, we analyze the effect of vegetation, water level and nutrient conditions on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for representative vegetation types along water level gradients at two rewetted cutover fens (mesotrophic and eutrophic) in Belarus. Greenhouse gas emissions were measured campaign-wise with manual chambers every 2 to 4 weeks for 2 years and interpolated by modelling. All sites had negligible nitrous oxide exchange rates. Most sites were carbon sinks and small GHG sources. Methane emissions generally increased with net ecosystem CO2 uptake. Mesotrophic small sedge reeds with water table around the land surface were small GHG sources in the range of 2.3 to 4.2 t CO2 eq. ha-1 yr-1. Eutrophic tall sedge - Typha latifolia reeds on newly formed floating mats were substantial net GHG emitters in the range of 25.1 to 39.1 t CO2 eq. ha-1 yr. They represent transient vegetation stages. Phragmites reeds ranged between -1.7 to 4.2 t CO2 eq. ha-1 yr-1 with an overall mean GHG emission of 1.3 t CO2 eq. ha-1 yr-1. The annual CO2 balance was best explained by vegetation biomass, which includes the role of vegetation composition and species. Methane emissions were obviously driven by biological activity of vegetation and soil organisms. Shallow flooding of cutover temperate fens is a suitable measure to arrive at low GHG emissions. Phragmites australis establishment should be promoted in deeper flooded areas and will lead to moderate, but

  6. Insecticidal and Enzyme Inhibitory Activities of Sparassol and Its Analogues against Drosophila suzukii.

    PubMed

    Kim, Junheon; Jang, Miyeon; Lee, Kyoung-Tae; Yoon, Kyungjae Andrew; Park, Chung Gyoo

    2016-07-13

    Drosophila suzukii is an economically important pest in America and Europe as well as in Asia. Sparassol and methyl orsellinate are naturally produced by the cultivating mushrooms Sparassis cripta and Sparassis latifolia. Fumigant and contact toxicities of synthetic sparassol and its analogues, methyl orsellinate and methyl 2,4-dimethoxy-6-methylbenzoate (DMB), were investigated. Negligible fumigant activity was observed from the tested compounds. However, DMB showed the strongest contact toxicity, followed by sparassol and methyl orsellinate. The possible modes of action of the compounds were assessed for their acetylcholinesterase (AChE)- and glutathione S-transferase (GST)-inhibiting activities. AChE activity was weakly inhibited by methyl orsellinate and DMB, but GST was inhibited by sparassol, methyl orsellinate, and DMB. Thus, DMB could be a promising alternative to common insecticides as it can be easily synthesized from sparassol, which is the natural product of Sparassis species. Sparassis species could be an industrial resource of DMB. PMID:27327201

  7. Use of dried aquatic plant roots to adsorb heavy metals

    SciTech Connect

    Robichaud, K.D.

    1996-12-31

    The removal of heavy metal ions by dried aquatic macrophytes was investigated. The ability of the biomass, Eichhornia crassipes (water hyacinth), Typha latifolia (cattail), Sparganium minimum (burr reed) and Menyanthes trifoliata to abstract lead and mercury ions is presented here, along with a conceptual filter design. This paper examines an alternative to both the traditional and recent systems designed for metal removal. It involves the use of dried aquatic macrophytes. There are numerous advantages for the use of dried macrophytes in the treatment of industrial wastewater. First, it is cost-effective. There are also funding opportunities through a variety of Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) programs. It is more environmentally conscious because a wetland, the harvesting pond, has been created. And, it creates public goodwill by providing a more appealing, less hardware-intensive, natural system.

  8. Fatty acid composition of oil synthesized by Aspergillus nidulans.

    PubMed

    Sharma, N D; Mathur, J M; Saxena, B S; Sen, K

    1981-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans Eidam strain 300 was found to be capable of synthesizing 24.9% oil or remarkably low free fatty acidity, in a chemically defined medium with 34% glucose as sole carbon source. although the total content of oil synthesized was less, utilization of the carbon source is better as shown by the high (8.4) fat coefficient. The major component fatty acids of the oil were palmitic, stearic, oleic and linoleic and are influenced by the source of carbon. Palmitoleic acid is present in traces, confirming thereby the general observation that high oil formers produce oil of low hexadecenoic acid content. The relatively high stearic acid content of the oil distinguishes it from those of other microorganisms and resembles the oil produced by certain tropical plants, such as Madhuca latifolia. PMID:7026394

  9. Studies on production and biological potential of prodigiosin by Serratia marcescens.

    PubMed

    Suryawanshi, Rahul K; Patil, Chandrashekhar D; Borase, Hemant P; Salunke, Bipinchandra K; Patil, Satish V

    2014-07-01

    Efficacy of Serratia marcescens for pigment production and biological activity was investigated. Natural substrates like sweet potato, mahua flower extract (Madhuca latifolia L.), and sesam at different concentrations were taken. As a carbon source microorganism favored potato powder was followed by sesam and mannitol, and as nitrogen source casein hydrolysate was followed by yeast and malt extract. The effect of inorganic salts on pigment production was also studied. At final optimized composition of suitable carbon, nitrogen source, and trace materials and at suitable physiological conditions, prodigiosin production was 4.8 g L(-1). The isolated pigment showed antimicrobial activity against different pathogenic bacteria and fungi. Extracted pigment was characterized by spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and thin layer chromatography (TLC) which confirm production of biological compound prodigiosin. This study suggests that use of sweet potato powder and casein can be a potential alternative bioresource for commercial production of pigment prodigiosin. PMID:24781979

  10. Emission of isoprene from common Indian plant species and its implications for regional air quality.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rashmi; Singh, Abhai Pratap; Singh, M P; Kumar, Animesh; Varshney, C K

    2008-09-01

    Isoprene is most dominant volatile organic compounds (VOC) emitted by many plants. In this study 40 common Indian plant species were examined for isoprene emission using dynamic flow through enclosure chamber technique. Isoprene emission rates of plants species were found to vary from undetectable to 69.5 microg g(-1) h(-1) (Madhuca latifolia). Besides, an attempt has been made to evaluate suitability of 80 common Indian plant species for planting programmes. Out of 80 species, 29 species were moderate to high emitters (10 to < or =25 microg g(-1) h(-1)), 12 species were low emitter emitters (1 to < or =10 microg g(-1) h(-1)) and remaining 39 species were found to be negligible or non emitters (<1 microg g(-1) h(-1)) of isoprene. About 50% plant species selected for planting programmes in India were found to be moderate to high emitters of isoprene. PMID:17952698

  11. Constructed wetland as an ecotechnological tool for pollution treatment for conservation of Ganga river.

    PubMed

    Rai, U N; Tripathi, R D; Singh, N K; Upadhyay, A K; Dwivedi, S; Shukla, M K; Mallick, S; Singh, S N; Nautiyal, C S

    2013-11-01

    With aim to develop an efficient and ecofriendly approach for on-site treatment of sewage, a sub-surface flow constructed wetland (CW) has been developed by raising potential aquatic macrophytes; Typha latifolia, Phragmites australis, Colocasia esculenta, Polygonum hydropiper, Alternanthera sessilis and Pistia stratoites in gravel as medium. Sewage treatment potential of CW was evaluated by varying retention time at three different stages of plant growth and stabilization. After 6 months, monitoring of fully established CW indicated reduction of 90%, 65%, 78%, 84%, 76% and 86% of BOD, TSS, TDS, NO3-N, PO4-P and NH4-N, respectively in comparison to inlet after 36 h of retention time. Sewage treatment through CW also resulted in reduction of heavy metal contents. Thus, CW proved an effective method for treatment of wastewater and may be developed along river Ganga stretch as an alternative technology. Treated water may be drained into river to check further deterioration of Ganga water quality. PMID:24080292

  12. Utilization of emergent aquatic plants for biomass-energy-systems development

    SciTech Connect

    Kresovich, S.; Wagner, C.K.; Scantland, D.A.; Groet, S.S.; Lawhon, W.T.

    1982-02-01

    A review was conducted of the available literature pertaining to the following aspects of emergent aquatic biomass: identification of prospective emergent plant species for management; evaluation of prospects for genetic manipulation; evaluation of biological and environmental tolerances; examination of current production technologies; determination of availability of seeds and/or other propagules, and projections for probable end-uses and products. Species identified as potential candidates for production in biomass systems include Arundo donax, Cyperus papyrus, Phragmites communis, Saccharum spontaneum, Spartina alterniflora, and Typha latifolia. If these species are to be viable candidates in biomass systems, a number of research areas must be further investigated. Points such as development of baseline yield data for managed systems, harvesting conceptualization, genetic (crop) improvement, and identification of secondary plant products require refinement. However, the potential pay-off for developing emergent aquatic systems will be significant if development is successful.

  13. Intense, natural pollution affects Arctic tundra vegetation at the Smoking Hills, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Freedman, B. ); Zobens, V.; Hutchinson, T.C.; Gizyn, W.I. )

    1990-04-01

    Long-term, natural emissions of sulfur dioxide and acidic aerosols have had an impact on remote tundra at the Smoking Hills. The emissions have caused plant damage by SO{sub 2} toxicity, and have severely acidified soil and freshwater. At the most intensively fumigated locations closest to the sources of emission, pollution stresses have devegetated the terrestrial ecosystem. The first plants that are encountered along a spatial gradient of decreasing pollution stress are Artemisia tilesii and Arctagrostis latifolia, which dominate a characteristic, pollution-tolerant community. Farther away at moderately polluted sites there are mixed communities with floristic elements of both fumigated and reference, unfumigated tundra. This pattern of ecosystem response to a concatenation of stresses caused by natural air and soil pollution is qualitatively similar to the damage that occurs in the vicinity of anthropogenic point sources of air pollution, such as smelters.

  14. Retrotransposon activation followed by rapid repression in introgressed rice plants.

    PubMed

    Liu, B; Wendel, J F

    2000-10-01

    Plant retrotransposons are largely inactive during normal development, but may be activated by stresses. Both copia-like and gypsy-like retrotransposons of rice were activated by introgression of DNA from the wild species Zizania latifolia Griseb. The copy number increase was associated with cytosine methylation changes of the elements. Activity of the elements was ephemeral, as evidenced by nearly identical genomic Southern hybridization patterns among randomly chosen individuals both within and between generations for a given line, and the absence of transcripts based on Northern analysis. DNA hypermethylation, internal sequence deletion, and possibly other mechanisms are likely responsible for the rapid element repression. Implications of the retroelement dynamics on plant genome evolution are discussed. PMID:11081978

  15. Pythiogeton zizaniae, a new species causing basal stalk rot of water bamboo in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Ann, Pao-Jen; Huang, Jin-Hsing; Wang, In-Tin; Ko, Wen-Hsiung

    2006-01-01

    A new species, Pythiogeton zizaniae, was isolated from diseased water bamboo (Zizania latifolia) in central Taiwan. The organism formed a colony with scanty mycelia and mycelial aggregates on rye-water bamboo medium. Special treatments were required for production of sporangia which were terminal, noncaducous and mostly ovoid. Chlamydospores were absent. The fungus was homothallic. Oogonia produced on V-8 water bamboo medium in water were mostly globose to subglobose and each was attached with a club-shaped, monoclinous antheridium by the base of the oogonium stalk. Oospores were plerotic and globose to subglobose. Py. zizaniae caused death of water bamboo suckers but did not infect seedlings of corn, rice, wheat, sorghum, cucumber, tomato, soybean or water spinach. It also did not affect cucumber and tomato fruit, carrot roots or potato tubers. PMID:16800309

  16. Nitrogen and phosphorus removal of locally adapted plant species used in constructed wetlands in China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xia; König, Thomas; Qi, Zhang; Yongsheng, Gao

    2012-01-01

    This paper assesses the nitrogen and phosphorus removal efficiency of seven plant species (Schoenoplectus lacustris, Vetiveria zizanioides, Acorus calamus, Canna indica, Zizania latifolia, Phragmites communis, and Iris pseudacorus) commonly used in constructed wetland systems in southern China. The investigation considers two aspects that are relevant to determine nutrient removal efficiency: plants' biomass production and nutrient content in water effluent. Both assessments are correlated with each other. Three different hydraulic retention times with different nutrient loads have been applied in this ex-situ trial. The plants' biomass production correlates positively with the effluent's nutrient removal efficiency. Six out of seven species reviewed produce more biomass above ground than below ground (average: 67% of dried biomass in aerial part); only I. pseudacorus produces more biomass below ground. S. lacustris, V. zizanioides, I. pseudacorus, and C. indica have performed best in terms of nutrient removal efficiency (65.6-90.2% for nitrogen; 67.7-84.6% for phosphorus). PMID:22766855

  17. Diversity of Endophytic Fungi Associated with the Roots of Four Aquatic Plants Inhabiting Two Wetlands in Korea

    PubMed Central

    You, Young-Hyun; Park, Jong Myong; Park, Jong-Han

    2015-01-01

    A total of 4 aquatic plants, Eleocharis kuroguwai Ohwi, Hydrocharis dubia Backer, Salvinia natans All., and Zizania latifolia Turcz., were sampled from representative two wetlands of South Korea. A total of 38 endophytic fungal strains were isolated from aquatic plants native to the Daepyeong wetland, and 27 strains were isolated from the Jilnal wetland. The internal transcribed spacer regions of fungal isolates were sequenced and a phylogenetic analysis was performed. In addition, endophytic fungal diversity from each wetland and host plant species was deduced. A total of 25 fungal genera were purely isolated, and 16 fungal genera were isolated from each of the two wetlands. Commonly isolated genera from both wetlands were Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Clonostachys, Fusarium, Leptosphaeria, Penicillium, and Talaromyces. This study revealed that fungal diversity varied with environmental conditions and by host plant in representative two wetlands. PMID:26539039

  18. Diversity of Endophytic Fungi Associated with the Roots of Four Aquatic Plants Inhabiting Two Wetlands in Korea.

    PubMed

    You, Young-Hyun; Park, Jong Myong; Park, Jong-Han; Kim, Jong-Guk

    2015-09-01

    A total of 4 aquatic plants, Eleocharis kuroguwai Ohwi, Hydrocharis dubia Backer, Salvinia natans All., and Zizania latifolia Turcz., were sampled from representative two wetlands of South Korea. A total of 38 endophytic fungal strains were isolated from aquatic plants native to the Daepyeong wetland, and 27 strains were isolated from the Jilnal wetland. The internal transcribed spacer regions of fungal isolates were sequenced and a phylogenetic analysis was performed. In addition, endophytic fungal diversity from each wetland and host plant species was deduced. A total of 25 fungal genera were purely isolated, and 16 fungal genera were isolated from each of the two wetlands. Commonly isolated genera from both wetlands were Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Clonostachys, Fusarium, Leptosphaeria, Penicillium, and Talaromyces. This study revealed that fungal diversity varied with environmental conditions and by host plant in representative two wetlands. PMID:26539039

  19. The first record of Baccharis L. (Asteraceae) as a host-plant genus for Nepticulidae (Lepidoptera), with description of new Stigmella species from South America.

    PubMed

    Stonis, Jonas R; Diškus, Arūnas; Remeikis, Andrius; Remeikis, Andrius; Davis, Donald R; Solis, M Alma; Torres, Nixon Cumbicus

    2016-01-01

    We record the first Nepticulidae species found to feed on Baccharis L. (Asteraceae). Despite the high species richness of Baccharis in the Western Hemisphere, no nepticulid has ever been recorded feeding on Baccharis. In this paper we describe six new Stigmella Schrank species feeding on Baccharis: S. emarginatae Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov., S. bipartita Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov., S. tripartita Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov., S. latifoliae Remeikis, Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov., S. baccharicola Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov., and S. confertae Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov. The remaining two taxa are left unnamed. All taxa are illustrated with photographs of adults, their genitalia, and their leaf-mines. Additionally, leaf-mines on Baccharis salicifolia are documented. PMID:27395706

  20. Expression of spearmint limonene synthase in transgenic spike lavender results in an altered monoterpene composition in developing leaves.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Bertomeu, Jesús; Ros, Roc; Arrillaga, Isabel; Segura, Juan

    2008-01-01

    We generated transgenic spike lavender (Lavandula latifolia) plants constitutively expressing the limonene synthase (LS) gene from spearmint (Mentha spicata), encoding the LS enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of limonene from geranyl diphosphate. Overexpression of the LS transgene did not consistently affect monoterpene profile in pooled leaves or flowers from transgenic T(0) plants. Analyses from cohorts of leaves sampled at different developmental stages showed that essential oil accumulation in transgenic and control plants was higher in developing than in mature leaves. Furthermore, developing leaves of transgenic plants contained increased limonene contents (more than 450% increase compared to controls) that correlated with the highest transcript accumulation of the LS gene. The levels of other monoterpene pathway components were also significantly altered. T(0) transgenic plants were grown for 2 years, self-pollinated, and the T(1) seeds obtained. The increased limonene phenotype was maintained in the progenies that inherited the LS transgene. PMID:18514005

  1. Coleophora nepetellae Baldizzone & Nel, a new species of the C. lixella group (Lepidoptera, Coleophoridae) from France and Italy

    PubMed Central

    Baldizzone, Giorgio; Nel, Jacques; Landry, Jean-François

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Coleophora nepetellae Baldizzone & Nel, sp. n. is described from the southern Alps (Italy and France). It belongs to the Coleophora lixella species group. Its host plants are Nepeta nepetella L. (Lamiaceae) and an unidentified Poaceae. The fifth instar larva, its case, the adult habitus, and genitalia are illustrated. The species is compared to Coleophora nevadella Baldizzone, 1985, here newly confirmed from France and whose larvae feed on Nepeta latifolia DC. in the Eastern Pyrénées. DNA barcodes are shown to be distinct and congruent with morphological differences among species of the lixella group. Barcodes revealed that Coleophora tricolor Walsingham, 1889, formerly known only from Great Britain, is also present in France and Greece. PMID:25561856

  2. Virucidal activity of essential oils from aromatic plants of San Luis, Argentina.

    PubMed

    García, C C; Talarico, L; Almeida, N; Colombres, S; Duschatzky, C; Damonte, E B

    2003-11-01

    Essential oils obtained from eight aromatic plants of San Luis Province, Argentina, were screened for virucidal activity against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), Junin virus (JUNV) and dengue virus type 2 (DEN-2). The most potent inhibition was observed with the essential oil of Lippia junelliana and Lippia turbinata against JUNV with virucidal concentration 50% (VC(50)) values in the range 14-20 ppm, whereas Aloysia gratissima, Heterotheca latifolia and Tessaria absinthioides inhibited JUNV in the range 52-90 ppm. The virucidal activity was time- and temperature-dependent. The essential oils of A. gratissima, Artemisia douglasiana, Eupatorium patens and T. absinthioides inactivated HSV-1 at 65-125 ppm. However, only A. douglasiana and E. patens had any discernible effect on DEN-2 infectivity with VC(50) values of 60 and 150 ppm, respectively. PMID:14595590

  3. Susceptibility of two-week old Lymnaea natalensis to some plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Kela, S L; Ogunsusi, R A; Ogbogu, V C; Nwude, N

    1989-01-01

    The molluscacidal potency of 17 Nigerian plants extracted by the unevaporated crude water (UECW) method was evaluated on two-week old Lymnaea natalensis Krauss. Five extracts were not active but extracts of Balanites aegytiaca, Blighia sapida, Boswellia dalzielii, Cissampelos mucronata, Detarium microcarpum, Kigelia africana, Opilia celtidifolia, Parkia clappertoniana, Polygonum limbatum, Pseudocedrela kotschyi, Nauclea latifolia and Securidaca longipedunculata were molluscacidal. There is potential for their future use in the integrated control of Lymnaea natalensis, as well as other snails. Mortality data for lethal concentration values for all extracts were analysed by use of probit transformation. The upper and lower fiducial limits of the LC50 (P = 0.05) were also determined. PMID:2626571

  4. Screening of some Nigerian plants for molluscicidal activity.

    PubMed

    Kela, S L; Ogunsusi, R A; Ogbogu, V C; Nwude, N

    1989-01-01

    Methanolic (MEOH), evaporated crude water (ECW) and unevaporated crude water (UECW) extracts of 25 Nigerian plants, used for different medicinal and domestic purposes were screened for molluscacidal activity on laboratory-reared Lymnaea natalensis Krauss. Seven of the plants were not active; extracts from 18 (72 per cent) of the plants, some of which are renowned fish poisons, had molluscicidal activity. These were Acacia nilotica, Aristolochia albida, Balanites aegyptiaca, Blighia sapida, Boswellia dalzielii, Detarium microcarpum, Gnidia kraussiana, Kigelia africana, Nauclea latifolia, Opilia celtidefolia, Parkia clappertoniana, Polygonum limbatum, Pseudocedrela kotschyi, Sclerocarya birrea, Securidaca longipedunculata, Ximenia americana, Vetiveria nigritana and Ziziphus abyssinica. The LC50 of these extracts were determined. It is strongly recommended that the toxic effects of these extracts against fish, cercariae, snail eggs and mammals be further investigated so as to determine the right concentration, especially for use in fish ponds. PMID:2626572

  5. Antiamoebic and spasmolytic activities of extracts from some antidiarrhoeal traditional preparations used in Kinshasa, Congo.

    PubMed

    Tona, L; Kambu, K; Ngimbi, N; Mesia, K; Penge, O; Lusakibanza, M; Cimanga, K; De Bruyne, T; Apers, S; Totte, J; Pieters, L; Vlietinck, A J

    2000-03-01

    Three major extracts from some traditional preparations, based on medicinal plants, used as antidiarrhoeal agents were investigated for their putative antiamoebic and spasmolytic activities in vitro. Results indicated that both biological activities are concentrated in the polyphenolic fraction, and not in the saponin or alkaloid containing fractions. The most active polyphenolic extracts were those from Euphorbia hirta whole plant, leaves of Alchornea cordifolia, Crossopteryx febrifuga, Nauclea latifolia, Psidium guajava, Tithonia diversifolia, stem bark of Harungana madagascariensis, Mangifera indica, Maprounea africana and Psidium guajava, inhibiting Entamoeba histolytica growth with MAC < 10 micrograms/ml. The same extracts, at a concentration of 80 micrograms/ml in an organ bath, also exhibited more than 70% inhibition of acetylcholine and/or KCl solution-induced contractions on isolated guinea-pig ileum. PMID:10782488

  6. Vegetation on the Soil Infiltration System Treating Livestock Wastewater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakurai, Shinji; Fujikawa, Yoko; Fukui, Masami; Hamasaki, Tastuhide; Sugahara, Masataka

    In the overland flow wastewater treatments and the constructed wetlands, the purification by soil infiltration units is enhanced using vegetation. However, wetland plants (i.e. cattail (Typha latifolia)) and trees, rather than agronomic crops, have been used in conventional systems. We carried out laboratory-scale soil infiltration experiments using two forage crops, tall fescue (Festuca araundinacea) and white clover (Trifolium repens) while using livestock wastewater for irrigation. The purpose of the study was to clarify the amount of accumulation of available phosphorus and exchangeable cations in the soil and its effect on the plant growth. The application of livestock wastewater increased available phosphorus, and exchangeable potassium and sodium in the upper soil. The soil sodification, examined based on exchangeable sodium ratio and plant growth, was not very significant after 10 months of livestock wastewater application. Growing forage crops on the soil infiltration system may be a promising technology to improve crop production and treatment efficacy.

  7. Dispersal ecology of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl.) in its native environment as related to Swedish forestry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Despain, D.G.

    2001-01-01

    Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl.) covers extensive areas of the mountains of western North America. It has evolved into four subspecies, each adapted to slightly different environmental conditions. All are adapted to reproduce following fire. Subspecies latifolia is the most extensive and economically important in North America. Serotiny is common in this subspecies, but trees bearing nonserotinous cones can be found in most stands, sometimes constituting more that 70% of the trees. Cone crops are produced yearly and seed loss to seed predators, insects and diseases are minimal. Germination and establishment occurs across a broad range of conditions allowing lodgepole pine to grow on poor sites as well as highly productive sites. These characteristics give lodgepole pine the ability to be highly invasive in new areas of suitable habitat.

  8. Phytotoxicity of oil sands naphthenic acids and dissipation from systems planted with emergent aquatic macrophytes.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Sarah A; Headley, John V; Peru, Kerry M; Germida, James J

    2008-01-01

    Differences in dissipation and phytotoxicity were measured for two naphthenic acid mixtures in hydroponically grown emergent macrophytes (Typha latifolia, Phragmites australis, and Scirpus acutus). One of the naphthenic acid (NA) mixtures was extracted from tailings pond water of an oil sands operation in Fort McMurray, Alberta, Canada. The other mixture was a commercially available NA mixture. While the oil sands NA mixture was less phytotoxic to wetland plants compared to the commercially available NA mixture, they were not sequestered by wetland plants like their commercial NA counterparts. The small loss of commercial NAs from the spiked hydroponic system appeared to be selective and dependant on the specific NA compound. The results of this study indicate that plants alone may not mitigate NAs from oil sands tailings pond water. In addition, caution should be taken when making predictions on the environmental fate of oil sands naphthenic acids when using commercial NAs as surrogates. PMID:18161556

  9. Metal bioavailability and speciation in a wetland tailings repository amended with biosolids compost, wood ash, and sulfate.

    PubMed

    DeVolder, Pam S; Brown, Sally L; Hesterberg, Dean; Pandya, Kumi

    2003-01-01

    Lead poisoning of waterfowl from direct ingestion of wetland mine tailings has been reported at the Coeur d'Alene River basin in Idaho. A greenhouse study was conducted to evaluate the effects of surface applications of amendments on lead bioavailability in the tailings. Treatments included sediment only, and sediment with three different surface amendments: (i) biosolids compost plus wood ash, (ii) compost + wood ash + a low SO4(2-) addition as K2SO4, and (iii) compost + wood ash + a high SO4(2-) addition. Measured variables included growth and tissue Pb, Zn, and Cd concentration of arrowhead (Sagittaria latifolia Willd.) and cattail (Typha latifolia L.) and soil pH, redox potential (Eh), pore water Pb, Pb speciation by X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and in vitro Pb bioavailability. The compost + ash amendment alleviated phytotoxicity for both plant species. Bioavailability of Pb as measured by a rapid in vitro extract decreased by 24 to 34% (over control) in the tailings directly below the amendment layer in the compost + SO4 treatments. The ratio of acid volatile sulfide (AVS) to simultaneously extracted metals (SEM) also indicated a reduction in Pb bioavailability (1:40 control, 1:20 compost, 1:8 compost + low SO4, and 1:3 compost + high SO4). Extended X-ray adsorption fine structure (EXAFS) and X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy data indicated that lead sulfide was greater after 99 d in the treatments that included additions of sulfate. These results indicated that, under reducing conditions, surface amendments of compost + wood ash (with or without sulfate) decreased the bioavailability of Pb in metal-contaminated mine tailings. PMID:12809286

  10. Structure of aquatic vegetation of a large lake, western border of the Brazilian Pantanal.

    PubMed

    Cunha, N L; Delatorre, M; Rodrigues, R B; Vidotto, C; Gonçalves, F; Scremin-Dias, E; Damasceno-Júnior, G; Pott, V J; Pott, A

    2012-08-01

    Studies on Neotropical aquatic macrophytes have increased in recent decades, however species richness in wetlands of South America is far from being fully known. In addition, studies having an ecological approach are scarce in the Pantanal. Rapid assessments are essential for gaining knowledge of the biodiversity in the region. This study was performed in five sites of the Baía do Castelo, the western border of the Brazilian Pantanal, which included wild-rice patches, floating mats and floating meadows. At each site, plots of 0.5 × 0.5 m were set (n = 137), species of aquatic macrophytes were identified, their coverage was measured and the plot depth was estimated. We recorded 57 species in 26 families, of which Poaceae was the richest. The most frequent and abundant species was Commelina schomburgkiana; the second most frequent was Oryza latifolia,followed by Leersia hexandra, Enydra radicans and Pityrogramma calomelanos. The latter species was second in cover, followed by Pontederia rotundifolia, Eichhornia azurea, E. crassipes and Enydra radicans. These five species and C. schomburgkiana (the most abundant) together represent more than half of the coverage on the lake. Pontederia rotundifolia, Ludwigia helminthorrhiza, Pistia stratiotes, E. azurea, E. crassipes, Enydra radicans and Panicum elephantipes were strongly associated with deeper areas, while Oryza latifolia, Leersia hexandra and Salvinia auriculata were prevalent in shallow areas. Pityrogramma calomelanos, Ludwigia nervosa, Ipomoea alba, Cayaponia podantha, Polygonum acuminatum, Rhynchanthera novemnervia and Ludwigia leptocarpa were highly correlated with floating meadows. The structure of the habitat, natural dynamics and zonation of aquatic vegetation in the Baía do Castelo seems to be influenced by a variation in water levels, which promotes spatial segregation, most likely due to competition and/habitat preference. PMID:22990823

  11. High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of arbutin in skin-whitening creams and medicinal plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Thongchai, Wisanu; Liawruangrath, Boonsom; Liawruangrath, Saisunee

    2007-01-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for quantitative analysis of arbutin. The arbutin was separated on an ODS Hypersil C(18) column with a mobile phase of water:methanol:0.1 M hydrochloric acid (89:10:1, v/v/v). The level of arbutin was measured by means of UV detection at 222 nm. The optimum conditions for arbutin quantitative analysis were investigated. The calibration curve was found to be linear up to 1,000 microg/ml(-1) of arbutin concentration, and the working calibration curve for arbutin determination over the range 0.5-30.0 microg/ml(-1) of arbutin (r(2)=0.9999) was established. The relative standard deviations for intraday and interday were found to be 0.98% and 1.15%, respectively. A detection limit (3sigma) and quantitation limit (10sigma) of 0.02 microg/ml(-1) and 0.2 microg/ml(-1), respectively, and a mean percentage recovery of the spiked arbutin of 99.88 +/- 1.12% were obtained. The proposed method has been applied to the determination of arbutin in commercial skin-whitening creams (Arbuwhite cream, Super Whitening cream, and Shiseido cream) with average contents of 7.60, 5.30, and 57.90 mg/g(-1), respectively. It was also applied to the determination of arbutin in medicinal plant extracts from Betula alnoides Buch. Ham., Clerodendrum petasites S. Moore, Curculigo latifolia Dryand. Var. latifolia, and Hesperethusa crenulata (Roxb.) Roem, levels of which were found to be 3.50, 1.50, 1.10, and 0.12 microg/g(-1), respectively (no article reported in the literature about arbutin analysis). The proposed HPLC method is rapid, simple, and selective for routine analysis. PMID:17342266

  12. Comparative responses of freshwater organisms to exposures of a commercial naphthenic acid.

    PubMed

    Kinley, Ciera M; McQueen, Andrew D; Rodgers, John H

    2016-06-01

    Comparative toxicity studies using unconfounded exposures can prioritize the selection of sensitive sentinel test species and refine methods for evaluating ecological risks of complex mixtures like naphthenic acids (NAs), a group of organic acids associated with crude oils and energy-derived waters that have been a source of aquatic toxicity. The objectives of this study were to compare responses of freshwater aquatic organisms (vertebrate, invertebrates, and a macrophyte; in terms of acute toxicity) to Fluka commercial NAs and to compare measured toxicity data with peer-reviewed toxicity data for other commercial NA sources and energy-derived NA sources. Exposures were confirmed using high performance liquid chromatography. Responses (7-d LC50s/EC50) ranged from 1.9 mg L(-1) for Pimephales promelas to 56.2 mg L(-1) for Typha latifolia. Following P. promelas in order of decreasing sensitivity were Ceriodaphnia dubia (7-d LC50 = 2.8 mg L(-1)), Hyalella azteca (7-d LC50 = 4.1 mg L(-1)), Chironomus dilutus (7-d LC50 = 6.5 mg L(-1)), and T. latifolia (7-d EC50 = 56.2 mg L(-1)), indicating that in terms of sensitivities, fish > invertebrates > plant for Fluka NAs in this study. Factors that affect exposures and measurements of exposures differ among commercial and energy-derived NAs and constrain comparisons. Despite differences in exposures, fish and invertebrates were relatively sensitive to both commercial and energy-derived NA sources (based on laboratory measurements and peer-reviewed data) and could be appropriate sentinel species for risk evaluations. PMID:27016812

  13. Phytochemical, Antimicrobial, and Toxicological Evaluation of Traditional Herbs Used to Treat Sore Throat.

    PubMed

    Mehreen, Arifa; Waheed, Muzzamil; Liaqat, Iram; Arshad, Najma

    2016-01-01

    The in vitro antibacterial activities of 29 traditional medicinal plants used in respiratory ailments were assessed on multidrug resistant Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria isolated from the sore throat patients and two reference strains. The methanolic, n-hexane, and aqueous extracts were screened by the agar well diffusion assay. Bioactive fractions of effective extracts were identified on TLC coupled with bioautography, while their toxicity was determined using haemolytic assay against human erythrocytes. Qualitative and quantitative phytochemical analysis of effective extracts was also performed. Methanolic extract of 18 plants showed antimicrobial activity against test strains. Adhatoda vasica (ZI = 17-21 mm, MIC: 7.12-62.5 μg/mL), Althaea officinalis (ZI = 16-20 mm, MIC: 15.62-31.25 μg/mL), Cordia latifolia (ZI = 16-20 mm, MIC: 12.62-62.5 μg/mL), Origanum vulgare (ZI = 20-22 mm, MIC: 3-15.62 μg/mL), Thymus vulgaris (ZI = 21-25 mm, MIC: 7.81-31.25 μg/mL), and Ziziphus jujuba (ZI = 14-20 mm, MIC: 7.81-31.25 μg/mL) showed significant antibacterial activity. Alkaloid fractions of Adhatoda vasica, Cordia latifolia, and Origanum vulgare and flavonoid fraction of the Althaea officinalis, Origanum vulgare, Thymus Vulgaris, and Ziziphus jujuba exhibited antimicrobial activity. Effective plant extracts show 0.93-0.7% erythrocyte haemolysis. The results obtained from this study provide a scientific rationale for the traditional use of these herbs and laid the basis for future studies to explore novel antimicrobial compounds. PMID:27429983

  14. Transpositional reactivation of two LTR retrotransposons in rice-Zizania recombinant inbred lines (RILs).

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong-Yan; Tian, Qin; Ma, Yi-Qiao; Wu, Ying; Miao, Gao-Jian; Ma, Yan; Cao, Dong-Hui; Wang, Xiao-Li; Lin, Chunjing; Pang, Jingsong; Liu, Bao

    2010-12-01

    Hybridization is prevalent in plants, which plays important roles in genome evolution. Apart from direct transfer and recombinatory generation of genetic variations by hybridization, de novo genetic instabilities can be induced by the process per se. One mechanism by which such de novo genetic variability can be generated by interspecific hybridization is transpositional reactivation of quiescent parental transposable elements (TEs) in the nascent hybrids. We have reported previously that introgressive hybridization between rice (Oryza sativa L.) and Zizania latifolia Griseb had induced rampant mobilization of three TEs, a copia-like LTR retrotransposon Tos17, a MITE mPing and a class II TE belonging to the hAT superfamily, Dart/nDart. In this study, we further found that two additional LTR retrotransposons, a gypsy-like (named RIRE2) and a copia-like (named Copia076), were also transpositionally reactivated in three recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from introgressive hybridization between rice and Z. latifolia. Novel bands of these two retroelements appeared in the RILs relative to their rice parental line (cv. Matsumae) in Southern blot, suggestive of retrotransposition, which was substantiated by transposon display (TD) and locus-specific PCR amplification for insertion sites. Both elements were found to be transcribed but at variable levels in the leaf tissue of the parental line and the RILs, suggesting that transcriptional control was probably not a mechanism for their transpositional activity in the RILs. Expression analysis of four genes adjacent to de novo insertions by Copia076 revealed marked difference in the transcript abundance for each of the genes between the RILs and their rice parental line, but the alterations in expression appeared unrelated with the retroelement insertions. PMID:21166796

  15. Impact of elevated CO₂ and N addition on bacteria, fungi, and archaea in a marsh ecosystem with various types of plants.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung-Hoon; Kim, Seon-Young; Ding, Weixing; Kang, Hojeong

    2015-06-01

    The individual effects of either elevated CO2 or N deposition on soil microbial communities have been widely studied, but limited information is available regarding the responses of the bacteria, fungi, and archaea communities to both elevated CO2 and N in wetland ecosystems with different types of plants. Using a terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis and real-time quantitative PCR (RT-Q-PCR), we compared communities of bacteria, fungi, and archaea in a marsh microcosm with one of seven macrophytes, Typha latifolia, Phragmites japonica, Miscanthus sacchariflorus, Scirpus lacustris, Juncus effusus, Phragmites australis, or Zizania latifolia, after exposing them to eCO2 and/or amended N for 110 days. Overall, our results showed that the elevated CO2 and N may affect the bacterial and archaeal communities, while they may not affect the fungal community in terms of both diversity and abundance. The effects of elevated CO2 and N on microbial community vary depending on the plant types, and each microbial community shows different responses to the elevated CO2 and N. In particular, elevated CO2 might force a shift in the archaeal community irrespective of the plant type, and the effect of elevated CO2 was enhanced when combined with the N effect. This study indicates that elevated CO2 and N addition could lead to changes in the community structures of bacteria and archaea. Our results also suggest that the fungal group is less sensitive to external changes, while the bacterial and archaeal groups are more sensitive to them. Finally, the characteristics of the plant type and relevant physicochemical factors induced by the elevated CO2 and N may be important key factors structuring the microbial community's response to environmental change, which implies the need for a more comprehensive approach to understanding the pattern of the wetland response to climate change. PMID:25605423

  16. Dynamics of non-structural carbohydrates in three Mediterranean woody species following long-term experimental drought

    PubMed Central

    Rosas, Teresa; Galiano, Lucía; Ogaya, Romà; Peñuelas, Josep; Martínez-Vilalta, Jordi

    2013-01-01

    Stored non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) have been proposed as a key determinant of drought resistance in plants. However, the evidence for this role is controversial, as it comes mostly from observational, short-term studies. Here, we take advantage of a long-term experimental throughfall reduction to elucidate the response of NSC to increased drought 14 years after the beginning of the treatment in three Mediterranean resprouter trees (Quercus ilex L., Arbutus unedo L. and Phillyrea latifolia L.). In addition, we selected 20 Q. ilex individuals outside the experimental plots to directly assess the relationship between defoliation and NSC at the individual level. We measured the seasonal course of NSC concentrations in leaves, branches and lignotuber in late winter, late spring, summer, and autumn 2012. Total concentrations of NSC were highest in the lignotuber for all species. In the long-term drought experiment we found significant depletion in concentrations of total NSC in treatment plots only in the lignotuber of A. unedo. At the same time, A. unedo was the only species showing a significant reduction in BAI under the drought treatment during the 14 years of the experiment. By contrast, Q. ilex just reduced stem growth only during the first 4 years of treatment and P. latifolia remained unaffected over the whole study period. However, we found a clear association between the concentrations of NSC and defoliation in Q. ilex individuals sampled outside the experimental plots, with lower total concentrations of NSC and lower proportion of starch in defoliated individuals. Taken together, our results suggest that stabilizing processes, probably at the stand level, may have been operating in the long-term to mitigate any impact of drought on NSC levels, and highlight the necessity to incorporate long-term experimental studies of plant responses to drought. PMID:24130568

  17. Seven new species of Paleanotus (Annelida: Chrysopetalidae) described from Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, and coral reefs of northern Australia and the Indo-Pacific: two cryptic species pairs revealed between western Pacific Ocean and the eastern Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    Watson, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Morphological investigation into the paleate genus Paleanotus Schmarda 1861 of the family Chrysopetalidae from northern Australian coral reefs, primarily Lizard Island and outlying reefs, included a complex of very small, slender individuals (length < 5 mm). This complex resolved into 7 new species, described herein: Paleanotus inornatus n. sp., P. adornatus n. sp., P. chrysos n. sp., P. aquifolia n. sp., P. latifolia n. sp., P. silus n. sp., and P. silopsis n. sp. A key is provided to the new species and Paleanotus distinguished from Treptopale and Hyalopale, two closely related genera. Diagnostic features of the apical structure and shape of the notochaetal main paleae plus median paleae shape and raised rib pattern, differentiates each species from the other. Gametous states are described. Two cryptic species pairs (Paleanotus silopsis n. sp. and P. silus n. sp.; Paleanotus aquifolia n. sp. and P. latifolia n. sp.) were identified. In each case one species is restricted to either the NE or NW Australian coast. In each pair the most eastern point for the NW Australian species range occurs at Darwin, western Arnhemland, Northern Territory. Additional material for each species pair extends their respective ranges northwards: NW Australia to Thailand, Andaman Sea, eastern Indian Ocean or NE Australia, Great Barrier Reef to the Philippines, western Pacific Ocean. Cryptic morphology and potential genetic diversity is discussed in Paleanotus inornatus n. sp. and P. adornatus n. sp. that possess overlapping widespread distribution patterns across northern Australia and Indo-Pacific reefs. The smallest bodied taxon, Paleanotus chrysos n. sp. is the only species with a Coral Sea range encompassing Lizard Island, Heron Island and New Caledonia. PMID:26624084

  18. Indicator species of essential forest tree species in the Burdur district.

    PubMed

    Negiz, Mehmet Güvenç; Eser, Yunus; Kuzugüdenll, Emre; Izkan, Kürşad

    2015-01-01

    The forests of Burdur district for long have been subjected to over grazing and individual selection. As a result of this, majority of the forest areas in the district were degraded. In the district, afforestation efforts included majority of forestry implementations. It is well known that selecting suitable species plays an important role for achieving afforestation efforts. In this context, knowing the indicator species among the target species would be used in afforestation efforts, studies on the interrelationships between environmental factors and target species distribution is vital for selecting suitable species for a given area. In this study, Anatolian Black pine (Pinus nigra), Red pine (Pinus brutia), Crimean juniper (Juniperus excelsa) and Taurus cedar (Cedrus libani), essential tree species, were considered as target species. The data taken from 100 sample plots in Burdur district was used. Interspecific correlation analysis was performed to determine the positive and negative indicator species among each of the target species. As a result of ICA, 2 positive (Berberis crataegina, Juniperus oxycedrus), 2 negative (Phillyrea latifolia, Quercus coccifera) for Crimean Juniper, I positive (Juniperus oxycedrus), 3 negative (Onopordium acanthium, Fraxinus ornus, Phillyrea latifolia) for Anatolian black pine, 3 positive (Paliurus spina-christi, Quercus coccifer, Crataegus orientalis), 2 negative (Berberis crataegina, Astragalus nanus) for Red pine and 3 positive (Berberis crataegina, Rhamnus oleoides, Astragalus prusianus) 2 negative (Paliurus spina-christi, Quercus cerris) for Taurus cedarwere defined as indicator plant species. In this way, practical information was obtained for selecting the most suitable species, among the target species, for afforestation efforts in Burdur district. PMID:26591889

  19. Mesophyll conductance plays a central role in leaf functioning of Oleaceae species exposed to contrasting sunlight irradiance.

    PubMed

    Fini, Alessio; Loreto, Francesco; Tattini, Massimiliano; Giordano, Cristiana; Ferrini, Francesco; Brunetti, Cecilia; Centritto, Mauro

    2016-05-01

    The ability to modify mesophyll conductance (gm ) in response to changes in irradiance may be a component of the acclimation of plants to shade-sun transitions, thus influencing species-specific distributions along light-gradients, and the ecological niches for the different species. To test this hypothesis we grew three woody species of the Oleaceae family, the evergreen Phillyrea latifolia (sun-requiring), the deciduous Fraxinus ornus (facultative sun-requiring) and the hemi-deciduous Ligustrum vulgare (shade tolerant) at 30 or 100% sunlight irradiance. We show that neither mesophyll conductance calculated with combined gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence techniques (gm ) nor CO2 assimilation significantly varied in F. ornus because of sunlight irradiance. This corroborates previous suggestions that species with high plasticity for light requirements, do not need to undertake extensive reorganization of leaf conductances to CO2 diffusion to adapt to different light environments. On the other hand, gm steeply declined in L. vulgare and increased in P. latifolia exposed to full-sun conditions. In these two species, leaf anatomical traits are in part responsible for light-driven changes in gm , as revealed by the correlation between gm and mesophyll conductance estimated by anatomical parameters (gmA ). Nonetheless, gm was greatly overestimated by gmA when leaf metabolism was impaired because of severe light stress. We show that gm is maximum at the light intensity at which plant species have evolved and we conclude that gm actually plays a key role in the sun and shade adaptation of Mediterranean species. The limits of gmA in predicting mesophyll conductance are also highlighted. PMID:26537749

  20. Phytochemical, Antimicrobial, and Toxicological Evaluation of Traditional Herbs Used to Treat Sore Throat

    PubMed Central

    Mehreen, Arifa; Waheed, Muzzamil; Liaqat, Iram; Arshad, Najma

    2016-01-01

    The in vitro antibacterial activities of 29 traditional medicinal plants used in respiratory ailments were assessed on multidrug resistant Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria isolated from the sore throat patients and two reference strains. The methanolic, n-hexane, and aqueous extracts were screened by the agar well diffusion assay. Bioactive fractions of effective extracts were identified on TLC coupled with bioautography, while their toxicity was determined using haemolytic assay against human erythrocytes. Qualitative and quantitative phytochemical analysis of effective extracts was also performed. Methanolic extract of 18 plants showed antimicrobial activity against test strains. Adhatoda vasica (ZI = 17–21 mm, MIC: 7.12–62.5 μg/mL), Althaea officinalis (ZI = 16–20 mm, MIC: 15.62–31.25 μg/mL), Cordia latifolia (ZI = 16–20 mm, MIC: 12.62–62.5 μg/mL), Origanum vulgare (ZI = 20–22 mm, MIC: 3–15.62 μg/mL), Thymus vulgaris (ZI = 21–25 mm, MIC: 7.81–31.25 μg/mL), and Ziziphus jujuba (ZI = 14–20 mm, MIC: 7.81–31.25 μg/mL) showed significant antibacterial activity. Alkaloid fractions of Adhatoda vasica, Cordia latifolia, and Origanum vulgare and flavonoid fraction of the Althaea officinalis, Origanum vulgare, Thymus Vulgaris, and Ziziphus jujuba exhibited antimicrobial activity. Effective plant extracts show 0.93–0.7% erythrocyte haemolysis. The results obtained from this study provide a scientific rationale for the traditional use of these herbs and laid the basis for future studies to explore novel antimicrobial compounds. PMID:27429983

  1. Self-medication with tannin-rich browse in goats infected with gastro-intestinal nematodes.

    PubMed

    Amit, M; Cohen, I; Marcovics, A; Muklada, H; Glasser, T A; Ungar, E D; Landau, S Y

    2013-12-01

    Primates self-medicate to alleviate symptoms caused by gastro-intestinal nematodes (GIN) by consuming plants that contain secondary compounds. Would goats display the same dietary acumen? Circumstantial evidence suggests they could: goats in Mediterranean rangelands containing a shrub - Pistacia lentiscus - with known anthelmintic properties consume significant amounts of the shrub, particularly in the fall when the probability of being infected with GIN is greatest, even though its tannins impair protein metabolism and deter herbivory. In order to test rigorously the self-medication hypothesis in goats, we conducted a controlled study using 21 GIN-infected and 23 non-infected goats exposed to browse foliage from P. lentiscus, another browse species - Phillyrea latifolia, or hay during the build-up of infection. GIN-infected goats showed clear symptoms of infection, which was alleviated by P. lentiscus foliage but ingesting P. lentiscus had a detrimental effect on protein metabolism in the absence of disease. When given a choice between P. lentiscus and hay, infected goats of the Mamber breed showed higher preference for P. lentiscus than non-infected counterparts, in particular if they had been exposed to Phillyrea latifolia before. This was not found in Damascus goats. Damascus goats, which exhibit higher propensity to consume P. lentiscus may use it as a drug prophylactically, whereas Mamber goats, which are more reluctant to ingest it, select P. lentiscus foliage therapeutically. These results hint at subtle trade-offs between the roles of P. lentiscus as a food, a toxin and a medicine. This is the first evidence of self-medication in goats under controlled conditions. Endorsing the concept of self-medication could greatly modify the current paradigm of veterinary parasitology whereby man decides when and how to treat GIN-infected animals, and result in transferring this decision to the animals themselves. PMID:24140164

  2. Calcium pectinate gel beads obtained from callus cultures pectins as promising systems for colon-targeted drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Günter, Elena A; Popeyko, Oxana V

    2016-08-20

    Low methyl-esterified pectins obtained from the cell walls of the campion (SV, SV>300), tansy (TV, TV>300) and duckweed (LM, LM>300) callus cultures and apple pectin (AP, Classic AU 701) were used as the carriers for colon delivery of prednisolone. The pectins with molecular weight more than 300kDa (SV>300, TV>300, LM>300) formed gels which exhibited the higher gel strength. The higher gel strength of these gels appeared to be related to the higher Mw and the lower degree of methylesterification (DE) of these pectins. Release aspects of prednisolone in the simulated gastric (pH 1.25), intestinal (pH 7.0) and colonic (pH 7.0+pectinase) media were investigated. The LM-5%, AP-3% and AP-5% beads destroyed in simulated intestinal medium probably due to the higher DE of the LM and AP pectins. The SV>300-3% and TV>300-3% prednisolone loaded bead systems showed a high stability at pH 1.25 and pH 7.0. Prednisolone release occurred in a larger extent in colonic medium due to the enzymatic erosion of the beads. The SV>300-3% and TV>300-3% particles showed a more controlled release that appeared to be related to the lower DE, rhamnogalacturonan content, rhamnogalacturonan I branching and the higher linearity and Mw of the TV>300 and SV>300 pectins, as well as to the higher gel strength. This in vitro study suggests that calcium pectinate gel beads obtained from callus cultures pectins can be proposed as potential systems for colon-targeted drug delivery. PMID:27178956

  3. Urban schools' teachers enacting project-based science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tal, Tali; Krajcik, Joseph S.; Blumenfeld, Phyllis C.

    2006-09-01

    What teaching practices foster inquiry and promote students to learn challenging subject matter in urban schools? Inquiry-based instruction and successful inquiry learning and teaching in project-based science (PBS) were described in previous studies (Brown & Campione, [1990]; Crawford, [1999]; Krajcik, Blumenfeld, Marx, Bass, & Fredricks, [1998]; Krajcik, Blumenfeld, Marx, & Solloway, [1994]; Minstrell & van Zee, [2000]). In this article, we describe the characteristics of inquiry teaching practices that promote student learning in urban schools. Teaching is a major factor that affects both achievement of and attitude of students toward science (Tamir, [1998]). Our involvement in reform in a large urban district includes the development of suitable learning materials and providing continuous and practiced-based professional development (Fishman & Davis, in press; van Es, Reiser, Matese, & Gomez, [2002]). Urban schools face particular challenges when enacting inquiry-based teaching practices like those espoused in PBS. In this article, we describe two case studies of urban teachers whose students achieved high gains on pre- and posttests and who demonstrated a great deal of preparedness and commitment to their students. Teachers' attempts to help their students to perform well are described and analyzed. The teachers we discuss work in a school district that strives to bring about reform in mathematics and science through systemic reform. The Center for Learning Technologies in Urban Schools (LeTUS) collaborates with the Detroit Public Schools to bring about reform in middle-school science. Through this collaboration, diverse populations of urban-school students learn science through inquiry-oriented projects and the use of various educational learning technologies. For inquiry-based science to succeed in urban schools, teachers must play an important role in enacting the curriculum while addressing the unique needs of students. The aim of this article is to

  4. Initial investigation into computer scoring of candidate essays for personnel selection.

    PubMed

    Campion, Michael C; Campion, Michael A; Campion, Emily D; Reider, Matthew H

    2016-07-01

    [Correction Notice: An Erratum for this article was reported in Vol 101(7) of Journal of Applied Psychology (see record 2016-32115-001). In the article the affiliations for Emily D. Campion and Matthew H. Reider were originally incorrect. All versions of this article have been corrected.] Emerging advancements including the exponentially growing availability of computer-collected data and increasingly sophisticated statistical software have led to a "Big Data Movement" wherein organizations have begun attempting to use large-scale data analysis to improve their effectiveness. Yet, little is known regarding how organizations can leverage these advancements to develop more effective personnel selection procedures, especially when the data are unstructured (text-based). Drawing on literature on natural language processing, we critically examine the possibility of leveraging advances in text mining and predictive modeling computer software programs as a surrogate for human raters in a selection context. We explain how to "train" a computer program to emulate a human rater when scoring accomplishment records. We then examine the reliability of the computer's scores, provide preliminary evidence of their construct validity, demonstrate that this practice does not produce scores that disadvantage minority groups, illustrate the positive financial impact of adopting this practice in an organization (N ∼ 46,000 candidates), and discuss implementation issues. Finally, we discuss the potential implications of using computer scoring to address the adverse impact-validity dilemma. We suggest that it may provide a cost-effective means of using predictors that have comparable validity but have previously been too expensive for large-scale screening. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27077525

  5. Post-floral Erection of Stalks Provides Insight into the Evolution of Fruit Orientation and Its Effects on Seed Dispersal

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Yang; Zhou, Zhuo; Sha, Wen; Sun, Hang

    2016-01-01

    That stalks reorient after flowering to face upwards is a common phenomenon in many flowering plants, indicating the potential importance of fruit orientation on seed dispersal. But this idea has not been subject to an empirical test. We examined this hypothesis by analysing the evolutionary correlation between fruit orientation and other characters and by investigating the effects of fruit orientation on seed dispersal. We found that 1) in a sub-alpine plant community, upward fruit orientation strongly correlates with fruits that act as seed containers, which are often of dry type and are dispersed by non-animal vectors; 2) as exemplified by the Campanulaceae s. str., fruit orientation strongly correlates with dehiscence position. Upwardly-oriented capsules dehisce at the apex, whereas pendent ones dehisce at the base, in both cases ensuring that seeds are released from an upright position; 3) in manipulation experiments on Silene chungtienensis, upward fruits (the natural state) exhibit much greater dispersal distances and more dispersive pattern than pendent ones, and have a more even distribution of dispersal direction than horizontal ones. Our results suggest that fruit orientation may have important function in seed dispersal, which may be the reason why the phenomenon that stalk erection after flowering occurs widely. PMID:26832830

  6. Inflorescences of alpine cushion plants freeze autonomously and may survive subzero temperatures by supercooling

    PubMed Central

    Hacker, Jürgen; Ladinig, Ursula; Wagner, Johanna; Neuner, Gilbert

    2011-01-01

    Freezing patterns in the high alpine cushion plants Saxifraga bryoides, Saxifraga caesia, Saxifraga moschata and Silene acaulis were studied by infrared thermography at three reproductive stages (bud, anthesis, fruit development). The single reproductive shoots of a cushion froze independently in all four species at every reproductive stage. Ice formation caused lethal damage to the respective inflorescence. After ice nucleation, which occurred mainly in the stalk or the base of the reproductive shoot, ice propagated throughout that entire shoot, but not into neighboring shoots. However, anatomical ice barriers within cushions were not detected. The naturally occurring temperature gradient within the cushion appeared to interrupt ice propagation thermally. Consequently, every reproductive shoot needed an autonomous ice nucleation event to initiate freezing. Ice nucleation was not only influenced by minimum temperatures but also by the duration of exposure. At moderate subzero exposure temperatures (−4.3 to −7.7 °C) the number of frozen inflorescences increased exponentially. Due to efficient supercooling, single reproductive shoots remained unfrozen down to −17.4 °C (cooling rate 6 K h−1). Hence, the observed freezing pattern may be advantageous for frost survival of individual inflorescences and reproductive success of high alpine cushion plants, when during episodic summer frosts damage can be avoided by supercooling. PMID:21151351

  7. PNNL Results from 2010 CALIBAN Criticality Accident Dosimeter Intercomparison Exercise

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, Robin L.; Conrady, Matthew M.

    2011-10-28

    This document reports the results of the Hanford personnel nuclear accident dosimeter (PNAD) and fixed nuclear accident dosimeter (FNAD) during a criticality accident dosimeter intercomparison exercise at the CEA Valduc Center on September 20-23, 2010. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) participated in a criticality accident dosimeter intercomparison exercise at the Commissariat a Energie Atomique (CEA) Valduc Center near Dijon, France on September 20-23, 2010. The intercomparison exercise was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Nuclear Criticality Safety Program, with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory as the lead Laboratory. PNNL was one of six invited DOE Laboratory participants. The other participating Laboratories were: Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Savannah River Site (SRS), the Y-12 National Security Complex at Oak Ridge, and Sandia National Laboratory (SNL). The goals of PNNL's participation in the intercomparison exercise were to test and validate the procedures and algorithm currently used for the Hanford personnel nuclear accident dosimeters (PNADs) on the metallic reactor, CALIBAN, to test exposures to PNADs from the side and from behind a phantom, and to test PNADs that were taken from a historical batch of Hanford PNADs that had varying degrees of degradation of the bare indium foil. Similar testing of the PNADs was done on the Valduc SILENE test reactor in 2009 (Hill and Conrady, 2010). The CALIBAN results are reported here.

  8. LLNL Results from CALIBAN-PROSPERO Nuclear Accident Dosimetry Experiments in September 2014

    SciTech Connect

    Lobaugh, M. L.; Hickman, D. P.; Wong, C. W.; Wysong, A. R.; Merritt, M. J.; Heinrichs, D. P.; Topper, J. D.

    2015-05-21

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) uses thin neutron activation foils, sulfur, and threshold energy shielding to determine neutron component doses and the total dose from neutrons in the event of a nuclear criticality accident. The dosimeter also uses a DOELAP accredited Panasonic UD-810 (Panasonic Industrial Devices Sales Company of America, 2 Riverfront Plaza, Newark, NJ 07102, U.S.A.) thermoluminescent dosimetery system (TLD) for determining the gamma component of the total dose. LLNL has participated in three international intercomparisons of nuclear accident dosimeters. In October 2009, LLNL participated in an exercise at the French Commissariat à l’énergie atomique et aux énergies alternatives (Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission- CEA) Research Center at Valduc utilizing the SILENE reactor (Hickman, et.al. 2010). In September 2010, LLNL participated in a second intercomparison at CEA Valduc, this time with exposures at the CALIBAN reactor (Hickman et al. 2011). This paper discusses LLNL’s results of a third intercomparison hosted by the French Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (Institute for Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety- IRSN) with exposures at two CEA Valduc reactors (CALIBAN and PROSPERO) in September 2014. Comparison results between the three participating facilities is presented elsewhere (Chevallier 2015; Duluc 2015).

  9. Extensions to Dynamic System Simulation of Fissile Solution Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, Steven Karl; Bernardin, John David; Kimpland, Robert Herbert; Spernjak, Dusan

    2015-08-24

    Previous reports have documented the results of applying dynamic system simulation (DSS) techniques to model a variety of fissile solution systems. The SUPO (Super Power) aqueous homogeneous reactor (AHR) was chosen as the benchmark for comparison of model results to experimental data for steadystate operation.1 Subsequently, DSS was applied to additional AHR to verify results obtained for SUPO and extend modeling to prompt critical excursions, ramp reactivity insertions of various magnitudes and rate, and boiling operations in SILENE and KEWB (Kinetic Experiment Water Boiler).2 Additional models for pressurized cores (HRE: Homogeneous Reactor Experiment), annular core geometries, and accelerator-driven subcritical systems (ADAHR) were developed and results reported.3 The focus of each of these models is core dynamics; neutron kinetics, thermal hydraulics, radiolytic gas generation and transport are coupled to examine the time-based evolution of these systems from start-up through transition to steady-state. A common characteristic of these models is the assumption that (a) core cooling system inlet temperature and flow and (b) plenum gas inlet pressure and flow are held constant; no external (to core) component operations that may result in dynamic change to these parameters are considered. This report discusses extension of models to include explicit reference to cooling structures and radiolytic gas handling. The accelerator-driven subcritical generic system model described in References 3 and 4 is used as a basis for this extension.

  10. ECO-physiological response of S. vulgaris to CR(VI): Influence of concentration and genotype.

    PubMed

    Pradas Del Real, Ana E; García-Gonzalo, Pilar; Gil-Díaz, M Mar; González-Rodríguez, Águeda; Lobo, Carmen; Pérez-Sanz, Araceli

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this work is to study the response of Silene vulgaris to a range of environmentally relevant concentrations of Cr(VI) in order to evaluate its potential use in the phytomanagement of Cr polluted sites. Cuttings of six homogenous genotypes from Madrid (Spain) have been used as plant material. The eco-physiological response of S. vulgaris to Cr(VI) changed with the genotype. The yield dose-response curve was characterized by stimulation at low doses of Cr(VI). The effects of metal concentration were quantified on root dry weight, water content and chlorophyll content, determined by SPAD index. The response was not homogeneous for all studied genotypes. At high doses of Cr(VI), plants increased micronutrient concentration in dry tissues which suggested that nutrient balance could be implicated in the alleviation of Cr toxicity. This work highlights the importance of studying the eco-physiological response of metallophytes under a range of pollutant concentrations to determine the most favorable traits to be employed in the phytomanagement process. PMID:26375321

  11. Paleobiology of the Sand Beneath the Valders Diamicton at Valders, Wisconsin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maher, Louis J.; Miller, Norton G.; Baker, Richard G.; Curry, B. Brandon; Mickelson, David M.

    1998-03-01

    Previously undescribed pollen, plant macrofossils, molluscs, and ostracodes were recovered from a 2.5-m-thick glaciolacustrine unit of silty sand and clay at Valders, Wisconsin. The interstadial sediment was deposited about 12,200 14C yr B.P. after retreat of the Green Bay lobe that deposited diamicton of the Horicon Formation, and before advance of the Lake Michigan lobe that deposited the red-brown diamicton of the Valders Member of the Kewaunee Formation. Fluctuations of abundance of Candona subtriangulata, Cytherissa lacustris,and three other species define four ostracode biozones in the lower 1.7 m, suggesting an open lake environment that oscillated in depth and proximity to glacial ice. Pollen is dominated by Piceaand Artemisia,but the low percentages of many other types of long-distance origin suggest that the terrestrial vegetation was open and far from the forest border. The upper part of the sediment, a massive sand deposited in either a shallow pond or a sluggish stream, contains a local concentration of plant macrofossils. The interpretation of a cold open environment is supported by the plant macrofossils of more than 20 species, dominated by those of open mineral soils ( Arenaria rubella, Cerastium alpinumtype, Silene acaulis, Sibbaldia procumbens, Dryas integrifolia, Vaccinium uliginosumvar. alpinum, Armeria maritima,etc.) that in North America occur largely in the tundra and open tundra-forest ecotone of northern Canada. Ice-wedge casts occur in the sand.

  12. Ecological implications of reduced pollen deposition in alpine plants: a case study using a dominant cushion plant species

    PubMed Central

    Reid, Anya; Hooper, Robyn; Molenda, Olivia; Lortie, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    The reproductive assurance hypothesis states that self-incompatible female plants must produce twice the number of seeds relative to their self-compatible hermaphroditic counterparts to persist in gynodioecious populations. This is a viable life-history strategy, provided that pollination rates are sufficiently high. However, reduced pollination rates in alpine plants are likely due to climate induced plant-pollinator mismatches and general declines in pollinators. Using a gynodioecious population of the dominant plant Silene acaulis (Caryophyllaceae), we tested the reproductive assurance hypothesis and also the stress gradient hypothesis with a series of pollinator exclusion trials and extensive measurements of subsequent reproductive output (gender ratio, plant size, percent fruit-set, fruit weight, seeds per fruit, total seeds, seed weight, and seed germination). The reproductive assurance hypothesis was supported with female plants being more sensitive to and less likely to be viable under reductions in pollination rates. These findings are the first to show that the stress gradient hypothesis is also supported under a gradient of pollen supply instead of environmental limitations. Beneficiary abundance was negatively correlated to percent fruit-set under current pollen supply, but became positive under reduced pollen supply suggesting that there are important plant-plant-pollinator interactions related to reproduction in these alpine plant species. PMID:25075305

  13. Chemical dosimetry system for criticality accidents.

    PubMed

    Miljanić, Saveta; Ilijas, Boris

    2004-01-01

    Ruder Bosković Institute (RBI) criticality dosimetry system consists of a chemical dosimetry system for measuring the total (neutron + gamma) dose, and a thermoluminescent (TL) dosimetry system for a separate determination of the gamma ray component. The use of the chemical dosemeter solution chlorobenzene-ethanol-trimethylpentane (CET) is based on the radiolytic formation of hydrochloric acid, which protonates a pH indicator, thymolsulphonphthalein. The high molar absorptivity of its red form at 552 nm is responsible for a high sensitivity of the system: doses in the range 0.2-15 Gy can be measured. The dosemeter has been designed as a glass ampoule filled with the CET solution and inserted into a pen-shaped plastic holder. For dose determinations, a newly constructed optoelectronic reader has been used. The RBI team took part in the International Intercomparison of Criticality Accident Dosimetry Systems at the SILENE Reactor, Valduc, June 2002, with the CET dosimetry system. For gamma ray dose determination TLD-700 TL detectors were used. The results obtained with CET dosemeter show very good agreement with the reference values. PMID:15353694

  14. Hyperaccumulation of lead, zinc, and cadmium in plants growing on a lead/zinc outcrop in Yunnan Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, S. L.; Liao, W. B.; Yu, F. Q.; Liao, B.; Shu, W. S.

    2009-08-01

    A field survey was conducted to identify potential hyperaccumulators of Pb, Zn or Cd in the Beichang Pb/Zn mine outcrop in Yunnan Province, China. The average total concentrations of Pb, Zn, and Cd in the soils were up to 28,438, 5,109, and 52 mg kg-1, respectively. A total of 68 plant species belonging to 60 genera of 37 families naturally colonizing the outcrop were recorded. According to metal accumulation in the plants and translocation factor (TF), Silene viscidula was identified as potential hyperaccumulator of Pb, Zn, and Cd with mean shoot concentrations of 3,938 mg kg-1 of Pb (TF = 1.2), 11,155 mg kg-1 of Zn (TF = 1.8) and 236 mg kg-1 of Cd (TF = 1.1), respectively; S. gracilicanlis (Pb 3,617 mg kg-1, TF = 1.2) and Onosma paniculatum (Pb 1,837 mg kg-1, TF = 1.9) were potential Pb hyperaccumulators. Potentilla griffithii (Zn 8,748 mg kg-1, TF = 1.5) and Gentiana sp. (Zn 19,710 mg kg-1, TF = 2.7) were potential Zn hyperaccumulators. Lysimachia deltoides (Cd 212 mg kg-1, TF = 3.2) was a potential Cd hyperaccumulator. These new plant resources could be used to explore the mechanisms of Pb, Zn and/or Cd hyperaccumulation, and the findings could be applied for the phytoremediation of Pb, Zn and/or Cd-contaminated soils.

  15. Palaeobotanical evidence for warm summers in the East Siberian Arctic during the last cold stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kienast, Frank; Schirrmeister, Lutz; Siegert, Christine; Tarasov, Pavel

    2005-05-01

    Plant macrofossils from the "Mamontovy Khayata" permafrost sequence (71°60'N, 129°25'E) on the Bykovsky Peninsula reflect climate and plant biodiversity in west Beringia during the last cold stage. 70 AMS and 20 conventional 14C dates suggest sediment accumulation between about 60,000 and 7500 14C yr B.P. The plant remains prove that during the last cold-stage arctic species ( Minuartia arctica, Draba spp., Kobresia myosuroides) coexisted with aquatic ( Potamogeton vaginatus, Callitriche hermaphroditica), littoral ( Ranunculus reptans, Rumex maritimus), meadow ( Hordeum brevisubulatum, Puccinellia tenuiflora) and steppe taxa ( Alyssum obovatum, Silene repens, Koeleria cristata, Linum perenne). The reconstructed vegetation composition is similar to modern vegetation mosaics in central and northeast Yakutian relict steppe areas. Thus, productive meadow and steppe communities played an important role in the Siberian Arctic vegetation during the late Pleistocene and could have served as food resource for large populations of herbivores. The floristic composition reflects an extremely continental, arid climate with winters colder and summers distinctly warmer than at present. Holocene macrofossil assemblages indicate a successive paludification possibly connected with marine transgression, increased oceanic influence and atmospheric humidity. Although some steppe taxa were still present in the early Holocene, they disappeared completely before ˜2900 14C yr B.P.

  16. Influence of Environmental Changes on Physiology and Development of Polar Vascular Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giełwanowska, Irena; Pastorczyk, Marta; Kellmann-Sopyła, Wioleta

    2011-01-01

    Polar vascular plants native to the Arctic and the Antarctic geobotanical zone have been growing and reproducing effectively under difficult environmental conditions, colonizing frozen ground areas formerly covered by ice. Our macroscopic observations and microscopic studies conducted by means of a light microscope (LM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) concerning the anatomical and ultrastructural observations of vegetative and generative tissue in Cerastium arcticum, Colobanthus quitensis, Silene involucrata, plants from Caryophyllaceae and Deschampsia antarctica, Poa annua and Poa arctica, from Poaceae family. In the studies, special attention was paid to plants coming from diversity habitats where stress factors operated with clearly different intensity. In all examinations plants, differences in anatomy were considerable. In Deschampsia antarctica the adaxial epidermis of hairgrass leaves from a humid microhabitat, bulliform cells differentiated. Mesophyll was composed of cells of irregular shapes and resembled aerenchyma. The ultrastructural observations of mesophyll in all plants showed tight adherence of chloroplasts, mitochondria and peroxisomes, surface deformations of these organelles and formation of characteristic outgrowths and pocket concavities filled with cytoplasm with vesicles and organelles by chloroplasts. In reproduction biology of examined Caryophyllaceae and Poaceae plants growing in natural conditions, in the Arctic and in the Antarctic, and in a greenhouse in Olsztyn showed that this plant develops two types of bisexual flowers. Almost all ovules developed and formed seeds with a completely differentiated embryo both under natural conditions in the Arctic and the Antarctic and in a greenhouse in Olsztyn.

  17. Influence of Environmental Changes on Physiology and Development of Polar Vascular Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giełwanowska, Irena; Pastorczyk, Marta; Kellmann-Sopyła, Wioleta

    2011-01-01

    Polar vascular plants native to the Arctic and the Antarctic geobotanical zone have been growing and reproducing effectively under difficult environmental conditions, colonizing frozen ground areas formerly covered by ice. Our macroscopic observations and microscopic studies conducted by means of a light microscope (LM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) concerning the anatomical and ultrastructural observations of vegetative and generative tissue in Cerastium arcticum, Colobanthus quitensis, Silene involucrata, plants from Caryophyllaceae and Deschampsia antarctica, Poa annua and Poa arctica, from Poaceae family. In the studies, special attention was paid to plants coming from diversity habitats where stress factors operated with clearly different intensity. In all examinations plants, differences in anatomy were considerable. In Deschampsia antarctica the adaxial epidermis of hairgrass leaves from a humid microhabitat, bulliform cells differentiated. Mesophyll was composed of cells of irregular shapes and resembled aerenchyma. The ultrastructural observations of mesophyll in all plants showed tight adherence of chloroplasts, mitochondria and peroxisomes, surface deformations of these organelles and formation of characteristic outgrowths and pocket concavities filled with cytoplasm with vesicles and organelles by chloroplasts. In reproduction biology of examined Caryophyllaceae and Poaceae plants growing in natural conditions, in the Arctic and in the Antarctic, and in a greenhouse in Olsztyn showed that this plant develops two types of bisexual flowers. Almost all ovules developed and formed seeds with a completely differentiated embryo both under natural conditions in the Arctic and the Antarctic and in a greenhouse in Olsztyn.

  18. Inferring polyploid phylogenies from multiply-labeled gene trees

    PubMed Central

    Lott, Martin; Spillner, Andreas; Huber, Katharina T; Petri, Anna; Oxelman, Bengt; Moulton, Vincent

    2009-01-01

    Background Gene trees that arise in the context of reconstructing the evolutionary history of polyploid species are often multiply-labeled, that is, the same leaf label can occur several times in a single tree. This property considerably complicates the task of forming a consensus of a collection of such trees compared to usual phylogenetic trees. Results We present a method for computing a consensus tree of multiply-labeled trees. As with the well-known greedy consensus tree approach for phylogenetic trees, our method first breaks the given collection of gene trees into a set of clusters. It then aims to insert these clusters one at a time into a tree, starting with the clusters that are supported by most of the gene trees. As the problem to decide whether a cluster can be inserted into a multiply-labeled tree is computationally hard, we have developed a heuristic method for solving this problem. Conclusion We illustrate the applicability of our method using two collections of trees for plants of the genus Silene, that involve several allopolyploids at different levels. PMID:19715596

  19. Electrocyclic reactions of siloles: a combined experimental and theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Meyer-Wegner, Frank; Wender, Josef H; Falahati, Konstantin; Porsch, Timo; Sinke, Tanja; Bolte, Michael; Wagner, Matthias; Holthausen, Max C; Lerner, Hans-Wolfram

    2014-04-14

    The reaction of 4-chloro-1,2-dimethyl-4-supersilylsila-1-cyclopentene (2 a) with Li[NiPr2] at -78 °C results in the formation of the formal 1,4-addition product of the silacyclopentadiene derivative 3,4-dimethyl-1-supersilylsila-1,3-cyclopentadiene (4 a) with 2,3-dimethyl-4-supersilylsila-1,3-cyclopentadiene (5 a). In addition the respective adducts of the Diels-Alder reactions of 4 a+4 a and 4 a+5 a were obtained. Compound 4 a, which displays an s-cis-silacyclopentadiene configuration, reacts with cyclohexene to form the racemate of the [4+2] cycloadduct of 4 a and cyclohexene (9). In the reaction between 4 a and 2,3-dimethylbutadiene, however, 4 a acted as silene as well as silacyclopentadiene to yield the [2+4] and [4+2] cycloadducts 10 and 11, respectively. The constitutions of 9, 10, and 11 were confirmed by NMR spectroscopy and their crystal structures were determined. Reaction of 4-chloro-1,2-dimethyl-4-tert-butyl-4-silacyclopent-1-ene (2 c) with KC8 yielded the corresponding disilane (12), which was characterized by X-ray crystal structure analysis (triclinic, P1). DFT calculations are used to unveil the mechanistic scenario underlying the observed reactivity. PMID:24615826

  20. The role of multifunctional kinetics during early-stage silicon hydride pyrolysis: reactivity of Si2H2 isomers with SiH4 and Si2H6.

    PubMed

    Adamczyk, Andrew J; Broadbelt, Linda J

    2011-03-24

    Kinetic parameters for the dominant pathways during the addition of the four Si(2)H(2) isomers, i.e., trans-HSiSiH, SiSiH(2), Si(H)SiH, and Si(H(2))Si, to monosilane, SiH(4), and disilane, Si(2)H(6), have been calculated using G3//B3LYP, statistical thermodynamics, conventional and variational transition state theory, and internal rotation corrections. The direct addition products of the multifunctional Si(2)H(2) isomers were monofunctional substituted silylenes, hydrogen-bridged species, and silenes. During addition to monosilane and disilane, the SiSiH(2) isomer was found to be most reactive over the temperature range of 800 to 1200 K. Revised parameters for the Evans-Polanyi correlation and a representative pre-exponential factor for multifunctional silicon hydride addition and elimination reaction families under pyrolysis conditions were regressed from the reactions in this study. This revised kinetic correlation was found to capture the activation energies and rate coefficients better than the current literature methods. PMID:21361329

  1. Natural and planted flora of the log mountain surface - mined demonstration area, Bell County, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, R.L.; Wade, G.L.; Straw, R.A.

    1996-12-31

    A descriptive study of the naturally invading and planted flora was conducted during 1984-1985 on a 14- and 21-year-old contour surface mine the 14.2 ha Log Mountain Demonstration Area (LMDA), in Bell County, Kentucky. Six habitats are designated from areas created from coal mining; the 1963 bench, 1970 bench, bench highwalls, mine outslopes, mine seeps, and coal haul-telephone microwave tower road. Twenty-four of 25 woody and herbaceous species (11 indigenous, 13 non-indigenous) have persisted from plantings by personnel of the Northeastern Forest Experiment Station, USDA Forest Service. We recommend 11 native and exotic woody and herbaceous species for planting on coal surface-mined areas. An annotated list of vascular plants comprises 360 taxa (286 indigenous, 74 non-indigenous) in 224 genera from 82 families. Taxa consist of 1 Lycopodiophyta, 1 Equisetophyta, 8 Polypodiophyta, 7 Pinophyta, and 343 Magnoliophyta. The most species-rich families are the Asteraceae (64), Poaceae (39), Fabaceae (20), Cyperaceae (16), Rosaceae (13), and Lamiaceae (11). A total of 155 Bell County distribution records were documented. Three threatened Kentucky species (Gentiana decora, Liparis loeselii, Silene ovata) were present in refugial habitats created by surface mining. The high species richness has resulted from native and naturalized invading species from the environs, native and exotic planted species, and species from the remnant seed bank. Forest vegetation is a complex mosaic of natural and semi-natural plant communities on the unplanted and planted areas of LMDA.

  2. Evaluation of native plant flower characteristics for conservation biological control of Prays oleae.

    PubMed

    Nave, A; Gonçalves, F; Crespí, A L; Campos, M; Torres, L

    2016-04-01

    Several studies have shown that manipulating flowering weeds within an agroecosystem can have an important role in pest control by natural enemies, by providing them nectar and pollen, which are significant sources of nutrition for adults. The aim of this study was to assess if the olive moth, Prays oleae (Bernard, 1788) (Lepidoptera: Praydidae), and five of its main natural enemies, the parasitoid species Chelonus elaeaphilus Silvestri (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), Apanteles xanthostigma (Haliday) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), Ageniaspis fuscicollis (Dalman) (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) and Elasmus flabellatus (Fonscolombe) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), as well as the predator Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), can theoretically access the nectar from 21 flowering weeds that naturally occur in olive groves. Thus, the architecture of the flowers as well as the mouthpart structure and/or the head and thorax width of the pest and its enemies were analyzed. The results suggested that all beneficial insects were able to reach nectar of the plant species from Apiaceae family, i.e. Conopodium majus (Gouan) Loret, Daucus carota L. and Foeniculum vulgare Mill., as well as Asparagus acutifolius L., Echium plantagineum L., Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik., Raphanus raphanistrum L., Lonicera hispanica Boiss. et Reut., Silene gallica L., Spergula arvensis L., Hypericum perforatum L., Calamintha baetica Boiss. et Reut, Malva neglecta Wallr. and Linaria saxatilis (L.) Chaz. P. oleae was not able to access nectar from five plant species, namely: Andryala integrifolia L., Chondrilla juncea L., Dittrichia viscosa (L.) Greuter, Sonchus asper (L.) Hill and Lavandula stoechas L. PMID:26780918

  3. Post-floral Erection of Stalks Provides Insight into the Evolution of Fruit Orientation and Its Effects on Seed Dispersal.

    PubMed

    Niu, Yang; Zhou, Zhuo; Sha, Wen; Sun, Hang

    2016-01-01

    That stalks reorient after flowering to face upwards is a common phenomenon in many flowering plants, indicating the potential importance of fruit orientation on seed dispersal. But this idea has not been subject to an empirical test. We examined this hypothesis by analysing the evolutionary correlation between fruit orientation and other characters and by investigating the effects of fruit orientation on seed dispersal. We found that 1) in a sub-alpine plant community, upward fruit orientation strongly correlates with fruits that act as seed containers, which are often of dry type and are dispersed by non-animal vectors; 2) as exemplified by the Campanulaceae s. str., fruit orientation strongly correlates with dehiscence position. Upwardly-oriented capsules dehisce at the apex, whereas pendent ones dehisce at the base, in both cases ensuring that seeds are released from an upright position; 3) in manipulation experiments on Silene chungtienensis, upward fruits (the natural state) exhibit much greater dispersal distances and more dispersive pattern than pendent ones, and have a more even distribution of dispersal direction than horizontal ones. Our results suggest that fruit orientation may have important function in seed dispersal, which may be the reason why the phenomenon that stalk erection after flowering occurs widely. PMID:26832830

  4. Decomposition dynamics of mixed litter in a seasonally flooded forest near the Orinoco river

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastianoni, Alessia; Chacón, Noemí; Méndez, Carlos L.; Flores, Saúl

    2015-04-01

    We evaluated the decomposition of a litter mixture in the seasonally flooded forest of a tributary of the Orinoco river. This mixture was prepared using three litter species, based on the litter fall rate observed over a complete hydro-period (2012-2013). The mixture loading ratio was 0.46 of Pouteria orinocoensis (Sapotaceae), 0.38 of Alibertia latifolia (Rubiaceae) and 0.16 of Acosmium nitens (Fabaceae). The initial chemical composition of each single litter species was also determined. Litterbags (20 × 20 cm, 2 mm opening) containing either each single species or the mixture, were deployed on the flooded forest soil and sampled after 30, 240, 270, 300 and 330 days. There were differences in initial total N and P concentrations, with A. nitens (AN) showing the highest nutrient concentrations (%NAN = 1.86 ± 0.19; %PAN = 0.058 ± 0.008) and P. orinocoensis (PO) and A. latifolia (AL) the lowest (%NPO = 0.92 ± 0.06; %NAL = 1.04 ± 0.04; %PPO = 0.029 ± 0.005; %PAL = 0.032 ± 0.001). Litter from AN showed the greatest mass loss (55%) and fastest decomposition rate (k = 0.00185 ± 0.00028) while litter from AL and the mixture showed the smallest mass loss (24% and 27% respectively) and the slowest decomposition rate (kAL = 0.00078 ± 0.00012 and kMIX = 0.00077 ± 0.00006). Decomposition rates were significantly and positively correlated with initial N (r = 0.556, p < 0.05) and P concentrations (r = 0.482, p < 0.05). Nevertheless, there were no significant differences between the expected decomposition rate and the observed decomposition rate of the mixture (additive response). To test the nature of the additivity, an enhancement factor (f) on decomposition rates for each single species was calculated. The species with the highest and smallest value of f were AN and AL, respectively. The fact that two out of the three species had values significantly different from 1, suggests that the additivity detected in our mixture was a consequence of the counterbalancing of

  5. Seed release in serotinous lodgepole pine forests after mountain pine beetle outbreak.

    PubMed

    Teste, François P; Lieffers, Victor J; Landhausser, Simon M

    2011-01-01

    There are concerns that large-scale stand mortality due to mountain pine beetle (MPB) could greatly reduce natural regeneration of serotinous Rocky Mountain (RM) lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) because the closed cones are held in place without the fire cue for cone opening. We selected 20 stands (five stands each of live [control], 3 years since MPB [3-yr-MPB], 6 years since MPB [6-yr-MPB], and 9 years since MPB [9-yr-MPB] mortality) in north central British Columbia, Canada. The goal was to determine partial loss of serotiny due to fall of crown-stored cones via breakage of branches and in situ opening of canopy cones throughout the 2008 and 2009 growing seasons. We also quantified seed release by the opening of forest-floor cones, loss of seed from rodent predation, and cone burial. Trees killed by MPB three years earlier dropped approximately 3.5 times more cones via branch breakage compared to live stands. After six years, MPB-killed stands had released 45% of their canopy seed bank through cone opening, cone fall due to breakage, and squirrel predation. Further losses of canopy seed banks are expected with time since we found 9-yr-MPB stands had 38% more open canopy cones. This was countered by the development of a modest forest-floor seed bank (6% of the original canopy seed bank) from burial of cones; this seed bank may be ecologically important if a fire or anthropogenic disturbance reexposes these cones. If adequate levels of regeneration are to occur, disturbances to create seedbeds must occur shortly after tree mortality, before the seed banks are lost. Our findings also suggest that the sustained seed rain (over at least nine years) after MPB outbreak may be beneficial for population growth of ground-foraging vertebrates. Our study adds insight to the seed ecology of serotinous pines under a potentially continental-wide insect outbreak, threatening vast forests adapted to regeneration after fire. Key words: biotic disturbance; cone

  6. Hot wire chemical vapor deposition chemistry in the gas phase and on the catalyst surface with organosilicon compounds.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yujun

    2015-02-17

    CONSPECTUS: Hot wire chemical vapor deposition (HWCVD), also referred to as catalytic CVD (Cat-CVD), has been used to produce Si-containing thin films, nanomaterials, and functional polymer coatings that have found wide applications in microelectronic and photovoltaic devices, in automobiles, and in biotechnology. The success of HWCVD is largely due to its various advantages, including high deposition rate, low substrate temperatures, lack of plasma-induced damage, and large-area uniformity. Film growth in HWCVD is induced by reactive species generated from primary decomposition on the metal wire or from secondary reactions in the gas phase. In order to achieve a rational and efficient optimization of the process, it is essential to identify the reactive species and to understand the chemical kinetics that govern the production of these precursor species for film growth. In this Account, we report recent progress in unraveling the complex gas-phase reaction chemistry in the HWCVD growth of silicon carbide thin films using organosilicon compounds as single-source precursors. We have demonstrated that laser ionization mass spectrometry is a powerful diagnostic tool for studying the gas-phase reaction chemistry when combined with the methods of isotope labeling and chemical trapping. The four methyl-substituted silane molecules, belonging to open-chain alkylsilanes, dissociatively adsorb on W and Ta filaments to produce methyl radical and H2 molecule. Under the typical deposition pressures, with increasing number of methyl substitution, the dominant chemistry occurring in the gas phase switches from silylene/silene reactions to free-radical short chain reactions. This change in dominant reaction intermediates from silylene/silene to methyl radicals explains the observation from thin film deposition that silicon carbide films become more C-rich with a decreasing number of Si-H bonds in the four precursor molecules. In the case of cyclic monosilacyclobutanes, we have

  7. Experimental hybridization and backcrossing reveal forces of reproductive isolation in Microbotryum

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Hybridization and reproductive isolation are central to the origin and maintenance of species, and especially for sympatric species, gene flow is often inhibited through barriers that depend upon mating compatibility factors. The anther-smut fungi (genus Microbotryum) serve as models for speciation in the face of sympatry, and previous studies have tested for but not detected assortative mating. In addition, post-mating barriers are indicated by reduced fitness of hybrids, but sources of those barriers (i.e. ecological maladaptation or genetic incompatibilities) have not yet been detected. Here, backcrossing experiments, specifically controlling for the fungal species origins of the mating compatibility factors, were used to investigate reproductive isolation in the recently-derived species Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae and Microbotryum silenes-dioicae. Results Assortative mating was detected during backcrossing and was manifested by the preferential conjugation of the hybrid-produced gametes with non-hybrid gametes containing mating compatibility factors from the same parental species. Patterns of post-mating performance supported either a level of extrinsic isolation mechanism, where backcross progeny with a higher proportion of the pathogen genome adapted to the particular host environment were favored, or an infection advantage attributed to greater genetic contribution to the hybrid from the M. lychnidis-dioicae genome. Conclusion The use of controlled backcrossing experiments reveals significant species-specific mating type effects on conjugations between recently-derived sister species, which are likely to play important roles in both maintaining species separation and the nature of hybrids lineages that emerge in sympatry between Microbotryum species. PMID:24112452

  8. Stress Memory and the Inevitable Effects of Drought: A Physiological Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Fleta-Soriano, Eva; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2016-01-01

    Plants grow and develop by adjusting their physiology to changes in their environment. Changes in the abiotic environment occur over years, seasons, and days, but also over minutes and even seconds. In this ever-changing environment, plants may adjust their structure and function rapidly to optimize growth and reproduction. Plant responses to reiterated drought (i.e., repeated cycles of drought) differ from those to single incidences of drought; in fact, in nature, plants are usually exposed to repeated cycles of drought that differ in duration and intensity. Nowadays, there is increased interest in better understanding mechanisms of plant response to reiterated drought due, at least in part, to the discovery of epigenomic changes that trigger drought stress memory in plants. Beyond epigenomic changes, there are, however, other aspects that should be considered in the study of plant responses to reiterated drought: from changes in other “omics” approaches (transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics), to changes in plant structure; all of which may help us to better understand plant stress memory and its underlying mechanisms. Here, we present an example in which reiterated drought affects the pigment composition of leaves in the ornamental plant Silene dioica and discuss the importance of structural changes (in this case in the photosynthetic apparatus) for the plant response to reiterated drought; they represent a stress imprint that can affect plant response to subsequent stress episodes. Emphasis is placed on the importance of considering structural changes, in addition to physiological adjustments at the “omics” level, to understand stress memory in plants better. PMID:26913046

  9. A dynamical phyllotaxis model to determine floral organ number.

    PubMed

    Kitazawa, Miho S; Fujimoto, Koichi

    2015-05-01

    How organisms determine particular organ numbers is a fundamental key to the development of precise body structures; however, the developmental mechanisms underlying organ-number determination are unclear. In many eudicot plants, the primordia of sepals and petals (the floral organs) first arise sequentially at the edge of a circular, undifferentiated region called the floral meristem, and later transition into a concentric arrangement called a whorl, which includes four or five organs. The properties controlling the transition to whorls comprising particular numbers of organs is little explored. We propose a development-based model of floral organ-number determination, improving upon earlier models of plant phyllotaxis that assumed two developmental processes: the sequential initiation of primordia in the least crowded space around the meristem and the constant growth of the tip of the stem. By introducing mutual repulsion among primordia into the growth process, we numerically and analytically show that the whorled arrangement emerges spontaneously from the sequential initiation of primordia. Moreover, by allowing the strength of the inhibition exerted by each primordium to decrease as the primordium ages, we show that pentamerous whorls, in which the angular and radial positions of the primordia are consistent with those observed in sepal and petal primordia in Silene coeli-rosa, Caryophyllaceae, become the dominant arrangement. The organ number within the outmost whorl, corresponding to the sepals, takes a value of four or five in a much wider parameter space than that in which it takes a value of six or seven. These results suggest that mutual repulsion among primordia during growth and a temporal decrease in the strength of the inhibition during initiation are required for the development of the tetramerous and pentamerous whorls common in eudicots. PMID:25950739

  10. Unravelling genetics at the top: mountain islands or isolated belts?

    PubMed Central

    García-Fernández, Alfredo; Segarra-Moragues, Jose Gabriel; Widmer, Alex; Escudero, Adrian; Iriondo, José María

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims In mountain plant populations, local adaptation has been described as one of the main responses to climate warming, allowing plants to persist under stressful conditions. This is especially the case for marginal populations at their lowest elevation, as they are highly vulnerable. Adequate levels of genetic diversity are required for selection to take place, while high levels of altitudinal gene flow are seen as a major limiting factor potentially precluding local adaptation processes. Thus, a compromise between genetic diversity and gene flow seems necessary to guarantee persistence under oncoming conditions. It is therefore critical to determine if gene flow occurs preferentially between mountains at similar altitudinal belts, promoting local adaptation at the lowest populations, or conversely along altitude within each mountain. Methods Microsatellite markers were used to unravel genetic diversity and population structure, inbreeding and gene flow of populations at two nearby altitudinal gradients of Silene ciliata, a Mediterranean high-mountain cushion plant. Key Results Genetic diversity and inbreeding coefficients were similar in all populations. Substantial gene flow was found both along altitudinal gradients and horizontally within each elevation belt, although greater values were obtained along altitudinal gradients. Gene flow may be responsible for the homogeneous levels of genetic diversity found among populations. Bayesian cluster analyses also suggested that shifts along altitudinal gradients are the most plausible scenario. Conclusions Past population shifts associated with glaciations and interglacial periods in temperate mountains may partially explain current distributions of genetic diversity and population structure. In spite of the predominance of gene flow along the altitudinal gradients, local genetic differentiation of one of the lower populations together with the detection of one outlier locus might support the existence

  11. The ethnobotanical study of local Mediterranean food plants as medicinal resources in Southern Spain.

    PubMed

    Rivera, D; Obon, C; Inocencio, C; Heinrich, M; Verde, A; Fajardo, J; Llorach, R

    2005-03-01

    We studied medicinal and food plant species, recording an extraordinary number of species and uses in Castilla-La Mancha, Murcia and Valencia in Spain. Focusing on two demographically distinct regions - Castilla-La Mancha and Lower Segura Valley. A high proportion of the flora (20 to 30 %) is known for its medicinal properties, and, interestingly, a high number of medicinal-food plants (5 to 7 %) is recorded. The concept of "Local Food" involves the whole repertory of species that characterises the local diet (incl. local cultivars and non-cultivated gathered food plants). The number of food plant species varies between 15 and 25 % of the vascular flora, and for the gathered food plants (GFP) this decreases to a 3 to 8 %. Those GFP that are also used for medicinal purposes are only 2 to 4 % of the total vascular flora. The relevant plant families are very similar in relative numbers along the different areas: Compositae, Rosaceae and Umbelliferae, followed of Boraginaceae, Liliaceae, Cruciferae, and Caryophyllaceae. Chenopodiaceae, Polygonaceae and Gramineae are less uniformly represented or in lesser numbers. The high species diversity does not imply a general dietary relevance of this particular plant family. For instance Caryophyllaceae with a relatively low number of species comprises the "collejas" (Silene vulgaris) that have shown to be the more widely consumed species. Information regarding 145 species has been recorded. Among the Gathered Food Plant Species 81 are used in medicine, in double proportion than the cultivated food plants. 61 are orally administered, in the same form as food. PMID:15800388

  12. Stress Memory and the Inevitable Effects of Drought: A Physiological Perspective.

    PubMed

    Fleta-Soriano, Eva; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2016-01-01

    Plants grow and develop by adjusting their physiology to changes in their environment. Changes in the abiotic environment occur over years, seasons, and days, but also over minutes and even seconds. In this ever-changing environment, plants may adjust their structure and function rapidly to optimize growth and reproduction. Plant responses to reiterated drought (i.e., repeated cycles of drought) differ from those to single incidences of drought; in fact, in nature, plants are usually exposed to repeated cycles of drought that differ in duration and intensity. Nowadays, there is increased interest in better understanding mechanisms of plant response to reiterated drought due, at least in part, to the discovery of epigenomic changes that trigger drought stress memory in plants. Beyond epigenomic changes, there are, however, other aspects that should be considered in the study of plant responses to reiterated drought: from changes in other "omics" approaches (transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics), to changes in plant structure; all of which may help us to better understand plant stress memory and its underlying mechanisms. Here, we present an example in which reiterated drought affects the pigment composition of leaves in the ornamental plant Silene dioica and discuss the importance of structural changes (in this case in the photosynthetic apparatus) for the plant response to reiterated drought; they represent a stress imprint that can affect plant response to subsequent stress episodes. Emphasis is placed on the importance of considering structural changes, in addition to physiological adjustments at the "omics" level, to understand stress memory in plants better. PMID:26913046

  13. Steps towards verification and validation of the Fetch code for Level 2 analysis, design, and optimization of aqueous homogeneous reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Nygaard, E. T.; Pain, C. C.; Eaton, M. D.; Gomes, J. L. M. A.; Goddard, A. J. H.; Gorman, G.; Tollit, B.; Buchan, A. G.; Cooling, C. M.; Angelo, P. L.

    2012-07-01

    Babcock and Wilcox Technical Services Group (B and W) has identified aqueous homogeneous reactors (AHRs) as a technology well suited to produce the medical isotope molybdenum 99 (Mo-99). AHRs have never been specifically designed or built for this specialized purpose. However, AHRs have a proven history of being safe research reactors. In fact, in 1958, AHRs had 'a longer history of operation than any other type of research reactor using enriched fuel' and had 'experimentally demonstrated to be among the safest of all various type of research reactor now in use [1].' While AHRs have been modeled effectively using simplified 'Level 1' tools, the complex interactions between fluids, neutronics, and solid structures are important (but not necessarily safety significant). These interactions require a 'Level 2' modeling tool. Imperial College London (ICL) has developed such a tool: Finite Element Transient Criticality (FETCH). FETCH couples the radiation transport code EVENT with the computational fluid dynamics code (Fluidity), the result is a code capable of modeling sub-critical, critical, and super-critical solutions in both two-and three-dimensions. Using FETCH, ICL researchers and B and W engineers have studied many fissioning solution systems include the Tokaimura criticality accident, the Y12 accident, SILENE, TRACY, and SUPO. These modeling efforts will ultimately be incorporated into FETCH'S extensive automated verification and validation (V and V) test suite expanding FETCH'S area of applicability to include all relevant physics associated with AHRs. These efforts parallel B and W's engineering effort to design and optimize an AHR to produce Mo99. (authors)

  14. Effects of Metal Phytoextraction Practices on the Indigenous Community of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi at a Metal-Contaminated Landfill

    PubMed Central

    Pawlowska, Teresa E.; Chaney, Rufus L.; Chin, Mel; Charvat, Iris

    2000-01-01

    Phytoextraction involves use of plants to remove toxic metals from soil. We examined the effects of phytoextraction practices with three plant species (Silene vulgaris, Thlaspi caerulescens, and Zea mays) and a factorial variation of soil amendments (either an ammonium or nitrate source of nitrogen and the presence or absence of an elemental sulfur supplement) on arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi (Glomales, Zygomycetes) at a moderately metal-contaminated landfill located in St. Paul, Minn. Specifically, we tested whether the applied treatments affected the density of glomalean spores and AM root colonization in maize. Glomalean fungi from the landfill were grouped into two morphotypes characterized by either light-colored spores (LCS) or dark-colored spores (DCS). Dominant species of the LCS morphotype were Glomus mosseae and an unidentified Glomus sp., whereas the DCS morphotype was dominated by Glomus constrictum. The density of spores of the LCS morphotype from the phytoremediated area was lower than the density of these spores in the untreated landfill soil. Within the experimental area, spore density of the LCS morphotype in the rhizosphere of mycorrhizal maize was significantly higher than in rhizospheres of nonmycorrhizal S. vulgaris or T. caerulescens. Sulfur supplement increased vesicular root colonization in maize and exerted a negative effect on spore density in maize rhizosphere. We conclude that phytoextraction practices, e.g., the choice of plant species and soil amendments, may have a great impact on the quantity and species composition of glomalean propagules as well as on mycorrhiza functioning during long-term metal-remediation treatments. PMID:10831433

  15. Soil seed-bank composition reveals the land-use history of calcareous grasslands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karlík, Petr; Poschlod, Peter

    2014-07-01

    We compared soil seed banks and vegetation of recent (established on abandoned arable fields) and ancient (continuously managed as pastures at least since 1830) calcareous grasslands if there is any impact of former arable field use. The study was carried out in two regions of Southern Germany with well-preserved dry grassland vegetation: the western Jurassic mountains (Kaltes Feld) and the climatically drier eastern part of Southern Germany (Kallmünz). Total number of species in the seed bank was similar in both regions, but species composition partly differed, reflecting phytogeographical differences between the regions. The total number of emerged seedlings showed a large disparity (5457 compared to 2523 seedlings/m2 in Kaltes Feld and Kallmünz, respectively). Though there were differences in seed bank composition and size, we found a uniform pattern of plant traits (affiliation to phytosociological groups, Raunkiaer plant life-forms and seed longevity), which depended on the age of the grassland. The main conclusion is that seed banks in contemporary calcareous grasslands still reflect the history of former land use - in this case arable cultivation, even though it occurred a long time ago (up to 150 years). Indicators of former arable fields are germinable seeds of weeds which have persisted in the soil to the present. By contrast, weedy species are completely absent from the seed banks of ancient grasslands. Soil seed banks of recent grasslands may be of substantial conservation importance because they may store seeds of rare and endangered weed species such as Kickxia spuria, Silene noctiflora and Stachys annua, the majority of which have already gone extinct from the current vegetation of the study sites.

  16. SEX-DETector: A Probabilistic Approach to Study Sex Chromosomes in Non-Model Organisms.

    PubMed

    Muyle, Aline; Käfer, Jos; Zemp, Niklaus; Mousset, Sylvain; Picard, Franck; Marais, Gabriel Ab

    2016-01-01

    We propose a probabilistic framework to infer autosomal and sex-linked genes from RNA-seq data of a cross for any sex chromosome type (XY, ZW, and UV). Sex chromosomes (especially the non-recombining and repeat-dense Y, W, U, and V) are notoriously difficult to sequence. Strategies have been developed to obtain partially assembled sex chromosome sequences. Most of them remain difficult to apply to numerous non-model organisms, either because they require a reference genome, or because they are designed for evolutionarily old systems. Sequencing a cross (parents and progeny) by RNA-seq to study the segregation of alleles and infer sex-linked genes is a cost-efficient strategy, which also provides expression level estimates. However, the lack of a proper statistical framework has limited a broader application of this approach. Tests on empirical Silene data show that our method identifies 20-35% more sex-linked genes than existing pipelines, while making reliable inferences for downstream analyses. Approximately 12 individuals are needed for optimal results based on simulations. For species with an unknown sex-determination system, the method can assess the presence and type (XY vs. ZW) of sex chromosomes through a model comparison strategy. The method is particularly well optimized for sex chromosomes of young or intermediate age, which are expected in thousands of yet unstudied lineages. Any organisms, including non-model ones for which nothing is known a priori, that can be bred in the lab, are suitable for our method. SEX-DETector and its implementation in a Galaxy workflow are made freely available. PMID:27492231

  17. A Dynamical Phyllotaxis Model to Determine Floral Organ Number

    PubMed Central

    Kitazawa, Miho S.; Fujimoto, Koichi

    2015-01-01

    How organisms determine particular organ numbers is a fundamental key to the development of precise body structures; however, the developmental mechanisms underlying organ-number determination are unclear. In many eudicot plants, the primordia of sepals and petals (the floral organs) first arise sequentially at the edge of a circular, undifferentiated region called the floral meristem, and later transition into a concentric arrangement called a whorl, which includes four or five organs. The properties controlling the transition to whorls comprising particular numbers of organs is little explored. We propose a development-based model of floral organ-number determination, improving upon earlier models of plant phyllotaxis that assumed two developmental processes: the sequential initiation of primordia in the least crowded space around the meristem and the constant growth of the tip of the stem. By introducing mutual repulsion among primordia into the growth process, we numerically and analytically show that the whorled arrangement emerges spontaneously from the sequential initiation of primordia. Moreover, by allowing the strength of the inhibition exerted by each primordium to decrease as the primordium ages, we show that pentamerous whorls, in which the angular and radial positions of the primordia are consistent with those observed in sepal and petal primordia in Silene coeli-rosa, Caryophyllaceae, become the dominant arrangement. The organ number within the outmost whorl, corresponding to the sepals, takes a value of four or five in a much wider parameter space than that in which it takes a value of six or seven. These results suggest that mutual repulsion among primordia during growth and a temporal decrease in the strength of the inhibition during initiation are required for the development of the tetramerous and pentamerous whorls common in eudicots. PMID:25950739

  18. SEX-DETector: A Probabilistic Approach to Study Sex Chromosomes in Non-Model Organisms

    PubMed Central

    Muyle, Aline; Käfer, Jos; Zemp, Niklaus; Mousset, Sylvain; Picard, Franck; Marais, Gabriel AB

    2016-01-01

    We propose a probabilistic framework to infer autosomal and sex-linked genes from RNA-seq data of a cross for any sex chromosome type (XY, ZW, and UV). Sex chromosomes (especially the non-recombining and repeat-dense Y, W, U, and V) are notoriously difficult to sequence. Strategies have been developed to obtain partially assembled sex chromosome sequences. Most of them remain difficult to apply to numerous non-model organisms, either because they require a reference genome, or because they are designed for evolutionarily old systems. Sequencing a cross (parents and progeny) by RNA-seq to study the segregation of alleles and infer sex-linked genes is a cost-efficient strategy, which also provides expression level estimates. However, the lack of a proper statistical framework has limited a broader application of this approach. Tests on empirical Silene data show that our method identifies 20–35% more sex-linked genes than existing pipelines, while making reliable inferences for downstream analyses. Approximately 12 individuals are needed for optimal results based on simulations. For species with an unknown sex-determination system, the method can assess the presence and type (XY vs. ZW) of sex chromosomes through a model comparison strategy. The method is particularly well optimized for sex chromosomes of young or intermediate age, which are expected in thousands of yet unstudied lineages. Any organisms, including non-model ones for which nothing is known a priori, that can be bred in the lab, are suitable for our method. SEX-DETector and its implementation in a Galaxy workflow are made freely available. PMID:27492231

  19. Regeneration of whole fertile plants from 30,000-y-old fruit tissue buried in Siberian permafrost

    PubMed Central

    Yashina, Svetlana; Gubin, Stanislav; Maksimovich, Stanislav; Yashina, Alexandra; Gakhova, Edith; Gilichinsky, David

    2012-01-01

    Whole, fertile plants of Silene stenophylla Ledeb. (Caryophyllaceae) have been uniquely regenerated from maternal, immature fruit tissue of Late Pleistocene age using in vitro tissue culture and clonal micropropagation. The fruits were excavated in northeastern Siberia from fossil squirrel burrows buried at a depth of 38 m in undisturbed and never thawed Late Pleistocene permafrost sediments with a temperature of −7 °C. Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon dating showed fruits to be 31,800 ± 300 y old. The total γ-radiation dose accumulated by the fruits during this time was calculated as 0.07 kGy; this is the maximal reported dose after which tissues remain viable and seeds still germinate. Regenerated plants were brought to flowering and fruiting and they set viable seeds. At present, plants of S. stenophylla are the most ancient, viable, multicellular, living organisms. Morphophysiological studies comparing regenerated and extant plants obtained from modern seeds of the same species in the same region revealed that they were distinct phenotypes of S. stenophylla. The first generation cultivated from seeds obtained from regenerated plants progressed through all developmental stages and had the same morphological features as parent plants. The investigation showed high cryoresistance of plant placental tissue in permafrost. This natural cryopreservation of plant tissue over many thousands of years demonstrates a role for permafrost as a depository for an ancient gene pool, i.e., preexisting life, which hypothetically has long since vanished from the earth's surface, a potential source of ancient germplasm, and a laboratory for the study of rates of microevolution. PMID:22355102

  20. Effects of a warmer climate on seed germination in the subarctic

    PubMed Central

    Milbau, Ann; Graae, Bente Jessen; Shevtsova, Anna; Nijs, Ivan

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims In a future warmer subarctic climate, the soil temperatures experienced by dispersed seeds are likely to increase during summer but may decrease during winter due to expected changes in snow depth, duration and quality. Because little is known about the dormancy-breaking and germination requirements of subarctic species, how warming may influence the timing and level of germination in these species was examined. Methods Under controlled conditions, how colder winter and warmer summer soil temperatures influenced germination was tested in 23 subarctic species. The cold stratification and warm incubation temperatures were derived from real soil temperature measurements in subarctic tundra and the temperatures were gradually changed over time to simulate different months of the year. Key Results Moderate summer warming (+2·5 °C) substantially accelerated germination in all but four species but did not affect germination percentages. Optimum germination temperatures (20/10°C) further decreased germination time and increased germination percentages in three species. Colder winter soil temperatures delayed the germination in ten species and decreased the germination percentage in four species, whereas the opposite was found in Silene acaulis. In most species, the combined effect of a reduced snow cover and summer warming resulted in earlier germination and thus a longer first growing season, which improves the chance of seedling survival. In particular the recruitment of (dwarf) shrubs (Vaccinium myrtillus, V. vitis-idaea, Betula nana), trees (Alnus incana, Betula pubescens) and grasses (Calamagrostis lapponica, C. purpurea) is likely to benefit from a warmer subarctic climate. Conclusions Seedling establishment is expected to improve in a future warmer subarctic climate, mainly by considerably earlier germination. The magnitudes of the responses are species-specific, which should be taken into account when modelling population growth and migration

  1. Miniaturized mitogenome of the parasitic plant Viscum scurruloideum is extremely divergent and dynamic and has lost all nad genes

    PubMed Central

    Skippington, Elizabeth; Barkman, Todd J.; Rice, Danny W.; Palmer, Jeffrey D.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the enormous diversity among parasitic angiosperms in form and structure, life-history strategies, and plastid genomes, little is known about the diversity of their mitogenomes. We report the sequence of the wonderfully bizarre mitogenome of the hemiparasitic aerial mistletoe Viscum scurruloideum. This genome is only 66 kb in size, making it the smallest known angiosperm mitogenome by a factor of more than three and the smallest land plant mitogenome. Accompanying this size reduction is exceptional reduction of gene content. Much of this reduction arises from the unexpected loss of respiratory complex I (NADH dehydrogenase), universally present in all 300+ other angiosperms examined, where it is encoded by nine mitochondrial and many nuclear nad genes. Loss of complex I in a multicellular organism is unprecedented. We explore the potential relationship between this loss in Viscum and its parasitic lifestyle. Despite its small size, the Viscum mitogenome is unusually rich in recombinationally active repeats, possessing unparalleled levels of predicted sublimons resulting from recombination across short repeats. Many mitochondrial gene products exhibit extraordinary levels of divergence in Viscum, indicative of highly relaxed if not positive selection. In addition, all Viscum mitochondrial protein genes have experienced a dramatic acceleration in synonymous substitution rates, consistent with the hypothesis of genomic streamlining in response to a high mutation rate but completely opposite to the pattern seen for the high-rate but enormous mitogenomes of Silene. In sum, the Viscum mitogenome possesses a unique constellation of extremely unusual features, a subset of which may be related to its parasitic lifestyle. PMID:26100885

  2. Effect of the volcanic ash type uncertainties on ash and SO2 retrievals from satellite multi-spectral measurements in the TIR spectral range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corradini, Stefano; Merucci, Luca; Campion, Robin; Carboni, Elisa

    2013-04-01

    After the Eyjafjallajokull 2010 eruption the quantitative determination of the volcanic ash present in ash clouds has become more important because of the policy change from the previous zero tolerance to the new ash threshold based approach in the aviation hazard management. Volcanic SO2 has an impact on the environment and when injected at high altitudes can be oxidized to form sulphates capable of reflecting solar radiation then causing surface cooling. Observations of the volcanic degassing also yield insights into the magmatic processes which control volcanic activity during both quiescent and eruptive phases. During volcanic eruptions ash and gases are often emitted simultaneously. The plume ash particles reduce the top of atmosphere radiance in the entire thermal infrared (TIR) spectral range causing a significant SO2 columnar abundance overestimation. The ash optical properties are among the most critical parameters to set, their uncertainties cause meaningful errors on both ash and SO2 retrievals. In this work the effect effect of the volcanic ash type uncertainties on ash and SO2 retrievals from MODIS measurements in the TIR spectral range have been quantified. As test case some events of the 2010 Eyjafjallajokull (Iceland) eruption has been considered. The ash optical properties derive from the ARIA database of the Oxford University, while the MODIS SO2 and ash retrievals strategies are based on the BTD and minimization approaches using the channels centered at 8.7, 11 and 12 micron. The radiative transfer model simulations, needed for the retrievals schemes, are carried out by using MODTRAN [Corradini et al., 2009]. The MODIS SO2 retrievals have been also compared with the retrievals obtained by using IASI hyper-spectral and ASTER high spatial resolution data. The two procedures are considered less sensitive to the ash type: the ASTER retrieval scheme [Campion et al. 2010] consists of adjusting the SO2 column amount until the ratios of radiance

  3. Obituary: Martin F. McCarthy (1923-2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coyne, George; Rubin, Vera

    2011-12-01

    Martin F. McCarthy, S.J., astronomer at the Vatican Observatory from 1958 until his retirement in 1999, died peacefully on 5 February at the age of 86 years at the Jesuit Campion Health Center in Weston, Massachusetts where he had resided since his retirement. McCarthy received his doctorate in astronomy from Georgetown University, Washington, DC in 1951. The study of carbon stars, stars whose atmospheres contain more carbon than oxygen, was a major interest for McCarthy. Carbon stars were originally discovered and studied in the 1860s by Fr. Secchi, the eminent Jesuit astronomer. Interestingly, Fr. Secchi spent 1848-50 at Georgetown University in Washington, where Martin McCarthy would receive his PhD degree 101 years later. Upon completion of his seminary studies in theology, he carried out post-doctoral research at Warner and Swasey Observatory, Lick Observatory, the Dominion Astrophysical Observatory and Yerkes Observatory until he began his career at the Vatican Observatory where he served as a key figure in the Observatory's transition to the world of modern research. He also brought the Observatory onto the international stage through his collaborations in research at, among other institutes, Palomar Observatory, Lowell Observatory, Las Campanas Observatories, the Cerro Tololo Interamerican Observatory and the Carnegie Institute of Washington. He served on the Executive Council of the Italian Astronomical Society (1969-1971), was chair of the National Committee of the Vatican to the International Astronomical Union (IAU) from 1979 until his retirement and was President of IAU Commission 25 Stellar Photometry and Polarimetry (1976-1979). During his career he published more than 120 research papers. He was a natural teacher, who enjoyed explaining and talking science to students and visitors. Among his many contributions to the growth of the Vatican Observatory, he was responsible in 1986 for the beginning of the series of the Vatican Observatory Summer

  4. VizieR Online Data Catalog: The Initial Gaia Source List (IGSL) (Smart, 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smart, R. L.; Nicastro, L.

    2013-11-01

    The IGSL is a compilation catalog produced for the Gaia mission. We have combined data from the following catalogs or datasets to produce a homogenous list of positons, proper motions, photometry in a blue and red band and estimates of the magnitudes in the Gaia G and G_RVS bands. Included Catalogs: Tycho2, LQRF, UCAC4, SDSS-DR9, PPMXL, GSC23, GEPC, OGLE, Sky2000, 2MASS. Note that in compiling the various entries we did not consider the individual flags. Overall, we think this catalog is reliable but there will be errors, mismatches and duplicates. The user should use this catalog with that in mind, it is fine for statistical studies that has some way to remove obviously incorrect entries but it should only be used with care for individual objects. The source catalogs used to produce the IGSL are: * The Gaia Ecliptic Pole Catalog, version 3.0 (GEPC) Altmann & Bastian 2009, "Ecliptic Poles Catalogue Version 1.1" ESA Document GAIA-C3-TN-ARI-MA-002 URL http://www.rssd.esa.int/llink/livelink/open/2885828 * GSC2.3: GSC2 version 2.3, Lasker et al. 2008AJ....136..735L (I/305) * an excerpt of the 4th version of the Gaia Initial QSO Catalog (GIQC) as compiled by the GWP-S-335-13000, formed by Alexandre H. Andrei, Christophe Barache, Dario N. da Silva Neto, Francois Taris, Geraldine Bourda, Jean-Francois Le Campion, Jean Souchay, J.J. Pereira Osorio, Julio I. Bueno de Camargo, Marcelo Assafin, Roberto Vieira Martins, Sebastien Bouquillon, Sebastien Lambert, Sonia Anton, Patrick Charlot * OGLE: Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment version III (Szymaski et al., 2011, Cat. J/AcA/61/83) * PPMXL: Positions and Proper Motions "Extra Large" Catalog, Roeser et al. (2010, Cat. I/317) * SDSS: Sloan Digital Sky Survey data release 9, Cat. V/139 * UCAC4: Zacharias et al., 2012, Cat. I/322 * Tycho-2, Hoeg et al., 2000, Cat. I/259 (1 data file).

  5. A retro-biosynthetic approach to the prediction of biosynthetic pathways from position-specific isotope analysis as shown for tramadol

    PubMed Central

    Romek, Katarzyna M.; Nun, Pierrick; Remaud, Gérald S.; Silvestre, Virginie; Taïwe, Germain Sotoing; Lecerf-Schmidt, Florine; Boumendjel, Ahcène; De Waard, Michel; Robins, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    Tramadol, previously only known as a synthetic analgesic, has now been found in the bark and wood of roots of the African medicinal tree Nauclea latifolia. At present, no direct evidence is available as to the biosynthetic pathway of its unusual skeleton. To provide guidance as to possible biosynthetic precursors, we have adopted a novel approach of retro-biosynthesis based on the position-specific distribution of isotopes in the extracted compound. Relatively recent developments in isotope ratio monitoring by 13C NMR spectrometry make possible the measurement of the nonstatistical position-specific natural abundance distribution of 13C (δ13Ci) within the molecule with better than 1‰ precision. Very substantial variation in the 13C positional distribution is found: between δ13Ci = −11 and −53‰. Distribution is not random and it is argued that the pattern observed can substantially be interpreted in relation to known causes of isotope fractionation in natural products. Thus, a plausible biosynthetic scheme based on sound biosynthetic principals of precursor–substrate relationships can be proposed. In addition, data obtained from the 18O/16O ratios in the oxygen atoms of the compound add support to the deductions made from the carbon isotope analysis. This paper shows how the use of 13C NMR at natural abundance can help with proposing a biosynthetic route to compounds newly found in nature or those difficult to tackle by conventional means. PMID:26106160

  6. Composition and seasonality of diet in wild Hamadryas baboons: preliminary findings from Filoha.

    PubMed

    Swedell, Larissa; Hailemeskel, Getenet; Schreier, Amy

    2008-01-01

    Here we report the first year-round quantitative data on dietary composition and seasonality in wild hamadryas baboons. Study subjects were adult male members of band 3 at the Filoha field site in central lowland Ethiopia. Data collection consisted of 10-min focal samples during all-day follows 4-6 days per month over the course of 1 year. The two largest contributors to the diet were Hyphaene thebaica and Acacia senegal, and these were the only plant species found in the diet during every month of the year. Other relatively major contributors to the diet, such as Cyperus grandibulbosus, Seddera bagshawei, Tribulus cistoides and Typhalatifolia, showed a seasonal pattern. Fewer plant species were consumed during the dry months of the year compared to the wet months. During the hottest and driest months of the year, study subjects subsisted almost exclusively on H. thebaica, A. senegal, C. grandibulbosus and T.latifolia. Overall, these patterns suggest that this population of hamadryas baboons spends less time feeding and is able to subsist on a narrower array of plant foods compared to other baboons. This pattern may be driven by the presence at Filoha of the doum palm (H. thebaica), a high-quality food resource that is consumed year-round. PMID:18931503

  7. Isolation of genomic DNA suitable for community analysis from mature trees adapted to arid environment.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Amit Kumar; Harish; Rai, Manoj Kumar; Phulwaria, Mahendra; Shekhawat, Narpat Singh

    2011-11-10

    Isolation of intact and pure genomic DNA (gDNA) is essential for many molecular biology applications. It is difficult to isolate pure DNA from mature trees of hot and dry desert regions because of the accumulation of high level of polysaccharides, phenolic compounds, tannins etc. We hereby report the standardized protocol for the isolation and purification of gDNA from seven ecologically and medically important tree species of Combretaceae viz. Anogeissus (Anogeissus sericea var. nummularia, Anogeissus pendula, and Anogeissus latifolia) and Terminalia (Terminalia arjuna, Terminalia bellirica, Terminalia catappa and Terminalia chebula). This method involves (i) washing the sample twice with Triton buffer (2%) then (ii) isolation of gDNA by modified-CTAB (cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide) method employing a high concentration (4%) of PVP (Polyvinylpyrrolidone) and 50mM ascorbic acid, and (iii) purification of this CTAB-isolated gDNA by spin-column. gDNA isolated by modified CTAB or spin-column alone were not found suitable for PCR amplification. The Triton washing step is also critical. The quality of DNA was determined by the A(260)/A(280) absorbance ratio. gDNA was also observed for its intactness by running on 0.8% agarose gel. The suitability of extracted DNA for PCR was tested by amplification with RAPD primers, which was successful. Further, rbcLa (barcoding gene) was amplified and sequenced to check the quality of extracted gDNA for its downstream applications. PMID:21827837

  8. Treatment of swine wastewater in marsh-pond-marsh constructed wetlands.

    PubMed

    Reddy, G B; Hunt, P G; Phillips, R; Stone, K; Grubbs, A

    2001-01-01

    Swine waste is commonly treated in the USA by flushing into an anaerobic lagoon and subsequently applying to land. This natural system type of application has been part of agricultural practice for many years. However, it is currently under scrutiny by regulators. An alternate natural system technology to treat swine wastewater may be constructed wetland. For this study we used four wetland cells (11 m width x 40 m length) with a marsh-pond-marsh design. The marsh sections were planted to cattail (Typha latifolia, L.) and bulrushes (Scirpus americanus). Two cells were loaded with 16 kg N ha(-1) day(-1) with a detention of 21 days. They removed 51% of the added N. Two additional cells were loaded with 32 kg ha(-1) day(-1) with 10.5 days detention. These cells removed only 37% of the added N. However, treatment operations included cold months in which treatment was much less efficient. Removal of N was moderately correlated with the temperature. During the warmer periods removal efficiencies were more consistent with the high removal rates reported for continuous marsh systems--often > than 70%. Phosphorus removal ranged from 30 to 45%. Aquatic macrophytes (plants and floating) assimilated about 320 and 35 kg ha(-1), respectively of N and P. PMID:11804147

  9. Differences in defence responses of Pinus contorta and Pinus banksiana to the mountain pine beetle fungal associate Grosmannia clavigera are affected by water deficit.

    PubMed

    Arango-Velez, Adriana; El Kayal, Walid; Copeland, Charles C J; Zaharia, L Irina; Lusebrink, Inka; Cooke, Janice E K

    2016-04-01

    We tested the hypotheses that responses to the mountain pine beetle fungal associate Grosmannia clavigera will differ between the evolutionarily co-evolved host lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) and the naïve host jack pine (Pinus banksiana) and that these responses will be influenced by water availability. G. clavigera inoculation resulted in more rapid stem lesion development in lodgepole than in jack pine; water deficit delayed lesion development in both species. Decreased hydraulic conductivity was observed in inoculated lodgepole pine seedlings, likely because of tracheid occlusion by fungal hyphae and/or metabolite accumulation. Drought but not inoculation significantly impacted bark abscisic acid levels. Jasmonic and salicylic acid were implicated in local and systemic responses of both species to G. clavigera, with salicylic acid appearing to play a greater role in jack pine response to G. clavigera than lodgepole pine. Water deficit increased constitutive levels and/or attenuated induced responses to G. clavigera for several monoterpenes in lodgepole but not jack pine. Instead, inoculation of well-watered but not water deficit jack pine resulted in a greater number of xylem resin ducts. These findings reveal mechanisms underlying differences in G. clavigera-induced responses between lodgepole and jack pine hosts, and how water availability modulates these responses. PMID:26205849

  10. The role of a hybrid phytosystem in landscape water purification and herbicides removal.

    PubMed

    Kirumba, George; Ge, Ling; Wei, Dongyang; Xu, Cong; He, Yiliang; Zhang, Bo; Jiang, Cheng; Mao, Feijian

    2015-01-01

    The performance of a hybrid phytosystem in landscape water purification and herbicides removal was investigated. The phytosystem operating in an arboretum is located in the Minhang Campus of Shanghai Jiao Tong University, China. The phytosystem is composed of two purification stages: sedimentation Stage 1 without external air supply; and Stage 2 with an external air supply. Stage 2 is also vegetated with three major kinds of plants, namely Pontederia cordata L., Typha latifolia L. and Cyperus alternifolius L. The system's hydraulic loading rate (HLR) was maintained at 1.632 m/day between December 2013 and November 2014. Sedimentation, filtration and adsorption by filter media, combined microbial processes in the rhizosphere (nitrification-denitrification) and plant uptake of the pollutants were all responsible for water purification in the phytosystem. The biological and physical parameters analyzed were total dissolved nitrogen (TDN), nitrate (NO3-N), nitrite (NO2-N), ammonia (NH3-N), total dissolved phosphorus (TDP), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), turbidity, chlorophyll-a and algal cells number. Highest removal efficiencies for TDN, TDP, turbidity, DOC, chlorophyll-a and algal cells were 56.9%, 73.3%, 92.4%, 29.9%, 94.3% and 91.0%, respectively. When the phytosystem was considered for herbicides removal, removal efficiencies of more than 25% were noted for all the herbicides. PMID:26606100

  11. Accumulation of uranium by aquatic plants in field conditions: prospects for phytoremediation.

    PubMed

    Favas, Paulo J C; Pratas, João; Varun, Mayank; D'Souza, Rohan; Paul, Manoj S

    2014-02-01

    A study was undertaken to determine Uranium concentrations in water and aquatic plants in the uraniferous region of Beiras, Central Portugal. Samples were collected from running water (n=200) at places where aquatic species were observed. Plant samples were collected from 28 species of submerged, free-floating and rooted emergent plants including 2 bryophytes and 1 pteridophyte. Uranium concentrations in surface waters ranged from 0.23 to 1,217 μg L(-1). The aquatic plant species studied, including several previously untested species, exhibited the ability to accumulate U in concentrations many times that of the ambient water. In general submerged plants exhibited higher U content followed by rooted emergent and free floating species. The highest U concentrations were observed in the bryophyte Fontinalis antipyretica (up to 4,979 mg kg(-1)) followed by Callitriche stagnalis (1963mgkg(-1)), Callitriche hamulata (379 mg kg(-1)), Ranunculus peltatus subsp. saniculifolius (243 mg kg(-1)), Callitriche lusitanica (218 mg kg(-1)), and Ranunculus trichophyllus (65.8 mg kg(-1)). In two out of three rooted emergent species U seemed to be preferentially partitioned in rhizome/roots with highest rhizome U content recorded in Typha latifolia (380 mg kg(-1)). Among the free-floating species, the highest U content (42.5 mg kg(-1)) was seen in Lemna minor. The bryophyte F. antipyretica and Callitrichaceae members seem to be promising candidates for the development of phytofiltration methodologies based on U accumulation, abundance and biomass production. PMID:24239820

  12. Investigation of transpiration and/or accumulation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by plants

    SciTech Connect

    Goodrich, R.L.; Carlsen, T.M.

    1994-12-31

    The authors are in the planning stages of an investigation to explore plant transpiration and/or accumulation of VOCs (primarily Trichloroethylene [TCE]) by native vegetation. Such processes may naturally remediate these compounds in shallow ground water. To adequately quantify the amount of TCE in ground water prior to vegetation uptake, the authors will first install shallow piezometers adjacent to existing vegetation. Vegetation sampling will be synchronized with the ground water sampling to establish baseline conditions. They will conduct a literature search to identify potential structures with high lipid content in the plant species of interest (Populus fremontii, Typha latifolia and Salix). To investigate VOC distribution in the plant, individual morphological segments of the plant will be analyzed. The vegetation will be dissected into distinct segments, such as the vegetative (stem and leaves) and reproductive structures, to determine the possible accumulation of TCE at various points within the plant. They have completed preliminary development of analytical methods that they will use to analyze the samples. In the field, plastic (Tedlar) bags will be tightly secured onto the vegetation and a direct head-space analysis will be conducted on the bags, thus providing information on the rate of transpiration compared to the actual accumulation of VOCs within the plant. At a minimum, they expect to document VOC losses from the ground water via plant transpiration.

  13. Pericentromeric Regions of Soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) Chromosomes Consist of Retroelements and Tandemly Repeated DNA and Are Structurally and Evolutionarily Labile

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jer-Young; Jacobus, Barbara Hass; SanMiguel, Phillip; Walling, Jason G.; Yuan, Yinan; Shoemaker, Randy C.; Young, Nevin D.; Jackson, Scott A.

    2005-01-01

    Little is known about the physical makeup of heterochromatin in the soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) genome. Using DNA sequencing and molecular cytogenetics, an initial analysis of the repetitive fraction of the soybean genome is presented. BAC 076J21, derived from linkage group L, has sequences conserved in the pericentromeric heterochromatin of all 20 chromosomes. FISH analysis of this BAC and three subclones on pachytene chromosomes revealed relatively strict partitioning of the heterochromatic and euchromatic regions. Sequence analysis showed that this BAC consists primarily of repetitive sequences such as a 102-bp tandem repeat with sequence identity to a previously characterized ∼120-bp repeat (STR120). Fragments of Calypso-like retroelements, a recently inserted SIRE1 element, and a SIRE1 solo LTR were present within this BAC. Some of these sequences are methylated and are not conserved outside of G. max and G. soja, a close relative of soybean, except for STR102, which hybridized to a restriction fragment from G. latifolia. These data present a picture of the repetitive fraction of the soybean genome that is highly concentrated in the pericentromeric regions, consisting of rapidly evolving tandem repeats with interspersed retroelements.

  14. Influence of Water Content and Temperature on Molecular Mobility and Intracellular Glasses in Seeds and Pollen1

    PubMed Central

    Buitink, Julia; Claessens, Mireille M.A.E.; Hemminga, Marcus A.; Hoekstra, Folkert A.

    1998-01-01

    Although the occurrence of intracellular glasses in seeds and pollen has been established, physical properties such as rotational correlation times and viscosity have not been studied extensively. Using electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, we examined changes in the molecular mobility of the hydrophilic nitroxide spin probe 3-carboxy-proxyl during melting of intracellular glasses in axes of pea (Pisum sativum L.) seeds and cattail (Typha latifolia L.) pollen. The rotational correlation time of the spin probe in intracellular glasses of both organisms was approximately 10−3 s. Using the distance between the outer extrema of the electron paramagnetic resonance spectrum (2Azz) as a measure of molecular mobility, we found a sharp increase in mobility at a definite temperature during heating. This temperature increased with decreasing water content of the samples. Differential scanning calorimetry data on these samples indicated that this sharp increase corresponded to melting of the glassy matrix. Molecular mobility was found to be inversely correlated with storage stability. With decreasing water content, the molecular mobility reached a minimum, and increased again at very low water content. Minimum mobility and maximum storage stability occurred at a similar water content. This correlation suggests that storage stability might be at least partially controlled by molecular mobility. At low temperatures, when storage longevity cannot be determined on a realistic time scale, 2Azz measurements can provide an estimate of the optimum storage conditions. PMID:9765538

  15. The bud midge Prodiplosis longifila: Damage characteristics, potential distribution and presence on a new crop host in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Luis M; Guzman, Yoan C; Martínez-Arias, Adriana; Manzano, Maria R; Selvaraj, John J

    2015-01-01

    The Dipteran Prodiplosis longifila is a severe pest, mainly of Solanaceae, in South America and some years ago it damaged Tahiti lime crops in the United States. It is a potential invasive pest. Despite its presence in Colombia, nothing is known regarding the taxonomic identification of P. longifila or the characteristics of the damage it produces. Moreover, the current and potential distributions of this pest are unknown. To determine these factors, P. longifila was sampled in several Solanaceae- and Citrus (x) latifolia (Tahiti lime)-producing areas in Colombia. The larvae consumed tender foliage, flowers and fruits in tomato, fruits in sweet pepper, and buds in Tahiti lime. P. longifila was not found in asparagus or in potatoes. Its presence in Tahiti lime was previously unknown in Colombia. Adults recovered in the laboratory were taxonomically identified using male morphological characteristics such as the shapes of the genitalia, antenna and wing. P. longifila was found in the Andean region of Colombia. The ecological niche model for populations found in tomato suggests that P. longifila is limited in its distribution by altitude and variables associated with temperature and precipitation. The highest probability of occurrence is in areas where tomato, sweet pepper and the new host, Tahiti lime, are grown. Therefore, it is necessary to implement preventive measures, such as planting tomato materials free of P. longifila larvae, in areas where the pest is not yet present but where there is the potential for its development. PMID:25977894

  16. Influence of Different Plant Species on Methane Emissions from Soil in a Restored Swiss Wetland

    PubMed Central

    Bhullar, Gurbir S.; Edwards, Peter J.; Olde Venterink, Harry

    2014-01-01

    Plants are a major factor influencing methane emissions from wetlands, along with environmental parameters such as water table, temperature, pH, nutrients and soil carbon substrate. We conducted a field experiment to study how different plant species influence methane emissions from a wetland in Switzerland. The top 0.5 m of soil at this site had been removed five years earlier, leaving a substrate with very low methanogenic activity. We found a sixfold difference among plant species in their effect on methane emission rates: Molinia caerulea and Lysimachia vulgaris caused low emission rates, whereas Senecio paludosus, Carex flava, Juncus effusus and Typha latifolia caused relatively high rates. Centaurea jacea, Iris sibirica, and Carex davalliana caused intermediate rates. However, we found no effect of either plant biomass or plant functional groups – based on life form or productivity of the habitat – upon methane emission. Emissions were much lower than those usually reported in temperate wetlands, which we attribute to reduced concentrations of labile carbon following topsoil removal. Thus, unlike most wetland sites, methane production in this site was probably fuelled chiefly by root exudation from living plants and from root decay. We conclude that in most wetlands, where concentrations of labile carbon are much higher, these sources account for only a small proportion of the methane emitted. Our study confirms that plant species composition does influence methane emission from wetlands, and should be considered when developing measures to mitigate the greenhouse gas emissions. PMID:24586894

  17. Site History and Edaphic Features Override the Influence of Plant Species on Microbial Communities in Restored Tidal Freshwater Wetlands

    PubMed Central

    Prasse, Christine E.; Baldwin, Andrew H.

    2015-01-01

    Restored wetland soils differ significantly in physical and chemical properties from their natural counterparts even when plant community compositions are similar, but effects of restoration on microbial community composition and function are not well understood. Here, we investigate plant-microbe relationships in restored and natural tidal freshwater wetlands from two subestuaries of the Chesapeake Bay. Soil samples were collected from the root zone of Typha latifolia, Phragmites australis, Peltandra virginica, and Lythrum salicaria. Soil microbial composition was assessed using 454 pyrosequencing, and genes representing bacteria, archaea, denitrification, methanogenesis, and methane oxidation were quantified. Our analysis revealed variation in some functional gene copy numbers between plant species within sites, but intersite comparisons did not reveal consistent plant-microbe trends. We observed more microbial variations between plant species in natural wetlands, where plants have been established for a long period of time. In the largest natural wetland site, sequences putatively matching methanogens accounted for ∼17% of all sequences, and the same wetland had the highest numbers of genes coding for methane coenzyme A reductase (mcrA). Sequences putatively matching aerobic methanotrophic bacteria and anaerobic methane-oxidizing archaea (ANME) were detected in all sites, suggesting that both aerobic and anaerobic methane oxidation are possible in these systems. Our data suggest that site history and edaphic features override the influence of plant species on microbial communities in restored wetlands. PMID:25769832

  18. Analysis of sterol and other components present in unsaponifiable matters of mahua, sal and mango kernel oil.

    PubMed

    Dhara, Rupali; Bhattacharyya, Dipak K; Ghosh, Mahua

    2010-01-01

    The amount and characterization of phytosterol and other minor components present in three Indian minor seed oils, mahua (Madhuca latifolia), sal (Shorea robusta) and mango kernel (Mangifera indica), have been done. Theses oils have shown commercial importance as cocoa-butter substitutes because of their high symmetrical triglycerides content. The conventional thin layer chromatography (TLC), gas chromatography (GC) & gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) techniques were used to characterize the components and the high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) technique was used to quantify the each group of components. The experimental data showed that the all the three oils are rich in sterol content and among all the sterols, beta-sitosterol occupies the highest amount. Sal oil contains appreciable amount of cardenolides, gitoxigenin. Tocopherol is present only in mahua oil and oleyl alcohol is present in mango kernel oil. Hydrocarbon, squalene, is present in all the three oils. The characterization of these minor components will help to detect the presence of the particular oil in specific formulations and to assess its stability as well as nutritional quality of the specific oil. PMID:20299763

  19. Aboriginal uses and management of ethnobotanical species in deciduous forests of Chhattisgarh state in India

    PubMed Central

    Kala, Chandra Prakash

    2009-01-01

    A study on the native uses of ethnobotanical species was carried out in the south Surguja district of Chhattisgarh state in India with the major objective of identifying different food and medicinal plant species and also to understand their ongoing management and conservation. Through questionnaire and personal interviews, a total of 73 ethnobotanical species used by tribal and non-tribal communities were documented, of these 36 species were used in curing different types of diseases and 22 were used as edible food plants. This rich traditional knowledge of local people has an immense potential for pharmacological studies. The outside forces, at present, were mainly blamed to change the traditional system of harvesting and management of ethnobotanical species. The destructive harvesting practices have damaged the existing populations of many ethnobotanical species viz., Asparagus racemosus, Dioscorea bulbifera, Boswellia serrata, Buchnania lanzan, Sterculia urens and Anogeissus latifolia. The sustainable harvesting and management issues of ethnobotanical species are discussed in view of their conservation and management. PMID:19653889

  20. Review of potential environmental impacts of transgenic glyphosate-resistant soybean in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cerdeira, Antonio L; Gazziero, Dionsio L P; Duke, Stephen O; Matallo, Marcus B; Spadotto, Claudio A

    2007-01-01

    Transgenic glyphosate-resistant soybeans (GRS) have been commercialized and grown extensively in the Western Hemisphere, including Brazil. Worldwide, several studies have shown that previous and potential effects of glyphosate on contamination of soil, water, and air are minimal, compared to those caused by the herbicides that they replace when GRS are adopted. In the USA and Argentina, the advent of glyphosate-resistant soybeans resulted in a significant shift to reduced- and no-tillage practices, thereby significantly reducing environmental degradation by agriculture. Similar shifts in tillage practiced with GRS might be expected in Brazil. Transgenes encoding glyphosate resistance in soybeans are highly unlikely to be a risk to wild plant species in Brazil. Soybean is almost completely self-pollinated and is a non-native species in Brazil, without wild relatives, making introgression of transgenes from GRS virtually impossible. Probably the highest agricultural risk in adopting GRS in Brazil is related to weed resistance. Weed species in GRS fields have shifted in Brazil to those that can more successfully withstand glyphosate or to those that avoid the time of its application. These include Chamaesyce hirta (erva-de-Santa-Luzia), Commelina benghalensis (trapoeraba), Spermacoce latifolia (erva-quente), Richardia brasiliensis (poaia-branca), and Ipomoea spp. (corda-de-viola). Four weed species, Conyza bonariensis, Conyza Canadensis (buva), Lolium multiflorum (azevem), and Euphorbia heterophylla (amendoim bravo), have evolved resistance to glyphosate in GRS in Brazil and have great potential to become problems. PMID:17562462

  1. Purification and complete amino acid sequence of a new type of sweet protein taste-modifying activity, curculin.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, H; Theerasilp, S; Aiuchi, T; Nakaya, K; Nakamura, Y; Kurihara, Y

    1990-09-15

    A new taste-modifying protein named curculin was extracted with 0.5 M NaCl from the fruits of Curculigo latifolia and purified by ammonium sulfate fractionation, CM-Sepharose ion-exchange chromatography, and gel filtration. Purified curculin thus obtained gave a single band having a Mr of 12,000 on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of 8 M urea. The molecular weight determined by low-angle laser light scattering was 27,800. These results suggest that native curculin is a dimer of a 12,000-Da polypeptide. The complete amino acid sequence of curculin was determined by automatic Edman degradation. Curculin consists of 114 residues. Curculin itself elicits a sweet taste. After curculin, water elicits a sweet taste, and sour substances induce a stronger sense of sweetness. No protein with both sweet-tasting and taste-modifying activities has ever been found. There are five sets of tripeptides common to miraculin (a taste-modifying protein), six sets of tripeptides common to thaumatin (a sweet protein), and two sets of tripeptides common to monellin (a sweet protein). Anti-miraculin serum was not immunologically reactive with curculin. The mechanism of the taste-modifying action of curculin is discussed. PMID:2394746

  2. Identification of key neoculin residues responsible for the binding and activation of the sweet taste receptor

    PubMed Central

    Koizumi, Taichi; Terada, Tohru; Nakajima, Ken-ichiro; Kojima, Masaki; Koshiba, Seizo; Matsumura, Yoshitaka; Kaneda, Kohei; Asakura, Tomiko; Shimizu-Ibuka, Akiko; Abe, Keiko; Misaka, Takumi

    2015-01-01

    Neoculin (NCL) is a heterodimeric protein isolated from the edible fruit of Curculigo latifolia. It exerts a taste-modifying activity by converting sourness to sweetness. We previously demonstrated that NCL changes its action on the human sweet receptor hT1R2-hT1R3 from antagonism to agonism as the pH changes from neutral to acidic values, and that the histidine residues of NCL molecule play critical roles in this pH-dependent functional change. Here, we comprehensively screened key amino acid residues of NCL using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and alanine scanning mutagenesis. We found that the mutations of Arg48, Tyr65, Val72 and Phe94 of NCL basic subunit increased or decreased both the antagonist and agonist activities. The mutations had only a slight effect on the pH-dependent functional change. These residues should determine the affinity of NCL for the receptor regardless of pH. Their locations were separated from the histidine residues responsible for the pH-dependent functional change in the tertiary structure. From these results, we concluded that NCL interacts with hT1R2-hT1R3 through a pH-independent affinity interface including the four residues and a pH-dependent activation interface including the histidine residues. Thus, the receptor activation is induced by local structural changes in the pH-dependent interface. PMID:26263392

  3. Anti-Inflammatory Properties and Chemical Characterization of the Essential Oils of Four Citrus Species.

    PubMed

    Amorim, Jorge Luis; Simas, Daniel Luiz Reis; Pinheiro, Mariana Martins Gomes; Moreno, Daniela Sales Alviano; Alviano, Celuta Sales; da Silva, Antonio Jorge Ribeiro; Fernandes, Patricia Dias

    2016-01-01

    Citrus fruits have potential health-promoting properties and their essential oils have long been used in several applications. Due to biological effects described to some citrus species in this study our objectives were to analyze and compare the phytochemical composition and evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of essential oils (EO) obtained from four different Citrus species. Mice were treated with EO obtained from C. limon, C. latifolia, C. aurantifolia or C. limonia (10 to 100 mg/kg, p.o.) and their anti-inflammatory effects were evaluated in chemical induced inflammation (formalin-induced licking response) and carrageenan-induced inflammation in the subcutaneous air pouch model. A possible antinociceptive effect was evaluated in the hot plate model. Phytochemical analyses indicated the presence of geranial, limonene, γ-terpinene and others. EOs from C. limon, C. aurantifolia and C. limonia exhibited anti-inflammatory effects by reducing cell migration, cytokine production and protein extravasation induced by carrageenan. These effects were also obtained with similar amounts of pure limonene. It was also observed that C. aurantifolia induced myelotoxicity in mice. Anti-inflammatory effect of C. limon and C. limonia is probably due to their large quantities of limonene, while the myelotoxicity observed with C. aurantifolia is most likely due to the high concentration of citral. Our results indicate that these EOs from C. limon, C. aurantifolia and C. limonia have a significant anti-inflammatory effect; however, care should be taken with C. aurantifolia. PMID:27088973

  4. Anti-Inflammatory Properties and Chemical Characterization of the Essential Oils of Four Citrus Species

    PubMed Central

    Amorim, Jorge Luis; Simas, Daniel Luiz Reis; Pinheiro, Mariana Martins Gomes; Moreno, Daniela Sales Alviano; Alviano, Celuta Sales; da Silva, Antonio Jorge Ribeiro

    2016-01-01

    Citrus fruits have potential health-promoting properties and their essential oils have long been used in several applications. Due to biological effects described to some citrus species in this study our objectives were to analyze and compare the phytochemical composition and evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of essential oils (EO) obtained from four different Citrus species. Mice were treated with EO obtained from C. limon, C. latifolia, C. aurantifolia or C. limonia (10 to 100 mg/kg, p.o.) and their anti-inflammatory effects were evaluated in chemical induced inflammation (formalin-induced licking response) and carrageenan-induced inflammation in the subcutaneous air pouch model. A possible antinociceptive effect was evaluated in the hot plate model. Phytochemical analyses indicated the presence of geranial, limonene, γ-terpinene and others. EOs from C. limon, C. aurantifolia and C. limonia exhibited anti-inflammatory effects by reducing cell migration, cytokine production and protein extravasation induced by carrageenan. These effects were also obtained with similar amounts of pure limonene. It was also observed that C. aurantifolia induced myelotoxicity in mice. Anti-inflammatory effect of C. limon and C. limonia is probably due to their large quantities of limonene, while the myelotoxicity observed with C. aurantifolia is most likely due to the high concentration of citral. Our results indicate that these EOs from C. limon, C. aurantifolia and C. limonia have a significant anti-inflammatory effect; however, care should be taken with C. aurantifolia. PMID:27088973

  5. Effects of plant biomass on nitrogen transformation in subsurface-batch constructed wetlands: a stable isotope and mass balance assessment.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi; Wen, Yue; Zhou, Qi; Vymazal, Jan

    2014-10-15

    Nitrate is commonly found in the influent of subsurface-batch constructed wetlands (SSB CWs) used for tertiary wastewater treatments. To understand the effects of plants and the litter on nitrate removal, as well as on nitrogen transformation in SSB CWs, six laboratory-scale SSB CW microcosms were set up in duplicate and were operated as batch systems with hydraulic residence time (HRT) of 5d. The presence of Typha latifolia enhanced nitrate removal in SSB CWs, and the N removed by plant uptake was mainly stored in aboveground biomass. Typha litter addition greatly improved nitrate removal in SSB CWs through continuous input of labile organic carbon, and calculated enrichment factors (ε) were between -12.1‰--13.9‰ from the nitrogen stable isotope analysis, suggesting that denitrification plays a dominant role in the N removal. Most significantly, simultaneous sulfur-based autotrophic and heterotrophic denitrification was observed in CWs. Finally, mass balance showed that denitrification, sedimentation burial and plant uptake respectively contributed 54%-94%, 1%-46% and 7.5%-14.3% to the N removal in CWs. PMID:25000198

  6. Treatment of a molasses based distillery effluent in a constructed wetland in central India.

    PubMed

    Billore, S K; Singh, N; Ram, H K; Sharma, J K; Singh, V P; Nelson, R M; Dass, P

    2001-01-01

    A field-scale 4-celled, horizontal subsurface constructed wetland (CW) was installed to evaluate removal efficiencies of wastewater constituents in an industrial distillery effluent. Total and dissolved solids, NH4-N, TKN, P and COD were measured. This CW design provides four serial cells with synthetic liners and a river gravel base. The first two unplanted cells provide preliminary treatment. Specific gravel depths and ensuing biofilm growth provides anaerobic treatment in Cell 1 and anaerobic treatment in Cell 2. Cell 3 was planted with Typha latifolia with an inserted layer of brick rubble (for phosphorus removal). Locally grown reed, Phragmites karka was planted in Cell 4. COD was reduced from 8420 mg/l 3000 from Cell 1 to the outlet of Cell 4. Likewise other parameters: total and dissolved solids, ammonium and total nitrogen, and total P, indicated declining trends at the 4-celled CW effluent. This study reveals how high strength distillery wastewater strongly impacts morphology, aeration anatomy in the chiseled plant tissues, reed growth; and composition of the biofilm in the specialized substratum. The reliability of a CW for organic and nutrients reduction, in association with a poorly performing conventional system is discussed. There is an immense potential for appropriately designed constructed wetlands to improve high strength wastewaters in India. PMID:11804132

  7. Phytodiversity on fly ash deposits: evaluation of naturally colonized species for sustainable phytorestoration.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Vimal Chandra; Prakash, Prem; Bajpai, Omesh; Kumar, Akhilesh; Singh, Nandita

    2015-02-01

    Proliferation of fly ash (FA) deposits and its toxicity have become a global concern, which contaminate the ecosystems of our Earth. In this regard, identification of potential plant species for FA deposits' restoration is the main concern. Keeping this view in mind, the present study was conducted to identify potential plant species naturally growing on FA deposits for the restoration purposes. Six intensive surveys were made during 2010-2014 to collect naturally growing plant species during different seasons from two FA deposits in Unchahar of Raebareli district, Uttar Pradesh, India. The plant species having potential for FA deposits' restoration were identified on the basis of their ecological importance, dominance at the study sites and socio-economic importance for rural livelihoods. Typha latifolia L., Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers., Saccharum spontaneum L., Saccharum bengalense Retz. (syn. Saccharum munja), Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC., Ipomoea carnea Jacq. and Acacia nelotica L. are identified as potential plant species for FA deposits' restoration. Furthermore, the characteristics of naturally colonized species can be used for the phytorestoration during a revegetation plan of new FA deposits for multiple benefits. PMID:25209541

  8. Phytotoxicity and uptake of nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) by two plant species.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xingmao; Gurung, Arun; Deng, Yang

    2013-01-15

    Use of nano-scale zero valent iron (nZVI) for the treatment of various environmental pollutants has been proven successful. However, large scale introduction of engineered nanomaterials such as nZVI into the environment has recently attracted serious concerns. There is an urgent need to investigate the environmental fate and impact of nZVI due to the scope of its application. The goal of this study was to evaluate the toxicity and accumulation of bare nZVI by two commonly encountered plant species: cattail (Typha latifolia) and hybrid poplars (Populous deltoids×Populous nigra). Plant seedlings were grown hydroponically in a greenhouse and dosed with different concentrations of nZVI (0-1000 mg/L) for four weeks. The nZVI exhibited strong toxic effect on Typha at higher concentrations (>200 mg/L) but enhanced plant growth at lower concentrations. nZVI also significantly reduced the transpiration and growth of hybrid poplars at higher concentrations. Microscopic images indicated that large amount of nZVI coated on plant root surface as irregular aggregates and some nZVI penetrated into several layers of epidermal cells. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) and scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) confirmed the internalization of nZVI by poplar root cells but similar internalization was not observed for Typha root cells. The upward transport to shoots was minimal for both plant species. PMID:23247287

  9. Classifying honeys from the Soria Province of Spain via multivariate analysis.

    PubMed

    Nozal Nalda, M J; Bernal Yagüe, J L; Diego Calva, J C; Martín Gómez, M T

    2005-05-01

    A total of 73 different honeys from seven botanical origins [ling (Calluna vulgaris L.), heather (Erica sp.), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), honeydew (Quercus sp.), spike lavender (Lavandula latifolia M.) and french lavender (Lavandula stoechas L.)] have been classified by applying discriminant analysis to their metal content data and other common physicochemical parameters. Fifteen minerals were identified and quantified using atomic emission spectroscopy (AES) for K and Na, and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) for Mg, Ca, Al, Fe, Mn, Zn, B, Cu, Co, Cr, Ni, Cd and Pb. Moreover, eight physicochemical parameters were analysed following the Harmonised Methods of the International Honey Commision: ash content, moisture, insoluble matter, reducing sugars, apparent sucrose, diastase activity, free acidity and hydroxymethylfurfural. The honeys analysed were characterised and distinguished using chemometrics. ANOVA highlighted significant differences between the honeys in terms of the mean contents of all variables except apparent sucrose, HMF, Fe and Zn. Principal component analysis was used as a descriptive tool to visualise the data structure in two dimensions, finding relationships between variables and types of honey. Likewise, discriminant analysis, together with various methods (stepwise, forward and backward), was used to select the variables with the highest discriminating power, which allowed us to classify all of the botanical origins considered in this work, achieving a global success rate close to 90% following cross-validation. PMID:15856192

  10. Usefulness of different vascular plant species for passive biomonitoring of Mediterranean rivers.

    PubMed

    Baldantoni, Daniela; Alfani, Anna

    2016-07-01

    Choosing native vascular plants as nutrient and toxic element accumulators for passive biomonitoring of urban river quality is not an easy task in Mediterranean rivers, due to the particular climate determining high variations in river hydrology. To identify potential biomonitors for this area, the roots of seven species (Angelica sylvestris, Apium nodiflorum, Tradescantia fluminensis, Nasturtium officinale, Persicaria lapathifolia, Arctium lappa, Typha latifolia), growing in seven sites along the River Irno (Southern Italy), were collected in July 2010 and analyzed regarding their capability to accumulate Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, V, and Zn through atomic absorption spectrometry. Notwithstanding the expected different accumulation degree among the species, they highlighted similar spatial contamination gradients, and all of them appeared suitable, alone or in combination, for river passive biomonitoring. A. nodiflorum, in particular, appeared the best biomonitor for the River Irno, where severe anthropogenic impacts were detected: high Cu and Cd contamination from vine cultivation in the upper stretch, and Pb, Zn, and Mn contamination in the medium stretch from airborne dusts coming from a cast iron foundry. PMID:27040538

  11. Assessment of native plant species for phytoremediation of heavy metals growing in the vicinity of NTPC sites, Kahalgaon, India.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Alka; Lal, Brij; Rai, Upendra Nath

    2016-01-01

    The present investigation was carried out to screen native plants growing in fly ash (FA) contaminated areas near National Thermal Power Corporation (NTPC), Kahalgaon, Bihar, India with a view to using them for the eco-restoration of the area. A total number of 30 plant species (5 aquatic and 25 terrestrial including 6 ferns) were collected and their diversity status and dominance were also studied. After screening of dominant species at highly polluted site, 8 terrestrial and 5 aquatic plants were analyzed for heavy metals (Fe, Zn, Cu, Ni, Si, Al, Pb, Cr, and Cd). Differential accumulations of various heavy metals by different species of plants were observed. Typha latifolia was found to be most efficient metal accumulator of Fe (927), Cu (58), Zn (87), Ni (57), Al (67), Cd (95), and Pb (69), and Azolla pinnata as Cr (93) hyper-accumulator among aquatic species in µg g(-1). In terrestrial species the maximum levels of Fe (998), Zn (81), Ni (93), Al (121), and Si (156) were found in Croton bonplandium. However, there was high spatial variability in total metal accumulation in different species indicated by coefficient of variation (CV%). These results suggest that various aquatic, some dominant terrestrial plants including fern species may be used in a synergistic way to remediate and restore the FA contaminated wastelands. PMID:26442874

  12. Nutritional ecology of the formosan subterranean termite (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae): feeding response to commercial wood species.

    PubMed

    Morales-Ramos, J A; Rojas, M G

    2001-04-01

    The feeding preferences of the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, were tested in three separate experiments on 28 different wood species. Experiment 1 was a multiple-choice test designed to test relative preferences among 24 wood species commercially available in New Orleans, LA. Experiment 2 was a similar study designed to test relative preferences among 21 wood species shown or reported to be unpalatable to the Formosan subterranean termite. Experiment 3 was a no-choice test to examine the feeding deterrence of the 10 least preferred wood species. Preference was determined by consumption rates. Birch (Betula alleghaniensis Britton), red gum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.), Parana pine [Araucaria angustifolia (Bert.) 1, sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.), pecan (Carya illinoensis Wangenh.), and northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) were the most preferred species by C. formosanus in order of consumption rate. All of these species were significantly more preferred than southern yellow pine (Pinus taeda L.), widely used for monitoring. Sinker cypress [ = old growth bald cypress, Taxodium distichum (L.)], western red cedar (Thuja plicata Donn), Alaskan yellow cedar (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis D. Don), eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana L.), sassafras [Sassafras albidum (Nutt.)], Spanish cedar (Cedrella odorata L.), Honduras mahogany (Swietenia macrophyla King), Indian rosewood (Dalbergia latifolia Roxb.), Honduras rosewood (D. stevensonii Standl.), and morado (Machaerium sp.) induced significant feeding deterrence and mortality to C. formosanus. The last eight species produced 100% mortality after 3 mo. PMID:11332848

  13. Structural correlates of imbibitional injury in Typha pollen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sack, F. D.; Leopold, A. C.; Hoekstra, F. A.

    1988-01-01

    The ultrastructure of Typha latifolia pollen was examined as a function of pollen moisture content and incubation temperature, in order to identify possible lesions induced by imbibitional chilling. A syndrome of structural traits was found which characterizes damaged grains. Compared to viable grains, the protoplast of damaged pollen has a higher proportion of its volume occupied by vesicles, and less volume occupied by cytoplasm. Damaged grains also tend to have dilated cisternae of endoplasmic reticulum, larger starch grains and lipid bodies, poorly preserved mitochondria and membranes, and, sometimes, numerous electron-dense globules associated with membranes. The percentage of grains exhibiting this damage syndrome correlates closely with the number of ungerminated grains in most samples, regardless of moisture content or incubation temperature. Injury due to rapid imbibition from the dry state or to imbibitional chilling appear to be similar structurally, regardless of whether the stresses are imposed singly or together. The injury is not confined to one cell component (e.g., mitochondria), but may involve a generalized disruption of membranes. These results suggest that similar stress responses are elicited by imbibition from the dry state and by imbibitional chilling.

  14. [Effects of aquatic plants during their decay and decomposition on water quality].

    PubMed

    Tang, Jin-Yan; Cao, Pei-Pei; Xu, Chi; Liu, Mao-Song

    2013-01-01

    Taking 6 aquatic plant species as test objects, a 64-day decomposition experiment was conducted to study the temporal variation patterns of nutrient concentration in water body during the process of the aquatic plant decomposition. There existed greater differences in the decomposition rates between the 6 species. Floating-leaved plants had the highest decomposition rate, followed by submerged plants, and emerged plants. The effects of the aquatic plant species during their decomposition on water quality differed, which was related to the plant biomass density. During the decomposition of Phragmites australis, water body had the lowest concentrations of chemical oxygen demand, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus. In the late decomposition period of Zizania latifolia, the concentrations of water body chemical oxygen demand and total nitrogen increased, resulting in the deterioration of water quality. In the decomposition processes of Nymphoides peltatum and Nelumbo nucifera, the concentrations of water body chemical oxygen demand and total nitrogen were higher than those during the decomposition of other test plants. In contrast, during the decomposition of Potamogeton crispus and Myriophyllum verticillatum, water body had the highest concentrations of ammonium, nitrate, and total phosphorus. For a given plant species, the main water quality indices had the similar variation trends under different biomass densities. It was suggested that the existence of moderate plant residues could effectively promote the nitrogen and phosphorus cycles in water body, reduce its nitrate concentration to some extent, and decrease the water body nitrogen load. PMID:23717994

  15. Seasonal effect on N2O formation in nitrification in constructed wetlands.

    PubMed

    Inamori, Ryuhei; Wang, Yanhua; Yamamoto, Tomoko; Zhang, Jixiang; Kong, Hainan; Xu, Kaiqin; Inamori, Yuhei

    2008-10-01

    Constructed wetlands are considered to be important sources of nitrous oxide (N(2)O). In order to investigate the contribution of nitrification in N(2)O formation, some environmental factors, plant species and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in active layers have been compared. Vegetation cells indicated remarkable effect of seasons and different plant species on N(2)O emission and AOB amount. Nitrous oxide data showed large temporal and spatial fluctuations ranging 0-52.8 mg N(2)O m(-2)d(-1). Higher AOB amount and N(2)O flux rate were observed in the Zizania latifolia cell, reflecting high potential of global warming. Roles of plants as ecosystem engineers are summarized with rhizosphere oxygen release and organic matter transportation to affect nitrogen transformation. The Phragmites australis cell contributed to keeping high T-N removal performance and lower N(2)O emission. The distribution of AOB also supported this result. Statistical analysis showed several environmental parameters affecting the strength of observed greenhouse gases emission, such as water temperature, water level, TOC, plant species and plant cover. PMID:18782640

  16. Accumulation of Cd, Pb and Zn by 19 wetland plant species in constructed wetland.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianguo; Dong, Yuan; Xu, Hai; Wang, Deke; Xu, Jiakuan

    2007-08-25

    Uptake and distribution of Cd, Pb and Zn by 19 wetland plant species were investigated with experiments in small-scale plot constructed wetlands, into which artificial wastewater dosed with Cd, Pb and Zn at concentrations of 0.5, 2.0 and 5.0mgl(-1) was irrigated. The results showed that the removal efficiency of Cd, Pb and Zn from the wastewater were more than 90%. Generally, there were tens differences among the 19 plant species in the concentrations and quantity accumulations of the heavy metals in aboveground part, underground part and whole plants. The distribution ratios into aboveground parts for the metals absorbed by plants varied also largely from about 30% to about 90%. All the plants accumulated, in one harvest, 19.85% of Cd, 22.55% of Pb and 23.75% of Zn that were added into the wastewater. Four plant species, e.g. Alternanthera philoxeroides, Zizania latifolia, Echinochloa crus-galli and Polygonum hydropiper, accumulated high amounts of Cd, Pb and Zn. Monochoria vaginalis was capable for accumulating Cd and Pb, Isachne globosa for Cd and Zn, and Digitaria sanguinalis and Fimbristylis miliacea for Zn. The results indicated that the plants, in constructed wetland for the treatment of wastewater polluted by heavy metals, can play important roles for removal of heavy metals through phytoextraction. Selection of plant species for use in constructed wetland will influence considerably removal efficiency and the function duration of the wetland. PMID:17353090

  17. Seasonal changes in supercooling points and glycerol content in overwintering larvae of the asiatic rice borer from rice and water-oat plants.

    PubMed

    Hou, Maolin; Lin, Wei; Han, Yongqiang

    2009-08-01

    The Asiatic rice borer Chilo suppressalis (Walker) occurs mainly on rice Oryza sativa L. and water-oat Zizania latifolia (Turcz). Certain ecological and physiological differentiations between rice and water-oat populations have been shown. To determine whether there is host-associated differentiation in supercooling capacity, seasonal changes in supercooling points, glycerol content, and other physiological parameters of naturally occurring C. suppressalis larvae overwintering in rice and water-oat plants were compared over the winter. Supercooling points were low in the winter (November and December), significantly higher in March, and significantly lower in the water-oat population than in the rice population in the winter. Larvae from the water-oat population experienced a significant weight loss from December to March and were heavier than those from the rice population in the winter. Body water content (percentage of fresh weight) was low in the winter and increased significantly in March; no population differences were detected. Hemolymph glycerol content was high in the winter and dropped significantly in March; interpopulation differences were significant in December. Hemolymph trehalose content increased in the winter, and no population differences were detected. Whole body glucose and lipid content varied differently between the rice and the water-oat populations over the winter. It was found that variations in hemolymph glycerol content were responsible for the host-associated seasonal changes in supercooling capacity of overwintering larvae of the Asiatic rice borer. PMID:19689898

  18. [Accumulation of non-point source pollutants in ditch wetland and their uptake and purification by plants].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Cuiling; Fan, Xiaoqiu; Zhang, Yibing

    2005-07-01

    The study on the vertical and horizontal distribution of organic matters and total nitrogen (TN) in the sediment of ditch wetland naturally grown with reed (Phragmites communis) and wild rice (Zizania latifolia) showed that the sediment below 40 cm depth had a significant effectiveness in retaining and accumulating organic matters and TN, but in its surface layer, this effectiveness varied largely with seasons, and the maximum was more than twofold of the minimum. TN was highly correlated with organic matters, the correlation coefficient being 0.9876 in reed wetland and 0.9335 in wild rice wetland, and in water phase, it was positively related to NH4+ -N and NO3-N, indicating that the main composition of TN was organic N, and the mineralization of organic N was the sources of inorganic N. The harvest of reed in each autumn could take away 818 kg x hm(-2) of N and 103.6 kg x hm(-2) of P, and that of wild rice could take away 131 kg x hm(-2) of N and 28.9 kg x hm(-2) of P. Zizania caduci flora had a high assimilation ability of nutrients. Its cultivation in ditch wetland to replace wild helophytes would be a good approach to attain higher absorbing ability of N and P, and to resolve the secondary pollution problem of emerged plants, because farmers could harvest it voluntarily. PMID:16252882

  19. Mobilized retrotransposon Tos17 of rice by alien DNA introgression transposes into genes and causes structural and methylation alterations of a flanking genomic region.

    PubMed

    Han, F P; Liu, Z L; Tan, M; Hao, S; Fedak, G; Liu, B

    2004-01-01

    Tos17 is a copia-like endogenous retrotransposon of rice, which can be activated by various stresses such as tissue culture and alien DNA introgression. To confirm element mobilization by introgression and to study possible structural and epigenetic effects of Tos17 insertion on its target sequences, we isolated all flanking regions of Tos17 in an introgressed rice line (Tong35) that contains minute amount of genomic DNA from wild rice (Zizania latifolia). It was found that there has been apparent but limited mobilization of Tos17 in this introgression line, as being reflected by increased but stable copy number of the element in progeny of the line. Three of the five activated copies of the element have transposed into genes. Based on sequence analysis and Southern blot hybridization with several double-enzyme digests, no structural change in Tos17 could be inferred in the introgression line. Cytosine methylation status at all seven CCGG sites within Tos17 was also identical between the introgression line and its rice parent (Matsumae)-all sites being heavily methylated. In contrast, changes in structure and cytosine methylation patterns were detected in one of the three low-copy genomic regions that flank newly transposed Tos17, and all changes are stably inherited through selfed generations. PMID:15703040

  20. A multi-source portable light emitting diode spectrofluorometer.

    PubMed

    Obeidat, Safwan; Bai, Baolong; Rayson, Gary D; Anderson, Dean M; Puscheck, Adam D; Landau, Serge Y; Glasser, Tzach

    2008-03-01

    A portable luminescence spectrofluorometer weighing only 1.5 kg that uses multiple light emitting diodes (LEDs) as excitation sources was developed and evaluated. Excitation using a sequence of seven individual broad-band LED emission sources enabled the generation of excitation-emission spectra using a light weight (<1.5 kg) spectrometer. Limits of detection for rhodamine 6G, rhodamine B, and fluorescein were 2.9, 3.2, and 11.0 nM, respectively. Generation of excitation-emission matrices (EEMs) enabled the analysis of samples containing mixtures of rhodamine B and fluorescein. Buffered saline plant and animal feed extracts were also analyzed using this instrument. These samples included the woody plants Pistacia lentiscus (Evergreen pistache or Mastic) and Philyria latifolia, and the herbaceous species Medicago sativa (alfalfa), Trifolium spp. (clover), and a feed concentrate. Application of multi-way principal component analysis (MPCA) to the resulting three-dimensional data sets enabled discernment among these various diet constituents. PMID:18339242

  1. Conflicting selection from fire and seed predation drives fine-scaled phenotypic variation in a widespread North American conifer

    PubMed Central

    Talluto, Matthew V.; Benkman, Craig W.

    2014-01-01

    Recent work has demonstrated that evolutionary processes shape ecological dynamics on relatively short timescales (eco-evolutionary dynamics), but demonstrating these effects at large spatial scales in natural landscapes has proven difficult. We used empirical studies and modeling to investigate how selective pressures from fire and predispersal seed predation affect the evolution of serotiny, an ecologically important trait. Serotiny is a highly heritable key reproductive trait in Rocky Mountain lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta subsp. latifolia), a conifer that dominates millions of hectares in western North America. In these forests, the frequency of serotiny determines postfire seedling density with corresponding community- and ecosystem-level effects. We found that serotinous individuals have a selective advantage at high fire frequencies and low predation pressure; however, very high seed predation shifted the selective advantage to nonserotinous individuals even at high fire frequencies. Simulation modeling suggests that spatial variation in the frequency of serotiny results from heterogeneity in these two selective agents. These results, combined with previous findings showing a negative association between the density of seed predators and the frequency of serotiny at both landscape and continental scales, demonstrate that contemporary patterns in serotiny reflect an evolutionary response to conflicting selection pressures from fire and seed predation. Thus, we show that variation in the frequency of a heritable polygenic trait depends on spatial variation in two dominant selective agents, and, importantly, the effects of the local trait variation propagate with profound consequences to the structure and function of communities and ecosystems across a large landscape. PMID:24979772

  2. Methane emissions to the atmosphere through aquatic plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sebacher, D. I.; Harriss, R. C.; Bartlett, K. B.

    1985-01-01

    The movement of methane (CH4) from anaerobic sediments through the leaves, stems, and flowers of aquatic plants and into the atmosphere was found to provide a significant pathway for the emission of CH4 from the aquatic substrates of flooded wetlands. Methane concentrations well above the surrounding ambient air levels were found in the mesophyll of 16 varies of aquatic plants and are attributed to transpiration, diffusion, and pressure-induced flow of gaseous CH4 from the roots when they are embedded in CH4-saturated anaerobic sediments. Methane emissions from the emergent parts of aquatic plants were measured using floating chamber techniques and by enclosing the plants in polyethylene bags of known volume. Concentration changes were monitored in the trapped air using syringes and gas chromatographic techniques. Vertical profiles of dissolved CH4 in sediment pore water surrounding the aquatic plants' rhizomes were obtained using an interstitial sampling technique. Methane emissions from the aquatic plants studied varied from 14.8 mg CH4/d to levels too low to be detectable. Rooted and unrooted freshwater aquatic plants were studied as well as saltwater and brackish water plants. Included in the experiment is detailed set of measurements on CH4 emissions from the common cattail (Typha latifolia). This paper illustrates that aquatic plants play an important gas exchange role in the C cycle between wetlands and the atmosphere.

  3. Seedling growth and survival of selected wild edible fruit species of the Sikkim Himalaya, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundriyal, Manju; Sundriyal, R. C.

    2005-07-01

    In the Sikkim Himalaya, an enormous variety of wild growing plants are exploited at large scale for collection of their edible parts, of which six most prominently utilized fruit species (viz., Baccaurea sapida, Diploknema butyracea, Elaeagnus latifolia, Eriolobus indica, Machilus edulis and Spondias axillaris) were investigated. The growth of nursery raised seedlings was measured at 3 month intervals until two years old in terms of absolute growth rate (AGR), relative growth rate (RGR), net assimilation rate (NAR), leaf area ratio (LAR), leaf weight ratio (LWR), stem weight ratio (SWR), root weight ratio (RWR) and root-shoot ratio (RSR). Spondias axillaris and Machilus edulis had the maximum AGR, RGR, LAR and SWR among all species. LWR was highest for B. sapida. RGR, LAR and LWR declined with the age of seedlings. RGR was negatively correlated with NAR, SWR, RWR and RSR, though it showed a positive relationship with LAR. For all species, seedlings attained significant sizes after one year of age, and showed reasonable survival after transplantation into the farmers' fields. It is expected that information on the growth behaviour of these species would be useful while they are adopted into agroforestry systems. It is suggested that these species should be multiplied at large scale and distributed to the local inhabitants to reduce pressure on them in natural stands as well as provide economic benefit to the subsistence farmers.

  4. Glutathione-S-Transferase is Detected During Somatic Embryogenesis in Chicory

    PubMed Central

    Galland, Rachel; Blervacq, Anne-Sophie; Blassiau, Christelle; Smagghe, Benoît; Decottignies, Jean-Pierre

    2007-01-01

    Glutathione S-tranferases (GSTs) are a heterogeneous family of proteins, which perform diverse pivotal catalytic and non-enzymatic functions during plant development and in plant stress responses. Previous studies have shown that a GST activity (EC 2.5.1.18) is closely linked with the precocious phases of somatic embryogenesis in leaf tissues of an interspecific chicory hybrid (Cichorium intybus L. var. sativa × C. endivia L. var. latifolia). In order to learn more about the involvement of this enzyme in this process, in situ-hybridization as well as immunolocalization were performed in parallel. GST-mRNAs and proteins were colocalized in small veins, particularly in young protoxylem cell walls. During cell reactivation, the in situ and protein signals became less intense and were associated with chloroplasts. The GST-mRNAs and corresponding proteins were not always colocalized in the same tissues. While high amounts of transcripts could be detected in multicellular embryos, the proteins were not well labeled. Our results indicated that GSTs belong to a complex anti-oxidant mechanism within the cell, and also at the cell wall level. GSTs presence in reactivated cell and multicellular embryos is discussed in relation to redox cell status. PMID:19516999

  5. [Selection and purification potential evaluation of woody plant in vertical flow constructed wetlands in the subtropical area].

    PubMed

    Chen, Yong-Hua; Wu, Xiao-Fu; Hao, Jun; Chen, Ming-Li; Zhu, Guang-Yu

    2014-02-01

    In order to solve the problem that wetland herbaceous plants tend to die during winter in subtropics areas, selection and purification potential evaluation experiments were carried out by introducing into the constructed wetlands 16 species of woody wetland plants. Cluster analysis was performed by including the morphological characteristics, physiological characteristics, as well as nitrogen and phosphorus accumulation of the woody wetland plants. The results indicated that there were significant differences among the tested woody plants in their survival rate, height increase, root length increase and vigor, Chlorophyll content, Superoxide dismutase, Malonaldehyde, Proline, Peroxidase, biomass, average concentration and accumulation of nitrogen and phosphorus. Based on the established evaluation system, the tested plants were clustered into 3 groups. The plants in the 1st group possessing high purification potentials are Nerium oleander and Hibiscus syriacus. Those in the 2nd group possessing moderate purification potentials are Trachycarpus fortune, Llex latifolia Thunb., Gardenia jasminoides, Serissa foetida and Ilex crenatacv Convexa. And those in the 3rd group with low purification potentials are Jasminum udiflorum, Hedera helix, Ligustrum vicaryi, Ligustrum lucidum, Buxus sempervives, Murraya paniculata, Osmanthus fragrans, Mahoniafortune and Photinia serrulata. PMID:24812951

  6. Characterisation of the soil bacterial community structure and composition of natural and constructed wetlands.

    PubMed

    Ansola, Gemma; Arroyo, Paula; Sáenz de Miera, Luis E

    2014-03-01

    In the present study, the pyrosequencing of 16S ribosomal DNA was used to characterise the soil bacterial community composition of a constructed wetland receiving municipal wastewater and a nearby natural wetland. Soil samples were taken from different locations in each wetland (lagoon, zone with T. latifolia, zone with S. atrocinerea). Moreover, the water quality parameters were evaluated (pH, Tª, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, redox potential, nutrients and suspended solids), revealing that the organic matter and nutrient contents were significantly higher in the constructed wetland than in the natural one. In general, the bacterial communities of the natural wetland were more diverse than those of the constructed wetland. The major phylogenic groups of all soils included Proteobacteria, Verrucomicrobia and Chloroflexi, with Proteobacteria being the majority of the community composition. The Verrucomicrobia and Chloroflexi phyla were more abundant in the natural wetland than the constructed wetland; in contrast, the Proteobacteria phylum was more abundant in the constructed wetland than the natural wetland. Beta diversity analyses reveal that the soil bacterial communities in the natural wetland were less dissimilar to each other than to those of the constructed wetland. PMID:24361449

  7. Fast separation of triterpenoid saponins using supercritical fluid chromatography coupled with single quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yang; Zhang, Tingting; Zhou, Haibo; Feng, Ying; Fan, Chunlin; Chen, Weijia; Crommen, Jacques; Jiang, Zhengjin

    2016-03-20

    Triterpenoid saponins (TSs) are the most important components of some traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) and have exhibited valuable pharmacological properties. In this study, a rapid and efficient method was developed for the separation of kudinosides, stauntosides and ginsenosides using supercritical fluid chromatography coupled with single quadrupole mass spectrometry (SFC-MS). The separation conditions for the selected TSs were carefully optimized after the initial screening of eight stationary phases. The best compromise for all compounds in terms of chromatographic performance and MS sensitivity was obtained when water (5-10%) and formic acid (0.05%) were added to the supercritical carbon dioxide/MeOH mobile phase. Beside the composition of the mobile phase, the nature of the make-up solvent for interfacing SFC with MS was also evaluated. Compared to reversed phase liquid chromatography, the SFC approach showed higher resolution and shorter running time. The developed SFC-MS methods were successfully applied to the separation and identification of TSs present in Ilex latifolia Thunb., Panax quinquefolius L. and Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer. These results suggest that this SFC-MS approach could be employed as a useful tool for the quality assessment of natural products containing TSs as active components. PMID:26773536

  8. In vitro inhibition of drug-resistant and drug-sensitive strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by ethnobotanically selected South African plants.

    PubMed

    Lall, N; Meyer, J J

    1999-09-01

    Twenty South African medicinal plants used to treat pulmonary diseases were screened for activity against drug-resistant and drug-sensitive strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. A preliminary screening of acetone and water plant extracts against a drug-sensitive strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, H37Rv, was done by the agar plate method. Fourteen of the 20 acetone extracts showed inhibitory activity at a concentration of 0.5 mg/ml against this strain. Acetone as well as water extracts of Cryptocarya latifolia, Euclea natalensis, Helichrysum melanacme, Nidorella anomala and Thymus vulgaris inhibited the growth of M. tuberculosis. Given the activity of 14 acetone extracts at 0.5 mg/ml against the drug-sensitive strain by the agar plate method, a further study was done employing a rapid radiometric method to confirm the inhibitory activity. These active acetone extracts were screened against the H37Rv strain as well as a strain resistant to the drugs isoniazid and rifampin. The minimal inhibitory concentration of Croton pseudopulchellus, Ekebergia capensis, Euclea natalensis, Nidorella anomala and Polygala myrtifolia was 0.1 mg/ml against the H37Rv strain by the radiometric method. Extracts of Chenopodium ambrosioides, Ekebergia capensis, Euclea natalensis, Helichrysum melanacme, Nidorella anomala and Polygala myrtifolia were active against the resistant strain at 0.1 mg/ml. Eight plants showed activity against both strains at a concentration of 1.0 mg/ml. PMID:10473184

  9. Sulfate removal and sulfur transformation in constructed wetlands: The roles of filling material and plant biomass.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi; Wen, Yue; Zhou, Qi; Huang, Jingang; Vymazal, Jan; Kuschk, Peter

    2016-10-01

    Sulfate in effluent is a challenging issue for wastewater reuse around the world. In this study, sulfur (S) removal and transformation in five batch constructed wetlands (CWs) treating secondary effluent were investigated. The results showed that the presence of the plant cattail (Typha latifolia) had little effect on sulfate removal, while the carbon-rich litter it generated greatly improved sulfate removal, but with limited sulfide accumulation in the pore-water. After sulfate removal, most of the S was deposited with the valence states S (-II) and S (0) on the iron-rich gravel surface, and acid volatile sulfide was the main S sink in the litter-added CWs. High-throughput pyrosequencing revealed that sulfate-reducing bacteria (i.e. Desulfobacter) and sulfide-oxidizing bacteria (i.e. Thiobacillus) were dominant in the litter-added CWs, which led to a sustainable S cycle between sulfate and sulfide. Overall, this study suggests that recycling plant litter and iron-rich filling material in CWs gives an opportunity to utilize the S in the wastewater as both an electron acceptor for sulfate reduction and as an electron donor for nitrate reduction coupled with sulfide oxidation. This leads to the simultaneous removal of sulfate, nitrate, and organics without discharging toxic sulfide into the receiving water body. PMID:27423407

  10. Enhanced levels of S-linalool by metabolic engineering of the terpenoid pathway in spike lavender leaves.

    PubMed

    Mendoza-Poudereux, Isabel; Muñoz-Bertomeu, Jesús; Navarro, Alicia; Arrillaga, Isabel; Segura, Juan

    2014-05-01

    Transgenic Lavandula latifolia plants overexpressing the linalool synthase (LIS) gene from Clarkia breweri, encoding the LIS enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of linalool were generated. Most of these plants increased significantly their linalool content as compared to controls, especially in the youngest leaves, where a linalool increase up to a 1000% was observed. The phenotype of increased linalool content observed in young leaves was maintained in those T1 progenies that inherit the LIS transgene, although this phenotype was less evident in the flower essential oil. Cross-pollination of transgenic spike lavender plants allowed the generation of double transgenic plants containing the DXS (1-deoxy-d-xylulose-5-P synthase), coding for the first enzyme of the methyl-d-erythritol-4-phosphate pathway, and LIS genes. Both essential oil yield and linalool content in double DXS-LIS transgenic plants were lower than that of their parentals, which could be due to co-suppression effects linked to the structures of the constructs used. PMID:24685653

  11. Climatic influences on the growth of subalpine trees in the Colorado Front Range

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Villalba, Ricardo; Veblen, Thomas T.; Ogden, John

    1994-01-01

    We examined variations in tree growth responses to climatic variations among different tree species and habitat types in the subalpine zone of the Colorado Front Range. We constructed 25 tree ring site chronologies (11 of Picea engelmannii, 9 of Abies lasiocarpa, 4 of Pinus contorta var. latifolia, and 1 of Pinus flexilis) from a series of subalpine habitats ranging from xeric to wet. To establish tree growth responses to climatic variation, we used correlation and response function analyses to compare variations in ring widths with monthly temperature and precipitation records. At the driest sites, growth of Picea and Abies tracked climatic variation similarly. At mesic and wet sites, however, these species differed in their responses to climatic variation. The responses of Pinus contorta, sampled over a narrower range of habitat types, differed from those of Picea and Abies but did not differ among sites. Steep environmental gradients in the subalpine zone of the Front Range accounted for most of the observed differences in growth responses to climatic variation. Even at adjacent sites that differ only slightly in topographic position, tree growth responses to climatic variation were distinct. Interspecific differences in response to climatic variations generally were less important than site differences. Intersite differences in tree growth responses to climatic variation can be used as indicators of environmental differences among subalpine habitats.

  12. Artificial wetlands performance: nitrogen removal.

    PubMed

    Durán-de-Bazúa, Carmen; Guido-Zárate, Alejandro; Huanosta, Thalía; Padrón-López, Rosa Martha; Rodríguez-Monroy, Jesús

    2008-01-01

    Artificial wetlands (AW) are a promising option for wastewater treatment in small communities due to their high performance in nutrients removal and low operation and maintenance costs. Nitrogen can favour the growth of algae in water bodies causing eutrophication when present at high concentrations. Nitrogen can be removed through different mechanisms (e.g. nitrification-denitrification, adsorption and plant uptake). Environmental conditions such as temperature and relative humidity can play an important role in the performance of these systems by promoting the growth of macrophytes such as reeds and cattails (e.g. Phragmites australis, Typha latifolia respectively). In this paper, two AW systems were compared, one located in Mexico City, Mexico at an altitude higher than 2,000 m above the sea level, and the second one located in Villahermosa, Tabasco, Mexico at an a altitude near the sea level (27 m). Both systems comprised five reactors (147-L plastic boxes) filled with volcanic slag and gravel and intermittently fed with synthetic water. The removal nitrogen efficiency found for the system located in Mexico City was higher than that of the Tabasco system (90 and 80% as TKN respectively). The higher temperatures in the Tabasco system did not enhanced the nitrogen removal as expected. PMID:18957747

  13. Sub-Saharan Rubiaceae: a review of their traditional uses, phytochemistry and biological activities.

    PubMed

    Karou, Simplice D; Tchacondo, Tchadjobo; Ilboudo, Denise P; Simpore, Jacques

    2011-02-01

    Rubiaceae family is a large family of 630 genera and about 13000 species found worldwide, especially in tropical and warm regions. These plants are not only ornamental but they are also used in African folk medicine to treat several diseases. Based on online published data and library bibliographic research, we herein reported accumulated information related to their traditional usages in sub-Saharan traditional medicine, their chemical composition and the screened pharmacological activities. Indeed, more than 60 species are used for more than 70 medicinal indications including malaria, hepatitis, eczema, oedema, cough, hypertension, diabetes and sexual weakness. Through biological screening following leads supplied with traditional healers, many of these plants exhibited antimalarial, antimicrobial, antihypertension, antidiabetic, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Bioactive compounds including indole alkaloids, terpenoids and anthraquinones have been isolated from these bioguided fractionation studies. It is evidence that great attention has been paid to species such as Nauclea latifolia, Morinda lucida, Mitragyna inermis and Crossopteryx febrifuga; however, several compounds should be waiting to be discovered since none of these plants has been systematically investigated for its biochemical composition. According the current global health context with the recrudescence of HIV, much effort should be oriented towards this virus when screening Rubiaceae. PMID:21870639

  14. Toxic compounds in honey.

    PubMed

    Islam, Md Nazmul; Khalil, Md Ibrahim; Islam, Md Asiful; Gan, Siew Hua

    2014-07-01

    There is a wealth of information about the nutritional and medicinal properties of honey. However, honey may contain compounds that may lead to toxicity. A compound not naturally present in honey, named 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), may be formed during the heating or preservation processes of honey. HMF has gained much interest, as it is commonly detected in honey samples, especially samples that have been stored for a long time. HMF is a compound that may be mutagenic, carcinogenic and cytotoxic. It has also been reported that honey can be contaminated with heavy metals such as lead, arsenic, mercury and cadmium. Honey produced from the nectar of Rhododendron ponticum contains alkaloids that can be poisonous to humans, while honey collected from Andromeda flowers contains grayanotoxins, which can cause paralysis of limbs in humans and eventually leads to death. In addition, Melicope ternata and Coriaria arborea from New Zealand produce toxic honey that can be fatal. There are reports that honey is not safe to be consumed when it is collected from Datura plants (from Mexico and Hungary), belladonna flowers and Hyoscamus niger plants (from Hungary), Serjania lethalis (from Brazil), Gelsemium sempervirens (from the American Southwest), Kalmia latifolia, Tripetalia paniculata and Ledum palustre. Although the symptoms of poisoning due to honey consumption may differ depending on the source of toxins, most common symptoms generally include dizziness, nausea, vomiting, convulsions, headache, palpitations or even death. It has been suggested that honey should not be considered a completely safe food. PMID:24214851

  15. Removal processes of disinfection byproducts in subsurface-flow constructed wetlands treating secondary effluent.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi; Wen, Yue; Tang, Zhiru; Li, Ling; Cai, Yanlong; Zhou, Qi

    2014-03-15

    The removal efficiencies and the kinetics of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) were studied in six greenhouse laboratory-scale SSF CWs. Cattail (Typha latifolia) and its litter (collected from the aboveground samples of cattail in autumn) were used as a potential phytoremediation technology and as a primary substrate, respectively, for DBP removal. Results showed that most of the 11 DBPs (except chloroform and 1, 1-dichloropropanone) were efficiently removed (>90%) in six SSF CWs with hydraulic retention time of 5 d and there were no significant differences among the systems. Under the batch mode, the removal of DBPs in SSF CWs followed first-order kinetics with half-lives of 1.0-770.2 h. As a primary DBP in wastewater effluent, removal efficiencies for chloroform were higher in planted systems than in unplanted ones and plant uptake accounted for more than 23.8% of the removal. Plant litter greatly enhanced the removal of trihalomethanes (THMs) by supplying primary substrates and reducing conditions, and the formation of dichloromethane supported the anaerobic biodegradation of THMs via reductive dechlorination in SSF CWs. Trichloroacetonitrile was completely removed within 10 h in each system and hydrolysis was considered to be the dominant process as there was a rapid formation of the hydrolysis byproduct, trichloroacetamide. PMID:24440896

  16. Chewing sandpaper: grit, plant apparency, and plant defense in sand-entrapping plants.

    PubMed

    LoPresti, Eric F; Karban, Richard

    2016-04-01

    Sand entrapment on plant surfaces, termed psammophory or sand armor, is a phylogenetically and geographically widespread trait. The functional significance of this phenomenon has been poorly investigated. Sand and soil are nonnutritive and difficult for herbivores to process, as well as visually identical to the background. We experimentally investigated whether this sand coating physically protected the plant from herbivores or increased crypsis (e.g., decreased apparency to herbivores). We tested the former hypothesis by removing entrapped sand from stems, petioles, and leaves of the sand verbena Abronia latifolia and by supplementing natural sand levels in the honeyscented pincushion plant Navarretia mellita. Consistent with a physical defensive function, leaves with sand present or supplemented suffered less chewing herbivory than those with sand removed or left as is. To test a possible crypsis effect, we coated some sand verbena stems with green sand, matching the stem color, as well as others with brown sand to match the background color. Both suffered less chewing herbivory than controls with no sand and herbivory did not significantly differ between the colors, suggesting crypsis was not the driving resistance mechanism. Strong tests of plant apparency are rare; this experimental approach may be possible in other systems and represents one of few manipulative tests of this long-standing hypothesis. PMID:27220199

  17. Drought tolerance and growth in populations of a wide-ranging tree species indicate climate change risks for the boreal north.

    PubMed

    Montwé, David; Isaac-Renton, Miriam; Hamann, Andreas; Spiecker, Heinrich

    2016-02-01

    Choosing drought-tolerant planting stock in reforestation programs may help adapt forests to climate change. To inform such reforestation strategies, we test lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Doug. ex Loud. var latifolia Englm.) population response to drought and infer potential benefits of a northward transfer of seeds from drier, southern environments. The objective is addressed by combining dendroecological growth analysis with long-term genetic field trials. Over 500 trees originating from 23 populations across western North America were destructively sampled in three experimental sites in southern British Columbia, representing a climate warming scenario. Growth after 32 years from provenances transferred southward or northward over long distances was significantly lower than growth of local populations. All populations were affected by a severe natural drought event in 2002. The provenances from the most southern locations showed the highest drought tolerance but low productivity. Local provenances were productive and drought tolerant. Provenances from the boreal north showed lower productivity and less drought tolerance on southern test sites than all other sources, implying that maladaptation to drought may prevent boreal populations from taking full advantage of more favorable growing conditions under projected climate change. PMID:26463121

  18. Antineoplastic agents, 256. Cell growth inhibitory isocarbostyrils from Hymenocallis.

    PubMed

    Pettit, G R; Pettit, G R; Backhaus, R A; Boyd, M R; Meerow, A W

    1993-10-01

    The bulbs of Hymenocallis littoralis, collected in Hawaii and horticulturally grown in Arizona, and bulbs of Hymenocallis caribaea and Hymenocallis latifolia, collected in Singapore, were found to contain a cytotoxic, isocarbostyril-type biosynthetic product, 7-deoxy-trans-dihydronarciclasine [2]. This new compound inhibited the cytopathicity and/or replication of various viruses. Companion cytotoxic constituents of H. littoralis and Hymenocallis sp. were found to be pancratistatin [1], narciclasine [5], and 7-deoxynarciclasine [4]. These four compounds, along with four other closely related compounds, were comparatively evaluated in the National Cancer Institute's in vitro cytotoxicity panel. Although there were striking differences in overall potency, some of the compounds shared a highly characteristic differential cytotoxicity profile against the 60 diverse human tumor cell lines comprising the NCI panel. As a group, the melanoma subpanel lines were most sensitive; certain individual lines within other subpanels (eg., NSC lung, colon, brain, renal) were as much as a thousand-fold or more sensitive than the less sensitive lines. PMID:8277308

  19. Productivity of wet soils: Biomass of cultivated and natural vegetation

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, C.A.

    1988-12-01

    Wet soils, soils which have agronomic limitations because of excess water, comprise 105 million acres of non-federal land in the conterminous United States. Wet soils which support hydrophytic plants are ''wetlands'', and are some of the most productive natural ecosystems in the world. When both above- and belowground productivity are considered, cattail (Typha latifolia) is the most productive temperate wetland species (26.4 Mg/ha/year). Both cattail and reed (Phragmites australis) have aboveground productivities of about 13 Mg/ha/year. Although average aboveground yields of reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea) are lower (9.5 Mg/ha/year), techniques for its establishment and cultivation are well-developed. Other herbaceous wetland species which show promise as biomass crops include sedge (Carex spp.), river bulrush (Scirpus fluviatilis) and prairie cordgrass (Spartina pectinata). About 40% of wet soils in the conterminous US are currently cultivated, and they produce one-quarter of the major US crops. Most of this land is artificially drained for crops such as corn, soybeans, and vegetables. US wetlands are drained for agriculture at the rate of 223,000 ha/yr. Paddies flooded with water are used to grow rice, cranberries, and wild rice. Forage and live sphagnum moss are products of undrained wetlands. A number of federal and state regulations apply to the draining or irrigation of wetlands, but most do not seriously restrict their use for agriculture. 320 refs., 36 tabs.

  20. Phytoremediation of imazalil and tebuconazole by four emergent wetland plant species in hydroponic medium.

    PubMed

    Lv, Tao; Zhang, Yang; Casas, Mònica E; Carvalho, Pedro N; Arias, Carlos A; Bester, Kai; Brix, Hans

    2016-04-01

    Pollution from pesticide residues in aquatic environments is of increasing concern. Imazalil and tebuconazole, two commonly used systemic pesticides, are water contaminants that can be removed by constructed wetlands. However, the phytoremediation capability of emergent wetland plants for imazalil and tebuconazole, especially the removal mechanisms involved, is poorly understood. This study compared the removal of both pesticides by four commonly used wetland plants, Typha latifolia, Phragmites australis, Iris pseudacorus and Juncus effusus, and aimed to understand the removal mechanisms involved. The plants were individually exposed to an initial concentration of 10 mg/L in hydroponic solution. At the end of the 24-day study period, the tebuconazole removal efficiencies were relatively lower (25%-41%) than those for imazalil (46%-96%) for all plant species studied. The removal of imazalil and tebuconazole fit a first-order kinetics model, with the exception of tebuconazole removal in solutions with I. pseudacorus. Changes in the enantiomeric fraction for imazalil and tebuconazole were detected in plant tissue but not in the hydroponic solutions; thus, the translocation and degradation processes were enantioselective in the plants. At the end of the study period, the accumulation of imazalil and tebuconazole in plant tissue was relatively low and constituted 2.8-14.4% of the total spiked pesticide in each vessel. Therefore, the studied plants were able to not only take up the pesticides but also metabolise them. PMID:26841287

  1. Characterizing the physical and genetic structure of the lodgepole pine × jack pine hybrid zone: mosaic structure and differential introgression.

    PubMed

    Cullingham, Catherine I; James, Patrick M A; Cooke, Janice E K; Coltman, David W

    2012-12-01

    Understanding the physical and genetic structure of hybrid zones can illuminate factors affecting their formation and stability. In north-central Alberta, lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud. var. latifolia) and jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb) form a complex and poorly defined hybrid zone. Better knowledge of this zone is relevant, given the recent host expansion of mountain pine beetle into jack pine. We characterized the zone by genotyping 1998 lodgepole, jack pine, and hybrids from British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Ontario, and Minnesota at 11 microsatellites. Using Bayesian algorithms, we calculated genetic ancestry and used this to model the relationship between species occurrence and environment. In addition, we analyzed the ancestry of hybrids to calculate the genetic contribution of lodgepole and jack pine. Finally, we measured the amount of gene flow between the pure species. We found the distribution of the pine classes is explained by environmental variables, and these distributions differ from classic distribution maps. Hybrid ancestry was biased toward lodgepole pine; however, gene flow between the two species was equal. The results of this study suggest that the hybrid zone is complex and influenced by environmental constraints. As a result of this analysis, range limits should be redefined. PMID:23346232

  2. Phospholipid Motional Characteristics in a Dry Biological System 1

    PubMed Central

    Priestley, David A.; de Kruijff, B.

    1982-01-01

    Analysis of the proton-decoupled 31P-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrum of fully hydrated Typha latifolia pollen revealed the presence of two main peaks: A broad asymmetrical component of a `bilayer' lineshape and a much narrower symmetrical component originating from phosphorus compounds undergoing rapid isotropic motion. From (a) 31P-NMR experiments on the hydrated total pollen phospholipids, (b) saturation transfer 31P-NMR experiments, and (c) the fraction of lipid phosphate in the pollen, it can be concluded that the great majority of the endogenous phospholipids are arranged in extended bilayers in which the lipid phosphates undergo fast (τc < 10−6 second) long axis rotation. This bilayer arrangement of phospholipids was observed in the pollen down to hydration levels of at least 10.9% moisture content. At the lowest level of pollen hydration examined (5.2%) the 31P-NMR spectrum had a solid state lineshape demonstrating that all the phosphorus-containing compounds (including the phospholipids) were virtually immobile. PMID:16662616

  3. Floral development in Tribe Detarieae (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioideae): Amherstia, Brownea, and Tamarindus.

    PubMed

    Tucker, S C

    2000-10-01

    Floral development was compared among three taxa in caesalpinioid tribe Detarieae sensu lato: Amherstia nobilis and Tamarindus indica have racemose, helically arranged inflorescences, while Brownea latifolia has cauliflorous capitate flower clusters that arise as racemes. All have acropetal flower order; initiation and development are sequential in all except Brownea, which is synchronous. All have paired persistent showy bracteoles. Floral symmetry is dorsiventral (zygomorphic) in all except Brownea, with radial symmetry at anthesis. Sepals initiate helically on a circular floral apex, starting with a median abaxial sepal, in all. Petals are initiated helically in Brownea, and unidirectionally in Amherstia and Tamarindus. Stamens are initiated unidirectionally in each stamen whorl in all except Amherstia, in which the outer whorl is bidirectional. The carpel initiates concurrently with the petals in Brownea, and with the outer stamens in the other taxa. The two upper (adaxial) sepal primordia become fused during development in all, so that the calyx appears tetramerous. Some reduced petals occur in Amherstia and Tamarindus, and some reduced stamens occur in all. All produce a hypanthium by zonal growth, and all except Tamarindus have the gynoecium attached adaxially to the hypanthial rim. PMID:11034916

  4. Pollen dispersal by catapult: Experiments of Lyman J. Briggs on the flower of mountain laurel

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nimmo, John R.; Hermann, Paula M.; Kirkham, M.B.; Landa, Edward R.

    2014-01-01

    The flower of Kalmia latifolia L. employs a catapult mechanism that flings its pollen to considerable distances. Physicist Lyman J. Briggs investigated this phenomenon in the 1950s after retiring as longtime director of the National Bureau of Standards, attempting to explain how hydromechanical effects inside the flower’s stamen could make it possible. Briggs’s unfinished manuscript implies that liquid under negative pressure generates stress, which, superimposed on the stress generated from the flower’s growth habit, results in force adequate to propel the pollen as observed. With new data and biophysical understanding to supplement Briggs’s experimental results and research notes, we show that his postulated negative-pressure mechanism did not play the exclusive and crucial role that he credited to it, though his revisited investigation sheds light on various related processes. Important issues concerning the development and reproductive function of Kalmia flowers remain unresolved, highlighting the need for further biophysical advances.

  5. Depollution potential of three macrophytes: exudated, wall-bound and intracellular peroxidase activities plus intracellular phenol concentrations.

    PubMed

    Larue, Camille; Korboulewsky, Nathalie; Wang, Runying; Mévy, Jean-Philippe

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the potential role of three macrophyte species (Iris pseudacorus, Typha latifolia and Phragmites australis) for detoxication of xenobiotics, and to study their variations with seasons or concentrations of sewage sludge from the food industry. For this purpose, some aspects of the green liver concept were explored through peroxidase measurements in three compartments in roots: intracellular, cell wall and extracellular. In addition, phenol concentrations were also measured in order to assess heavy metal detoxication potential. Enzyme activities and phenol concentrations were overall lower in winter according to the phenological stages and some sludge effects occurred. Results show that P. australis roots exuded and contained more peroxidase in all seasons: 17 U/g (1373 U/g protein), 0.8 U/g (613 U/g protein) and 4.8 U/g (1329 U/g protein) in intracellular compartments, cell wall and exudates, respectively. In contrast, the highest phenol concentration was found in I. pseudacorus roots: 3.58 mg eq. [corrected] gallic acid/g. Hence, in constructed wetlands, P. australis is suitable for organic waste water treatment, while I. pseudacorus should be used in the case of waters highly charged with heavy metals. PMID:20570142

  6. Distribution of seed plants with respect to tide levels and water salinity in the natural tidal marshes of the northern San Francisco Bay Estuary, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Atwater, Brian F.; Hedel, Charles W.

    1976-01-01

    Shoaling of subtidal and intertidal mud flats has permitted tidal marshes to spread across large marginal areas of the San Francisco Bay estuary during the past several thousand years. By 1850 A.D. the tidal marshes of the estuary, including those of the Sacramento - San Joaquin Delta, covered an area nearly twice as large as the area of open water. Nearly 95 percent of these marshes have been diked or filled during the past 125 years. Species distributions along leveled transects at six tidal marshes indicate that elevation and water salinity are the principal ecological factors that-control the distribution of seed plants in the remaining natural tidal marshes of the northern San Francisco Bay estuary. Marsh surfaces situated near mean tide level are populated by robust monocotyledons (e.g., Spartina foliosa, Scirpus californicus), whereas surfaces situated near high-tide levels support dicotyledons and a few small monocotyledonous species (e.g., Salicornia virginica, Distichlis spicata). Marshes near the seaward end of the estuary are typically occupied by 10-15 salt-tolerant species (e.g., Spartina foliosa, Salicornia virginica), whereas marshes at the riverward end of the estuary are inhabited by as many as 30 species, most of which are known to tolerate moderate or small amounts of salt (e.g., Scirpus spp., Phragmites communis, Typha latifolia).

  7. Cross-species outlier detection reveals different evolutionary pressures between sister species

    PubMed Central

    Cullingham, Catherine I; Cooke, Janice E K; Coltman, David W

    2014-01-01

    Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) and jack pine (Pinus banksiana) hybridize in western Canada, an area of recent mountain pine beetle range expansion. Given the heterogeneity of the environment, and indications of local adaptation, there are many unknowns regarding the response of these forests to future outbreaks. To better understand this we aim to identify genetic regions that have adaptive potential. We used data collected on 472 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) loci from 576 tree samples collected across 13 lodgepole pine-dominated sites and four jack pine-dominated sites. We looked at the relationship of genetic diversity with the environment, and we identified candidate loci using both frequency-based (arlequin and bayescan) and correlation-based (matsam and bayenv) methods. We found contrasting relationships between environmental variation and genetic diversity for the species. While we identified a number of candidate outliers (34 in lodgepole pine, 25 in jack pine, and 43 interspecific loci), we did not find any loci in common between lodgepole and jack pine. Many of the outlier loci identified were correlated with environmental variation. Using rigorous criteria we have been able to identify potential outlier SNPs. We have also found evidence of contrasting environmental adaptations between lodgepole and jack pine which could have implications for beetle spread risk. PMID:24942459

  8. The application of δ¹⁸O and δD for understanding water pools and fluxes in a Typha marsh.

    PubMed

    Bijoor, Neeta S; Pataki, Diane E; Rocha, Adrian V; Goulden, Michael L

    2011-10-01

    The δ¹⁸O and δD composition of water pools (leaf, root, standing water and soil water) and fluxes [transpiration (T), evaporation (E)] were used to understand ecohydrological processes in a managed Typha latifolia L. freshwater marsh. We observed isotopic steady-state T and deep rooting in Typha. The isotopic mass balance of marsh standing water showed that E accounted for 3% of the total water loss, T accounted for 17% and subsurface drainage (D) accounted for the majority (80%). There was a vertical gradient in water vapour content and isotopic composition within and above the canopy sufficient for constructing an isotopic mass balance of water vapour during some sampling periods. During these periods, the proportion of T in evapotranspiration (T/ET) was between 56 ± 17% and 96 ± 67%, and the estimated error was relatively high (>37%) because of non-local, background sources in vapour. Independent estimates of T/ET using eddy covariance measurements yielded similar mean values during the Typha growing season. The various T/ET estimates agreed that T was the dominant source of marsh vapour loss in the growing season. The isotopic mass balance of water vapour yielded reasonable results, but the mass balance of standing water provided more definitive estimates of water losses. PMID:21635269

  9. Comparison of horizontal and vertical constructed wetland systems for landfill leachate treatment.

    PubMed

    Yalcuk, Arda; Ugurlu, Aysenur

    2009-05-01

    The main purpose of this study was to treat organic pollution, ammonia and heavy metals present in landfill leachate by the use of constructed wetland systems and to quantify the effect of feeding mode. The effect of different bedding material (gravel and zeolite surface) was also investigated. A pilot-scale study was conducted on subsurface flow constructed wetland systems operated in vertical and horizontal mode. Two vertical systems differed from each other with their bedding material. The systems were planted with cattail (Typha latifolia) and operated identically at a flow rate of 10 l/day and hydraulic retention times of 11.8 and 12.5 day in vertical 1, vertical 2 and horizontal systems, respectively. Concentration based average removal efficiencies for VF1, VF2 and HF were NH(4)-N, 62.3%, 48.9% and 38.3%; COD, 27.3%, 30.6% and 35.7%; PO(4)-P, 52.6%, 51.9% and 46.7%; Fe(III), 21%, 40% and 17%, respectively. Better NH(4)-N removal performance was observed in the vertical system with zeolite layer than that of the vertical 2 and horizontal system. In contrast, horizontal system was more effective in COD removal. PMID:19157867

  10. Climatic influences on the growth of subalpine trees in the Colorado front range

    SciTech Connect

    Villalba, R.; Veblen, T.T. ); Ogden, J. )

    1994-07-01

    We examined variations in tree growth responses to climatic variations among different tree species and habitat types in the subalpine zone of the Colorado Front Range. We constructed 25 tree ring site chronologies (11 of Picea engelmannii, 9 of Abies lasiocarpa, 4 of Pinus contorta var. latifolia, and 1 of Pinusflexilis) from a series of subalpine habitats ranging from xeric to wet. To establish tree growth responses to climatic variation, we used correlation and response function analyses to compare variations in ring widths with monthly temperature and precipitation records. At the driest sites, growth of Picea and Abies tracked climatic variation similarly. At mesic and wet sites, however, these species differed in their responses to climatic variation. The responses of Pinus contorta, sampled over a narrower range of habitat types, differed from those of Picea and Abies but did not differ among sites. Steep environmental gradients in the subalpine zone of the Front Range accounted for most of the observed differences in growth responses to climatic variation. Even at adjacent sites that differ only slightly in topographic position, tree growth responses to climatic variation were distinct. Interspecific differences in response to climatic variations generally were less important than site differences. Intersite differences in tree growth responses to climatic variation can be used as indicators of environmental differences among subalpine habitats. 39 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Nesting ecology of Greater Sandhill Cranes (Grus canadensis tabida) in riparian and palustrine wetlands of eastern Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McWethy, D.B.; Austin, J.E.

    2009-01-01

    Little information exists on breeding Greater Sandhill Cranes (Grus canadensis tabida) in riparian wetlands of the Intermountain West. We examined the nesting ecology of Sandhill Cranes associated with riparian and palustrine wetlands in the Henry's Fork Watershed in eastern Idaho in 2003. We located 36 active crane nests, 19 in riparian wetlands and 17 in palustrine wetlands. Nesting sites were dominated by rushes (Juncus spp.), sedges (Carex spp.), Broad-leaved Cattail (Typha latifolia) and willow (Salix spp.), and adjacent foraging areas were primarily composed of sagebrush (Artemisia spp.), cinquefoil (Potentilla spp.),Rabbitbrush (Ericameria bloomeri) bunch grasses, upland forbs, Quaking Aspen (Populus tremuloides) and cottonwood (Populus spp.). Mean water depth surrounding nests was 23 cm (SD = 22). A majority of nests (61%) were surrounded by vegetation between 3060 cm, 23% by vegetation 60 cm in height. We were able to determine the fate of 29 nests, of which 20 were successful (69%). Daily nest survival was 0.986 (95% LCI 0.963, UCI 0.995), equivalent to a Mayfield nest success of 0.654 (95% LCI 0.324, UCI 0.853). Model selection favored models with the covariates vegetation type, vegetation height, and water depth. Nest survival increased with increasing water depth surrounding nest sites. Mean water depth was higher around successful nests (30 cm, SD = 21) than unsuccessful nests (15 cm, SD 22). Further research is needed to evaluate the relative contribution of cranes nesting in palustrine and riparian wetlands distributed widely across the Intermountain West.

  12. Growth-climate relationships vary with height along the stem in lodgepole pine.

    PubMed

    Chhin, Sophan; Hogg, E H Ted; Lieffers, Victor J; Huang, Shongming

    2010-03-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that ring growth in the upper stem portion of trees is affected by climatic conditions differently than rings formed at breast height (1.3 m). A total of 389 trees from a network of 65 lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud. var. latifolia Engelm.) sites in Alberta were examined using detailed stem analysis in order to examine interannual patterns of basal area increment and volume increment at different positions along the stem. Growth at lower sections of the bole was mainly driven by temperature and moisture conditions in the seasons prior to the growing season in the year of ring formation, while upper stem growth was more related to conditions during the year of growth, i.e., temperature in the early summer, or moisture in late winter to early spring. This translates into increased allocation of wood to the lower stem when prior late summer conditions are cool and wet, prior winters are mild (warm with little snow) and early summer conditions in the year of ring formation are hot and dry. PMID:20067911

  13. Isolation and characterization of polymeric galloyl-ester-degrading bacteria from a tannery discharge place.

    PubMed

    Franco, A R; Calheiros, C S C; Pacheco, C C; De Marco, P; Manaia, C M; Castro, P M L

    2005-11-01

    The culturable bacteria colonizing the rhizosphere of plants growing in the area of discharge of a tannery effluent were characterized. Relative proportions of aerobic, denitrifying, and sulfate-reducing bacteria were determined in the rhizosphere of Typha latifolia, Canna indica, and Phragmites australis. Aerobic bacteria were observed to be the most abundant group in the rhizosphere, and plant type did not seem to influence the abundance of the bacterial types analyzed. To isolate bacteria able to degrade polyphenols used in the tannery industry, enrichments were conducted under different conditions. Bacterial cultures were enriched with individual polyphenols (tannins Tara, Quebracho, or Mimosa) or with an undefined mixture of tannins present in the tannery effluent as carbon source. Cultures enriched with the effluent or Tara tannin were able to degrade tannic acid. Six bacterial isolates purified from these mixed cultures were able to use tannic acid as a sole carbon source in axenic culture. On the basis of 16S ribosomal DNA sequence analysis, these isolates were closely related to organisms belonging to the taxa Serratia, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Klebsiella oxytoca, Herbaspirillum chlorophenolicum, and Pseudomonas putida. PMID:16341641

  14. Deoxyxylulose 5-phosphate reductoisomerase is not a rate-determining enzyme for essential oil production in spike lavender.

    PubMed

    Mendoza-Poudereux, Isabel; Muñoz-Bertomeu, Jesús; Arrillaga, Isabel; Segura, Juan

    2014-11-01

    Spike lavender (Lavandula latifolia) is an economically important aromatic plant producing essential oils, whose components (mostly monoterpenes) are mainly synthesized through the plastidial methylerythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway. 1-Deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate (DXP) synthase (DXS), that catalyzes the first step of the MEP pathway, plays a crucial role in monoterpene precursors biosynthesis in spike lavender. To date, however, it is not known whether the DXP reductoisomerase (DXR), that catalyzes the conversion of DXP into MEP, is also a rate-limiting enzyme for the biosynthesis of monoterpenes in spike lavender. To investigate it, we generated transgenic spike lavender plants constitutively expressing the Arabidopsis thaliana DXR gene. Although two out of the seven transgenic T0 plants analyzed accumulated more essential oils than the controls, this is hardly imputable to the DXR transgene effect since a clear correlation between transcript accumulation and monoterpene production could not be established. Furthermore, these increased essential oil phenotypes were not maintained in their respective T1 progenies. Similar results were obtained when total chlorophyll and carotenoid content in both T0 transgenic plants and their progenies were analyzed. Our results then demonstrate that DXR enzyme does not play a crucial role in the synthesis of plastidial monoterpene precursors, suggesting that the control flux of the MEP pathway in spike lavender is primarily exerted by the DXS enzyme. PMID:25151124

  15. Essential oils and distilled straws of lavender and lavandin: a review of current use and potential application in white biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Lesage-Meessen, Laurence; Bou, Marine; Sigoillot, Jean-Claude; Faulds, Craig B; Lomascolo, Anne

    2015-04-01

    The Lavandula genus, which includes lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) and lavandin (L. angustifolia × Lavandula latifolia), is cultivated worldwide for its essential oils, which find applications in perfumes, cosmetics, food processing and, more recently, in aromatherapy products. The chemical composition of lavender and lavandin essential oils, usually produced by steam distillation from the flowering stems, is characterized by the presence of terpenes (e.g. linalool and linalyl acetate) and terpenoids (e.g. 1,8-cineole), which are mainly responsible for their characteristic flavour and their biological and therapeutic properties. Lavender and lavandin distilled straws, the by-products of oil extraction, were traditionally used for soil replenishment or converted to a fuel source. They are mineral- and carbon-rich plant residues and, therefore, a cheap, readily available source of valuable substances of industrial interest, especially aroma and antioxidants (e.g. terpenoids, lactones and phenolic compounds including coumarin, herniarin, α-bisabolol, rosmarinic and chlorogenic acids). Accordingly, recent studies have emphasized the possible uses of lavender and lavandin straws in fermentative or enzymatic processes involving various microorganisms, especially filamentous fungi, for the production of antimicrobials, antioxidants and other bioproducts with pharmaceutical and cosmetic activities, opening up new challenging perspectives in white biotechnology applications. PMID:25761625

  16. Characterizing the physical and genetic structure of the lodgepole pine × jack pine hybrid zone: mosaic structure and differential introgression

    PubMed Central

    Cullingham, Catherine I; James, Patrick M A; Cooke, Janice E K; Coltman, David W

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the physical and genetic structure of hybrid zones can illuminate factors affecting their formation and stability. In north-central Alberta, lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud. var. latifolia) and jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb) form a complex and poorly defined hybrid zone. Better knowledge of this zone is relevant, given the recent host expansion of mountain pine beetle into jack pine. We characterized the zone by genotyping 1998 lodgepole, jack pine, and hybrids from British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Ontario, and Minnesota at 11 microsatellites. Using Bayesian algorithms, we calculated genetic ancestry and used this to model the relationship between species occurrence and environment. In addition, we analyzed the ancestry of hybrids to calculate the genetic contribution of lodgepole and jack pine. Finally, we measured the amount of gene flow between the pure species. We found the distribution of the pine classes is explained by environmental variables, and these distributions differ from classic distribution maps. Hybrid ancestry was biased toward lodgepole pine; however, gene flow between the two species was equal. The results of this study suggest that the hybrid zone is complex and influenced by environmental constraints. As a result of this analysis, range limits should be redefined. PMID:23346232

  17. Conflicting selection from fire and seed predation drives fine-scaled phenotypic variation in a widespread North American conifer.

    PubMed

    Talluto, Matthew V; Benkman, Craig W

    2014-07-01

    Recent work has demonstrated that evolutionary processes shape ecological dynamics on relatively short timescales (eco-evolutionary dynamics), but demonstrating these effects at large spatial scales in natural landscapes has proven difficult. We used empirical studies and modeling to investigate how selective pressures from fire and predispersal seed predation affect the evolution of serotiny, an ecologically important trait. Serotiny is a highly heritable key reproductive trait in Rocky Mountain lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta subsp. latifolia), a conifer that dominates millions of hectares in western North America. In these forests, the frequency of serotiny determines postfire seedling density with corresponding community- and ecosystem-level effects. We found that serotinous individuals have a selective advantage at high fire frequencies and low predation pressure; however, very high seed predation shifted the selective advantage to nonserotinous individuals even at high fire frequencies. Simulation modeling suggests that spatial variation in the frequency of serotiny results from heterogeneity in these two selective agents. These results, combined with previous findings showing a negative association between the density of seed predators and the frequency of serotiny at both landscape and continental scales, demonstrate that contemporary patterns in serotiny reflect an evolutionary response to conflicting selection pressures from fire and seed predation. Thus, we show that variation in the frequency of a heritable polygenic trait depends on spatial variation in two dominant selective agents, and, importantly, the effects of the local trait variation propagate with profound consequences to the structure and function of communities and ecosystems across a large landscape. PMID:24979772

  18. Herbivory in a Mediterranean forest: browsing impact and plant compensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Focardi, Stefano; Tinelli, Aleandro

    2005-11-01

    The compensatory response of plants to defoliation is likely to have important effects on plant-ungulate equilibria in forested ecosystems. We investigated the responses of six species of Mediterranean bushes to defoliation by wild ungulates, comparing an index of browsing impact with the productivity of plants in both open and exclusion plots. The data revealed a great diversity of plant responses to herbivory: Rubus ulmifolius was able to over-compensate and replace the lost tissues. Phillyrea latifolia exhibited a similar, albeit less evident, pattern, while Cistus salvifolius was severely damaged by browsing. Other species, such as Quercus ilex, Juncus acutus and Erica arborea, were not attacked to a large extent and suffered little or no harm. The results strongly suggest that Mediterranean ecosystems may tolerate large stocking rates of ungulates. However, the reduction of plant biomass due to browsing was very different in the six studied species, suggesting that when herbivory becomes severe the structure of the ecosystem will change with the more tolerant plants becoming more abundant. We can apply these results to improve management and conservation of relict coastal forests in the Mediterranean basin which are usually of small size and where decision-makers have to compromise between the conservation of plants and that of large mammals.

  19. Facing drought in a Mediterranean post-fire community: tissue water relations in species with different life traits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borghetti, Marco; Magnani, F.; Fabrizio, A.; Saracino, A.

    2004-03-01

    Bulk shoot water potential, the osmotic component and the bulk modulus of elasticity were measured throughout one growing season in four species co-occurring in a post-fire Mediterranean community in southern Italy: Pinus halepensis, Phillyrea latifolia, Cistus salvifolius and Rosmarinus officinalis. A severe drought occurred throughout the measurement period. Large seasonal fluctuations have been observed for both predawn and afternoon water potential in all species. Although minimum values down to -4 MPa have been measured, plant water potential always recovered to less negative values after drought. Daily amplitude of water potential decreased with increasing plant water stress in all species. In Cistus and Rosmarinus less ability for short-term control of plant water status has been assessed. Osmotic potential at full turgor did not display clear seasonal patterns, with no consistent ranking of species by their osmotic values. In most cases, no osmotic adjustment (lowering of osmotic potentials) and no change in tissue elastic properties were observed in response to increasing summer drought and intensity of water stress.

  20. Arsenic sequestration by ferric iron plaque on cattail roots.

    PubMed

    Blute, Nicole Keon; Brabander, Daniel J; Hemond, Harold F; Sutton, Stephen R; Newville, Matthew G; Rivers, Mark L

    2004-11-15

    Typha latifolia (cattail) sequesters arsenic within predominantlyferric iron root coatings, thus decreasing mobility of this toxic element in wetland sediments. Element-specific XRF microtomographic imaging illustrated a high spatial correlation between iron and arsenic in root plaques, with little arsenic in the interior of the roots. XANES analyses demonstrated that the plaque was predominantly ferric iron and contained approximately 20% As(III) and 80% As(V), which is significant because the two oxidation states form species that differ in toxicity and mobility. For the first time, spatial distribution maps of As oxidation states were developed, indicating that As(III) and As(V) are both fairly heterogeneous throughoutthe plaque. Chemical extractions showed that As was strongly adsorbed in the plaque rather than coprecipitated. Iron and arsenic concentrations ranged from 0.03 to 0.8 g Fe g(-1) wet plaque and 30 to 1200 microg As g(-1) wet plaque, consistent with a mechanism of As adsorption onto Fe(III) oxyhydroxide plaque. Because this mechanism decreases the concentrations of both As(III) and As(V) in groundwater, we propose that disruption of vegetation could increase the concentrations of mobile arsenic. PMID:15573609

  1. The potential use of storm water and effluent from a constructed wetland for re-vegetating a degraded pyrite trail in Queen Elizabeth National Park, Uganda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osaliya, R.; Kansiime, F.; Oryem-Origa, H.; Kateyo, E.

    During the operation of the Kilembe Mines (copper mining) a cobaltiferous stockpile was constructed, which began to erode after the closure of the mines in the early 1970s. The erosion of the pyrite stockpile resulted in a large acid trail all the way to Lake George (a Ramsar site). The acid trail contaminated a large area of Queen Elizabeth National Park (QENP) resulting in the death of most of the shallow-rooted vegetation. Processes and conditions created by storm water and effluent from a constructed wetland were assessed for vegetation regeneration in the degraded QENP pyrite trail. Cynodon dactylon, Imperata cylindrica and Hyparrhenia filipendula dominated the regeneration zone (RZ) where storm water and effluent from a constructed wetland was flowing; and the adjacent unpolluted area (UP) with importance value indices of 186.4 and 83.3 respectively. Typha latifolia and C. dactylon formed two distinct vegetation sub-zones within the RZ with the former inhabiting areas with a higher water table. Soil pH was significantly higher in the RZ, followed by UP and bare pyrite trail (BPT) at both 0-15 cm and 16-30 cm depths. Soil electrical conductivity was not significantly different in the RZ and BPT but significantly higher than that in UP for both depths. For 0-15 cm depth, RZ had significantly higher concentrations of copper than BPT and UP which had similar concentrations. Still at this depth (0-15 cm), the unpolluted area had significantly higher concentrations of total phosphorus and total nitrogen than the regeneration zone and the bare pyrite trail which had similar concentrations. The RZ dominated by Typha had significantly higher concentrations of TP and TN compared to the RZ dominated by Cynodon. The concentrations of NH 4-N were significantly lower in Typha regeneration zone than in CRZ at 0-15 cm depth but similar at 16-30 cm depth. At 16-30 cm depth, concentrations of copper were significantly higher in the regeneration zone followed by the bare pyrite

  2. A new approach to species delimitation in Septoria

    PubMed Central

    Verkley, G.J.M.; Quaedvlieg, W.; Shin, H.-D.; Crous, P.W.

    2013-01-01

    genus - Caryophylloseptoria Verkley, Quaedvlieg & Crous; New species - Sphaerulina tirolensis Verkley, Quaedvlieg & Crous; New combinations - Caryophylloseptoria lychnidis (Desm.) Verkley, Quaedvlieg & Crous, Caryophylloseptoria silenes (Westend.) Verkley, Quaedvlieg & Crous, Caryophylloseptoria spergulae (Westend.) Verkley, Quaedvlieg & Crous, Sphaerulina aceris (Lib.) Verkley, Quaedvlieg & Crous, Sphaerulina cornicola (DC.: Fr.) Verkley, Quaedvlieg & Crous, Sphaerulina gei (Roberge ex Desm.) Verkley, Quaedvlieg & Crous, Sphaerulina hyperici (Roberge ex Desm.) Verkley, Quaedvlieg & Crous, Sphaerulina frondicola (Fr.) Verkley, Quaedvlieg & Crous, Sphaerulina socia (Pass.) Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous; Epitypifications (basionyms) - Ascochyta lysimachiae Lib., Septoria astragali Roberge ex Desm., Septoria cerastii Roberge ex Desm., Septoria clematidis Roberge ex Desm., Septoria cruciatae Roberge ex Desm., Septoria spergulae Westend., Septoria epilobii Westend., Septoria galeopsidis Westend., Septoria gei Roberge ex Desm., Septoria hyperici Roberge ex Desm., Septoria rubi Westend., Septoria senecionis Westend., Septoria urticae Roberge ex Desm. PMID:24014901

  3. Smoke-induced seed germination in California chaparral

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keeley, J.E.; Fotheringham, C.J.

    1998-01-01

    The California chaparral community has a rich flora of species with different mechanisms for cuing germination to postfire conditions. Heat shock triggers germination of certain species but has no stimulatory effect on a great many other postfire species that are chemically stimulated by combustion products. Previous reports have shown that charred wood will induce germination, and here we report that smoke also induces germination in these same species. Smoke is highly effective, often inducing 100% germination in deeply dormant seed populations with 0% control germination. Smoke induces germination both directly and indirectly by aqueous or gaseous transfer from soil to seeds. Neither nitrate nor ammonium ions were effective in stimulating germination of smoke-stimulated species, nor were most of the quantitatively important gases generated by biomass smoke. Nitrogen dioxide, however, was very effective at inducing germination in Caulanthus heterophyllus (Brassicaceae), Emmenanthe penduliflora (Hydrophyllaceae), Phacelia grandiflora (Hydrophyllaceae), and Silene multinervia (Caryophyllaceae). Three species, Dendromecon rigida (Papaveraceae), Dicentra chrysantha, and Trichostema lanatum (Lamiaceae), failed to germinate unless smoke treatment was coupled with prior treatment of 1 yr soil storage. Smoke-stimulated germination was found in 25 chaparral species, representing 11 families, none of which were families known for heat-shock-stimulated germination. Seeds of smoke-stimulated species have many analogous characteristics that separate them from most heat-shock-stimulated seeds, including: (1) outer seed coats that are highly textured, (2) a poorly developed outer cuticle, (3) absence of a dense palisade tissue in the seed coat, and (4) a subdermal membrane that is semipermeable, allowing water passage but blocking entry of large (molecular mass > 500) solutes. Tentative evidence suggests that permeability characteristics of this subdermal layer are altered by

  4. Helichrysum italicum growing on metalliferous areas as a potential tool in phytostabilization of metal-contaminated soils.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bini, Claudio; Maleci, Laura; Giuliani, Claudia

    2015-04-01

    Plants that colonize metalliferous soils have developed physiological mechanisms that allow to tolerate high metal concentrations. Generally, metal uptake by these plants is not suppressed, but a detoxification process occurs, as a response to different strategies: some plants (accumulators) concentrate metals in the aerial parts, while others (excluders) present low metal concentrations in the aerial parts, since metals are arrested in their roots. In several regions of Italy (e.g. Veneto, Sardinia, Tuscany), numerous abandoned mine sites are present; On these metal-contaminated soils grow both metalliferous (e.g. Silene paradoxa) and non-metalliferous plants (e.g. Taraxacum officinale). Among them, Helichrysum italicum deserved attention since it is known as essential oil producer and is also used as a medicinal plant for its anti-inflammatory properties; for this reason, it must undergo the Drug Master File certifying the absence of chemical impurities and heavy metals. Samples of the whole plant (roots, leaves and flowers) of H. italicum have been collected at various sites, both mined and not mined, in order to ascertain its ability to uptake and translocate metals from roots to the aerial parts. Fresh and embedded material was examined by Light microscopy and Electron Microscopy (Scanning and Transmission) to ascertain possible damages in plant morphology. Dried samples were crushed, digested with HNO3 and analysed by ICP-OE technique for heavy metal (Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn) concentrations. Preliminary observations on the morphology of the different samples do not show significant differences in the leaf structure. The inorganic chemical composition of H. italicum was characterized by high metal content. Preliminary results of our analyses show that H. italicum accumulate metals (Mn, Zn) in roots, but do not translocate metals to the aerial parts; therefore, it may be considered an excluder plant. On the basis of our results, the aerial parts (leaves, flowers) of

  5. Land contamination and soil evolution in abandoned mine areas (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bini, Claudio; Wahsha, Mohammad; Spiandorello, Massimo

    2014-05-01

    In Italy ore research and exploitation are nearly exhausted since the end of the last century, leaving on the land a huge amount of mine waste, therefore provoking evident environmental damage including landscape, vegetation and the food chain, and a potential threat to human health. The increasing environmental consciousness of general population compelled Public Administrators to set down effective legislation acts on this subject (e.g. D.L. 152/2006), and more generally on environmental contamination. In this work we present the results of a survey carried out at several mixed sulphides mine sites in Italy, exploited for at least a millennium, and closed in the '60s of the last century. Biogeochemical analyses carried out on 50 soil profiles (mostly Entisols and Inceptisols) and vegetation in the proximal and distal areas of ore exploitation show metal concentrations overcoming legislation limits on average (Cu up to 3160 mg kg-1 , Pb up to 23600 mg kg-1, Zn up to 1588 mg kg-1, Fe up to 52,30 %). Ni, Cr and Mn concentrations, instead, are generally below the reference levels. Metal concentrations in native vegetation of the examined areas are moderately to highly elevated. Significant amounts of Cu, Pb, Zn in roots of Plantago major and Silene dioica, in leaves of Taraxacum officinale, and Salix spp, have been recorded. Essential elements, in particular, present Translocation Coefficients (TC) >1, with Mn>Zn>Cu>Fe. Toxic elements (Cd, Cr, Pb), instead, present TC<1, suggesting a synergic/antagonist effect to occur among metals and plants, according to their role in mineral nutrition. The results obtained suggest the abandoned mine sites to represent actual natural aboratories where to experiment new opportunities for restoration of anthropogenically contaminated areas, and to study new pedogenetic trends from these peculiar parent materials. Moreover, the examined plants are genetically adapted to naturally metal-enriched soils, and therefore may be utilized in

  6. Genetic and physical maps around the sex-determining M-locus of the dioecious plant asparagus.

    PubMed

    Telgmann-Rauber, Alexa; Jamsari, Ari; Kinney, Michael S; Pires, J Chris; Jung, Christian

    2007-09-01

    Asparagus officinalis L. is a dioecious plant. A region called the M-locus located on a pair of homomorphic sex chromosomes controls the sexual dimorphism in asparagus. The aim of this work was to clone the region determining sex in asparagus from its position in the genome. The structure of the region encompassing M should be investigated and compared to the sex-determining regions in other dioecious model species. To establish an improved basis for physical mapping, a high-resolution genetic map was enriched with AFLP markers closely linked to the target locus by carrying out a bulked segregant analysis. By screening a BAC library with AFLP- and STS-markers followed by chromosome walking, a physical map with eight contigs could be established. However, the gaps between the contigs could not be closed due to a plethora of repetitive elements. Surprisingly, two of the contigs on one side of the M-locus did not overlap although they have been established with two markers, which mapped in a distance as low as 0.25 cM flanking the sex locus. Thus, the clustering of the markers indicates a reduced recombination frequency within the M-region. On the opposite side of the M-locus, a contig was mapped in a distance of 0.38 cM. Four closely linked BAC clones were partially sequenced and 64 putative ORFs were identified. Interestingly, only 25% of the ORFs showed sequence similarity to known proteins and ESTs. In addition, an accumulation of repetitive sequences and a low gene density was revealed in the sex-determining region of asparagus. Molecular cytogenetic and sequence analysis of BACs flanking the M-locus indicate that the BACs contain highly repetitive sequences that localize to centromeric and pericentromeric locations on all asparagus chromosomes, which hindered the localization of the M-locus to the single pair of sex chromosomes. We speculate that dioecious Silene, papaya and Asparagus species may represent three stages in the evolution of XX, XY sex

  7. The importance of a taste. A comparative study on wild food plant consumption in twenty-one local communities in Italy.

    PubMed

    Ghirardini, Maria Pia; Carli, Marco; del Vecchio, Nicola; Rovati, Ariele; Cova, Ottavia; Valigi, Francesco; Agnetti, Gaia; Macconi, Martina; Adamo, Daniela; Traina, Mario; Laudini, Francesco; Marcheselli, Ilaria; Caruso, Nicolò; Gedda, Tiziano; Donati, Fabio; Marzadro, Alessandro; Russi, Paola; Spaggiari, Caterina; Bianco, Marcella; Binda, Riccardo; Barattieri, Elisa; Tognacci, Alice; Girardo, Martina; Vaschetti, Luca; Caprino, Piero; Sesti, Erika; Andreozzi, Giorgia; Coletto, Erika; Belzer, Gabriele; Pieroni, Andrea

    2007-01-01

    A comparative food ethnobotanical study was carried out in twenty-one local communities in Italy, fourteen of which were located in Northern Italy, one in Central Italy, one in Sardinia, and four in Southern Italy. 549 informants were asked to name and describe food uses of wild botanicals they currently gather and consume. Data showed that gathering, processing and consuming wild food plants are still important activities in all the selected areas. A few botanicals were quoted and cited in multiple areas, demonstrating that there are ethnobotanical contact points among the various Italian regions (Asparagus acutifolius, Reichardia picroides, Cichorium intybus, Foeniculum vulgare, Sambucus nigra, Silene vulgaris, Taraxacum officinale, Urtica dioica, Sonchus and Valerianella spp.). One taxon (Borago officinalis) in particular was found to be among the most quoted taxa in both the Southern and the Northern Italian sites. However, when we took into account data regarding the fifteen most quoted taxa in each site and compared and statistically analysed these, we observed that there were a few differences in the gathering and consumption of wild food plants between Northern and Southern Italy. In the North, Rosaceae species prevailed, whereas in the South, taxa belonging to the Asteraceae, Brassicaceae, and Liliaceae s.l. families were most frequently cited. We proposed the hypothesis that these differences may be due to the likelihood that in Southern Italy the erosion of TK on wild vegetables is taking place more slowly, and also to the likelihood that Southern Italians' have a higher appreciation of wild vegetables that have a strong and bitter taste. A correspondence analysis confirmed that the differences in the frequencies of quotation of wild plants within the Northern and the Southern Italian sites could be ascribed only partially to ethnic/cultural issues. An additional factor could be recent socio-economic shifts, which may be having a continued effort on

  8. Lake Store Finnsjøen - a key for understanding Lateglacial/early Holocene vegetation and ice sheet dynamics in the central Scandes Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paus, Aage; Boessenkool, Sanne; Brochmann, Christian; Epp, Laura Saskia; Fabel, Derek; Haflidason, Haflidi; Linge, Henriette

    2015-08-01

    The Lateglacial (LG) deglaciation and vegetation development in the Scandes Mountains has been debated for a century. Here we present new evidence from microfossils, radiocarbon dated plant macrofossils and sedimentary ancient DNA from laminated sediments in Lake Store Finnsjøen (1260 m a.s.l.) at Dovre, Central Norway. Combined with previous results from three other Dovre lakes, this allows for new interpretations of events during and immediately after the LG deglaciation. The Finnsjøen sediments present the first uninterrupted record of local vegetation development in the Scandes Mountains from the late Younger Dryas (YD), ca 12,000 cal years BP, to the early Holocene around 9700 cal years BP. The local vegetation in late YD/early Holocene was extremely sparse with pioneer herbs (e.g. Artemisia norvegica, Beckwithia, Campanula cf. uniflora, Koenigia, Oxyria, Papaver, Saxifraga spp.) and dwarf-shrubs (Betula nana, Salix including Salix polaris). From 11,300 cal years BP, local vegetation rapidly closed with dominant Dryas, Saxifraga spp., and Silene acaulis. From ca 10,700 cal years BP, open birch-forests with juniper, Empetrum nigrum and other dwarf-shrubs developed. Pine forests established within the area from 10,300 cal years BP. We identified the cold Preboreal Oscillation (PBO), not earlier described from pollen data in South Norway, around 11,400 cal years BP by a regional pollen signal. Distinct local vegetation changes were not detected until the post-PBO warming around 11,300 cal years BP. Apparently, the earlier warming at the YD/Holocene transition at 11,650 cal years BP was too weak and short-lived for vegetation closure at high altitudes at Dovre. For the first time, we demonstrate a regional glacier readvance and local ice cap formations during the YD in the Scandes Mountains. In two of the deep lakes with small catchments, YD glaciation blocked sedimentation without removing old sediments and caused a hiatus separating sediments of the ice

  9. Land Contamination and Soil-Plant Interactions in the Imperina Valley Mine (Belluno, Venetian Region, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bini, Claudio; Wahsha, Mohammad; Fontana, Silvia; Zilioli, Diana

    2010-05-01

    In Italy, ore exploitation, particularly that of mixed sulphides, has been abandoned since the final thirty years of the last century, and a quantity of mine dumps has been discharged in wide areas of the land, provoking evident environmental damages to landscape, soil and vegetation, with potential risk for human health. The present study concerns the distribution and mobility of heavy metals (Ni, Cr, Cu, Pb, Zn, Fe and Mn) in the soils of a mine site and their transfer to wild flora. Soils and wild plants were sampled from mixed sulphides mine dumps in Imperina valley (Belluno, Italy), and the concentrations of heavy metals were determined. Chemical analyses carried out on 10 soil profiles (mostly entisols) of the mineralised area revealed metal concentrations generally above the international target levels (Cu up to 3160 mg kg-1 , Pb up to 23600 mg kg-1, Zn up to 1588 mg kg-1, Fe up to 52,30 %). The concentrations of Ni, Cr and Mn, instead, are below the reference limits. Moreover, a highly significant correlation was observed between the concentrations of metals in soils (Fe, Pb, Zn and Cu). Metal concentration in selected wild plants of the mineralized area is moderately high, in particolar Cu, Pb, Zn in the roots of Plantago major, Pb and Zn in the leaves of Taraxacum officinale, Zn and Pb in Salix spp. The translocation coefficient (BAC) from soil to plant (hypogean portion), and within the plant (epigean portion) vary from 0,37 in Plantago major to 2,97 in Silene dioica, two known accumulator plants. Salix spp present high translocation coefficients from soil to plant, and from roots to leaves. In particular, essential metals present a translocation coefficient ≥1 (with the order Mn>Zn>Cu>Fe), while toxic metals have coefficients <1 (Pb

  10. The importance of a taste. A comparative study on wild food plant consumption in twenty-one local communities in Italy

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    A comparative food ethnobotanical study was carried out in twenty-one local communities in Italy, fourteen of which were located in Northern Italy, one in Central Italy, one in Sardinia, and four in Southern Italy. 549 informants were asked to name and describe food uses of wild botanicals they currently gather and consume. Data showed that gathering, processing and consuming wild food plants are still important activities in all the selected areas. A few botanicals were quoted and cited in multiple areas, demonstrating that there are ethnobotanical contact points among the various Italian regions (Asparagus acutifolius, Reichardia picroides, Cichorium intybus, Foeniculum vulgare, Sambucus nigra, Silene vulgaris, Taraxacum officinale, Urtica dioica, Sonchus and Valerianella spp.). One taxon (Borago officinalis) in particular was found to be among the most quoted taxa in both the Southern and the Northern Italian sites. However, when we took into account data regarding the fifteen most quoted taxa in each site and compared and statistically analysed these, we observed that there were a few differences in the gathering and consumption of wild food plants between Northern and Southern Italy. In the North, Rosaceae species prevailed, whereas in the South, taxa belonging to the Asteraceae, Brassicaceae, and Liliaceae s.l. families were most frequently cited. We proposed the hypothesis that these differences may be due to the likelihood that in Southern Italy the erosion of TK on wild vegetables is taking place more slowly, and also to the likelihood that Southern Italians' have a higher appreciation of wild vegetables that have a strong and bitter taste. A correspondence analysis confirmed that the differences in the frequencies of quotation of wild plants within the Northern and the Southern Italian sites could be ascribed only partially to ethnic/cultural issues. An additional factor could be recent socio-economic shifts, which may be having a continued effort on

  11. Impact of the Mountain Pine Beetle on the Forest Carbon Cycle in British Columbia from 1999 TO 2008 (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J. M.; Czurylowicz, P.; Mo, G.; Black, T. A.

    2013-12-01

    The unprecedented mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) (MPB) outbreak in British Columbia starting in 1998 affected about 50% of the lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) forests occupying about 50% of the land area of the province. The impact of this outbreak on the C cycle is assessed in this study. Annual leaf area index (LAI) maps of the affected area from 1999 to 2008 were produced using SPOT VEGETATION data, and net ecosystem production (NEP) was modeled using inputs of LAI, land cover, soil texture and daily meteorological data with the Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS). Both LAI and NEP were validated using field measurements. LAI was found to decrease on average by 20% compared to pre-outbreak conditions, while NEP decreased on average by 90%. Annual NEP values ranged from 2.4 to -8.0 Tg C between 1999 and 2008, with the ecosystem changing from a carbon sink to a carbon source in 2000. The annual average NEP was -2.9 Tg C over the 10 years, resulting in a total loss of carbon of 29 Tg C to the atmosphere. The inter-annual variability of both LAI and NEP was characterized by substantial initial decreases followed by steady increases from 2006 to 2008 with NEP returning to near carbon neutrality in 2008 (-1.8 Pg C/y). The impact of this MPB outbreak appears to be less dramatic than previously anticipated. The apparent fast recovery of LAI and NEP after MPB attacks is examined under the framework of ecosystem resilience which was manifested in the form of secondary overstory and understory growth and increased production of non-attacked host trees.

  12. Hyperspectral reflectance response of freshwater macrophytes to salinity in a brackish subtropical marsh.

    PubMed

    Tilley, David R; Ahmed, Muneer; Son, Ji Ho; Badrinarayanan, Harish

    2007-01-01

    Coastal freshwater wetlands are threatened by increased salinity due to relative sea level rise and reduced freshwater inputs. Remote radiometric measurement of freshwater marsh canopies to detect small shifts in water column salinity would be useful for assessing salinity encroachment. We measured leaf hyperspectral (300-1100 nm) reflectance of freshwater macrophytes (cattail, Typha latifolia and sea oxeye, Borrichia frutescens) in a field study in a subtropical brackish (2.5-4.5 parts per thousand salinity, per thousand) marsh to determine salinity effects on visible and near-infrared spectral band reflectance and to identify reflectance indices sensitive to small (1 per thousand) changes in wetland salinity. For sea oxeye, floating-position water band index [fWBI = R(900)/minimum(R(930) - R(980)), where R(lambda) = reflectance at band lambda], normalized difference vegetation index [NDVI = (R(774) - R(681))/(R(774) + R(681))], and a proposed wetland salinity reflectance ratio (WSRR = R(990)/R(933)) were sensitive to salinity with R2 of 40, 35, and 65%, respectively (p < 0.01). For cattail, NDVI and photochemical reflectance index [PRI = (R(531) - R(570))/(R(570) + R(531))] were sensitive to salinity with R2 of 29 and 33%, respectively (p

  13. Bacterial secondary production on vascular plant detritus: relationships to detritus composition and degradation rate.

    PubMed Central

    Moran, M A; Hodson, R E

    1989-01-01

    Bacterial production at the expense of vascular plant detritus was measured for three emergent plant species (Juncus effusus, Panicum hemitomon, and Typha latifolia) degrading in the littoral zone of a thermally impacted lake. Bacterial secondary production, measured as tritiated thymidine incorporation into DNA, ranged from 0.01 to 0.81 microgram of bacterial C mg of detritus-1 day-1. The three plant species differed with respect to the amount of bacterial productivity they supported per milligram of detritus, in accordance with the predicted biodegradability of the plant material based on initial nitrogen content, lignin content, and C/N ratio. Bacterial production also varied throughout the 22 weeks of in situ decomposition and was positively related to the nitrogen content and lignin content of the remaining detritus, as well as to the temperature of the lake water. Over time, production was negatively related to the C/N ratio and cellulose content of the degrading plant material. Bacterial production on degrading plant material was also calculated on the basis of plant surface area and ranged from 0.17 to 1.98 micrograms of bacterial C cm-2 day-1. Surface area-based calculations did not correlate well with either initial plant composition or changing composition of the remaining detritus during decomposition. The rate of bacterial detritus degradation, calculated from measured production of surface-attached bacteria, was much lower than the actual rate of weight loss of plant material. This discrepancy may be attributable to the importance of nonbacterial organisms in the degradation and loss of plant material from litterbags or to the microbially mediated solubilization of particulate material prior to bacterial utilization, or both. PMID:2802603

  14. Ecophysiological and biochemical strategies of response to ozone in Mediterranean evergreen broadleaf species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nali, C.; Paoletti, E.; Marabottini, R.; Della Rocca, G.; Lorenzini, G.; Paolacci, A. R.; Ciaffi, M.; Badiani, M.

    Three Mediterranean shrubs, Phillyrea latifolia L. (phillyrea), Arbutus unedo L. (strawberry tree), and Laurus nobilis L. (laurel), differing in their morphological and ecological response to water shortage, were exposed for 90 days to 0 or 110 ppb of ozone (O 3), 5 h each day. This yielded an accumulated exposure over of a threshold of 40 ppb (AOT40) of 31.5 ppm h over the 3 months experiment. These species showed differing responses to O 3: laurel and phillyrea developed foliar chlorotic mottles on the adaxial surface of leaves, whereas strawberry tree leaves showed reddish interveinal stipple-like necrotic lesions. In all cases, however, foliar injury did not exceed 8% of the sampled leaf area. At the end of the exposure period, O 3-induced stomatal limitation caused significant decreases of net photosynthesis in strawberry tree and laurel, but not in phillyrea. The relative water content of the leaves was significantly decreased by O 3, especially in laurel and strawberry tree, suggesting the occurrence of drought stress. Electrical conductivity of leachates from foliar discs increased in response to the treatment, much more strongly in laurel and in strawberry tree than in phillyrea, suggesting an O 3-dependent alteration of the membrane retention capacity. At the end of the experimental period, the activity of superoxide dismutase and the content of reduced glutathione, but not that of reduced ascorbate, were significantly increased in the ozonated leaves of strawberry tree and phillyrea, but not in laurel. The evergreen broadleaves studied here maybe relatively tolerant to realistic O 3 levels, at least in terms of visible injury and gas exchange. Such tolerance might overlap with their level of tolerance to drought stress. High constitutive levels, and/or O 3-induced increases in antioxidants, might contribute to O 3 tolerance in these Mediterranean evergreen broadleaf species.

  15. Nitrous oxide exchanges with the atmosphere of a constructed wetland treating wastewater. Parameters and implications for emission factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansson, A. E.; Kasimir Klemedtsson, Å.; Klemedtsson, L.; Svensson, B. H.

    2003-07-01

    Static chamber measurements of N2O fluxes were taken during the 1998 and 1999 growth seasons in a Swedish constructed wetland receiving wastewater. The dominating plant species in different parts of the wetland were Lemna minor L., Typha latifolia L., Spirogyra sp. and Glyceria maxima (Hartm.) and Phalaris arundinacea (L.), respectively. There were large temporal and spatial variations in N2O fluxes, which ranged from consumption at -350 to emissions at 1791 μg N2O m-2 h-1. The largest positive flux occurred in October 1999 and the lowest in the middle of July 1999. The average N2O flux for the two years was 130 μg N2O m-2 h-1 (SD = 220). No significant differences in N2O fluxes were found between the years, even though the two growing seasons differed considerably with respect to both air temperature and precipitation. 15% of the fluxes were negative, showing a consumption of N2O. Consumption occurred on a few occasions at most measurement sites and ranged from 1-350 μg N2O m-2 h-1. 13-43% of the variation in N2O fluxes was explained by multiple linear regression analysis including principal components. Emission factors were calculated according to IPCC methods from the N2O fluxes in the constructed wetland. The calculated emission factors were always lower (0.02-0.27%) compared to the default factor provided by the IPCC (0.75%). Thus, direct application of the IPCC default factor may lead to overestimation of N2O fluxes from constructed wastewater-treating wetlands.

  16. Post-Fire Spatial Patterns of Soil Nitrogen Mineralization and Microbial Abundance

    PubMed Central

    Smithwick, Erica A. H.; Naithani, Kusum J.; Balser, Teri C.; Romme, William H.; Turner, Monica G.

    2012-01-01

    Stand-replacing fires influence soil nitrogen availability and microbial community composition, which may in turn mediate post-fire successional dynamics and nutrient cycling. However, fires create patchiness at both local and landscape scales and do not result in consistent patterns of ecological dynamics. The objectives of this study were to (1) quantify the spatial structure of microbial communities in forest stands recently affected by stand-replacing fire and (2) determine whether microbial variables aid predictions of in situ net nitrogen mineralization rates in recently burned stands. The study was conducted in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) and Engelmann spruce/subalpine fir (Picea engelmannii/Abies lasiocarpa) forest stands that burned during summer 2000 in Greater Yellowstone (Wyoming, USA). Using a fully probabilistic spatial process model and Bayesian kriging, the spatial structure of microbial lipid abundance and fungi-to-bacteria ratios were found to be spatially structured within plots two years following fire (for most plots, autocorrelation range varied from 1.5 to 10.5 m). Congruence of spatial patterns among microbial variables, in situ net N mineralization, and cover variables was evident. Stepwise regression resulted in significant models of in situ net N mineralization and included variables describing fungal and bacterial abundance, although explained variance was low (R2<0.29). Unraveling complex spatial patterns of nutrient cycling and the biotic factors that regulate it remains challenging but is critical for explaining post-fire ecosystem function, especially in Greater Yellowstone, which is projected to experience increased fire frequencies by mid 21st Century. PMID:23226324

  17. In situ Measurements of Dissolved Gas Dynamics and Root Uptake in the Wetland Rhizosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, Matthew; Jaffe, Peter

    2013-04-01

    Anaerobic wetland soils are important natural sources of various atmospheric trace gases that are detrimental to the environment, including methane (CH4), nitrous oxide, elemental mercury (Hg°), and halomethanes. The balance between production and uptake in soils depends, in part, on mass transfer within the soil and between soil and the atmosphere. Observed volatilization rates of trace gases are highly variable and poorly described by models, however, so there is a clear need for new process measurements to clarify the rates of these transport mechanisms. Here we present results from mesocosm push-pull tests intended to quantify transport processes of dissolved gases in wetland sediments, with a focus on uptake by wetland plant roots and partitioning into trapped gas bubbles. This technique uses a suite of nonreactive volatile tracers to pinpoint transport mechanisms without the confounding influence of biochemical transformations. Mass balance approaches are used to determine transport kinetics, and a new analytical method to interpret dissolved gas push-pull test data is presented and compared to traditional analytical techniques. Results confirm the key role of vegetation in dramatically enhancing removal rates of dissolved gases from wetland soils. Root uptake is shown to be diffusion-limited and relative root uptake rates are modeled as an empirical function of molecular size. We use the porewater removal rates measured here to estimate potential volatilization fluxes of CH4, methyl chloride, and Hg° from wetlands vegetated with Typha latifolia and Scirpus acutus. The implementation of this new push-pull test methodology to field settings will be discussed.

  18. Recent mountain pine beetle outbreaks, wildfire severity, and postfire tree regeneration in the US Northern Rockies

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Brian J.; Donato, Daniel C.; Turner, Monica G.

    2014-01-01

    Widespread tree mortality caused by outbreaks of native bark beetles (Circulionidae: Scolytinae) in recent decades has raised concern among scientists and forest managers about whether beetle outbreaks fuel more ecologically severe forest fires and impair postfire resilience. To investigate this question, we collected extensive field data following multiple fires that burned subalpine forests in 2011 throughout the Northern Rocky Mountains across a spectrum of prefire beetle outbreak severity, primarily from mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae). We found that recent (2001–2010) beetle outbreak severity was unrelated to most field measures of subsequent fire severity, which was instead driven primarily by extreme burning conditions (weather) and topography. In the red stage (0–2 y following beetle outbreak), fire severity was largely unaffected by prefire outbreak severity with few effects detected only under extreme burning conditions. In the gray stage (3–10 y following beetle outbreak), fire severity was largely unaffected by prefire outbreak severity under moderate conditions, but several measures related to surface fire severity increased with outbreak severity under extreme conditions. Initial postfire tree regeneration of the primary beetle host tree [lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia)] was not directly affected by prefire outbreak severity but was instead driven by the presence of a canopy seedbank and by fire severity. Recent beetle outbreaks in subalpine forests affected few measures of wildfire severity and did not hinder the ability of lodgepole pine forests to regenerate after fire, suggesting that resilience in subalpine forests is not necessarily impaired by recent mountain pine beetle outbreaks. PMID:25267633

  19. Removal of the pesticides imazalil and tebuconazole in saturated constructed wetland mesocosms.

    PubMed

    Lv, Tao; Zhang, Yang; Zhang, Liang; Carvalho, Pedro N; Arias, Carlos A; Brix, Hans

    2016-03-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the removal of the pesticides imazalil and tebuconazole at realistic concentration levels (10 and 100 μg L(-1)) in saturated constructed wetland (CW) mesocosms planted with five wetland plant species (Typha latifolia, Phragmites australis, Iris pseudacorus, Juncus effusus and Berula erecta) at different hydraulic loading rates during summer and winter. The removal of imazalil and tebuconazole was not influenced by the influent concentration, but the removal efficiency for both compounds was lower in winter than in summer. Planted mesocosms had significantly higher removal efficiencies than the unplanted controls only in summer. The first-order kinetics model fitted the tebuconazole removal in all mesocosms, and the reaction rate constants varied by plant species and season (0.1-0.7 d(-1) in winter and 0.6-2.9 d(-1) in summer). For imazalil, the first-order kinetics model fitted the removal only in mesocosms planted with Phragmites australis (k = 1.2 ± 0.4 d(-1)) and in the unplanted control (k = 1.2 ± 0.5 d(-1) in both summer and winter). The removal of imazalil and tebuconazole by sorption to the bed substrate and plant uptake were low, suggesting a high rate of metabolization in the saturated CW mesocosms. The removal of imazalil and tebuconazole correlated with the rate of evapotranspiration and the removal of nutrients (N and P) during summer and with the DO/oxygen saturation during winter. This reveals two possible metabolization pathways: degradation inside the plant tissue after uptake and plant-stimulated microbial degradation in the bed substrate. Furthermore, the results indicate that nitrifying bacteria may play an active role in the biodegradation of these pesticides. PMID:26774264

  20. Turkish Scorzonera Species Extracts Attenuate Cytokine Secretion via Inhibition of NF-κB Activation, Showing Anti-Inflammatory Effect in Vitro.

    PubMed

    Bahadır Acikara, Özlem; Hošek, Jan; Babula, Petr; Cvačka, Josef; Budešínský, Miloš; Dračinský, Martin; Saltan İşcan, Gülçin; Kadlecová, Daniela; Ballová, Ludmila; Šmejkal, Karel

    2015-01-01

    Scorzonera species are used in different folk medicines to combat many diseases, including the illnesses connected with inflammation. Previous experiments showed anti-inflammatory activity of Scorzonera extracts in vivo. S. latifolia, S. cana var. jacquiniana, S. tomentosa, S. mollis ssp. szowitsii, S. eriophora, S. incisa, S. cinerea, and S. parviflora extracts were, therefore, evaluated for their inhibitory activities of TNF-α and IL-1β production, and NF-κB nuclear translocation in THP-1 macrophages. The HPLC analysis was carried out to elucidate and to compare the composition of these extracts. Major compounds of the tested extracts have been isolated using different chromatographic techniques and further tested for their inhibitory activities on TNF-α and IL-1β production. Several extracts showed promising anti-inflammatory activity in these in vitro tests. Results of HPLC analysis revealed chlorogenic acid as a compound present in all tested extracts. Hyperoside, quercetin-3-O-β-d-glucoside and rutin were also present in varying amount in some Scorzonera species analyzed. Furthermore, eight phenolics which were identified as quercetin-3-O-β-d-glucoside (1), hyperoside (2), hydrangenol-8-O-glucoside (3), swertisin (4), 7-methylisoorientin (5), 4,5-O-dicaffeoyl-quinic acid (6), 3,5-di-O-caffeoyl-quinic acid (7), and chlorogenic acid (8) have been isolated as major phenolic compounds of the tested extracts and, together with eight terpenoids (9-16) previously obtained from different Scorzonera species, have been tested for the inhibition of TNF-α production, unfortunately with no activity comparable with standard. PMID:26729082

  1. Effect of flooding and draw-down disturbance on germination from a seashore meadow seed bank

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jutila, H.M.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of flooding and draw-down on the germination from the coastal grassland seed banks and to determine whether the effect of flooding varies between the delta and the seashore. Seed bank samples were collected from three shore transects in SW Finland, two on the shore of the Baltic Sea and one on the delta of River Kokema??enjoki. Samples were germinated in non-flooded and flooded conditions for over a month, after which both treatments were maintained in non-flooded conditions. A total of 9267 seedlings of 47 species germinated and mean density of seeds in the soil was ca. 84 000/m2. Most of the seedlings were monocots (98%) and perennials (98%). Ca. 30-40% of the species found in the above-ground vegetation had a seed bank including the majority of the most abundant species. The number of seeds and species richness increased as the organic layer became thicker. The organic layer was thicker in the seashore samples and the seed bank was significantly larger than in the delta. The flooding and draw-down treatment significantly increased the number of germinating seedlings in the seashore and also increased species richness in two transects, one in the delta and the other in the seashore. Two species, Schoenoplectus tabernaemontani and Typha latifolia, had significantly higher germination in the flooded treatment than in the non-flooded. Apparently, many species in these coastal grasslands have adapted to flood disturbance and for seeds of some species flooding may work as a positive signal, possibly breaking dormancy.

  2. Migration potential of tundra plant species in a warming Arctic: Responses of southern ecotypes of three species to experimental warming in the High Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjorkman, Anne; Henry, Greg; Vellend, Mark

    2013-04-01

    Climatic changes due to anthropogenic activity are predicted to have a profound effect on the world's biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. The response of natural communities to climate change will depend primarily on two factors: 1) the ability of species to adapt quickly to changing temperatures and precipitation trends, and 2) the ability of species and populations from southern latitudes to migrate northward and establish in new environments. The assumption is often made that species and populations will track their optimal climate northward as the earth warms, but this assumption ignores a host of other potentially important factors, including the lack of adaptation to photoperiod, soil moisture, and biotic interactions at higher latitudes. In this study, we aim to better understand the ability of southern populations to establish and grow at northern latitudes under warmer temperatures. We collected seeds or ramets of three Arctic plant species (Papaver radicatum, Oxyria digyna, and Arctagrostis latifolia) from Alexandra Fiord on Ellesmere Island, Canada and from southern populations at Cornwallis Island, Canada, Barrow, Alaska, and Latnjajaure, Sweden. These seeds were planted into experimentally warmed and control plots at Alexandra Fiord in 2011. We have tracked their survival, phenology, and growth over two growing seasons. Here, we will present the preliminary results of these experiments. In particular, we will discuss whether individuals originating from southern latitudes exhibit higher growth rates in warm plots than control plots, and whether southern populations survive and grow as well as or better than individuals from Alexandra Fiord in the warmed plots. In both cases, a positive response would indicate that a warming climate may facilitate a migration northward of more southerly species or populations, and that the lack of adaptation to local conditions (soil chemistry, microhabitat, etc.) will not limit this migration. Alternately, a

  3. Multigeneration studies on red palm oil, and on hydrogenated vegetable oil containing mahua oil.

    PubMed

    Manorama, R; Chinnasamy, N; Rukmini, C

    1993-05-01

    Edible grade red palm oil (RPO; Elaeis guineensis) is being considered for use an an edible oil in India since it is one of the richest natural sources of carotenoids. Earlier chemical and nutritional evaluations in rats indicated no adverse effects. Multigeneration breeding studies in rats have now been carried out. Mahua oil (MO; Madhuca latifolia) is used in hydrogenated vegetable oil (HVO) for human consumption. Earlier studies on MO indicated adverse effects on the male reproductive system. Hence, a study was undertaken to evaluate the safety of HVO containing 30% MO (MO-HVO) in terms of reproductive performance. A three-generation study was conducted with groups of 12 male and 12 female Wistar/NIN/inbred albino rats fed, at 10% in the diet (20% protein), groundnut oil (controls), RPO, refined, bleached and deodorized palmolein (RBDPO), or MO-HVO. Reproductive parameters including percentage conception, birth weight, litter size, weanling weight, sex ratio at birth and weaning, preweaning mortality and number of days from introduction to mating, were recorded. Behavioural and reflexological tests were conducted on preweaning animals. Adult animals were subjected to weekly observation. No significant differences were found between the RPO and MO-HVO groups in comparison with groups fed GNO or RBDPO in any of the above parameters. However, certain indications of reduced fertility were observed in the MO-HVO group in the first and third generations. The results indicate that RPO did not produce any adverse effect on reproductive performance or other toxicological parameters studied, and therefore it can be considered as safe for consumption. On the other hand, HVO containing 30% MO needs further testing with a larger number of animals. PMID:8505022

  4. Changes of the CO2 and CH4 production potential of rewetted fens in the perspective of temporal vegetation shifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zak, D.; Reuter, H.; Augustin, J.; Shatwell, T.; Barth, M.; Gelbrecht, J.; McInnes, R. J.

    2015-04-01

    Rewetting of long-term drained fens often results in the formation of eutrophic shallow lakes with an average water depth of less than 1 m. This is accompanied by a fast vegetation shift from cultivated grasses via submerged hydrophytes to helophytes. As a result of rapid plant dying and decomposition, these systems are highly dynamic wetlands characterised by a high mobilisation of nutrients and elevated emissions of CO2 and CH4. However, the impact of specific plant species on these phenomena is not clear. Therefore we investigated the CO2 and CH4 production due to the subaqueous decomposition of shoot biomass of five selected plant species which represent different rewetting stages (Phalaris arundinacea, Ceratophyllum demersum, Typha latifolia, Phragmites australis and Carex riparia) during a 154 day mesocosm study. Beside continuous gas flux measurements, we performed bulk chemical analysis of plant tissue, including carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and plant polymer dynamics. Plant-specific mass losses after 154 days ranged from 25% (P. australis) to 64% (C. demersum). Substantial differences were found for the CH4 production with highest values from decomposing C. demersum (0.4 g CH4 kg-1 dry mass day) that were about 70 times higher than CH4 production from C. riparia. Thus, we found a strong divergence between mass loss of the litter and methane production during decomposition. If C. demersum as a hydrophyte is included in the statistical analysis solely nutrient contents (nitrogen and phosphorus) explain varying greenhouse gas production of the different plant species while lignin and polyphenols demonstrate no significant impact at all. Taking data of annual biomass production as important carbon source for methanogens into account, high CH4 emissions can be expected to last several decades as long as inundated and nutrient-rich conditions prevail. Different restoration measures like water level control, biomass extraction and top soil removal are discussed

  5. Modeling organic matter and nitrogen removal from domestic wastewater in a pilot-scale vertical subsurface flow constructed wetland.

    PubMed

    Bustillo-Lecompte, Ciro Fernando; Mehrvar, Mehrab; Quiñones-Bolaños, Edgar; Castro-Faccetti, Claudia Fernanda

    2016-01-01

    Constructed wetlands have become an attractive alternative for wastewater treatment. However, there is not a globally accepted mathematical model to predict their performance. In this study, the VS2DTI software was used to predict the effluent biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and total nitrogen (TN) in a pilot-scale vertical flow constructed wetland (VFCW) treating domestic wastewater. After a 5-week adaptation period, the pilot system was monitored for another 6 weeks. Experiments were conducted at hydraulic retention times (HRTs) in the range of 2-4 days with Typha latifolia as the vegetation. The raw wastewater concentrations ranged between 144-430 and 122-283 mg L(-1) for BOD5 and TN, respectively. A first-order kinetic model coupled with the advection/dispersion and Richards' equations was proposed to predict the removal rates of BOD5 and TN from domestic wastewater. Two main physical processes were modeled in this study, porous material water flow and solute transport through the different layers of the VFCW to simulate the constructed wetland (CW) conditions. The model was calibrated based on the BOD5 and TN degradation constants. The model indicated that most of BOD and TN (88 and 92%, respectively) were removed through biological activity followed by adsorption. It was also observed that the evapotranspiration was seen to have a smaller impact. An additional data series of effluent BOD and TN was used for model validation. The residual analysis of the calibrated model showed a relatively random pattern, indicating a decent fit. Thus, the VS2DTI was found to be a useful tool for CW simulation. PMID:26818608

  6. Aquatic macroinvertebrates and water quality of Sandia Canyon, Los Alamos National Laboratory, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Cross, S.; Nottelman, H.

    1997-01-01

    The Biology Team of ESH-20 (the Ecology Group) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has collected samples from the stream within Sandia Canyon since the summer of 1990. These field studies measure water quality parameters and collect aquatic macroinvertebrates from sampling sites within the upper canyon stream. Reports by Bennett and Cross discuss previous aquatic studies in Sandia Canyon. This report updates and expands the previous findings. The Biology Team collected water quality data and aquatic macroinvertebrates monthly at three sampling stations within Sandia Canyon in 1995. The two upstream stations occur near a cattail (Typha latifolia) dominated marsh downstream from outfalls that discharge industrial and sanitary waste effluent into the stream, thereby maintaining year-round flow. The third station is approximately 1.5 miles downstream from the outfalls within a mixed conifer forest. All water chemistry parameters measured in Sandia Canyon during 1995 fell within acceptable State limits and scored in the {open_quotes}good{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}excellent{close_quotes} ranges when compared to an Environmental Quality Index. However, aquatic macroinvertebrates habitats have been degraded by widespread erosion, channelization, loss of wetlands due to deposition and stream lowering, scour, limited acceptable substrates, LANL releases and spills, and other stressors. Macroinvertebrate communities at all the stations had low diversities, low densities, and erratic numbers of individuals. These results indicate that although the stream possesses acceptable water chemistry, it has reduced biotic potential. The best developed aquatic community occurs at the sampling station with the best habitat and whose downstream location partially mitigates the effects of upstream impairments.

  7. Identification and Modulation of the Key Amino Acid Residue Responsible for the pH Sensitivity of Neoculin, a Taste-Modifying Protein

    PubMed Central

    Nakajima, Ken-ichiro; Yokoyama, Kanako; Koizumi, Taichi; Koizumi, Ayako; Asakura, Tomiko; Terada, Tohru; Masuda, Katsuyoshi; Ito, Keisuke; Shimizu-Ibuka, Akiko; Misaka, Takumi; Abe, Keiko

    2011-01-01

    Neoculin occurring in the tropical fruit of Curculigo latifolia is currently the only protein that possesses both a sweet taste and a taste-modifying activity of converting sourness into sweetness. Structurally, this protein is a heterodimer consisting of a neoculin acidic subunit (NAS) and a neoculin basic subunit (NBS). Recently, we found that a neoculin variant in which all five histidine residues are replaced with alanine elicits intense sweetness at both neutral and acidic pH but has no taste-modifying activity. To identify the critical histidine residue(s) responsible for this activity, we produced a series of His-to-Ala neoculin variants and evaluated their sweetness levels using cell-based calcium imaging and a human sensory test. Our results suggest that NBS His11 functions as a primary pH sensor for neoculin to elicit taste modification. Neoculin variants with substitutions other than His-to-Ala were further analyzed to clarify the role of the NBS position 11 in the taste-modifying activity. We found that the aromatic character of the amino acid side chain is necessary to elicit the pH-dependent sweetness. Interestingly, since the His-to-Tyr variant is a novel taste-modifying protein with alternative pH sensitivity, the position 11 in NBS can be critical to modulate the pH-dependent activity of neoculin. These findings are important for understanding the pH-sensitive functional changes in proteinaceous ligands in general and the interaction of taste receptor–taste substance in particular. PMID:21559382

  8. Factors Influencing the Stable Oxygen and Hydrogen Isotopic Composition (δ 18O and δ D) of a Subarctic Freshwater Lake Ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Wooller, M. J.

    2005-12-01

    Previous studies have shown that the stable oxygen and hydrogen isotopic compositions (δ 18O and δD) in various animal tissues can be used to examine past climates and animal migration pattern. Little attention has been paid to the relative roles of diet and water influencing the overall δ 18O and δD of animal tissues in freshwater ecosystems. It is unclear whether different trophic levels in a freshwater lake ecosystem have an identical relationship to the water that surrounds them. The δ18O and δD values of animal tissues may be controlled by numerous different factors, including metabolic and biosynthetic isotopic fractionation and variations of δ 18O and δD in the food available. We began to examine these issues by analyzing the δ 18O and δD throughout a freshwater aquatic ecosystem at Smith Lake in Alaska. We collected samples representing primary producers and consumers (primary and secondary). Samples included green algae, various aquatic plants, such as Nuphar variegatum (water lily), Polygonum amphibium (water smartweed), Carex utriculata (sedge), Utricularia vulgaris (common bladderwort), Typha latifolia (common cattail), and a range of aquatic invertebrates, including Chironomus. sp (midge), Zygoptera (damselfly), Anisoptera (dragonfly), Dytiscidae (diving beetle) and Euhirudinea (leeches). The δ 18O and δD of Smith Lake water were ~-13.5e and -129.0e, respectively, and we present the δ 18O and δD of the rest of the ecosystem relative to these data. For instance, the δ 18O of chironomus sp. was ~12.1, which is greater than the of the lake water. Preliminary results suggest the extent of the fractionation between δ 18O of chironomids vs. lake water δ 18O is consistent with previous studies. Our data provide an insight into the range of variations that could be expected within a single freshwater ecosystem.

  9. Post-fire spatial patterns of soil nitrogen mineralization and microbial abundance.

    PubMed

    Smithwick, Erica A H; Naithani, Kusum J; Balser, Teri C; Romme, William H; Turner, Monica G

    2012-01-01

    Stand-replacing fires influence soil nitrogen availability and microbial community composition, which may in turn mediate post-fire successional dynamics and nutrient cycling. However, fires create patchiness at both local and landscape scales and do not result in consistent patterns of ecological dynamics. The objectives of this study were to (1) quantify the spatial structure of microbial communities in forest stands recently affected by stand-replacing fire and (2) determine whether microbial variables aid predictions of in situ net nitrogen mineralization rates in recently burned stands. The study was conducted in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) and Engelmann spruce/subalpine fir (Picea engelmannii/Abies lasiocarpa) forest stands that burned during summer 2000 in Greater Yellowstone (Wyoming, USA). Using a fully probabilistic spatial process model and Bayesian kriging, the spatial structure of microbial lipid abundance and fungi-to-bacteria ratios were found to be spatially structured within plots two years following fire (for most plots, autocorrelation range varied from 1.5 to 10.5 m). Congruence of spatial patterns among microbial variables, in situ net N mineralization, and cover variables was evident. Stepwise regression resulted in significant models of in situ net N mineralization and included variables describing fungal and bacterial abundance, although explained variance was low (R²<0.29). Unraveling complex spatial patterns of nutrient cycling and the biotic factors that regulate it remains challenging but is critical for explaining post-fire ecosystem function, especially in Greater Yellowstone, which is projected to experience increased fire frequencies by mid 21(st) Century. PMID:23226324

  10. Seasonal influence on sulfate reduction and zinc sequestration in subsurface treatment wetlands.

    PubMed

    Stein, Otto R; Borden-Stewart, Deborah J; Hook, Paul B; Jones, Warren L

    2007-08-01

    To characterize the effects of season, temperature, plant species, and chemical oxygen demand (COD) loading on sulfate reduction and metals removal in treatment wetlands we measured pore water redox potentials and concentrations of sulfate, sulfide, zinc and COD in subsurface wetland microcosms. Two batch incubations of 20 day duration were conducted in each of four seasons defined by temperature and daylight duration. Four treatments were compared: unplanted controls, Typha latifolia (broadleaf cattail), and Schoenoplectus acutus (hardstem bulrush), all at low COD loading (267 mg/L), plus bulrush at high COD loading (534 mg/L). Initial SO4-S and zinc concentrations were 67 and 24 mg/L, respectively. For all treatments, sulfate removal was least in winter (4 degrees C, plant dormancy) greatest in summer (24 degrees C, active plant growth) and intermediate in spring and fall (14 degrees C), but seasonal variation was greater in cattail, and especially, bulrush treatments. Redox measurements indicated that, in winter, plant-mediated oxygen transfer inhibited activity of sulfate reducing bacteria, exacerbating the reduction in sulfate removal due to temperature. Doubling the COD load in bulrush treatments increased sulfate removal by only 20-30% when averaged over all seasons and did not alter the basic pattern of seasonal variation, despite tempering the wintertime increase in redox potential. Seasonal and treatment effects on zinc removal were broadly consistent with sulfate removal and presumably reflected zinc-sulfide precipitation. Results strongly suggest that interactive effects of COD loading rate, temperature, season, and plant species control not only sulfate reduction and zinc sequestration, but also the balance of competition between various microbial consortia responsible for water treatment in constructed wetlands. PMID:17599383

  11. Five year water and nitrogen balance for a constructed surface flow wetland treating agricultural drainage waters.

    PubMed

    Borin, Maurizio; Tocchetto, Davide

    2007-07-15

    The performance of a constructed surface flow wetland in reducing diffuse N pollution coming from croplands is being investigated in an ongoing experiment, begun in 1998 in NE Italy. The 0.32 ha wetland is vegetated with Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. and Typha latifolia (L.). It receives drainage water from 6 ha of land managed for an experiment on drainage systems, where maize, sugarbeet, winter wheat and soybean are cultivated. During the period 1998-2002, the wetland received from 4698 to 8412 mm of water per year (on average, about 9 times the environmental rainfall); its water regimen was discontinuous and flooding occurred on a variable number of days per year (from 13 to 126). Nitric nitrogen was the most important form of element load. Its concentration in the inflow water over time was rather discontinuous, with median values ranging from 0.2 (in 2001) to 4.5 (in 2000) mg L(-1). Inflow nitric N concentrations were occasionally in the 5-15 mg L(-1) range. Concentrations reduced passing through the wetland, with a more evident effect in the last year. Over 5 years, the wetland received slightly more than 2000 kg ha(-1) of nitrogen, 87% in nitric form mostly from farmland drainage. The remaining 13% of N was applied as organic slurry directly onto the wetland, with 5 distributions during 1998 to assess wetland performance in treating occasional organic loads. Field drainage loads had a discontinuous time pattern and occurred mostly during autumn-winter, with the exception of the 2001-2002 season which was a very dry. The wetland discharged 206 kg ha(-1) of N, over the 5-year period, with an apparent removal efficiency of about 90%. The disappearance was mostly due to plant uptake (1110 kg ha(-1)) and soil accumulation (570 kg ha(-1)), with the contribution of denitrification being estimated at around 7%. PMID:17270250

  12. Heavy metal and nutrient concentration in soil and plants growing on a metalliferous chromite minespoil.

    PubMed

    Samantaray, S; Rout, G R; Das, P

    2001-10-01

    Metal contamination in soil and plant samples from a chromite mine and its adjoining regions was determined. The metal concentration varied in stem, leaf and root of different tree species. In the case of shrubs, the highest concentration of iron (18.5 mg kg(-1) was detected in the stem of Combretum roxburghii. The concentration of aluminium varied from 1.8 - 5.3 mg kg(-1) dry weight, whereas the nickel content was found to be the highest in the stem of Calotropis gigantea. In the case of herbs, chromium concentration was highest (60.9 mg kg(-1) dry weight) in Evovulus alsenoides and the lowest (18.8 mg kg(-1) dry weight) in Andrographis paniculata. There was a significant correlation observed between chromium in soil with the root of tree species like Lagerstroemia parviflora, Madhuca longifolia, Anogeissus latifolia and Haldina cordyfolia. Nickel in soil was significantly correlated with the stem and leaf of all the tree species except Chlroxylon sweitenta. Iron in soil showed correlation with the stem and leaf of Chloroxylon sweitenia. Among the shrubs (Calotropis gigantea, Combretum roxburghii and Smilax zeylancia), chromium in soil showed a correlation with the root. Nickel in soil was positively correlated with the stem and leaf of Calotropis gigantea and Combretum roxburghii. Among the herbs, chromium in the whole plant of Evolvulus alsenoids, Solanum surattense and Phyllanthus fraternus showed significant positive correlation with soil; nickel in Solanum surattense showed significant positive correlation with soil. The positive correlation coefficient was observed between iron in the whole plant and soil on Phyllanthus virgatus, Phyllanthus fraternus and Andrographis paniculata. The above information would be useful for the establishment of a vegetation cover on the minewaste heaps. PMID:11766037

  13. Evaluating the non-rice host plant species of Sesamia inferens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) as natural refuges: resistance management of Bt rice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhuorong; Gao, Yulin; Luo, Ju; Lai, Fengxiang; Li, Yunhe; Fu, Qiang; Peng, Yufa

    2011-06-01

    Although rice (Oryza sativa L.) lines that express Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins have shown great potential for managing the major Lepidoptera pests of rice in southern China, including Sesamia inferens, their long-term use is dependent on managing resistance development to Bt toxins in pest populations. The maintenance of "natural" refuges, non-Bt expressing plants that are hosts for a target pest, has been proposed as a means to minimize the evolution of resistance to Bt toxins in transgenic plants. In the current study, field surveys and greenhouse experiments were conducted to identify host plants of S. inferens that could serve as "natural" refuges in rice growing areas of southern China. A field survey showed that 34 plant species in four families can be alternative host plants of S. inferens. Based on injury level under field conditions, rice (Oryza sativa L.); water oat (Zizania latifolia Griseb.); corn (Zea mays L.); tidalmarsh flatsedge (Cyperus serotinus Rottb.); and narrow-leaved cat-tail (Typha angustifolia Linn.) were identified as the primary host plant species of S. inferens. Greenhouse experiments further demonstrated that water oat, corn, and narrow-leaved cat-tail could support the survival and development of S. inferens. Interestingly, greenhouse experiments showed that S. inferens preferred to lay eggs on tidalmarsh flatsedge compared with the other three nonrice host species, although no pupae were found in the plants examined in field surveys. Few larvae were found to survive on tidalmarsh flatsedge in greenhouse bioassays, suggesting that tidalmarsh flatsedge could serve as a "dead-end" trap crop for S. inferens, but is not a candidate to serve as natural refuge to maintain susceptible S. inferens. Overall, these results suggest that water-oat, corn, and narrow-leaved cat-tail might serve as "natural refuge" for S. inferens in rice planting area of southern China when Bt rice varieties are planted. PMID:22251655

  14. Morphological and molecular differences in two strains of Ustilago esculenta.

    PubMed

    You, Wenyu; Liu, Qian; Zou, Keqin; Yu, Xiaoping; Cui, Haifeng; Ye, Zihong

    2011-01-01

    Ustilago esculenta is a fungal endophyte of Zizania latifolia that plays an important agricultural role in this vegetable crop. The purpose of this study was to characterize sporidial (T) and mycelial (M-T) strains of U. esculenta isolated from sporulating and non-sporulating galls on plants growing in Zhejiang province, China. Morphological comparisons of the T strain and M-T strain were made by optical and scanning electron microscope observation. Genetic differences were examined by sequencing the ITS region of the fungus and examining differential protein expression by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF-MS/MS. The sporidial (T) and mycelial (M-T) strains differed in morphological characteristics of their in vitro single colony formations and in cell shape. Alignment of ITS sequences of the T strain and M-T strain revealed a single mutation between the T strain and M-T strain, but the sequences were the same within strains. A total of 146 proteins were only expressed in the M-T strain, and 242 proteins were only expressed in the T strain isolated from infected plants. A total of 222 proteins were up-regulated or down-regulated in the T strain when compared with the M-T strain. Of these, 18 proteins were identified and eight were associated with processes involving energy metabolism and the cytoskeleton. Two morphology-related proteins, MAP kinase kinase and actin, were differentially expressed. The differences noted in the T strain and M-T strain may lead to a better understanding of the life cycle and morphogenesis in U. esculenta. PMID:20495805

  15. Evaluation of spermicidal activity of MI-saponin A.

    PubMed

    Saha, P; Majumdar, S; Pal, D; Pal, B C; Kabir, S N

    2010-05-01

    The seed extracts of Madhuca latifolia were reported to have spermicidal activity. The current investigation identified the spermicidal component of the extracts and evaluated its spermicidal potential in vitro. As characterized by infrared, mass, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectral analyses, Mi-saponin A (MSA) was found to be the most potent component among a mixture of saponins. The mean effective concentrations of MSA that induced irreversible immobilization were 320 microg/mL for rat and 500 microg/mL for human sperm, as against the respective concentrations of 350 and 550 microg/mL of nonoxynol 9 (N-9). The mode of spermicidal action was evaluated by a battery of tests including (a) double fluoroprobe staining for sperm viability, (b) hypoosmotic swelling test and, assays for 5' nucleotidase and acrosin for physiological integrity of sperm plasma membrane, (c) scanning and transmission electron microscopy for sperm membrane ultrastructure, and (d) plasma membrane lipid peroxidation (LPO). The observations, taken together, were interpreted to mean that the spermicidal effect of MSA involved increased membrane LPO leading to structural and functional disintegration of sperm plasma membrane and acrosomal vesicle. A comparative in vitro cytotoxicity study in human vaginal keratocyte (Vk2/E6E7) and endocervical (End/E6E7) cell lines demonstrated that the 50% cell cytotoxicity (CC(50)) values, and consequently the safety indices, for MSA were >or= 8-fold higher as compared to those of N-9. In conclusion, MSA is a potent spermicidal molecule that may be explored further for its suitability as an effective component of vaginal contraceptive. PMID:20220105

  16. Atrazine degradation by bioaugmented sediment from constructed wetlands.

    PubMed

    Runes, H B; Jenkins, J J; Bottomley, P J

    2001-10-01

    The potential to establish pesticide biodegradation in constructed wetland sediment was investigated. Under microcosm conditions, bioaugmentation of sediment with small quantities of an atrazine spill-site soil (1:100 w/w) resulted in the mineralization of 25-30% of 14C ethyl atrazine (1-10 microg g(-1) sediment) as 14CO2 under both unsaturated and water-saturated conditions; atrazine and its common metabolites were almost undetectable after 30 days incubation. By comparison, unbioaugmented sediment supplemented with organic amendments (cellulose or cattail leaves) mineralized only 2-3% of 14C ethyl atrazine, and extractable atrazine and its common metabolites comprised approximately 70% of the original application. The population density of atrazine-degrading microorganisms in unbioaugmented sediment was increased from approximately 10(2)/g to 10(4)/g by bioaugmentation (1:100 w/w), and increased by another 60-fold (6.0x10(5) g(-1)) after incubation with 10 microg g(-1) of atrazine. A high population of atrazine degraders (approximately 10(6) g(-1)) and enhanced rates of atrazine mineralization also developed in bioaugmented sediment after incubation in flooded mesocosms planted with cattails (Typha latifolia) and supplemented with atrazine (3.2 mg l(-1), 1 microg g(-1) sediment). In the absence of atrazine, neither the population of atrazine degraders, nor the atrazine mineralizing potential of bioaugmented sediment increased, regardless of the presence or absence of cattails. Bioaugmentation might be a simple method to promote pesticide degradation in nursery run-off channeled through constructed wetlands, if persistence of degraders in the absence of pesticide is not a serious constraint. PMID:11759697

  17. Ab initio calculations of the Fe(II) and Fe(III) isotopic effects in citrates, nicotianamine, and phytosiderophore, and new Fe isotopic measurements in higher plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moynier, Frédéric; Fujii, Toshiyuki; Wang, Kun; Foriel, Julien

    2013-05-01

    Iron is one of the most abundant transition metal in higher plants and variations in its isotopic compositions can be used to trace its utilization. In order to better understand the effect of plant-induced isotopic fractionation on the global Fe cycling, we have estimated by quantum chemical calculations the magnitude of the isotopic fractionation between different Fe species relevant to the transport and storage of Fe in higher plants: Fe(II)-citrate, Fe(III)-citrate, Fe(II)-nicotianamine, and Fe(III)-phytosiderophore. The ab initio calculations show firstly, that Fe(II)-nicotianamine is ˜3‰ (56Fe/54Fe) isotopically lighter than Fe(III)-phytosiderophore; secondly, even in the absence of redox changes of Fe, change in the speciation alone can create up to ˜1.5‰ isotopic fractionation. For example, Fe(III)-phytosiderophore is up to 1.5‰ heavier than Fe(III)-citrate2 and Fe(II)-nicotianamine is up to 1‰ heavier than Fe(II)-citrate. In addition, in order to better understand the Fe isotopic fractionation between different plant components, we have analyzed the iron isotopic composition of different organs (roots, seeds, germinated seeds, leaves and stems) from six species of higher plants: the dicot lentil (Lens culinaris), and the graminaceous monocots Virginia wild rye (Elymus virginicus), Johnsongrass (Sorghum halepense), Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis), river oat (Uniola latifolia), and Indian goosegrass (Eleusine indica). The calculations may explain that the roots of strategy-II plants (Fe(III)-phytosiderophore) are isotopically heavier (by about 1‰ for the δ56Fe) than the upper parts of the plants (Fe transported as Fe(III)-citrate in the xylem or Fe(II)-nicotianamine in the phloem). In addition, we suggest that the isotopic variations observed between younger and older leaves could be explained by mixing of Fe received from the xylem and the phloem.

  18. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN SOME SOIL PARAMETERS AND WEED COMMUNITY (CASE STUDY: WINTER WHEAT FIELDS OF UREMIA-IRAN).

    PubMed

    Hassannejad, S; Pirouie, M Saleh; Haghi, D Zare

    2015-01-01

    In order to find relationships between weed species distribution and soil pH, calcium carbonate (CaCO₃), electrical conductivity (EC), and organic matter percentage (OM %), fields surveys were done in 50 wheats (Triticum aestivum L.) fields of Uremia county (one of the northwest counties of Iran) in 2013. Data sampling of weeds was conducted from the beginning of stem elongation until the end of heading stages of wheat. In each field, 20 quadrates (0.25 m²) were randomly placed along a "W" pattern (5 quadrates in each line of this pattern) and in each quadrat, weed species were coded and recorded (density and cover percentage) for subsequent data entry and analysis. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) was used to find relationships between presence and absence of weeds in wheat fields and some of soil parameters. A total 169 weed species belonging to 35 plant families were recorded. CCA showed that four soil factors including soil pH, calcium carbonate (CaCO3), electrical conductivity (EC), and organic matter percentage (OM %) showed 58.6 percentage of weed species distribution variance. Abutilon theophrasti Medicus, Datura stramonium L., Malva neglecta Wallr., Portulaca oleracea L., Sisymbrium irio L., Atriplex patulum (L.). Aellen., and Heliotropium europaeum L. had maximum correlation with soil's pH. Euphorbia peplus L. and Salvia spinosa L. had negative correlation with pH, so that increasing pH caused reduction in the presence of these weeds. The presence of Chondrilla juncea L., Lepidium perfoliatum L., and Turgenia latifolia (L.) Hoff in the center of CCA biplot indicated that these weeds were correlated with all of these soil parameters. PMID:27145592

  19. The Responses of Cytochrome Redox State and Energy Metabolism to Dehydration Support a Role for Cytoplasmic Viscosity in Desiccation Tolerance1

    PubMed Central

    Leprince, Olivier; Hoekstra, Folkert A.

    1998-01-01

    To characterize the depression of metabolism in anhydrobiotes, the redox state of cytochromes and energy metabolism were studied during dehydration of soaked cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) cotyledons and pollens of Typha latifolia and Impatiens glandulifera. Between water contents (WC) of 1.0 and 0.6 g H2O/g dry weight (g/g), viscosity as measured by electron spin resonance spectros