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Sample records for campylobacter species contamination

  1. Quantification of campylobacter species cross-contamination during handling of contaminated fresh chicken parts in kitchens.

    PubMed

    Luber, Petra; Brynestad, Sigrid; Topsch, Daniela; Scherer, Kathrin; Bartelt, Edda

    2006-01-01

    Numerous outbreak investigations and case-control studies for campylobacteriosis have provided evidence that handling Campylobacter-contaminated chicken products is a risk factor for infection and illness. There is currently extremely limited quantitative data on the levels of Campylobacter cross-contamination in the kitchen, hindering risk assessments for the pathogen commodity combination of Campylobacter and chicken meat. An exposure assessment needs to quantify the transfer of the bacteria from chicken to hands and the kitchen environment and from there onto ready-to-eat foods. We simulated some typical situations in kitchens and quantified the Campylobacter transfer from naturally contaminated chicken parts most commonly used in Germany. One scenario simulated the seasoning of five chicken legs and the reuse of the same plate for cooked meat. In another, five chicken breast filets were cut into small slices on a wooden board where, without intermediate cleaning, a cucumber was sliced. We also investigated the transfer of the pathogen from chicken via hands to a bread roll. The numbers of Campylobacter present on the surfaces of the chicken parts, hands, utensils, and ready-to-eat foods were detected by using Preston enrichment and colony counting after surface plating on Karmali agar. The mean transfer rates from legs and filets to hands were 2.9 and 3.8%. The transfer from legs to the plate (0.3%) was significantly smaller (P < 0.01) than the percentage transferred from filets to the cutting board and knife (1.1%). Average transfer rates from hands or kitchen utensils to ready-to-eat foods ranged from 2.9 to 27.5%. PMID:16391026

  2. Detection of Campylobacter species using monoclonal antibodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Colin R.; Lee, Alice; Stanker, Larry H.

    1999-01-01

    A panel of species specific monoclonal antibodies were raised to Campylobacter coli, Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter lari. The isotypes, and cross-reactivity profiles of each monoclonal antibody against an extensive panel of micro- organisms, were determined.

  3. Clinical relevance of infections with zoonotic and human oral species of Campylobacter.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soomin; Lee, Jeeyeon; Ha, Jimyeong; Choi, Yukyung; Kim, Sejeong; Lee, Heeyoung; Yoon, Yohan; Choi, Kyoung-Hee

    2016-07-01

    Genus Campylobacter has been recognized as a causative bacterial agent of animal and human diseases. Human Campylobacter infections have caused more concern. Campylobacters can be classified into two groups in terms of their original host: zoonotic and human oral species. The major zoonotic species are Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli, which mostly reside in the intestines of avian species and are transmitted to humans via consumption of contaminated poultry products, thus causing human gastroenteritis and other diseases as sequelae. The other campylobacters, human oral species, include C. concisus, C. showae, C. gracilis, C. ureolyticus, C. curvus, and C. rectus. These species are isolated from the oral cavity, natural colonization site, but have potential clinical relevance in the periodontal region to varying extent. Two species, C. jejuni and C. coli, are believed to be mainly associated with intestinal diseases, but recent studies suggested that oral Campylobacter species also play a significant role in intestinal diseases. This review offers an outline of the two Campylobacter groups (zoonotic and human oral), their virulence traits, and the associated illnesses including gastroenteritis. PMID:27350611

  4. Quantifying potential sources of surface water contamination with Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli.

    PubMed

    Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Penny, Christian; Ragimbeau, Catherine; Schets, Franciska M; Blaak, Hetty; Duim, Birgitta; Wagenaar, Jaap A; de Boer, Albert; Cauchie, Henry-Michel; Mossong, Joel; van Pelt, Wilfrid

    2016-09-15

    Campylobacter is the most common causative agent of human bacterial gastroenteritis and is frequently found in surface water, where it indicates recent contamination with animal faeces, sewage effluent, and agricultural run-off. The contribution of different animal reservoirs to surface water contamination with Campylobacter is largely unknown. In the Netherlands, the massive poultry culling to control the 2003 avian influenza epidemic coincided with a 44-50% reduction in human campylobacteriosis cases in the culling areas, suggesting substantial environment-mediated spread of poultry-borne Campylobacter. We inferred the origin of surface water Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli strains in Luxembourg and the Netherlands, as defined by multilocus sequence typing, by comparison to strains from poultry, pigs, ruminants, and wild birds, using the asymmetric island model for source attribution. Most Luxembourgish water strains were attributed to wild birds (61.0%), followed by poultry (18.8%), ruminants (15.9%), and pigs (4.3%); whereas the Dutch water strains were mainly attributed to poultry (51.7%), wild birds (37.3%), ruminants (9.8%), and pigs (1.2%). Attributions varied over seasons and surface water types, and geographical variation in the relative contribution of poultry correlated with the magnitude of poultry production at either the national or provincial level, suggesting that environmental dissemination of Campylobacter from poultry farms and slaughterhouses can be substantial in poultry-rich regions. PMID:27244295

  5. Survival after cryogenic freezing of Campylobacter species in ground Turkey patties treated with polyphosphates.

    PubMed

    Gunther Iv, Nereus W; Rajkowski, Kathleen T; Sommers, Christopher

    2015-02-01

    The use of polyphosphate-based marinades in the processing of poultry has been previously shown to increase the survival of Campylobacter species present in the exudates derived from these products. This study investigates the effects that some of the same polyphosphates have on the survival of Campylobacter species within a ground turkey product subjected to cryogenic freezing. Ground turkey patties with two different polyphosphate formulations added in two different concentrations were artificially contaminated with known concentrations of Campylobacter jejuni or Campylobacter coli. The patties were cryogenically frozen at -80°F (-62.2°C) with liquid nitrogen vapor and held at -20°C for 7 or 33 days, after which the number of Campylobacter surviving in the patties was determined. On average the cryogenic freezing resulted in a 2.5-log decrease in the survival of C. jejuni cells and a 2.9-log decrease in C. coli cells present in the turkey patties. Additionally, the presence of polyphosphates in the turkey patties had no effect on Campylobacter survival up to the maximum allowed concentration (0.5%) for polyphosphates in poultry marinades. Finally, it was determined that the added polyphosphates had little effect on the pH of the ground turkey meat; an effect which previously had been implicated in the enhancement of Campylobacter survival due to the presence of polyphosphates. PMID:25710161

  6. Eleutherine americana: a candidate for the control of Campylobacter species.

    PubMed

    Sirirak, T; Voravuthikunchai, S P

    2011-04-01

    The antibacterial activity of ethanolic extracts of selected Thai medicinal plants (Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Aiton) Hassk., Quercus infectoria G. Olivier, and Eleutherine americana Merr.) against Campylobacter spp. was investigated. Sixty-five Campylobacter, including 39 isolates from humans and 26 isolates from chicken samples, were tested. Reference Campylobacter spp. that are commonly encountered in gastroenteritis were included. The ethanolic extract of E. americana demonstrated good antibacterial activity against all the tested isolates. Inhibition zones ranged from 10 to 37 mm. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the extract against Campylobacter isolates from humans and chicken samples ranged from 31.25 to 500 μg/mL and 62.50 to 1,000 μg/mL, respectively. The minimum bactericidal concentration ranged from 31.25 to 1,000 μg/mL for isolates from humans and 125 to 1,000 μg/mL from chicken isolates. The bactericidal activity of the ethanolic extracts of E. americana against important Campylobacter spp., including Campylobacter coli MUMT 18630, Campylobacter fetus ATCC 27374, Campylobacter jejuni ATCC 81176, Campylobacter lari ATCC 43675, and Campylobacter upsaliensis DMST 19055, were assessed at MIC, 2 MIC, and 4 MIC by counting viable cells after various time intervals. At 4 MIC, the level of the tested isolates decreased by 2 to 5 log-fold within 8 h. The ethanolic extract of E. americana demonstrated antibacterial activity against all Campylobacter spp. from both human and chicken isolates. Further investigation of this plant species may provide an alternative medicine for Campylobacter infection and an effective food additive to prevent the infection. PMID:21406364

  7. Influence of enrichment and isolation media on the detection of Campylobacter spp. in naturally contaminated chicken samples.

    PubMed

    Repérant, E; Laisney, M J; Nagard, B; Quesne, S; Rouxel, S; Le Gall, F; Chemaly, M; Denis, M

    2016-09-01

    Investigating Campylobacter epidemiology requires adequate technique and media to ensure optimal culturing and accurate detection and isolation of Campylobacter strains. In the present study, we investigated the performances of three enrichment durations in Bolton broth (0, 24 and 48h) and compared four isolation media (mCCDA, Karmali, Butzler no. 2 and CampyFood agar (CFA)) for the detection of Campylobacter positive samples and the identification of Campylobacter species, from naturally contaminated broiler chicken samples (caeca, neck skin from carcasses, and skin from thighs). We compared our local results to those we obtained with samples from a European survey (caeca and neck skin) and a national survey (neck skin, thigh skin, and breast). Direct plating favored the detection of positive samples highly contaminated by Campylobacter (caeca and neck skin from carcasses) whatever the media. A longer enrichment reduced the rates of Campylobacter recovery except when using Butzler no. 2, more particularly for neck skin which background microflora was less important than in caeca. As a matter of fact, enrichment allowed a higher detection rate of positive samples with low Campylobacter contamination levels (breast, thigh skin), this detection being enhanced when using Butzler no. 2. When comparing the 3 other selective media, CFA was the 2nd most efficient media prior to mCCDA and Karmali. Interestingly, enrichment promoted the growth of Campylobacter coli but this promotion was least with Butzler no. 2 agar. Our study has confirmed the need to adapt the method to the types of samples for improving the detection of Campylobacter and that the method may affect the prevalence of the species. PMID:27373751

  8. Oral Campylobacter species: Initiators of a subgroup of inflammatory bowel disease?

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Li

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, a number of studies detected a significantly higher prevalence of Campylobacter species such as Campylobacter concisus (C. concisus) in intestinal biopsies and fecal samples collected from patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) compared to controls. Most of these Campylobacter species are not of zoonotic origin but are human oral Campylobacter species. Bacterial species usually cause diseases in the location where they colonize. However, C. concisus and other oral Campylobacter species are associated with IBD occurring at the lower parts of the gastrointestinal tract, suggesting that these Campylobacter species may have unique virulence factors that are expressed in the lower parts of the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:26309350

  9. Temporal variation in the prevalence and species richness of Campylobacter spp. in a prairie watershed impacted by urban and agricultural mixed inputs.

    PubMed

    Tambalo, Dinah D; Boa, Tyler; Aryal, Bijaya; Yost, Christopher K

    2016-05-01

    Campylobacter spp. are a substantial cause of gastroenteritis worldwide. Human infection can result from ingestion of contaminated food or water from a variety of sources, including the consumption of fresh produce that is contaminated with the pathogen via the use of contaminated irrigation water. Using molecular methods, we investigated the occurrence of Campylobacter in the Qu'Appelle River watershed, an important source of irrigation water for vegetable producers in southern Saskatchewan, Canada. Water samples were collected from 7 sampling sites from April to September 2009 (145 samples), and from 5 sampling sites from May to October 2013 (116 samples). Campylobacter was detected in 57% and 16% of the samples collected in 2009 and 2013, respectively. Campylobacter detection was highest in May and June for both sampling years. In 2009, the predominant species were Campylobacter lari and Campylobacter jejuni, with prevalences of 84% and 41%, respectively. Other Campylobacter spp. were detected less frequently. Only C. lari was detected in 2013. The results in 2009 demonstrate the species richness of Campylobacter in water sources within the watershed. The occurrence of Campylobacter in the study area also underscores the importance of monitoring irrigation water used to irrigate fresh produce from a public health prospective. PMID:27003220

  10. Culture of pathogenic campylobacter species at Mymensingh Medical College.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, S R; Hossain, M A; Paul, S K; Mahmud, M C; Ahmed, S; Ray, N C; Hoque, S M; Haq, J A; Yasmin, T

    2014-04-01

    Childhood diarrhea represents a major public health problem in developing countries, where campylobacteriosis is widespread and causes significant morbidity and mortality in infants and children. Despite the increasing importance of campylobacteriosis, most developing countries and even many developed countries do not have surveillance systems to measure the health and economic burden of human campylobacteriosis, nor detect trends in outbreaks. The present study was carried out to diagnose etiology of diarrhea caused by Campylobacter species. A total of 150 clinically diagnosed diarrheal pediatric patients were included in this study, of which 98(65.3%) were male and 52(34.6%) female from the Department of Pediatrics, Mymensingh Medical College Hospital, Mymensingh, Bangladesh from July 2011 to April 2012. Stool specimens were collected from each of the cases. The specimens were cultured in appropriate media and Campylobacters were isolated and identified by recommended tests. Among 150 cases, 17(11.3%) were culture positive for Campylobacter species, of which 15(88.2%) were C. jejuni and 02(11.7%) were C. coli. Of the cases, below 1 year of age group were 106(70.6%) cases showing 12(70.5%) positive for Campylobacters and 44(29.33%) cases were above 1 year of age group showing 05(29.41%) positive. The prevalence of Campylobacter infection found in the present study was higher below 1 year age group and was very much close to other countries of this subcontinent. PMID:24858144

  11. PCR detection, identification to species level, and fingerprinting of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli direct from diarrheic samples.

    PubMed Central

    Linton, D; Lawson, A J; Owen, R J; Stanley, J

    1997-01-01

    Three sets of primers were designed for PCR detection and differentiation of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli. The first PCR assay was designed to coidentify C. jejuni and C. coli based on their 16S rRNA gene sequences. The second PCR assay, based on the hippuricase gene sequence, identified all tested reference strains of C. jejuni and also strains of that species which lack detectable hippuricase activity. The third PCR assay, based on the sequence of a cloned (putative) aspartokinase gene and the downstream open reading frame, identified all tested reference strains of C. coli. The assays will find immediate application in the rapid identification to species level of isolates. The assays combine with a protocol for purification of total DNA from fecal samples to allow reproducible PCR identification of campylobacters directly from stools. Of 20 clinical samples from which campylobacters had been cultured, we detected C. jejuni in 17, C. coli in 2, and coinfection of C. jejuni and Campylobacter hyointestinalis in 1. These results were concordant with culture and phenotypic identification to species level. Strain typing by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism of the flagellin (flaA) gene detected identical flaA types in fecal DNA and the corresponding campylobacter isolate. Twenty-five Campylobacter-negative stool samples gave no reaction with the PCR assays. These PCR assays can rapidly define the occurrence, species incidence, and flaA genotypes of enteropathogenic campylobacters. PMID:9316909

  12. Comparison of Campylobacter species Using flaA Short Variable Region DNA Sequence Analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Although the relative rates of Campylobacter infections have been declining in the U.S. over the last decade, Campylobacter species continue to be one of the primary bacterial agents responsible for gastroenteritis worldwide. Infections are usually considered foodborne as Campylobacter...

  13. Differentiation of Campylobacter species by protein banding patterns in polyacrylamide slab gels.

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, D A; Lambe, D W

    1984-01-01

    Soluble protein extracts of 37 catalase-positive strains of Campylobacter species were examined by polyacrylamide slab gel electrophoresis (PAGE). Electrophoretic banding patterns showed good correlation with biochemical tests and with available DNA homology data in distinguishing species of Campylobacter but did not differentiate subspecies or biotypes. PAGE patterns indicated that Campylobacter coli is a distinct species. Furthermore, the PAGE patterns indicated that C. jejuni and nalidixic acid-resistant thermophilic Campylobacter species (C. laridis) are each distinct species. The protein banding patterns of C. fetus subsp. venerealis and C. fetus subsp. fetus strains were distinctly different from those of the three thermophilic species. Images PMID:6490829

  14. Campylobacter jejuni contamination of broiler carcasses: Population dynamics and genetic profiles at slaughterhouse level.

    PubMed

    Gruntar, Igor; Biasizzo, Majda; Kušar, Darja; Pate, Mateja; Ocepek, Matjaž

    2015-09-01

    Six slaughter batches deriving from six typical industrial broiler flocks were examined for the presence, quantity and genetic characteristics of contaminating Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) during various stages of slaughtering and carcass processing. To assess the contamination dynamics of the carcasses, the analyses were always conducted on neck-skin samples from the same pre-selected and carefully marked carcasses in each batch. The skin samples were taken sequentially at three successive slaughter-line locations in the evisceration room, after three-day refrigeration and after three-day freezing procedure. Caecal samples from the same animals were also tested, as well as samples from the slaughterhouse environment before and after slaughtering. The samples were analysed by the ISO10272 isolation method; campylobacters from neck-skin samples were also quantified. Isolates were species-identified and genotyped by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). On average, the highest C. jejuni skin contamination was detected at the first sampling point (post-plucking), suggesting that the majority of Campylobacter contamination actually occurs before the entrance to the eviscerating room, probably during the preceding plucking stage. In two out of five positive batches, an additional increase in contamination was recorded after the evisceration step. An evident trend of increasing contamination level was detected when successive batches were compared at each of two initial sampling sites in the evisceration room, indicating an accumulation of contaminating C. jejuni at some point before the evisceration room. Three-day refrigeration and three-day freezing caused a 4.5- and 142-fold drop in mean C. jejuni CFU counts, respectively. All pre-slaughtering samples from the slaughterhouse environment were negative and all post-slaughtering samples, except water from the scalding tank, were positive. Pulsotypes were limited: altogether five different types were detected

  15. Identification of risk factors for Campylobacter contamination levels on broiler carcasses during the slaughter process.

    PubMed

    Seliwiorstow, Tomasz; Baré, Julie; Berkvens, Dirk; Van Damme, Inge; Uyttendaele, Mieke; De Zutter, Lieven

    2016-06-01

    Campylobacter carcass contamination was quantified across the slaughter line during processing of Campylobacter positive batches. These quantitative data were combined together with information describing slaughterhouse and batch related characteristics in order to identify risk factors for Campylobacter contamination levels on broiler carcasses. The results revealed that Campylobacter counts are influenced by the contamination of incoming birds (both the initial external carcass contamination and the colonization level of caeca) and the duration of transport and holding time that can be linked with feed withdrawal period. In addition, technical aspects of the slaughter process such as a dump based unloading system, electrical stunning, lower scalding temperature, incorrect setting of plucking, vent cutter and evisceration machines were identified as risk factors associated with increased Campylobacter counts on processed carcasses. As such the study indicates possible improvements of the slaughter process that can result in better control of Campylobacter numbers under routine processing of Campylobacter positive batches without use of chemical or physical decontamination. Moreover, all investigated factors were existing variations of the routine processing practises and therefore proposed interventions are practically and economically achievable. PMID:27016637

  16. Survey of Wild Birds in the Southeastern United States for the Presence of Emerging/Novel Campylobacter Species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are considered two major bacterial etiologies of human gastroenteritis in industrialized countries. Routine testing for Campylobacter in the food chain is primarily directed toward detection of these two species, thus the presence of novel Campylobacter sp...

  17. Discrimination among thermophilic Campylobacter species by polymerase chain reaction amplification of 23S rRNA gene fragments.

    PubMed Central

    Eyers, M; Chapelle, S; Van Camp, G; Goossens, H; De Wachter, R

    1993-01-01

    By comparing nucleic acid sequences determined for one of the most variable areas of 23S rRNA genes of 23 Campylobacter strains, we were able to identify regions specific for thermophilic Campylobacter strains. Oligonucleotide primers corresponding to these unique regions were synthesized and used in the polymerase chain reaction. One primer pair selectively detected all thermophilic Campylobacter species, while four other primer pairs allowed discrimination among the thermophilic species Campylobacter coli, Campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni, Campylobacter lari, and Campylobacter upsaliensis. All primer sets were tested successfully on a large number of clinical isolates. Images PMID:7508460

  18. Enumeration and characterization of campylobacter species from retail chicken carcasses in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yao; Cui, Shenghui; Xu, Xiao; Li, Fengqin

    2014-11-01

    Epidemiological data have implicated contaminated raw or undercooked chicken as primary vehicles of Campylobacter transmission to humans. Risk assessment relating to Campylobacter contamination of poultry products in China is frequently hampered by the lack of quantitative data. In this study, whole chicken carcasses (n=240) were collected from the retail markets of Beijing. The level of Campylobacter contamination was enumerated by the plate-counting method. The representative Campylobacter isolates were characterized for antimicrobial resistance. Selected representative isolates were further analyzed by the multilocus sequencing typing method for genetic relatedness. Overall, 26.3% (63/240) of the retail whole chicken carcasses were contaminated by Campylobacter, and the values ranged from 2.5 to 7050 colony-forming units (CFU)/g. The 50th percentile of Campylobacter value was 45 CFU/g in chicken carcass. Multidrug-resistant profiles were observed in 33 (39.2%) C. jejuni isolates (from 27 chicken carcasses) and 57 (86.4%) C. coli isolates (from 30 chicken carcasses). One dominant ST (ST6322) and one dominant clonal complex (CC828) consisting of multidrug-resistant C. coli isolates were identified. Our findings showed a high prevalence of Campylobacter contamination in retail chicken carcasses, which could be a source of exposure to multidrug-resistant isolates for consumers. This study provided baseline enumeration data for the quantitative risk assessment and evaluation of new control measures of Campylobacter contamination in retail chicken products in China. PMID:25238587

  19. External contamination of Campylobacter-free flocks after transport in cleaned and disinfected containers.

    PubMed

    Rasschaert, G; Houf, K; De Zutter, L

    2007-01-01

    The possible colonization of the intestines and contamination of broilers after transport to the slaughterhouse with Campylobacter strains present in cleaned and disinfected transport containers was investigated. Seven broiler flocks with a Campylobacter-free status were sampled once just before loading at the farm and once just before slaughter. On both occasions, samples were also taken from the exterior of the birds and from the intestinal content. Transport containers used to transport the flock were sampled on the farm just before loading the birds. Campylobacters were enumerated and genotyped by flagellin gene A PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. In total, 25 of the 35 sampled containers were Campylobacter contaminated, and 30 genotypes were found. Three broiler flocks became colonized on the farm between initial status determination and transport to the slaughterhouse, and three Campylobacter-free flocks were externally contaminated after transport. In none of the seven flocks was evidence found of intestinal colonization or cocolonization due to transport in Campylobacter-contaminated containers. PMID:17265858

  20. The Biofilm Forming Potential of Bacterial Species in the Genus Campylobacter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The biofilm forming abilities of representative strains of 14 of the 16 species comprising the genus Campylobacter were determined on glass, stainless steel, and polystyrene plastic. The genus Campylobacter is comprised of bacterial species which are both sensitive to oxygen and nutritionally fasti...

  1. Characterization of Campylobacter spp. transferred from naturally contaminated chicken legs to cooked chicken slices via a cutting board.

    PubMed

    Guyard-Nicodème, Muriel; Tresse, Odile; Houard, Emmanuelle; Jugiau, Florence; Courtillon, Céline; El Manaa, Kadhem; Laisney, Marie-José; Chemaly, Marianne

    2013-06-01

    Campylobacter represents the leading cause of gastroenteritis in Europe. Campylobacteriosis is mainly due to C. jejuni and C. coli. Poultry meat is the main source of contamination, and cross-contaminations in the consumer's kitchen appear to be the important route for exposure. The aim of this study was to examine the transfer of Campylobacter from naturally contaminated raw poultry products to a cooked chicken product via the cutting board and to determine the characteristics of the involved isolates. This study showed that transfer occurred in nearly 30% of the assays and that both the C. jejuni and C. coli species were able to transfer. Transfer seems to be linked to specific isolates: some were able to transfer during separate trials while others were not. No correlation was found between transfer and adhesion to inert surfaces, but more than 90% of the isolates presented moderate or high adhesion ability. All tested isolates had the ability to adhere and invade Caco-2 cells, but presented high variability between isolates. Our results highlighted the occurrence of Campylobacter cross-contamination via the cutting board in the kitchen. Moreover, they provided new interesting data to be considered in risk assessment studies. PMID:23587707

  2. Routes for Campylobacter contamination of poultry meat: epidemiological study from hatchery to slaughterhouse.

    PubMed

    Herman, L; Heyndrickx, M; Grijspeerdt, K; Vandekerchove, D; Rollier, I; De Zutter, L

    2003-12-01

    From April 1998 to March 2000, 18 broiler flocks were followed from the hatchery to the slaughterhouse. Campylobacter was not found in the hatchery, 1-day-old chicks or in the rearing house before the arrival of the chicks. The infection of broiler flocks increased continuously during the rearing time, with a total of seven positive flocks at the end of rearing. Farms with Campylobacter-positive broilers were characterized by the circulation of Campylobacter in the environment (puddles, dung hill) and on the footwear of the farmer. The administration of antibiotics did not significantly reduce Campylobacter shedding. With the exception of one flock during rearing and a few flocks in the slaughterhouse with a mixed Campylobacter coli-Campylobacter jejuni infection, C. jejuni exclusively was found both during rearing and on the carcasses. A significant correlation exits between the contamination of the broilers during rearing and the carcasses after processing. No slaughterhouse was able to avoid contamination of carcasses when status-positive animals were delivered. Moreover, six negatively delivered flocks yielded positive carcasses, the result of a supplementary contamination, which occurred during transport and slaughtering. PMID:14959785

  3. Potential Use of Fosfomycin-Tromethamine for Treatment of Recurrent Campylobacter Species Enteritis.

    PubMed

    Aguilar-Company, Juan; Los-Arcos, Ibai; Pigrau, Carles; Rodríguez-Pardo, Dolors; Larrosa, María Nieves; Rodríguez-Garrido, Virginia; Sihuay-Diburga, Denisse; Almirante, Benito

    2016-07-01

    We report 2 cases of recurrent Campylobacter coli enteritis caused by macrolide- and fluoroquinolone-resistant strains in 2 patients with hypogammaglobulinemia, successfully treated with a prolonged course of fosfomycin-tromethamine with no side effects. Fosfomycin-tromethamine may be a feasible alternative therapy for recurrent enteritis caused by Campylobacter species resistant to first-line drugs. PMID:27161640

  4. Evaluation of different plate media for direct cultivation of Campylobacter species from live broilers.

    PubMed

    Potturi-Venkata, L-P; Backert, S; Lastovica, A J; Vieira, S L; Norton, R A; Miller, R S; Pierce, S; Oyarzabal, O A

    2007-07-01

    Accurate identification and optimal culturing procedures for Campylobacter spp. from live broilers are needed for epidemiological studies. Because there is no standardized protocol, we designed and conducted studies to evaluate different selective media for the culturing and isolation of Campylobacter spp. from cecal and fecal samples obtained from battery-reared and commercial broilers. Five media selective for Campylobacter were evaluated: Campylobacter agar base, Campylobacter, Campy-Line, modified Campy-Cefex, and modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate agar. With contaminated broilers reared in battery cages, Campylobacter agar base, Campylobacter, modified Campy-Cefex, and modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate agar revealed similar isolation rates (P > 0.05), whereas Campy-Line showed a lower efficacy (P < 0.05). With commercial live broilers, modified Campy-Cefex agar was more consistent for the isolation of Campylobacter from feces, whereas modified Campy-Cefex and modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate agar showed similar isolation rates from cecal samples. Campy-Line agar showed a lower identification rate (P < 0.05) for both fecal and cecal samples. A multiplex PCR assay used for identification showed that Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli DNA was present in the samples. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis restriction profiles differed among samples collected from different commercial farms but were similar for isolates from the same farm, suggesting clonal differences. No variation was seen in pulsed field gel electrophoresis patterns among isolates cultured on different media. Our data suggest that the choice of plate medium may influence the efficiency of isolating Campylobacter spp. from broiler chickens by direct plating from fecal or cecal samples. PMID:17575175

  5. Effect of refrigeration and frozen storage on the Campylobacter jejuni recovery from naturally contaminated broiler carcasses

    PubMed Central

    Maziero, Maike T.; de Oliveira, Tereza Cristina R. M.

    2010-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is the most common thermophilic Campylobacter associated with human enteritis in many countries. Broilers and their by-products are the main sources for human enteritis. Refrigeration and freezing are used to control bacterial growth in foods. The effect of these interventions on survival of Campylobacter jejuni is yet not quite understood. This study evaluated the effect of storage temperature on the survival of C. jejuni in chicken meat stored for seven days at 4°C and for 28 days at -20°C. The influence of selective enrichment on recovery of Campylobacter was also evaluated. Thirty fresh chicken meat samples were analyzed and 93.3% was contaminated with termotolerant Campylobacter spp. with average count of 3.08 Log10 CFU/g on direct plating. After refrigeration, 53.3% of the analyzed samples tested positive for Campylobacter and the average count was 1.19 Log10 CFU/g. After storage at -20°C, 36.6% of the samples were positive with a verage count of 0.75 Log10 CFU/g. C. jejuni was detected after enrichment, respectively, in 50% of the fresh, 36.7% of the refrigerated and 33.3% of the frozen meat samples analyzed. No difference was detected for the recovery of C. jejuni from fresh, refrigerated or frozen samples after selective enrichment, showing that this microorganism can survive under the tested storage conditions. PMID:24031523

  6. Prevalence and diversity of Campylobacter species in Saskatchewan retail ground beef.

    PubMed

    Trokhymchuk, Anatoliy; Waldner, Cheryl; Chaban, Bonnie; Gow, Sheryl; Hill, Janet E

    2014-12-01

    The primary objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. DNA by PCR in retail ground beef sold in Saskatchewan, Canada, and to identify the presence of individual Campylobacter species (C. coli, C. curvus, C. fetus, C. hyointestinalis, C. jejuni, C. rectus, and C. upsaliensis) using real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). Secondary objectives were to assess potential differences in the prevalence of Campylobacter between ground beef offered for sale during cold and warm seasons as well as that offered for sale fresh and frozen, to investigate any association between the presence of Campylobacter spp. DNA and E. coli and/or aerobic bacterial counts, and finally to compare the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. DNA in ground beef originating from different production and retail environments. Out of the 309 total samples included in the study, 50 (16.2%) samples tested positive for Campylobacter spp. DNA, while 49 (15.9%) samples were determined positive for up to five individual species. Collectively, these assays determined that 14 (4.5%) samples were positive for C. coli, 11 (3.6%) for C. curvus, 6 (1.9%) for C. fetus, 24 (7.8%) for C. hyointestinalis, 12 (3.9%) for C. jejuni, 6 (1.9%) for C. rectus, and 9 (2.9%) for C. upsaliensis. There were 27 (8.7%) samples that were positive at the genus level that did not test positive for any of the seven Campylobacter species investigated (suggesting an alternate Campylobacter species). Also, 26 (8.4%) samples generated positive results by one of the species-specific qPCR assays, but returned no product in the conventional genus-level assay (suggesting a higher sensitivity for the species-specific qPCR assays). There was no significant association between the presence of Campylobacter spp. in Saskatchewan retail ground beef and any of the investigated risk factors. PMID:25474057

  7. Variation in the limit-of-detection of the ProSpecT Campylobacter microplate enzyme immunoassay in stools spiked with emerging Campylobacter species.

    PubMed

    Bojanić, Krunoslav; Midwinter, Anne Camilla; Marshall, Jonathan Craig; Rogers, Lynn Elizabeth; Biggs, Patrick Jon; Acke, Els

    2016-08-01

    Campylobacter enteritis in humans is primarily associated with C. jejuni/coli infection. The impact of other Campylobacter spp. is likely to be underestimated due to the bias of culture methods towards Campylobacter jejuni/coli diagnosis. Stool antigen tests are becoming increasingly popular and appear generally less species-specific. A review of independent studies of the ProSpecT® Campylobacter Microplate enzyme immunoassay (EIA) developed for C. jejuni/coli showed comparable diagnostic results to culture methods but the examination of non-jejuni/coli Campylobacter spp. was limited and the limit-of-detection (LOD), where reported, varied between studies. This study investigated LOD of EIA for Campylobacter upsaliensis, Campylobacter hyointestinalis and Campylobacter helveticus spiked in human stools. Multiple stools and Campylobacter isolates were used in three different concentrations (10(4)-10(9)CFU/ml) to reflect sample heterogeneity. All Campylobacter species evaluated were detectable by EIA. Multivariate analysis showed LOD varied between Campylobacter spp. and faecal consistency as fixed effects and individual faecal samples as random effects. EIA showed excellent performance in replicate testing for both within and between batches of reagents, in agreement between visual and spectrophotometric reading of results, and returned no discordance between the bacterial concentrations within independent dilution test runs (positive results with lower but not higher concentrations). This study shows how limitations in experimental procedures lead to an overestimation of consistency and uniformity of LOD for EIA that may not hold under routine use in diagnostic laboratories. Benefits and limitations for clinical practice and the influence on estimates of performance characteristics from detection of multiple Campylobacter spp. by EIA are discussed. PMID:27317896

  8. Population Diversity of Campylobacter jejuni in Poultry and Its Dynamic of Contamination in Chicken Meat

    PubMed Central

    Marotta, Francesca; Garofolo, Giuliano; Di Donato, Guido; Aprea, Giuseppe; Platone, Ilenia; Cianciavicchia, Silvia; Alessiani, Alessandra; Di Giannatale, Elisabetta

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to analyse the diversity of the Campylobacter jejuni population in broilers and to evaluate the major source of contamination in poultry meat. Eight rearing cycles over one year provided samples from three different broiler farms processed at the same slaughterhouse. A total of 707  C. jejuni were isolated from cloacal swabs before slaughter and from the breast skin of carcasses after slaughter and after chilling. All suspected Campylobacter colonies were identified with PCR assays and C. jejuni was genotyped by sequence analysis of the flaA short variable region (SVR) and by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) using SmaI enzyme. Phenotypic antibiotic resistance profiles were also assayed using minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC). The flocks carried many major C. jejuni clones possibly carrying over the rearing cycles, but cross contamination between farms may happen. Many isolates were resistant to fluoroquinolones, raising an issue of high public concern. Specific Campylobacter populations could be harboured within each poultry farm, with the ability to contaminate chickens during each new cycle. Thus, although biosecurity measures are applied, with a persistent source of contamination, they cannot be efficient. The role of the environment needs further investigation to better address strategies to control Campylobacter. PMID:26543870

  9. DETECTION OF CAMPYLOBACTER FROM POULTRY CARCASSES AT SLAUGHTER AND DIFFERENTIATION OF CAMPYLOBACTER JEJUNI AND CAMPYLOBACTER COLI BY MULTIPLEX PCR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter is a major food-borne pathogen responsible for acute gastroenteritis characterized by diarrhea, which is sometimes bloody, fever, cramps, and vomiting. Campylobacter species are carried in the intestinal tract of mammals and birds, and sources of human infection include contaminated wa...

  10. Prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli species in cats and dogs from Bydgoszcz (Poland) region.

    PubMed

    Andrzejewska, M; Szczepańska, B; Klawe, J J; Spica, D; Chudzińska, M

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of cats and dogs as a potential reservoir of Campylobacter spp. Rectal swabs from 83 dogs and 71 cats were examined. Samples were obtained from the animals aged between 2 weeks and 24 months living in shelters, private households, farms and from veterinary clinics located in Bydgoszcz region during routine check-up. Campylobacter spp. were isolated from 4.81% dogs and 9.86% cats, respectively. C. jejuni was predominant in this study. All strains were isolated in autumn and winter from the animals living in farms and private houses. All the animals positive for Campylobacter prevalence had access to small water basins, accidental source of food and had contact with wild birds, poultry or their feaces. Isolates characterization revealed high prevalence of Campylobacter virulence genes-flaA, cadF and cdtB. 91% of isolated strains were susceptible to erythromycin. 81% among isolated strains were susceptible to azithromycin, 64% to tetracycline and 36% to ciprofloxacin. For 2 C. jejuni strains isolated from cats Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) profiling indicated 80% homology between them. PMID:23691584

  11. Shifts in Campylobacter species abundance may reflect general microbial community shifts in periodontitis progression

    PubMed Central

    Henne, Karsten; Fuchs, Felix; Kruth, Sebastian; Horz, Hans-Peter; Conrads, Georg

    2014-01-01

    Background Oral Campylobacter species have been found to be associated with periodontitis progression. While the etiological significance of Campylobacter rectus is quite established, the association of C. gracilis, C. concisus, and C. curvus with health or disease remains contradictory. Objectives This study hypothesizes that the proportion of species within the Campylobacter genus rather than the absolute abundance of a single species is a suitable indicator for periodontitis progression. Design Subgingival plaque from 90 periodontitis patients and gingival sulcus fluid of 32 healthy individuals were subjected to a newly developed nested PCR approach, in which all Campylobacter spp. were amplified simultaneously. The resulting mixture of 16S-rRNA-gene-amplicons were separated by single-stranded conformation polymorphism (SSCP) gel electrophoresis, followed by sequencing and identification of excised bands and relative quantification of band intensities. In all samples, the abundance of selected periodontitis marker species was determined based on DNA hybridization on a microarray. Results The highly prevalent Campylobacter community was composed of varying proportions of C. rectus, C. gracilis, C. concisus, and C. curvus. Cluster analysis based on SSCP-banding pattern resulted in distinct groups which in turn coincided with significant differences in abundance of established periodontitis marker species (Tannerella forsythia, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Fusobacterium nucleatum) and progression. Conclusions The shift in the Campylobacter community composition seems to display the general microbial community shift during clinical progression in a simplified manner. The focus on members of the Campylobacter in this study suggests that this genus can be an indicator of ecological changes in the subgingival oral microflora. PMID:25412608

  12. Prolonged Survival of Campylobacter Species in Bovine Manure Compost ▿

    PubMed Central

    Inglis, G. Douglas; McAllister, Tim A.; Larney, Francis J.; Topp, Edward

    2010-01-01

    The persistence of naturally occurring campylobacteria in aerobic compost constructed of manure from beef cattle that were administered chlortetracycline and sulfamethazine (AS700) or from cattle not administered antibiotics (control) was examined. Although there were no differences in population sizes of heterotrophic bacteria, the temperature of AS700 compost was more variable and did not become as high as that of control compost. There were significant differences in water content, total carbon (C), total nitrogen (N), and electrical conductivity but not in the C/N ratio or pH between the two compost treatments. Campylobacteria were readily isolated from pen manure, for up to day 15 from control compost, and throughout the active phase of AS700 compost. Campylobacter DNA (including Campylobacter coli, Campylobacter fetus, Campylobacter hyointestinalis, and Campylobacter jejuni) was detected over the ca. 10-month composting period, and no reductions in quantities of C. jejuni DNA were observed over the duration of the active phase. The utilization of centrifugation in combination with ethidium monoazide (EMA) significantly reduced (>90%) the amplification of C. jejuni DNA that did not originate from cells with intact cell membranes. No differences were observed in the frequency of Campylobacter DNA detection between EMA- and non-EMA-treated samples, suggesting that Campylobacter DNA amplified from compost was extracted from cells with intact cell membranes (i.e., from viable cells). The findings of this study indicate that campylobacteria excreted in cattle feces persist for long periods in compost and call into question the common belief that these bacteria do not persist in manure. PMID:20023098

  13. Helicobacter marmotae and novel Helicobacter and Campylobacter species isolated from the livers and intestines of prairie dogs.

    PubMed

    Beisele, Maike; Shen, Zeli; Parry, Nicola; Mobley, Melissa; Taylor, Nancy S; Buckley, Ellen; Abedin, Mohammad Z; Dewhirst, Floyd E; Fox, James G

    2011-09-01

    Prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) are used to study the aetiology and prevention of gallstones because of the similarities of prairie dog and human bile gallstone composition. Epidemiological and experimental studies have suggested a connection between infection with Helicobacter species and cholesterol cholelithiasis, cholecystis and gallbladder cancer. Ten of the 34 prairie dogs in this study had positive Helicobacter species identified by PCR using Helicobacter genus-specific primers. Ten of 34 prairie dogs had positive Campylobacter species identified in the intestine by PCR with Campylobacter genus-specific primers. Six Helicobacter sp. isolates and three Campylobacter sp. isolates were identified taxonomically by 16S rRNA gene analysis. The prairie dog helicobacters fell into three clusters adjacent to Helicobacter marmotae. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, three strains in two adjacent clusters were included in the species H. marmotae. Three strains were only 97.1 % similar to the sequence of H. marmotae and can be considered a novel species with the provisional designation Helicobacter sp. Prairie Dog 3. The prairie dog campylobacters formed a single novel cluster and represent a novel Campylobacter sp. with the provisional designation Campylobacter sp. Prairie Dog. They branched with Campylobacter cuniculorum at 96.3 % similarity and had the greatest sequence similarity to Campylobacter helveticus at 97.1 % similarity. Whether H. marmotae or the novel Helicobacter sp. and Campylobacter sp. identified in prairie dogs play a role in cholesterol gallstones or hepatobiliary disease requires further studies. PMID:21546560

  14. Occurrence of campylobacter species in healthy well-nourished and malnourished children

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, Heriberto; Vera, Fernando; Villanueva, María Paz; García, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    The occurrence of Campylobacter species in healthy, well-nourished and healthy, malnourished children of low socioeconomic level in Southern Chile was determined. Campylobacter carriers were significantly most frequent among malnourished (31.4%) than among well-nourished (9.9%) children. Six species were isolated from malnourished children whereas four were found among well-nourished children. C. upsaliensis was the most frequent (13.3%) species isolated from malnourished children, followed by C. lari (7.6%) and C. fetus ssp. fetus (1.9%). PMID:24031178

  15. Salmonella species and Campylobacter jejuni Cecal Colonization Model in Broilers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella and Campylobacter are of concern to the poultry industry because of the continuing association of poultry-borne transmission of this disease to humans. Live, mature bird interventions can only be demonstrated by comparing colonization in non-treated groups of control birds to tre...

  16. Campylobacter jejuni, other campylobacters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For approximately three decades, the genus Campylobacter has had increased focus as a threat to food safety, due to the rise in enteritis in humans caused by consumption or handling of foods contaminated with the organism. For this reason, numerous research studies have been conducted and books wri...

  17. Survival and persistence of Campylobacter and Salmonella species under various organic loads on food contact surfaces.

    PubMed

    De Cesare, Alessandra; Sheldon, Brian W; Smith, Katie S; Jaykus, Lee-Ann

    2003-09-01

    Although many cases of Campylobacter and Salmonella enteritis have been attributed to the undercooking of poultry and other foods, cross-contamination between raw and cooked foods via food contact surfaces and worker contact has also been identified as a significant risk factor. Cross-contamination may be particularly important in relation to the high prevalence of contamination in raw poultry products and other foods and the low infectious doses that have been reported for Campylobacter species. Lag phase and decimal reduction times (D-values at 27 degrees C [81 degrees F] and 60 to 62% relative humidity) were determined for Campylobacter jejuni and Salmonella species (five-strain pools) suspended in either a phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) solution or Trypticase soy broth (TSB) and then inoculated (0.1-ml drop per surface) on 5-cm2 samples of Formica laminate (F), glazed ceramic tile (CT), 304 polished stainless steel (SS), and 100% cotton dishcloth (D). Triplicate samples were collected from each contact surface periodically, and the populations of surviving organisms were enumerated on Campy Cefex and brain heart infusion agars for C. jejuni and Salmonella species, respectively. Lag time and rate of inactivation were influenced by organism type, contact surface, and suspending medium. Initial mean lag times ranging from 60 to 190 min were followed by log-linear (r2 > 0.94) decreases in cell populations that varied across contact surfaces. D-values of 12.5, 19.1, 24.1, and 29.7 min and of 23.7, 10.5, 12.7, and 13.9 min were calculated for C. jejuni suspended in PBS and TSB and then spotted on D, F, SS, and CT surfaces, respectively. The times required to produce a 3-log reduction in population with PBS and TSB ranged from 102 (D) to 247 (F) min and from 112 (CT) to 167 (F) min, respectively. C. jejuni cells suspended in the nutritionally enriched medium (TSB) and spotted on the hard surfaces were inactivated about 1.4 times as fast as cells suspended in PBS. For

  18. EUCAST recommendations for antimicrobial susceptibility testing applied to the three main Campylobacter species isolated in humans.

    PubMed

    Sifré, Elodie; Salha, Ben Amor; Ducournau, Astrid; Floch, Pauline; Chardon, Hubert; Mégraud, Francis; Lehours, Philippe

    2015-12-01

    Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Campylobacter isolates is of great importance for treatment options especially in systemic diseases. The European Committee for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) recently proposed epidemiological cut-offs (ECOFFs) for a limited number of antimicrobial compounds and for Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli only. In the present study, the EUCAST method was used after minor modifications to define antimicrobial susceptibility patterns for, 1997 C. jejuni, 419 C. coli and 100 Campylobacter fetus strains received at the French National Reference Center for Campylobacters and Helicobacters. Our results show that the ECOFFs defined by EUCAST for tetracycline and ciprofloxacin can be used for C. jejuni and C. coli. The same ECOFF can be used for erythromycin for the three species. The C. jejuni and C. coli ECOFFs for ciprofloxacin however cannot be applied to C. fetus. We also provide data to categorise two 2 β-lactams of interest for systemic diseases, ampicillin and amoxicillin+clavulanate, for the three species. PMID:26519770

  19. Comprehensive detection and discrimination of campylobacter species using confocal micro-raman spectroscopy and multilocus sequence typing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A novel strategy for rapid identification and speciation of traditional and emerging Campylobacter strains based upon Raman spectroscopy (532 nm) is presented here. A total of 200 reference strains and clinical isolates of 11 different Campylobacter species recovered from infected animals and humans...

  20. Intestinal microbiota and species diversity of Campylobacter and Helicobacter spp. in migrating shorebirds in Delaware Bay.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Hodon; Grond, Kirsten; Verheijen, Bram; Elk, Michael; Buehler, Deborah M; Santo Domingo, Jorge W

    2014-03-01

    Using 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis, we examined the bacterial diversity and the presence of opportunistic bacterial pathogens (i.e., Campylobacter and Helicobacter) in red knot (Calidris canutus; n = 40), ruddy turnstone (Arenaria interpres; n = 35), and semipalmated sandpiper (Calidris pusilla; n = 22) fecal samples collected during a migratory stopover in Delaware Bay. Additionally, we studied the occurrence of Campylobacter spp., enterococci, and waterfowl fecal source markers using quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays. Of 3,889 16S rRNA clone sequences analyzed, the bacterial community was mostly composed of Bacilli (63.5%), Fusobacteria (12.7%), Epsilonproteobacteria (6.5%), and Clostridia (5.8%). When epsilonproteobacterium-specific 23S rRNA gene clone libraries (i.e., 1,414 sequences) were analyzed, the sequences were identified as Campylobacter (82.3%) or Helicobacter (17.7%) spp. Specifically, 38.4%, 10.1%, and 26.0% of clone sequences were identified as C. lari (>99% sequence identity) in ruddy turnstone, red knot, and semipalmated sandpiper clone libraries, respectively. Other pathogenic species of Campylobacter, such as C. jejuni and C. coli, were not detected in excreta of any of the three bird species. Most Helicobacter-like sequences identified were closely related to H. pametensis (>99% sequence identity) and H. anseris (92% sequence identity). qPCR results showed that the occurrence and abundance of Campylobacter spp. was relatively high compared to those of fecal indicator bacteria, such as Enterococcus spp., E. faecalis, and Catellicoccus marimammalium. Overall, the results provide insights into the complexity of the shorebird gut microbial community and suggest that these migratory birds are important reservoirs of pathogenic Campylobacter species. PMID:24413599

  1. Intestinal Microbiota and Species Diversity of Campylobacter and Helicobacter spp. in Migrating Shorebirds in Delaware Bay

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Hodon; Grond, Kirsten; Verheijen, Bram; Elk, Michael; Buehler, Deborah M.

    2014-01-01

    Using 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis, we examined the bacterial diversity and the presence of opportunistic bacterial pathogens (i.e., Campylobacter and Helicobacter) in red knot (Calidris canutus; n = 40), ruddy turnstone (Arenaria interpres; n = 35), and semipalmated sandpiper (Calidris pusilla; n = 22) fecal samples collected during a migratory stopover in Delaware Bay. Additionally, we studied the occurrence of Campylobacter spp., enterococci, and waterfowl fecal source markers using quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays. Of 3,889 16S rRNA clone sequences analyzed, the bacterial community was mostly composed of Bacilli (63.5%), Fusobacteria (12.7%), Epsilonproteobacteria (6.5%), and Clostridia (5.8%). When epsilonproteobacterium-specific 23S rRNA gene clone libraries (i.e., 1,414 sequences) were analyzed, the sequences were identified as Campylobacter (82.3%) or Helicobacter (17.7%) spp. Specifically, 38.4%, 10.1%, and 26.0% of clone sequences were identified as C. lari (>99% sequence identity) in ruddy turnstone, red knot, and semipalmated sandpiper clone libraries, respectively. Other pathogenic species of Campylobacter, such as C. jejuni and C. coli, were not detected in excreta of any of the three bird species. Most Helicobacter-like sequences identified were closely related to H. pametensis (>99% sequence identity) and H. anseris (92% sequence identity). qPCR results showed that the occurrence and abundance of Campylobacter spp. was relatively high compared to those of fecal indicator bacteria, such as Enterococcus spp., E. faecalis, and Catellicoccus marimammalium. Overall, the results provide insights into the complexity of the shorebird gut microbial community and suggest that these migratory birds are important reservoirs of pathogenic Campylobacter species. PMID:24413599

  2. Non-stochastic sampling error in quantal analyses for Campylobacter species on poultry products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using primers and fluorescent probes specific for the most common foodborne Campylobacter species (C. jejuni = Cj and C. coli = Cc), we developed a multiplex, most probable number (MPN) assay using quantitative PCR (qPCR) as the determinant for binomial detection: number of p positives out of n = 6 ...

  3. Survival of Campylobacter species after cryogenic freezing in ground turkey patties treated with polyphosphates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of polyphosphate-based marinades in the processing of poultry has been previously shown to increase the survival of Campylobacter species present in the exudates derived from these products. This study investigates the effects that some of the same polyphosphates have on the survival of Cam...

  4. Prevalence and risk factor investigation of Campylobacter species in beef cattle feces from seven large commercial feedlots in Alberta, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Hannon, Sherry J.; Allan, Brenda; Waldner, Cheryl; Russell, Margaret L.; Potter, Andrew; Babiuk, Lorne A.; Townsend, Hugh G.G.

    2009-01-01

    This fecal prevalence study targeted cattle from 7 large (10 000 to > 40 000 head) commercial feedlots in Alberta as a means of establishing Campylobacter levels in cattle just prior to animals entering the food chain. Overall, 87% [95% confidence interval (CI) = 86–88] of 2776 fresh pen-floor fecal samples were culture positive for Campylobacter species, with prevalences ranging from 76% to 95% among the 7 feedlots. Campylobacter spp. prevalence was 88% (95% CI = 86–90) in the summer (n = 1376) and 86% (95% CI = 85–88) in the winter (n = 1400). In addition, 69% (95% CI = 66–71) of 1486 Campylobacter spp. positive samples were identified as Campylobacter jejuni using hippurate hydrolysis testing. Of those, 64% (95% CI = 58–70) of 277 and 70% (95% CI = 67–72) of 1209 Campylobacter isolates were identified as C. jejuni in winter and summer, respectively. After accounting for clustering within pen and feedlot, feedlot size and the number of days on feed were associated with Campylobacter spp. isolation rates. The high isolation rates of Campylobacter spp. and C. jejuni in feedlot cattle feces in this study suggest a potential role for feedlot cattle in the complex epidemiology of campylobacters in Alberta. PMID:20046629

  5. Campylobacter spp. in broiler flocks at farm level and the potential for cross-contamination during slaughter.

    PubMed

    Ellerbroek, L I; Lienau, J-A; Klein, G

    2010-12-01

    Screening of broiler flocks for their Campylobacter carriage on farm level and consequently the spread of Campylobacter spp. during slaughtering can help to identify hygiene control points. Therefore, between December 2001 and August 2002 in total 51 broiler flocks from three farms of different geographical regions in Germany were analysed for thermophilic Campylobacter. Campylobacter spp. were isolated from 45% of the broiler flocks examined. Subsequently, 1101 samples were taken from 22 flocks during different stages of processing. Samples were collected from: transport crates before and after cleaning/disinfection, evisceration, post-scalded and post-chilled carcasses and endproducts. Additionally, 45 selected Campylobacter isolates of droppings were genotyped by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Campylobacter carriage of flocks showed seasonal variation, with the highest contamination rate during the period of June to August. No evidence was found for a horizontal transmission from one broiler flock to the next via a persistent house-contamination. In each positive flock, one to three different genotypes were found. One or two clones dominated isolations obtained from the farm level. The fact that in different flocks indistinguishable isolates of clonal origin were detected during the same rearing period suggested a transmission between the broiler flocks or an intermittent common external source. In one case, isolates of clonal origin were detected in various farms during different rearing periods. Sampling during processing confirmed that the entrance of a positive flock resulted in contamination of the abattoir environment. Campylobacter spp. were isolated from all sampling stages along the processing line, with a percentage of 91.1-100 of isolates at different stages of slaughtering. PMID:20880094

  6. Human disease associated with "Campylobacter upsaliensis" (catalase-negative or weakly positive Campylobacter species) in the United States.

    PubMed Central

    Patton, C M; Shaffer, N; Edmonds, P; Barrett, T J; Lambert, M A; Baker, C; Perlman, D M; Brenner, D J

    1989-01-01

    Catalase-negative or weakly positive (CNW) thermotolerant campylobacteria, first isolated from dogs in 1983, were recently recognized as a new species, "Campylobacter upsaliensis," but their association with human illness has not been established. Twelve human isolates received at the Centers for Disease Control between 1980 and 1986 were identified as CNW campylobacteria by biochemical tests, cellular fatty acid composition, and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns. Eleven CNW Campylobacter strains tested by DNA-DNA hybridization (hydroxyapatite method) were all highly related and were related to two "C. upsaliensis" strains at the species level (86% under optimal conditions and 76% under stringent conditions). Clinical information was obtained for 11 human isolates from three stool and eight blood specimens. They were isolated from four female and seven male patients 6.5 months to 83 years of age residing in 10 different states. The patients had a wide spectrum of illnesses. The stool isolates were obtained from two previously healthy persons during episodes of acute gastroenteritis and from one immunocompromised patient with persistent diarrhea and fever. The blood isolates were obtained from two infants with fever and respiratory symptoms; a young woman with a ruptured ectopic pregnancy; three elderly men with underlying chronic diseases; and two immunocompromised adults. In a bactericidal assay to assess sensitivity to serum, seven of eight blood isolates showed some resistance to killing by pooled normal human serum. These observations suggest that "C. upsaliensis" is a potential human pathogen associated with both gastroenteritis and bacteremia in normal hosts and with opportunistic infection in immunocompromised individuals. PMID:2913038

  7. PCR–Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Detection and Identification of Campylobacter Species: Application to Isolates and Stool Samples

    PubMed Central

    Metherell, L. A.; Logan, J. M. J.; Stanley, J.

    1999-01-01

    We report a PCR–enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay which identifies Campylobacter species by capture hybridization of a single-stranded 16S rRNA gene amplicon with species-specific probes in a microtiter plate format. Specificities were confirmed for both reference and field strains, but the type strain of Campylobacter coli was atypical. The assay was rapid, informative, and usable with stool-extracted DNA. PMID:9889235

  8. BACTERIOPHAGE THERAPY AND CAMPYLOBACTER

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The book chapter reports efforts to exploit Campylobacter-specific bacteriophages to reduce the numbers of Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli colonizing poultry and contaminating poultry meat products. Controlling campylobacters in poultry represents one of the greatest challenges to the agriculture a...

  9. Campylobacter Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... Campylobacter is found in the intestines of many wild and domestic animals. The bacteria are passed in their feces (poop), which can lead to infection in humans via contaminated food, meats (especially chicken), water taken from contaminated sources (streams or rivers ...

  10. Gyr B versus 16s rDNA sequencing for the identification of Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, and Campylobacter lari

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Species of the genus Campylobacter are the causative agents of a sizable number of the cases of food-borne illness in the developed world. The majority of this disease is caused by three of the thermotolerant Campylobacter species: Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, and Campylobacter lari. ...

  11. Campylobacter in Poultry: Ecology and Potential Interventions.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Orhan; Kassem, Issmat I; Shen, Zhangqi; Lin, Jun; Rajashekara, Gireesh; Zhang, Qijing

    2015-06-01

    Avian hosts constitute a natural reservoir for thermophilic Campylobacter species, primarily Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli, and poultry flocks are frequently colonized in the intestinal tract with high numbers of the organisms. Prevalence rates in poultry, especially in slaughter-age broiler flocks, could reach as high as 100% on some farms. Despite the extensive colonization, Campylobacter is essentially a commensal in birds, although limited evidence has implicated the organism as a poultry pathogen. Although Campylobacter is insignificant for poultry health, it is a leading cause of food-borne gastroenteritis in humans worldwide, and contaminated poultry meat is recognized as the main source for human exposure. Therefore, considerable research efforts have been devoted to the development of interventions to diminish Campylobacter contamination in poultry, with the intention to reduce the burden of food-borne illnesses. During the past decade, significant advance has been made in understanding Campylobacter in poultry. This review summarizes the current knowledge with an emphasis on ecology, antibiotic resistance, and potential pre- and postharvest interventions. PMID:26473668

  12. Comparative performance of isolation methods using Preston broth, Bolton broth and their modifications for the detection of Campylobacter spp. from naturally contaminated fresh and frozen raw poultry meat.

    PubMed

    Seliwiorstow, T; De Zutter, L; Houf, K; Botteldoorn, N; Baré, J; Van Damme, I

    2016-10-01

    The performance of different isolation methods was evaluated for the detection of Campylobacter from naturally contaminated raw poultry meat. Therefore, fresh and frozen poultry meat samples were analysed using the standard procedure (ISO 10272-1:2006), enrichment in Preston broth, and enrichment in modified Bolton broth (supplemented with (i) potassium clavulanate (C-BB), (ii) triclosan (T-BB), (iii) polymyxin B (P-BB)). The enrichment cultures were streaked onto both modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate agar (mCCDA) and RAPID'Campylobacter agar (RCA). Moreover, direct plating on mCCDA and RCA was performed to quantify Campylobacter. In total, 33 out of 59 fresh retail meat samples (55.9%) were Campylobacter positive. For both fresh and frozen poultry meat samples, enrichment in Bolton broth (ISO 10272-1:2006) resulted in a higher number of positive samples than enrichment in Preston broth. Supplementation of Bolton broth with potassium clavulanate (C-BB) and triclosan (T-BB) enhanced the Campylobacter recovery from fresh poultry meat compared to non-supplemented Bolton broth, although the use of C-BB was less applicable than T-BB for Campylobacter recovery from frozen samples. Additionally, the use of RCA resulted in a higher isolation rate compared to mCCDA. The present study demonstrates the impact of culture medium on the recovery of Campylobacter from fresh and frozen naturally contaminated poultry meat samples and can support laboratories in choosing the most appropriate culturing method to detect Campylobacter. PMID:27391222

  13. Fluoroquinolone-resistant Campylobacter species and the withdrawal of fluoroquinolones from use in poultry: a public health success story.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Jennifer M; Chiller, Tom M; Powers, John H; Angulo, Frederick J

    2007-04-01

    Campylobacter species cause 1.4 million infections each year in the United States. Fluoroquinolones (e.g., ciprofloxacin) are commonly used in adults with Campylobacter infection and other infections. Fluoroquinolones (e.g., enrofloxacin) are also used in veterinary medicine. Human infections with fluoroquinolone-resistant Campylobacter species have become increasingly common and are associated with consumption of poultry. These findings, along with other data, prompted the US Food and Drug Administration to propose the withdrawal of fluoroquinolone use in poultry in 2000. A lengthy legal hearing concluded with an order to withdraw enrofloxacin from use in poultry (effective in September 2005). Clinicians are likely to continue to encounter patients with fluoroquinolone-resistant Campylobacter infection and other enteric infection because of the continued circulation of fluoroquinolone-resistant Campylobacter species in poultry flocks and in persons returning from foreign travel who have acquired a fluoroquinolone-resistant enteric infection while abroad. Judicious use of fluoroquinolones and other antimicrobial agents in human and veterinary medicine is essential to preserve the efficacy of these important chemotherapeutic agents. PMID:17342653

  14. Campylobacter species occurrence within internal organs and tissues of commercial caged Leghorn laying hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter spp. are frequently present in the intestinal tract and internal tissues of broiler breeder and broiler chickens. Campylobacter spp. ecology in commercial Leghorn laying hens has not been extensively studied. The objectives of the current study were to determine 1) Campylobacter spp. ...

  15. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) methods for the emerging Campylobacter species C. hyointestinalis, C. lanienae, C. sputorum, C. concisus and C. curvus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) systems have been reported previously for multiple food- and food animal-associated Campylobacter species (e.g. C. jejuni, C. coli, C. lari and C. fetus) to both differentiate strains and identify clonal lineages. These MLST methods focused primarily on campylobact...

  16. Comprehensive Detection and Discrimination of Campylobacter Species by Use of Confocal Micro-Raman Spectroscopy and Multilocus Sequence Typing

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Xiaonan; Huang, Qian; Miller, William G.; Aston, D. Eric; Xu, Jie; Xue, Feng; Zhang, Hongwei; Rasco, Barbara A.

    2012-01-01

    A novel strategy for the rapid detection and identification of traditional and emerging Campylobacter strains based upon Raman spectroscopy (532 nm) is presented here. A total of 200 reference strains and clinical isolates of 11 different Campylobacter species recovered from infected animals and humans from China and North America were used to establish a global Raman spectroscopy-based dendrogram model for Campylobacter identification to the species level and cross validated for its feasibility to predict Campylobacter-associated food-borne outbreaks. Bayesian probability coupled with Monte Carlo estimation was employed to validate the established Raman classification model on the basis of the selected principal components, mainly protein secondary structures, on the Campylobacter cell membrane. This Raman spectroscopy-based typing technique correlates well with multilocus sequence typing and has an average recognition rate of 97.21%. Discriminatory power for the Raman classification model had a Simpson index of diversity of 0.968. Intra- and interlaboratory reproducibility with different instrumentation yielded differentiation index values of 4.79 to 6.03 for wave numbers between 1,800 and 650 cm−1 and demonstrated the feasibility of using this spectroscopic method at different laboratories. Our Raman spectroscopy-based partial least-squares regression model could precisely discriminate and quantify the actual concentration of a specific Campylobacter strain in a bacterial mixture (regression coefficient, >0.98; residual prediction deviation, >7.88). A standard protocol for sample preparation, spectral collection, model validation, and data analyses was established for the Raman spectroscopic technique. Raman spectroscopy may have advantages over traditional genotyping methods for bacterial epidemiology, such as detection speed and accuracy of identification to the species level. PMID:22740711

  17. Comprehensive detection and discrimination of Campylobacter species by use of confocal micro-Raman spectroscopy and multilocus sequence typing.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiaonan; Huang, Qian; Miller, William G; Aston, D Eric; Xu, Jie; Xue, Feng; Zhang, Hongwei; Rasco, Barbara A; Wang, Shuo; Konkel, Michael E

    2012-09-01

    A novel strategy for the rapid detection and identification of traditional and emerging Campylobacter strains based upon Raman spectroscopy (532 nm) is presented here. A total of 200 reference strains and clinical isolates of 11 different Campylobacter species recovered from infected animals and humans from China and North America were used to establish a global Raman spectroscopy-based dendrogram model for Campylobacter identification to the species level and cross validated for its feasibility to predict Campylobacter-associated food-borne outbreaks. Bayesian probability coupled with Monte Carlo estimation was employed to validate the established Raman classification model on the basis of the selected principal components, mainly protein secondary structures, on the Campylobacter cell membrane. This Raman spectroscopy-based typing technique correlates well with multilocus sequence typing and has an average recognition rate of 97.21%. Discriminatory power for the Raman classification model had a Simpson index of diversity of 0.968. Intra- and interlaboratory reproducibility with different instrumentation yielded differentiation index values of 4.79 to 6.03 for wave numbers between 1,800 and 650 cm(-1) and demonstrated the feasibility of using this spectroscopic method at different laboratories. Our Raman spectroscopy-based partial least-squares regression model could precisely discriminate and quantify the actual concentration of a specific Campylobacter strain in a bacterial mixture (regression coefficient, >0.98; residual prediction deviation, >7.88). A standard protocol for sample preparation, spectral collection, model validation, and data analyses was established for the Raman spectroscopic technique. Raman spectroscopy may have advantages over traditional genotyping methods for bacterial epidemiology, such as detection speed and accuracy of identification to the species level. PMID:22740711

  18. Complete Genome Sequence of Campylobacter iguaniorum Strain 1485ET, Isolated from a Bearded Dragon (Pogona vitticeps).

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Maarten J; Miller, William G; Yee, Emma; Kik, Marja; Wagenaar, Jaap A; Duim, Birgitta

    2014-01-01

    Campylobacter iguaniorum has been isolated from reptiles. This Campylobacter species is genetically related to Campylobacter fetus and Campylobacter hyointestinalis. Here we present the first whole-genome sequence for this species. PMID:25146144

  19. Complete Genome Sequence of Campylobacter iguaniorum Strain 1485ET, Isolated from a Bearded Dragon (Pogona vitticeps)

    PubMed Central

    Yee, Emma; Kik, Marja; Wagenaar, Jaap A.; Duim, Birgitta

    2014-01-01

    Campylobacter iguaniorum has been isolated from reptiles. This Campylobacter species is genetically related to Campylobacter fetus and Campylobacter hyointestinalis. Here we present the first whole-genome sequence for this species. PMID:25146144

  20. The numbers game: Campylobacter survival in poultry products through the pH effects of polyphosphate additives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter species are responsible for the largest number of food-borne gastrointestinal bacterial infections in the developed world. Poultry products are a primary pathway for the introduction of Campylobacter into the food supply. Undercooked poultry products and the cross-contamination of ot...

  1. Detection of resistance to macrolides in thermotolerant campylobacter species by fluorescence in situ hybridization.

    PubMed

    Haas, Michaela; Essig, Andreas; Bartelt, Edda; Poppert, Sven

    2008-11-01

    The resistance of enteritis-causing Campylobacter strains to erythromycin is an emerging problem. We therefore evaluated fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for the rapid detection of resistance using 74 campylobacter isolates. FISH showed specificity and sensitivity of 100% for the detection of high-level resistance. PMID:18753354

  2. In Silico Analysis of the cadF Gene and Development of a Duplex Polymerase Chain Reaction for Species-Specific Identification of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli

    PubMed Central

    Shams, Saeed; Bakhshi, Bita; Tohidi Moghadam, Tahereh

    2016-01-01

    Background Campylobacteriosis is a zoonotic infectious disease caused by Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli. The cadF gene is considered as a genus-specific gene while other genes are mainly used for discrimination at the species level. Objectives This study aimed to analyze the cadF gene and to develop a duplex PCR assay for simultaneous detection of C. coli and C. jejuni, the two commonly encountered species. Materials and Methods In silico analysis of the cadF gene was carried out by several software and available online tools. A duplex PCR optimized with specific primers was used for detection and differentiation of both species. To evaluate specificity and sensitivity of the test, a panel of different Campylobacter spp. together with several intestinal bacterial pathogens was tested. The limit of detection (LOD) of method was determined using serial dilutions of standard genomes. Results The analysis of the full size cadF gene indicated variations in this gene, which can be used to differentiate C. jejuni and C. coli. The duplex PCR designed in this study showed that it could simultaneously detect and differentiate both C. jejuni and C. coli with product sizes of 737 bp and 461 bp, respectively. This assay, with 100% specificity and sensitivity, had a limit of detection (LOD) of about 14 and 0.7 µg/mL for C. jejuni and C. coli, respectively. Conclusions In silico analysis of the cadF full-gene showed variations between the two species that can be used as a molecular target for differentiating C. jejuni and C. coli in a single-step duplex-PCR assay with high specificity and sensitivity. PMID:27127589

  3. Salmonella and Campylobacter contamination of turkeys, from breeders to processed carcasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella and Campylobacter are two main pathogens of public health concern very often associated with poultry and eggs. Both are zoonotic bacteria frequently colonizing intestinal tracts of turkeys. However, the mechanisms of transmission of these organisms through fertile turkey eggs, and consequ...

  4. Effect of Incubation Temperature on the Detection of Thermophilic Campylobacter Species from Freshwater Beaches, Nearby Wastewater Effluents, and Bird Fecal Droppings

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Stephen; Nowak, Eva; Edge, Thomas A.

    2013-01-01

    This large-scale study compared incubation temperatures (37°C versus 42°C) to study the detection of thermophilic Campylobacter species, including Campylobacter jejuni, C. coli, and C. lari, in various surface water samples and bird fecal droppings around Hamilton Harbor, Lake Ontario. The putative culture isolates obtained from incubation temperatures of 37 and 42°C were confirmed by Campylobacter genus- and species-specific triplex PCR assays targeting the 16S rRNA gene and the 16S-23S rRNA gene internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. A total of 759 water, wastewater, and bird fecal dropping samples were tested. Positive amplification reactions for the genus Campylobacter were found for 454 (60%) samples incubated at 37°C, compared to 258 (34%) samples incubated at 42°C. C. jejuni (16%) and C. lari (12%) were detected significantly more frequently at the 42°C incubation temperature than at 37°C (8% and 5%, respectively). In contrast, significantly higher rates of C. coli (14%) and other Campylobacter spp. (36%) were detected at the 37°C incubation temperature than at 42°C (8% and 7%, respectively). These results were consistent across surface water, wastewater, and bird fecal dropping samples. At times, Campylobacter spp. were recovered and detected at 37°C (3% for C. jejuni, 10% for C. coli, and 3% for C. lari) when the same samples incubated at 42°C were negative. A significantly higher rate of other Campylobacter spp. was detected only at 37°C (32%) than only at 42°C (3%). These results indicate that incubation temperature can significantly influence the culturability and detection of thermophilic and other fastidious Campylobacter spp. and that a comprehensive characterization of the Campylobacter spp. in surface water, wastewaters, or bird fecal droppings will require incubation at both 37 and 42°C. PMID:24077717

  5. The atypical hyperosmotic stress response of Campylobacter jejuni

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Atypical Hyperosmotic Stress Response of Campylobacter jejuni Background. Campylobacter species are unusually sensitive to hyperosmotic stress conditions imposed in the laboratory and encode no characterized osmoprotectant systems. Despite these limitations, the Gram-negative Campylobacter jeju...

  6. Evaluation of culture methods and a DNA probe-based PCR assay for detection of Campylobacter species in clinical specimens of feces.

    PubMed

    Maher, Majella; Finnegan, Cathriona; Collins, Evelyn; Ward, Brid; Carroll, Cyril; Cormican, Martin

    2003-07-01

    Campylobacter species are the leading agents of bacterial gastroenteritis in developed countries. In this study 320 specimens of feces from patients with symptoms of acute gastroenteritis were cultured for Campylobacter species by direct plating on modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate agar and by enrichment in modified Preston broth, with or without blood added, for 48 h at 37 degrees C prior to plating. A 16S/23S PCR/DNA probe membrane-based colorimetric detection assay was evaluated on a subset of the feces (n = 127), including 18 culture-positive and 109 culture-negative specimens. DNA was extracted directly from the fecal specimens by using the QIAamp DNA stool Minikit for the DNA probe-based PCR assay (PCR/DNA probe assay). A second PCR/DNA probe assay based on the 16S rRNA gene in Campylobacter spp. was applied to all specimens that were culture negative, PCR/DNA positive on initial analysis. Campylobacter species were cultured in 20 of the 320 specimens. The 16S/23S PCR/DNA probe assay detected campylobacter DNA in 17 of 18 (94% sensitivity) culture-positive specimens and in 41 (38%) culture-negative specimens. The presence of campylobacter DNA in 35 of 41 culture-negative specimens was confirmed by the 16S PCR/DNA probe assay. DNA sequence analysis of seven 16S/23S PCR products and five 16S PCR products amplified from a selection of these specimens confirmed the presence of campylobacter DNA and more specifically Campylobacter jejuni, C. concisus, C. curvus, and C. gracilis DNA in these specimens. The molecular assays described in this study are rapid methods for the detection and identification of Campylobacter species in fecal specimens. The finding of Campylobacter spp. DNA in a large number of specimens of feces from patients with no other identified cause of diarrhea may suggest that Campylobacter spp. other than C. jejuni and C. coli may account for a proportion of cases of acute gastroenteritis in which no etiological agent is currently

  7. Evaluation of Culture Methods and a DNA Probe-Based PCR Assay for Detection of Campylobacter Species in Clinical Specimens of Feces

    PubMed Central

    Maher, Majella; Finnegan, Cathriona; Collins, Evelyn; Ward, Brid; Carroll, Cyril; Cormican, Martin

    2003-01-01

    Campylobacter species are the leading agents of bacterial gastroenteritis in developed countries. In this study 320 specimens of feces from patients with symptoms of acute gastroenteritis were cultured for Campylobacter species by direct plating on modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate agar and by enrichment in modified Preston broth, with or without blood added, for 48 h at 37°C prior to plating. A 16S/23S PCR/DNA probe membrane-based colorimetric detection assay was evaluated on a subset of the feces (n = 127), including 18 culture-positive and 109 culture-negative specimens. DNA was extracted directly from the fecal specimens by using the QIAamp DNA stool Minikit for the DNA probe-based PCR assay (PCR/DNA probe assay). A second PCR/DNA probe assay based on the 16S rRNA gene in Campylobacter spp. was applied to all specimens that were culture negative, PCR/DNA positive on initial analysis. Campylobacter species were cultured in 20 of the 320 specimens. The 16S/23S PCR/DNA probe assay detected campylobacter DNA in 17 of 18 (94% sensitivity) culture-positive specimens and in 41 (38%) culture-negative specimens. The presence of campylobacter DNA in 35 of 41 culture-negative specimens was confirmed by the 16S PCR/DNA probe assay. DNA sequence analysis of seven 16S/23S PCR products and five 16S PCR products amplified from a selection of these specimens confirmed the presence of campylobacter DNA and more specifically Campylobacter jejuni, C. concisus, C. curvus, and C. gracilis DNA in these specimens. The molecular assays described in this study are rapid methods for the detection and identification of Campylobacter species in fecal specimens. The finding of Campylobacter spp. DNA in a large number of specimens of feces from patients with no other identified cause of diarrhea may suggest that Campylobacter spp. other than C. jejuni and C. coli may account for a proportion of cases of acute gastroenteritis in which no etiological agent is currently identified

  8. Rapid identification and classification of Campylobacter spp. using laser optical scattering technology.

    PubMed

    He, Yiping; Reed, Sue; Bhunia, Arun K; Gehring, Andrew; Nguyen, Ly-Huong; Irwin, Peter L

    2015-05-01

    Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are the two important species responsible for most of the Campylobacter infections in humans. Reliable isolation and detection of Campylobacter spp. from food samples are challenging due to the interferences from complex food substances and the fastidious growth requirements of this organism. In this study, a novel biosensor-based detection called BARDOT (BActerial Rapid Detection using Optical scattering Technology) was developed for high-throughput screening of Campylobacter colonies grown on an agar plate without disrupting the intact colonies. Image pattern characterization and principal component analysis (PCA) of 6909 bacterial colonies showed that the light scatter patterns of C. jejuni and C. coli were strikingly different from those of Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Listeria monocytogenes. Examination of a mixed culture of these microorganisms revealed 85% (34/40) accuracy in differentiating Campylobacter from the other three major foodborne pathogens based on the similarity to the scatter patterns in an established library. The application of BARDOT in real food has been addressed through the analysis of Campylobacter spiked ground chicken and naturally contaminated fresh chicken pieces. Combined with real-time PCR verification, BARDOT was able to identify Campylobacter isolates from retail chicken. Moreover, applying passive filtration to food samples facilitated the isolation of pure Campylobacter colonies and therefore overcame the interference of the food matrix on BARDOT analysis. PMID:25583335

  9. Molecular Epidemiology of Campylobacter Isolates from Poultry Production Units in Southern Ireland

    PubMed Central

    O'Mahony, Emer; Buckley, James F.; Bolton, Declan; Whyte, Paul; Fanning, Séamus

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the sources and routes of transmission of Campylobacter in intensively reared poultry farms in the Republic of Ireland. Breeder flocks and their corresponding broilers housed in three growing facilities were screened for the presence of Campylobacter species from November 2006 through September 2007. All breeder flocks tested positive for Campylobacter species (with C. jejuni and C. coli being identified). Similarly, all broiler flocks also tested positive for Campylobacter by the end of the rearing period. Faecal and environmental samples were analyzed at regular intervals throughout the rearing period of each broiler flock. Campylobacter was not detected in the disinfected house, or in one-day old broiler chicks. Campylobacter jejuni was isolated from environmental samples including air, water puddles, adjacent broiler flocks and soil. A representative subset of isolates from each farm was selected for further characterization using flaA-SVR sub-typing and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) to determine if same-species isolates from different sources were indistinguishable or not. Results obtained suggest that no evidence of vertical transmission existed and that adequate cleaning/disinfection of broiler houses contributed to the prevention of carryover and cross-contamination. Nonetheless, the environment appears to be a potential source of Campylobacter. The population structure of Campylobacter isolates from broiler farms in Southern Ireland was diverse and weakly clonal. PMID:22163024

  10. Campylobacter in broiler slaughter samples assessed by direct count on mCCDA and Campy-Cefex agar.

    PubMed

    Gonsalves, Camila Cristina; Borsoi, Anderlise; Perdoncini, Gustavo; Rodrigues, Laura Beatriz; do Nascimento, Vladimir Pinheiro

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter spp. cause foodborne illnesses in humans primarily through the consumption of contaminated chicken. The aim of this study was to evaluate the United States Department of Agriculture's (USDA) recommended methodology, protocol MLG 41.02, for the isolation, identification and direct plate counting of Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli samples from the broiler slaughtering process. A plating method using both mCCDA and Campy-Cefex agars is recommended to recover Campylobacter cells. It is also possible to use this method in different matrices (cloacal swabs and water samples). Cloacal swabs, samples from pre-chiller and post-chiller carcasses and samples of pre-chiller, chiller and direct supply water were collected each week for four weeks from the same flock at a slaughterhouse located in an abattoir in southern Brazil. Samples were analyzed to directly count Campylobacter spp., and the results showed a high frequency of Campylobacter spp. on Campy-Cefex agar. For the isolated species, 72% were identified as Campylobacter jejuni and 38% as Campylobacter coli. It was possible to count Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli from different samples, including the water supply samples, using the two-agar method. These results suggest that slaughterhouses can use direct counting methods with both agars and different matrices as a monitoring tool to assess the presence of Campylobacter bacteria in their products. PMID:27237112

  11. Emergence of Multidrug-Resistant Campylobacter Species Isolates with a Horizontally Acquired rRNA Methylase

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yang; Zhang, Maojun; Deng, Fengru; Shen, Zhangqi; Wu, Congming; Zhang, Jianzhong

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotic-resistant Campylobacter constitutes a serious threat to public health, and resistance to macrolides is of particular concern, as this class of antibiotics is the drug of choice for clinical therapy of campylobacteriosis. Very recently, a horizontally transferrable macrolide resistance mediated by the rRNA methylase gene erm(B) was reported in a Campylobacter coli isolate, but little is known about the dissemination of erm(B) among Campylobacter isolates and the association of erm(B)-carrying isolates with clinical disease. To address this question and facilitate the control of antibiotic-resistant Campylobacter, we determined the distribution of erm(B) in 1,554 C. coli and Campylobacter jejuni isolates derived from food-producing animals and clinically confirmed human diarrheal cases. The results revealed that 58 of the examined isolates harbored erm(B) and exhibited high-level resistance to macrolides, and most were recent isolates, derived in 2011-2012. In addition, the erm(B)-positive isolates were all resistant to fluoroquinolones, another clinically important antibiotic used for treating campylobacteriosis. The erm(B) gene is found to be associated with chromosomal multidrug resistance genomic islands (MDRGIs) of Gram-positive origin or with plasmids of various sizes. All MDRGIs were transferrable to macrolide-susceptible C. jejuni by natural transformation under laboratory conditions. Molecular typing of the erm(B)-carrying isolates by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) identified diverse genotypes and outbreak-associated diarrheal isolates. Molecular typing also suggested zoonotic transmission of erm(B)-positive Campylobacter. These findings reveal an emerging and alarming trend of dissemination of erm(B) and MDRGIs in Campylobacter and underscore the need for heightened efforts to control their further spread. PMID:24982085

  12. Campylobacter Genotyping to Determine the Source of Human Infection

    PubMed Central

    Sheppard, Samuel K.; Dallas, John F.; Strachan, Norval J. C.; MacRae, Marian; McCarthy, Noel D.; Wilson, Daniel J.; Gormley, Fraser J.; Falush, Daniel; Ogden, Iain D.; Maiden, Martin C. J.; Forbes, Ken J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Campylobacter species cause a high proportion of bacterial gastroenteritis cases and are a significant burden on health care systems and economies worldwide; however, the relative contributions of the various possible sources of infection in humans are unclear. Methods National-scale genotyping of Campylobacter species was used to quantify the relative importance of various possible sources of human infection. Multilocus sequence types were determined for 5674 isolates obtained from cases of human campylobacteriosis in Scotland from July 2005 through September 2006 and from 999 Campylobacter species isolates from 3417 contemporaneous samples from potential human infection sources. These data were supplemented with 2420 sequence types from other studies, representing isolates from a variety of sources. The clinical isolates were attributed to possible sources on the basis of their sequence types with use of 2 population genetic models, STRUCTURE and an asymmetric island model. Results The STRUCTURE and the asymmetric island models attributed most clinical isolates to chicken meat (58% and 78% of Campylobacter jejuni and 40% and 56% of Campylobacter coli isolates, respectively), identifying it as the principal source of Campylobacter infection in humans. Both models attributed the majority of the remaining isolates to ruminant sources, with relatively few isolates attributed to wild bird, environment, swine, and turkey sources. Conclusions National-scale genotyping was a practical and efficient methodology for the quantification of the contributions of different sources to human Campylobacter infection. Combined with the knowledge that retail chicken is routinely contaminated with Campylobacter, these results are consistent with the view that the largest reductions in human campylobacteriosis in industrialized countries will come from interventions that focus on the poultry industry. PMID:19275496

  13. Quantification of water as a potential risk factor for cross-contamination with Salmonella, Campylobacter and Listeria in a poultry abattoir.

    PubMed

    Hamidi, A; Irsigler, H; Jaeger, D; Muschaller, A; Fries, R

    2014-01-01

    Water used in a modern poultry processing line was tested from October 2005 to June 2006 to determine the level of bacteria in an abattoir in Germany. A total of 420 water samples were taken from 14 processing sites (PSs), at 10 times, and from three different hours of the working shift at three sampling hours (SHs) at 5:00 a.m. (SH 1), 9:00 a.m. (SH 2) and 12:00 a.m. (SH 3). Each sample was assessed for the aerobic plate count (APC) and the prevalence of Salmonella, Campylobacter, Listeria and Yersinia over 30 sampling weeks. The APC numbers of each PS from three SHs were compared, and the prevalence of Salmonella, Campylobacter, Listeria and Yersinia from each PS of three SHs was determined as well as change from the initial PS to the end of the processing line. A total of 46 water samples were positive for Salmonella, 120 positive for Campylobacter and 4 positive for Listeria. None of the water samples was found to be positive for Yersinia. During the course of the day, the APC increased. Salmonella was mostly found during SH 1 (5 a.m.) in water from all PSs. A high number of Campylobacter were observed at SH 2 (9 a.m.) and SH 3 (12 a.m.) from all PSs. The results show that water, which is still used in substantial amounts in present poultry processing technology, can serve as a carrier for Salmonella and Campylobacter. The findings indicate that birds might progressively contaminate the equipment and become contaminated via the same equipment, that water at every processing position of the line constitutes a risk and that more attention should be paid to effective water management in the processing plan. PMID:25188272

  14. Comparison of fumerate-pyruvate media and beef extract media for aerobically culturing Campylobacter species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Media supplemented with fumarate, pyruvate, and a vitamin-mineral solution or with beef extract were compared for the ability to support aerobic growth of Campylobacter. Basal broth composed of tryptose, yeast extract, bicarbonate, and agar was supplemented with 30 mM fumarate, 100 mM pyruvate, and ...

  15. Intestinal Microbiota and Species Diversity of Campylobacter and Helicobacter spp. in Migrating Shorebirds in Delaware Bay

    EPA Science Inventory

    Using rDNA sequencing analysis, we examined the bacterial diversity and the presence of opportunistic bacterial pathogens (i.e., Campylobacter and Helicobacter) in Red Knot (Calidris canutus, n=40), Ruddy Turnstone (Arenaria interpres, n=35), and Semipalmated Sandpiper (Calidris ...

  16. Diversity in the protein N-glycosylation pathways among campylobacter species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The foodborne bacterial pathogen, Campylobacter jejuni, possesses an N-linked protein glycosylation (pgl) pathway involved in adding conserved heptasaccharides to asparaginecontaining motifs of >60 proteins, and releasing the same glycan into its periplasm as free oligosaccharides. In this study, co...

  17. Evidence of land-sea transfer of the zoonotic pathogen Campylobacter to a wildlife marine sentinel species.

    PubMed

    Baily, Johanna L; Méric, Guillaume; Bayliss, Sion; Foster, Geoffrey; Moss, Simon E; Watson, Eleanor; Pascoe, Ben; Mikhail, Jane; Pizzi, Romain; Goldstone, Robert J; Smith, David G E; Willoughby, Kim; Hall, Ailsa J; Sheppard, Samuel K; Dagleish, Mark P

    2015-01-01

    Environmental pollution often accompanies the expansion and urbanization of human populations where sewage and wastewaters commonly have an impact on the marine environments. Here, we explored the potential for faecal bacterial pathogens, of anthropic origin, to spread to marine wildlife in coastal areas. The common zoonotic bacterium Campylobacter was isolated from grey seals (Halichoerus grypus), an important sentinel species for environmental pollution, and compared to isolates from wild birds, agricultural sources and clinical samples to characterize possible transmission routes. Campylobacter jejuni was present in half of all grey seal pups sampled (24/50 dead and 46/90 live pups) in the breeding colony on the Isle of May (Scotland), where it was frequently associated with histological evidence of disease. Returning yearling animals (19/19) were negative for C. jejuni suggesting clearance of infection while away from the localized colony infection source. The genomes of 90 isolates from seals were sequenced and characterized using a whole-genome multilocus sequence typing (MLST) approach and compared to 192 published genomes from multiple sources using population genetic approaches and a probabilistic genetic attribution model to infer the source of infection from MLST data. The strong genotype-host association has enabled the application of source attribution models in epidemiological studies of human campylobacteriosis, and here assignment analyses consistently grouped seal isolates with those from human clinical samples. These findings are consistent with either a common infection source or direct transmission of human campylobacter to grey seals, raising concerns about the spread of human pathogens to wildlife marine sentinel species in coastal areas. PMID:25401947

  18. Enumeration and identity of Campylobacter spp. in Italian broilers.

    PubMed

    Manfreda, G; De Cesare, A; Bondioli, V; Stern, N J; Franchini, A

    2006-03-01

    Transmission of Campylobacter to humans has been prominently associated with mishandling or improperly preparing contaminated poultry carcasses. The number of organisms per carcass represents an important measure of human exposure to the agent. Therefore, we wished to estimate this public exposure over 1 yr among Italian broiler carcasses. We sampled 213 broiler carcasses from rinse water samples collected from a single slaughterhouse. Groups of carcasses had mean processed weights ranging from 1.2 to 2.7 kg. These were produced from 22 commercial broiler chicken flocks collected from 12 different farms, 3 of which were seasonally tested. Carcasses were rinsed with sterile water, and the rinse suspension was then serially diluted and spread-plated directly onto Campy-Cefex agar plates. One to 5 typical Campylobacter colonies per plate were identified by polymerase chain reaction as Campylobacter thermo-tolerant species. The overall estimated mean count per carcass in our study was 5.16 +/- 0.80 log10 cfu. This value increased in summer and autumn, as well as on carcasses collected from farms located > 100 km far from the slaughterhouse. A total of 678 Campylobacter colonies were identified by polymerase chain reaction. The majority of isolates were classified as Campylobacter jejuni (49.2%) or Campylobacter coli (47.5%). The overall number of C. jejuni was significantly higher on 1) carcasses weighing > 2 kg, 2) carcasses belonging to flocks with > 10,000 birds, and 3) carcasses collected from farms located > 100 km from the slaughterhouse. Moreover, among farms tested seasonally, C. jejuni was significantly greater than C. coli in winter. These data provide the first results of a continuing survey on Campylobacter loads and species identification from Italian broiler carcasses and represents an important baseline to estimate the human exposure to Campylobacter in Italy. PMID:16553289

  19. The antimicrobial effect of spice-based marinades against Campylobacter jejuni on contaminated fresh broiler wings.

    PubMed

    Zakarienė, Gintarė; Rokaitytė, Anita; Ramonaitė, Sigita; Novoslavskij, Aleksandr; Mulkytė, Kristina; Zaborskienė, Gintarė; Malakauskas, Mindaugas

    2015-03-01

    The antimicrobial effect of spice-based marinades against Campylobacter jejuni on inoculated fresh broiler wings was investigated. Experiments were carried out with 1 strain of C. jejuni and 6 marinades. Four experimental marinades were composed for the study and contained spices (thyme, rosemary, basil, marjoram, and so on) and different combination of bioactive compounds. Two marinades were commercial and contained spices (black pepper, sweet red pepper, and so on) and chemical additives (monosodium glutamate, sodium diacetate, calcium lactate), 1 commercial marinade was also enriched with bioactive compounds (linalool, cinnamaldehyde, lactic acid). Total aerobic bacterial count was examined to estimate the possible effect of tested marinades on the shelf-life of marinated broiler wings. Study revealed that thyme-based marinade was the most effective against C. jejuni on broiler wings and reduced the numbers of campylobacters by 1.04 log colony forming unit (CFU)/g (P ≤ 0.05) during storage for 168 h at 4 °C temperature. Moreover, it was more effective against C. jejuni than commercial marinade with 0.47 log CFU/g (P ≤ 0.05) reduction effect. Both experimental and commercial marinades had very similar effect on the total aerobic bacterial count. Although experimental and commercial marinades had different effect on pH of broiler wings, this parameter did not show a major impact on the antimicrobial effect of tested marinades (P ≥ 0.05). Our study shows that experimental natural thyme-based marinade can reduce numbers of C. jejuni more effectively than tested commercial marinades. PMID:25627752

  20. Understanding microwave vessel contamination by chloride species.

    PubMed

    Recchia, Sandro; Spanu, Davide; Bianchi, Davide; Dossi, Carlo; Pozzi, Andrea; Monticelli, Damiano

    2016-10-01

    Microwaves are widely used to assist digestion, general sample treatment and synthesis. The use of aqua regia is extensively adopted for the closed vessel mineralization of samples prior to trace element detection, leading to the contamination of microwave vessels by chlorine containing species. The latter are entrapped in the polymeric matrix of the vessels, leading to memory effects that are difficult to remove, among which the risk of silver incomplete recoveries by removal of the sparingly soluble chloride is the predominant one. In the present paper, we determined by mass spectrometry that hydrogen chloride is the species entrapped in the polymeric matrix and responsible for vessel contamination. Moreover, several decontamination treatments were considered to assess their efficiency, demonstrating that several cleaning cycles with water, nitric acid or silver nitrate in nitric acid were inefficient in removing chloride contamination (contamination reduction around 90%). Better results (≈95% decrease) were achieved by a single decontamination step in alkaline environment (sodium hydroxide or ammonia). Finally, a thermal treatment in a common laboratory oven (i.e. without vacuum and ventilation) was tested: a one hour heating at 150°C leads to a 98.5% decontamination, a figure higher than the ones obtained by wet treatments which requires comparable time. The latter treatment is a major advancement with respect to existing treatments as it avoids the need of a vacuum oven for at least 17h as presently proposed in the literature. PMID:27474275

  1. Antimicrobial resistance in campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli isolated from chicken carcass rinstates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: The development of antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter species, particularly C. jejuni and C. coli, is of public health concern. Methods: Campylobacter isolates recovered from spent chicken carcass rinsates collected at federally inspected slaughter establishments were submitted t...

  2. Survival with a Helping Hand: Campylobacter and Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Indikova, Ivana; Humphrey, Tom J.; Hilbert, Friederike

    2015-01-01

    Campylobacteriosis is the most important bacterial food-borne disease in the developed world. Consumption of chicken meat, beef or raw milk, direct contact with ruminants and exposure to contaminated surface water or even consumption of tap water have been identified as risk factors for human disease. However, the most important risk factor is consumption of and/or handling contaminated chicken. Campylobacter spp. are fastidious microorganisms but must somehow survive outside the host, especially in food and agricultural environments and also resist the innate and humoral immune responses inside the host. In this paper we hypothesize that other microorganisms in mixed populations with Campylobacter may act to improve survival outside the host and may also protect the pathogen against the intestinal immune system. Our evidence for this hypothesis is based on: 1. newly generated microbial community analysis; 2. the prolonged survival of Campylobacter in mixed species biofilms and in co-culture with environmental bacteria; 3. improved survival in amoebae and rumen fluid; 4. sulfur release and iron uptake systems within the intestinal lumen. This would make Campylobacter an exceptional food-borne pathogen. With this in mind, new strategies are necessary to combat Campylobacter along the total food chain. PMID:26617600

  3. Survival of Campylobacter jejuni in Waterborne Protozoa

    PubMed Central

    Snelling, W. J.; McKenna, J. P.; Lecky, D. M.; Dooley, J. S. G.

    2005-01-01

    The failure to reduce the Campylobacter contamination of intensively reared poultry may be partially due to Campylobacter resisting disinfection in water after their internalization by waterborne protozoa. Campylobacter jejuni and a variety of waterborne protozoa, including ciliates, flagellates, and alveolates, were detected in the drinking water of intensively reared poultry by a combination of culture and molecular techniques. An in vitro assay showed that C. jejuni remained viable when internalized by Tetrahymena pyriformis and Acanthamoeba castellanii for significantly longer (up to 36 h) than when they were in purely a planktonic state. The internalized Campylobacter were also significantly more resistant to disinfection than planktonic organisms. Collectively, our results strongly suggest that protozoa in broiler drinking water systems can delay the decline of Campylobacter viability and increase Campylobacter disinfection resistance, thus increasing the potential of Campylobacter to colonize broilers. PMID:16151149

  4. Prevalence, antibiogram and risk factors of thermophilic campylobacter spp. in dressed porcine carcass of Chitwan, Nepal

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Campylobacter is the primary cause of food borne gastroenteritis. Moreover, the emergence of multiple drug resistant campylobacters from poultry and pork has produced a potential threat to public health. Research addressing these issues is sparse in Nepal. So, this cross-sectional study aims at determining the prevalence, antibiogram and risk factors of campylobacters from dressed porcine carcass of Chitwan, Nepal. Results We collected 139 samples of dressed porcine carcass from 10 different pork shops located in Chitwan district and processed according to OIE Terrestrial Manual, 2008, chapter 2.8.10. Antibiogram of identified Campylobacter spp. was evaluated against nine commonly used antibiotics by using disc diffusion method following CLSI guidelines. The prevalence of Campylobacter spp. was 38.84% (C. coli 76% and C. jejuni 24%). There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) between the prevalence rate of male (32.4%) and female (41%) carcass. Ampicillin and erythromycin showed the highest resistance (92.59% each) followed by colistin (72.2%), tetracycline (61.1%), nalidixic acid and cotrimoxazole (44.4% each), ciprofloxacin (31.5%) and gentamicin (5.56%). Moreover, 77.8% of the isolates were resistant to more than two antimicrobials. Nalidixic acid and tetracycline showed significant difference (p < 0.05) in the resistivity pattern among different species of Campylobacters. The association between prevalence rate and regular sanitization of slaughter slab equipments was significant (p < 0.05). Similarly, prevalence rate was significantly associated (p < 0.01) with chilling and contamination of intestinal content with carcass. Conclusions The pork meat of Chitwan is highly contaminated with antibiotic-resistant Campylobacters and slaughtering practices play significant role in contamination. It is necessary to train the butchers about hygienic slaughtering practice. The consumers as well as butchers should adopt safety measures to prevent themselves

  5. Recovery of Campylobacter jejuni from surfaces of poultry slaughterhouses after cleaning and disinfection procedures: analysis of a potential source of carcass contamination.

    PubMed

    Peyrat, M B; Soumet, C; Maris, P; Sanders, P

    2008-05-31

    Campylobacters are a primary cause of human bacterial enteritis worldwide. They are usually considered susceptible to the disinfectant molecules used in the food industry. The purpose of this study was to see if campylobacters could survive cleaning and disinfection in poultry slaughterhouses and whether the strains recovered could contaminate carcasses during processing. Samples obtained from the environment before and after cleaning and disinfection (transport crates, processing equipment surfaces, scald tank water) and from birds (fresh droppings, neck skins) were collected during 7 investigations in 4 different slaughterhouses. Out of 41 samples collected, 30 Campylobacter jejuni strains were recovered from the surfaces of processing equipment before cleaning and disinfection procedures in three slaughterhouses and 9 C. jejuni out of 51 samples collected were found after cleaning. The study was then focused on one slaughterhouse to trace passage of the pathogen on poultry carcasses. The antimicrobial resistance phenotypes (P) (minimum inhibitory concentration, MIC) of the C. jejuni isolates collected in this slaughterhouse were determined. Nine phenotypes could be distinguished. Three of these were of interest as they were found in isolates recovered after cleaning and disinfection procedures. The genotypes (G) were determined by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) of isolates with one of the three phenotypes of interest. Clusters constructed by combining the phenotype and genotyping observations (PG type) were compared between isolates obtained after cleaning and disinfection, and isolates from droppings, neck skin and transport crate samples of slaughtered poultry flocks. Only one PG type of strain was recovered from surfaces after cleaning and disinfection and from neck skin samples but was also recovered from transport crates. Our findings indicate that C. jejuni is able to survive overnight on food processing

  6. Salmonella and Campylobacter contamination of ready-to-eat street-vended pork meat dishes in Antananarivo, Madagascar: a risk for the consumers?

    PubMed

    Cardinale, Eric; Abat, Cédric; Bénédicte, Contamin; Vincent, Porphyre; Michel, Rakotoharinome; Muriel, Maeder

    2015-03-01

    Street-food vending has been increasing in many developing countries and particularly in Madagascar since 2000. Gastroenteric diseases cause 37% of all deaths each year, and 50% of children <5 years are infected with intestinal pathogens. However, there has been little information regarding the incidence of street-food-related diseases, or foodborne pathogens in pork, which is the most commonly eaten meat, along with chicken. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the safety of traditional ready-to-eat street-vended pork dishes and to assess the association of restaurant characteristics and cooking practices with Salmonella and Campylobacter contamination of these meals. Sixty street-restaurants were studied from March 2012 to August 2012 in Antananarivo. A questionnaire was submitted to the managers, and samples of ready-to-eat pork dishes were bought. Salmonella spp. were isolated in 10% of the 60 street-restaurants studied and in 5% samples of pork dishes. The most prevalent serovars isolated were Salmonella Typhimurium (44%) and Senftenberg (33%). Campylobacter was not detected. Only 4 of the 43 variables tested in the screening analysis were significantly associated with Salmonella spp. contamination of the street-restaurants. The risk for a restaurant to be Salmonella positive decreased when there were specific premises for the restaurant and when the staff was wearing specific clothes when working. Conversely, that risk increased when the temperature of ready-to-eat pork was <52 °C and when tablecloths were used in the restaurant. PMID:25764444

  7. SURROGATE SPECIES IN ASSESSING CONTAMINANT RISK FOR ENDANGERED FISHES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rainbow trout, fathead minnows, and sheepshead minnows were tested as surrogate species to assess contaminant risk for 17 endangered fishes and one toad species. Acute toxicity tests were conducted with carbaryl, copper, 4-nonylphenol, pentachlorophenol, and permethrin in accord...

  8. Post-genome Analysis of the Foodborne Pathogen Campylobacter jejuni

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kay, Emily J.; Gundogdu, Ozan; Wren, Brendan

    The human pathogen Campylobacter jejuni is part of the genus Campylobacter that lies within the epsilon proteobacteria subclass of bacteria. The nearest family in phylogenetic terms is the Helicobacteraceae which includes the Helicobacter and Wolinella genuses. Campylobacter species are Gram-negative, curved rod shaped or spiral and are motile (via polar flagella).

  9. Antimicrobial Resistance Mechanisms among Campylobacter

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are recognized as the most common causative agents of bacterial gastroenteritis in the world. Humans most often become infected by ingesting contaminated food, especially undercooked chicken, but also other sources of bacteria have been described. Campylobacteriosis is normally a self-limiting disease. Antimicrobial treatment is needed only in patients with more severe disease and in those who are immunologically compromised. The most common antimicrobial agents used in the treatment of Campylobacter infections are macrolides, such as erythromycin, and fluoroquinolones, such as ciprofloxacin. Tetracyclines have been suggested as an alternative choice in the treatment of clinical campylobacteriosis but in practice are not often used. However, during the past few decades an increasing number of resistant Campylobacter isolates have developed resistance to fluoroquinolones and other antimicrobials such as macrolides, aminoglycosides, and beta-lactams. Trends in antimicrobial resistance have shown a clear correlation between use of antibiotics in the veterinary medicine and animal production and resistant isolates of Campylobacter in humans. In this review, the patterns of emerging resistance to the antimicrobial agents useful in treatment of the disease are presented and the mechanisms of resistance to these drugs in Campylobacter are discussed. PMID:23865047

  10. Evaluation of a cytolethal distending toxin (cdt) gene-based species-specific multiplex PCR assay for the identification of Campylobacter strains isolated from poultry in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Samosornsuk, Worada; Asakura, Masahiro; Yoshida, Emi; Taguchi, Takashi; Nishimura, Kazuhiko; Eampokalap, Boonchuay; Phongsisay, Vongsavanh; Chaicumpa, Wanpen; Yamasaki, Shinji

    2007-01-01

    We have recently developed a cytolethal distending toxin (cdt) gene-based species-specific multiplex PCR assay for identifying Campylobacter jejuni, C. coli and C. fetus. In the present study, the applicability of this assay was evaluated with 34 Campylobacter-like organisms isolated from poultry in Thailand for species identification and was compared with other assays including API Campy, 16S rRNA gene sequence, and hippuricase (hipO) gene detection. Of the 34 strains analyzed, 20, 10 and 1 were identified as C. jejuni, C. coli, and Arcobacter cryaerophilus, respectively, and 3 could not be identified by API Campy. However, 16S rRNA gene analysis, showed that all 34 strains are C. jejuni/coli. To discriminate between these 2 species, the hipO gene, which is specifically present in C. jejuni, was examined by PCR and was detected in 20 strains, which were identified as C. jejuni by API Campy but not in the remaining 14 strains. Collective results indicated that 20 strains were C. jejuni whereas the 14 strains were C. coli. When the cdt gene-based multiplex PCR was employed, however, 19, 20 and 19 strains were identified as C. jejuni while 13, 14 and 13 were identified as C. coli by the cdtA, cdtB and cdtC gene-based multiplex PCR, respectively. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis revealed that C. jejuni and C. coli strains analyzed are genetically diverse. Taken together, these data suggest that the cdt gene-based multiplex PCR, particularly cdtB gene-based multiplex PCR, is a simple, rapid and reliable method for identifying the species of Campylobacter strains. PMID:17895609

  11. Occurrence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli and their biotypes in beef and dairy cattle from the south of Chile

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, Heriberto; Hitschfeld, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli and their biotypes in beef and dairy cattle from the South of Chile was established. Campylobacter were statistically more prevalent among beef cattle (35.9%) than among dairy cattle (21.3%), being C. jejuni the species most frequently isolated. PMID:24031386

  12. Comparison of Selective Campylobacter Media for Detection and Enumeration of Naturally Occurring Campylobacter spp. on Poultry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter spp. are among the most common cause of bacterial foodborne diarrheal illness; poultry has been linked as a primary source of contamination. Detection and enumeration of low numbers of naturally occurring Campylobacter spp. on poultry is difficult due to the presence of competing micro...

  13. Presence of antibodies against campylobacter flagellar capping proteins versus campylobacter jejuni isolation in broilers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter jejuni is the leading foodborne pathogen that causes human acute bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. Human cases have been linked to consumption and/or handling of contaminated poultry products. Although Campylobacter jejuni is commonly regarded as a commensal in broiler cecal micro...

  14. Campylobacters: the most common bacterial enteropathogens in the Nordic countries.

    PubMed

    Rautelin, H; Hänninen, M L

    2000-10-01

    Campylobacters have been known as important human pathogens since the late 1970s. Campylobacter jejuni and coli are the most common bacterial enteropathogens in the developed countries. During the past years an increasing incidence of campylobacteriosis has been reported in many developed countries. C. jejuni is the most common Campylobacter species while C. coli accounts for about 5-10% of the cases. Although the genome of C. jejuni NCTC 11168 strain was sequenced recently, the exact pathogenetic mechanisms are still not known. Furthermore, there are no reliable animal models available. The epidemiology of this common infection is not well understood; however, eating and handling poultry, contaminated drinking water, and contact with pet animals have been recognized as important risk factors. Most of the cases are sporadic although large water-borne outbreaks have also been reported. Discriminatory typing methods are helpful in tracing the sources and transmission routes. In addition to traditional serotyping, genotyping methods, such as pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, have been developed. As Campylobacter infections probably precede Guillan-Barré syndrome in many cases, a great interest has lately been focused on the possible triggering mechanisms underlying this phenomenon. PMID:11087163

  15. Prevalence and biomolecular characterization of Campylobacter spp. isolated from retail meat.

    PubMed

    Sammarco, Michela Lucia; Ripabelli, Giancarlo; Fanelli, Incoronata; Grasso, Guido Maria; Tamburro, Manuela

    2010-04-01

    We estimated the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in retail meat (n = 352 samples; 104 chicken, 106 pork, and 142 beef) collected in Campobasso, Italy, comparing two microbiological methods. All the isolates were characterized by biomolecular techniques for epidemiological purposes. Campylobacter isolation was performed by selective culture and membrane filtration methods. Phenotypic and genotypic methods for genus and species identification were evaluated together with antimicrobial resistance and plasmid profiling. Sixty-nine (86.2%) samples were positive by selective culture, 49 (61.2%) by membrane filtration, and 38 (47.5%) by both methods. Only 74 of 80 strains were confirmed as Campylobacter spp. by PCR, and two Campylobacter coli were identified as Campylobacter jejuni. Chicken meat was more frequently contaminated than other meats. Selective culture was more sensitive than membrane filtration (85 versus 66%), and specificity of the methods was 98 and 100%, respectively. Among Campylobacter isolates from chicken meat, 86.5% were multidrug resistant. Resistance to ciprofloxacin (51.3%) and enrofloxacin (52.7%) was lower than to nalidixic acid (71.6%). C. coli strains showed the highest cross-resistance for quinolones (82.6%) and fluoroquinolones (60.9%) as well as a high resistance to tetracycline. Plasmids were isolated from six C. coli and two C. jejuni isolates, but no association was detected between antimicrobial resistance and plasmid DNA carriage. Selective culture is considered as the optimal method for Campylobacter isolation, although it was unable to detect all contaminated samples. Membrane filtration provided more specific results but with low sensitivity. A combination of both techniques may offer better results. PMID:20377962

  16. Eugenol wash and chitosan based coating reduces Campylobacter jejuni counts on poultry products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter, a leading cause of foodborne illness globally in humans, is strongly associated with the consumption of contaminated poultry products. Unfortunately, current strategies to reduce Campylobacter counts in poultry have had limited success. Our study investigated the efficacy of eugenol ...

  17. The evidence for horizontal and vertical transmission in Campylobacter passage from hen to her progeny

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter is an important human pathogen and consumption of undercooked poultry and cross-contamination from raw product has been linked to significant human illnesses. To reduce human illness, intervention strategies targeting Campylobacter reduction in poultry are being developed. Researcher...

  18. Ribosomal operon intergenic sequence (IGS) heterogeneity in Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are closely related species that can not be distinguished by their 16S or 23S rRNA genes. However, the intergenic sequence (IGS) fragment that is between the 16S and 23S genes is markedly different and characteristic for each species. A peculiarity of th...

  19. Evaluation of a cytolethal distending toxin (cdt) gene-based species-specific multiplex PCR assay for the identification of Campylobacter strains isolated from diarrheal patients in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kabir, S M Lutful; Kikuchi, Ken; Asakura, Masahiro; Shiramaru, Sachi; Tsuruoka, Naoki; Goto, Aeko; Hinenoya, Atsushi; Yamasaki, Shinji

    2011-01-01

    We have developed a cytolethal distending toxin (cdt) gene-based species-specific multiplex PCR assay for the detection and identification of Campylobacter jejuni, C. coli, and C. fetus. The applicability of this assay was evaluated with 325 Campylobacter strains isolated from diarrheal patients in Japan and the results were compared with those obtained by other genetic methods, including hipO gene detection and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Of the 325 strains analyzed, 314 and 11 were identified as C. jejuni and C. coli, respectively, by combination of hipO gene detection and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. When the multiplex PCR assay was employed, 309, 310, and 314 strains were identified as C. jejuni on the basis of cdtA, cdtB, and cdtC gene-specific primers, respectively. Similarly, 11, 11, and 10 strains were identified as C. coli on the basis of cdtA, cdtB, and cdtC gene-specific primers, respectively. Sequence analysis of the cdt gene region of 6 strains (5 C. jejuni and 1 C. coli) which did not yield specific PCR products in any of the cdt gene-based multiplex PCR assays revealed deletions or mutations of the cdt genes. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis indicated that C. jejuni and C. coli strains were genetically diverse. Taken together, these findings suggest that the cdtC gene-based multiplex PCR seems to be a particularly simple and rapid method for differentiating between species of Campylobacter strains, such as C. jejuni and C. coli. However, combination of these multiplex PCR assays will allow more accurate identification. PMID:21266751

  20. Complete genome sequence of Campylobacter iguaniorum strain 1485ET, isolated from a bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter iguaniorum has been isolated from reptiles. This Campylobacter species is genetically related to C. fetus and C. hyointestinalis. Here we present the first whole genome sequence for this species....

  1. Campylobacter ureolyticus

    PubMed Central

    O'Donovan, Dylan; Corcoran, Gerard D; Lucey, Brigid; Sleator, Roy D

    2014-01-01

    Herein, we provide a brief overview of the emerging bacterial pathogen Campylobacter ureolyticus. We describe the identification of the pathogen by molecular as opposed to classical culture based diagnostics and discuss candidate reservoirs of infection. We also review the available genomic data, outlining some of the major virulence factors, and discuss how these mechanisms likely contribute to pathogenesis of the organism. PMID:24717836

  2. Use of pulsed-field agarose gel electrophoresis to size genomes of Campylobacter species and to construct a SalI map of Campylobacter jejuni UA580.

    PubMed

    Chang, N; Taylor, D E

    1990-09-01

    To determine the physical length of the chromosome of Campylobacter jejuni, the genome was subjected to digestion by a series of restriction endonucleases to produce a small number of large restriction fragments. These fragments were then separated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis with the contour-clamped homogeneous electric field system. The DNA of C. jejuni, with its low G+C content, was found to have no restriction sites for enzymes NotI and SfiI, which cut a high-G+C regions. Most of the restriction enzymes that were used resulted in DNA fragments that were either too numerous or too small for genome size determination, with the exception of the enzymes SalI (5' ... G decreases TCGAG ... 3'), SmaI (5' .... CCC decreases GGG .... 3'), and KpnI (5' ... GGTAC decreases C .... 3'). With SalI, six restriction fragments with average values of 48.5, 80, 110, 220, 280, and 980 kilobases (kb) were obtained when calibrated with both a lambda DNA ladder and yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosome markers. The sum of these fragments yielded an average genome size of 1.718 megabases (Mb). With SmaI, nine restriction fragments with average values ranging from 39 to 371 kb, which yielded an average genome size of 1.726 Mb were obtained. With KpnI, 11 restriction fragments with sizes ranging from 35 to 387.5 kb, which yielded an average genome size of 1.717 Mb were obtained. A SalI restriction map was derived by partial digestion of the C. jejuni DNA. The genome sizes of C. laridis, C. coli, and C. fetus were also determined with the contour-clamped homogeneous electric field system by SalI, SmaI, and KpnI digestion. Average genome sizes were found to be 1.714 Mb for C. coli, 1.267 Mb for C. fetus subsp. fetus, and 1.451 Mb for C. laridis. PMID:2168376

  3. Epidemiological aspects of Campylobacter jejuni enteritis.

    PubMed

    Norkrans, G; Svedhem, A

    1982-08-01

    An epidemiological study on Campylobacter jejuni enterocolitis was performed in an urban Swedish community. The study included 55 patients gathered during a six-month period. Forty-one of the 55 patients (75%) were infected outside Sweden. Campylobacter enterocolitis was rare among children within the country. Patients infected in Sweden had eaten chicken significantly more often than a corresponding control group. Seven out of nine chicken consuming campylobacter patients also had prepared the fresh chicken alone, and none of their family members became ill. Thus the preparation of food contaminated with Campylobacter seems to elevate the risk for contracting the disease. Sick household pets transmitted the campylobacter infection to two patients. Forty-six of the patients had a total of 85 close household members. Three definite secondary cases were found. There was no evidence of transmission of Campylobacter by food prepared by two cooks who were working while still being asymptomatic excreters. Clinical reinfection with Campylobacter was observed in one patient. No patients became long-term carriers of Campylobacter. PMID:7097000

  4. Anti-Campylobacter Activities and Resistance Mechanisms of Natural Phenolic Compounds in Campylobacter

    PubMed Central

    Klančnik, Anja; Možina, Sonja Smole; Zhang, Qijing

    2012-01-01

    Background Campylobacter is a major foodborne pathogen and alternative antimicrobials are needed to prevent or decrease Campylobacter contamination in foods or food producing animals. The objectives of this study are to define the anti-Campylobacter activities of natural phenolic compounds of plant origin and to determine the roles of bacterial drug efflux systems in the resistance to these natural phenolics in Campylobacter jejuni. Methodology/Principal Findings Anti-Campylobacter activities were evaluated by an MIC assay using microdilution coupled with ATP measurement. Mutants of the cmeB and cmeF efflux genes and the cmeR transcriptional repressor gene were compared with the wild-type strain for their susceptibilities to phenolics in the absence and presence of efflux-pump inhibitors (EPIs). The phenolic compounds produced significant, but variable activities against both antibiotic-susceptible and antibiotic resistant Campylobacter. The highest anti-Campylobacter activity was seen with carnosic and rosmarinic acids in their pure forms or in enriched plant extracts. Inactivation of cmeB rendered C. jejuni significantly more susceptible to the phenolic compounds, while mutation of cmeF or cmeR only produced a moderate effect on the MICs. Consistent with the results from the efflux pump mutants, EPIs, especially phenylalanine-arginine β-naphthylamide and NMP, significantly reduced the MICs of the tested phenolic compounds. Further reduction of MICs by the EPIs was also observed in the cmeB and cmeF mutants, suggesting that other efflux systems are also involved in Campylobacter resistance to phenolic compounds. Conclusion/Significance Natural phenolic compounds of plant origin have good anti-Campylobacter activities and can be further developed for potential use in controlling Campylobacter. The drug efflux systems in Campylobacter contribute significantly to its resistance to the phenolics and EPIs potentiate the anti-Campylobacter activities of plant phenolic

  5. Chicken Anti-Campylobacter Vaccine - Comparison of Various Carriers and Routes of Immunization.

    PubMed

    Kobierecka, Patrycja A; Wyszyńska, Agnieszka K; Gubernator, Jerzy; Kuczkowski, Maciej; Wiśniewski, Oskar; Maruszewska, Marta; Wojtania, Anna; Derlatka, Katarzyna E; Adamska, Iwona; Godlewska, Renata; Jagusztyn-Krynicka, Elżbieta K

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter spp, especially the species Campylobacter jejuni, are important human enteropathogens responsible for millions of cases of gastro-intestinal disease worldwide every year. C. jejuni is a zoonotic pathogen, and poultry meat that has been contaminated by microorganisms is recognized as a key source of human infections. Although numerous strategies have been developed and experimentally checked to generate chicken vaccines, the results have so far had limited success. In this study, we explored the potential use of non-live carriers of Campylobacter antigen to combat Campylobacter in poultry. First, we assessed the effectiveness of immunization with orally or subcutaneously delivered Gram-positive Enhancer Matrix (GEM) particles carrying two Campylobacter antigens: CjaA and CjaD. These two immunization routes using GEMs as the vector did not protect against Campylobacter colonization. Thus, we next assessed the efficacy of in ovo immunization using various delivery systems: GEM particles and liposomes. The hybrid protein rCjaAD, which is CjaA presenting CjaD epitopes on its surface, was employed as a model antigen. We found that rCjaAD administered in ovo at embryonic development day 18 by both delivery systems resulted in significant levels of protection after challenge with a heterologous C. jejuni strain. In practice, in ovo chicken vaccination is used by the poultry industry to protect birds against several viral diseases. Our work showed that this means of delivery is also efficacious with respect to commensal bacteria such as Campylobacter. In this study, we evaluated the protection after one dose of vaccine given in ovo. We speculate that the level of protection may be increased by a post-hatch booster of orally delivered antigens. PMID:27242755

  6. Molecular characterization of Campylobacter isolated from chickens and humans in northern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Meeyam, Tongkorn; Padungtod, Pawin; Kaneene, John B

    2004-09-01

    A study was conducted in northern Thailand to characterize Campylobacter spp isolated from chickens at farms, slaughterhouse, and chicken meat at fresh markets, and stools from chicken farmers as well as neighboring crop farmers who served as controls. The Campylobacter isolates were collected during the rainy months of the years 2000, 2001, and 2002. Standard methods were used for primary isolation and identification of Camplobacter and the resulting isolates were frozen and stored in 30% glycerol with Mueller-Hinton broth at -70 degrees C until used in 2003. A multiplex PCR assay was used for differentiation of the Campylobacter spp. A total of 415 Campylobacter spp were isolated from 849 (48.9%) samples from chickens at the farm, slaughter house and fresh chicken meat market. Campylobacter spp were isolated from 5 of the 129 (3.9%) chicken farmers but none from the 100 neighboring crop farmers. C. jejuni was the most prevalent (42.5%) at the farm, followed by C. coli (39.1%) and other species (8.0%). In contrast, C. coli was the most prevalent at the slaughter house (72.4%) while C. jejuni was only 17.2% and others 3.4%. Similarly, at the fresh chicken market, C. coli was the most prevalent (54.4%) while C. jejuni was 26.5% and others were 13.2%. Campylobacter spp isolated from the chicken farmers were predominantly (75%) C. coli and the rest (25%) were C. jejuni. The results of the study show that both C. coli and C. jejuni are highly prevalent in chickens, along the chicken production system and in chicken farmers in northern Thailand. Critical control points for exposure and contamination of the chicken meat supply should be identified so that methods can be developed to protect human exposure to Campylobacter spp. PMID:15689085

  7. Chicken Anti-Campylobacter Vaccine – Comparison of Various Carriers and Routes of Immunization

    PubMed Central

    Kobierecka, Patrycja A.; Wyszyńska, Agnieszka K.; Gubernator, Jerzy; Kuczkowski, Maciej; Wiśniewski, Oskar; Maruszewska, Marta; Wojtania, Anna; Derlatka, Katarzyna E.; Adamska, Iwona; Godlewska, Renata; Jagusztyn-Krynicka, Elżbieta K.

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter spp, especially the species Campylobacter jejuni, are important human enteropathogens responsible for millions of cases of gastro-intestinal disease worldwide every year. C. jejuni is a zoonotic pathogen, and poultry meat that has been contaminated by microorganisms is recognized as a key source of human infections. Although numerous strategies have been developed and experimentally checked to generate chicken vaccines, the results have so far had limited success. In this study, we explored the potential use of non-live carriers of Campylobacter antigen to combat Campylobacter in poultry. First, we assessed the effectiveness of immunization with orally or subcutaneously delivered Gram-positive Enhancer Matrix (GEM) particles carrying two Campylobacter antigens: CjaA and CjaD. These two immunization routes using GEMs as the vector did not protect against Campylobacter colonization. Thus, we next assessed the efficacy of in ovo immunization using various delivery systems: GEM particles and liposomes. The hybrid protein rCjaAD, which is CjaA presenting CjaD epitopes on its surface, was employed as a model antigen. We found that rCjaAD administered in ovo at embryonic development day 18 by both delivery systems resulted in significant levels of protection after challenge with a heterologous C. jejuni strain. In practice, in ovo chicken vaccination is used by the poultry industry to protect birds against several viral diseases. Our work showed that this means of delivery is also efficacious with respect to commensal bacteria such as Campylobacter. In this study, we evaluated the protection after one dose of vaccine given in ovo. We speculate that the level of protection may be increased by a post-hatch booster of orally delivered antigens. PMID:27242755

  8. An Improved Culture Method for Selective Isolation of Campylobacter jejuni from Wastewater.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jinyong; Oh, Euna; Banting, Graham S; Braithwaite, Shannon; Chui, Linda; Ashbolt, Nicholas J; Neumann, Norman F; Jeon, Byeonghwa

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is one of the leading foodborne pathogens worldwide. C. jejuni is isolated from a wide range of foods, domestic animals, wildlife, and environmental sources. The currently available culture-based isolation methods are not highly effective for wastewater samples due to the low number of C. jejuni in the midst of competing bacteria. To detect and isolate C. jejuni from wastewater samples, in this study, we evaluated a few different enrichment conditions using five different antibiotics (i.e., cefoperazone, vancomycin, trimethoprim, polymyxin B, and rifampicin), to which C. jejuni is intrinsically resistant. The selectivity of each enrichment condition was measured with C t value using quantitative real-time PCR, and multiplex PCR to determine Campylobacter species. In addition, the efficacy of Campylobacter isolation on different culture media after selective enrichment was examined by growing on Bolton and Preston agar plates. The addition of polymyxin B, rifampicin, or both to the Bolton selective supplements enhanced the selective isolation of C. jejuni. The results of 16S rDNA sequencing also revealed that Enterococcus spp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are major competing bacteria in the enrichment conditions. Although it is known to be difficult to isolate Campylobacter from samples with heavy contamination, this study well exhibited that the manipulation of antibiotic selective pressure improves the isolation efficiency of fastidious Campylobacter from wastewater. PMID:27617011

  9. An Improved Culture Method for Selective Isolation of Campylobacter jejuni from Wastewater

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jinyong; Oh, Euna; Banting, Graham S.; Braithwaite, Shannon; Chui, Linda; Ashbolt, Nicholas J.; Neumann, Norman F.; Jeon, Byeonghwa

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is one of the leading foodborne pathogens worldwide. C. jejuni is isolated from a wide range of foods, domestic animals, wildlife, and environmental sources. The currently available culture-based isolation methods are not highly effective for wastewater samples due to the low number of C. jejuni in the midst of competing bacteria. To detect and isolate C. jejuni from wastewater samples, in this study, we evaluated a few different enrichment conditions using five different antibiotics (i.e., cefoperazone, vancomycin, trimethoprim, polymyxin B, and rifampicin), to which C. jejuni is intrinsically resistant. The selectivity of each enrichment condition was measured with Ct value using quantitative real-time PCR, and multiplex PCR to determine Campylobacter species. In addition, the efficacy of Campylobacter isolation on different culture media after selective enrichment was examined by growing on Bolton and Preston agar plates. The addition of polymyxin B, rifampicin, or both to the Bolton selective supplements enhanced the selective isolation of C. jejuni. The results of 16S rDNA sequencing also revealed that Enterococcus spp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are major competing bacteria in the enrichment conditions. Although it is known to be difficult to isolate Campylobacter from samples with heavy contamination, this study well exhibited that the manipulation of antibiotic selective pressure improves the isolation efficiency of fastidious Campylobacter from wastewater. PMID:27617011

  10. Prevalence and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Campylobacter spp. in Oklahoma Conventional and Organic Retail Poultry

    PubMed Central

    Noormohamed, Aneesa; Fakhr, Mohamed K

    2014-01-01

    Campylobacter is one of the most important foodborne pathogens that cause bacterial gastroenteritis.This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter in conventional and organic retail poultry samples purchased from grocery stores in Tulsa, Oklahoma.One hundred and fifty six chilled retail chicken samples (85 conventional and 71 organic) and 65 chilled retail conventional turkey samples were collected in this study. The prevalence of Campylobacter in the conventional chicken samples 32/85 (38%) was higher than in the organic ones 21/71 (30%). The prevalence of Campylobacter in the conventional turkey samples was 11/65 (17%). Of the 53 positive chicken samples, 42 were C. jejuni, 8 were C. coli and three isolates were contaminated with both species. Of the 11 positive turkey samples, 8 contained C. jejuni and 3 harbored C. coli isolates. The antimicrobial susceptibility of one hundred and forty nine recovered Campylobacter isolates (130 chickens and 19 turkeys) towards sixteen antimicrobials was determined. The majority of the recovered turkey isolates (13/19) showed resistance to more than 7 antimicrobials while most of the recovered chicken ones (82/130) were resistant to 5 to 7 antimicrobials. Multidrug resistance was not limited to isolates from conventional sources but was also available in isolates of an organic background and was generally lower in C. jejuni isolates when compared to the C. coli ones. PMID:25408778

  11. A quantitative microbiological risk assessment for Campylobacter in petting zoos.

    PubMed

    Evers, Eric G; Berk, Petra A; Horneman, Mijke L; van Leusden, Frans M; de Jonge, Rob

    2014-09-01

    The significance of petting zoos for transmission of Campylobacter to humans and the effect of interventions were estimated. A stochastic QMRA model simulating a child or adult visiting a Dutch petting zoo was built. The model describes the transmission of Campylobacter in animal feces from the various animal species, fences, and the playground to ingestion by visitors through touching these so-called carriers and subsequently touching their lips. Extensive field and laboratory research was done to fulfill data needs. Fecal contamination on all carriers was measured by swabbing in 10 petting zoos, using Escherichia coli as an indicator. Carrier-hand and hand-lip touching frequencies were estimated by, in total, 13 days of observations of visitors by two observers at two petting zoos. The transmission from carrier to hand and from hand to lip by touching was measured using preapplied cow feces to which E. coli WG5 was added as an indicator. Via a Beta-Poisson dose-response function, the number of Campylobacter cases for the whole of the Netherlands (16 million population) in a year was estimated at 187 and 52 for children and adults, respectively, so 239 in total. This is significantly lower than previous QMRA results on chicken fillet and drinking water consumption. Scenarios of 90% reduction of the contamination (meant to mimic cleaning) of all fences and just goat fences reduces the number of cases by 82% and 75%, respectively. The model can easily be adapted for other fecally transmitted pathogens. PMID:24724585

  12. Albatross species demonstrate regional differences in North Pacific marine contamination

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finkelstein, M.; Keitt, B.S.; Croll, D.A.; Tershy, B.; Jarman, Walter M.; Rodriguez-Pastor, S.; Anderson, D.J.; Sievert, P.R.; Smith, D.R.

    2006-01-01

    Recent concern about negative effects on human health from elevated organochlorine and mercury concentrations in marine foods has highlighted the need to understand temporal and spatial patterns of marine pollution. Seabirds, long-lived pelagic predators with wide foraging ranges, can be used as indicators of regional contaminant patterns across large temporal and spatial scales. Here we evaluate contaminant levels, carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios, and satellite telemetry data from two sympatrically breeding North Pacific albatross species to demonstrate that (1) organochlorine and mercury contaminant levels are significantly higher in the California Current compared to levels in the high-latitude North Pacific and (2) levels of organochlorine contaminants in the North Paci.c are increasing over time. Black-footed Albatrosses (Phoebastria nigripes) had 370-460% higher organochlorine (polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs], dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes [DDTs]) and mercury body burdens than a closely related species, the Laysan Albatross (P. immutabilis), primarily due to regional segregation of their North Pacific foraging areas. PCBs (the sum of the individual PCB congeners analyzed) and DDE concentrations in both albatross species were 130-360% higher than concentrations measured a decade ago. Our results demonstrate dramatically high and increasing contaminant concentrations in the eastern North Pacific Ocean, a finding relevant to other marine predators, including humans. ?? 2006 by the Ecological Society of America.

  13. Study on the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. from chicken meat in Hanoi, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Luu, Quynh Huong; Tran, Thi Hanh; Phung, Dac Cam; Nguyen, Thi Be

    2006-10-01

    Campylobacter spp. is considered to be the most common bacterial cause of human gastroenteritis worldwide. In developing countries, Campylobacter spp. diarrhea is an important cause of childhood morbidity. Chicken meat is known to be a major source of Campylobacteriosis infection in the world. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in chicken meat. A total of 100 samples from breast part of chicken carcass were collected from retail market in Hanoi. The samples were taken for bacteriological analysis following the ISO 10272 standards. Thirty one samples (31%) were found positive for Campylobacter spp. The most frequently isolated Campylobacter was Campylobacter jejuni (45.2%) followed by Campylobacter coli (25.8%). Due to high contamination rates of retail chicken products, special attention must be paid to good manufacturing practices of food processors and vendors. Further studies should be done to assess the risk factors of Campylobacter spp. contamination in the Vietnamese fowl production chain. PMID:17135525

  14. Field ecology, fungal sex and food contamination involving Aspergillus species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several species within the genus Aspergillus are capable of producing a myriad of toxic secondary metabolites, with aflatoxin being of most concern. These fungi happen to colonize important agricultural commodities, thereby having the potential to contaminate our food with carcinogenic aflatoxins. P...

  15. Global Epidemiology of Campylobacter Infection

    PubMed Central

    Kaakoush, Nadeem O.; Castaño-Rodríguez, Natalia; Mitchell, Hazel M.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Campylobacter jejuni infection is one of the most widespread infectious diseases of the last century. The incidence and prevalence of campylobacteriosis have increased in both developed and developing countries over the last 10 years. The dramatic increase in North America, Europe, and Australia is alarming, and data from parts of Africa, Asia, and the Middle East indicate that campylobacteriosis is endemic in these areas, especially in children. In addition to C. jejuni, there is increasing recognition of the clinical importance of emerging Campylobacter species, including Campylobacter concisus and Campylobacter ureolyticus. Poultry is a major reservoir and source of transmission of campylobacteriosis to humans. Other risk factors include consumption of animal products and water, contact with animals, and international travel. Strategic implementation of multifaceted biocontrol measures to reduce the transmission of this group of pathogens is paramount for public health. Overall, campylobacteriosis is still one of the most important infectious diseases that is likely to challenge global health in the years to come. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the global epidemiology, transmission, and clinical relevance of Campylobacter infection. PMID:26062576

  16. Antimicrobial Resistance of Campylobacter from Retail Meats and Chicken Carcass Rinses: Results of the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS): 2002-2006

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background - Campylobacter is an important foodborne pathogen in the United States and serves as a commensal-like bacterium in many animal species. Illness in humans is thought to occur through cross-contamination during preparation of foods, particularly poultry products. The U.S. National Antimi...

  17. Antibiotic resistance and resistance mechanisms in Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli.

    PubMed

    Alfredson, David A; Korolik, Victoria

    2007-12-01

    Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are recognized as the most common causative agents of bacterial gastroenteritis in the world and infections with these organisms occur more frequently than do infections due to Salmonella species, Shigella species, or Escherichia coli 0157:H7. The incidence of human Campylobacter infections has increased markedly in both developed and developing countries worldwide and, more significantly, so has the rapid emergence of antibiotic-resistant Campylobacter strains, with evidence suggesting that the use of antibiotics, in particular the fluoroquinolones, as growth promoters in food animals and the veterinary industry is accelerating this trend. In this minireview, the patterns of emerging resistance to the antimicrobial agents useful in treatment of the disease are presented and the mechanisms of resistance to these drugs in Campylobacter spp are discussed. PMID:18031331

  18. ASSESSING CONTAMINANT SENSITIVITY OF ENDANGERED AND THREATENED AQUATIC SPECIES WITH ACUTE TOXICITY TESTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Assessment of contaminant impacts to endangered and threatened (listed) species requires understanding of a species' sensitivity to particular chemicals. The most direct approach would be to determine the sensitivity of a listed species to a particular contaminant or perturbation...

  19. CAMPYLOBACTER COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT IN THE CONTEXT OF SIGNIFICANT GUT MICROBIOTA TRANSITION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter colonization of poultry causes a considerable public health risk. Interactions between the pathogen and the autochthonous intestinal microbiota have not been defined, however, Campylobacter can be excluded from the intestinal habitat by unidentified microbial species. To enhance our un...

  20. Campylobacter and Salmonella in broiler processing – transport through chill

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    When market age broilers are transported to processing plants, feces from individual birds in a Campylobacter positive flock can contaminate transport containers (1). Feces, and therefore Campylobacter, is deposited on the floor surface of transport cages. When placed in soiled transport cages pr...

  1. Incidence and ecology of Campylobacter jejuni and coli in animals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since its initial emergence in the 1970’s, Campylobacter have been estimated to be one of the most common causative agents of foodborne illnesses, along with nontyphoidal Salmonella species. Campylobacter species naturally colonize the gastrointestinal tracts of domestic and feral animals and are a...

  2. Campylobacter jejuni organism (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... after a person has been exposed to the organism. Campylobacter jejuni is one of the most common ... ill cat or dog. This is what Campylobacter organisms look like through a microscope. (Image courtesy of ...

  3. Prevalence, antibiograms, and transferable tet(O) plasmid of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolated from raw chicken, pork, and human clinical cases in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jun Man; Hong, Joonbae; Bae, Wonki; Koo, Hye Cheong; Kim, So Hyun; Park, Yong Ho

    2010-08-01

    The antibiotic resistance patterns and prevalence of the transferable tet(O) plasmid were investigated in Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolates from raw chicken, pork, and humans with clinical campylobacteriosis. A total of 180 C. jejuni and C. coli isolates were identified, and the prevalence rates of C. jejuni and C. coli in raw chicken samples were 83% (83 of 100) and 73% (73 of 100), respectively. Twelve percent (6 of 50) and 10% (5 of 50) of pork samples were contaminated with C. jejuni and C. coli, respectively. Disk diffusion susceptibility testing revealed that the most frequently detected resistance was to tetracycline (92.2%), followed by nalidixic acid (75.6%), ciprofloxacin (65.0%), azithromycin (41.5%), ampicillin (33.3%), and streptomycin (26.1%). Of the C. jejuni and C. coli isolates, 65.7% (n=109) contained plasmids carrying the tet(O) gene. Six C. jejuni isolates and two C. coli isolates with high-level resistance to tetracycline (MIC=256 microg/ml) harbored the tet(O) plasmid, which is transferable to other C. jejuni and C. coli isolates. These results demonstrate the presence of an interspecies transferable plasmid containing the tet(O) gene and a high prevalence of antibiotic resistance in Korean Campylobacter isolates and provide an understanding of the antibiotic resistance distribution among Campylobacter species in Korea. PMID:20819352

  4. Quo vadis? – Monitoring Campylobacter in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Stingl, K.; Knüver, M.-T.; Vogt, P.; Buhler, C.; Krüger, N.-J.; Alt, K.; Tenhagen, B.-A.; Hartung, M.; Schroeter, A.; Ellerbroek, L.; Appel, B.; Käsbohrer, A.

    2012-01-01

    Campylobacter is a poorly recognized foodborne pathogen, leading the statistics of bacterially caused human diarrhoea in Europe during the last years. In this review, we present qualitative and quantitative German data obtained in the framework of specific monitoring programs and from routine surveillance. These also comprise recent data on antimicrobial resistances of food isolates. Due to the considerable reduction of in vitro growth capabilities of stressed bacteria, there is a clear discrepancy between the detection limit of Campylobacter by cultivation and its infection potential. Moreover, antimicrobial resistances of Campylobacter isolates established during fattening of livestock are alarming, since they constitute an additional threat to human health. The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) discusses the establishment of a quantitative limit for Campylobacter contamination of broiler carcasses in order to achieve an appropriate level of protection for consumers. Currently, a considerable amount of German broiler carcasses would not comply with this future criterion. We recommend Campylobacter reduction strategies to be focussed on the prevention of fecal contamination during slaughter. Decontamination is only a sparse option, since the reduction efficiency is low and its success depends on the initial contamination concentration. PMID:24611125

  5. Rapid identification and classification of Campylobacter spp. using laser optical scattering technology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli are the two important species responsible for most of the Campylobacter infections in humans. Reliable isolation and detection of Campylobacter spp. from food samples are challenging due to the interferences from complex food substances and the fastidious growth requ...

  6. Differential carbon source utilization by Campylobacter jejuni strain 11168 in response to growth temperature variation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter spp. readily colonize the intestinal tracts of both human and avian species. While most often a commensal organism in birds, campylobacters remain the leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in humans. The association of campylobacters with poultry is well established as a primary...

  7. Isolation of Campylobacter from circulating blood of commercial broilers.

    PubMed

    Richardson, L J; Cox, N A; Buhr, R J; Harrison, M A

    2011-09-01

    Campylobacter spp. are present in organs and tissues of broiler chickens but the dissemination route is unclear. The aim of the current study was to determine Campylobacter prevalence within circulating blood of commercial broilers. Broilers were acquired from 19 flocks originating from three commercial poultry processing companies. Using aseptic blood collection techniques, 5 ml of circulating blood was collected from each bird and the sample analyzed for Campylobacter. The Campylobacter colonization status of each bird was determined by aseptically sampling and analyzing the ceca. Campylobacter was recovered from 58% (11/19) of flocks sampled. From the 248 total birds sampled, 12% and 46% of the birds had Campylobacter in the blood and ceca, respectively. This study documents Campylobacter prevalence in the circulating blood of commercially raised broilers. Campylobacter presence in the circulatory system may indicate the path used by the organism for rapid dissemination to organs and tissues. From a processing viewpoint, Campylobacter presence in circulating blood of market-age broilers may increase the likelihood of cross-contamination between birds during slaughter. PMID:22017033

  8. Caprylic Acid supplemented in feed reduces enteric Campylobacter jejuni colonization in ten-day-old broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter is one of the leading causes of human food-borne illness in the United States, and epidemiological evidence indicates poultry and poultry products to be a significant source of human Campylobacter infections. Reducing Campylobacter in the intestinal tract would reduce contamination of...

  9. TEMPERATURE AFFECTS SOLE CARBON UTILIZATION PATTERNS OF CAMPYLOBACTER COLI 49941

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter spp. are small, asaccharolytic bacteria exhibiting unique nutritional and environmental requirements. Campylobacter spp. exist as commensal organisms in some animal species, yet are estimated to be the most common causative agents of foodborne illness in humans. C. jejuni is most oft...

  10. Temperature affects sole carbon utilization patterns of Campylobacter coli 49941

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter spp. are small, asaccharolytic bacteria exhibiting unique nutritional and environmental requirements. Campylobacter spp. exist as commensal organisms in some animal species, yet are estimated to be the most common causative agents of foodborne illness in humans. C. jejuni is most oft...

  11. Characterization of Campylobacter jejuni and coli strains isolated in turkeys

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    associated with significant foodborne disease. Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli are the two most prevalent species contributing to human diarrheal disease. The objective of this study was to determine the routes of transmission for Campylobacter throughout turkey production and processing. A floc...

  12. Prevalence and Antimicrobial Resistance of Campylobacter Isolated from Dressed Beef Carcasses and Raw Milk in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kashoma, Isaac P; Kassem, Issmat I; John, Julius; Kessy, Beda M; Gebreyes, Wondwossen; Kazwala, Rudovick R; Rajashekara, Gireesh

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter species are commonly transmitted to humans through consumption of contaminated foods such as milk and meat. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence, antimicrobial resistance, and genetic determinants of resistance of Campylobacter isolated from raw milk and beef carcasses in Tanzania. The antimicrobial resistance genes tested included blaOXA-61 (ampicillin), aph-3-1 (aminoglycoside), tet(O) (tetracycline), and cmeB (multi-drug efflux pump). The prevalence of Campylobacter was 9.5% in beef carcasses and 13.4% in raw milk, respectively. Using multiplex-polymerase chain reaction (PCR), we identified 58.1% of the isolates as Campylobacter jejuni, 30.7% as Campylobacter coli, and 9.7% as other Campylobacter spp. One isolate (1.6%) was positive for both C. jejuni and C. coli specific PCR. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing using the disk diffusion assay and the broth microdilution method showed resistance to: ampicillin (63% and 94.1%), ciprofloxacin (9.3% and 11.8%), erythromycin (53.7% and 70.6%), gentamicin (0% and 15.7%), streptomycin (35.2% and 84.3%), and tetracycline (18.5% and 17.7%), respectively. Resistance to azithromycin (42.6%), nalidixic acid (64.8%), and chloramphenicol (13%) was determined using the disk diffusion assay only, while resistance to tylosin (90.2%) was quantified using the broth microdilution method. The blaOXA-61 (52.6% and 28.1%), cmeB (26.3% and 31.3%), tet(O) (26.3% and 31.3%), and aph-3-1 (5.3% and 3.0%) were detected in C. coli and C. jejuni. These findings highlight the extent of antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter occurring in important foods in Tanzania. The potential risks to consumers emphasize the need for adequate control approaches, including the prudent use of antimicrobials to minimize the spread of antimicrobial-resistant Campylobacter. PMID:26153978

  13. FREQUENCY AND ENUMERATION OF CAMPYLOBACTER SPP. FROM PROCEEDED BROILER CARCASSES USING WEEP AND RINSE SAMPLES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Frequency and numbers of Campylobacter spp. were assessed per freshly processed, contaminated broiler carcass. After bird ceca tested Campylobacter-positive, levels of carcass contamination were estimated using free weep fluids and whole carcass rinses. Estimations of counts were determined by dire...

  14. Campylobacter Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... You get it from eating raw or undercooked poultry. You can also get it from coming in contact with contaminated packages of poultry. Symptoms include Diarrhea Cramping Abdominal pain Fever Nausea ...

  15. Electrokinetic removal of charged contaminant species from soil and other media using moderately conductive adsorptive materials

    DOEpatents

    Lindgren, Eric R.; Mattson, Earl D.

    2001-01-01

    Method for collecting and concentrating charged species, specifically, contaminant species in a medium, preferably soil. The method utilizes electrokinesis to drive contaminant species into and through a bed adjacent to a drive electrode. The bed comprises a moderately electrically conductive adsorbent material which is porous and is infused with water or other solvent capable of conducting electrical current. The bed material, preferably activated carbon, is easily removed and disposed of. Preferably, where activated carbon is used, after contaminant species are collected and concentrated, the mixture of activated carbon and contaminant species is removed and burned to form a stable and easily disposable waste product.

  16. Evaluation of cephamycins as supplements to selective agar for detecting Campylobacter spp. in chicken carcass rinses.

    PubMed

    Chon, Jung-Whan; Kim, Young-Ji; Kim, Hong-Seok; Kim, Dong-Hyeon; Kim, Hyunsook; Song, Kwang-Young; Sung, Kidon; Seo, Kun-Ho

    2016-04-16

    Although cefoperazone is the most commonly used antibiotic in Campylobacter-selective media, the distribution of cefoperazone-resistant bacteria such as extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli is increasing. Here we evaluated the potential of cephamycins for use as supplements to improve modified charcoal-cefoperazone-deoxycholate agar (mCCDA) by replacing cefoperazone with the same concentrations (32 mg/L) of cefotetan (modified charcoal-cefotetan-deoxycholate agar, mCCtDA) and cefoxitin (modified charcoal-cefoxitin-deoxycholate agar, mCCxDA). In chicken carcass rinse samples, the number of mCCDA plates detecting for Campylobacter (18/70, 26%) was significantly lower than that of mCCtDA (42/70, 60%) or mCCxDA plates (40/70, 57%). The number of mCCDA plates (70/70, 100%) that were contaminated with non-Campylobacter species was significantly higher than that of mCCtDA (20/70, 29%) or mCCxDA plates (21/70, 30%). The most common competing species identified using mCCDA was ESBL-producing E. coli, while Pseudomonas species frequently appeared on mCCtDA and mCCxDA. PMID:26915052

  17. Milk-borne campylobacter infection.

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, D A; Jones, D M

    1981-01-01

    The common factor in 13 recent outbreaks of Campylobacter jejuni enteritis was the consumption of unpasteurised or incompletely pasteurised milk. C jejuni is a common commensal in the alimentary tract of milking cows, but it is not clear how the milk becomes contaminated with the organism. Pasteurisation will readily eliminate the organism from milk. In England and Wales 3% of milk retailed is still unpasteurised, and in the light of these findings it is suggested that only pasteurised milk should be sold to the public. PMID:6786504

  18. Milk Modulates Campylobacter Invasion into Caco-2 Intestinal Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Louwen, Rogier; van Neerven, R J Joost

    2015-09-01

    Raw milk is a recognized source of Campylobacter outbreaks, but pasteurization is an effective way to eliminate the causative agent of Campylobacteriosis. Whereas breastfeeding is protective against infectious diseases, consumption of formula milk is thought to be not. However, in relation to Campylobacter, such data is currently unavailable. Although both pasteurized and formula milk are pathogen free and prepared in a quality controlled manner, the effect they have on the virulence of Campylobacter species is unknown. Here, we studied the effect of cow, goat, horse, and formula milk on Campylobacter invasion into intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells, a pathogenic feature of this bacterial species, using a gentamicin exclusion invasion assay. We found that all milk products modulated the invasion of Campylobacter species into the Caco-2 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Control experiments showed that the milks were not toxic for the Caco-2 cells and that the effect on invasion is caused by heat labile (e.g., milk proteins) or heat stable (e.g., sugar/lipids) components depending on the Campylobacter species studied. This in vitro study shows for the first time that pasteurized and formula milk affect the invasion of Campylobacter. We recommend a prospective study to examine whether pasteurized and formula milk affect Campylobacteriosis. PMID:26495128

  19. Milk Modulates Campylobacter Invasion into Caco-2 Intestinal Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Louwen, Rogier; van Neerven, R. J. Joost

    2015-01-01

    Raw milk is a recognized source of Campylobacter outbreaks, but pasteurization is an effective way to eliminate the causative agent of Campylobacteriosis. Whereas breastfeeding is protective against infectious diseases, consumption of formula milk is thought to be not. However, in relation to Campylobacter, such data is currently unavailable. Although both pasteurized and formula milk are pathogen free and prepared in a quality controlled manner, the effect they have on the virulence of Campylobacter species is unknown. Here, we studied the effect of cow, goat, horse, and formula milk on Campylobacter invasion into intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells, a pathogenic feature of this bacterial species, using a gentamicin exclusion invasion assay. We found that all milk products modulated the invasion of Campylobacter species into the Caco-2 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Control experiments showed that the milks were not toxic for the Caco-2 cells and that the effect on invasion is caused by heat labile (e.g., milk proteins) or heat stable (e.g., sugar/lipids) components depending on the Campylobacter species studied. This in vitro study shows for the first time that pasteurized and formula milk affect the invasion of Campylobacter. We recommend a prospective study to examine whether pasteurized and formula milk affect Campylobacteriosis. PMID:26495128

  20. Campylobacter populations in wild and domesticated Mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos)

    PubMed Central

    Colles, Frances M; Ali, Jan S; Sheppard, Samuel K; McCarthy, Noel D; Maiden, Martin C J

    2011-01-01

    Identifying the Campylobacter genotypes that colonize farmed and wild ducks will help to assess the proportion of human disease that is potentially attributable to the consumption of duck meat and environmental exposure to duck faeces. Comparison of temporally and geographically matched farmed and wild ducks showed that they had different Campylobacter populations in terms of: (i) prevalence, (ii) Campylobacter species and (iii) diversity of genotypes. Furthermore, 92.4% of Campylobacter isolates from farmed ducks were sequence types (STs) commonly associated with human disease, in contrast to just one isolate from the wild ducks. Only one ST, ST-45, was shared between the two sources, accounting for 0.9% of wild duck isolates and 5% of farmed duck isolates. These results indicate that domestic ‘niche’ as well as host type may affect the distribution of Campylobacter, and that husbandry practises associated with intensive agriculture may be involved in generating a reservoir of human disease associated lineages. PMID:22164198

  1. Fluoroquinolone resistance in Campylobacter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fluoroquinolone-resistant Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli are common in animals because of the use of fluoroquinolones as therapeutic agents in animal husbandry, particularly in chickens and other poultry. Campylobacter is a commensal in poultry, and therefore, poultry and poultry products are the...

  2. Campylobacter insulaenigrae Isolates from Northern Elephant Seals (Mirounga angustirostris) in California▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Stoddard, Robyn A.; Miller, William G.; Foley, Janet E.; Lawrence, Judy; Gulland, Frances M. D.; Conrad, Patricia A.; Byrne, Barbara A.

    2007-01-01

    There are only two reports in the literature demonstrating the presence of Campylobacter spp. in marine mammals. One report describes the isolation of a new species, Campylobacter insulaenigrae sp. nov., from three harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) and a harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) in Scotland, and the other describes the isolation of Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter lari, and an unknown Campylobacter species from northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) in California. In this study, 72 presumptive C. lari and unknown Campylobacter species strains were characterized using standard phenotypic methods, 16S rRNA PCR, and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Phenotypic characterization of these isolates showed them to be variable in their ability to grow either at 42°C or on agar containing 1% glycine and in their sensitivity to nalidixic acid and cephalothin. Based on both 16S rRNA PCR and MLST, all but 1 of the 72 isolates were C. insulaenigrae, with one isolate being similar to but distinct from both Campylobacter upsaliensis and Campylobacter helveticus. Phylogenetic analysis identified two C. insulaenigrae clades: the primary clade, containing exclusively California strains, and a secondary clade, containing some California strains and all of the original Scottish strains. This study demonstrates the inability of phenotypic characterization to correctly identify all Campylobacter species and emphasizes the importance of molecular characterization via 16S rRNA sequence analysis or MLST for the identification of Campylobacter isolates from marine mammals. PMID:17259365

  3. SURROGATE SPECIES IN ASSESSING CONTAMINANT RISK FOR ENDANGERED FISHES, INCLUDING INTERSPECIES TOXICITY CORRELATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rainbow trout, fathead minnows, and sheepshead minnows were tested as surrogate species to assess contaminant risk for 17 endangered fishes and one toad species. Acute toxicity tests were conducted with carbaryl, copper, 4-nonylphenol, pentachlorophenol, and permethrin in accorda...

  4. Foodborne Campylobacter: Infections, metabolism, pathogenesis and resorvoirs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter species are a leading cause of bacterial-derived foodborne illness worldwide. The emergence of this bacterial group as a significant causative agent of human disease and their propensity to carry antibiotic resistance elements that allows them to resist antibacterial therapy make them...

  5. Multiplex PCR assay for the detection and quantification of Campylobacter spp., Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Salmonella serotypes in water samples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three pathogens, Campylobacter, Salmonella, and Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC), are leading causes of bacterial gastroenteritis in the United States and worldwide. For example, Campylobacter species are responsible for 17% of all hospitalizations related to illness, and although Campy...

  6. Genotype analysis of Campylobacter spp. isolated from various internal organs of commercial broiler breeder hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter spp. are presently believed to be the leading bacterial etiological agent of acute gastroenteritis in the human population. Evidence implicates poultry as a significant source of the organism for human illness; however, the pathways involved in Campylobacter spp. contamination of poul...

  7. Effect of selected modified atmosphere packaging on Campylobacter survival in raw poultry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most current research on Campylobacter has focused on preharvest or processing plant cross contamination. Little is known about the effect of storage environment on the survival of Campylobacter on raw poultry. We evaluated the effects of modified storage atmosphere on the survival of naturally-oc...

  8. Comparison of selective media for detection and enumeration of naturally occurring Campylobacter spp. on poultry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: Campylobacter spp. are known to be among the most common bacteria to cause diarrheal illness, with poultry being linked as the primary source of contamination related to foodborne illness. Enumeration and detection of low numbers of naturally occurring Campylobacter spp. on poultry pro...

  9. The ability of select probiotics to reduce enteric Campylobacter colonization in broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter is the leading cause of foodborne illness worldwide and is often associated with consumption and/or mishandling of contaminated poultry products. Probiotic use in poultry has been an effective strategy in reducing other enteric foodborne pathogens but not consistently for Campylobacter...

  10. Detection of Campylobacter from broiler carcass rinse samples utilizing the TECRA Visual Immunoassay (VIA)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poultry meat is considered to be a major vector of transmission of Campylobacter, either directly, through consumption of poorly prepared product or cross-contamination, or indirectly, through introduction of the bacterium into the food production environment. Efficient detection of Campylobacter is...

  11. Detection of Campylobacter in 100 commercial flocks - evaluation of plating media and filtration method

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter is a natural member of the gut microflora in many commercial broilers and as such can become a contaminant on edible surfaces during processing. Culturing gut contents or feces can be a means to determine flock status prior to live-haul. The wide variety of non-Campylobacter backgrou...

  12. PRESENCE OF CAMPYLOBACTER IN THE RESPIRATORY TRACT OF BROILER CARCASSES BEFORE AND AFTER COMMERCIAL SCALDING

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter can be detected in the thoraco-abdominal cavity of broiler carcasses even if they were carefully eviscerated by hand with no evidence of intestinal rupture or leakage. If Campylobacter is present in the air sacs, which are unavoidably torn during evisceration, it could contaminate th...

  13. OCCURRENCE OF CAMPYLOBACTER SPECIES, SALMONELLA SPECIES, AND GENERIC ESCHERICHIA COLI IN MEAT PRODUCTS FROM RETAIL OUTLETS IN THE FARGO METROPOLITAN AREA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies worldwide have shown that foodborne pathogens are often present in fresh meat and poultry, yet there is a paucity of data in the United States concerning multiple contamination of fresh meat and poultry with these pathogens. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of C...

  14. Comparative genomics of Campylobacter iguaniorum to unravel genetic regions associated with reptilian hosts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter iguaniorum is genetically related to the species C. fetus, C. hyointestinalis, and C. lanienae. Reptiles, chelonians and lizards in particular, appear to be the primary reservoir of this Campylobacter species. Here we report the genome comparison of C. iguaniorum strain 1485E, isolated...

  15. Population Genetics and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Canine Campylobacter Isolates Collected before and after a Raw Feeding Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Roine, Johanna; Hänninen, Marja-Liisa; Hielm-Björkman, Anna; Kivistö, Rauni

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, increasing numbers of consumers have become interested in feeding raw food for their pet dogs as opposed to commercial dry food, in the belief of health advantages. However, raw meat and internal organs, possibly contaminated by pathogens such as Campylobacter spp., may pose a risk of transmission of zoonoses to the pet owners. Campylobacter jejuni is the leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in humans but C. upsaliensis has also been associated with human disease. In this study we investigated the effect of different feeding strategies on the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in Finnish dogs. We further characterized the isolates using multilocus sequence typing (MLST), whole-genome (wg) MLST and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Dogs were sampled before and after a feeding period consisting of commercial raw feed or dry pellet feed. Altogether 56% (20/36) of the dogs yielded at least one Campylobacter-positive fecal sample. C. upsaliensis was the major species detected from 39% of the dogs before and 30% after the feeding period. Two C. jejuni isolates were recovered, both from raw-fed dogs after the dietary regimen. The isolates represented the same genotype (ST-1326), suggesting a common infection source. However, no statistically significant correlation was found between the feeding strategies and Campylobacter spp. carriage. The global genealogy of MLST types of dog and human C. upsaliensis isolates revealed weakly clonal population structure as most STs were widely dispersed. Major antimicrobial resistance among C. upsaliensis isolates was against streptomycin (STR MIC > 4mg/l). Apart from that, all isolates were highly susceptible against the antimicrobials tested. Mutations were found in the genes rpsL or rpsL and rsmG in streptomycin resistant isolates. In conclusion, increasing trend to feed dogs with raw meat warrants more studies to evaluate the risk associated with raw feeding of pets in transmission of zoonoses to humans

  16. Population Genetics and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Canine Campylobacter Isolates Collected before and after a Raw Feeding Experiment.

    PubMed

    Olkkola, Satu; Kovanen, Sara; Roine, Johanna; Hänninen, Marja-Liisa; Hielm-Björkman, Anna; Kivistö, Rauni

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, increasing numbers of consumers have become interested in feeding raw food for their pet dogs as opposed to commercial dry food, in the belief of health advantages. However, raw meat and internal organs, possibly contaminated by pathogens such as Campylobacter spp., may pose a risk of transmission of zoonoses to the pet owners. Campylobacter jejuni is the leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in humans but C. upsaliensis has also been associated with human disease. In this study we investigated the effect of different feeding strategies on the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in Finnish dogs. We further characterized the isolates using multilocus sequence typing (MLST), whole-genome (wg) MLST and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Dogs were sampled before and after a feeding period consisting of commercial raw feed or dry pellet feed. Altogether 56% (20/36) of the dogs yielded at least one Campylobacter-positive fecal sample. C. upsaliensis was the major species detected from 39% of the dogs before and 30% after the feeding period. Two C. jejuni isolates were recovered, both from raw-fed dogs after the dietary regimen. The isolates represented the same genotype (ST-1326), suggesting a common infection source. However, no statistically significant correlation was found between the feeding strategies and Campylobacter spp. carriage. The global genealogy of MLST types of dog and human C. upsaliensis isolates revealed weakly clonal population structure as most STs were widely dispersed. Major antimicrobial resistance among C. upsaliensis isolates was against streptomycin (STR MIC > 4 mg/l). Apart from that, all isolates were highly susceptible against the antimicrobials tested. Mutations were found in the genes rpsL or rpsL and rsmG in streptomycin resistant isolates. In conclusion, increasing trend to feed dogs with raw meat warrants more studies to evaluate the risk associated with raw feeding of pets in transmission of zoonoses to humans

  17. Prevalence and genotypes of Campylobacter jejuni from urban environmental sources in comparison with clinical isolates from children.

    PubMed

    Ramonaite, Sigita; Kudirkiene, Egle; Tamuleviciene, Egle; Leviniene, Giedra; Malakauskas, Alvydas; Gölz, Greta; Alter, Thomas; Malakauskas, Mindaugas

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni in potential contamination sources that are not regularly monitored such as free-living urban pigeons and crows, dogs, cats and urban environmental water and to assess the possible impact on the epidemiology of campylobacteriosis in children using multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Campylobacter spp. were detected in 36.2 % of faecal samples of free-living urban birds and in 40.4 % of environmental water samples. A low prevalence of Campylobacter spp. was detected in dogs and cats, with 7.9 and 9.1 %, respectively. Further identification of isolates revealed that environmental water and pet samples were mostly contaminated by other Campylobacter spp. than C. jejuni, whereas C. jejuni was the most prevalent species in faecal samples of free-living birds (35.4 %). This species was the dominant cause of campylobacteriosis in children (91.5 %). In addition, the diversity of C. jejuni MLST types in free-living birds and children was investigated. Clonal complex (CC) 179 was predominant among free-living urban birds; however, only two isolates from children were assigned to this CC. One dog and one child isolate were assigned to the same clonal complex (CC48) and sequence type (ST) 918. The dominant two clonal complexes among the child clinical isolates (CC353 and CC21) were not detected among C. jejuni strains isolated from environmental sources examined in this study. As only two CCs were shared by environmental and child C. jejuni isolates and a high number of novel alleles and STs were found in C. jejuni isolated from free-living urban birds and environmental water, there is probably only a limited link between urban environmental sources and campylobacteriosis in children, particularly in rather cold climatic conditions. PMID:24987101

  18. ASSESSING CONTAMINANT SENSITIVITY OF ENDANGERED AND THREATENED SPECIES: 3. EFFLUENT TOXICITY TESTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dwyer, F. James, Douglas K. Hardesty, Christopher E. Henke, Christopher G. Ingersoll, David W. Whites, Tom Augspurger, Timothy J. Canfield, David R. Mount and Foster L. Mayer. Submitted. Assessing Contaminant Sensitivity of Endangered and Threatened Species: 3. Effluent Tests. Ar...

  19. High Prevalence and Genetic Diversity of Campylobacter jejuni in Wild Crows and Pigeons.

    PubMed

    Ramonaitė, Sigita; Novoslavskij, Aleksandr; Zakarienė, Gintarė; Aksomaitienė, Jurgita; Malakauskas, Mindaugas

    2015-11-01

    The occurrence, seasonal variation and genetic diversity of Campylobacter spp. in pigeons and crows over a 1-year period were evaluated. Campylobacter spp. were isolated from 166 (34.6 %) out of 480 wild bird faecal samples. The occurrence of Campylobacter spp. in faecal samples was higher among crows (39.2 %) than pigeons (30.0 %), (P < 0.05). Campylobacter jejuni was the most common species detected among wild bird faecal samples (98.2 %). Meanwhile, Campylobacter coli prevalence in wild bird faecal samples was low-6 %. The Simpson's diversity index of C. jejuni flaA RFLP types was lower in pigeons (D = 0.88) compared with C. jejuni isolates detected in crows (D = 0.97). Obtained results revealed that C. jejuni are widely prevalent among crows and pigeons, indicating these wild birds as potential infection sources to humans. Further studies are required to determine crows and pigeons role in zoonotic transmission of Campylobacter. PMID:26228635

  20. The stingless bee species, Scaptotrigona aff. depilis, as a potential indicator of environmental pesticide contamination.

    PubMed

    de Souza Rosa, Annelise; I'Anson Price, Robbie; Ferreira Caliman, Maria Juliana; Pereira Queiroz, Elisa; Blochtein, Betina; Sílvia Soares Pires, Carmen; Imperatriz-Fonseca, Vera Lucia

    2015-08-01

    Neonicotinoids have the potential to enter the diet of pollinators that collect resources from contaminated plants. The species Scaptotrigona aff. depilis (Moure, 1942) can be a useful indicator of the prevalence of these chemicals in the environment. Using high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, the authors devised a protocol for neonicotinoid residue extraction and detected the presence of neonicotinoids in the bee bodies. Thus, the authors consider this species to be a potential indicator of environmental contamination. PMID:26190578

  1. Campylobacter spp. as a Foodborne Pathogen: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Joana; Leite, Daniela; Fernandes, Mariana; Mena, Cristina; Gibbs, Paul Anthony; Teixeira, Paula

    2011-01-01

    Campylobacter is well recognized as the leading cause of bacterial foodborne diarrheal disease worldwide. Symptoms can range from mild to serious infections of the children and the elderly and permanent neurological symptoms. The organism is a cytochrome oxidase positive, microaerophilic, curved Gram-negative rod exhibiting corkscrew motility and is carried in the intestine of many wild and domestic animals, particularly avian species including poultry. Intestinal colonization results in healthy animals as carriers. In contrast with the most recent published reviews that cover specific aspects of Campylobacter/campylobacteriosis, this broad review aims at elucidating and discussing the (i) genus Campylobacter, growth and survival characteristics; (ii) detection, isolation and confirmation of Campylobacter; (iii) campylobacteriosis and presence of virulence factors; and (iv) colonization of poultry and control strategies. PMID:21991264

  2. Campylobacter pylori and gastroduodenal disease.

    PubMed Central

    Buck, G E

    1990-01-01

    Campylobacter pylori is a newly described, spiral-shaped, gram-negative bacillus that is oxidase positive, catalase positive, and urease positive and grows slowly in culture. Although observed in human tissue at the beginning of the century, it was not cultured until 1982. Because there are significant morphological and genetic differences between this organism and other species of Campylobacter, it will probably be reclassified in a new genus. Current information indicates that the organism primarily resides in the stomach tissue of humans and nonhuman primates and may occasionally spread to the esophagus or other parts of the alimentary tract under appropriate conditions. Significant evidence has accumulated in the last several years to show that it causes gastritis, and there is mounting evidence that it may participate in the development of duodenal ulcers. It may also be associated with gastric ulcers and nonulcer dyspepsia. It can be detected in patients by culture of biopsy specimens or histological staining of biopsy tissue. Indirect evidence for the presence of the organism can be obtained by detection of urease in a tissue biopsy specimen, by urea breath tests, or by detection of specific antibody. It may not be necessary to implement these procedures for routine use, however, until the role of the organism can be defined better. Ultimately, the discovery of this organism may lead to radical changes in the diagnosis and treatment of gastric disease. Images PMID:2404565

  3. Calcium concretions: Evidence of contaminant exposure in three species of marine mollusks

    SciTech Connect

    Benyi, S.J.

    1994-12-31

    Researchers have hypothesized that calcium concretions identified in the kidney of quahogs collected along an urban pollution gradient may result from the sequestering of water- and sediment-borne contaminants. The objectives of this study were to determine if renal calcium deposition was a response to contaminants and to assess calcium concretions as a marker of exposure. Renal calcium concretions in three species of marine mollusks (northern quahog (Mercenaria mercenaria), eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) and softshell (Mya arenaria)) were quantified after a 28-day laboratory exposure to a reference or contaminated sediment (Black Rock Harbor, BRH). Hemolymph calcium, the source of calcium for concretions, was measured weekly to detect a calcium concentration change when and if calcium concretions were deposited in the kidney. Results indicated no effect of contaminated sediment on the hemolymph calcium of any species tested. The response to the contaminants, manifested as renal calcium concretions, was species-specific. Renal concretions were not found in the oysters. However, renal calcium concretions increased from 3.7% of reference-exposed to 52.4% of BRH-exposed softshells. While renal calcium concretions were found in the majority of quahogs, there were more renal concretions in BRH-exposed quahogs than the reference exposed quahogs and the concretions were larger. The increase in renal calcium concretions in quahogs and softshells exposed to contaminants in sediment indicates that renal calcium concretion formation may be associated with contaminant exposure in these species.

  4. Osprey: worldwide sentinel species for assessing and monitoring environmental contamination in rivers, lakes, reservoirs, and estuaries.

    PubMed

    Grove, Robert A; Henny, Charles J; Kaiser, James L

    2009-01-01

    In the United States, many fish and wildlife species have been used nationwide to monitor environmental contaminant exposure and effects, including carcasses of the bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), the only top avian predator regularly used in the past. Unfortunately, bald eagles are sensitive to investigator intrusion at the nest. Thus, the osprey (Pandion haliaetus) is evaluated as a potential sentinel species for aquatic ecosystems. Several characteristics support the choice of the osprey as a sentinel species, including: (1) fish-eating diet atop the aquatic food web, (2) long-lived with strong nest fidelity, (3) adapts to human landscapes (potentially the most contaminated), (4) tolerates short-term nest disturbance, (5) nests spatially distributed at regular intervals, (6) highly visible nests easily located for study, (7) ability to accumulate most, if not all, lipophilic contaminants, (8) known sensitivity to many contaminants, and (9) nearly a worldwide distribution. These osprey traits have been instrumental in successfully using the species to understand population distribution, abundance, and changes over time; the effects of various contaminants on reproductive success; how contaminants in prey (fish on biomass basis) contribute to egg concentrations (i.e., biomagnification factors); and spatial residue patterns. Data summarized include nesting population surveys, detailed nesting studies, and chemical analyses of osprey egg, organ, blood, and feather samples for contaminants that bioaccumulate and/or biomagnify in aquatic food webs; and biochemical evaluations of blood and various organs. Studies in the United States, Canada, Mexico, Europe, and elsewhere have shown the osprey to be a useful sentinel species for monitoring selected environmental contaminants, including some emerging contaminants in lakes, reservoirs, rivers, and estuaries. PMID:19117208

  5. Molecular Detection of Campylobacter spp. in California Gull (Larus californicus) Excreta

    EPA Science Inventory

    We examined the prevalence, quantity, and diversity of Campylobacter species in the excreta of 159 California gull samples using PCR and qPCR based detection assays. While Campylobacter prevalence and abundance was relatively high in the gull excreta examined, molecular data ind...

  6. Prevalence of Campylobacter spp. isolated from grower-finisher pigs in Ontario

    PubMed Central

    Varela, Norma P.; Friendship, Robert M.; Dewey, Cate E.

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed to establish the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in 80 Ontario grower-finisher pig herds. Ninety-nine percent of the isolates yielded Campylobacter, C. coli being the most common species detected. Control of this microorganism must rely on careful food processing and storage of pork, rather than on an on-farm approach. PMID:17542372

  7. Expanded MLST genotyping and comparative genomic hybridization evidence for host preferred groups in Campylobacter coli

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The majority of previous work on campylobacteriosis has centered on the species Campylobacter jejuni, however, Campylobacter coli, the sister group to C. jejuni, is also a significant problem, but remains a much less studied organism. The purpose of this work was to develop and apply an expanded 16 ...

  8. CAMPYLOBACTER INSULAENIGRAE ISOLATED FROM NORTHERN ELEPHANT SEALS (MIROUNGA ANGUSTIROSTRIS) IN CALIFORNIA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are only two reports in the literature demonstrating the presence of Campylobacter spp. in marine mammals. One report describes the isolation of a new species, Campylobacter insulaenigrae sp. nov, from three harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) and a harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) in Scotland a...

  9. Campylobacter concisus pathotypes are present at significant levels in patients with gastroenteritis.

    PubMed

    Underwood, Alexander P; Kaakoush, Nadeem O; Sodhi, Nidhi; Merif, Juan; Seah Lee, Way; Riordan, Stephen M; Rawlinson, William D; Mitchell, Hazel M

    2016-03-01

    Given that Campylobacter jejuni is recognized as the most common cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide, recent findings showing comparable levels of Campylobacter concisus in patients with gastroenteritis would suggest that this bacterium is clinically important. The prevalence and abundance of Campylobacter concisus in stool samples collected from patients with acute gastroenteritis was examined using quantitative real-time PCR. The associated virulence determinants exotoxin 9 and zonula occludens toxin DNA were detected for Campylobacter concisus-infected samples using real-time PCR. Campylobacter concisus was detected at high prevalence in patients with gastroenteritis (49.7 %), higher than that observed for Campylobacter jejuni (∼5 %). The levels of Campylobacter concisus were putatively classified into clinically relevant and potentially transient subgroups based on a threshold developed using Campylobacter jejuni levels, as the highly sensitive real-time PCR probably detected transient passage of the bacterium from the oral cavity. A total of 18 % of patients were found to have clinically relevant levels of Campylobacter concisus, a significant number of which also had high levels of one of the virulence determinants. Of these patients, 78 % were found to have no other gastrointestinal pathogen identified in the stool, which strongly suggests a role for Campylobacter concisus in the aetiology of gastroenteritis in these patients. These results emphasize the need for diagnostic laboratories to employ identification protocols for emerging Campylobacter species. Clinical follow-up in patients presenting with high levels of Campylobacter concisus in the intestinal tract is needed, given that it has been associated with more chronic sequelae. PMID:26698172

  10. Oligodeoxynucleotide probes for Campylobacter fetus and Campylobacter hyointestinalis based on 16S rRNA sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Wesley, I V; Wesley, R D; Cardella, M; Dewhirst, F E; Paster, B J

    1991-01-01

    Deoxyoligonucleotide probes were constructed for the identification of Campylobacter fetus and Campylobacter hyointestinalis based on 16S rRNA sequence data. Probes were targeted to hypervariable regions of 16S rRNA. Specificity of oligonucleotide probes was tested in a colony blot assay with type strains of 15 Campylobacter and Arcobacter species as well as in a slot blot format using genomic DNA extracted from field strains of C. fetus and C. hyointestinalis. Two oligonucleotides were constructed for C. fetus that hybridized with equal specificity with each of 57 biochemically confirmed isolates of C. fetus but not with any other Campylobacter species. The C. hyointestinalis probe reacted with 47 of 48 biochemically confirmed field isolates of C. hyointestinalis. In Southern blot hybridization of BglII digests of genomic DNA, the respective probes reacted within three restriction fragments of either C. hyointestinalis (7.2, 8.2, and 10.1 kb) or C. fetus (7.0, 7.7, and 9.0 kb). This suggests multiple copies of genes encoding 16S rRNA. Images PMID:1723076

  11. Evidence for horizontal and vertical transmission in Campylobacter passage from hen to her progeny.

    PubMed

    Cox, N A; Richardson, L J; Maurer, J J; Berrang, M E; Fedorka-Cray, P J; Buhr, R J; Byrd, J A; Lee, M D; Hofacre, C L; O'Kane, P M; Lammerding, A M; Clark, A G; Thayer, S G; Doyle, M P

    2012-10-01

    Campylobacter is an important human pathogen, and consumption of undercooked poultry has been linked to significant human illnesses. To reduce human illness, intervention strategies targeting Campylobacter reduction in poultry are in development. For more than a decade, there has been an ongoing national and international controversy about whether Campylobacter can pass from one generation of poultry to the next via the fertile egg. We recognize that there are numerous sources of Campylobacter entry into flocks of commercial poultry (including egg transmission), yet the environment is often cited as the only source. There has been an abundance of published research globally that refutes this contention, and this article lists and discusses many of them, along with other studies that support environment as the sole or primary source. One must remember that egg passage can mean more than vertical, transovarian transmission. Fecal bacteria, including Campylobacter, can contaminate the shell, shell membranes, and albumen of freshly laid fertile eggs. This contamination is drawn through the shell by temperature differential, aided by the presence of moisture (the "sweating" of the egg); then, when the chick emerges from the egg, it can ingest bacteria such as Campylobacter, become colonized, and spread this contamination to flock mates in the grow house. Improvements in cultural laboratory methods continue to advance our knowledge of the ecology of Campylobacter, and in the not-so-distant future, egg passage will not be a subject continuously debated but will be embraced, thus allowing the development and implementation of more effective intervention strategies. PMID:23043845

  12. Phylogenetic diversity and position of the genus Campylobacter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lau, P. P.; DeBrunner-Vossbrinck, B.; Dunn, B.; Miotto, K.; MacDonnell, M. T.; Rollins, D. M.; Pillidge, C. J.; Hespell, R. B.; Colwell, R. R.; Sogin, M. L.; Fox, G. E.

    1987-01-01

    RNA sequence analysis has been used to examine the phylogenetic position and structure of the genus Campylobacter. A complete 5S rRNA sequence was determined for two strains of Campylobacter jejuni and extensive partial sequences of the 16S rRNA were obtained for several strains of C. jejuni and Wolinella succinogenes. In addition limited partial sequence data were obtained from the 16S rRNAs of isolates of C. coli, C. laridis, C. fetus, C. fecalis, and C. pyloridis. It was found that W. succinogenes is specifically related to, but not included, in the genus Campylobacter as presently constituted. Within the genus significant diversity was noted. C. jejuni, C. coli and C. laridis are very closely related but the other species are distinctly different from one another. C. pyloridis is without question the most divergent of the Campylobacter isolates examined here and is sufficiently distinct to warrant inclusion in a separate genus. In terms of overall position in bacterial phylogeny, the Campylobacter/Wolinella cluster represents a deep branching most probably located within an expanded version of the Division containing the purple photosynthetic bacteria and their relatives. The Campylobacter/Wolinella cluster is not specifically includable in either the alpha, beta or gamma subdivisions of the purple bacteria.

  13. Genotype analysis of Campylobacter spp. isolated from various internal organs and unabsorbed yolks of commercial broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter spp. are presently believed to be the leading bacterial etiological agent of acute gastroenteritis in the human population. Evidence implicates poultry as a significant source of the organism for human illness; however, the pathways involved in Campylobacter spp. contamination of poul...

  14. The effect of chilling broiler carcasses in cold air or ice water on the population of Campylobacter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Broiler carcasses from a Campylobacter positive flock may remain contaminated with Campylobacter after processing. Most broiler companies in the U.S. use an ice water immersion method to bring carcasses down in temperature; air chilling of broiler carcasses is more common in Europe. The objective ...

  15. Intracloacal inoculation, an effective screening method for determining the efficacy of probiotic bacterial isolates against Campylobacter colonization in broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter is a leading cause of foodborne illness worldwide. It is common in poultry, and human infections are often associated with consumption of contaminated poultry products. One strategy to reduce Campylobacter colonization in poultry is by using oral probiotics. Unfortunately, oral probiot...

  16. COMPARATIVE ASSESSMENT OF STANDARD CULTURE AND REAL-TIME PCR TO DETECT CAMPYLOBACTER JEJUNI IN RETAIL CHICKEN SAMPLES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Contamination of poultry by Campylobacter is a significant source of human diarrheal illness. Conventional bacteriological methods to detect and speciate Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) from chicken samples are labor-intensive and time-consuming. The purpose of this study was to compare standard c...

  17. Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment for Campylobacter spp. on Ham in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the risk of illness from Campylobacter spp. on ham. To identify the hazards of Campylobacter spp. on ham, the general characteristics and microbial criteria for Campylobacter spp., and campylobacteriosis outbreaks were investigated. In the exposure assessment, the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. on ham was evaluated, and the probabilistic distributions for the temperature of ham surfaces in retail markets and home refrigerators were prepared. In addition, the raw data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHNES) 2012 were used to estimate the consumption amount and frequency of ham. In the hazard characterization, the Beta-Poisson model for Campylobacter spp. infection was used. For risk characterization, a simulation model was developed using the collected data, and the risk of Campylobacter spp. on ham was estimated with @RISK. The Campylobacter spp. cell counts on ham samples were below the detection limit (<0.70 Log CFU/g). The daily consumption of ham was 23.93 g per person, and the consumption frequency was 11.57%. The simulated mean value of the initial contamination level of Campylobacter spp. on ham was −3.95 Log CFU/g, and the mean value of ham for probable risk per person per day was 2.20×10−12. It is considered that the risk of foodborne illness for Campylobacter spp. was low. Furthermore, these results indicate that the microbial risk assessment of Campylobacter spp. in this study should be useful in providing scientific evidence to set up the criteria of Campylobacter spp.. PMID:26761897

  18. Comparison of two freshwater turtle species as monitors of environmental contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers-Schoene, L. ); Walton, B.T. )

    1990-04-01

    Two species of turtles that occupy different ecological niches were compared for their usefulness as monitors of contamination in freshwater ecosystems. Trachemys scripta (Agassiz) and Chelydra serpentina (Linnaeus) were selected for comparison based on species abundance and differences in food habits and sediment contact. A review of the literature on contaminants in turtles and results of preliminary surveys conducted at the field sites, which are included in this study, were used to direct and focus this research project. White Oak Lake, a settling basin for low-level radioactive and nonradioactive contaminants, and Bearden Creek Embayment, an uncontaminated reference site upriver, were used as study sites in the investigation of turtles as indicators of chemical contamination. Turtles were analyzed for concentrations of strontium-90, cesium-137, cobalt 60, and mercury in specific target tissues, and for single-stranded DNA breaks, a non-specific indicator of possible exposure to genotoxic agents in the environment. 133 refs., 2 figs., 15 tabs.

  19. Contamination by uranium mine drainages affects fungal growth and interactions between fungal species and strains.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Verónica; Gonçalves, Ana Lúcia; Pratas, João; Canhoto, Cristina

    2010-01-01

    The presence of aquatic hyphomycetes has been reported for several heavy metal-contaminated waters. Tolerance probably is one adaptation to coping with heavy metals. To help clarify this issue strains of two species of aquatic hyphomycetes (Tricladium splendens Ingold and Varicosporium elodeae Kegel) were isolated from a reference stream and a stream contaminated with heavy metals and grown on malt extract agar prepared with reference and contaminated water to characterize colony morphology, growth rate, growth inhibition and interaction among species and strains. In V. elodeae the morphology of colonies differed between strains. Colony diameter increased linearly over time with growth rates being lower for strains isolated from contaminated than from reference streams (mostly for V. elodeae). Strains from the contaminated stream grew faster in medium prepared with contaminated water than in medium prepared with reference water, while for strains from the reference stream there was no significant difference in growth rates on the two media. In interacting isolates radial growth toward the opposing colony was generally lower than toward the dish edge. Percentage growth inhibition was higher for isolates in intraspecific interactions (13-37%) than in interspecific interactions (3-27%). However differences in growth inhibition experienced by interacting isolates were observed only in three cases out of 16. The difference between the percentage inhibition caused and experienced by a given isolate was highest in interactions involving isolates with distinct growth rates. Our results suggest that strains from the reference stream tolerate heavy metals while strains from the contaminated stream seem to be adapted to contaminated waters. We hypothesize that in natural environments fungal species-specific limits of tolerance to metal contamination might determine an abrupt or gradual response of the original fungal community to mine pollution giving origin to a poorer

  20. Analysis of in vitro and in vivo effects of probiotics against Campylobacter spp.

    PubMed

    Bratz, Katharina; Gölz, Greta; Janczyk, Pawel; Nöckler, Karsten; Alter, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Campylobacter (C.) spp. are well recognised as the leading cause of bacterial food-borne diarrheal disease worldwide, with C. jejuni and C. coli as the most important species: C. coli is highly abundant in pigs and pork meat has often been implicated as a source for human infection. Intestinal colonisation of C. coli in pigs plays a role in carcass contamination during slaughter. Different pre-harvest intervention measures are proposed to reduce the C. coli burden in the porcine intestine. Among others, the use of probiotics to prevent or reduce the colonisation of intestinal pathogens is discussed. One aim of this study was to screen a variety of probiotics to evaluate their inhibitory activity against Campylobacter spp. in vitro. Therefore, cell-free culture supernatants of Lactobacillus spp., Bifidobacterium spp., Enterococcus (E.) faecium NCIMB 10415, and Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 were tested against C. jejuni and C. coli by a well-diffusion agar assay. Seven out of eleven Lactobacillus strains showed an inhibitory activity against at least one of the three tested Campylobacter strains. This antagonistic activity against Campylobacter spp. was caused by the production of organic acids that lowered the pH. Application with pH neutralised cell-free culture supernatants abolished this inhibitory effect. Other tested strains with probiotic properties showed no inhibitory activity against any Campylobacter spp. strain. The strain E. faecium NCIMB 10415 was chosen to test its inhibitory activity against C. coli in vivo. Twenty weaned piglets were allocated into two groups, a probiotic group and a control group.The diet of the probiotic group was supplemented with E. faecium NCIMB 10415 (10(9) cfu/kg feed, Cylactin) since weaning, whereas the control group received no probiotic treatment. All piglets were naturally colonised with C. coli. The excretion load of C. coli was monitored for 28 days. The results indicate that dietary supplementation of E. faecium NCIMB

  1. Genomics and isolation of emerging CHRO species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Members of the genus Campylobacter have been isolated from a wide variety of environments, as well as multiple avian and mammalian hosts. Campylobacters have been implicated in disease in both livestock and humans, primarily causing gastroenteritis in the latter. Several Campylobacter species, predo...

  2. Fluoroquinolone resistance detection in Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni by Luminex xMAP technology.

    PubMed

    Barco, Lisa; Lettini, Antonia Anna; Dalla Pozza, Maria Cristina; Ramon, Elena; Fasolato, Manuela; Ricci, Antonia

    2010-09-01

    The proportion of Campylobacter spp. isolates that are resistant to fluoroquinolones, the drugs of choice for campylobacteriosis, has been increasing worldwide. We developed an innovative method based on a Luminex xMAP DNA suspension array that allows the identification of Campylobacter species and, simultaneously, the detection of the most common point mutation in the gyrA gene (substitution from threonine 86 to isoleucine 86) that is responsible for fluoroquinolone resistance. Ninety-six Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni isolates collected from turkeys were first investigated by microdilution test to characterize the antimicrobial resistance patterns. The isolates, amplified for the quinolone resistance determining region of the gyrA gene, were then tested using Luminex suspension array. The reliability of the method was demonstrated by the total concordance between the results obtained using Luminex and those of the sequencing of gyrA polymerase chain reaction products. The genotypic characterization of fluoroquinolone resistance using Luminex was also consistent with the data on phenotypical resistance obtained by microdilution test. The results of this study strongly support the potential of Luminex xMAP technology as an efficient molecular method for the rapid and accurate identification of C. coli and C. jejuni isolates and the characterization of the major determinant of fluoroquinolone resistance. PMID:20500084

  3. Campylobacter jejuni abortions in two beef cattle herds in Saskatchewan

    PubMed Central

    Van Donkersgoed, Joyce; Janzen, Eugene D.; Chirino-Trejo, Manuel; Berry, Catherine; Clark, Edward G.; Haines, Deborah M.

    1990-01-01

    Abortions, accompanied by placental retention and weight loss, occurred during February and March in 19% of 120 and 10% of 108 beef cows and heifers on two neighboring ranches in southern Saskatchewan. A diagnosis of Campylobacter jejuni abortion was made based on lesions of necrotizing and suppurative placentitis and fetal bronchopneumonia in association with the culture of large numbers of C. jejuni from placentas and fetal tissues. Campylobacter jejuni was isolated with variable frequency from fecal samples of aborting and healthy cows, and scouring and healthy calves. Campylobacter jejuni serotype 2 (Lior) was isolated from fetal tissues and feces of a scouring calf, whereas C. jejuni serotypes 1, 4, 5 and 99 were isolated from feces of in-contact cattle. We hypothesized that the source and mode of transmission of C. jejuni was fecal contamination of water supplies and feeding grounds by carrier cows or wildlife. PMID:17423586

  4. Epidemiology of Campylobacter spp. at two Dutch broiler farms.

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs-Reitsma, W. F.; van de Giessen, A. W.; Bolder, N. M.; Mulder, R. W.

    1995-01-01

    Broiler flocks on two Dutch poultry farms were screened weekly for the presence of campylobacter in fresh caecal droppings during eight consecutive production cycles. Hatchery and fresh litter samples were taken at the start of each new cycle. Water, feed, insects, and faeces of domestic animals, present on the farms were also included in the sampling. Penner serotyping of isolates was used to identify epidemiological factors that contribute to campylobacter colonization in the broiler flocks. Generally, broiler flocks became colonized with campylobacter at about 3-4 weeks of age with isolation percentages of 100%, and stayed colonized up to slaughter. A similar pattern of serotypes was found within the various broiler houses on one farm during one production cycle. New flocks generally showed also a new pattern of serotypes. Most serotypes isolated from the laying hens, pigs, sheep and cattle were different from those isolated from the broilers at the same time. Campylobacter serotypes from darkling beetles inside the broiler houses were identical to the ones isolated from the broilers. No campylobacter was isolated from any of the hatchery, water, feed or fresh litter samples. Conclusive evidence of transmission routes was not found, but results certainly point towards horizontal transmission from the environment. Horizontal transmission from one broiler flock to the next one via a persistent contamination within the broiler house, as well as vertical transmission from breeder flocks via the hatchery to progeny, did not seem to be very likely. PMID:7781729

  5. Freezing as an intervention to reduce the numbers of campylobacters isolated from chicken livers.

    PubMed

    Harrison, D; Corry, J E L; Tchórzewska, M A; Morris, V K; Hutchison, M L

    2013-09-01

    The aims of this study were (i) to determine the prevalence and numbers of campylobacters in 63 samples of raw livers purchased at retail across the UK and (ii) to investigate whether the freezing of chicken livers contaminated with Campylobacter was a reliable method for decontamination. Chicken livers naturally contaminated with campylobacters were subjected to freezing at -15 and -25°C for one day and 7 days. Numbers of campylobacters on the livers were determined immediately before and after a 24-h or 7-days freeze treatment and daily during 3 days post-thaw refrigerated storage. Freezing for 24 h at -25°C can reduce numbers of Campylobacter by up to 2 log10 CFU g(-1). Freezing the livers for 24 h at -25°C, thawing overnight in a fridge set to 4°C and refreezing for another 24 h at -25°C reduced the numbers of campylobacters by up to three logs. Reduction in the numbers of campylobacters was significantly greater following a second freeze treatment compared with a single freeze treatment. PMID:23647008

  6. Media for the aerobic growth of campylobacter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of agar and sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) concentration on aerobic growth of Campylobacter in a fumarate-pyruvate medium was examined. The broth medium was supplemented with 0.0 to 0.2% agar and inoculated with 106 CFU/ml of Campylobacter coli 33559, Campylobacter fetus 27349, Campylobacter...

  7. Assessment of potential indigenous plant species for the phytoremediation of arsenic-contaminated areas of Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Mahmud, Rezwanul; Inoue, Naoto; Kasajima, Shin-Ya; Shaheen, Riffat

    2008-01-01

    Soil and water contaminated with arsenic (As) pose a major environmental and human health problem in Bangladesh. Phytoremediation, a plant-based technology, may provide an economically viable solution for remediating the As-polluted sites. The use of indigenous plants with a high tolerance and accumulation capacity for As may be a very convenient approach for phytoremediation. To assess the potential of native plant species for phytoremediation, plant and soil samples were collected from four As-contaminated (groundwater) districts in Bangladesh. The main criteria used for selecting plants for phytoremediation were high bioconcentration factors (BCFs) and translocation factors (TFs) of As. From the results of a screening of 49 plant species belonging to 29 families, only one species of fern (Dryopteris filix-mas), three herbs (Blumea lacera, Mikania cordata, and Ageratum conyzoides), and two shrubs (Clerodendrum trichotomum and Ricinus communis) were found to be suitable for phytoremediation. Arsenic bioconcentration and translocation factors > 1 suggest that these plants are As-tolerant accumulators with potential use in phytoextraction. Three floating plants (Eichhornia crassipes, Spirodela polyrhiza, and Azolla pinnata) and a common wetland weed (Monochoria vaginalis) also showed high BCF and TF values; therefore, these plants may be promising candidates for cleaningup As-contaminated surface water and wetland areas. The BCF of Oryza sativa, obtained from As-contaminated districts was > 1, which highlights possible food-chain transfer issues for As-contaminated areas in Bangladesh. PMID:18709925

  8. Genomic Evidence for the Emergence and Evolution of Pathogenicity and Niche Preferences in the Genus Campylobacter

    PubMed Central

    Iraola, Gregorio; Pérez, Ruben; Naya, Hugo; Paolicchi, Fernando; Pastor, Eugenia; Valenzuela, Sebastián; Calleros, Lucía; Velilla, Alejandra; Hernández, Martín; Morsella, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    The genus Campylobacter includes some of the most relevant pathogens for human and animal health; the continuous effort in their characterization has also revealed new species putatively involved in different kind of infections. Nowadays, the available genomic data for the genus comprise a wide variety of species with different pathogenic potential and niche preferences. In this work, we contribute to enlarge this available information presenting the first genome for the species Campylobacter sputorum bv. sputorum and use this and the already sequenced organisms to analyze the emergence and evolution of pathogenicity and niche preferences among Campylobacter species. We found that campylobacters can be unequivocally distinguished in established and putative pathogens depending on their repertory of virulence genes, which have been horizontally acquired from other bacteria because the nonpathogenic Campylobacter ancestor emerged, and posteriorly interchanged between some members of the genus. Additionally, we demonstrated the role of both horizontal gene transfers and diversifying evolution in niche preferences, being able to distinguish genetic features associated to the tropism for oral, genital, and gastrointestinal tissues. In particular, we highlight the role of nonsynonymous evolution of disulphide bond proteins, the invasion antigen B (CiaB), and other secreted proteins in the determination of niche preferences. Our results arise from assessing the previously unmet goal of considering the whole available Campylobacter diversity for genome comparisons, unveiling notorious genetic features that could explain particular phenotypes and set the basis for future research in Campylobacter biology. PMID:25193310

  9. Organic Contaminant Levels in Three Fish Species Downchannel from the Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzales, G.J.; Fresquez, P.R.; Beveridge, J.W.

    1999-06-01

    The LANL contribution, if any, to organic contaminant levels in the common carp, the channel catfish, and the white sucker in the Rio Grande appear to be small; however, low sample sizes, high variation, and potential interaction of species effect with location treatment effect require additional sampling and analysis.

  10. Assessing contaminant sensitivity of endangered and threatened aquatic species: Part I. Acute toxicity of five chemicals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dwyer, F.J.; Mayer, F.L.; Sappington, L.C.; Buckler, D.R.; Bridges, C.M.; Greer, I.E.; Hardesty, D.K.; Henke, C.E.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Kunz, J.L.; Whites, D.W.; Augspurger, T.; Mount, D.R.; Hattala, K.; Neuderfer, G.N.

    2005-01-01

    Assessment of contaminant impacts to federally identified endangered, threatened and candidate, and state-identified endangered species (collectively referred to as "listed" species) requires understanding of a species' sensitivities to particular chemicals. The most direct approach would be to determine the sensitivity of a listed species to a particular contaminant or perturbation. An indirect approach for aquatic species would be application of toxicity data obtained from standard test procedures and species commonly used in laboratory toxicity tests. Common test species (fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas; sheepshead minnow, Cyprinodon variegatus; and rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss) and 17 listed or closely related species were tested in acute 96-hour water exposures with five chemicals (carbaryl, copper, 4-nonylphenol, pentachlorophenol, and permethrin) representing a broad range of toxic modes of action. No single species was the most sensitive to all chemicals. For the three standard test species evaluated, the rainbow trout was more sensitive than either the fathead minnow or sheepshead minnow and was equal to or more sensitive than listed and related species 81% of the time. To estimate an LC50 for a listed species, a factor of 0.63 can be applied to the geometric mean LC50 of rainbow trout toxicity data, and more conservative factors can be determined using variance estimates (0.46 based on 1 SD of the mean and 0.33 based on 2 SD of the mean). Additionally, a low- or no-acute effect concentration can be estimated by multiplying the respective LC50 by a factor of approximately 0.56, which supports the United States Environmental Protection Agency approach of multiplying the final acute value by 0.5 (division by 2). When captive or locally abundant populations of listed fish are available, consideration should be given to direct testing. When direct toxicity testing cannot be performed, approaches for developing protective measures using common test

  11. Analytical Utility of Campylobacter Methodologies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Foods (NACMCF, or the Committee) was asked to address the analytical utility of Campylobacter methodologies in preparation for an upcoming United States Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) baseline study to enumerate Campylobacter...

  12. Swimming and Campylobacter Infections1

    PubMed Central

    Schönberg-Norio, Daniela; Takkinen, Johanna; Hänninen, Marja-Liisa; Katila, Marja-Leena; Kaukoranta, Suvi-Sirkku; Mattila, Leena

    2004-01-01

    A matched case-control study was conducted to study risk factors for domestically acquired sporadic Campylobacter infections in Finland. Swimming in natural sources of water was a novel risk factor. Eating undercooked meat and drinking dug-well water were also independent risk factors for Campylobacter infection. PMID:15496253

  13. Potential environmental contaminant risks to avian species at important bird areas in the northeastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, B.A.; Ackerson, B.K.

    2008-01-01

    Environmental contaminants can have profound effects on birds, acting from the molecular through population levels of biological organization. An analysis of potential contaminant threats was undertaken at 52 Important Bird Areas (IBAs) within the northeastern Atlantic coast drainage. Using geographic information system methodology, data layers describing or integrating contamination (impaired waters, fish or wildlife consumption advisories, toxic release inventory sites, and estimates of pesticide use) were overlaid on buffered IBA boundaries, and the relative threat at each site was ranked. The most threatened sites include Jefferson National Forest (NF), Stewart B. McKinney National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Great Dismal Swamp NWR, Blue Ridge Parkway, Shenandoah National Park (NP), Adirondack Park, Edwin B. Forsythe NWR, George Washington NF, Green Mountain NF, Long Island Piping Plover Beaches, and Merrymeeting Bay. These sites exhibited moderate to high percentages of impaired waters and had fish consumption advisories related to mercury and polychlorinated biphenyls, and were located in counties with substantial pesticide use. Endangered, threatened and Watch List bird species are present at these sites. The Contaminant Exposure and Effects--Terrestrial Vertebrates database was searched within buffered IBA boundaries, and for a moderate number of sites there was concordance between the perceived risk and contaminant exposure. Several of the IBAs with apparently substantial contaminant threats had no avian ecotoxicological data (e.g., George Washington NF, Shenandoah NP). Based upon this screening level risk assessment, contaminant biomonitoring is warranted at such sites, and data generated from these efforts should foster natural resource management activities.

  14. Antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli from poultry in Italy.

    PubMed

    Giacomelli, Martina; Salata, Cristiano; Martini, Marco; Montesissa, Clara; Piccirillo, Alessandra

    2014-04-01

    This study was aimed at assessing the antimicrobial resistance (AMR) of Campylobacter isolates from broilers and turkeys reared in industrial farms in Northern Italy, given the public health concern represented by resistant campylobacters in food-producing animals and the paucity of data about this topic in our country. Thirty-six Campylobacter jejuni and 24 Campylobacter coli isolated from broilers and 68 C. jejuni and 32 C. coli from turkeys were tested by disk diffusion for their susceptibility to apramycin, gentamicin, streptomycin, cephalothin, cefotaxime, ceftiofur, cefuroxime, ampicillin, amoxicillin+clavulanic acid, nalidixic acid, flumequine, enrofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, tilmicosin, tylosin, tiamulin, clindamycin, tetracycline, sulfamethoxazole+trimethoprim, chloramphenicol. Depending on the drug, breakpoints provided by Comité de l'antibiogramme de la Société Française de Microbiologie, Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, and the manufacturer were followed. All broiler strains and 92% turkey strains were multidrug resistant. Very high resistance rates were detected for quinolones, tetracycline, and sulfamethoxazole+trimethoprim, ranging from 65% to 100% in broilers and from 74% to 96% in turkeys. Prevalence of resistance was observed also against ampicillin (97% in broilers, 88% in turkeys) and at least three cephalosporins (93-100% in broilers, 100% in turkeys). Conversely, no isolates showed resistance to chloramphenicol and tiamulin. Susceptibility prevailed for amoxicillin+clavulanic acid and aminoglycosides in both poultry species, and for macrolides and clindamycin among turkey strains and among C. jejuni from broilers, whereas most C. coli strains from broilers (87.5%) were resistant. Other differences between C. jejuni and C. coli were observed markedly in broiler isolates, with the overall predominance of resistance in C. coli compared to C. jejuni. This study provides updates and novel data on the AMR of broiler and

  15. Potential environmental contaminant risks to avian species at importnat bird areas in the northeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Rattner, Barnett A; Ackerson, Betty K

    2008-07-01

    Environmental contaminants can have profound effects on birds, acting from the molecular through population levels of biological organization. An analysis of potential contaminant threats was undertaken at 52 Important Bird Areas (IBAs) within the northeastern Atlantic coast drainage. Using geographic information system methodology, data layers describing or integrating contamination (impaired waters, fish or wildlife consumption advisories, toxic release inventory sites, and estimates of pesticide use) were overlaid on buffered IBA boundaries, and the relative threat at each site was ranked. Some species of birds residing at Jefferson National Forrest (NF), Stewart B. McKinney National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Great Dismal Swamp NWR, Blue Ridge Parkway, Shenandoah National Park (NP), Adirondack Park, Edwin B. Forsythe NWR, George Washington NF, Green Mountain NF, Long Island Piping Plover Beaches, and Merrymeeting Bay may be threatened by environmental contaminants. These sites exhibited moderate to high percentages of impaired waters and had fish consumption advisories related to mercury and polychlorinated biphenyls, and were located in counties with substantial pesticide use. Endangered, threatened, and Watch List bird species are present at these sites. The Contaminant Exposure and Effects-Terrestrial Vertebrates database was searched within buffered IBA boundaries, and for a moderate number of sites there was concordance between the perceived risk and contaminant exposure. Several of the IBAs with apparently substantial contaminant threats had no avian ecotoxicological data (e.g., George Washington NF, Shenandoah NP). Based upon this screening level risk assessment, contaminant biomonitoring of birds is warranted at such sites, and data generated from these efforts could foster natural resource management activities. PMID:18393576

  16. Detection of Campylobacter in human and animal field samples in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Osbjer, Kristina; Tano, Eva; Chhayheng, Leang; Mac-Kwashie, Akofa Olivia; Fernström, Lise-Lotte; Ellström, Patrik; Sokerya, Seng; Sokheng, Choup; Mom, Veng; Chheng, Kannarath; San, Sorn; Davun, Holl; Boqvist, Sofia; Rautelin, Hilpi; Magnusson, Ulf

    2016-06-01

    Campylobacter are zoonotic bacteria and a leading cause of human gastroenteritis worldwide with Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli being the most commonly detected species. The aim of this study was to detect Campylobacter in humans and livestock (chickens, ducks, pigs, cattle, water buffalo, quail, pigeons and geese) in rural households by routine culturing and multiplex PCR in faecal samples frozen before analysis. Of 681 human samples, 82 (12%) tested positive by PCR (C. jejuni in 66 samples and C. coli in 16), but none by routine culture. Children were more commonly Campylobacter positive (19%) than adult males (8%) and females (7%). Of 853 livestock samples, 106 (12%) tested positive by routine culture and 352 (41%) by PCR. Campylobacter jejuni was more frequent in chickens and ducks and C. coli in pigs. In conclusion, Campylobacter proved to be highly prevalent by PCR in children (19%), ducks (24%), chickens (56%) and pigs (72%). Routine culturing was insufficiently sensitive in detecting Campylobacter in field samples frozen before analysis. These findings suggest that PCR should be the preferred diagnostic method for detection of Campylobacter in humans and livestock where timely culture is not feasible. PMID:26991032

  17. Comparison of Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Campylobacter Strains Isolated from Food Samples and Patients with Diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Bakhshi, Bita; Naseri, Amin; Alebouyeh, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Background: Campylobacter infections may lead to serious conditions, including septicemia or other invasive forms of the disease, which require rapid and accurate laboratory diagnosis and subsequently appropriate antimicrobial therapy. The aim of this study was to compare the species distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Campylobacter spp. strains isolated from patients and food samples. Methods: Biochemical identification was performed on 15 clinical and 30 food isolates of Campylobacter recovered onto Brucella agar containing 5% sheep blood. PCR was carried out to confirm the identity of Campylobacter spp. using primers for cadF, hipO, and asp genes of Campylobacter. To determine antibiotic sensitivity of isolates, Kirby-Bauer assay was carried out using 16 different antibiotic discs. Results: PCR assay and biochemical tests confirmed all 45 isolates as Campylobacter: 20 (44.44%) as C. jujeni, 10 (22.22%) as C. coli, and 15 (33.34%) as other Campylobacter strains. The maximum resistance was observed to cefotaxime and imipenem (each 86.49%) and the maximum sensitivity to erythromycin (48.65%). Conclusion: C. jujeni is dominant among isolates from clinical and food samples. In addition, tetracycline remains the first-line therapeutic agent against Campylobacter infections in Iran. PMID:26783018

  18. Concentration of arsenic in water, sediments and fish species from naturally contaminated rivers.

    PubMed

    Rosso, Juan José; Schenone, Nahuel F; Pérez Carrera, Alejo; Fernández Cirelli, Alicia

    2013-04-01

    Arsenic (As) may occur in surface freshwater ecosystems as a consequence of both natural contamination and anthropogenic activities. In this paper, As concentrations in muscle samples of 10 fish species, sediments and surface water from three naturally contaminated rivers in a central region of Argentina are reported. The study area is one of the largest regions in the world with high As concentrations in groundwater. However, information of As in freshwater ecosystems and associated biota is scarce. An extensive spatial variability of As concentrations in water and sediments of sampled ecosystems was observed. Geochemical indices indicated that sediments ranged from mostly unpolluted to strongly polluted. The concentration of As in sediments averaged 6.58 μg/g ranging from 0.23 to 59.53 μg/g. Arsenic in sediments barely followed (r = 0.361; p = 0.118) the level of contamination of water. All rivers showed high concentrations of As in surface waters, ranging from 55 to 195 μg/L. The average concentration of As in fish was 1.76 μg/g. The level of contamination with As differed significantly between species. Moreover, the level of bioaccumulation of As in fish species related to the concentration of As in water and sediments also differed between species. Whilst some fish species seemed to be able to regulate the uptake of this metalloid, the concentration of As in the large catfish Rhamdia quelen mostly followed the concentration of As in abiotic compartments. The erratic pattern of As concentrations in fish and sediments regardless of the invariable high levels in surface waters suggests the existence of complex biogeochemical processes behind the distribution patterns of As in these naturally contaminated ecosystems. PMID:23179469

  19. Comprehensive Genomic Characterization of Campylobacter Genus Reveals Some Underlying Mechanisms for its Genomic Diversification

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yizhuang; Bu, Lijing; Guo, Min; Zhou, Chengran; Wang, Yongdong; Chen, Liyu; Liu, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Campylobacter species.are phenotypically diverse in many aspects including host habitats and pathogenicities, which demands comprehensive characterization of the entire Campylobacter genus to study their underlying genetic diversification. Up to now, 34 Campylobacter strains have been sequenced and published in public databases, providing good opportunity to systemically analyze their genomic diversities. In this study, we first conducted genomic characterization, which includes genome-wide alignments, pan-genome analysis, and phylogenetic identification, to depict the genetic diversity of Campylobacter genus. Afterward, we improved the tetranucleotide usage pattern-based naïve Bayesian classifier to identify the abnormal composition fragments (ACFs, fragments with significantly different tetranucleotide frequency profiles from its genomic tetranucleotide frequency profiles) including horizontal gene transfers (HGTs) to explore the mechanisms for the genetic diversity of this organism. Finally, we analyzed the HGTs transferred via bacteriophage transductions. To our knowledge, this study is the first to use single nucleotide polymorphism information to construct liable microevolution phylogeny of 21 Campylobacter jejuni strains. Combined with the phylogeny of all the collected Campylobacter species based on genome-wide core gene information, comprehensive phylogenetic inference of all 34 Campylobacter organisms was determined. It was found that C. jejuni harbors a high fraction of ACFs possibly through intraspecies recombination, whereas other Campylobacter members possess numerous ACFs possibly via intragenus recombination. Furthermore, some Campylobacter strains have undergone significant ancient viral integration during their evolution process. The improved method is a powerful tool for bacterial genomic analysis. Moreover, the findings would provide useful information for future research on Campylobacter genus. PMID:23940551

  20. Effect of Rhizosphere Enzymes on Phytoremediation in PAH-Contaminated Soil Using Five Plant Species

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Rui; Dai, Yuanyuan; Sun, Libo

    2015-01-01

    A pot experiment was performed to study the effectiveness of remediation using different plant species and the enzyme response involved in remediating PAH-contaminated soil. The study indicated that species Echinacea purpurea, Festuca arundinacea Schred, Fire Phoenix (a combined F. arundinacea), and Medicago sativa L. possess the potential for remediation in PAH-contaminated soils. The study also determined that enzymatic reactions of polyphenol oxidase (except Fire Phoenix), dehydrogenase (except Fire Phoenix), and urease (except Medicago sativa L.) were more prominent over cultivation periods of 60d and 120d than 150d. Urease activity of the tested species exhibited prominently linear negative correlations with alkali-hydrolyzable nitrogen content after the tested plants were cultivated for 150d (R2 = 0.9592). The experiment also indicated that alkaline phosphatase activity in four of the five tested species (Echinacea purpurea, Callistephus chinensis, Festuca arundinacea Schred and Fire Phoenix) was inhibited during the cultivation process (at 60d and 120d). At the same time, the study determined that the linear relationship between alkaline phosphatase activity and effective phosphorus content in plant rhizosphere soil exhibited a negative correlation after a growing period of 120d (R2 = 0.665). Phytoremediation of organic contaminants in the soil was closely related to specific characteristics of particular plant species, and the catalyzed reactions were the result of the action of multiple enzymes in the plant rhizosphere soil. PMID:25822167

  1. Multiple species of scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae) as contaminants in forensic entomology laboratory insect colony.

    PubMed

    Zuha, R M; Jenarthanan, L X Q; Disney, R H L; Omar, B

    2015-09-01

    In forensic entomology, larval rearing usually includes the presence of biological contaminants including scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae). Scuttle flies are recognized as forensically important insects and have been reported causing nuisance and contamination in laboratory environments. This paper reports for the first time the finding of multiple scuttle fly species affecting colonies of third instar larvae of the Oriental latrine blowfly, Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), reared indoors at the Forensic Science Simulation Site, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. Adult scuttle flies were discovered inside a rearing container after the emergence of adult C. megacephala., The scuttle fly species are Megaselia scalaris (Loew), M. spiracularis Schmitz and Puliciphora borinquenensis (Wheeler). Notes on the life history and biology of these species are discussed herein. PMID:26695221

  2. Isolation and Characterization of Campylobacter Strains from Diarrheal Patients in Central and Suburban Bangkok, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Samosornsuk, Worada; Asakura, Masahiro; Yoshida, Emi; Taguchi, Takashi; Eampokalap, Bunchuay; Chaicumpa, Wanpen; Yamasaki, Shinji

    2015-01-01

    Campylobacter-induced diarrhea is increasingly recognized worldwide. However, little information is available regarding the Campylobacter strains associated with diarrheal patients in Thailand. In this study, we attempted to isolate Campylobacter strains from diarrheal patients in Thailand and to characterize the species using a cytolethal distending toxin (cdt) gene-based C. jejuni, C. coli, and C. fetus-specific multiplex PCR assay. Campylobacter species were also confirmed using 16S rRNA gene sequencing and hipO gene detection. From 2,500 diarrheal stool specimens, 76 Campylobacter-like organisms were isolated and identified via conventional culture methods. Among these 76 organisms, 73 were identified as Campylobacter species (43 C. jejuni, 29 C. coli, and 1 C. fetus) via multiplex PCR, whereas 3 remained unidentified. Two Campylobacter-like organisms yielded 2 amplicons corresponding to cdt genes from C. jejuni and C. coli. Subsequently, C. jejuni and C. coli were reisolated from each sample. The third isolate was identified as C. hyointestinalis via 16S rRNA gene sequencing. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the isolation of C. hyointestinalis from a diarrheal patient in Thailand. These data indicate that C. jejuni (58%) and C. coli (40%) are prevalent among diarrheal patients in Thailand. PMID:25672405

  3. Obsolete pesticides and application of colonizing plant species for remediation of contaminated soil in Kazakhstan.

    PubMed

    Nurzhanova, Asil; Kalugin, Sergey; Zhambakin, Kabl

    2013-04-01

    In Kazakhstan, there is a problem of finding ways to clean local sites contaminated with pesticides. In particular, such sites are the deserted and destroyed storehouses where these pesticides were stored; existing storehouses do not fulfill sanitary standards. Phytoremediation is one potential method for reducing risk from these pesticides. Genetic heterogeneity of populations of wild and weedy species growing on pesticide-contaminated soil provides a source of plant species tolerant to these conditions. These plant species may be useful for phytoremediation applications. In 2008-2009 and 2011, we surveyed substances stored in 80 former pesticide storehouses in Kazakhstan (Almaty oblast) to demonstrate an inventory process needed to understand the obsolete pesticide problem throughout the country, and observed a total of 354.7 t of obsolete pesticides. At the sites, we have found organochlorine pesticides residues in soil including metabolites of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and isomers of hexachlorocyclohexane. Twenty-four of the storehouse sites showed pesticides concentrations in soil higher than maximum allowable concentration which is equal to 100 μg kg(-1) in Kazakhstan. Seventeen pesticide-tolerant wild plant species were selected from colonizing plants that grew into/near the former storehouse's pesticides. The results have shown that colonizing plant annual and biannual species growing on soils polluted by pesticides possess ability to accumulate organochlorine pesticide residues and reduce pesticide concentrations in soil. Organochlorine pesticides taken up by the plants are distributed unevenly in different plant tissues. The main organ of organochlorine pesticide accumulation is the root system. The accumulation rate of organochlorine pesticides was found to be a specific characteristic of plant species and dependent on the degree of soil contamination. This information can be used for technology development of phytoremediation of pesticide-contaminated

  4. Accumulation of mercury in selected plant species grown in soils contaminated with different mercury compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Su, Yi; Han, Fengxiang; Shiyab, Safwan; Chen, Jian; Monts, David L.

    2007-07-01

    The objective of our research is to screen and search for suitable plant species for phyto-remediation of mercury-contaminated soil. Currently our effort is specifically focused on mercury removal from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites, where mercury contamination is a major concern. In order to cost effectively implement mercury remediation efforts, it is necessary now to obtain an improved understanding of biological means of removing mercury and mercury compounds.. Phyto-remediation is a technology that uses various plants to degrade, extract, contain, or immobilize contaminants from soil and water. In particular, phyto-extraction is the uptake of contaminants by plant roots and translocation within the plants to shoots or leaves. Contaminants are generally removed by harvesting the plants. We have investigated phyto-extraction of mercury from contaminated soil by using some of the known metal-accumulating plants since no natural plant species with mercury hyper-accumulating properties has yet been identified. Different natural plant species have been studied for mercury uptake, accumulation, toxicity and overall mercury removal efficiency. Various mercury compounds, such as HgS, HgCl{sub 2}, and Hg(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}, were used as contaminant sources. Different types of soil were examined and chosen for phyto-remediation experiments. We have applied microscopy and diffuse reflectance spectrometry as well as conventional analytical chemistry to monitor the phyto-remediation processes of mercury uptake, translocation and accumulation, and the physiological impact of mercury contaminants on selected plant species. Our results indicate that certain plant species, such as beard grass (Polypogon monospeliensis), accumulated a very limited amount of mercury in the shoots (<65 mg/kg), even though root mercury accumulation is significant (maximum 2298 mg/kg). Consequently, this plant species may not be suitable for mercury phyto-remediation. Other plant species

  5. The purification and contamination of liquid crystals by means of nanoparticles. The case of weakly ionized species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garbovskiy, Yuriy

    2016-08-01

    This letter reports the effects of nanoparticles on the concentration of mobile ions in liquid crystals with weakly ionized species. Contrary to the case of fully ionized contaminants, the regimes of the purification and contamination achieved in liquid crystal nanocolloids with weakly ionized species depend on the interplay between the ion adsorption/ion desorption and ion generation/ion recombination. The competition between these processes results in the reduction of the magnitude of the purification and contamination levels in liquid crystals with weakly ionized species as compared to similar effects in the case of full ionization of contaminants.

  6. 76 FR 58813 - Guidance for Industry; Measures to Address the Risk for Contamination by Salmonella Species in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-22

    ... INFORMATION: I. Background In the Federal Register of June 29, 2009 (74 FR 31038), FDA announced the... Contamination by Salmonella Species in Food Containing a Pistachio- Derived Product as an Ingredient... Address the Risk for Contamination by Salmonella Species in Food Containing a Pistachio-Derived Product...

  7. Copper, nickel, and iron in plumage of three upland gamebird species from non-contaminated environments

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, G.H.

    1985-12-01

    High levels of atmospheric contamination and particulate fallout characterizing the Industrial Basin of the copper-nickel smelting operations at Sudbury, Ontario, were shown to be reflected in the feather chemistry of resident ruffed grouse populations. Of considerable concern, however, is the paucity of information on background concentrations of elemental metals that could be considered normal for non-contaminated environments. The present report examines concentrations of copper, nickel and iron in the plumage of three tetraonid species collected from remote and undisturbed areas in Northern Ontario and Quebec.

  8. Campylobacter in: Microbiological Troubleshooting in the Industrial Food Processing Environment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter species are enteric pathogens and are considered one of the leading foodborne disease agents in the United States causing an estimated 2.1 to 2.4 million cases of gastroenteritis annually. This chapter, intended for inclusion in the book, Microbiological Troubleshooting in the Indust...

  9. Effectiveness of radiation processing in elimination of Campylobacter from poultry meat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raut, Amol D.; Shashidhar, Ravindranath; Bandekar, Jayant R.; Kapadnis, Balu P.

    2012-01-01

    Campylobacter, a common poultry intestine commensal, is a well known cause of human gastric illnesses across the globe. Consumption of contaminated poultry meat is a major cause of Campylobacter related infections. In the present study, radiation sensitivity of indigenous strains of C. jejuni and C. coli isolated from poultry was evaluated. The decimal reduction dose (D 10) values of different Campylobacter isolates at 0-4 °C in saline and blood broth were in the range of 0.120-0.210 kGy and 0.170-0.234 kGy, respectively. D 10 values in chicken meat homogenate for Campylobacter were in the range of 0.110-0.190 kGy. Chicken meat samples were inoculated with C. jejuni and exposed to gamma radiation to study the effectiveness of radiation treatment in elimination of Campylobacter. Radiation treatment with a dose of 1 kGy could achieve complete elimination of 10 5 CFU of Campylobacter/g in poultry meat samples. No recovery of Campylobacter was observed, even after enrichment and selective plating in 1 kGy treated chicken meat samples stored at 4 °C up to 7 days. Present study shows that irradiation of poultry meat with 1 kGy can ensure safety of poultry meat.

  10. Differentiation of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli Using Multiplex-PCR and High Resolution Melt Curve Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Banowary, Banya; Dang, Van Tuan; Sarker, Subir; Connolly, Joanne H.; Chenu, Jeremy; Groves, Peter; Ayton, Michelle; Raidal, Shane; Devi, Aruna; Vanniasinkam, Thiru; Ghorashi, Seyed A.

    2015-01-01

    Campylobacter spp. are important causes of bacterial gastroenteritis in humans in developed countries. Among Campylobacter spp. Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) and C. coli are the most common causes of human infection. In this study, a multiplex PCR (mPCR) and high resolution melt (HRM) curve analysis were optimized for simultaneous detection and differentiation of C. jejuni and C. coli isolates. A segment of the hippuricase gene (hipO) of C. jejuni and putative aspartokinase (asp) gene of C. coli were amplified from 26 Campylobacter isolates and amplicons were subjected to HRM curve analysis. The mPCR-HRM was able to differentiate between C. jejuni and C. coli species. All DNA amplicons generated by mPCR were sequenced. Analysis of the nucleotide sequences from each isolate revealed that the HRM curves were correlated with the nucleotide sequences of the amplicons. Minor variation in melting point temperatures of C. coli or C. jejuni isolates was also observed and enabled some intraspecies differentiation between C. coli and/or C. jejuni isolates. The potential of PCR-HRM curve analysis for the detection and speciation of Campylobacter in additional human clinical specimens and chicken swab samples was also confirmed. The sensitivity and specificity of the test were found to be 100% and 92%, respectively. The results indicated that mPCR followed by HRM curve analysis provides a rapid (8 hours) technique for differentiation between C. jejuni and C. coli isolates. PMID:26394042

  11. Identification of the main quinolone resistance determinant in Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli by MAMA-DEG PCR.

    PubMed

    Hormeño, Lorena; Palomo, Gonzalo; Ugarte-Ruiz, María; Porrero, M Concepción; Borge, Carmen; Vadillo, Santiago; Píriz, Segundo; Domínguez, Lucas; Campos, Maria J; Quesada, Alberto

    2016-03-01

    Among zoonotic diseases, campylobacteriosis stands out as the major bacterial infection producing human gastroenteritis. Antimicrobial therapy, only recommended in critical cases, is challenged by resistance mechanisms that should be unambiguously detected for achievement of effective treatments. Quinolone (ciprofloxacin) resistance of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli, the 2 main Campylobacter detected in humans, is conferred by the mutation gyrA C-257-T, which can be genotyped by several methods that require a previous identification of the pathogen species to circumvent the sequence polymorphism of the gene. A multiplex PCR, based on degenerated oligonucleotides, has been designed for unambiguous identification of the quinolone resistance determinant in Campylobacter spp. isolates. The method was verified with 249 Campylobacter strains isolated from humans (141 isolates) and from the 3 most important animal sources for this zoonosis: poultry (34 isolates), swine (38 isolates), and cattle (36 isolates). High resistance to ciprofloxacin, MIC above 4μg/mL, linked to the mutated genotype predicted by MAMA-DEG PCR (mismatch amplification mutation assay PCR with degenerated primers) was found frequently among isolates from the different hosts. PMID:26658311

  12. Assessment of heavy metal tolerance in native plant species from soils contaminated with electroplating effluent.

    PubMed

    Sainger, Poonam Ahlawat; Dhankhar, Rajesh; Sainger, Manish; Kaushik, Anubha; Singh, Rana Pratap

    2011-11-01

    Heavy metals concentrations of (Cr, Zn, Fe, Cu and Ni) were determined in plants and soils contaminated with electroplating industrial effluent. The ranges of total soil Cr, Zn, Fe, Cu and Ni concentrations were found to be 1443-3240, 1376-3112, 683-2228, 263-374 and 234-335 mg kg⁻¹, respectively. Metal accumulation, along with hyperaccumulative characteristics of the screened plants was investigated. Present study highlighted that metal accumulation in different plants varied with species, tissues and metals. Only one plant (Amaranthus viridis) accumulated Fe concentrations over 1000 mg kg⁻¹. On the basis of TF, eight plant species for Zn and Fe, three plant species for Cu and two plant species for Ni, could be used in phytoextraction technology. Although BAF of all plant species was lesser than one, these species exhibited high metal adaptability and could be considered as potential hyperaccumulators. Phytoremediation potential of these plants can be used to remediate metal contaminated soils, though further investigation is still needed. PMID:21820739

  13. Antimicrobial Resistance in Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolated from Chicken Carcass Rinsates: Update from the Animal Arm of NARMS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: The development of antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter species, particularly C. jejuni and C. coli, is of public health concern. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to analyze the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for antimicrobials used in susceptibility testing of C....

  14. Phytoremediation of soil co-contaminated with heavy metals and TNT using four plant species.

    PubMed

    Lee, Insook; Baek, Kyunghwa; Kim, Hyunhee; Kim, Sunghyun; Kim, Jaisoo; Kwon, Youngseok; Chang, Yoontoung; Bae, Bumhan

    2007-11-01

    We investigated the germination, growth rates and uptake of contaminants of four plant species, barnyard grass (Echinochloa crusgalli), sunflower (Helianthus annuus), Indian mallow (Abutilon avicennae) and Indian jointvetch (Aeschynomene indica), grown in soil contaminated with cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT). These contaminants are typically found at shooting ranges. Experiments were carried out over 180 days using both single plant cultures and cultures containing an equal mix of the 4 plant species. Germination rates differed among the species in single culture (92% for H. annuus, 84% for E. crusgalli, 48% for A. avicennae and 38% Ae. indica). In the 4-plant mix culture, < 20% of seeds germinated for all 4 species. E. crusgalli and H. annuus grew slightly faster in the four-plant mix culture than in single culture, whereas A. avicennae and Ae. indica grew much slower in the 4-plant mix culture. In both single and 4-plant mix cultures, Cd concentrations in the roots of A. avicennae and E. crusgalliwere high, and Pb concentrations were high in A. avicennae and H. annuus. Cd and Pb concentrations in shoots were low to negligible in both treatment cultures for all species, except E. crusgalli in the 4-plant mix culture. The concentrations of TNT and its metabolites, 2-amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene (2ADNT) and 4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene (4ADNT) were high in H. annuus, Ae. indica and A. avicennae. Total Cd removal from soil differed among species, with E. crusgalliremoving the most (50.1%) followed by H. annuus(41.3%), Ae. indica(41.1%) and A. avicennae(33.3%). The four-plant mix removed more Cd (25.8%) than a no-plant control (12.9%). Pb removal was negligible for all plant species. All plant species rapidly removed TNT and its metabolites, regardless of whether the culture was single or mixed. From in these results, we conclude that a phytoremediation for the removal of heavy metals and TNT from contaminated soils should use a single plant species

  15. Survey of Campylobacter spp. in owned and unowned dogs and cats in Northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Giacomelli, M; Follador, N; Coppola, L M; Martini, M; Piccirillo, A

    2015-06-01

    Campylobacteriosis is among the most common bacterial causes of human gastroenteritis worldwide and pet ownership has been identified as a risk factor for Campylobacter infection in humans. Since canine and feline prevalence data are scarce in Italy, the present study was carried out to assess the prevalence, species distribution and risk factors for Campylobacter infection in dogs and cats under different husbandry conditions. Rectal swabs were collected from 171 dogs (household pets, n = 100; shelter-housed dogs, n = 50; dogs from breeding kennels, n = 21) and 102 cats (household pets, n = 52; shelter-housed cats, n = 21; free-roaming cats n = 29) in Northern Italy. Campylobacter was isolated from 17% (n = 29) of dogs and 14.7% (n = 15) of cats. C. jejuni was the most common isolate in both species (Campylobacter spp.-positive dogs, 55.2%; Campylobacter spp.-positive cats, 53.3%), followed by C. upsaliensis (Campylobacter spp.-positive dogs, 27.6%; Campylobacter spp.-positive cats, 40%). Other Campylobacter species were rarely detected, but included C. hyointestinalis subsp. hyointestinalis, C. lari and C. coli in dogs and C. coli and C. helveticus in cats. Among considered variables (sex, age, origin, diarrhoea, season of sampling), origin was identified as a risk factor for dogs, with shelter-housed dogs at higher risk than household dogs (odds ratio, 2.84; 95% CI 1.17, 6.92; P = 0.021). The results of this study, particularly the high prevalence of C. jejuni in Campylobacter-positive animals, demonstrated that household and stray dogs and cats in Northern Italy might pose a zoonotic risk for humans. Moreover, biosecurity measures should be improved in dog shelters. PMID:25951986

  16. Identification of EF group 22 campylobacters from gastroenteritis cases as Campylobacter concisus.

    PubMed Central

    Vandamme, P; Falsen, E; Pot, B; Hoste, B; Kersters, K; De Ley, J

    1989-01-01

    EF (E. Falsen) group 22, a group of Campylobacter strains sorted out by routine immunotyping among unidentified or misidentified human nonoral clinical specimens, was characterized by numerical analysis of gel electrophoretic protein profiles and immunotyping. The protein electrophoretic and immunotyping analyses, DNA:DNA hybridizations, and the DNA base composition demonstrated unambiguously that all EF group 22 strains belong to Campylobacter concisus. EF group 22 strains have DNA binding values of at least 42% with the type strain of C. concisus, showing a considerable degree of genomic heterogeneity. The isolation from blood, esophagus, stomach, duodenum, and feces of humans in association with different gastrointestinal disorders considerably extends the clinical significance of this species. Our results indicate that sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunotyping are excellent tools for the identification of the fastidious C. concisus strains and relatives. Images PMID:2768465

  17. Campylobacter sugars sticking out.

    PubMed

    Guerry, Patricia; Szymanski, Christine M

    2008-09-01

    The amazing repertoire of glycoconjugates that are found in Campylobacter jejuni includes lipooligosaccharides mimicking human glycolipids, capsular polysaccharides with complex and unusual sugars, and proteins that are post-translationally modified with either O- or N-linked glycans. Thus, the glycome of this important food-borne pathogen is an excellent toolbox for glycobiologists to understand the fundamentals of these pathways and their role in host-microbe interactions, develop new techniques for glycobiology and exploit these pathways for novel diagnostics and therapeutics. The exciting surge in recent research activities will be summarized in this review. PMID:18707886

  18. Comparison of Two Freshwater Turtle Species as Monitors of Environmental Contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers-Schone, L.

    1990-01-01

    Two species of turtles that occupy different ecological niches were compared for their usefulness as monitors of contamination in freshwater ecosystems. Trachemvs scrinta (Agassiz) (yellow-bellied slider) and Chelvdra sernentina (Linnaeus) (common snapping turtle) were selected for comparison based on species abundance and differences in food habits and sediment contact. A review of the literature on contaminants in turtles and results of preliminary surveys conducted at the field sites, which are included in this study, were used to direct and focus this research project. White Oak Lake, a settling basin for low-level radioactive and nonradioactive contaminants, and Bearden Creek Embayment, an uncontaminated reference site upriver, were used as study sites in the investigation of turtles as indicators of chemical contamination. Turtles were analyzed for concentrations of strontium-go, cesium-137, cobalt 60, and mercury in specific target tissues, and for single-stranded DNA breaks, a non-specific indicator of possible exposure to genotoxic agents in the environment. Significantly higher concentrations of {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 60}Co, and mercury were detected in turtles from White Oak Lake than in turtles from the reference site. In addition, turtles from White Oak Lake contained a significantly greater amount of DNA damage than those from the reference site. Although this suggests greater exposure of White Oak Lake turtles to genotoxic agents, further studies are needed to establish the cause of the enhanced amount of single-stranded breaks. Interspecific comparisons of the turtles from White Oak Lake indicated that diet may play a significant role in the exposure of turtles to certain contaminants. No difference was detected between the concentrations of {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 60}Co between the two species.

  19. Prevalence and characterization of Campylobacter jejuni from chicken meat sold in French retail outlets.

    PubMed

    Guyard-Nicodème, Muriel; Rivoal, Katell; Houard, Emmanuelle; Rose, Valérie; Quesne, Ségolène; Mourand, Gwenaëlle; Rouxel, Sandra; Kempf, Isabelle; Guillier, Laurent; Gauchard, Françoise; Chemaly, Marianne

    2015-06-16

    Campylobacter was detected in 76% of broiler meat products collected in retail outlets during a monitoring plan carried out in France throughout 2009. Campylobacter jejuni was the most prevalent species (64.7% of products being contaminated). The 175 C. jejuni isolates collected were characterized. MLST typing results confirmed substantial genetic diversity as the 175 C. jejuni isolates generated 76 sequence types (STs). The ST-21, ST-45 and ST-464 complexes predominated accounting for 43% of all isolates. A class-specific PCR to screen the sialylated lipooligosaccharide (LOS) locus classes A, B and C showed that 50.3% of the C. jejuni isolates harbored sialylated LOS. The antimicrobial resistance profiles established using a subset of 97 isolates showed that resistance to tetracycline was the most common (53.6%), followed with ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid (32.9%, and 32.0% respectively). All the tested isolates were susceptible to erythromycin, chloramphenicol and gentamicin. Clear associations were demonstrated between certain clonal complexes and LOS locus classes and between certain clonal complexes and antimicrobial resistance. This work paints a representative picture of C. jejuni isolated from poultry products circulating in France, providing data on STs, LOS locus classes and antibiotic resistance profiles in isolates recovered from products directly available to the consumer. PMID:25770428

  20. The complete genome sequence and annotation of a Campylobacter jejuni strain, MTVDSCj20, isolated from a naturally colonized farm-raised chicken

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter jejuni is a major cause of human foodborne illness worldwide with contaminated poultry products serving as a main source of human infection. C. jejuni strain MTVDSCj20 was isolated from the cecal contents of a farm-raised chicken naturally colonized with Campylobacter. The complete,...

  1. Swallows as a sentinel species for contaminant exposure and effect studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, Christine M.

    2011-01-01

    Tree swallows are an important model species to study the effects of contaminants in wild bird populations and have been used extensively in studies across North America. The advantages of swallows compared to other avian species are detailed. Three case histories are provided where swallows have been successfully used in Natural Resource Damage and Ecological Risk Assessments. The final two sections of this chapter are for individuals who want more in-depth information and include a summary of the chemical classes for which there are swallow data, including effect levels when known. Information provided in this section can be used to put exposure to most classes of contaminants into context with other sites across North America. Finally, commonly used endpoints, ranging from population-level down to cellular and genetic endpoints, are discussed including considerations and pitfalls, and when further work is needed to more fully understand the role of environmental and biological variation in interpreting these endpoints.

  2. Two recently sequenced vertebrate genomes are contaminated with apicomplexan species of the Sarcocystidae family.

    PubMed

    Orosz, Ferenc

    2015-11-01

    This paper highlights a general problem, namely that host genome sequences can easily be contaminated with parasite sequences, thus careful isolation of genetic material and careful bioinformatics analysis are needed in all cases. Two recently published genomes are shown here to be contaminated with sequences of apicomplexan parasites which belong to the Sarcocystidae family. Sequences of the characteristic apicomplexan organelle, the apicoplast, were used as queries in BLASTN searches against nucleotide sequences of various animal groups looking for possible contamination. Draft genomes of a bird, Colinus virginianus (Halley et al., 2014), and a bat, Myotis davidii (Zhang et al., 2013) were found to contain at least six and 17 contigs, respectively, originating from the apicoplast of an apicomplexan species, and other genes specific to this phylum can also be found in the published genomes. Obviously, the sources of the genetic material, the muscle and the kidney of the animals, respectively, contained the parasitic cysts. Phylogenetic analyses using 18S rRNA and internal transcribed spacer 1 genes show that the parasite contaminating C. virginianus is a species of Sarcocystis related to ones known to cycle between avian and mammalian hosts. In the case of M. davidii it belongs to the Nephroisospora genus, the only member of which, Nephroisospora eptesici, has been recently identified from the kidney of big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus). PMID:26264549

  3. ENUMERATION OF CAMPYLOBACTER SPP. IN BROILER FECES AND IN CORRESPONDING PROCESSED CARCASSES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The study presents the levels of Campylobacter spp. contamination in feces at the end of broiler production and the levels found on the processed carcasses. We also compared levels of contamination on carcasses produced in 1995 and 2001, before and after HACCP implementation. Over 3,500 samples we...

  4. Frequency of Salmonella and Campylobacter detection in the Satilla River Basin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transmission of Salmonella and Campylobacter to humans can occur by many routes, including consumption of food animal products or raw produce contaminated with animal waste, contact with animals and their environment, and contaminated water; including surface waters that are potential reservoirs and...

  5. Effect of environmental contaminants in the Mississippi River Basin on carboxylesterases from four aquatic species

    SciTech Connect

    Jaiswal, R.; Huang, T.; Obih, P.; Hartley, W.

    1995-12-31

    The objectives of this study are to investigate the sensitivity of different classes of esterases in various aquatic species to environmental contaminants and the possible use of these enzymes as biomarkers for monitoring the effects of pollutants. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE), and the non-specific carboxylesterases (CaE) were analyzed in three fish species, Ictiobus bubalus (small mouth buffalo), Ictiobus cyprinellus (big mouth buffalo) and Lepisosteus oculatus (spotted gar) and the green tree frog, Hyla cinerea. These samples were collected from the Devil`s Swamp Site (DSS), an industrial site known to be highly contaminated at the Mississippi River Basin, and Lake Tunica, a nonindustrial site. ACHE and BuChE activities in the subcellular fractions of liver and brain were significantly lower in fishes and frogs obtained from DSS when compared to the same species obtained from Tunica swamp site. The greatest decrease was observed with ACHE activity in the liver and brain of Ictiobus bubalus from DSS. CaE activity analyzed with p-nitrophenyl acetate was found to be significantly lower in the liver of all three fish species collected from DSS when compared to the same fish species obtained from the Tunica swamp site.

  6. Species Identification of Food Contaminating Beetles by Recognizing Patterns in Microscopic Images of Elytra Fragments.

    PubMed

    Park, Su Inn; Bisgin, Halil; Ding, Hongjian; Semey, Howard G; Langley, Darryl A; Tong, Weida; Xu, Joshua

    2016-01-01

    A crucial step of food contamination inspection is identifying the species of beetle fragments found in the sample, since the presence of some storage beetles is a good indicator of insanitation or potential food safety hazards. The current pratice, visual examination by human analysts, is time consuming and requires several years of experience. Here we developed a species identification algorithm which utilizes images of microscopic elytra fragments. The elytra, or hardened forewings, occupy a large portion of the body, and contain distinctive patterns. In addition, elytra fragments are more commonly recovered from processed food products than other body parts due to their hardness. As a preliminary effort, we chose 15 storage product beetle species frequently detected in food inspection. The elytra were then separated from the specimens and imaged under a microscope. Both global and local characteristics were quantified and used as feature inputs to artificial neural networks for species classification. With leave-one-out cross validation, we achieved overall accuracy of 80% through the proposed global and local features, which indicates that our proposed features could differentiate these species. Through examining the overall and per species accuracies, we further demonstrated that the local features are better suited than the global features for species identification. Future work will include robust testing with more beetle species and algorithm refinement for a higher accuracy. PMID:27341524

  7. Microsatellite loci to recognize species for the cheese starter and contaminating strains associated with cheese manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Giraud, Frédéric; Giraud, Tatiana; Aguileta, Gabriela; Fournier, Elisabeth; Samson, Robert; Cruaud, Corine; Lacoste, Sandrine; Ropars, Jeanne; Tellier, Aurélien; Dupont, Joëlle

    2010-02-28

    We report the development of 17 microsatellite markers in the cheese fungi Penicillium camemberti and P. roqueforti, using an enrichment protocol. Polymorphism and cross-amplification were explored using 23 isolates of P. camemberti, 26 isolates of P. roqueforti, and 2 isolates of each of the P. chrysogenum and P. nalgiovense species, used to produce meat fermented products. The markers appeared useful for differentiating species, both using their amplification sizes and the sequences of their flanking regions. The microsatellite locus PC4 was particularly suitable for distinguishing contaminant species closely related to P. camemberti and for clarifying the phylogenetic relationship of this species with its supposed ancestral form, P. commune. We analyzed 22 isolates from different culture collections assigned to the morphospecies P. commune, most of them occurring as food spoilers, mainly from the cheese environment. None of them exhibited identical sequences with the ex-type isolate of the species P. commune. They were instead distributed into two other distinct lineages, corresponding to the old species P. fuscoglaucum and P. biforme, previously synonymized respectively with P. commune and P. camemberti. The ex-type isolate of P. commune was strictly identical to P. camemberti at all the loci examined. P. caseifulvum, a non toxinogenic species described as a new candidate for cheese fermentation, also exhibited sequences identical to P. camemberti. The microsatellite locus PC4 may therefore be considered as a useful candidate for the barcode of these economically important species. PMID:20031244

  8. Species Identification of Food Contaminating Beetles by Recognizing Patterns in Microscopic Images of Elytra Fragments

    PubMed Central

    Park, Su Inn; Bisgin, Halil; Ding, Hongjian; Semey, Howard G.; Langley, Darryl A.; Tong, Weida

    2016-01-01

    A crucial step of food contamination inspection is identifying the species of beetle fragments found in the sample, since the presence of some storage beetles is a good indicator of insanitation or potential food safety hazards. The current pratice, visual examination by human analysts, is time consuming and requires several years of experience. Here we developed a species identification algorithm which utilizes images of microscopic elytra fragments. The elytra, or hardened forewings, occupy a large portion of the body, and contain distinctive patterns. In addition, elytra fragments are more commonly recovered from processed food products than other body parts due to their hardness. As a preliminary effort, we chose 15 storage product beetle species frequently detected in food inspection. The elytra were then separated from the specimens and imaged under a microscope. Both global and local characteristics were quantified and used as feature inputs to artificial neural networks for species classification. With leave-one-out cross validation, we achieved overall accuracy of 80% through the proposed global and local features, which indicates that our proposed features could differentiate these species. Through examining the overall and per species accuracies, we further demonstrated that the local features are better suited than the global features for species identification. Future work will include robust testing with more beetle species and algorithm refinement for a higher accuracy. PMID:27341524

  9. The genus Campylobacter: a decade of progress.

    PubMed Central

    Penner, J L

    1988-01-01

    In 1977, microbiologists and clinicians were awakened to the importance of the genus Campylobacter when it was learned that one species, Campylobacter jejuni, was a major cause of human enteritis. In the following decade substantial advances were made in diagnosis, isolation technology, identification, classification, serotyping, and epidemiology. The genus has undergone rapid expansion as advantage was taken of the deoxyribonucleic acid-deoxyribonucleic acid hybridization technique in defining new species. The 14 species now included in the genus, however, constitute a widely diverse group, and one species, C. pylori, which is associated with human gastroduodenitis, is under consideration for reassignment to another genus. The nomenclature of the subspecies of C. fetus has been resolved and the role of C. fetus subsp. fetus as an agent of human infections has been more clearly defined. The thermophilic campylobacteria that are etiological agents of human enteritis now include three species, C. jejuni, C. coli, and C. laridis. Recently defined species that have also been implicated as enteritis-causing agents include C. hyointestinalis, "C. upsaliensis," "C. cinaedi," and "C. fennelliae." The aerotolerant campylobacteria are now included in the species C. cryaerophila, and the campylobacteria isolated from salt marshes are included in C. nitrofigilis. The taxonomy and nomenclature of C. sputorum have been revised. C. sputorum now consists of three biovars (biotypes). Two of these, biovar sputorum and biovar bubulus, were previously considered to be separate subspecies and the third, biovar fecalis, was previously regarded as a separate species and known as "C. fecalis." The former subspecies C. sputorum subsp. mucosalis has been elevated to the rank of species. C. mucosalis is metabolically closely related to C. consisus. Human pathogens have not been identified among C. sputorum, C. mucosalis, or C. concisus. The goal of this article is to review developments

  10. Molecular subtyping methods for campylobacter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter jejuni is a major cause worldwide of foodborne bacterial gastroenteritis. The continued development of more effective and informative typing methods is necessary to improve our understanding of the epidemiology and population dynamics of this important pathogen. Comparative genome ind...

  11. Comparison of Mercury Contamination in Live and Dead Dolphins from a Newly Described Species, Tursiops australis

    PubMed Central

    Monk, Alissa; Charlton-Robb, Kate; Buddhadasa, Saman; Thompson, Ross M.

    2014-01-01

    Globally it is estimated that up to 37% of all marine mammals are at a risk of extinction, due in particular to human impacts, including coastal pollution. Dolphins are known to be at risk from anthropogenic contaminants due to their longevity and high trophic position. While it is known that beach-cast animals are often high in contaminants, it has not been possible to determine whether levels may also be high in live animals from the same populations. In this paper we quantitatively assess mercury contamination in the two main populations of a newly described dolphin species from south eastern Australia, Tursiops australis. This species appear to be limited to coastal waters in close proximity to a major urban centre, and as such is likely to be vulnerable to anthropogenic pollution. For the first time, we were able to compare blubber mercury concentrations from biopsy samples of live individuals and necropsies of beach-cast animals and show that beach-cast animals were highly contaminated with mercury, at almost three times the levels found in live animals. Levels in live animals were also high, and are attributable to chronic low dose exposure to mercury from the dolphin's diet. Measurable levels of mercury were found in a number of important prey fish species. This illustrates the potential for low dose toxins in the environment to pass through marine food webs and potentially contribute to marine mammal deaths. This study demonstrates the potential use of blubber from biopsy samples to make inferences about the health of dolphins exposed to mercury. PMID:25137255

  12. Comparison of mercury contamination in live and dead dolphins from a newly described species, Tursiops australis.

    PubMed

    Monk, Alissa; Charlton-Robb, Kate; Buddhadasa, Saman; Thompson, Ross M

    2014-01-01

    Globally it is estimated that up to 37% of all marine mammals are at a risk of extinction, due in particular to human impacts, including coastal pollution. Dolphins are known to be at risk from anthropogenic contaminants due to their longevity and high trophic position. While it is known that beach-cast animals are often high in contaminants, it has not been possible to determine whether levels may also be high in live animals from the same populations. In this paper we quantitatively assess mercury contamination in the two main populations of a newly described dolphin species from south eastern Australia, Tursiops australis. This species appear to be limited to coastal waters in close proximity to a major urban centre, and as such is likely to be vulnerable to anthropogenic pollution. For the first time, we were able to compare blubber mercury concentrations from biopsy samples of live individuals and necropsies of beach-cast animals and show that beach-cast animals were highly contaminated with mercury, at almost three times the levels found in live animals. Levels in live animals were also high, and are attributable to chronic low dose exposure to mercury from the dolphin's diet. Measurable levels of mercury were found in a number of important prey fish species. This illustrates the potential for low dose toxins in the environment to pass through marine food webs and potentially contribute to marine mammal deaths. This study demonstrates the potential use of blubber from biopsy samples to make inferences about the health of dolphins exposed to mercury. PMID:25137255

  13. Mercury contamination in some marine biota species from Khuzestan shore, Persian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Mehdi; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad Bagher; Parsa, Yaghoob; Saadatmand, Maryam

    2016-07-01

    In this study, concentrations of mercury (Hg) were analyzed in some marine biota species (fish, shrimp, and crab) from Khuzestan shore, north part of the Persian Gulf. It was also our intention to evaluate potential risks to human health associated with seafood consumption. The results indicated that concentrations of Hg in the fish and crustacean were different among the species and tissues. Liver in fish and hepatopancreas in crustacean exhibited higher Hg concentration than the other tissues. The highest concentration of Hg was detected in Acanthopagrus latus liver (1.37 µg/g), followed by Labeo rohita (0.87 µg/g), Johnius belangerii (0.79 µg/g), and Barbus grypus (0.69 µg/g), respectively. Also the highest Hg concentrations were detected in shrimp species, Penaeus semisulcatus hepatopancreas (0.95 µg/g), followed by blue crab Portunus pelagicus (0.76 µg/g) and Metapenaues affinis (0.64 µg/g), respectively. The comparison indicated that benthic species were more contaminated than were other pelagic species. The results indicated that highest concentrations of Hg between different stations were detected in Musa estuary. The Hg concentration in all species were low than standards, expect in A. latus and P. semisulcatus collected from Musa estuary (S4). The variation in Hg levels among the species is likely to have resulted from metal bioavailability, changes in tissue composition, habitat,s and locations. PMID:25500758

  14. Heavy-metal-contaminated industrial soil: Uptake assessment in native plant species from Brazilian Cerrado.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Sylvia Therese; Castro, Samuel Rodrigues; Fernandes, Marcus Manoel; Soares, Aylton Carlos; de Souza Freitas, Guilherme Augusto; Ribeiro, Edvan

    2016-08-01

    Plants of the Cerrado have shown some potential for restoration and/or phytoremediation projects due to their ability to grow in and tolerate acidic soils rich in metals. The aim of this study is to evaluate the tolerance and accumulation of metals (Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn) in five native tree species of the Brazilian Cerrado (Copaifera langsdorffii, Eugenia dysenterica, Inga laurina, Cedrela fissilis, Handroanthus impetiginosus) subjected to three experiments with contaminated soils obtained from a zinc processing industry (S1, S2, S3) and control soil (S0). The experimental design was completely randomized (factorial 5 × 4 × 3) and conducted in a greenhouse environment during a 90-day experimentation time. The plant species behavior was assessed by visual symptoms of toxicity, tolerance index (TI), translocation factor (TF), and bioaccumulation factor (BF). C. fissilis has performed as a Zn accumulator by the higher BFs obtained in the experiments, equal to 3.72, 0.88, and 0.41 for S1, S2, and S3 respectively. This species had some ability of uptake control as a defense mechanism in high stress conditions with the best behavior for phytoremediation and high tolerance to contamination. With economical and technical benefits, this study may support a preliminary analysis necessary for using native tree species in environmental projects. PMID:26852633

  15. Potential of weed species applied to remediation of soils contaminated with heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Wei, Shu-He; Zhou, Qi-Xing; Wang, Xin; Cao, Wei; Ren, Li-Ping; Song, Yu-Fang

    2004-01-01

    To screen out a series of ideal plants that can effectively remedy contaminated soils by heavy metals is the main groundwork of phytoremediation engineering and the first step of its commercial application on a large scale. In this study, accumulation and endurance of 45 weed species in 16 families from an agricultural site were in situ examined by using the pot-culture field experiment, and the remediation potential of some weed species with high accumulation of heavy metals was assayed. The results showed that Solanum nigrum and Conyza canadensis can not only accumulate high concentration of Cd, but also strongly endure to single Cd and Cd-Pb-Cu-Zn combined pollution. Thus 2 weed species can be regarded as good hyperaccumulators for the remediation of Cd-contaminated soils. Although there were high Cd-accumulation in Artemigia selengensis, Znula britannica and Cephalanoplos setosum, their biomass was adversely affected due to action of heavy metals in the soils. If the problem of low endurance to heavy metals can be solved by a reinforcer, 3 weed species can be perhaps applied commercially. PMID:15559831

  16. The hyperosmotic stress response of Campylobacter jejuni

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The hyperosmotic stress response of Campylobacter jejuni: The diarrheal pathogen Campylobacter jejuni and other gastrointestinal bacteria encounter changes in osmolarity in the environment, through exposure to food processing, or upon entering host organisms, where osmotic adaptation can be associa...

  17. Comparative genomics of the Campylobacter lari group

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Campylobacter lari group is a phylogenetic clade within the epsilon subdivision of the Proteobacteria and is part of the thermotolerant campylobacters, a division within the genus that includes the human pathogen Campylobacter jejuni. The lari group is currently composed of five validly-named sp...

  18. Accumulation of polychlorinated organic contaminants from sediment by three benthic marine species

    SciTech Connect

    Pruell, R.J.; Rubinstein, N.I.; Taplin, B.K.; LiVolsi, J.A.; Bowen, R.D.

    1993-01-01

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to measure the accumulation of selected polychlorinated compounds by marine benthos exposed to environmentally contaminated sediment. Sandworms (Nereis virens), clams (Macoma nasuta), and grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio) were exposed to sediment collected from the Passaic River, New Jersey. All three species accumulated 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD), 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran (2,3,7,8-TCDF) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from the sediment. In addition, a recently identified sulfur containing analog of tetrachlorinated dibenzofurans. The objectives of the study were to determine the relative bioavailability of 2,3,7,8-TCDD, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran (2,3,7,8-TCDF) and selected PCB congeners from bottom sediments as well as to examine the relationship between contaminant concentrations in sediments and biota.

  19. Occurrence of ochratoxin a contamination and detection of ochratoxigenic aspergillus species in retail samples of dried fruits and nuts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin produced by several species of Aspergillus and Penicillium and is a potential contaminant of a wide variety of food products. To determine the incidence of OTA contamination in dried fruits and tree nuts, retail packaged and bulk raisins, dates, figs, prunes, almon...

  20. Efficacy of feed additives against Campylobacter in live broilers during the entire rearing period.

    PubMed

    Guyard-Nicodème, M; Keita, A; Quesne, S; Amelot, M; Poezevara, T; Le Berre, B; Sánchez, J; Vesseur, P; Martín, Á; Medel, P; Chemaly, Marianne

    2016-02-01

    Poultry meat is the major source of human campylobacteriosis, the most frequently reported zoonosis in the EU. The prevalence of Campylobacter colonization in European broiler flocks is 71%. Despite considerable efforts, there is still no effective strategy available to prevent or reduce Campylobacter colonization in broilers. This study tested a wide variety of feed additives to reduce Campylobacter shedding in primary poultry production. Twelve additives containing organic or fatty acids, monoglycerides, plant extracts, prebiotics, or probiotics were tested. For each additive, broilers contaminated with Campylobacter jejuni were fed with an additive free diet (control group) or with a supplemented diet (treated group) and Campylobacter loads compared at three sampling times. No treatment was able to prevent broiler colonization by Campylobacter, and there was a high degree of variation in contamination among the birds. At 14 d of age, eight treatments significantly decreased the colonization level compared to the control group by a maximum of 2 log10 CFU/g. At 35 d of age, three of these treatments still had a significant effect with a maximum reduction of 1.88 log10 CFU/g for a probiotic. At 42 d of age, only one short-chain fatty acid was still significantly efficient with a mean reduction over 2 log10 CFU/g. In addition, a probiotic and a prebiotic-like compound significantly decreased the contamination by a maximum of 3 log10 CFU/g, only at the 42-d sampling period. This study gives promising results regarding the use of feed additives to reduce Campylobacter infection in flocks. Nevertheless, a global approach, combining intervention measures at the different steps of the broiler meat production chain could have a greater impact on the reduction of public health risk. PMID:26706356

  1. Comparison of two freshwater turtle species as monitors of radionuclide and chemical contamination: DNA damage and residue analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers-Schoene, L. ); Shugart, L.R.; Beauchamp, J.J.; Walton, B.T. )

    1993-08-01

    Two species of turtles that occupy different ecological niches were compared for their usefulness as monitors of freshwater ecosystems where both low-level radioactive and nonradioactive contaminants are present. The pond slider (Trachemys scripta) and common snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina) were analyzed for the presence of [sup 90]Sr, [sup 137]Cs, [sup 60]Co, and Hg, radionuclides and chemicals known to be present at the contaminated site, and single-strand breaks in liver DNA. The integrity of the DNA was examined by the alkaline unwinding assay, a technique that detects strand breaks as a biological marker of possible exposure to genotoxic agents. This measure of DNA damage was significantly increased in both species of turtles at the contaminated site compared with turtles of the same species at a reference site, and shows that contaminant-exposed populations were under more severe genotoxic stress than those at the reference site. The level of strand breaks observed at the contaminated site was high and in the range reported for other aquatic species exposed to deleterious concentrations of genotoxic agents such as chemicals and ionizing radiation. Statistically significantly higher concentrations of radionuclides and Hg were detected in the turtles from the contaminated area. Mercury concentrations were significantly higher in the more carnivorous snapping turtle compared with the slider; however, both species were effective monitors of the contaminants.

  2. Lack of CYP1A responsiveness in species inhabiting chronically contaminated habitats: two varieties of resistance?

    PubMed

    Brammell, Ben F; Price, David J; Birge, Wesley J; Elskus, Adria A

    2013-03-01

    Organisms chronically exposed to organic pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) can develop resistance to these chemicals, a condition associated with reduced inducibility of the biomarker enzyme cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A). This study addresses the CYP1A response of members of the families Ictaluridae and Centrarchidae, two fish families found throughout much of the United States. We measured CYP1A expression, PCB body burdens, and conducted CYP1A challenge experiments in species from these families residing in the Town Branch/Mud River system (Logan County, KY, USA), a stream system historically contaminated with high levels of PCBs. Despite PCB concentrations in muscle tissue typically associated with elevated CYP1A (16.7 to 75.2μgPCB/g wet edible flesh), resident fish in the contaminated Town Branch/Mud River sites (yellow bullhead [Ameiurus natalis], green sunfish [Lepomis cyanellus], and spotted bass [Micropterus punctulatus]) had hepatic CYP1A activity levels similar to, rather than higher than, those in reference fish, suggesting reduced sensitivity to CYP1A induction. Lack of CYP1A expression following direct contaminant exposure has often been associated with resistance to those contaminants. To determine if CYP1A in resident populations was resistant to induction by PCBs, we exposed resident fish to a single, intraperitoneal injection with a potent CYP1A inducer, 3,4,3',4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB 77). PCB 77 treatment significantly induced hepatic CYP1A activity and protein in yellow bullhead from reference, but not contaminated, sites and had no effect on CYP1A in green sunfish from either site. The low CYP1A expression levels in resident fish with elevated PCB body burdens, together with the failure of PCB injection to induce CYP1A in certain populations, indicate an acclimatory CYP1A response in yellow bullheads and likely an inherently resistant CYP1A in green sunfish. This work demonstrates for the first time acclimation of CYP1A to

  3. A feasibility study of perennial/annual plant species to restore soils contaminated with heavy metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zacarías, Montserrat; Beltrán, Margarita; Gilberto Torres, Luis; González, Abelardo

    A feasibility study was carried out to evaluate the application of perennial/annual plant species in a phytoextraction process of a previously washed industrial urban soil contaminated by nickel, arsenic and cupper. The plant species selected for this study were Ipomea (Ipomea variada); grass (Poa pratensis); grass mixture (Festuca rubra, Cynodon dactylon, Lolium multiforum, Pennisetum sp.); Monks Cress (Tropaeolum majus); ficus (Ficus benajamina) and fern (Pteris cretica). Soil was characterized and it presented the following heavy metals concentrations (dry weight): 80 mg of Ni/kg, 456-656 mg of As/kg and 1684-3166 mg of Cu/kg. Germination and survival in contaminated soil tests were conducted, from these, P. pratensis was discarded and the rest of plant species tested were used for the phytoextraction selection test. After 4 months of growth, biomass production was determined, and content of Ni, As and Cu was analyzed in plant’s tissue. Metal biological absorption coefficient (BAC), bio-concentration factor (BCF) and translocation factor (TF), were calculated. Regarding to biomass generation it was observed, in every case, an inhibition of the plant growth compared with blanks sown in a non contaminated soil; inhibition ranged from 22.5% for the Monk cress to 98% for Ipomea. Even though the later presented high BAC, BCF and TF, its growth was severely inhibited, and therefore, due its low biomass generation, it is not recommended for phytoextraction under conditions for this study. Heavy metals concentrations in plant’s tissue (dry weight) were as high as 866 mg Cu/kg and 602 mg As/kg for grass mixture; and 825 mg As/kg was observed for Monks cress. Grass mixture and monks cress had high BAC, BCF and TF, also they had high metal concentrations in its plants tissues and the lowest growth inhibition rates; hence the application in phytoextraction processes of these plants is advisable.

  4. Mussels (Perna perna) as bioindicator of environmental contamination by Cryptosporidium species with zoonotic potential.

    PubMed

    Mariné Oliveira, Geisi Ferreira; do Couto, Melissa Carvalho Machado; de Freitas Lima, Marcelo; do Bomfim, Teresa Cristina Bergamo

    2016-04-01

    Sources of contamination such as animal feces runoff, organic fertilizer application, and the release of partially treated or untreated sewage can lead to the contamination of aquatic environments by Cryptosporidium spp. The quality of mussels as food is closely related to the sanitary conditions of the marine environment where these bivalves are found. Marine mollusks are filter feeders that are able to retain Cryptosporidium oocysts in their tissue, thus functioning as bioindicators. A total of 72 pooled mussel samples of the species Perna perna were collected at two sites (A and B) in the municipality of Mangaratiba, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Sampling involved removal of 30 mussels, from each collection site every month for one year. The 30 mussels from each sampling were then allocated into three groups of 10. Two Cryptosporidium spp. genes (18S and GP60) were targeted for DNA amplification from the samples obtained. After purification, all of the products obtained were sequenced and phylogenetic analyses were performed. Of the 72 samples analyzed using the nested-PCR for the 18S gene target, 29.2% were positive for the presence of Cryptosporidium spp. Of these samples, 52.4% were collected at site A (ie 11/21) and 47.6% at site B (ie 10/21). The 18S genes of all the samples considered positive for Cryptosporidium spp. were sequenced, and the following three species were identified: Cryptosporidium parvum, C. meleagridis, and C. andersoni. Three distinct C. parvum subtypes (IIaA19G2R2; IIaA20G2R2; IIaA20G3R2) were identified using the GP60 gene. More studies to evaluate the zoonotic potential of this species should be performed as both sampling locations contain human and/or animal fecal contaminants. PMID:26977402

  5. Mussels (Perna perna) as bioindicator of environmental contamination by Cryptosporidium species with zoonotic potential

    PubMed Central

    Mariné Oliveira, Geisi Ferreira; do Couto, Melissa Carvalho Machado; de Freitas Lima, Marcelo; do Bomfim, Teresa Cristina Bergamo

    2016-01-01

    Sources of contamination such as animal feces runoff, organic fertilizer application, and the release of partially treated or untreated sewage can lead to the contamination of aquatic environments by Cryptosporidium spp. The quality of mussels as food is closely related to the sanitary conditions of the marine environment where these bivalves are found. Marine mollusks are filter feeders that are able to retain Cryptosporidium oocysts in their tissue, thus functioning as bioindicators. A total of 72 pooled mussel samples of the species Perna perna were collected at two sites (A and B) in the municipality of Mangaratiba, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Sampling involved removal of 30 mussels, from each collection site every month for one year. The 30 mussels from each sampling were then allocated into three groups of 10. Two Cryptosporidium spp. genes (18S and GP60) were targeted for DNA amplification from the samples obtained. After purification, all of the products obtained were sequenced and phylogenetic analyses were performed. Of the 72 samples analyzed using the nested-PCR for the 18S gene target, 29.2% were positive for the presence of Cryptosporidium spp. Of these samples, 52.4% were collected at site A (ie 11/21) and 47.6% at site B (ie 10/21). The 18S genes of all the samples considered positive for Cryptosporidium spp. were sequenced, and the following three species were identified: Cryptosporidium parvum, C. meleagridis, and C. andersoni. Three distinct C. parvum subtypes (IIaA19G2R2; IIaA20G2R2; IIaA20G3R2) were identified using the GP60 gene. More studies to evaluate the zoonotic potential of this species should be performed as both sampling locations contain human and/or animal fecal contaminants. PMID:26977402

  6. Antibacterial effect of trans-cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, carvacrol, and thymol on Salmonella Enteritidis and Campylobacter jejuni in chicken cecal contents in vitro

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella Enteritidis and Campylobacter jejuni are two major food-borne pathogens that are transmitted through poultry products. These pathogens colonize the chicken cecum leading, to contamination of carcasses during slaughter and subsequent processing operations. We investigated the antimicrobial...

  7. Mercury Contamination in an Indicator Fish Species from Andean Amazonian Rivers Affected by Petroleum Extraction.

    PubMed

    Webb, Jena; Coomes, Oliver T; Mainville, Nicolas; Mergler, Donna

    2015-09-01

    Elevated mercury (Hg) concentrations in fish from Amazonia have been associated with gold-mining, hydroelectric dams and deforestation but few studies consider the role of petroleum extraction. Hg levels were determined in fish samples collected in three river basins in Ecuador and Peru with contrasting petroleum exploitation and land-use characteristics. The non-migratory, piscivorous species, Hoplias malabaricus, was used as a bioindicator. The rate of Hg increase with body weight for this species was significantly higher on the Corrientes River, near the site of a recent oil spill, than on the other two rivers. In the absence of substantial deforestation and other anthropogenic sources in the Corrientes River basin, this finding suggests that oil contamination in Andean Amazonia may have a significant impact on Hg levels in fish. PMID:26205230

  8. Low-cost monitoring of Campylobacter in poultry houses by air sampling and quantitative PCR.

    PubMed

    Søndergaard, M S R; Josefsen, M H; Löfström, C; Christensen, L S; Wieczorek, K; Osek, J; Hoorfar, J

    2014-02-01

    The present study describes the evaluation of a method for the quantification of Campylobacter by air sampling in poultry houses. Sampling was carried out in conventional chicken houses in Poland, in addition to a preliminary sampling in Denmark. Each measurement consisted of three air samples, two standard boot swab fecal samples, and one airborne particle count. Sampling was conducted over an 8-week period in three flocks, assessing the presence and levels of Campylobacter in boot swabs and air samples using quantitative real-time PCR. The detection limit for air sampling was approximately 100 Campylobacter cell equivalents (CCE)/m3. Airborne particle counts were used to analyze the size distribution of airborne particles (0.3 to 10 μm) in the chicken houses in relation to the level of airborne Campylobacter. No correlation was found. Using air sampling, Campylobacter was detected in the flocks right away, while boot swab samples were positive after 2 weeks. All samples collected were positive for Campylobacter from week 2 through the rest of the rearing period for both sampling techniques, although levels 1- to 2-log CCE higher were found with air sampling. At week 8, the levels were approximately 10(4) and 10(5) CCE per sample for boot swabs and air, respectively. In conclusion, using air samples combined with quantitative real-time PCR, Campylobacter contamination could be detected earlier than by boot swabs and was found to be a more convenient technique for monitoring and/or to obtain enumeration data useful for quantitative risk assessment of Campylobacter. PMID:24490929

  9. Forest floor leachate fluxes under six different tree species on a metal contaminated site.

    PubMed

    Van Nevel, Lotte; Mertens, Jan; De Schrijver, An; Baeten, Lander; De Neve, Stefaan; Tack, Filip M G; Meers, Erik; Verheyen, Kris

    2013-03-01

    Trees play an important role in the biogeochemical cycling of metals, although the influence of different tree species on the mobilization of metals is not yet clear. This study examined effects of six tree species on fluxes of Cd, Zn, DOC, H(+) and base cations in forest floor leachates on a metal polluted site in Belgium. Forest floor leachates were sampled with zero-tension lysimeters in a 12-year-old post-agricultural forest on a sandy soil. The tree species included were silver birch (Betula pendula), oak (Quercus robur and Q. petraea), black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia), aspen (Populus tremula), Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii). We show that total Cd fluxes in forest floor leachate under aspen were slightly higher than those in the other species' leachates, yet the relative differences between the species were considerably smaller when looking at dissolved Cd fluxes. The latter was probably caused by extremely low H(+) amounts leaching from aspen's forest floor. No tree species effect was found for Zn leachate fluxes. We expected higher metal leachate fluxes under aspen as its leaf litter was significantly contaminated with Cd and Zn. We propose that the low amounts of Cd and Zn leaching under aspen's forest floor were possibly caused by high activity of soil biota, for example burrowing earthworms. Furthermore, our results reveal that Scots pine and oak were characterized by high H(+) and DOC fluxes as well as low base cation fluxes in their forest floor leachates, implying that those species might enhance metal mobilization in the soil profile and thus bear a potential risk for belowground metal dispersion. PMID:23376521

  10. Screening of native plant species for phytoremediation potential at a Hg-contaminated mining site.

    PubMed

    Marrugo-Negrete, José; Marrugo-Madrid, Siday; Pinedo-Hernández, José; Durango-Hernández, José; Díez, Sergi

    2016-01-15

    Artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) is the largest sector of demand for mercury (Hg), and therefore, one of the major sources of Hg pollution in the environment. This study was conducted in the Alacrán gold-mining site, one of the most important ASGM sites in Colombia, to identify native plant species growing in Hg-contaminated soils used for agricultural purposes, and to assess their potential as phytoremediation systems. Twenty-four native plant species were identified and analysed for total Hg (THg) in different tissues (roots, stems, and leaves) and in underlying soils. Accumulation factors (AF) in the shoots, translocation (TF) from roots to shoots, and bioconcentration (BCF) from soil-to-roots were determined. Different tissues from all plant species were classified in the order of decreasing accumulation of Hg as follows: roots > leaves > stems. THg concentrations in soil ranged from 230 to 6320 ng g(-1). TF values varied from 0.33 to 1.73, with high values in the lower Hg-contaminated soils. No correlation was found between soils with low concentrations of Hg and plant leaves, indicating that TF is not a very accurate indicator, since most of the Hg input to leaves at ASGM sites comes from the atmosphere. On the other hand, the BCF ranged from 0.28 to 0.99, with Jatropha curcas showing the highest value. Despite their low biomass production, several herbs and sub-shrubs are suitable for phytoremediation application in the field, due to their fast growth and high AF values in large and easily harvestable plant parts. Among these species, herbs such as Piper marginathum and Stecherus bifidus, and the sub-shrubs J. curcas and Capsicum annuum are promising native plants with the potential to be used in the phytoremediation of soils in tropical areas that are impacted by mining. PMID:26556744

  11. Ganglioside GM1 mimicry in Campylobacter strains from sporadic infections in the United States.

    PubMed

    Nachamkin, I; Ung, H; Moran, A P; Yoo, D; Prendergast, M M; Nicholson, M A; Sheikh, K; Ho, T; Asbury, A K; McKhann, G M; Griffin, J W

    1999-05-01

    To determine whether GM1-like epitopes in Campylobacter species are specific to O serotypes associated with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) or whether they are frequent among random Campylobacter isolates causing enteritis, 275 random enteritis-associated isolates of Campylobacter jejuni were analyzed. To determine whether GM1-like epitopes in Campylobacter species are specific to O serotypes associated with Guillan-Barre syndrome (GBS) or whether they are frequent among random Campylobacter isolates causing enteritis, 275 enteritis-associated isolates, randomly collected in the United States, were analyzed using a cholera-toxin binding assay [corrected]. Overall, 26.2% of the isolates were positive for the GM1-like epitope. Of the 36 different O serotypes in the sample, 21 (58.3%) contained no strains positive for GM1, whereas in 6 serotypes (16.7%), >50% of isolates were positive for GM1. GBS-associated serotypes were more likely to contain strains positive for GM1 than were non-GBS-associated serotypes (37.8% vs. 15.1%, P=.0116). The results suggest that humans are frequently exposed to strains exhibiting GM1-like mimicry and, while certain serotypes may be more likely to possess GM1-like epitopes, the presence of GM1-like epitopes on Campylobacter strains does not itself trigger GBS. PMID:10191221

  12. Prevalence, virulence, and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in white stork Ciconia ciconia in Poland.

    PubMed

    Szczepańska, Bernadeta; Kamiński, Piotr; Andrzejewska, Małgorzata; Śpica, Dorota; Kartanas, Edmund; Ulrich, Werner; Jerzak, Leszek; Kasprzak, Mariusz; Bocheński, Marcin; Klawe, Jacek J

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of white stork Ciconia ciconia as a potential reservoir of Campylobacter spp. Antimicrobial resistance and the presence of putative virulence genes of the isolates were also examined. A total of 398 white stork chicks sampled in Western Poland in habitats with high density of breeding were examined. Rectal swabs were collected during breeding season 2009-2012 from storks developing in a relatively pure environment (Odra meadows), in polluted areas (a copper mining-smelting complex), and in suburbs. Of the anal swabs collected, 7.6% were positive for Campylobacter among chicks (5.3% samples positive for C. jejuni and 2.3% samples positive for C. coli). Samples from polluted areas had the highest prevalence of Campylobacter (12.2%). The prevalence of resistance among C. jejuni and C. coli isolates from young storks was as follows: to ciprofloxacin (52.4%, 44.4%), and to tetracycline (19%, 77.8%). All of the analyzed isolates were susceptible to macrolides. The resistance to both classes of antibiotics was found in the 23.3% of Campylobacter spp. All Campylobacter spp. isolates had cadF gene and flaA gene responsible for adherence and motility. CdtB gene associated with toxin production was present in 88.9% of C. coli isolates and 57.1% of C. jejuni isolates. The iam marker was found more often in C. coli strains (55.6%) compared to C. jejuni isolates (42.9%). Our results confirm the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in the white stork in natural conditions and, because it lives in open farmlands with access to marshy wetlands, the environmental sources such as water reservoirs and soil-water can be contaminated from white stork feces and the pathogens can be widely disseminated. We can thus conclude that Campylobacter spp. may easily be transmitted to waterfowl, other birds, and humans via its environmental sources and/or by immediate contact. PMID:25456607

  13. Campylobacter jejuni and salmonella in raw red meats

    PubMed Central

    Turnbull, P. C. B.; Rose, Phyllis

    1982-01-01

    Thirty-one laboratories examined a total of 6169 meat samples, 1236 from abattoirs and 4933 from retail and other outlets. Campylobacter jejuni was isolated from 98 (1·6%). A higher isolation rate of 49/1236 (4·0%) was found among abattoir than among retail and other samples (49/4933-1·0%). Twenty-two of the laboratories looked for salmonella; although 94/4002 (2·3%) were positive, in only one sample of minced beef were campylobacter and salmonella found together. Isolation rates for salmonellae were 75/3576 (2·1%) from retail and 19/426 (4·5%) from abattoir samples. Analysis of the results revealed that (1) the contamination rate of raw red meat by C. jejuni is, in general, very low; (2) when contaminated, numbers of organisms are generally also very low; (3) enrichment procedures were of some value; 41/98 (42%) isolates were detected by enrichment only, but, on the other hand 8 (8%) were direct plate positive/enrichment negative; (4) practice at looking for the organism and increased seasonal temperatures over the survey period did not result in a noticeable increase in isolations; (5) there was no apparent correlation between campylobacter and salmonella isolations. PMID:20475890

  14. Bioavailability assessment and accumulation by five garden flower species grown in artificially cadmium-contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chun-Chun; Lai, Hung-Yu; Chen, Zueng-Sang

    2010-07-01

    Many studies have been conducted on phytoextraction; however, non-native hyperaccumulator species are not suitable for the natural environment of Taiwan in many cases. Drawing upon previous results, the growth and heavy metal accumulation in artificially cadmium-contaminated soils were compared for five local garden flower species. The treatments included a control (CK), 9.73 +/- 0.05 mg kg(-1) (Cd-10), and 17.6 +/- 0.8 mg kg(-1) (Cd-20). All plants were harvested at 35 days after transplanting and analyzed for Cd content. Cd accumulation in the shoot of French marigold (Tagetes patula L.) and Impatiens (Impatiens walleriana Hook. f.) grown in Cd-20 treatment were 66.3 +/- 6.5 and 100 +/- 11 mg kg(-1), which equated to a removal of 0.80 +/- 0.11 and 0.60 +/- 0.37 mg Cd plant(-1), respectively. The maximum Cd accumulation of Impatiens reached the threshold value (100 mg kg(-1)) characteristic of a Cd hyperaccumulator and its bioconcentration factor (BCF) and translocation factor (TF) were greater than one. Impatiens therefore has the potential to hyperaccumulate Cd from Cd-contaminated soils. With the exception of Garden verbena, significant relationships were found between Cd concentrations in soil extracted by 0.05 M EDTA, 0.005 M DTPA, and 0.01 M CaCl2 and the concentration of Cd in the shoots of the tested garden flowers. PMID:21166288

  15. 137Cs distribution among annual rings of different tree species contaminated after the Chernobyl accident.

    PubMed

    Soukhova, N V; Fesenko, S V; Klein, D; Spiridonov, S I; Sanzharova, N I; Badot, P M

    2003-01-01

    The distributions of 137Cs among annual rings of Pinus sylvestris and Betula pendula at four experimental sites located in the most contaminated areas in the Russian territory after the Chernobyl accident in 1986 were studied. Trees of different ages were sampled from four forest sites with different tree compositions and soil properties. The data analysis shows that 137Cs is very mobile in wood and the 1986 rings do not show the highest contamination. The difference between pine and birch in the pattern of radial 137Cs distribution can be satisfactorily explained by the difference in radial ray composition. 137Cs radial distribution in the wood can be described as the sum of two exponential functions for both species. The function parameters are height, age and species dependent. The distribution of 137Cs in birch wood reveals much more pronounced dependence on site characteristics and/or the age of trees than pines. The data obtained can be used to assess 137Cs content in wood. PMID:12683726

  16. Arsenic species extraction of biological marine samples (Periwinkles, Littorina littorea) from a highly contaminated site.

    PubMed

    Whaley-Martin, K J; Koch, I; Reimer, K J

    2012-01-15

    Arsenic is ubiquitous in the tissues of marine organisms and in uncontaminated environments it is dominantly present as the highly soluble and easily extractable non-toxic arsenical, arsenobetaine. However in contaminated environments, higher proportions of inorganic arsenic, which is much less soluble, are accumulated into the tissues of marine organisms, resulting in lower extraction efficiencies (defined as the percent extracted arsenic of the total arsenic). This study carried out a comparative analysis between three different two-step arsenic extraction methods based on Foster et al. [27] from highly contaminated tissue of the marine periwinkle, Littorina littorea. The first extraction step used 100% water, 1:1 methanol-water, or a 9:1 methanol-water as the extraction solvent and the second step consisted of a gently heated dilute nitric acid extraction. The optimized two step extraction method was 1:1 methanol-water extraction followed by a 2% HNO(3) extraction, based on maximum amounts of extracted species, including organoarsenic species. PMID:22265486

  17. PCBs contamination in seafood species at the Eastern Coast of Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Jaikanlaya, Chate; Settachan, Daam; Denison, Michael S.; Ruchirawat, Mathuros; van den Berg, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a large group of persistent organic substances spread throughout the world. The most toxic PCBs are those that are dioxin-like (dl-PCBs). Environmental studies on PCBs in Thailand are limited, especially with regards to dl-PCBs. This study is one of the first in this country that demonstrates contamination of seafood with PCBs and determines the levels of PCBs and total dioxin like activity in mussels, oysters and shrimp, from the Eastern Coast of Thailand. Sixty pooled samples of mussels and twenty-seven pooled samples of oysters were collected from cultivation farms and twenty-one pooled samples of shrimp were collected from fisherman piers. Qualitative and quantitative measurements of 49 PCB congeners was obtained by HRGC-ECD analysis and total dioxin-like activity using the CAFLUX bioassay. Total PCB concentrations varied between three species, ranging between 19 and 1100 ng g−1 lipid adjusted weight, and the levels of PCBs in shrimp was three time higher than that in mussels and oysters. With respected to the pattern of PCB congeners, it implied that the source of PCBs exposure in this area could be from the regional contamination. The calculated CAFLUX bioanalytical equivalents (BEQs) values ranged between 0.8 and 18 pg BEQ g−1 lipid adjusted weight, and showed a good relationship with the chemical-derived TEQs. Therefore, the CAFLUX bioassay can be used for effective screening of dioxin-like activity in marine species effectively. PMID:19375780

  18. Recent Advances in Screening of Anti-Campylobacter Activity in Probiotics for Use in Poultry.

    PubMed

    Saint-Cyr, Manuel J; Guyard-Nicodème, Muriel; Messaoudi, Soumaya; Chemaly, Marianne; Cappelier, Jean-Michel; Dousset, Xavier; Haddad, Nabila

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacteriosis is the most common cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. Campylobacter species involved in this infection usually include the thermotolerant species Campylobacter jejuni. The major reservoir for C. jejuni leading to human infections is commercial broiler chickens. Poultry flocks are frequently colonized by C. jejuni without any apparent symptoms. Risk assessment analyses have identified the handling and consumption of poultry meat as one of the most important sources of human campylobacteriosis, so elimination of Campylobacter in the poultry reservoir is a crucial step in the control of this foodborne infection. To date, the use of probiotics has demonstrated promising results to reduce Campylobacter colonization. This review provides recent insights into methods used for probiotic screening to reduce the prevalence and colonization of Campylobacter at the farm level. Different eukaryotic epithelial cell lines are employed to screen probiotics with an anti-Campylobacter activity and yield useful information about the inhibition mechanism involved. These in vitro virulence models involve only human intestinal or cervical cell lines whereas the use of avian cell lines could be a preliminary step to investigate mechanisms of C. jejuni colonization in poultry in the presence of probiotics. In addition, in vivo trials to evaluate the effect of probiotics on Campylobacter colonization are conducted, taking into account the complexity introduced by the host, the feed, and the microbiota. However, the heterogeneity of the protocols used and the short time duration of the experiments lead to results that are difficult to compare and draw conclusions at the slaughter-age of broilers. Nevertheless, the combined approach using complementary in vitro and in vivo tools (cell cultures and animal experiments) leads to a better characterization of probiotic strains and could be employed to assess reduced Campylobacter spp. colonization in chickens if some

  19. Recent Advances in Screening of Anti-Campylobacter Activity in Probiotics for Use in Poultry

    PubMed Central

    Saint-Cyr, Manuel J.; Guyard-Nicodème, Muriel; Messaoudi, Soumaya; Chemaly, Marianne; Cappelier, Jean-Michel; Dousset, Xavier; Haddad, Nabila

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacteriosis is the most common cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. Campylobacter species involved in this infection usually include the thermotolerant species Campylobacter jejuni. The major reservoir for C. jejuni leading to human infections is commercial broiler chickens. Poultry flocks are frequently colonized by C. jejuni without any apparent symptoms. Risk assessment analyses have identified the handling and consumption of poultry meat as one of the most important sources of human campylobacteriosis, so elimination of Campylobacter in the poultry reservoir is a crucial step in the control of this foodborne infection. To date, the use of probiotics has demonstrated promising results to reduce Campylobacter colonization. This review provides recent insights into methods used for probiotic screening to reduce the prevalence and colonization of Campylobacter at the farm level. Different eukaryotic epithelial cell lines are employed to screen probiotics with an anti-Campylobacter activity and yield useful information about the inhibition mechanism involved. These in vitro virulence models involve only human intestinal or cervical cell lines whereas the use of avian cell lines could be a preliminary step to investigate mechanisms of C. jejuni colonization in poultry in the presence of probiotics. In addition, in vivo trials to evaluate the effect of probiotics on Campylobacter colonization are conducted, taking into account the complexity introduced by the host, the feed, and the microbiota. However, the heterogeneity of the protocols used and the short time duration of the experiments lead to results that are difficult to compare and draw conclusions at the slaughter-age of broilers. Nevertheless, the combined approach using complementary in vitro and in vivo tools (cell cultures and animal experiments) leads to a better characterization of probiotic strains and could be employed to assess reduced Campylobacter spp. colonization in chickens if some

  20. Isolation and characterization of RDX-degrading Rhodococcus species from a contaminated aquifer.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Anat; Adar, Eilon; Nejidat, Ali; Ronen, Zeev

    2011-09-01

    Groundwater contamination by the explosive hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) is a global problem. Israel's coastal aquifer was contaminated with RDX. This aquifer is mostly aerobic and we therefore sought aerobic bacteria that might be involved in natural attenuation of the compound in the aquifer. RDX-degrading bacteria were captured by passively sampling the indigenous bacteria onto sterile sediments placed within sampling boreholes. Aerobic RDX biodegradation potential was detected in the sediments sampled from different locations along the plume. RDX degradation with the native sampled consortium was accompanied by 4-nitro-2,4-diazabutanal formation. Two bacterial strains of the genus Rhodococcus were isolated from the sediments and identified as aerobic RDX degraders. The xplA gene encoding the cytochrome P450 enzyme was partially (~500 bp) sequenced from both isolates. The obtained DNA sequences had 99% identity with corresponding gene fragments of previously isolated RDX-degrading Rhodococcus strains. RDX degradation by both strains was prevented by 200 μM of the cytochrome P450 inhibitor metyrapone, suggesting that cytochrome P450 indeed mediates the initial step in RDX degradation. RDX biodegradation activity by the T7 isolate was inhibited in the presence of nitrate or ammonium concentrations above 1.6 and 5.5 mM, respectively (100 mg l(-1)) while the T9N isolate's activity was retarded only by ammonium concentrations above 5.5 mM. This study shows that bacteria from the genus Rhodococcus, potentially degrade RDX in the saturated zone as well, following the same aerobic degradation pathway defined for other Rhodococcus species. RDX-degrading activity by the Rhodococcus species isolate T9N may have important implications for the bioremediation of nitrate-rich RDX-contaminated aquifers. PMID:21327803

  1. [Species identification of animal hair present as a contaminant in food by PCR-APLP method].

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Hitoshi; Kato, Yukari; Taniguchi, Masaru; Terada, Hisaya

    2012-01-01

    A rapid, simple and inexpensive method was developed for identifying the species of animal hair present as a contaminant in food. A polymerase chain reaction-amplified product length polymorphism (PCR-APLP) assay was applied to identify hair from human and others (cat, dog, rabbit, rat and mouse) or livestock (pig, cattle, horse, sheep, goat and chicken). The PCR primers were designed to amplify partial sequences from the 16S rRNA gene to the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (ND1) gene of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), which generate different length fragments for different animal species. The PCR-APLP assay utilized two PCR reaction tubes, each of which contained one universal forward primer and six species-specific reverse primers (human, etc. or livestock). Simultaneous identification was possible by agarose gel electrophoresis of PCR products. The developed method was applied to identify the source species of 52 animal hair samples. The expected amplified product length was obtained from all samples. PMID:23132356

  2. Relative sensitivity of five benthic invertebrate species to reference toxicants and resin-acid contaminated sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Hickey, C.W.; Martin, M.L.

    1995-08-01

    Five sediment-dwelling native New Zealand freshwater invertebrate species (amphipod, Chaetocorophium c.f. lucasi; clam, Sphaerium novaezelandiae; oligochaete, Lumbriculus variegatus; tanaid, Tanais standfordi; and the burrowing mayfly, Ichthybotus hudsoni) were assessed for their suitability for sediment toxicity testing by comparison of sensitivity to reference toxicants [phenol and pentachlorophenol (PCP)] and contaminated sediments. The 96-h EC50 values at 20 C showed a greater range in test sensitivity for phenol (30-fold range) from the most sensitive test, amphipod (8.1 mg/L), to the least sensitive one, clam (243 mg/L), compared with PCP (14-fold range), with amphipod the most sensitive test species (0.13 mg/L) and tanaid the least sensitive (1.8 mg/L). Clam reburial was a more sensitive end point than was lethality for phenol (by 20-fold) and PCP (by 2.4-fold). Four of the test species, excluding the tanaid, showed good 10-d survival in reference muds ({ge}87%) but lower survival in sand sediments ({ge}79%). Bleached kraft mill sediment containing high resin-acid concentrations (total 1,900 mg/kg dry weight) showed significant reductions in amphipod survival (15%), clam reburial (30%), and oligochaete survival (17%), and reproduction (49%). Amphipods, clams, and oligochaetes were the most promising species for sublethal test development.

  3. Prevalence, quantitative load and genetic diversity of Campylobacter spp. in dairy cattle herds in Lithuania

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Campylobacteriosis is a zoonotic disease, and animals such as poultry, pigs and cattle may act as reservoirs for Campylobacter spp. Cattle shed Campylobacter spp. into the environment and they can act as a reservoir for human infection directly via contact with cattle or their faeces or indirectly by consumption of contaminated food. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, the quantitative load and the genetic strain diversity of Campylobacter spp. in dairy cattle of different age groups. Results Faecal samples of 200 dairy cattle from three farms in the central part of Lithuania were collected and examined for Campylobacter. Cattle herds of all three farms were Campylobacter spp. positive, with a prevalence ranging from 75% (farm I), 77.5% (farm II) to 83.3% (farm III). Overall, the highest prevalence was detected in calves (86.5%) and heifers (86.2%). In contrast, the lowest Campylobacter prevalence was detectable in dairy cows (60.6%). C. jejuni, C. coli, C. lari and C. fetus subsp. fetus were identified in faecal samples of dairy cattle. C. upsaliensis was not detectable in any sample. The high counts of Campylobacter spp. were observed in faecal material of dairy cattle (average 4.5 log10 cfu/g). The highest numbers of Campylobacter spp. were found in faecal samples from calves (average 5.3 log10 cfu/g), whereas, faecal samples from cows harboured the lowest number of Campylobacter spp. (average 3.7 log10 cfu/g). Genotyping by flaA PCR-RFLP analysis of selected C. jejuni isolates showed that some genotypes were present in all farms and all age groups. However, farm or age specific genotypes were also identified. Conclusions Future studies are needed to investigate risk factors related to the degree of colonisation in cattle. Based on that, possible measures to reduce the colonisation and subsequent shedding of Campylobacter in cattle could be established. It is important to further investigate the epidemiology of Campylobacter in the

  4. Microsatellite (SSR) Marker Analysis to Examine the Effects of Pesticide Contamination on the Genetic Diversity of Potato Species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many natural habitats concur in close proximity to cultivated fields and thus native plant species have an increased risk of indirect pesticide contamination. In recent years the USPG initiated an investigation to test the effects of agrichemicals on reproductive traits of diverse potato species. We...

  5. Manufacturing Assessment of an XeF{sub 2} In-Situ Clean Process for Mitigation of Species Cross Contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, James P.; Rolland, James L.; Lundquist, Paul; Bishop, Steve

    2008-11-03

    The residue buildup in an ion source can be energetically transported down the ion implanter beamline delivering unwanted dopants to the target area. Of particular concern are contaminants within one AMU of the target species such as {sup 50}PF{sup +} in a {sup 49}BF{sub 2}{sup +} beam causing counter-doping dose errors. Significant beam currents attributable to memory effect have been observed more than an hour after the species gas has been changed. This paper shows how Atmel Corporation, Colorado Springs, Colorado evaluated a new XeF{sub 2} in-situ clean process as an effective means of reducing the risk of species cross contamination.

  6. Isolation of Campylobacter from feral swine (Sus scrofa) on the ranch associated with the 2006 Escherichia coli O157:H7 spinach outbreak investigation in California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report the isolation of Campylobacter species from the same population of feral swine that was investigated in San Benito County, California during the 2006 spinach-related Escherichia coli O157:H7 outbreak. This is the first survey of Campylobacter in a free-ranging feral swine population in the...

  7. Mitigation strategies for Campylobacter spp. in broiler at pre-harvest and harvest level.

    PubMed

    Klein, Günter; Jansen, Wiebke; Kittler, Sophie; Reich, Felix

    2015-01-01

    In contrast to other foodborne zoonotic agents an elimination of Campylobacter spp. from animal production, especially poultry production, seems not to be feasible. Therefore mitigation strategies focus on reduction of the Campylobacter spp. concentration in primary production and further minimalisation during processing. In primary production biosecurity measures (incl. hygiene barriers and restricted access) are the methods applied most commonly and most effectively so far. Experimental approaches and few field trials also showed that bacteriophages, electrolyzed oxidizing water, organic acids or medium chain fatty acids (applied via drinking water) are also effective in reducing Campylobacter prevalence and/or concentration However this reduction cannot be transferred in all cases to the situation in the slaughterhouse. Therefore additional measures have to be taken in account in the slaughterhouse to prevent cross-contamination. Logistic or scheduled slaughter can prevent cross-contamination but cannot further reduce Campylobacter concentration. Process parameters like elevated scalding temperature can contribute to such a reduction, but may also alter the product quality. Therefore no single pre- or harvest measure is sufficient for the reduction of Campylobacter concentration, but a combination of measures in both production levels is needed. PMID:25876273

  8. Presence and survival of culturable Campylobacter spp. and Escherichia coli in a temperate urban estuary.

    PubMed

    Schang, Christelle; Lintern, Anna; Cook, Perran L M; Osborne, Catherine; McKinley, Anand; Schmidt, Jonathon; Coleman, Rhys; Rooney, Graham; Henry, Rebekah; Deletic, Ana; McCarthy, David

    2016-11-01

    Urban estuaries throughout the world typically contain elevated levels of faecal contamination, the extent of which is generally assessed using faecal indicator organisms (FIO) such as Escherichia coli. This study assesses whether the bacterial FIO, E. coli is a suitable surrogate for Campylobacter spp., in estuaries. The presence and survival dynamics of culturable E. coli and Campylobacter spp. are compared in the water column, bank sediments and bed sediments of the Yarra River estuary (located in Melbourne, Australia). The presence of E. coli did not necessarily indicate detectable levels of Campylobacter spp. in the water column, bed and bank sediments, but the inactivation rates of the two bacteria were similar in the water column. A key finding of the study is that E. coli and Campylobacter spp. can survive for up to 14days in the water column and up to 21days in the bed and bank sediments of the estuary. Preliminary data presented in this study also suggests that the inactivation rates of the two bacteria may be similar in bed and bank sediments. This undermines previous hypotheses that Campylobacter spp. cannot survive outside of its host and indicates that public health risks can persist in aquatic systems for up to three weeks after the initial contamination event. PMID:27395075

  9. Occurrence of ochratoxin a contamination and detection of ochratoxigenic Aspergillus species in retail samples of dried fruits and nuts.

    PubMed

    Palumbo, Jeffrey D; O'Keeffe, Teresa L; Ho, Yvonne S; Santillan, Carlo J

    2015-04-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin produced by several species of Aspergillus and Penicillium and is a potential contaminant of a wide variety of food products. To determine the incidence of OTA contamination in dried fruits and tree nuts, retail packaged and bulk raisins, dates, figs, prunes, almonds, pistachios, and walnuts were collected from small and large supermarkets in seven areas of the United States between 2012 and 2014. Of the 665 samples analyzed, OTA was detected in 48 raisin samples, 4 fig samples, 4 pistachio samples, and 1 date sample. OTA contamination levels ranged from 0.28 to 15.34 ng/g in dried fruits and 1.87 to 890 ng/g in pistachios; two raisin samples and one pistachio sample exceeded the European Union regulatory limit of 10 ng/g. PCR detection of potential OTA-producing Aspergillus species revealed the presence of A. niger, A. welwitschiae, and A. carbonarius in 20, 7, and 7 of the 57 OTA-contaminated samples, respectively. However, OTA-producing A. carbonarius was isolated from only one raisin sample, and no other OTA-producing Aspergillus species were found. These results suggest that raisins are more frequently contaminated with low levels of OTA than are other dried fruits and nuts and that Aspergillus species are the likely source of that contamination. PMID:25836414

  10. Concerted evolution in Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Concerted evolution is the phenomenon in which multiple copies of genes maintain sequence similarity in a single individual while the genes continue to diverge between individuals. Concerted evolution has been described in Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli for the pair of flagellin genes, which are ...

  11. Genome-wide association study identifies vitamin B5 biosynthesis as a host specificity factor in Campylobacter.

    PubMed

    Sheppard, Samuel K; Didelot, Xavier; Meric, Guillaume; Torralbo, Alicia; Jolley, Keith A; Kelly, David J; Bentley, Stephen D; Maiden, Martin C J; Parkhill, Julian; Falush, Daniel

    2013-07-16

    Genome-wide association studies have the potential to identify causal genetic factors underlying important phenotypes but have rarely been performed in bacteria. We present an association mapping method that takes into account the clonal population structure of bacteria and is applicable to both core and accessory genome variation. Campylobacter is a common cause of human gastroenteritis as a consequence of its proliferation in multiple farm animal species and its transmission via contaminated meat and poultry. We applied our association mapping method to identify the factors responsible for adaptation to cattle and chickens among 192 Campylobacter isolates from these and other host sources. Phylogenetic analysis implied frequent host switching but also showed that some lineages were strongly associated with particular hosts. A seven-gene region with a host association signal was found. Genes in this region were almost universally present in cattle but were frequently absent in isolates from chickens and wild birds. Three of the seven genes encoded vitamin B5 biosynthesis. We found that isolates from cattle were better able to grow in vitamin B5-depleted media and propose that this difference may be an adaptation to host diet. PMID:23818615

  12. A role for the tet(O) plasmid in maintaining Campylobacter plasticity.

    PubMed

    Friis, L M; Pin, C; Taylor, D E; Pearson, B M; Wells, J M

    2007-01-01

    Genomic sequencing projects are beginning to reveal regions of extensive DNA homology between bacterial genera. Public fears of the spread of genetically modified organisms into the food chain and the increasing prevalence of multi-drug resistant disease in humans highlight the implications of horizontal gene transfer. The striking DNA sequence similarity between the two uniquely identified tetracycline resistant (Tc(R)) Campylobacter plasmids, pCC31 and pTet, suggests their conserved acquisition and maintenance within Campylobacter [Batchelor, R.A., Pearson, B.M., Friis, L.M., Guerry, P., Wells, J.M. 2004. Nucleotide sequences and comparison of two large conjugative plasmids from different Campylobacter species. Microbiology 150, 3507-3517]. It is thus likely that these and other conjugative plasmids are highly prevalent and broadly distributed across several continents. Microarray technology is now enabling fast and extensive genomic comparisons to be made and allows us to investigate intra- and inter-genetic conservation and variability. This study details the development of a microarray specific for genes from Campylobacter plasmids pCC31, pTet and pVir and its application to the analysis of Campylobacter plasmid gene presence and preservation throughout environmental and clinical isolates. Application of the iterative algorithm GENCOM (freely available at ) is used as a rapid and effective way of comparing the content and conservation of plasmids in bacteria and provides details of the Campylobacter flexible gene pool and its contribution to genomic plasticity. PMID:16934869

  13. Occurrence of thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. and adenoviruses in Finnish bathing waters and purified sewage effluents.

    PubMed

    Hokajärvi, Anna-Maria; Pitkänen, Tarja; Siljanen, Henri M P; Nakari, Ulla-Maija; Torvinen, Eila; Siitonen, Anja; Miettinen, Ilkka T

    2013-03-01

    A total of 50 Finnish bathing water samples and 34 sewage effluent samples originating from 17 locations were studied in the summers of 2006 and 2007. Campylobacter were present in 58% and adenoviruses in 12% of all bathing water samples; 53% of all sewage effluent samples were positive for Campylobacter spp. and 59% for adenoviruses. C. jejuni was the most common Campylobacter species found and human adenovirus serotype 41 was the most common identified adenovirus type. Bathing water temperature displayed a significant negative relationship with the occurrence of Campylobacter. One location had identical pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns of C. coli isolates in the bathing water and in sewage effluent, suggesting that sewage effluent was the source of C. coli at this bathing site. The counts of faecal indicator bacteria were not able to predict the presence of Campylobacter spp. or adenoviruses in the bathing waters. Thus the observed common presence of these pathogens in Finnish sewage effluents and bathing waters may represent a public health risk. The low water temperature in Finland may enhance the prevalence of Campylobacter in bathing waters. More attention needs to be paid to minimizing the concentrations of intestinal pathogens in bathing waters. PMID:23428555

  14. Sponge and skin excision sampling for recovery of Salmonella and Campylobacter from defeathered broiler carcasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: Salmonella and Campylobacter contamination of broiler carcass skin increases during feather removal. There are several methods for sampling carcasses including sponging or swabbing of skin surface and skin excision. It is unclear whether sponge sampling is adequate to remove bacteri...

  15. Sponge and skin excision sampling for recovery of Salmonella and Campylobacter from defeathered broiler carcasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: Salmonella and Campylobacter contamination of broiler carcass skin increases during feather removal. There are several methods for sampling carcasses including sponging or swabbing of skin surface and skin excision. It is unclear whether sponge sampling is adequate to remove bacteria f...

  16. Evaluation of filter-plating methods for simplified detection of Campylobacter associated with broiler cecal samples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: Campylobacter is natural member of the gut microflora in many commercial broilers and as such can become a contaminant on edible surfaces during processing. Culturing gut contents or feces can be a means to determine flock status prior to live-haul. However, the wide variety of non...

  17. EFFECTS OF UNIQUE COMMUNITIES OF INTESTINAL MICROBIOTA ON CAMPYLOBACTER JEJUNI COLONIZATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter jejuni has been identified as a major source of food-borne illness worldwide, with an annual estimate of 2 million cases in the United States alone. Most common source of infection is through consumption of poultry, whose animal populations are nearly ubiquitously contaminated with C....

  18. EFFECTS OF UNIQUE INTESTINAL COMMUNITIES ON THE COLONIZATION OF CAMPYLOBACTER JEJUNI

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter jejuni is the most common cause of bacterial-derived food borne illness in the US, causing an estimated 2 million cases annually. With nearly 90% of poultry contaminated at slaughter, it provides a significant source for this pathogen to enter the food supply. Competitive exclusion, ...

  19. Rhizobacterial communities associated with spontaneous plant species in long-term arsenic contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Cavalca, Lucia; Corsini, Anna; Canzi, Enrica; Zanchi, Raffaella

    2015-05-01

    The microbial community composition in three soil fractions (bulk soil, rhizosphere and rhizoplane) of the root-soil system of a thistle, Cirsium arvense, and of a tufted hair grass, Deschampsia caespitosa, was investigated. The two spontaneous wild plant species were predominant in two Italian lands contaminated since centuries by arsenic and at present show high levels of arsenic (from 215 to 12,500 mg kg(-1)). In order to better understand how the rhizobacterial ecosystem responds to a long-term arsenic contamination in term of composition and functioning, culture-independent techniques (DAPI counts, fluorescence in situ hybridization and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis) along with cultivation-based methods were applied. Microbial community structure was qualitatively similar in the two root-soil systems, but some quantitative differences were observed. Bacteria of the α-, β-, and γ-subclasses of the Proteobacteria were dominant in all fractions, while the subdominant groups (Cytophagaceae, gram-positive spore-forming, and filamentous bacteria) were significantly more abundant in the root-soil system of D. caespitosa. As regards to arsenic resistant strains, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Enterobacteria and γ-Proteobacteria were isolated from soil system of both plants. Our results suggest that the response to a high level of arsenic contamination governed the rhizosphere microbial community structure together with the soil structure and the plant host type effects. Data from this study can provide better understanding of complex bacterial communities in metal-polluted soils, as well as useful information of indigenous bacterial strains with potential application to soil remediation. PMID:25700744

  20. Detection of Campylobacter on the outer surface of retail broiler meat packages and from the exudate within

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous work has suggested that outer surfaces of retail broiler meat packaging may be contaminated with Campylobacter presenting a potential hazard to the consumer through direct transfer or by cross contamination of other products or surfaces. The objectives of this study were to measure the pre...

  1. Accumulation of Heavy Metals in Vegetable Species Planted in Contaminated Soils and the Health Risk Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Hang; Yang, Wen-Tao; Zhou, Xin; Liu, Li; Gu, Jiao-Feng; Wang, Wen-Lei; Zou, Jia-Ling; Tian, Tao; Peng, Pei-Qin; Liao, Bo-Han

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to investigate heavy metal accumulation in 22 vegetable species and to assess the human health risks of vegetable consumption. Six vegetable types were cultivated on farmland contaminated with heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, and As). The target hazard quotient (THQ) method was used to assess the human health risks posed by heavy metals through vegetable consumption. Clear differences were found in the concentrations of heavy metals in edible parts of the different vegetables. The concentrations of heavy metals decreased in the sequence as leafy vegetables > stalk vegetables/root vegetables/solanaceous vegetables > legume vegetables/melon vegetables. The ability of leafy vegetables to uptake and accumulate heavy metals was the highest, and that of melon vegetables was the lowest. This indicated that the low accumulators (melon vegetables) were suitable for being planted on contaminated soil, while the high accumulators (leafy vegetables) were unsuitable. In Shizhuyuan area, China, the total THQ values of adults and children through consumption of vegetables were 4.12 and 5.41, respectively, suggesting that the residents may be facing health risks due to vegetable consumption, and that children were vulnerable to the adverse effects of heavy metal ingestion. PMID:26959043

  2. Protozoa: a novel Campylobacter reservoir?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In previous in vitro studies we found that Campylobacter jejuni remained viable for longer periods of time when they were cultivated in the presence of Tetrahymena pyriformis (ciliate) and Acanthamoeba castellanii (amoeba) than when they were in an independent planktonic state. Increased survival t...

  3. A 2007 UPDATE ON CAMPYLOBACTER

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foodborne illnesses are estimated at 76 million cases, 325,000 hospitalizations and 5,000 deaths annually in the United States. Yet the etiology—viral, bacterial, protozoan— for ~ 81.6% of these cases is unknown. Campylobacter jejuni is the number one cause of human bacterial foodborne enteritis w...

  4. Contaminant profiles of two species of shorebirds foraging together at two neighboring sites in South San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hui, C.A.; Takekawa, J.Y.; Warnock, S.E.

    2001-01-01

    The San Francisco Bay estuary is used by over one million shorebirds during spring migration and is home to several hundred thousand during the winter. Most shorebird use occurs in the southern reach of the estuary (South Bay). The reduced water circulation and discharge from industrial sources in the South Bay are responsible for the highest levels of some trace elements in the estuary. Wintering shorebirds have been found to have strong site fidelity to areas as small as a few kilometers in the South Bay, which may increase their exposure to contaminants near local point sources. In addition, different shorebird species foraging at the same site have been shown to have different contaminant burdens. Thus, our objectives were to test whether contaminant burdens differed by species, or whether contaminant burdens differed in shorebirds collected at adjacent sites. We examined the contaminant profiles of two species of shorebirds, long-billed dowitchers (Limnodromus scolopaceus) and western sandpipers (Calidris mauri) that forage together at two sites, Hayward and Newark, separated by 8 km in the South Bay. We used multivariate analysis of variance tests to compare the composition of 14 elemental analytes in their liver tissues and estimated their molar ratios of Hg and Se. Composite samples were used for contaminant analyses because of the small body size of the shorebirds. Seven elemental analytes (Ag, Ba, Be, Cr, Ni, Pb, V) were below detection limits in a majority of the samples so statistical analyses were precluded. In the measurable analytes (As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Mn, Se, Zn), we found no significant intra-site differences of contaminant profiles for the two species. We pooled the samples to examine inter-site differences and found significant differences in contaminant profiles between shorebirds at the neighboring sites (P = 0.03). Shorebirds at Newark had higher (P 0.05).

  5. Activation of human and chicken toll-like receptors by Campylobacter spp.

    PubMed

    de Zoete, Marcel R; Keestra, A Marijke; Roszczenko, Paula; van Putten, Jos P M

    2010-03-01

    Campylobacter infection in humans is accompanied by severe inflammation of the intestinal mucosa, in contrast to colonization of chicken. The basis for the differential host response is unknown. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) sense and respond to microbes in the body and participate in the induction of an inflammatory response. Thus far, the interaction of Campylobacter with chicken TLRs has not been studied. Here, we investigated the potential of four Campylobacter strains to activate human TLR1/2/6, TLR4, TLR5, and TLR9 and chicken TLR2t2/16, TLR4, TLR5, and TLR21. Live bacteria showed no or very limited potential to activate TLR2, TLR4, and TLR5 of both the human and chicken species, with minor but significant differences between Campylobacter strains. In contrast, lysed bacteria induced strong NF-kappaB activation through human TLR1/2/6 and TLR4 and chicken TLR2t2/16 and TLR4 but not via TLR5 of either species. Interestingly, C. jejuni induced TLR4-mediated beta interferon in human but not chicken cells. Furthermore, isolated chromosomal Campylobacter DNA was unable to activate human TLR9 in our system, whereas chicken TLR21 was activated by DNA from all of the campylobacters tested. Our data are the first comparison of TLR-induced immune responses in humans and chickens. The results suggest that differences in bacterial cell wall integrity and in TLR responses to Campylobacter LOS and/or DNA may contribute to the distinct clinical manifestation between the species. PMID:20038539

  6. Activation of Human and Chicken Toll-Like Receptors by Campylobacter spp.▿

    PubMed Central

    de Zoete, Marcel R.; Keestra, A. Marijke; Roszczenko, Paula; van Putten, Jos P. M.

    2010-01-01

    Campylobacter infection in humans is accompanied by severe inflammation of the intestinal mucosa, in contrast to colonization of chicken. The basis for the differential host response is unknown. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) sense and respond to microbes in the body and participate in the induction of an inflammatory response. Thus far, the interaction of Campylobacter with chicken TLRs has not been studied. Here, we investigated the potential of four Campylobacter strains to activate human TLR1/2/6, TLR4, TLR5, and TLR9 and chicken TLR2t2/16, TLR4, TLR5, and TLR21. Live bacteria showed no or very limited potential to activate TLR2, TLR4, and TLR5 of both the human and chicken species, with minor but significant differences between Campylobacter strains. In contrast, lysed bacteria induced strong NF-κB activation through human TLR1/2/6 and TLR4 and chicken TLR2t2/16 and TLR4 but not via TLR5 of either species. Interestingly, C. jejuni induced TLR4-mediated beta interferon in human but not chicken cells. Furthermore, isolated chromosomal Campylobacter DNA was unable to activate human TLR9 in our system, whereas chicken TLR21 was activated by DNA from all of the campylobacters tested. Our data are the first comparison of TLR-induced immune responses in humans and chickens. The results suggest that differences in bacterial cell wall integrity and in TLR responses to Campylobacter LOS and/or DNA may contribute to the distinct clinical manifestation between the species. PMID:20038539

  7. Sensitive Multi-Species Emissions Monitoring: Infrared Laser-Based Detection of Trace-Level Contaminants.

    SciTech Connect

    Steill, Jeffrey D

    2015-01-01

    This report summarizes our development of spectroscopic chemical analysis techniques and spectral modeling for trace-gas measurements of highly-regulated low-concentration species present in flue gas emissions from utility coal boilers such as HCl under conditions of high humidity. Detailed spectral modeling of the spectroscopy of HCl and other important combustion and atmospheric species such as H 2 O, CO 2 , N 2 O, NO 2 , SO 2 , and CH 4 demonstrates that IR-laser spectroscopy is a sensitive multi-component analysis strategy. Experimental measurements from techniques based on IR laser spectroscopy are presented that demonstrate sub-ppm sensitivity levels to these species. Photoacoustic infrared spectroscopy is used to detect and quantify HCl at ppm levels with extremely high signal-to-noise even under conditions of high relative humidity. Additionally, cavity ring-down IR spectroscopy is used to achieve an extremely high sensitivity to combustion trace gases in this spectral region; ppm level CH 4 is one demonstrated example. The importance of spectral resolution in the sensitivity of a trace-gas measurement is examined by spectral modeling in the mid- and near-IR, and efforts to improve measurement resolution through novel instrument development are described. While previous project reports focused on benefits and complexities of the dual-etalon cavity ring-down infrared spectrometer, here details on steps taken to implement this unique and potentially revolutionary instrument are described. This report also illustrates and critiques the general strategy of IR- laser photodetection of trace gases leading to the conclusion that mid-IR laser spectroscopy techniques provide a promising basis for further instrument development and implementation that will enable cost-effective sensitive detection of multiple key contaminant species simultaneously.

  8. Is a single positive blood culture for Enterococcus species representative of infection or contamination?

    PubMed

    Jindai, K; Strerath, M S; Hess, T; Safdar, N

    2014-11-01

    Data on the clinical outcomes of patients with a single compared with multiple positive blood cultures for Enterococcus species is limited. We undertook a retrospective cohort study in adults with at least one positive blood culture for Enterococcus species in a single institution. Clinical outcomes included death and elimination of infection. We included 471 positive blood cultures from 206 enterococcal positive blood culture episodes in 189 patients. Multiple positive blood cultures for Enterococcus species occurred in 110/206 (53.4 %) episodes; 31.6 % of patients had diabetes mellitus; 42.9 % of patients had solid or hematologic malignancy; 26.5 % of patients were solid organ transplant recipients; hospital-acquired and healthcare-associated acquisition represented 55.3 % and 33.0 % of episodes, respectively. Thirty-five patients died and 110 episodes of enterococcal bloodstream infection were successfully treated. In the multivariable analysis, multiple positive blood cultures were not statistically significantly associated with an increased likelihood of in-hospital death [odds ratio (OR) 1.00, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.42-2.40] or elimination (OR 1.41, 95 % CI 0.76-2.64) compared with single positive blood cultures. Hematologic malignancy and diabetes mellitus were independently associated with in-hospital death (OR 2.83, 95 % Cl 1.02-7.82; OR 2.79, 95 % Cl 1.16-6.70, respectively). Infectious disease consultation was associated with a greater likelihood of elimination (OR 2.50, 95 % Cl 1.32-4.72). The clinical outcomes of patients with single versus multiple positive blood cultures with Enterococcus species were similar in our institution. Further studies should examine efficient methods to detect contamination versus true infection. PMID:25027071

  9. Cumulative index to chemicals and to common and scientific names of species listed in Contaminant Hazard Reviews 1 through 34

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eisler, Ronald, (Edited By)

    1999-01-01

    The Contaminant Hazard Review (CHR) series--sponsored by the U.S. Geological Survey, Patuxent Wildlife Research Center--synthesizes ecotoxicological data for selected environmental contaminants, with emphasis on hazards to native species of flora and fauna. From 1985 through 1998, 34 reviews were published in various report series of the U.S. Department of the Interior on agricultural pesticides (acrolein, atrazine, carbofuran, chlordane, chlorpyrifos, diazinon, diflubenzuron, famphur, fenvalerate, mirex, paraquat, toxaphene), metals and metalloids (arsenic, boron, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, silver, tin, zinc), mammalian biocides (sodium monofluoroacetate), organic industrial and municipal wastes (dioxins, pentachlorophenol, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls), minin wastes (cyanide), and ionizing radiations. This current report is a cumulative index to the common and scientific names of all biological species listed in the first 34 reports in the CHR series, with individual species cross-referenced with contaminant hazard review and corresponding page numbers. A similar index for chemicals is included.

  10. Cumulative Index to Chemicals and to Common and Scientific Names of Species Listed in Contaminant Hazard Reviews 1 through 34

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eisler, R.

    1999-01-01

    The Patuxent Wildlife Research Center Contaminant Hazard Reviews (CHR) series synthesizes ecotoxicological data of selected environmental contaminants, with emphasis on hazards to native species of flora and fauna. From 1985 through 1998 a total of 34 reviews were published in various Reports series of the U.S. Department of the Interior on agricultural pesticides (carbofuran, chlordane, chlorpyrifos, diazinon, diflubenzuron, fenvalerate, mirex, paraquat, toxaphene), herbicides (acrolein, atrazine), metals and metalloids (arsenic, boron, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, silver, tin, zinc), predacides (sodium monofluoroacetate), organic industrial wastes (dioxins, pentachlorophenol), veterinary chemicals (famphur), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, mining wastes (cyanide), and ionizing radiations. This report is a cumulative index to the common and scientific names of all biological species listed in the first 34 reports in the CHR series, with individual species cross-referenced by contaminant and corresponding page numbers. A similar index is shown for chemicals.

  11. Monitoring of Fasciola Species Contamination in Water Dropwort by cox1 Mitochondrial and ITS-2 rDNA Sequencing Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Choi, In-Wook; Kim, Hwang-Yong; Quan, Juan-Hua; Ryu, Jae-Gee; Sun, Rubing; Lee, Young-Ha

    2015-01-01

    Fascioliasis, a food-borne trematode zoonosis, is a disease primarily in cattle and sheep and occasionally in humans. Water dropwort (Oenanthe javanica), an aquatic perennial herb, is a common second intermediate host of Fasciola, and the fresh stems and leaves are widely used as a seasoning in the Korean diet. However, no information regarding Fasciola species contamination in water dropwort is available. Here, we collected 500 samples of water dropwort in 3 areas in Korea during February and March 2015, and the water dropwort contamination of Fasciola species was monitored by DNA sequencing analysis of the Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica specific mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) and nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS-2). Among the 500 samples assessed, the presence of F. hepatica cox1 and 1TS-2 markers were detected in 2 samples, and F. hepatica contamination was confirmed by sequencing analysis. The nucleotide sequences of cox1 PCR products from the 2 F. hepatica-contaminated samples were 96.5% identical to the F. hepatica cox1 sequences in GenBank, whereas F. gigantica cox1 sequences were 46.8% similar with the sequence detected from the cox1 positive samples. However, F. gigantica cox1 and ITS-2 markers were not detected by PCR in the 500 samples of water dropwort. Collectively, in this survey of the water dropwort contamination with Fasciola species, very low prevalence of F. hepatica contamination was detected in the samples. PMID:26537044

  12. Monitoring of Fasciola Species Contamination in Water Dropwort by cox1 Mitochondrial and ITS-2 rDNA Sequencing Analysis.

    PubMed

    Choi, In-Wook; Kim, Hwang-Yong; Quan, Juan-Hua; Ryu, Jae-Gee; Sun, Rubing; Lee, Young-Ha

    2015-10-01

    Fascioliasis, a food-borne trematode zoonosis, is a disease primarily in cattle and sheep and occasionally in humans. Water dropwort (Oenanthe javanica), an aquatic perennial herb, is a common second intermediate host of Fasciola, and the fresh stems and leaves are widely used as a seasoning in the Korean diet. However, no information regarding Fasciola species contamination in water dropwort is available. Here, we collected 500 samples of water dropwort in 3 areas in Korea during February and March 2015, and the water dropwort contamination of Fasciola species was monitored by DNA sequencing analysis of the Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica specific mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) and nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS-2). Among the 500 samples assessed, the presence of F. hepatica cox1 and 1TS-2 markers were detected in 2 samples, and F. hepatica contamination was confirmed by sequencing analysis. The nucleotide sequences of cox1 PCR products from the 2 F. hepatica-contaminated samples were 96.5% identical to the F. hepatica cox1 sequences in GenBank, whereas F. gigantica cox1 sequences were 46.8% similar with the sequence detected from the cox1 positive samples. However, F. gigantica cox1 and ITS-2 markers were not detected by PCR in the 500 samples of water dropwort. Collectively, in this survey of the water dropwort contamination with Fasciola species, very low prevalence of F. hepatica contamination was detected in the samples. PMID:26537044

  13. Colonization properties of Campylobacter jejuni in chickens

    PubMed Central

    Pielsticker, C.; Glünder, G.; Rautenschlein, S.

    2012-01-01

    Campylobacter is the most common bacterial food-borne pathogen worldwide. Poultry and specifically chicken and raw chicken meat is the main source for human Campylobacter infection. Whilst being colonized by Campylobacter spp. chicken in contrast to human, do scarcely develop pathological lesions. The immune mechanisms controlling Campylobacter colonization and infection in chickens are still not clear. Previous studies and our investigations indicate that the ability to colonize the chicken varies significantly not only between Campylobacter strains but also depending on the original source of the infecting isolate. The data provides circumstantial evidence that early immune mechanisms in the gut may play an important role in the fate of Campylobacter in the host. PMID:24611122

  14. An epidemiological investigation of Campylobacter in pig and poultry farms in the Mekong delta of Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Carrique-Mas, J J; Bryant, J E; Cuong, N V; Hoang, N V M; Campbell, J; Hoang, N V; Dung, T T N; Duy, D T; Hoa, N T; Thompson, C; Hien, V V; Phat, V V; Farrar, J; Baker, S

    2014-07-01

    Campylobacter are zoonotic pathogens commonly associated with gastroenteritis. To assess the relevance of Campylobacter in Vietnam, an economically transitioning country in SE Asia, we conducted a survey of 343 pig and poultry farms in the Mekong delta, a region characterized by mixed species farming with limited biosecurity. The animal-level prevalence of Campylobacter was 31·9%, 23·9% and 53·7% for chickens, ducks and pigs, respectively. C. jejuni was predominant in all three host species, with the highest prevalence in pigs in high-density production areas. Campylobacter isolates demonstrated high levels of antimicrobial resistance (21% and 100% resistance against ciprofloxacin and erythromycin, respectively). Multilocus sequence type genotyping showed a high level of genetic diversity within C. jejuni, and predicted C. coli inter-species transmission. We suggest that on-going intensification of animal production systems, limited biosecurity, and increased urbanization in Vietnam is likely to result in Campylobacter becoming an increasingly significant cause of human diarrhoeal infections in coming years. PMID:24067502

  15. Identification of Novel Vaccine Candidates against Campylobacter through Reverse Vaccinology.

    PubMed

    Meunier, Marine; Guyard-Nicodème, Muriel; Hirchaud, Edouard; Parra, Alberto; Chemaly, Marianne; Dory, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacteriosis is the most prevalent bacterial foodborne gastroenteritis affecting humans in the European Union. Human cases are mainly due to Campylobacter jejuni or Campylobacter coli, and contamination is associated with the handling and/or consumption of poultry meat. In fact, poultry constitutes the bacteria's main reservoir. A promising way of decreasing the incidence of campylobacteriosis in humans would be to decrease avian colonization. Poultry vaccination is of potential for this purpose. However, despite many studies, there is currently no vaccine available on the market to reduce the intestinal Campylobacter load in chickens. It is essential to identify and characterize new vaccine antigens. This study applied the reverse vaccinology approach to detect new vaccine candidates. The main criteria used to select immune proteins were localization, antigenicity, and number of B-epitopes. Fourteen proteins were identified as potential vaccine antigens. In vitro and in vivo experiments now need to be performed to validate the immune and protective power of these newly identified antigens. PMID:27413761

  16. Alternative bacteriophage life cycles: the carrier state of Campylobacter jejuni.

    PubMed

    Siringan, Patcharin; Connerton, Phillippa L; Cummings, Nicola J; Connerton, Ian F

    2014-01-01

    Members of the genus Campylobacter are frequently responsible for human enteric disease, often through consumption of contaminated poultry products. Bacteriophages are viruses that have the potential to control pathogenic bacteria, but understanding their complex life cycles is key to their successful exploitation. Treatment of Campylobacter jejuni biofilms with bacteriophages led to the discovery that phages had established a relationship with their hosts typical of the carrier state life cycle (CSLC), where bacteria and bacteriophages remain associated in equilibrium. Significant phenotypic changes include improved aerotolerance under nutrient-limited conditions that would confer an advantage to survive in extra-intestinal environments, but a lack in motility eliminated their ability to colonize chickens. Under these circumstances, phages can remain associated with a compatible host and continue to produce free virions to prospect for new hosts. Moreover, we demonstrate that CSLC host bacteria can act as expendable vehicles for the delivery of bacteriophages to new host bacteria within pre-colonized chickens. The CSLC represents an important phase in the ecology of Campylobacter bacteriophage. PMID:24671947

  17. Identification of Novel Vaccine Candidates against Campylobacter through Reverse Vaccinology

    PubMed Central

    Meunier, Marine; Guyard-Nicodème, Muriel; Chemaly, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacteriosis is the most prevalent bacterial foodborne gastroenteritis affecting humans in the European Union. Human cases are mainly due to Campylobacter jejuni or Campylobacter coli, and contamination is associated with the handling and/or consumption of poultry meat. In fact, poultry constitutes the bacteria's main reservoir. A promising way of decreasing the incidence of campylobacteriosis in humans would be to decrease avian colonization. Poultry vaccination is of potential for this purpose. However, despite many studies, there is currently no vaccine available on the market to reduce the intestinal Campylobacter load in chickens. It is essential to identify and characterize new vaccine antigens. This study applied the reverse vaccinology approach to detect new vaccine candidates. The main criteria used to select immune proteins were localization, antigenicity, and number of B-epitopes. Fourteen proteins were identified as potential vaccine antigens. In vitro and in vivo experiments now need to be performed to validate the immune and protective power of these newly identified antigens. PMID:27413761

  18. Effect of selected modified atmosphere packaging on Campylobacter survival in raw poultry.

    PubMed

    Byrd, J A; Sams, A R; Hargis, B M; Caldwell, D J

    2011-06-01

    Most current research on Campylobacter has focused on preharvest or processing plant cross-contamination. Little is known about the effect of storage environment on the survival of Campylobacter on raw poultry. We evaluated the effects of modified storage atmosphere and freezing on the survival of naturally occurring Campylobacter on raw poultry. Broiler carcasses (n = 560) were collected as they exited the chiller in 2 commercial processing plants and were sampled for the detection of Campylobacter, Escherichia coli, psychrophiles, and total aerobes at 0 and 14 d of refrigerated (2°C) storage. Gases evaluated were air, 100% O(2), 100% CO(2), and a standard poultry modified atmosphere packaging mixture (5% O(2) + 10% CO(2) + 85% N). Freezing was included as a control group. All carcasses were sampled by the whole-carcass rinse method. The rinse fluid was recovered and pooled from 5 individual rinses, and serial dilutions were made for examination of Campylobacter (42°C, 48 h), E. coli (37°C, 24 h), psychrophiles (plate count agar, 4°C, 7 d), and total aerobic bacterial populations (plate count agar, 37°C, 24 h). Campylobacter counts for all treatments were reduced during the 14-d storage period but the 100% O(2) treatment caused a significantly (P < 0.05) greater reduction than the other gas treatments. For the psychrophiles, storage in air resulted in the greatest growth after 14 d, with reduced psychrophilic growth allowed by either O(2) or the modified atmosphere packaging mixture (not different from each other). Of the treatments evaluated, CO(2) allowed the least growth of psychrophiles. Proliferation of E. coli and aerobes was the greatest when packaged in air after 14 d, whereas CO(2) packaging resulted in the least growth. These data suggest that storage under O(2) may reduce Campylobacter recovery and slow psychrophile and aerobe recovery following storage. PMID:21597074

  19. Longitudinal Molecular Epidemiological Study of Thermophilic Campylobacters on One Conventional Broiler Chicken Farm▿

    PubMed Central

    Ridley, Anne M.; Morris, Victoria K.; Cawthraw, Shaun A.; Ellis-Iversen, Johanne; Harris, Jillian A.; Kennedy, Emma M.; Newell, Diane G.; Allen, Vivien M.

    2011-01-01

    Improved understanding of the ecology and epidemiology of Campylobacter in the poultry farm environment is key to developing appropriate farm-based strategies for preventing flock colonization. The sources of Campylobacter causing broiler flock colonization were investigated on one poultry farm and its environment, from which samples were obtained on three occasions during each of 15 crop cycles. The farm was adjacent to a dairy farm, with which there was a shared concreted area and secondary entrance. There was considerable variation in the Campylobacter status of flocks at the various sampling times, at median ages of 20, 26, and 35 days, with 3 of the 15 flocks remaining negative at slaughter. Campylobacters were recoverable from various locations around the farm, even while the flock was Campylobacter negative, but the degree of environmental contamination increased substantially once the flock was positive. Molecular typing showed that strains from house surroundings and the dairy farm were similar to those subsequently detected in the flock and that several strains intermittently persisted through multiple crop cycles. The longitudinal nature of the study suggested that bovine fecal Campylobacter strains, initially recovered from the dairy yard, may subsequently colonize poultry. One such strain, despite being repeatedly recovered from the dairy areas, failed to colonize the concomitant flock during later crop cycles. The possibility of host adaptation of this strain was investigated with 16-day-old chickens experimentally exposed to this strain naturally present in, or spiked into, bovine feces. Although the birds became colonized by this infection model, the strain may preferentially infect cattle. The presence of Campylobacter genotypes in the external environment of the poultry farm, prior to their detection in broiler chickens, confirms the horizontal transmission of these bacteria into the flock and highlights the risk from multispecies farms. PMID

  20. Culture dependent and independent genomic identification of Alicyclobacillus species in contaminated commercial fruit juices.

    PubMed

    Osopale, Babasola Adewunmi; Witthuhn, Cornelia Regina; Albertyn, Jacobus; Oguntoyinbo, Folarin Anthony

    2016-06-01

    Alicyclobacillus is a genus of thermo-acidophilic, endospore-forming, bacteria species which occasionally cause spoilage of heat-processed fruit juices by producing guaiacol taint. In this study, Alicyclobacillus contamination of commercial fruit juices in West Africa was investigated using culture-dependent and -independent approaches. Firstly, a total of 225 fruit juice products from Ghana (n = 39) and Nigeria (n = 186) were enriched with yeast-starch-glucose (YSG) broth (pH 3.7) following heat shock at 80 °C for 10 min. Alicyclobacillus was detected in 11.6% (26) of samples. Isolates were identified to the genus taxonomic level by genus-specific PCR which targeted the squalene-hopene-cyclase (shc) gene followed by analysis of the almost-complete 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequences that identified 16 Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris, 7 Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius and 3 Alicyclobacillus genomic species 1 (Alicyclobacillus sp. 1). Whole-genome fingerprinting using PCR-RAPD primers Ba-10, F-61 and F-64 grouped the 16 A. acidoterrestris isolates into two genetic clusters. Furthermore, high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) analyses revealed the activity of vanillic-acid decarboxylase (vdc) in all A. acidoterrestris isolates due to guaiacol production from vanillic-acid. Lastly, species-specific PCR-DGGE targeting the 16S rRNA gene clearly discriminated between the guaiacol-producing A. acidoterrestris and the non-spoilage A. acidocaldarius group. Information provided by this study is fundamental to the development of effective strategies for the improvement of quality and shelf-life of processed tropical fruit juices in W. Africa. PMID:26919814

  1. Suitability of Miscanthus species for managing inorganic and organic contaminated land and restoring ecosystem services. A review.

    PubMed

    Nsanganwimana, Florien; Pourrut, Bertrand; Mench, Michel; Douay, Francis

    2014-10-01

    The mitigation of potential health hazards and land scarcity due to land use change can be addressed by restoring functional and ecosystem services of contaminated land. Physico-chemical remediation options are criticized as being costly and not providing environment-friendly solutions. The use of plants and associated microorganisms could be a sustainable, cost-effective option to reduce pollutant exposure. Phytomanagement aims at using valuable non-food crops to alleviate environmental and health risks induced by pollutants, and at restoring ecosystem services. Suitable plant species must be tolerant to contaminants, reduce their transfer into the food chain, and efficiently produce marketable biomass. Based on Miscanthus' capacity to sequestrate inorganic contaminants into the root system and to induce dissipation of persistent organic contaminants in soil, these plant species are favorable for phytostabilization and phytodegradation. Among Miscanthus species, the noninvasive hybrid Miscanthus × giganteus, with a high lignocellulosic content, is a promising biomass crop for the bio-economy, notably the biorefinery and bioenergy industries. Planting this species on contaminated and marginal land is a promising option to avoid changes in arable land use to mitigate the food vs. biofuel controversy. Key issues in promoting sustainable management of Miscanthus sp. on contaminated land are: (a) crop suitability, integration, and sustainability in a region with a potential local market; (b) site suitability in relation to the species' requirements and potential, (c) biotic interactions in the landscape diversity; and (d) increase in shoot yields in line with various stressors (e.g., pollutants, drought, cold temperatures), and with minimal inputs. PMID:24905642

  2. Tracing Back Clinical Campylobacter jejuni in the Northwest of Italy and Assessing Their Potential Source

    PubMed Central

    Di Giannatale, Elisabetta; Garofolo, Giuliano; Alessiani, Alessandra; Di Donato, Guido; Candeloro, Luca; Vencia, Walter; Decastelli, Lucia; Marotta, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Food-borne campylobacteriosis is caused mainly by the handling or consumption of undercooked chicken meat or by the ingestion of contaminated raw milk. Knowledge about the contributions of different food sources to gastrointestinal disease is fundamental to prioritize food safety interventions and to establish proper control strategies. Assessing the genetic diversity among Campylobacter species is essential to our understanding of their epidemiology and population structure. We molecularly characterized 56 Campylobacter jejuni isolates (31 from patients hospitalized with gastroenteritis, 17 from raw milk samples, and 8 from chicken samples) using multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) in order to trace the source of the disease. We also used a population genetic approach to investigate the source of the human cases from six different reservoirs of infection. MLST identified 25 different sequence types and 11 clonal complexes (CCs) (21, 658, 206, 353, 443, 48, 61, 257, 1332, 354, 574) and these included several alleles not cited previously in the PubMLST international database. The most prevalent CCs were 21, 206, and 354. PFGE showed 34 pulsotypes divided between 28 different clusters. At the fine scale, by means of PFGE and MLST, only two human cases were linked to raw milk, while one case was linked to chicken meat. The investigation revealed the presence of several genotypes among the human isolates, which probably suggests multiple foci for the infections. Finally, the source attribution model we used revealed that most cases were attributed to chicken (69.75%) as the main reservoir in Italy, followed to a lesser extent by the following sources: cattle (8.25%); environment (6.28%); wild bird (7.37%); small ruminant (5.35%), and pork (2.98%). This study confirms the importance of correlating epidemiological investigations with molecular epidemiological data to better understand the dynamics of infection. PMID:27379033

  3. Tracing Back Clinical Campylobacter jejuni in the Northwest of Italy and Assessing Their Potential Source.

    PubMed

    Di Giannatale, Elisabetta; Garofolo, Giuliano; Alessiani, Alessandra; Di Donato, Guido; Candeloro, Luca; Vencia, Walter; Decastelli, Lucia; Marotta, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Food-borne campylobacteriosis is caused mainly by the handling or consumption of undercooked chicken meat or by the ingestion of contaminated raw milk. Knowledge about the contributions of different food sources to gastrointestinal disease is fundamental to prioritize food safety interventions and to establish proper control strategies. Assessing the genetic diversity among Campylobacter species is essential to our understanding of their epidemiology and population structure. We molecularly characterized 56 Campylobacter jejuni isolates (31 from patients hospitalized with gastroenteritis, 17 from raw milk samples, and 8 from chicken samples) using multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) in order to trace the source of the disease. We also used a population genetic approach to investigate the source of the human cases from six different reservoirs of infection. MLST identified 25 different sequence types and 11 clonal complexes (CCs) (21, 658, 206, 353, 443, 48, 61, 257, 1332, 354, 574) and these included several alleles not cited previously in the PubMLST international database. The most prevalent CCs were 21, 206, and 354. PFGE showed 34 pulsotypes divided between 28 different clusters. At the fine scale, by means of PFGE and MLST, only two human cases were linked to raw milk, while one case was linked to chicken meat. The investigation revealed the presence of several genotypes among the human isolates, which probably suggests multiple foci for the infections. Finally, the source attribution model we used revealed that most cases were attributed to chicken (69.75%) as the main reservoir in Italy, followed to a lesser extent by the following sources: cattle (8.25%); environment (6.28%); wild bird (7.37%); small ruminant (5.35%), and pork (2.98%). This study confirms the importance of correlating epidemiological investigations with molecular epidemiological data to better understand the dynamics of infection. PMID:27379033

  4. Distribution and Genetic Profiles of Campylobacter in Commercial Broiler Production from Breeder to Slaughter in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Prachantasena, Sakaoporn; Charununtakorn, Petcharatt; Muangnoicharoen, Suthida; Hankla, Luck; Techawal, Natthaporn; Chaveerach, Prapansak; Tuitemwong, Pravate; Chokesajjawatee, Nipa; Williams, Nicola; Humphrey, Tom; Luangtongkum, Taradon

    2016-01-01

    Poultry and poultry products are commonly considered as the major vehicle of Campylobacter infection in humans worldwide. To reduce the number of human cases, the epidemiology of Campylobacter in poultry must be better understood. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to determine the distribution and genetic relatedness of Campylobacter in the Thai chicken production industry. During June to October 2012, entire broiler production processes (i.e., breeder flock, hatchery, broiler farm and slaughterhouse) of five broiler production chains were investigated chronologically. Representative isolates of C. jejuni from each production stage were characterized by flaA SVR sequencing and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Amongst 311 selected isolates, 29 flaA SVR alleles and 17 sequence types (STs) were identified. The common clonal complexes (CCs) found in this study were CC-45, CC-353, CC-354 and CC-574. C. jejuni isolated from breeders were distantly related to those isolated from broilers and chicken carcasses, while C. jejuni isolates from the slaughterhouse environment and meat products were similar to those isolated from broiler flocks. Genotypic identification of C. jejuni in slaughterhouses indicated that broilers were the main source of Campylobacter contamination of chicken meat during processing. To effectively reduce Campylobacter in poultry meat products, control and prevention strategies should be aimed at both farm and slaughterhouse levels. PMID:26886590

  5. A Method for the Preparation of Chicken Liver Pâté that Reliably Destroys Campylobacters.

    PubMed

    Hutchison, Mike; Harrison, Dawn; Richardson, Ian; Tchórzewska, Monika

    2015-05-01

    This study devised a protocol for the manufacture of commercial quantities of chicken liver pâté that reliably destroyed campylobacters. A literature search identified 40 pâté manufacture recipes. Recipes stages with a potential to be antimicrobial were assembled to form a new protocol that included washing with organic acid, freeze-thaw and flambé in alcohol. Naturally-contaminated, high-risk livers were obtained from clearance flocks at slaughter and the effect of each stage of the protocol on Campylobacter populations was determined. Organic acid washing changed the color of the liver surfaces. However, there were no significant differences between liver surface color changes when a range of concentrations of lactic acid and ethanoic acid washes were compared by reflective spectrophotometry. A 5% (w/v) acid wash reduced numbers of indigenous campylobacters by around 1.5 log₁₀ CFU/g for both acids. The use of a Bain Marie was found to more reproducibly apply heat compared with pan-frying. Antimicrobial recipe stages reduced the numbers of campylobacters, but not significantly if thermal processing was ineffective. Cooking to 63°C was confirmed to be a critical control point for campylobacters cooked in a Bain Marie. Organoleptic and sensory assessment of pâté determined an overall preference for pâté made from frozen livers. PMID:25927478

  6. A Method for the Preparation of Chicken Liver Pâté that Reliably Destroys Campylobacters

    PubMed Central

    Hutchison, Mike; Harrison, Dawn; Richardson, Ian; Tchórzewska, Monika

    2015-01-01

    This study devised a protocol for the manufacture of commercial quantities of chicken liver pâté that reliably destroyed campylobacters. A literature search identified 40 pâté manufacture recipes. Recipes stages with a potential to be antimicrobial were assembled to form a new protocol that included washing with organic acid, freeze-thaw and flambé in alcohol. Naturally-contaminated, high-risk livers were obtained from clearance flocks at slaughter and the effect of each stage of the protocol on Campylobacter populations was determined. Organic acid washing changed the color of the liver surfaces. However, there were no significant differences between liver surface color changes when a range of concentrations of lactic acid and ethanoic acid washes were compared by reflective spectrophotometry. A 5% (w/v) acid wash reduced numbers of indigenous campylobacters by around 1.5 log10 CFU/g for both acids. The use of a Bain Marie was found to more reproducibly apply heat compared with pan-frying. Antimicrobial recipe stages reduced the numbers of campylobacters, but not significantly if thermal processing was ineffective. Cooking to 63°C was confirmed to be a critical control point for campylobacters cooked in a Bain Marie. Organoleptic and sensory assessment of pâté determined an overall preference for pâté made from frozen livers. PMID:25927478

  7. Distribution and Genetic Profiles of Campylobacter in Commercial Broiler Production from Breeder to Slaughter in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Prachantasena, Sakaoporn; Charununtakorn, Petcharatt; Muangnoicharoen, Suthida; Hankla, Luck; Techawal, Natthaporn; Chaveerach, Prapansak; Tuitemwong, Pravate; Chokesajjawatee, Nipa; Williams, Nicola; Humphrey, Tom; Luangtongkum, Taradon

    2016-01-01

    Poultry and poultry products are commonly considered as the major vehicle of Campylobacter infection in humans worldwide. To reduce the number of human cases, the epidemiology of Campylobacter in poultry must be better understood. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to determine the distribution and genetic relatedness of Campylobacter in the Thai chicken production industry. During June to October 2012, entire broiler production processes (i.e., breeder flock, hatchery, broiler farm and slaughterhouse) of five broiler production chains were investigated chronologically. Representative isolates of C. jejuni from each production stage were characterized by flaA SVR sequencing and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Amongst 311 selected isolates, 29 flaA SVR alleles and 17 sequence types (STs) were identified. The common clonal complexes (CCs) found in this study were CC-45, CC-353, CC-354 and CC-574. C. jejuni isolated from breeders were distantly related to those isolated from broilers and chicken carcasses, while C. jejuni isolates from the slaughterhouse environment and meat products were similar to those isolated from broiler flocks. Genotypic identification of C. jejuni in slaughterhouses indicated that broilers were the main source of Campylobacter contamination of chicken meat during processing. To effectively reduce Campylobacter in poultry meat products, control and prevention strategies should be aimed at both farm and slaughterhouse levels. PMID:26886590

  8. Uptake and Effects of Six Rare Earth Elements (REEs) on Selected Native and Crop Species Growing in Contaminated Soils

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, David; Boutin, Céline; Allison, Jane E.; Parsons, Jessica L.; Ellis, Deanna M.

    2015-01-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs) have become increasingly important metals used in modern technology. Processes including mining, oil refining, discarding of obsolete equipment containing REEs, and the use of REE-containing phosphate fertilizers may increase the likelihood of environmental contamination. However, there is a scarcity of information on the toxicity and accumulation of these metals to terrestrial primary producers in contaminated soils. The objective of this work was to assess the phytotoxicity and uptake from contaminated soil of six REEs (chloride forms of praseodymium, neodymium, samarium, terbium, dysprosium, and erbium) on three native plants (Asclepias syriaca L., Desmodium canadense (L.) DC., Panicum virgatum L.) and two crop species (Raphanus sativus L., Solanum lycopersicum L.) in separate dose-response experiments under growth chamber conditions. Limited effects of REEs were found on seed germination and speed of germination. Effects on aboveground and belowground biomass were more pronounced, especially for the three native species, which were always more sensitive than the crop species tested. Inhibition concentrations (IC25 and IC50) causing 25 or 50% reductions in plant biomass respectively, were measured. For the native species, the majority of aboveground biomass IC25s (11 out of 18) fell within 100 to 300 mg REE/kg dry soil. In comparison to the native species, IC25s for the crops were always greater than 400 mg REE/kg, with the majority of results (seven out of 12) falling above 700 mg REE/kg. IC50s were often not detected for the crops. Root biomass of native species was also affected at lower doses than in crops. REE uptake by plants was higher in the belowground parts than in the above-ground plant tissues. Results also revealed that chloride may have contributed to the sensitivity of the native species, Desmodium canadense, one of the most sensitive species studied. Nevertheless, these results demonstrated that phytotoxicity may be a

  9. Uptake and Effects of Six Rare Earth Elements (REEs) on Selected Native and Crop Species Growing in Contaminated Soils.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, David; Boutin, Céline; Allison, Jane E; Parsons, Jessica L; Ellis, Deanna M

    2015-01-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs) have become increasingly important metals used in modern technology. Processes including mining, oil refining, discarding of obsolete equipment containing REEs, and the use of REE-containing phosphate fertilizers may increase the likelihood of environmental contamination. However, there is a scarcity of information on the toxicity and accumulation of these metals to terrestrial primary producers in contaminated soils. The objective of this work was to assess the phytotoxicity and uptake from contaminated soil of six REEs (chloride forms of praseodymium, neodymium, samarium, terbium, dysprosium, and erbium) on three native plants (Asclepias syriaca L., Desmodium canadense (L.) DC., Panicum virgatum L.) and two crop species (Raphanus sativus L., Solanum lycopersicum L.) in separate dose-response experiments under growth chamber conditions. Limited effects of REEs were found on seed germination and speed of germination. Effects on aboveground and belowground biomass were more pronounced, especially for the three native species, which were always more sensitive than the crop species tested. Inhibition concentrations (IC25 and IC50) causing 25 or 50% reductions in plant biomass respectively, were measured. For the native species, the majority of aboveground biomass IC25s (11 out of 18) fell within 100 to 300 mg REE/kg dry soil. In comparison to the native species, IC25s for the crops were always greater than 400 mg REE/kg, with the majority of results (seven out of 12) falling above 700 mg REE/kg. IC50s were often not detected for the crops. Root biomass of native species was also affected at lower doses than in crops. REE uptake by plants was higher in the belowground parts than in the above-ground plant tissues. Results also revealed that chloride may have contributed to the sensitivity of the native species, Desmodium canadense, one of the most sensitive species studied. Nevertheless, these results demonstrated that phytotoxicity may be a

  10. Analytical Solution for Multi-Species Contaminant Transport Subject to Sequential First-Order Decay Reactions in Finite Media

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transport equations governing the movement of multiple solutes undergoing sequential first-order decay reactions have relevance in analyzing a variety of subsurface contaminant transport problems. In this study, a one-dimensional analytical solution for multi-species transport is obtained for finite...

  11. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter in raw milk in the selected areas of Poland.

    PubMed

    Wysok, B; Wiszniewska-Łaszczych, A; Uradziński, J; Szteyn, J

    2011-01-01

    During the recent years, an immense increase in the number of food poisoning cases in people caused by Campylobacter (C.) species has occurred. Raw milk, next to poultry meat, is considered the most frequent cause of food poisoning in people caused by the subject bacteria, although it is not always possible to isolate Campylobacter cells from the incriminated milk. Most probably this difficulty is caused by low concentration of the pathogen in milk at the level of 2/3 cells/ml although even such low concentration represents risk to human health. The present study was aimed at determining the occurence of Campylobacter bacteria in milk originating from selected regions of Poland. The isolation method applied in this work was effective in recovering as few as 0.1 cell of Campylobacter per g of food. Among 150 bulk milk samples tested, Campylobacter spp. was isolated from 7 (4.6%) ones. The biochemical identification of the isolated strains conducted by means of conventional biochemical tests as well as by applying the API - Campy tests revealed that all the isolates belonged to the C. jejuni species. Determination of resistance to antibiotics was performed by means of the diffusion disks method for the following antibiotics: gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, ampicillin, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, doxycyclin and tetracycline. Among 7 isolates tested, all were susceptible to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, erythromycin and gentamicin, 28.5% to doxycyclin and 14.2% to tetracycline and ciprofloxacin. PMID:21957744

  12. Evolution of campylobacter species in New Zealand

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    New Zealand is an isolated archipelago in the South-West Pacific with a unique fauna and flora, a feature partly attributable to it being the last sizable land mass to be colonized by man. In this chapter we test the hypothesis that different periods in the history of New Zealand – from pre-history ...

  13. Phyto extraction and accumulation of mercury in selected plant species grown in soil contaminated with different mercury compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Su, Y.; Han, F.; Shiyab, S.; Monts, D.L.

    2007-07-01

    The objective of our research is to screen and search for suitable plant species for phyto-remediation of mercury-contaminated soil. Currently our effort is specifically focused on mercury removal from the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Oak Ridge Site, where mercury contamination is a major concern in the Y-12 Watershed area. In order to cost effectively implement those remediation efforts currently planned for FY09, it is necessary now to obtain an improved understanding of biological means of removing mercury and mercury compounds from the Oak Ridge ecosystem. Phyto-remediation is a technology that uses various plants to degrade, extract, contain, or immobilize contaminants from soil and water. In particular, phyto-extraction is the uptake of contaminants by plant roots and translocation within the plants to shoots or leaves. Contaminants are generally removed by harvesting the plants. We have investigated phyto-extraction of mercury from contaminated soil by using some of the known metal accumulating wild plants since no natural plant species with mercury hyper-accumulating properties has yet been identified. Different natural plant species have been studied for mercury uptake, accumulation, toxicity and overall mercury removal efficiency. Various mercury compounds, such as HgS, HgCl{sub 2} and Hg(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}, were used as contaminant sources. Different types of soil were examined and chosen for phyto-remediation experiments. We have applied microscopy and diffuse reflectance spectrometry as well as conventional analytical chemistry to monitor the phyto-remediation processes of mercury uptake, translocation and accumulation; and the physiological impact of mercury contaminants on selected plant species. Our results indicate that certain plant species, such as beard grass (Polypogon monospeliensis), accumulated a very limited amount of mercury in the shoots (<65 mg/kg), even though root mercury accumulation is significant (maximum 2298 mg

  14. Sheepshead minnows (Cyprinodon variegatus) as a surrogate species in assessing contaminant risk to two endangered cyprinodontids

    SciTech Connect

    Brecken-Folse, J.; Albrecht, B.; Mayer, F.; Ellersieck, M.; Sappington, L.

    1995-12-31

    Sheepshead minnows (Cyprinodon variegatus) were tested as a surrogate species to assess contaminant risk for the endangered Leon Springs pupfish (C. bovinus) and desert pupfish (C. macularius). Acute toxicity tests were conducted with carbaryl, copper sulfate, 4-nonylphenol, pentachlorophenol, and permethrin in accordance with ASTM guidelines. Sheepshead minnows were always more sensitive than pupfish, but the differences were small. 96-h LC50s for sheepshead minnows and Leon Springs pupfish were, respectively: carbaryl (4.2 and 4.6 mg/L), copper sulfate (2.5 and 4.6 mg/L), 4-nonylphenol (0.46 and 0.48 mg/L), pentachlorophenol (0.05 and 0.08 mg/L), permethrin (1 7 and 21 ug/L). Only one test could be conducted with desert pupfish and carbaryl, with the sheepshead minnow being more sensitive (7.3 vs 4.2 mg/L). These data, along with other data from the US NBS, Columbia, MO (two surrogate and six endangered freshwater fishes), indicate that toxicity test data for surrogate fishes can be used reliably to predict chemical toxicity to endangered fishes by interspecies correlations. However, the correlations were generally best within a family, particularly with the Cyprinodontids.

  15. [Campylobacter spp.: prevalence and pheno-genotypic characterization of isolates recovered from patients suffering from diarrhea and their pets in La Pampa Province, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Tamborini, Ana L; Casabona, Luis M; Viñas, María R; Asato, Valeria; Hoffer, Alicia; Farace, María I; Lucero, María C; Corso, Alejandra; Pichel, Mariana

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of Campylobacter spp. was investigated in 327 patients suffering from diarrhea and in 36 animals (dogs, cats and chickens) owned by the patients that presented infection by Campylobacter in Santa Rosa, La Pampa, Argentina. Campylobacter spp. was isolated in 50/327 patients and in 12/36 animals, being Campylobacter jejuni the most common species. Resistance to ciprofloxacin (65 %) and tetracycline (32 %) was found among 35 isolates of human origin studied. Seven genetic subtypes were observed among 13 C. jejuni isolates by pulsed field gel electrophoresis. Two subtypes grouped isolates belonging to patients and their respective dogs whereas another subtype grouped one isolate of human origin and two isolates from the patient's chickens. The results of this investigation highlight the need to strengthen surveillance of Campylobacter spp. not only in poultry, which is recognized as the main reservoir, but also in pets, which were shown to be asymptomatic carriers of the pathogen. PMID:23267623

  16. Contaminant profiles of two species of shorebirds foraging together at two neighboring sites in South San Francisco Bay, California.

    PubMed

    Hui, C A; Takekawa, J Y; Warnock, S E

    2001-10-01

    The San Francisco Bay estuary is used by over one million shorebirds during spring migration and is home to several hundred thousand during the winter. Most shorebird use occurs in the southern reach of the estuary (South Bay). The reduced water circulation and discharge from industrial sources in the South Bay are responsible for the highest levels of some trace elements in the estuary. Wintering shorebirds have been found to have strong site fidelity to areas as small as a few kilometers in the South Bay, which may increase their exposure to contaminants near local point sources. In addition, different shorebird species foraging at the same site have been shown to have different contaminant burdens. Thus, our objectives were to test whether contaminant burdens differed by species, or whether contaminant burdens differed in shorebirds collected at adjacent sites. We examined the contaminant profiles of two species of shorebirds, long-billed dowitchers (Limnodromus scolopaceus) and western sandpipers (Calidris mauri) that forage together at two sites, Hayward and Newark, separated by 8 km in the South Bay. We used multivariate analysis of variance tests to compare the composition of 14 elemental analytes in their liver tissues and estimated their molar ratios of Hg and Se. Composite samples were used for contaminant analyses because of the small body size of the shorebirds. Seven elemental analytes (Ag, Ba, Be, Cr, Ni, Pb, V) were below detection limits in a majority of the samples so statistical analyses were precluded. In the measurable analytes (As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Mn, Se, Zn), we found no significant intra-site differences of contaminant profiles for the two species. We pooled the samples to examine inter-site differences and found significant differences in contaminant profiles between shorebirds at the neighboring sites (P = 0.03). Shorebirds at Newark had higher (P < 0.05) concentrations of As, Cd, and Se than those at Hayward. Dowitchers at Newark had

  17. Campylobacter iguaniorum sp. nov., isolated from reptiles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During samplings of reptiles for Epsilonproteobacteria, Campylobacter strains were isolated from lizards and chelonians not belonging to any of the established taxa. Initial AFLP, PCR, and 16S rRNA sequence analysis showed that these strains were most closely related to Campylobacter fetus and Campy...

  18. Detection of Campylobacter Colonies using Hyperspectral Imaging

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Isolation and detection of Campylobacter in foods via direct plating involves lengthy laboratory procedures including enrichments and microaerobic incubations, which take several days to a week. The incubation time for growing Campylobacter colonies in agar media is typically 24 hours to 48 hours. F...

  19. Effect of macrolide usage on emergence of erythromycin-resistant Campylobacter isolates in chickens.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jun; Yan, Meiguan; Sahin, Orhan; Pereira, Sonia; Chang, Yun-Juan; Zhang, Qijing

    2007-05-01

    In this work we conducted both in vitro and in vivo experiments to examine the development and mechanisms of erythromycin (Ery) resistance in Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli. In vitro plating revealed that both Campylobacter species had similar but low spontaneous mutation frequencies (3 x 10(-9) to <5.41 x 10(-10)) for Ery resistance. Chickens infected with C. jejuni or C. coli were subjected to single or multiple treatments with medicated water containing tylosin (0.53 g/liter), which transiently reduced the level of Campylobacter colonization but did not select for Ery-resistant (Ery(r)) mutants in the treated birds. However, when tylosin was given to the chickens in feed at a growth-promoting dose (0.05 g/kg feed), Ery(r) mutants emerged in the birds after prolonged exposure to the antibiotic. The vast majority of the in vitro- and in vivo-selected Campylobacter mutants with Ery MICs of 8 to 256 microg/ml lacked the known resistance-associated mutations in the 23S rRNA gene, while the highly resistant mutants (Ery MIC > 512 microg/ml) had the A2074G mutation in the 23S rRNA gene. Inactivation of CmeABC, a multidrug efflux pump, dramatically reduced the Ery MIC in all of the examined mutants regardless of the presence of the A2074G mutation. Together, these results reveal distinct features associated with Ery resistance development in Campylobacter, demonstrate the significant role of CmeABC in Ery resistance, and suggest that long-term use of a macrolide as a growth promoter selects for the emergence of Ery(r) Campylobacter in animal reservoirs. PMID:17353243

  20. The first closed genome sequence of Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis biovar intermedius

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter fetus venerealis biovar intermedius is a variant of Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis, the causative agent of Bovine Genital Campylobacteriosis. In contrast to Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis which is restricted to the genital tract of cattle, Campylobacter fetus subsp. vener...

  1. Intracloacal inoculation, an effective screening method for determining the efficacy of probiotic bacterial isolates against Campylobacter colonization in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Arsi, K; Donoghue, A M; Woo-Ming, A; Blore, P J; Donoghue, D J

    2015-01-01

    Campylobacter is a leading cause of foodborne illness worldwide. It is common in poultry, and human infections are often associated with consumption of contaminated poultry products. One strategy to reduce Campylobacter colonization in poultry is the use of oral probiotics, but this produces variable results, possibly because the probiotics are destroyed in the stomach's acidic environment. Protection (e.g., encapsulation) of isolates may overcome this problem, but there is no assurance that these isolates will have efficacy in the lower gastrointestinal tract. Therefore, screening candidate isolates by directly placing them in the lower intestinal tract via cloacal inoculation may eliminate the time and expense of encapsulating ineffective isolates. Thus, the purpose of this study was to collect bacterial isolates with anti-Campylobacter activity in vitro and evaluate their efficacy in vivo upon either oral or intracloacal administration. Bacterial isolates were collected from healthy birds and were evaluated for efficacy against C. jejuni in vitro. Isolates having generally regarded as safe status and demonstrating in vitro anti-Campylobacter properties were evaluated after oral or intracloacal inoculation into chicks on day 1 (n = 10 birds per isolate per route of administration). On day 7, birds were dosed by oral gavage with a four-strain mixture of wild-type Campylobacter containing at least 1 × 10(7) CFU/ml organisms. On day 14, birds were euthanized and the ceca were collected aseptically for Campylobacter enumeration. When dosed orally, only one isolate had a 1-log reduction in cecal Campylobacter counts, whereas when administered intracloacally, six of these isolates produced a 1- to 3-log reduction in cecal Campylobacter counts in 14-day-old chickens. These results support the strategy of evaluating the efficacy of potential probiotic isolates via cloacal inoculation prior to undergoing the effort of encapsulating isolates for oral administration. PMID

  2. Novel gastric helicobacters and oral campylobacters are present in captive and wild cetaceans.

    PubMed

    Goldman, Cinthia G; Matteo, Mario J; Loureiro, Julio D; Almuzara, Marisa; Barberis, Claudia; Vay, Carlos; Catalano, Mariana; Heredia, Sergio Rodríguez; Mantero, Paula; Boccio, Jose R; Zubillaga, Marcela B; Cremaschi, Graciela A; Solnick, Jay V; Perez-Perez, Guillermo I; Blaser, Martin J

    2011-08-26

    The mammalian gastric and oral mucosa may be colonized by mixed Helicobacter and Campylobacter species, respectively, in individual animals. To better characterize the presence and distribution of Helicobacter and Campylobacter among marine mammals, we used PCR and 16S rDNA sequence analysis to examine gastric and oral samples from ten dolphins (Tursiops gephyreus), one killer whale (Orcinus orca), one false killer whale (Pseudorca crassidens), and three wild La Plata river dolphins (Pontoporia blainvillei). Helicobacter spp. DNA was widely distributed in gastric and oral samples from both captive and wild cetaceans. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated two Helicobacter sequence clusters, one closely related to H. cetorum, a species isolated from dolphins and whales in North America. The second related cluster was to sequences obtained from dolphins in Australia and to gastric non-H. pylori helicobacters, and may represent a novel taxonomic group. Dental plaque sequences from four dolphins formed a third cluster within the Campylobacter genus that likely represents a novel species isolated from marine mammals. Identification of identical Helicobacter spp. DNA sequences from dental plaque, saliva and gastric fluids from the same hosts, suggests that the oral cavity may be involved in transmission. These results demonstrate that Helicobacter and Campylobacter species are commonly distributed in marine mammals, and identify taxonomic clusters that may represent novel species. PMID:21592686

  3. Novel gastric helicobacters and oral campylobacters are present in captive and wild cetaceans

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, Cinthia G.; Matteo, Mario J.; Loureiro, Julio D.; Almuzara, Marisa; Barberis, Claudia; Vay, Carlos; Catalano, Mariana; Heredia, Sergio Rodríguez; Mantero, Paula; Boccio, Jose R.; Zubillaga, Marcela B.; Cremaschi, Graciela A.; Solnick, Jay V.; Perez-Perez, Guillermo I.; Blaser, Martin J.

    2011-01-01

    The mammalian gastric and oral mucosa may be colonized by mixed Helicobacter and Campylobacter species, respectively, in individual animals. To better characterize the presence and distribution of Helicobacter and Campylobacter among marine mammals, we used PCR and 16S rDNA sequence analysis to examine gastric and oral samples from ten dolphins (Tursiops gephyreus), one killer whale (Orcinus orca), one false killer whale (Pseudorca crassidens), and three wild La Plata river dolphins (Pontoporia blainvillei). Helicobacter spp. DNA was widely distributed in gastric and oral samples from both captive and wild cetaceans. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated two Helicobacter sequence clusters, one closely related to H. cetorum, a species isolated from dolphins and whales in North America. The second related cluster was to sequences obtained from dolphins in Australia and to gastric non-Helicobacter pylori helicobacters, and may represent a novel taxonomic group. Dental plaque sequences from four dolphins formed a third cluster within the Campylobacter genus that likely represents a novel species isolated from marine mammals. Identification of identical Helicobacter spp. DNA sequences from dental plaque, saliva and gastric fluids from the same hosts, suggests that the oral cavity may be involved in transmission. These results demonstrate that Helicobacter and Campylobacter species are commonly distributed in marine mammals, and identify taxonomic clusters that may represent novel species. PMID:21592686

  4. Biomarker sensitivity for polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon contamination in two marine fish species collected in Galveston Bay, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Willett, K.L.; Steinberg, M.A.; Safe, S.H.; McDonald, S.J.; Beatty, K.B.; Kennicutt, M.C.

    1997-07-01

    The Galveston Bay estuary exhibited a contamination gradient for polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons, and the comparative sensitivity of various biomarkers in fish from different bay locations were determined. Two fish species, hardhead catfish (Arius felis) and Atlantic croaker (Micropogon undulatus), were collected from four stations where sediment total PAHs ranged from 68 > 1,000 ng/g. The induction of cytochrome P4501A-(CYP1A)-dependent hepatic ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity, CYPIA mRNA levels, or CYPIA immunoreactive protein in hardhead catfish was highly variable in the field-collected fish and in fish dosed with up to 15 mg/kg benzo[a]pyrene (BaP). In contrast, significant differences were seen in biliary concentrations of naphthalene, phenanthrene, and BaP metabolites in hardhead catfish from polluted versus less polluted areas. In croakers taken from the same four Galveston Bay locations, EROD and glutathione S-transferase activities, immunoreactive CYP1A protein, biliary PAH metabolites, and PAH-DNA adducts were higher at the contaminated stations compared with less polluted locations. These studies suggest that the croaker is a good species for monitoring contaminants that induce CYP1A-mediated responses. Biliary PAH metabolites and PAH-DNA adducts were also sensitive indicators of exposure to PAH contamination in both species of fish.

  5. Partitioning species variability from soil property effects on phytotoxicity: ECx normalization using a plant contaminant sensitivity index.

    PubMed

    Anderson, R H; Basta, N T; Lanno, R P

    2008-01-01

    Soil properties mitigate hazardous effects of contaminants through soil chemical sequestration and should be considered when evaluating ecological risk from terrestrial contamination. Empirical models that quantify relationships between soil properties and toxicity to ecological receptors are necessary for site-specific adjustments to ecological risk assessments. However, differential sensitivities of test organisms in dose-response studies may limit the utility of such models. We present a novel approach to toxicity estimation that partitions the effect of differential sensitivities of test organisms from that of soil chemical/physical properties. Five soils that ranged in selected properties were spiked with five concentrations of sodium arsenate. Bioassays were conducted where above ground dry matter growth and the corresponding tissue arsenic concentrations were evaluated for three terrestrial plants (Alfalfa, Medicago sativa L.; Perennial ryegrass, Lolium perrene L.; and Japanese millet, Echinochloa crusgalli L.). Estimates were combined into a plant contaminant sensitivity index (PCSI) and used to normalize phytotoxicity parameters to the most sensitive species (i.e., alfalfa) where necessary. Simple linear regression and ANCOVA indicated a 36.5% increase in the explanatory power of the modifying effects of soil properties on phytotoxicity when differential arsenate sensitivities were accounted for by PCSI (r(2) = 0.477-0.833). Normalization of ecotoxicity parameters by PCSI is a seemingly effective approach to quantify the modifying effects of soil properties on phytotoxicity endpoints when it is of interest to consider multiple plant species (or varieties within a species) with differential sensitivities to experimental contaminants. PMID:18689731

  6. A New Fluorinated Surfactant Contaminant in Biota: Perfluorobutane Sulfonamide in Several Fish Species.

    PubMed

    Chu, Shaogang; Letcher, Robert J; McGoldrick, Daryl J; Backus, Sean M

    2016-01-19

    Environmental contamination and regulation of longer-chain perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) such as perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) has given rise to the increased use of shorter-chain PFASs as alternatives in new products, although confirmation of their presence in the environment remains limited. In this study, the PFAS alternative, perfluoro-1-butane-sulfonamide (FBSA), was identified for the first time in biota in homogenate samples of fish by liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-Q-ToF-MS) and quantified by ultra high performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QQQ-MS/MS). In one flounder (Platichthys flesus) muscle sample from the Western Scheldt, The Netherlands, FBSA concentration was at 80.12 ng/g wet weight (w.w.) and was exceeded only by PFOS. FBSA was also detected in 32 out of 33 samples of freshwater fish collected (2009-2010) from water bodies across Canada. In lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from northern Canada (e.g., Lake Kusawa (Yukon Territory), Great Bear Lake (Northwest Territories and in the Arctic), and Lake Athabasca (northern Alberta)), the concentrations of FBSA ranged from below method detection limit (<0.01 ng/g w.w) to 0.44 ng/g w.w. and were much lower than those reported for lake trout from the more urbanized and industrialized Laurentian Great Lakes sites (3.17 ± 1.53 ng/g w.w.). In three species of fish purchased from a supermarket in Ottawa (ON, Canada), FBSA concentrations were the lowest of all fish and ranged from < MLOD to 0.29 ng/g w.w. and 0.03 to 0.76 ng/g w.w. in muscle and liver, respectively. FBSA is a bioaccumulative contaminant in fish in Canada and possibly in The Netherlands. It is likely sourced from new alternative perfluorobutane-based products, as well as other shorter chain perfluoroalkyl-based products. PMID:26649981

  7. Differences in the accumulated metal concentrations in two epigeic earthworm species (Lumbricus rubellus and Dendrodrilus rubidus) living in contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, J.E.; Morgan, A.J. )

    1991-08-01

    Lumbricus rubellus and Denrodrilus rubidus are acid-tolerant epigeic species, which are often the only species inhabiting the poorly vegetated and heavily contaminated soils associated with many abandoned mine sites. Although both species probably consume similar food materials, observations on worms collected from acidic and calcareous mine sites indicate that they accumulate significantly different metal concentrations in their tissues: the larger L. rubellus accumulates more Zn and Ca, but less Pb and Cd than D. rubidus. The aim of the present study was to analyze these two epigeic species sampled from ten diverse sites to determine whether the inter-species differences in relative metal accumulation is a general feature of these sympatrics.

  8. Control strategies against Campylobacter at the poultry production level: biosecurity measures, feed additives and vaccination.

    PubMed

    Meunier, M; Guyard-Nicodème, M; Dory, D; Chemaly, M

    2016-05-01

    Campylobacteriosis is the most prevalent bacterial foodborne gastroenteritis affecting humans in the European Union, and ranks second in the United States only behind salmonellosis. In Europe, there are about nine million cases of campylobacteriosis every year, making the disease a major public health issue. Human cases are mainly caused by the zoonotic pathogen Campylobacter jejuni. The main source of contamination is handling or consumption of poultry meat. Poultry constitutes the main reservoir of Campylobacter, substantial quantities of which are found in the intestines following rapid, intense colonization. Reducing Campylobacter levels in the poultry chain would decrease the incidence of human campylobacteriosis. As primary production is a crucial step in Campylobacter poultry contamination, controlling the infection at this level could impact the following links along the food chain (slaughter, retail and consumption). This review describes the control strategies implemented during the past few decades in primary poultry production, including the most recent studies. In fact, the implementation of biosecurity and hygiene measures is described, as well as the immune strategy with passive immunization and vaccination trials and the nutritional strategy with the administration of organic and fatty acids, essential oil and plant-derived compound, probiotics, bacteriocins and bacteriophages. PMID:26541243

  9. Performance of aquatic plant species for phytoremediation of arsenic-contaminated water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasrotia, Shivakshi; Kansal, Arun; Mehra, Aradhana

    2015-06-01

    This study investigates the effectiveness of aquatic macrophyte and microphyte for phytoremediation of water bodies contaminated with high arsenic concentration. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) and two algae (Chlorodesmis sp. and Cladophora sp.) found near arsenic-enriched water bodies were used to determine their tolerance toward arsenic and their effectiveness to uptake arsenic thereby reducing organic pollution in arsenic-enriched wastewater of different concentrations. Parameters like pH, chemical oxygen demand (COD), and arsenic concentration were monitored. The pH of wastewater during the course of phytoremediation remained constant in the range of 7.3-8.4, whereas COD reduced by 50-65 % in a period of 15 days. Cladophora sp. was found to survive up to an arsenic concentration of 6 mg/L, whereas water hyacinth and Chlorodesmis sp. could survive up to arsenic concentrations of 2 and 4 mg/L, respectively. It was also found that during a retention period of 10 days under ambient temperature conditions, Cladophora sp. could bring down arsenic concentration from 6 to <0.1 mg/L, Chlorodesmis sp. was able to reduce arsenic by 40-50 %; whereas, water hyacinth could reduce arsenic by only 20 %. Cladophora sp. is thus suitable for co-treatment of sewage and arsenic-enriched brine in an algal pond having a retention time of 10 days. The identified plant species provides a simple and cost-effective method for application in rural areas affected with arsenic problem. The treated water can be used for irrigation.

  10. Pleuritis caused by Campylobacter jejuni subspecies jejuni in a patient undergoing long-term hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Miho; Hirayama, Kouichi; Ohishi, Tsuyoshi; Shimohata, Homare; Ohkusu, Kiyofumi; Kobayashi, Masaki

    2010-01-01

    A 73-year-old female hemodialysis patient experienced fever, shortness of breath on effort, and chest discomfort. A decrease in breath sounds in the right lung field, leukocytosis, elevated CRP level, and a right massive pleural effusion were observed. The patient was diagnosed with bacterial pleuritis based on leukocyte-predominant exudative pleural effusion, and treated with ceftriaxone. Her symptoms, however, were not improved, so thoracic drainage was attempted. Campylobacter species were isolated from cultured pleural fluid samples, and Campylobacter jejuni subspecies jejuni was detected on the multiplex PCR assay. The antibiotic was therefore changed to minocycline following pazufloxacin, and her symptoms were improved. PMID:21088354

  11. Campylobacter jejuni gene cj0511 encodes a serine peptidase essential for colonisation

    PubMed Central

    Karlyshev, A.V.; Thacker, G.; Jones, M.A.; Clements, M.O.; Wren, B.W.

    2014-01-01

    According to MEROPS peptidase database, Campylobacter species encode 64 predicted peptidases. However, proteolytic properties of only a few of these proteins have been confirmed experimentally. In this study we identified and characterised a Campylobacter jejuni gene cj0511 encoding a novel peptidase. The proteolytic activity associated with this enzyme was demonstrated in cell lysates. Moreover, enzymatic studies conducted with a purified protein confirmed a prediction of it being a serine peptidase. Furthermore, cj0511 mutant was found to be severely attenuated in chicken colonisation model, suggesting a role of the Cj0511 protein in infection. PMID:24918062

  12. Characterization of Antimicrobial Susceptibility and Its Association with Virulence Genes Related to Adherence, Invasion, and Cytotoxicity in Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli Isolates from Animals, Meat, and Humans.

    PubMed

    Lapierre, Lisette; Gatica, María A; Riquelme, Víctor; Vergara, Constanza; Yañez, José Manuel; San Martín, Betty; Sáenz, Leonardo; Vidal, Maricel; Martínez, María Cristina; Araya, Pamela; Flores, Roberto; Duery, Oscar; Vidal, Roberto

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this research was to statistically analyze the association between antimicrobial susceptibility/resistance to erythromycine, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, and tetracycline and 11 virulence genes associated with adherence, invasion, and cytotoxicity in 528 isolates of Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni obtained from retail meat and fecal samples from food-producing animals and human patients. A high percentage of Campylobacter strains were resistant to antimicrobials, specifically ciprofloxacin and tetracycline. Moreover, we observed a wide distribution of virulence genes within the analyzed strains. C. jejuni strains were more susceptible to antimicrobials, and showed greater number of virulence genes than C. coli strains. Genes related to invasion capability, such as racR, ciaB, and pldA, were associated with antimicrobial-susceptible strains in both species. The genes cdtA and dnaJ, a citotoxin unit and an adherence-related gene, respectively, were associated with antimicrobial-resistant strains in both species. In conclusion, Campylobacter strains show a statistically significant association between antimicrobial susceptibility and the presence of virulence genes. PMID:26779841

  13. Assessing Contaminant Sensitivity of Endangered and Threatened Aquatic Species: Part I. Acute Toxicity of Five Chemicals

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper reports on the results of acute toxicity tests conducted with common surrogate species, and several species of threatened and endangered species for which there were excess artificially propagated stock to allow direct testing.

  14. Complete genome sequence of Campylobacter jejuni RM1285 a rod-shaped morphological variant

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter jejuni is a spiral-shaped Gram-negative food-borne human pathogen found on poultry products. Strain RM1285 is a rod-shaped variant of this species. The genome of RM1285 was determined to be 1,635,803 bp with a G+C content of 30.5%....

  15. CAMPYLOBACTER ECOLOGY IN THE TURKEY INTESTINE: SETTING THE STAGE FOR DEVELOPMENT OF PROTECTIVE PROBIOTICS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter species are the leading cause of bacterial food borne illness in the United States, causing two million cases of food-borne illness per year, as well as $1.5 to 1.8 billion in lost productivity. The primary source of infection is consumption of undercooked poultry, as prevalence of th...

  16. Draft Genome Sequence of Campylobacter jejuni Bf, an Atypical Strain Able To Grow under Aerobiosis

    PubMed Central

    Bronnec, Vicky; Haddad, Nabila; Cruveiller, Stéphane; Hernould, Mathieu; Tresse, Odile

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we describe the draft genome sequence of a Campylobacter jejuni clinical isolate issued from a French patient suffering from severe campylobacteriosis. This atypical strain is characterized by an unusual resistance to oxygen and the ability to grow under an aerobic atmosphere, a characteristic as-of-yet unique to this species. PMID:27056213

  17. A simplified dilution method for detection of Campylobacter in broiler ceca

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter species, a leading foodborne pathogen, is linked to poultry. Development of intervention strategies depends on the ability to rapidly and consistently recover and estimate the number of bacteria present. The objective of this experim ent was to validate a semi-quantitative method for d...

  18. Nucleases Encoded by Integrated Elements CJIE2 and CJIE4 Inhibit Natural Transformation of Campylobacter jejuni

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The species Campylobacter jejuni displays huge genetic diversity, and is naturally competent for DNA uptake. Nevertheless, not every strain is able to acquire foreign DNA since nonnaturally transformable strains do exist. Previously we showed that many nonnaturally transformable C. jejuni strains ex...

  19. A DNase encoded by integrated element CJIE1 inhibits natural transformation of Campylobacter jejuni

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The species Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) is considered naturally competent for DNA uptake and displays strong genetic diversity. Yet, non-transformable strains and several relatively stable clonal lineages exist. In the present study, the molecular mechanism responsible for the non-transformabil...

  20. Kitchen practices used in handling broiler chickens and survival of Campylobacter spp. on cutting surfaces in Kampala, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Wanyenya, Irene; Muyanja, Charles; Nasinyama, George William

    2004-09-01

    Cross-contamination during food preparation has been identified as an important factor associated with foodborne illnesses. Handling practices used during preparation of broiler chickens in 31 fast-food restaurants and 86 semisettled street stands (street vendors) were assessed by use of a standard checklist. These establishments used wood, plastic, or metal cutting surfaces during the preparation of broiler chickens. The survival of Campylobacter spp. on kitchen cutting surfaces was determined by inoculating approximately 10(6) CFU of Campylobacter jejuni onto sterile plastic, wooden, and metal cutting boards. The concentrations of the organisms were then assessed in triplicate on each type of cutting board over a 3-h period using standard microbiological methods for thermophilic Campylobacter spp. In 87% of food establishments, the same work area was used for preparation of raw and cooked chicken, and in 68% of these establishments the same cutting boards were used for raw and cooked chicken. None of the establishments applied disinfectants or sanitizers when washing contact surfaces. Campylobacter spp. survived on wooden and plastic but not on metal cutting boards after 3 h of exposure. The handling practices in food preparation areas, therefore, provide an opportunity for cross-contamination of Campylobacter spp. to ready-to-eat foods. PMID:15453589

  1. Campylobacter Colonization and Proliferation in the Broiler Chicken upon Natural Field Challenge Is Not Affected by the Bird Growth Rate or Breed

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Richard A.; Watson, Kellie A.; McAdam, Jim; Avendaño, Santiago; Stanley, William A.; Koerhuis, Alfons N. M.

    2014-01-01

    The zoonotic association between Campylobacter bacteria in poultry and humans has been characterized by decades of research which has attempted to elucidate the epidemiology of this complex relationship and to reduce carriage within poultry. While much work has focused on the mechanisms facilitating its success in contaminating chicken flocks (and other animal hosts), it remains difficult to consistently exclude Campylobacter under field conditions. Within the United Kingdom poultry industry, various bird genotypes with widely varying growth rates are available to meet market needs and consumer preferences. However, little is known about whether any differences in Campylobacter carriage exist across this modern broiler range. The aim of this study was to establish if a relationship exists between growth rate or breed and cecal Campylobacter concentration after natural commercial flock Campylobacter challenge. In one investigation, four pure line genotypes of various growth rates were grown together, while in the second, eight different commercial broiler genotypes were grown individually. In both studies, the Campylobacter concentration was measured in the ceca at 42 days of age, revealing no significant difference in cecal load between birds of different genotypes both in mixed- and single-genotype pens. This is important from a public health perspective and suggests that other underlying reasons beyond genotype are likely to control and affect Campylobacter colonization within chickens. Further studies to gain a better understanding of colonization dynamics and subsequent proliferation are needed, as are novel approaches to reduce the burden in poultry. PMID:25172857

  2. Campylobacter Reactive Arthritis: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Pope, Janet E.; Krizova, Adriana; Garg, Amit X.; Thiessen-Philbrook, Heather; Ouimet, Janine M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To review the literature on the epidemiology of Campylobacter associated ReA. Methods A Medline (PubMed) search identified studies from 1966–2006 that investigated the epidemiology of Campylobacter associated ReA. Search terms included: “reactive arthritis”, “spondyloarthropathy”, “Reiter’s syndrome”, “gastroenteritis”, “diarrhea”, “epidemiology”, “incidence”, “prevalence”, and “Campylobacter”. Results The literature available to date suggests that the incidence of Campylobacter reactive arthritis may occur in 1 to 5% of those infected. The annual incidence of ReA after Campylobacter or Shigella may be 4.3 and 1.3 respectively per 100,000. The duration of acute ReA varies considerably between reports, and the incidence and impact of chronic reactive arthritis from Campylobacter infection is virtually unknown. Conclusions Campylobacter associated ReA incidence and prevalence varies widely from reviews such as: case ascertainment differences, exposure differences, lack of diagnostic criteria for ReA and perhaps genetics and ages of exposed individuals. At the population level it may not be associated with HLA-B27 and inflammatory back involvement is uncommon. Follow up for long-term sequelae is largely unknown. Five percent of Campylobacter ReA may be chronic or relapsing (with respect to musculoskeletal symptoms). PMID:17360026

  3. Novel Approaches for Campylobacter Control in Poultry

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The Gram-negative bacterium Campylobacter is the most common bacterial cause of human gastroenteritis in the United States and many industrialized countries. Poultry, particularly chickens, is considered a major source of human campylobacteriosis. Thus, on-farm control of Campylobacter in poultry would reduce the risk of human exposure to this pathogen and have a significant impact on food safety and public health. To date, three general strategies have been proposed to control Campylobacter in poultry at the farm level: (1) reduction of environmental exposure (biosecurity measures), (2) an increase in poultry's host resistance to reduce Campylobacter carriage in the gut (e.g., competitive exclusion, vaccination, and host genetics selection), and (3) the use of antimicrobial alternatives to reduce and even eliminate Campylobacter from colonized chickens (e.g., bacteriophage therapy and bacteriocin treatment). Except for biosecurity measures, the other intervention approaches are currently not commercially available and are still under development. This review is focused on two promising strategies—vaccination and bacteriocin treatment. In particular, we extensively review recent research aimed at discovering and characterizing potent anti-Campylobacter bacteriocins to reduce Campylobacter load at the primary production level in poultry. PMID:19425824

  4. Pioneer plant species contributing to phytoestabilization of contaminated soils in mine areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    João Batista, Maria; Gonzalez-Fernandez, Oscar; Abreu, Maria Manuela; Carvalho, Luisa; Queralt, Ignasi

    2013-04-01

    Young and mature leaves from several plant species of the genus Cistus L. (C. crispus, C. ladanifer, C. monspeliensis, C. salviifolius), Erica australis L., and Lavandula sampaioana (Rozeira) Rivas Mart., T.E. Díaz& Fern. Gonz., as well as soils where plants grew, were sampled in various areas of São Domingos abandoned mine. The São Domingos mine, dating from pre-Roman times, is 60 km SE of Beja, Southeast Portugal. This mine belongs to the world class metallogenetic province of the Iberian Pyrite Belt. Sampling occurred throughout spring and winter to better understand plant behaviour and natural attenuation of contaminated soils. Multiple Correspondence Analysis (MCA) was used to synthesize the information and group characteristics that could justify different chemical concentrations. Soils are extremely acid (pH between 3.4 and 5.2) and present a wide range of Corganic concentrations (10.2-109 g/kg). Total nitrogen and extractable phosphorus concentrations are low to very low, but extractable potassium show medium to high concentrations. Chemical elements concentrations, analysed for total fraction, were great in soils, especially arsenic and lead that can attain 7.6 g/kg and 17.2 g/kg, respectively. However, only a small percentage (in general < 1%) of the total concentration of the chemical elements were water soluble (extracted by DIN 38414-S4 method) or extracted with the DTPA or ammonium acetate aqueous solutions. Cistus plants showed different behaviour on the trace-elements uptake and translocation. Winter and spring variations in most chemical elements concentrations in the plants leaves are not significantly different, except for arsenic, probably because plants were not exposed to important dry conditions during the sampling seasons. Nevertheless, MCA of the individuals makes a clear distinction between winter and spring leaves. Generally, mature leaves have higher concentrations of arsenic, copper, iron, lead, manganese and zinc than younger ones

  5. Seroprevalence of Campylobacter-Specific Antibodies in two German Duck Farms - A Prospective Follow-Up Study.

    PubMed

    Masanta, Wycliffe Omurwa; Lugert, Raimond; Groß, Uwe; Linsel, Gunter; Heutelbeck, Astrid; Zautner, Andreas Erich

    2016-06-24

    Several studies have shown that about 60-100% of farmed ducks are colonized by Campylobacter species. Because of this, a higher risk of campylobacteriosis among duck farm workers can be assumed. To estimate the risk of Campylobacter infections in duck farm workers, we investigated the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in ducks of two duck farms and the seroprevalence of anti-Campylobacter antibodies (IgA and IgG) in two cohorts of workers. The first cohort consisted of high-exposed stable workers and slaughterers, which was compared to a second cohort of non-/low-exposed persons. Duck caecal swabs and serum samples were collected in 2004, 2007, and 2010. The colonization rate in the examined ducks was found to be 80-90%. The seroprevalence of anti-Campylobacter IgA and IgG antibodies among the non-exposed cohort was found to be 0.00% in all 3 years. In contrast, the exposed cohort demonstrated an IgA seroprevalence of 4.17% in 2004, 5.71% in 2007, and 0.00% in 2010 and an IgG seroprevalence of 8.33% in 2004, 0.00% in 2007, and 4.29% in 2010. In conclusion, in 2004, we observed a significantly higher anti-Campylobacter antibody seroprevalence in the exposed cohort followed by a steady reduction in 2007 and 2010 under occupational health and safety measures. PMID:27429794

  6. Seroprevalence of Campylobacter-Specific Antibodies in two German Duck Farms – A Prospective Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Masanta, Wycliffe Omurwa; Lugert, Raimond; Groß, Uwe; Linsel, Gunter; Heutelbeck, Astrid; Zautner, Andreas Erich

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have shown that about 60–100% of farmed ducks are colonized by Campylobacter species. Because of this, a higher risk of campylobacteriosis among duck farm workers can be assumed. To estimate the risk of Campylobacter infections in duck farm workers, we investigated the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in ducks of two duck farms and the seroprevalence of anti-Campylobacter antibodies (IgA and IgG) in two cohorts of workers. The first cohort consisted of high-exposed stable workers and slaughterers, which was compared to a second cohort of non-/low-exposed persons. Duck caecal swabs and serum samples were collected in 2004, 2007, and 2010. The colonization rate in the examined ducks was found to be 80–90%. The seroprevalence of anti-Campylobacter IgA and IgG antibodies among the non-exposed cohort was found to be 0.00% in all 3 years. In contrast, the exposed cohort demonstrated an IgA seroprevalence of 4.17% in 2004, 5.71% in 2007, and 0.00% in 2010 and an IgG seroprevalence of 8.33% in 2004, 0.00% in 2007, and 4.29% in 2010. In conclusion, in 2004, we observed a significantly higher anti-Campylobacter antibody seroprevalence in the exposed cohort followed by a steady reduction in 2007 and 2010 under occupational health and safety measures. PMID:27429794

  7. Prevalence and Subtypes of Ciprofloxacin-Resistant Campylobacter spp. in Commercial Poultry Flocks before, during, and after Treatment with Fluoroquinolones

    PubMed Central

    Humphrey, Tom J.; Jørgensen, Frieda; Frost, Jennifer A.; Wadda, Haddy; Domingue, Gil; Elviss, Nicola C.; Griggs, Deborah J.; Piddock, Laura J. V.

    2005-01-01

    Five commercial broiler chicken flocks were treated with either difloxacin or enrofloxacin for a clinically relevant infection, as instructed by a veterinarian. Campylobacters were isolated from individual fecal samples and from samples associated with the broiler environment before, during, and after treatment. Ciprofloxacin-resistant Campylobacter jejuni and/or C. coli strains were detected pretreatment in four flocks, but they constituted a very small proportion of the campylobacters present. When the broilers were treated with a fluoroquinolone, a rapid increase in the proportion of ciprofloxacin-resistant campylobacters was observed. During treatment nearly 100% of campylobacters were resistant, and in some flocks a high proportion of resistant strains persisted for up to 4 weeks after treatment. Prior to treatment a variety of campylobacter subtypes were present. During and after treatment considerable changes in both species and subtype prevalence were observed, but no single fluoroquinolone-resistant clone became dominant. Instead, resistant C. coli strains or a mixture of resistant C. coli and C. jejuni strains became dominant, whereas susceptible C. jejuni strains had usually been dominant prior to treatment. The resistant subtypes which emerged and became dominant were not always the same as those detected pretreatment. The persistence of resistant strains for up to 4 weeks posttreatment has important implications for any strategy designed to avoid the introduction of such strains into the food chain. PMID:15673753

  8. Sampling by sponge wipe or skin excision for recovery of inoculated Salmonella and Campylobacter from defeathered broiler carcasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Broilers may carry Salmonella and Campylobacter on inner and outer surfaces upon arrival at the slaughter plant and carcasses can be further contaminated during commercial processing. A sensitive, non-destructive, repeatable sampling method would be useful to test carcasses for levels of bacteria b...

  9. Prevalence and concentration of Salmonella and Campylobacter in the processing environment of small-scale pastured broiler farms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A growing niche in the locally grown food movement is the small scale production of broiler chickens using the pasture-raised poultry production model. Little research exists that focuses on Salmonella and Campylobacter contamination in the environment associated with on-farm processing of pasture-r...

  10. ACCUMULATION OF POLYCHLORINATED ORGANIC CONTAMINANTS FROM SEDIMENT BY THREE BENTHIC MARINE SPECIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to measure the accumulation of selected polychlorinated compounds by marine benthos exposed to environmentally contaminated sediment. andworms (Nereis virens), clams (Macoma nasuta), and grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio) were exposed to sedim...

  11. WATER COLUMN TOXICITY FROM CONTAMINATED MARINE SEDIMENTS: EFFECTS ON MULTIPLE ENDPOINTS OF THREE MARINE SPECIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water quality monitoring programs often include toxicity testing of ambient waters with the assumption that observed toxicity is due to existing anthropogenic discharges. hese assessments rarely consider the potential that water column toxicity may originate from contaminated sed...

  12. Arsenic species formed from arsenopyrite weathering along a contamination gradient in Circumneutral river floodplain soils.

    PubMed

    Mandaliev, Petar N; Mikutta, Christian; Barmettler, Kurt; Kotsev, Tsvetan; Kretzschmar, Ruben

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic is a toxic trace element, which commonly occurs as contaminant in riverine floodplains and associated wetlands affected by mining and ore processing. In this study, we investigated the solid-phase speciation of As in river floodplain soils characterized by circumneutral pH (5.7-7.1) and As concentrations of up to 40.3 g/kg caused by former mining of arsenopyrite-rich ores. Soil samples collected in the floodplain of Ogosta River (Bulgaria) were size-fractionated and subsequently analyzed using a combination of X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), and selective chemical extraction of poorly crystalline mineral phases. Arsenic and Fe were found to be spatially correlated and both elements were strongly enriched in the fine soil particle size fractions (<2 μm and 2-50 μm). Between 14 and 82% of the total As was citrate-ascorbate extractable. Molar As/Fe ratios were as high as 0.34 in the bulk soil extracts and increased up to 0.48 in extracts of the fine particle size fractions. Arsenic K-edge XAS spectra showed the predominance of As(V) and were well fitted with a reference spectrum of As(V) adsorbed to ferrihydrite. Whereas no As(III) was detected, considerable amounts of As(-I) were present and identified as arsenopyrite originating from the mining waste. Iron K-edge XAS revealed that in addition to As(V) adsorbed to ferrihydrite, X-ray amorphous As(V)-rich hydrous ferric oxides ("As-HFO") with a reduced number of corner-sharing FeO6 octahedra relative to ferrihydrite were the dominating secondary As species in the soils. The extremely high concentrations of As in the fine particle size fractions (up to 214 g/kg) and its association with poorly crystalline Fe(III) oxyhydroxides and As-HFO phases suggest a high As mobilization potential under both oxic and anoxic conditions, as well as a high bioaccessibility of As upon ingestion, dermal contact, or inhalation by humans or animals. PMID

  13. Assessing Contaminant Sensitivity of Endangered and Threatened Aquatic Species: Part III. Effluent Toxicity Tests

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper reports on the results of chronic toxicity tests conducted with common surrogate species, and several threatened and endangered species for which there were excess artificially propagated stock to allow direct testing.

  14. SPECIES-ABUNDANCE-BIOMASS RESPONSES BY ESTUARINE MACROBENTHOS TO SEDIMENT CHEMICAL CONTAMINATION.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Macrobenthic community responses can be measured through concerted changes in univariate metrics, including species richness, total abundance, and total biomass. The classic model of pollution effects on marine macroinvertebrate communities recognizes that species/abundance/bioma...

  15. Phytoremediation potential of chromium-containing tannery effluent-contaminated soil by native Indian timber-yielding tree species.

    PubMed

    Manikandan, Muthu; Kannan, Vijayaraghavan; Mahalingam, Kanimozhi; Vimala, A; Chun, Sechul

    2016-01-01

    Twenty-six native Indian tree species that are used for the enhanced tree cover program of the forest department (Government of Tamilnadu, India) were screened for phytoremediation of tannery effluent-contaminated soil containing high chromium content. Out of 26 tree species tested, 10 timber-yielding tree species were selected for further phytoremediation monitoring. After a series of treatments with tannery effluent sludge, the chromium content was measured in the plant parts. The saplings of Acacia auriculiformis, Azadirachta indica, Albizzia lebbeck, Dalbergia sisso, and Thespesia populnea were identified as efficient bioaccumulators of chromium from Cr-contaminated soil. Acacia auriculiformis accumulates higher amounts of Cr in both the root and stem. Dalbergia sisso and T. populnea were found to accumulate higher quantity of Cr in the roots, whereas A. indica, A. richardiana, and A. lebbeck accumulate Cr in their stem. The stress response of the plant species was assessed by quantifying the antioxidative enzymes such as catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase, and DHAR. Activity of all the enzymes was observed to gradually increase following treatment with tannery effluent sludge. PMID:26177918

  16. Assessing Contaminant Sensitivity of Endangered and Threatened Aquatic Species: Part I. Acute Toxicity of Five Chemicals

    EPA Science Inventory

    Early life-stage toxicity tests with copper and pentachlorophenol (PCP) were conducted with two species listed under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (fountain darter, Etheostoma fonticola, and spotfin chub, Cyprinella monacha) and two surrogate species (fathead minnow, Pimephales...

  17. Recovery of Campylobacter from external and internal spleen samples from baby broiler chicks following various routes of inoculation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter species have been recovered from the lymphoid tissues of avian species. However, whether the bacteria are located internally in these tissues has not been determined. The objectives of the present study were to 1) develop a method to sample the inside and outside of the spleen and 2)...

  18. Comparison of contaminant accumulation in three species of marine invertebrates with different feeding habits

    SciTech Connect

    Kaag, N.H.B.M.; Foekema, E.M.; Scholten, M.C.T.; Straalen, N.M. van

    1997-05-01

    In order to assess the importance of the mode of feeding for the bioaccumulation of contaminants from sediments, three marine benthic invertebrates, with different feeding habits, were exposed to contaminated sediments in outdoor mesocosms. Residue analyses were carried out for several polychlorinated biphenyls and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons after exposure periods of 60 to 140 days. It was shown that sediment ingestion is a major uptake route for the sediment-feeding lugworm, Arenicola marina, and for the facultative deposit-feeding baltic tellin, Macoma balthica. Residues in the filter-feeding mussel, Mytilus edulis, appeared to be independent of contaminant concentrations in the sediment. The difference between deposit and filter-feeding bivalves was confirmed in experiments involving the baltic tellin, with differences in the food availability in the overlying water. A simple linear regression model was used to describe contaminant concentrations in sediment-feeding invertebrates as a function of concentrations in sediment. A correction for the accumulation from water was made by subtracting the concentrations in filter feeders. It was concluded that chemical equilibrium partitioning alone is not sufficient for the assessment of the risks of contaminated sediments to sediment-feeding invertebrates, but that feeding habits should also be considered.

  19. A PCR-RFLP assay for the detection and differentiation of Campylobacter jejuni, C. coli, C. fetus, C. hyointestinalis, C. lari, C. helveticus and C. upsaliensis.

    PubMed

    Kamei, Kazumasa; Asakura, Masahiro; Somroop, Srinuan; Hatanaka, Noritoshi; Hinenoya, Atsushi; Nagita, Akira; Misawa, Naoaki; Matsuda, Motoo; Nakagawa, Shinsaku; Yamasaki, Shinji

    2014-05-01

    Although Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are the most common bacterial causes of human gastrointestinal diseases, other Campylobacter species are also involved in human and animal infections. In this study, we developed a cytolethal distending toxin (cdt) gene-based PCR-RFLP assay for the detection and differentiation of C. jejuni, C. coli, C. fetus, C. hyointestinalis, C. lari, C. helveticus and C. upsaliensis. Previously designed common primers, which can amplify the cdtB gene of C. jejuni, C. coli and C. fetus, were used for detecting seven Campylobacter species and differentiating between them by restriction digestion. The PCR-RFLP assay was validated with 277 strains, including 35 C. jejuni, 19 C. coli, 20 C. fetus, 24 C. hyointestinalis, 13 C. lari, 2 C. helveticus, 22 C. upsaliensis, 3 other Campylobacter spp. and 17 other species associated with human diseases. Sensitivity and specificity of the PCR-RFLP assay were 100 % except for C. hyointestinalis (88 % sensitivity). Furthermore, the PCR-RFLP assay successfully detected and differentiated C. jejuni, C. coli and C. fetus in clinical and animal samples. The results indicate that the PCR-RFLP assay is useful for the detection and differentiation of seven Campylobacter species important for human and animal diseases. PMID:24568882

  20. A Systematic Review Characterizing On-Farm Sources of Campylobacter spp. for Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Agunos, Agnes; Waddell, Lisa; Léger, David; Taboada, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Campylobacter and antimicrobial-resistant Campylobacter are frequently isolated from broiler chickens worldwide. In Canada, campylobacteriosis is the third leading cause of enteric disease and the regional emergence of ciprofloxacin-resistant Campylobacter in broiler chickens has raised a public health concern. This study aimed to identify, critically appraise, and synthesize literature on sources of Campylobacter in broilers at the farm level using systematic review methodology. Literature searches were conducted in January 2012 and included electronic searches in four bibliographic databases. Relevant studies in French or English (n = 95) conducted worldwide in any year and all study designs were included. Risk of Bias and GRADE criteria endorsed by the Cochrane collaboration was used to assess the internal validity of the study and overall confidence in the meta-analysis. The categories for on-farm sources were: broiler breeders/vertical transfer (number of studies = 32), animals (n = 57), humans (n = 26), environment (n = 54), and water (n = 63). Only three studies examined the antimicrobial resistance profiles of Campylobacter from these on-farm sources. Subgroups of data by source and outcome were analyzed using random effect meta-analysis. The highest risk for contaminating a new flock appears to be a contaminated barn environment due to insufficient cleaning and disinfection, insufficient downtime, and the presence of an adjacent broiler flock. Effective biosecurity enhancements from physical barriers to restricting human movement on the farm are recommended for consideration to enhance local on-farm food safety programs. Improved sampling procedures and standardized laboratory testing are needed for comparability across studies. Knowledge gaps that should be addressed include farm-level drug use and antimicrobial resistance information, further evaluation of the potential for vertical transfer, and improved genotyping methods to

  1. Campylobacter recovery from external and internal organs of commercial broiler carcass prior to scalding.

    PubMed

    Berrang, M E; Buhr, R J; Cason, J A

    2000-02-01

    Campylobacter is a human pathogen commonly found on live broilers and processed carcasses. To plan effective intervention strategies, it would be helpful to know which Campylobacter populations are associated with the external and internal organs of broilers. Six carcasses were collected after exiting the bleed tunnel at a commercial broiler plant on each of three visits (n = 18). Carcasses were placed individually into sterile plastic bags, sealed, and covered with ice for transport to the laboratory. Five locations were sampled aseptically from each carcass: breast feathers (hand picked from the sternal tracts); breast skin, including the sternal tracts; crop; ceca; and colon. Samples included adhering contamination or lumen contents and were covered with phosphate-buffered saline and blended. Serial dilutions were made for examination of Campylobacter, coliform, Escherichia coli, and total aerobic bacterial populations. Average sample weights (grams) were as follows: feathers, 1.5; skin, 6.5; crop, 5.1; ceca, 7.8; and colon, 3.1. Campylobacter populations (mean log10 colony-forming units per gram of sample) found were feathers, 5.4; skin, 3.8; crop, 4.7; ceca, 7.3; and colon, 7.2. Coliform/E. coli populations observed were feathers, 6.4/6.0; skin, 5.3/4.9; crop, 4.3/3.7; ceca, 6.6/6.2; and colon, 5.8/5.3. Total aerobic bacterial populations found were feathers, 7.9; skin, 7.1; crop, 5.8; ceca, 6.8; and colon, 6.4. On a per gram basis, ceca and colon are the internal organs that if ruptured could cause the highest number of Campylobacter to be leaked onto the carcass. The crop also contained more Campylobacter per gram than did the skin, and if compromised may increase the numbers on the surface of the carcass. However, even with no contamination from an internal organ, a substantial population of Campylobacter is already resident on broiler skin as the carcass enters the early stages of processing. PMID:10735759

  2. Role of Poultry Meat in Sporadic Campylobacter Infections in Bosnia and Herzegovina: Laboratory-based Study

    PubMed Central

    Uzunović-Kamberović, Selma; Zorman, Tina; Heyndrickx, Marc; Smole Možina, Sonja

    2007-01-01

    Aim To investigate genetic diversity and specificity of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli strains isolated from humans, retail poultry meat, and live farm chickens in Zenica-Doboj Canton, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and identify the role of poultry meat in sporadic Campylobacter infections. Methods We determined the type of Campylobacter species using standard microbiological methods and multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and performed pulsed field gel-electrophoresis (PFGE) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) typing of the flaA gene to investigate genetic diversity among the isolates. Results We isolated C jejuni and C coli from 75 (5.2%) of 1453 samples of consecutive outpatients with sporadic diarrhea; from 51 (34.7%) of 147 samples of poultry meat; and from 15 out of 23 farm chicken samples. The proportion of C coli found among human (30.1%), poultry meat (56.9%), and farm chicken isolates (53.3%), was greater than the proportion of C jejuni. Fourteen and 24 PFGE genotypes were identified among 20 C coli and 37 C jejuni isolates, respectively. Identical PFGE genotypes were found in two cases of human and poultry meat isolates and two cases of poultry meat and farm chicken isolates. Conclusion Only a minority of human Campylobacter isolates shared identical PFGE type with poultry meat isolates. Although poultry is the source of a certain number of human infections, there may be other more important sources. Further research is required to identify the environmental reservoir of Campylobacter spp responsible for causing human disease and the reason for the high prevalence of C coli human infections in this region. PMID:18074419

  3. Radioactively contaminated areas: Bioindicator species and biomarkers of effect in an early warning scheme for a preliminary risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Lourenço, Joana; Mendo, Sónia; Pereira, Ruth

    2016-11-01

    Concerns about the impacts on public health and on the natural environment have been raised regarding the full range of operational activities related to uranium mining and the rest of the nuclear fuel cycle (including nuclear accidents), nuclear tests and depleted uranium from military ammunitions. However, the environmental impacts of such activities, as well as their ecotoxicological/toxicological profile, are still poorly studied. Herein, it is discussed if organisms can be used as bioindicators of human health effects, posed by lifetime exposure to radioactively contaminated areas. To do so, information was gathered from several studies performed on vertebrates, invertebrate species and humans, living in these contaminated areas. The retrieved information was compared, to determine which are the most used bioindicators and biomarkers and also the similarities between human and non-human biota responses. The data evaluated are used to support the proposal for an early warning scheme, based on bioindicator species and on the most sensitive and commonly shared biomarkers, to perform a screening evaluation of radioactively contaminated sites. This scheme could be used to support decision-making for a deeper evaluation of risks to human health, making it possible to screen a large number of areas, without disturbing and alarming local populations. PMID:27343869

  4. Better Campylobacter Detection: Furthering our understanding of Campylobacter ecology in poultry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter is an important human pathogen and consumption of undercooked poultry has been linked to significant human illnesses. To reduce human illness, intervention strategies targeting Campylobacter reduction in poultry are in development. For more than a decade, there has been an ongoing na...

  5. Specific detection of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli by using polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed Central

    Oyofo, B A; Thornton, S A; Burr, D H; Trust, T J; Pavlovskis, O R; Guerry, P

    1992-01-01

    Development of a routine detection assay for Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in clinical specimens was undertaken by using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). An oligonucleotide primer pair from a conserved 5' region of the flaA gene of C. coli VC167 was used to amplify a 450-bp region by PCR. The primer pair specifically detected 4 strains of C. coli and 47 strains of C. jejuni; but it did not detect strains of Campylobacter fetus, Campylobacter lari, Campylobacter upsaliensis, Campylobacter cryaerophila, Campylobacter butzleri, Campylobacter hyointestinalis, Wolinella recta, Helicobacter pylori, Escherichia coli, Shigella spp., Salmonella spp., Vibrio cholerae, Citrobacter freundii, or Aeromonas spp. By using a nonradioactively labeled probe internal to the PCR product, the assay could detect as little as 0.0062 pg of purified C. coli DNA, or the equivalent of four bacteria. In stools seeded with C. coli cells, the probe could detect between 30 and 60 bacteria per PCR assay. The assay was also successfully used to detect C. coli in rectal swab specimens from experimentally infected rabbits and C. jejuni in human stool samples. Images PMID:1400961

  6. Effects of trophic ecology and habitat use on maternal transfer of contaminants in four species of young of the year lamniform sharks.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Kady; Carlisle, Aaron; Preti, Antonella; Mull, Christopher; Blasius, Mary; O'Sullivan, John; Winkler, Chuck; Lowe, Christopher G

    2013-09-01

    Organic contaminant and total mercury concentrations were compared in four species of lamniform sharks over several age classes to examine bioaccumulation patterns and gain insights into trophic ecology. Contaminants found in young of the year (YOY) sharks were assumed to be derived from maternal sources and used as a proxy to investigate factors that influence maternal offloading processes. YOY white (Carcharodon carcharias) and mako (Isurus oxyrinchus) sharks had comparable and significantly higher concentrations of PCBs, DDTs, pesticides, and mercury than YOY thresher (Alopias vulpinus) or salmon (Lamna ditropis) sharks. A significant positive relationship was found between YOY contaminant loads and maternal trophic position, suggesting that trophic ecology is one factor that plays an important role in maternal offloading. Differences in organic contaminant signatures and contaminant concentration magnitudes among species corroborated what is known about species habitat use and may be used to provide insights into the feeding ecology of these animals. PMID:23773783

  7. Multilocus sequence typing (and phylogenetic analysis) of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli strains isolated from clinical cases in Greece

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The molecular epidemiology of C. jejuni and C. coli clinical strains isolated from children with gastroenteritis, was investigated using the multilocus sequence typing method (MLST). This analysis establishes for the first time in Greece and constitutes an important tool for the epidemiological surveillance and control of Campylobacter infection in our country. Methods The MLST genotypes were compared with those gained by other typing methods (HS-typing, PFGE and FlaA typing) and were also phylogenetically analyzed, in order to uncover genetic relationships. Results Among 68 C. jejuni strains, 41 different MLST-Sequence Types (MLST-STs) were found. Fifty six strains or 34 MLST-STs could be sorted into 15 different MLST-Sequence Type Complexes (MLST-STCs), while twelve strains or seven MLST-STs did not match any of the MLST-STCs of the database. Twenty C. coli strains belonged to 14 different MLST-STs. Eleven MLST-STs were classified in the same MLST-STC (828), and three were unclassifiable. There was no significant association between the MLST-STs and the results of the other typing methods. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that some strains, classified to the species of C. jejuni, formed a separate, phylogenetically distinct group. In eight strains some alleles belonging to the taxonomic cluster of C. jejuni, were also detected in C. coli and vice versa, a phenomenon caused by the genetic mosaic encountered inside the genus Campylobacter. Conclusions The MLST-ST determination proved to be a very useful tool for the typing as well as the identification of Campylobacter on the species level. PMID:24010733

  8. Molecular detection of Campylobacter spp. and fecal indicator bacteria during the northern migration of sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) at the central Platte River.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jingrang; Ryu, Hodon; Vogel, Jason; Santo Domingo, Jorge; Ashbolt, Nicholas J

    2013-06-01

    The risk to human health of the annual sandhill crane (Grus canadensis) migration through Nebraska, which is thought to be a major source of fecal pollution of the central Platte River, is unknown. To better understand potential risks, the presence of Campylobacter species and three fecal indicator bacterial groups (Enterococcus spp., Escherichia coli, and Bacteroidetes) was assayed by PCR from crane excreta and water samples collected during their stopover at the Platte River, Nebraska, in 2010. Genus-specific PCR assays and sequence analyses identified Campylobacter jejuni as the predominant Campylobacter species in sandhill crane excreta. Campylobacter spp. were detected in 48% of crane excreta, 24% of water samples, and 11% of sediment samples. The estimated densities of Enterococcus spp. were highest in excreta samples (mean, 4.6 × 10(8) cell equivalents [CE]/g), while water samples contained higher levels of Bacteroidetes (mean, 5.1 × 10(5) CE/100 ml). Enterococcus spp., E. coli, and Campylobacter spp. were significantly increased in river water and sediments during the crane migration period, with Enterococcus sp. densities (~3.3 × 10(5) CE/g) 2 to 4 orders of magnitude higher than those of Bacteroidetes (4.9 × 10(3) CE/g), E. coli (2.2 × 10(3) CE/g), and Campylobacter spp. (37 CE/g). Sequencing data for the 16S rRNA gene and Campylobacter species-specific PCR assays indicated that C. jejuni was the major Campylobacter species present in water, sediments, and crane excreta. Overall, migration appeared to result in a significant, but temporary, change in water quality in spring, when there may be a C. jejuni health hazard associated with water and crops visited by the migrating birds. PMID:23584775

  9. Prevalence of thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. in farmed hares (Lepus europaeus).

    PubMed

    Santaniello, Antonio; Dipineto, Ludovico; Veneziano, Vincenzo; Mariani, Ugo; Fioretti, Alessandro; Menna, Lucia Francesca

    2014-10-01

    Thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. were isolated from 118/240 (49.2%) rectal swabs from commercially farmed hares (Lepus europaeus) in southern Italy. Using multiplex PCR, Campylobacter coli was identified in 118/118 (100%) positive samples, while 17/118 (14.4%) positive samples were also positive for Campylobacter jejuni. Adult hares had a higher prevalence of infection with Campylobacter spp. than juvenile hares. PMID:25168717

  10. Arsenic Hyper-tolerance in Four Microbacterium Species Isolated from Soil Contaminated with Textile Effluent

    PubMed Central

    Kaushik, Pallavi; Rawat, Neha; Mathur, Megha; Raghuvanshi, Priyanka; Bhatnagar, Pradeep; Swarnkar, Harimohan; Flora, Swaran

    2012-01-01

    Arsenic-contaminated areas of Sanganer, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India were surveyed for the presence of metal resistant bacteria contaminated with textile effluent. Samples were collected from soil receiving regular effluent from the textile industries located at Sanganer area. The properties like pH, electrical conductivity, organic carbon, organic matter, exchangeable calcium, water holding capacity and metals like arsenic, iron, magnesium, lead and zinc were estimated in the contaminated soil. In total, nine bacterial strains were isolated which exhibited minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of arsenic ranging between 23.09 and 69.2mM. Four out of nine arsenic contaminated soil samples exhibited the presence of arsenite hyper-tolerant bacteria. Four high arsenite tolerant bacteria were characterized by 16S rDNA gene sequencing which revealed their similarity to Microbacterium paraoxydans strain 3109, Microbacterium paraoxydans strain CF36, Microbacterium sp. CQ0110Y, Microbacterium sp. GE1017. The above results were confirmed as per Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology. All the four Microbacterium strains were found to be resistant to 100μg/ml concentration of cobalt, nickel, zinc, chromium selenium and stannous and also exhibited variable sensitivity to mercury, cadmium, lead and antimony. These results indicate that the arsenic polluted soil harbors arsenite hyper-tolerant bacteria like Microbacterium which might play a role in bioremediation of the soil. PMID:22778519

  11. Evaluation of Tazobactam-Supplemented, Modified Charcoal-Cefoperazone-Deoxycholate Agar for Qualitative Detection of Campylobacter from Chicken Carcass Rinse.

    PubMed

    Chon, Jung-Whan; Kim, Young-Ji; Kim, Hong-Seok; Kim, Dong-Hyeon; Jeong, Dong Kwan; Seo, Kun-Ho

    2016-05-01

    Overgrowth of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli on modified charcoal-cefoperazone-deoxycholate agar (mCCDA) is the most common confounding factor for the isolation of Campylobacter from poultry samples. mCCDA modified by supplementation with tazobactam, an ESBL inhibitor, was evaluated for Campylobacter isolation from chicken carcass rinse with regard to isolation rate and selectivity. In total, 120 whole chicken carcasses purchased from retail stores were rinsed with buffered peptone water enriched with 2× blood-free Bolton broth at 42°C for 48 h and then inoculated onto mCCDA with and without tazobactam supplementation (mCCDA or T-mCCDA) at 42°C for 48 h under microaerobic conditions. Suspect colonies were subcultured and confirmed by colony PCR. Plates with tazobactam exhibited a higher Campylobacter isolation rate (56.7% vs. 30.8%, p < 0.05) and selectivity (0.8 vs. 83.3% plates contaminated with non-Campylobacter, p < 0.05) than mCCDA. Thus, tazobactam-supplemented mCCDA would be a useful option for qualitative detection of Campylobacter in chicken carcass rinse. PMID:27043031

  12. RECOVERY OF CAMPYLOBACTER FROM COMMERCIAL BROILER HATCHERY TRAYLINERS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous research has identified Campylobacter as one of the leading causes of foodborne illness. Poultry and poultry products have been identified as a major source of Campylobacter in human infections. Although many risk factors that contribute to Campylobacter levels have been identified, preci...

  13. A field evaluation of cytochrome P4501A as a biomarker of contaminant exposure in three species of flatfish

    SciTech Connect

    Collier, T.K.; Anulacion, B.F.; Stein, J.E.; Varanasi, U. ); Goksoeyr, A. . Lab. of Marine Molecular Biology)

    1995-01-01

    A study was conducted over the course of a year to determine the induction of hepatic cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) in three species of benthic fish collected from a contaminated site compared to fish sampled from a less-contaminated site. Juvenile fish were used to minimize effects of reproductive status and migration. CYP1A was determined by two catalytic assays [aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) and ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD)] and by an immunoassay (ELISA) utilizing polyclonal antibodies raised against purified CYP1A from cod. AHH activities were measured by a standard method (AHH[sub std]) and by two variations of the standard method. All three primary CYP1A measures (AHH[sub std], EROD, and ELISA) showed consistent between-site differences, indicating that induction of CYP1A can be a reliable biomarker of contaminant exposure in fish if appropriate biological variables are controlled for in field studies. Multiple ANOVA demonstrated that the AHH[sub std] and ELISA data showed less variability due to species or temporal differences, and less unexplained variability, compared to the data from the EROD assay or either variation of the AHH assay. For all measures, variability associated with site differences far outweighed species or temporal variability. Immunoassay, while less sensitive than the AHH[sub std] assay, is nonetheless recommended to be used in conjunction with catalytic assays because of the potential for samples to lose catalytic activity if not handled properly. The current results suggest that the lower noncontaminant-related variability of AHH[sub std] makes this CYP1A measure potentially more useful for monitoring programs in which analysis of trends is a primary goal.

  14. Stimulating the In Situ Activity of Geobacter Species To Remove Uranium from the Groundwater of a Uranium-Contaminated Aquifer

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Robert T.; Vrionis, Helen A.; Ortiz-Bernad, Irene; Resch, Charles T.; Long, Philip E.; Dayvault, Richard; Karp, Ken; Marutzky, Sam; Metzler, Donald R.; Peacock, Aaron; White, David C.; Lowe, Mary; Lovley, Derek R.

    2003-01-01

    The potential for removing uranium from contaminated groundwater by stimulating the in situ activity of dissimilatory metal-reducing microorganisms was evaluated in a uranium-contaminated aquifer located in Rifle, Colo. Acetate (1 to 3 mM) was injected into the subsurface over a 3-month period via an injection gallery composed of 20 injection wells, which was installed upgradient from a series of 15 monitoring wells. U(VI) concentrations decreased in as little as 9 days after acetate injection was initiated, and within 50 days uranium had declined below the prescribed treatment level of 0.18 μM in some of the monitoring wells. Analysis of 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequences and phospholipid fatty acid profiles demonstrated that the initial loss of uranium from the groundwater was associated with an enrichment of Geobacter species in the treatment zone. Fe(II) in the groundwater also increased during this period, suggesting that U(VI) reduction was coincident with Fe(III) reduction. As the acetate injection continued over 50 days there was a loss of sulfate from the groundwater and an accumulation of sulfide and the composition of the microbial community changed. Organisms with 16S rDNA sequences most closely related to those of sulfate reducers became predominant, and Geobacter species became a minor component of the community. This apparent switch from Fe(III) reduction to sulfate reduction as the terminal electron accepting process for the oxidation of the injected acetate was associated with an increase in uranium concentration in the groundwater. These results demonstrate that in situ bioremediation of uranium-contaminated groundwater is feasible but suggest that the strategy should be optimized to better maintain long-term activity of Geobacter species. PMID:14532040

  15. Stimulating the In Situ Activity of Geobacter Species to Remove Uranium from the Groundwater of a Uranium-Contaminated Aquifer

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R. T.; Vrionis, Helen A.; Ortiz-Bernad, Irene; Resch, Charles T.; Long, Philip E.; Dayvault, R. D.; Karp, Ken; Marutzky, Sammy J.; Metzler, Donald R.; Peacock, Aaron D.; White, David C.; Lowe, Mary; Lovley, Derek R.

    2003-10-01

    The potential for removing uranium from contaminated groundwater by stimulating the in situ activity of dissimilatory metal-reducing microorganisms was evaluated in a uranium-contaminated aquifer located in Rifle, Colo. Acetate (1 to 3 mM) was injected into the subsurface over a 3-month period via an injection gallery composed of 20 injection wells, which was installed upgradient from a series of 15 monitoring wells. U(VI) concentrations decreased in as little as 9 days after acetate injection was initiated, and within 50 days uranium had declined below the prescribed treatment level of 0.18 _M in some of the monitoring wells. Analysis of 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequences and phospholipid fatty acid profiles demonstrated that the initial loss of uranium from the groundwater was associated with an enrichment of Geobacter species in the treatment zone. Fe(II) in the groundwater also increased during this period, suggesting that U(VI) reduction was coincident with Fe(III) reduction. As the acetate injection continued over 50 days there was a loss of sulfate from the groundwater and an accumulation of sulfide and the composition of the microbial community changed. Organisms with 16S rDNA sequences most closely related to those of sulfate reducers became predominant, and Geobacter species became a minor component of the community. This apparent switch from Fe(III) reduction to sulfate reduction as the terminal electron accepting process for the oxidation of the injected acetate was associated with an increase in uranium concentration in the groundwater. These results demonstrate that in situ bioremediation of uranium-contaminated groundwater is feasible but suggest that the strategy should be optimized to better maintain long-term activity of Geobacter species.

  16. CONTAMINANT SENSITIVITY OF THREATENED AND ENDANGERED FISHES COMPARED TO STANDARD SURROGATE SPECIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Section 7 of the Endangered Species Act requires Federal agencies to insure that any action authorized, funded or carried out by them is not likely to jeopardize the continued existence of listed species or modify their critical habitat. The wide use of pesticides and other comm...

  17. USE OF SURROGATE SPECIES IN ASSESSING CONTAMINANT RISK TO ENDANGERED AND THREATENED FISHES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Surrogate species used in toxicity assessments must be carefully selected in order to be protective of listed species. At present, the rainbow trout is considered to be an acceptable surrogate for coldwater fishes. Similarly, the fathead minnow is considered to be an acceptable s...

  18. Chemotactic behavior of Campylobacter jejuni.

    PubMed Central

    Hugdahl, M B; Beery, J T; Doyle, M P

    1988-01-01

    The chemotactic behavior of Campylobacter jejuni was determined in the presence of different amino acids, carbohydrates, organic acids, and preparations and constituents of mucin and bile. L-Fucose was the only carbohydrate and L-aspartate, L-cysteine, L-glutamate, and L-serine were the only amino acids producing a chemotactic (positive) response. Several salts of organic acids, including pyruvate, succinate, fumarate, citrate, malate, and alpha-ketoglutarate, were also chemoattractants, as were bile (beef, chicken, and oxgall) and mucin (bovine gallbladder and hog gastric). Most constituents of bile tested individually were chemorepellents, but the mucin component was chemoattractant. The chemotactic behavior of C. jejuni toward L-fucose, a constituent of both bile and mucin, may be an important factor in the affinity of the organism for the gallbladder and intestinal tract. Images PMID:3372020

  19. Detection of thermophilic Campylobacter sp. in raw chicken sausages by methods ISO 10272: 2006 in Curitiba – Parana State – Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Konell, K.; Gelinsk, M.A.; Benetti, T.M.; Abrahão, W.M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was the detection of Campylobacter sp. in raw chicken sausages using the methods ISO 10272-1 and ISO 10272-2. The overall prevalence of Campylobacter sp. in the samples tested was 16.67%, representing a serious risk to the health of consumers, particularly if measures guaranteeing proper cooking of foods and prevention of cross-contamination are not adopted. Furthermore, the majority of campylobacteriosis cases in humans are caused by consumption or improper handling of contaminated raw or undercooked poultry meat, which constitute the main vehicle of this infection. PMID:25763066

  20. Species peculiarities in damage to regulatory systems of murine rodents` liver cells in conditions of slight radioactive contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Kudyasheva, A.G.; Shishkina, L.N.; Zagorskaya, N.G.

    1995-07-01

    Results are given from comparative analysis of the antioxidation activity (AOA) of lipids, composition of phospholipids, and activity of Krebs`-cycle and glycolysis enzymes in the liver of three species of murine rodents caught in the slightly contaminated zone of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. Disruptions were found in individual links of the regulation of processes of peroxidation of lipids (POL), as well as depression and discoordination of dehydrogenation process. The sharpest shifts in biochemical and biophysical indices were noted in the more radiosensitive root vole.

  1. Prevalence and Genetic Diversity of Campylobacter spp. in Environmental Water Samples from a 100-Square-Kilometer Predominantly Dairy Farming Area

    PubMed Central

    Kemp, R.; Leatherbarrow, A. J. H.; Williams, N. J.; Hart, C. A.; Clough, H. E.; Turner, J.; Wright, E. J.; French, N. P.

    2005-01-01

    Water samples were taken systematically from a 100-km2 area of mainly dairy farmland in northwestern England and examined for Campylobacter spp. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PFGE-RFLP) and flaA strain typing of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolates were done. Data on the water source and the adjacent environment were recorded and examined as explanatory variables. Campylobacter spp. were isolated from 40.5% (n = 119) of the water samples tested. C. jejuni was isolated from 14.3%, C. coli was isolated from 18.5%, and Campylobacter lari was isolated from 4.2% of the samples. Campylobacter hyointestinalis was not isolated from any water source. The difference in prevalence between water types (trough, running, and standing) was significant (P = 0.001). C. jejuni was the species most commonly isolated from trough-water and running-water sources, while C. coli was the most frequently isolated from standing water (P < 0.001). No association was found between the presence of Escherichia coli and that of Campylobacter spp. The final multivariable logistic regression model for Campylobacter spp. included the following variables: water source, soil type, aspect, and amount of cattle fecal material in the environment (fecal pat count). Strain typing demonstrated a diverse population of C. jejuni and the presence of a common C. coli flaA type that was widely distributed throughout the area. Most of the isolates within the common flaA type were discriminated by PFGE-RFLP. These findings suggest a possible role for environmental water in the epidemiology of Campylobacter spp. in a farming environment. PMID:15812015

  2. Darkling beetles (Alphitobius diaperinus) and their larvae as potential vectors for the transfer of Campylobacter jejuni and Salmonella enterica serovar paratyphi B variant Java between successive broiler flocks.

    PubMed

    Hazeleger, Wilma C; Bolder, Nico M; Beumer, Rijkelt R; Jacobs-Reitsma, Wilma F

    2008-11-01

    Broiler flocks often become infected with Campylobacter and Salmonella, and the exact contamination routes are still not fully understood. Insects like darkling beetles and their larvae may play a role in transfer of the pathogens between consecutive cycles. In this study, several groups of beetles and their larvae were artificially contaminated with a mixture of Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi B Variant Java and three C. jejuni strains and kept for different time intervals before they were fed to individually housed chicks. Most inoculated insects were positive for Salmonella and Campylobacter just before they were fed to the chicks. However, Campylobacter could not be isolated from insects that were kept for 1 week before they were used to mimic an empty week between rearing cycles. All broilers fed insects that were inoculated with pathogens on the day of feeding showed colonization with Campylobacter and Salmonella at levels of 50 to 100%. Transfer of both pathogens by groups of insects that were kept for 1 week before feeding to the chicks was also observed, but at lower levels. Naturally contaminated insects that were collected at a commercial broiler farm colonized broilers at low levels as well. In conclusion, the fact that Salmonella and Campylobacter can be transmitted via beetles and their larvae to flocks in successive rearing cycles indicates that there should be intensive control programs for exclusion of these insects from broiler houses. PMID:18791034

  3. Organic Nutrients and Contaminants In Subsistence Species of Alaska: Concentrations and Relationship To Food Preparation Method

    PubMed Central

    Moses, Sara K.; Whiting, Alex V.; Muir, Derek C.G.; Wang, Xiaowa; O'Hara, Todd M.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To determine nutrient and contaminant concentrations, document concentration changes related to common preparation methods and provide a basic risk-benefit analysis for select subsistence foods consumed by residents of Kotzebue, Alaska. Study design Eleven organic nutrients and 156 persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were measured in foods derived from spotted seals and sheefish. Methods Nutrients in foodstuffs were compared to Daily Recommended Intake criteria. POPs were compared to Tolerable Daily Intake Limits (TDIL). Results Cooking, as well as absence/presence of skin during sheefish processing, altered nutrient and contaminant concentrations in seals and fish. Sheefish muscle and seal blubber were particularly rich in omega-3 fatty acids and seal liver in vitamin A. Seal liver exceeded the recommended upper limit for vitamin A. POP contribution to TDIL was <25% in all tissues except blubber, in which 4 POPs were present at >25% TDIL. No POPs exceeded TDIL in a serving of any tissue studied. The most prominent concerns identified were levels of vitamin A in spotted seal liver and certain POPs in blubber, warranting consideration when determining how much and how often these foods should be consumed. Conclusions Preparation methods altering tissues from their raw state significantly affect nutrient and contaminant concentrations, thus direct evaluation of actual food items is highly recommended to determine risk-benefits ratios of traditional diets. Traditional foods provide essential nutrients with very limited risk from contaminants. We encourage the consumption of traditional foods and urge public health agencies to develop applicable models to assess overall food safety and quality. PMID:19917188

  4. Contaminant sensitivity of threatened and endangered fishes compared to standard surrogate species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sappington, L.C.; Mayer, F.L.; Dwyer, F.J.; Buckler, D.R.; Jones, J.R.; Ellersieck, Mark R.

    2001-01-01

    Standard environmental assessment procedures are designed to protect terrestrial and aquatic species. However, it is not known if endangered species are adequately protected by these procedures. At present, toxicological data obtained from studies with surrogate test fishes are assumed to be applicable to endangered fish species, but this assumption has not been validated. Static acute toxicity tests were used to compare the sensitivity of rainbow trout, fathead minnows, and sheepshead minnows to several federally listed fishes (Apache trout, Lahontan cutthroat trout, greenback cutthroat trout, bonytail chub, Colorado pikeminnow, razorback sucker, Leon Springs pupfish, and desert pupfish). Chemicals tested included carbaryl, copper, 4-nonylphenol, pentachlorophenol, and permethrin. Results indicated that the surrogates and listed species were of similar sensitivity. In two cases, a listed species had a 96-h LC50 (lethal concentration to 50% of the population) that was less than one half of its corresponding surrogate. In all other cases, differences between listed and surrogate species were less than twofold. A safety factor of two would provide a conservative estimate for listed cold-water, warm-water, and euryhaline fish species.

  5. Assessing contaminant sensitivity of endangered and threatened aquatic species: Part III. Effluent toxicity tests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dwyer, F.J.; Hardesty, D.K.; Henke, C.E.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Whites, D.W.; Augspurger, T.; Canfield, T.J.; Mount, D.R.; Mayer, F.L.

    2005-01-01

    Toxicity tests using standard effluent test procedures described by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency were conducted with Ceriodaphnia dubia, fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas), and seven threatened and endangered (listed) fish species from four families: (1) Acipenseridae: shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum); (2) Catostomidae; razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus); (3) Cyprinidae: bonytail chub (Gila elegans), Cape Fear shiner (Notropis mekistocholas) Colorado pikeminnow (Ptychocheilus lucius), and spotfin chub (Cyprinella monacha); and (4) Poecillidae: Gila topminnow (Poeciliopsis occidentalis). We conducted 7-day survival and growth studies with embryo-larval fathead minnows and analogous exposures using the listed species. Survival and reproduction were also determined with C. dubia. Tests were conducted with carbaryl, ammonia-or a simulated effluent complex mixture of carbaryl, copper, 4-nonylphenol, pentachlorophenol and permethrin at equitoxic proportions. In addition, Cape Fear shiners and spotfin chub were tested using diazinon, copper, and chlorine. Toxicity tests were also conducted with field-collected effluents from domestic or industrial facilities. Bonytail chub and razorback suckers were tested with effluents collected in Arizona whereas effluent samples collected from North Carolina were tested with Cape Fear shiner, spotfin chub, and shortnose sturgeon. The fathead minnow 7-day effluent test was often a reliable estimator of toxic effects to the listed fishes. However, in 21 % of the tests, a listed species was more sensitive than fathead minnows. More sensitive species results varied by test so that usually no species was always more or less sensitive than fathead minnows. Only the Gila topminnow was consistently less sensitive than the fathead minnow. Listed fish species were protected 96% of the time when results for both fathead minnows and C. dubia were considered, thus reinforcing the value of standard whole

  6. Toxicological and biochemical responses of the earthworm Eisenia fetida exposed to contaminated soil: Effects of arsenic species.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhifeng; Cui, Zhaojie; Liu, Lei; Ma, Qianchi; Xu, Xiaoming

    2016-07-01

    Arsenic is a pollutant that can be detected in different chemical forms in soil. However, the toxicological effects of different arsenic species on organisms have received little attention. In this study, we exposed earthworms Eisenia fetida to artificial soils contaminated by arsenite [As(III)], arsenate [As(V)], monomethylarsonate (MMA) and dimethylarsinate (DMA) for 28 and 56 days. Three biomarkers including lipid peroxidation (LPO), metallothioneins (MTs) and lysosomal membrane stability (LMS) were analyzed in the organisms. In addition, the contents of total arsenic and arsenic species in earthworms were also determined to investigate the effects of bioaccumulation and biotransformation of arsenic on biomarkers and to evaluate the dose-response relationships. The results showed that the relationship between the three biomarkers and the two inorganic arsenic species were dose dependent, and the correlation levels between the biomarkers and As(III) were higher than that between the biomarkers and As(V). Trivalent arsenic species shows more toxicity than pentavalent arsenic on the earthworms at molecular and subcellular level, including oxidative damage, MTs induction and lysosomal membrane damage. The toxicity of MMA and DMA was lower than inorganic arsenic species. However, the occurrence of demethylation of organic arsenics could lead to the generation of highly toxic inorganic arsenics and induce adverse effects on organisms. The biotransformation of highly toxic inorganic arsenics to the less toxic organic species in the earthworms was also validated in this study. The biomarker responses of the earthworm to different arsenic species found in this study could be helpful in future environment monitoring programs. PMID:27045633

  7. ASSESSING CONTAMINANT SENSITIVITY OF ENDANGERED AND THREATENED SPECIES: EFFLUENT TOXICITY TESTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Toxicity tests using standard effluent test procedures were conducted (EPA 1994) with Ceriodaphnia dubia and fathead minnows and four endangered fish species: bonytail chub (Gila elegans), Colorado squawfish (Ptychocheilus lucias ), razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus) and Gila t...

  8. Pesticide contamination has little effect on the genetic diversity of potato species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our previous study examining the effects of agrichemicals on the reproductive capacity of potato species revealed that the pesticide carbofuran negatively influenced flowering duration and pollen viability. These changes could limit reproductive ability non-randomly, modify allelic frequencies, and ...

  9. 'Alperujo' compost amendment of contaminated calcareous and acidic soils: effects on growth and trace element uptake by five Brassica species.

    PubMed

    Fornes, Fernando; García-de-la-Fuente, Rosana; Belda, Rosa M; Abad, Manuel

    2009-09-01

    The effects of 'alperujo' compost on trace element availability and on microbial activity of two contaminated soils, a calcareous soil (S1) with high contents of Pb and Zn, and an acidic soil (S2) with a substantial amount of Al, As, Pb and Zn, were assessed. Additionally, the growth and capacity for contaminant phytoextraction of five Brassica species were studied. Compost amendment did not affect S1, but in S2 it increased soil pH, thus reducing Al and Zn bioavailability and toxicity. Compost application also increased microbial population and bioactivity in both soils. Brassica plants did not survive in S2, yet they thrived in S1. When compost was applied to S2, Brassica carinata, Brassica napus and Brassica oleracea grew adequately. Considering both the capacity to accumulate trace elements in the shoot and the ability to grow in the contaminated soils tested, the most efficient phytoextractors were Brassica juncea in S1 (particularly for Zn) and Brassica oleracea in S2 (for Al, As, Pb and Zn). PMID:19369067

  10. Biological removing of Cadmium from contaminated media by fungal biomass of Trichoderma species

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Environment pollution by heavy metals is a global disaster and there are several cleaning methods including bioremediation. Trichoderma species inhibit the growth of pathogenic fungi and play a useful role in agriculture and ecosystem management. Methods In this study, the removing of cadmium ions by three species of Trichoderma (T. asperellum, T. harzianum and T. tomentosum) were studied under different pH (5, 7, 9) and different concentrations of Cd (1, 100, 200 ppm) in liquid media containing potato extract and dextrose. Above mentioned fungal strains were cultured in the Cd-polluted media and the remaining amount of metal ions in the media was measured after two months growth, using atomic absorption. Results Results showed that all three fungal species were able to reduce the amount of Cd in the all three pH of the medias; but their removal ability varies depending on the species and cultural conditions. T. asperellum was showed maximum removal efficiency of cadmium (76.17%), (10.75 mg/g, at fungal dry weight). Based on our results, the most removal efficiency of Cd ions for the fungal species was evaluated in the alkaline pH. Conclusions Trichoderma species are important fungi in decreasing of Cadmium ions. They have bioremediation potency under various pH and concentration conditions. PMID:25068039

  11. Assessing contaminant sensitivity of endangered and threatened aquatic species: Part II. chronic toxicity of copper and pentachlorophenol to two endangered species and two surrogate species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Besser, J.M.; Wang, N.; Dwyer, F.J.; Mayer, F.L., Jr.; Ingersoll, C.G.

    2005-01-01

    Early life-stage toxicity tests with copper and pentachlorophenol (PCP) were conducted with two species listed under the United States Endangered Species Act (the endangered fountain darter, Etheostoma fonticola, and the threatened spotfin chub, Cyprinella monacha) and two commonly tested species (fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas, and rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss). Results were compared using lowest-observed effect concentrations (LOECs) based on statistical hypothesis tests and by point estimates derived by linear interpolation and logistic regression. Sublethal end points, growth (mean individual dry weight) and biomass (total dry weight per replicate) were usually more sensitive than survival. The biomass end point was equally sensitive as growth and had less among-test variation. Effect concentrations based on linear interpolation were less variable than LOECs, which corresponded to effects ranging from 9% to 76% relative to controls and were consistent with thresholds based on logistic regression. Fountain darter was the most sensitive species for both chemicals tested, with effect concentrations for biomass at ??? 11 ??g/L (LOEC and 25% inhibition concentration [IC25]) for copper and at 21 ??g/L (IC25) for PCP, but spotfin chub was no more sensitive than the commonly tested species. Effect concentrations for fountain darter were lower than current chronic water quality criteria for both copper and PCP. Protectiveness of chronic water-quality criteria for threatened and endangered species could be improved by the use of safety factors or by conducting additional chronic toxicity tests with species and chemicals of concern. ?? 2005 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.

  12. INORGANIC NUTRIENTS AND CONTAMINANTS IN SUBSISTENCE SPECIES OF ALASKA: LINKING WILDLIFE AND HUMAN HEALTH

    PubMed Central

    Moses, Sara K.; Whiting, Alex V.; Bratton, Gerald R.; Taylor, Robert J.; O’Hara, Todd M.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To determine inorganic nutrient and contaminant concentrations in subsistence foods consumed by Alaska Natives, concentration changes related to common preparation methods and provide a basic risk-benefit analysis for these foods. Study design Eleven essential and six non-essential elements were measured in foods derived from spotted seals and sheefish. Methods Essential nutrients in foodstuffs were compared to Daily Recommended Intake (DRI) criteria. Non-essential elements were compared to Tolerable Daily Intake Limits (TDIL). These comparisons serve as a risk-benefit analysis, not as consumption advice. Results Cooking altered nutrient and contaminant concentrations. Spotted seal muscle and kidney are rich in Fe and Se; liver in Cu, Fe, Mo and Se; and sheefish muscle in Se. TDIL was exceeded in a 100 g serving of seal for THg in raw and fried liver and boiled kidney; MeHg in dried muscle and raw and fried liver; Cd in raw and boiled kidney; and As in raw and rendered blubber. Arsenic exceeded TDIL in sheefish muscle. However, toxicity potential is likely reduced by the element form (i.e., organic As, inorganic Hg) and the presence of protective nutrients such as Se. Conclusions Preparation methods alter wildlife tissues from their raw state, significantly affecting element concentrations. Direct evaluation of actual food items is warranted to determine risk-benefit ratios of traditional diets. Traditional foods provide many essential nutrients with a very limited risk from contaminants. We encourage continued consumption of traditional foods, and urge public health agencies to develop applicable models for providing consumption advice, incorporating food processing considerations. PMID:19331242

  13. Biodegradation of free cyanide by bacterial species isolated from cyanide-contaminated artisanal gold mining catchment area in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Razanamahandry, Lovasoa Christine; Andrianisa, Harinaivo Anderson; Karoui, Hela; Kouakou, Koffi Marcelin; Yacouba, Hamma

    2016-08-01

    Soil and water samples were collected from a watershed in Burkina Faso where illegal artisanal gold extraction using cyanidation occurs. The samples were used to evaluate cyanide contamination and the presence of cyanide degrading bacteria (CDB). Free cyanide (F-CN) was detected in all samples, with concentrations varying from 0.023 to 0.9 mg kg(-1), and 0.7-23 μg L(-1) in the soil and water samples, respectively. Potential CDB also were present in the samples. To test the effective F-CN degradation capacity of the isolated CDB species, the species were cultivated in growth media containing 40, 60 or 80 mg F-CN L(-1), with or without nutrients, at pH 9.5 and at room temperature. More than 95% of F-CN was degraded within 25 h, and F-CN degradation was associated with bacterial growth and ammonium production. However, initial concentrations of F-CN higher than 100 mg L(-1) inhibited bacterial growth and cyanide degradation. Abiotic tests showed that less than 3% of F-CN was removed by volatilization. Thus, the degradation of F-CN occurred predominately by biological mechanisms, and such mechanisms are recommended for remediation of contaminated soil and water. The bacteria consortium used in the experiment described above exist in a Sahelian climate, which is characterized by a long hot and dry season. Because the bacteria are already adapted to the local climate conditions and show the potential for cyanide biodegradation, further applicability to other contaminated areas in West Africa, where illegal gold cyanidation is widespread, should be explored. PMID:27209555

  14. Salmonellae and campylobacters in household and stray dogs in northern Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Tsai, H-J; Huang, H-C; Lin, C-M; Lien, Y-Y; Chou, C-H

    2007-11-01

    Rectal swabs were collected from 437 household and 491 stray dogs in northern Taiwan from May 2003 to June 2005 to investigate the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibilities of salmonellae and campylobacters. The results revealed that 2.1% of household dogs and 6.3% of stray dogs were positive for salmonellae, with Salmonella Duesseldorf being the most dominant serotype in both. Additionally, 2.7% of the household dogs and 23.8% of the stray dogs were positive for campylobacters. Campylobacter jejuni was the most prevalent species (86.8%), followed by C. upsaliensis (9.3%) and C. coli (3.9%). Both salmonella and campylobacter isolation rates from the stray dogs were significantly higher than those from the household dogs (p < 0.01). The susceptibility of 33 C. jejuni isolates to eight antimicrobials was studied by the E-test. A high rate of resistance was observed to azithromycin (93.9%), clindamycin (87.9%), erythromycin (81.8%), tetracycline (78.8%), chloramphenicol (69.7%), nalidixic acid (51.5%), gentamicin (33.3%), and ciprofloxacin (18.2%). The susceptibility of 40 Salmonella isolates to 15 antimicrobials was also studied by the disc-diffusion method. All the Salmonella isolates were susceptible to ciprofloxacin and ceftriaxone. Resistance was observed most frequently to tetracycline (77.5%), chloramphenicol (52.5%), and ampicillin (50%). PMID:17285243

  15. Comparison of organic contaminant accumulation by semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) and the caged mussel species Mytilus edulis

    SciTech Connect

    Hofelt, C.; Shea, D.

    1995-12-31

    The accumulation of anthropogenic contaminants by sentinel species such as the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, is common in many monitoring programs such as the National Status and Trends Mussel Watch Program. Bivalves are used because they are filter-feeding organisms with a high lipid content and therefore accumulate pollutants readily, and they do not appear to metabolize contaminants to a large extent. There are difficulties associated with this approach however, such as mortality, changing lipid mass and respiration rates, and interspecies differences; therefore the use of a non-living substrate may be more practical. The semipermeable membrane device (SPMD) consists of a length of thin-walled polyethylene tubing with a film of high molecular weight neutral lipid (triolein) sealed inside. The SPMD, when suspended in the water column, will concentrate lipophilic organic contaminants from the surrounding environment. The authors deployed SPMDs and caged Mytilus edulis side-by-side at five sites near New Bedford Harbor, MA; an area highly contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). A good correlation was observed between the SPMDs and the caged blue mussels, with R{sup 2} ranging from 0.57 to 0.85 (N = 16) for chlorinated pesticides and from 0.81 to 0.96 (N = 20) for PCBs. Bioconcentration factors (BCF) based on water column concentrations were also calculated and a good correlation was obtained between the SPMD BCFs and corresponding octanol-water partition coefficients. Unlike previous investigations, the authors found good agreement even with the highest chlorinated PCBs suggesting that there was no steric hindrance of uptake through the SPMD membrane.

  16. An assessment of PCB and PBDE contamination in two tropical dolphin species from the Southeastern Brazilian coast.

    PubMed

    Lavandier, Ricardo; Arêas, Jennifer; Dias, Patrick S; Taniguchi, Satie; Montone, Rosalinda; de Moura, Jailson Fulgencio; Quinete, Natalia; Siciliano, Salvatore; Moreira, Isabel

    2015-12-30

    PCBs and PBDEs were determined in two dolphin species, Sotalia guianensis and Steno bredanensis, from an upwelling system off the Central-northern coast of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. PCB levels varied from 0.040 to 0.75 μg g(-1) lw in muscles and from 0.022 to 1.32 μg g(-1)lw in liver samples from S. guianensis. In S. bredanensis, values varied from 0.085 to 11.3 μg g(-1) lw in muscles and from 0.024 to 18.6 μg g(-1) lw in livers. PCB-138, -153 and -180 were the major PCB congeners detected in both species, while BDE-47 was the predominant PBDE congener found in both species. Higher concentrations in S. bredanensis were possibly related to the different feeding habits for both delphinid species. These results contribute to extend the database on organic contamination in cetaceans from the southern hemisphere, understanding their distribution and environmental fate in Southeastern Brazil. PMID:26506024

  17. Regional differences in species composition and toxigenic potential among Fusarium head blight isolates from Uruguay indicate a risk of nivalenol contamination in new wheat production areas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Members of the Fusarium graminearum species complex (FGSC) are the primary cause of Fusarium head blight (FHB) of wheat, and frequently contaminate grain with trichothecene mycotoxins that pose a serious threat to food safety and animal health. The species identity and trichothecene toxin potential...

  18. Halomonas, a newly recognized human pathogen causing infections and contamination in a dialysis center: three new species.

    PubMed

    Stevens, David A; Hamilton, John R; Johnson, Nancy; Kim, Kwang Kyu; Lee, Jung-Sook

    2009-07-01

    Our Renal Care Center (RCC) is a separate building, performing almost 2500 outpatient dialysis runs per month. In May 2007, 2 patients developed, days apart, bacteremia with an apparently identical nonfermentative Gram-negative rod. Because of difficulty identifying the organism, testing in the Biolog system identified them as a Halomonas species. Sequencing of approximately 1500 bases of the 16S rRNA gene in both organisms in 3 reference laboratories confirmed, searching against 3 databases, that the organisms were identical and were Halomonas species. There were 54 recognized species of this genus, associated with marine or saline sites. Initial attempts at environmental isolation as primary cultures, including a 4% salt agar plate, or initial incubation in 6.5% salt broth enrichment culture with subculture to agar, to exploit the halophilicity of Halomonas, were successful in demonstrating the colonies seen in the blood cultures, only from sites not contaminated with other organisms, because of competing growth. A more selective method was developed for use on samples suspected to be heavily contaminated with other organisms, using the strategy of increased salt concentration in a broth enrichment culture to further exploit Halomonas halotolerance, and thereby inhibit other organisms. A 16.5% salt concentration in brain-heart infusion broth, incubated at 35 degrees C for 48-72 hours, then subcultured to agar plates incubated in room air at 35 degrees C, proved optimal for selection and secondary isolation. With a combination of these techniques, 14/15 cultures of dialysates and 10/38 from the outflow pathways of the machines were Halomonas positive, compared to 0/31 cultures from the inflow side of the machines (including water supplies and storing, mixing, and preparation tanks). The exception was sites associated with or downstream of bicarbonate influx, 12/54 of which were positive. Two other local hospitals' dialysis centers, and our own inpatient dialysis

  19. Removal of carbon contaminations by RF plasma generated reactive species and subsequent effects on optical surface

    SciTech Connect

    Yadav, P. K. Rai, S. K.; Modi, M. H.; Nayak, M.; Lodha, G. S.; Kumar, M.; Chakera, J. A.; Naik, P. A.

    2015-06-24

    Carbon contamination on optical elements is a serious issue in synchrotron beam lines for several decades. The basic mechanism of carbon deposition on optics and cleaning strategies are not fully understood. Carbon growth mechanism and optimized cleaning procedures are worldwide under development stage. Optimized RF plasma cleaning is considered an active remedy for the same. In present study carbon contaminated optical test surfaces (carbon capped tungsten thin film) are exposed for 30 minutes to four different gases, rf plasma at constant power and constant dynamic pressure. Structural characterization (thickness, roughness and density) of virgin samples and plasma exposed samples was done by soft x-ray (λ=80 Å) reflectivity measurements at Indus-1 reflectivity beam line. Different gas plasma removes carbon with different rate (0.4 to 0.65 nm /min). A thin layer 2 to 9 nm of different roughness and density is observed at the top surface of tungsten film. Ar gas plasma is found more suitable for cleaning of tungsten surface.

  20. Removal of carbon contaminations by RF plasma generated reactive species and subsequent effects on optical surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, P. K.; Kumar, M.; Rai, S. K.; Modi, M. H.; Chakera, J. A.; Nayak, M.; Naik, P. A.; Lodha, G. S.

    2015-06-01

    Carbon contamination on optical elements is a serious issue in synchrotron beam lines for several decades. The basic mechanism of carbon deposition on optics and cleaning strategies are not fully understood. Carbon growth mechanism and optimized cleaning procedures are worldwide under development stage. Optimized RF plasma cleaning is considered an active remedy for the same. In present study carbon contaminated optical test surfaces (carbon capped tungsten thin film) are exposed for 30 minutes to four different gases, rf plasma at constant power and constant dynamic pressure. Structural characterization (thickness, roughness and density) of virgin samples and plasma exposed samples was done by soft x-ray (λ=80 Å) reflectivity measurements at Indus-1 reflectivity beam line. Different gas plasma removes carbon with different rate (0.4 to 0.65 nm /min). A thin layer 2 to 9 nm of different roughness and density is observed at the top surface of tungsten film. Ar gas plasma is found more suitable for cleaning of tungsten surface.

  1. Partitioning of strontium-90 among aqueous and mineral species in a contaminated aquifer

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, R.E.; Inch, K.J.

    1983-04-01

    The geochemical partitioning of a toxic metal contaminant, /sup 90/Sr, during its migration through a shallow sand aquifer is discussed. Adsorption of /sup 90/Sr from the contaminated groundwaters (pH approx. 6, I approx.0.001) causes it to have a migration velocity of only 3% of that of transporting ground water. Five microscopically identified adsorbents were isolated in the aquifer sediments and showed the following affinity sequence for /sup 90/Sr: vermiculite > feldspar > biotite > muscovite > quartz. While 4a80% of the adsorbed /sup 90/Sr is exchangeable with 0.1 M SrCl/sub 2/, the residual adsorbed /sup 90/Sr is strongly correlated with extractable Fe, Al, and Mn, suggesting specific adsorption by these metal oxides. An equilibrium adsorption model was used to determine the partitioning of /sup 90/Sr between adsorbents and between solid and solution phases. Over 90% of all /sup 90/SR in the aquifer is adsorbed. Approximately 90% of all adsorbed /sup 90/SR is equally divided between vermiculite and feldspar minerals.

  2. Diesel biodegradation capacities of indigenous bacterial species isolated from diesel contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Palanisamy, Nandhini; Ramya, Jayaprakash; Kumar, Srilakshman; Vasanthi, Ns; Chandran, Preethy; Khan, Sudheer

    2014-01-01

    Petroleum based products are the major source of energy for industries and daily life. Leaks and accidental spills occur regularly during the exploration, production, refining, transport, and storage of petroleum and petroleum products. In the present study we isolated the bacteria from diesel contaminated soil and screened them for diesel biodegradation capacity. One monoculture isolate identified by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis to be Acinetobacter baumannii was further studied for diesel oil biodegradation. The effects of various culture parameters (pH, temperature, NaCl concentrations, initial hydrocarbon concentration, initial inoculum size, role of chemical surfactant, and role of carbon and nitrogen sources) on biodegradation of diesel oil were evaluated. Optimal diesel oil biodegradation by A. baumanii occurred at initial pH 7, 35°C and initial hydrocarbon concentration at 4%. The biodegradation products under optimal cultural conditions were analyzed by GC-MS. The present study suggests that A. baumannii can be used for effective degradation of diesel oil from industrial effluents contaminated with diesel oil. PMID:25530870

  3. Campylobacter

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2020 and Food Safety Food Safety Modernization Act File Formats Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, PPT, MPEG) on this site? Adobe PDF file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel ...

  4. Prevalence of Virulence/Stress Genes in Campylobacter jejuni from Chicken Meat Sold in Qatari Retail Outlets

    PubMed Central

    Behnke, Jerzy M.; Sharma, Aarti; Bearden, Rebecca; Al-Banna, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    Chicken meat from the shelves of supermarkets in Qatar was tested for the presence of Campylobacter spp. and the presence of five virulence genes (htrB, cdtB, clpP, cadF and ciaB) was assessed in isolates. Forty eight percent of the chickens provided for supermarkets by Saudi (53%) and Qatari (45.9%) producers were found to be contaminated and the most important factor affecting the overall prevalence of contaminated chickens was the store from which chicken samples originated. Variation in prevalence of Campylobacter in chicken meat from different stores was evident even when the same producer supplied the three stores in our survey. Differences in the prevalence and in the combinations of virulence genes in isolates that can and cannot grow in a classic maintenance medium (Karmali) were identified, providing a starting point for linking presence/absence of particular virulence genes with actual in vivo virulence and pathogenicity. Because of the relatively low infective doses of Campylobacter that are required to initiate infection in humans, it will be important to explore further the relationships we identified between certain Campylobacter virulence genes and their capacity for survival in poultry meat, and hence their contribution to the incidence of campylobacteriosis. PMID:27258021

  5. [Variations of arsenic species in the solution of arsenic-contaminated paddy soil under flooding and at different temperatures].

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhao; Cui, Jiang-Hui; Chen, Zheng; Lu, Xiu-Jun; Liu, Wen-Ju

    2013-05-01

    Taking arsenic (As)-contaminated paddy soil as test object, and by using high performance liquid chromatography inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS), this paper studied the variations of As species in soil solution when the soil was sterilized or non-sterilized and incubated at different temperatures (5, 27, and 50 degrees C) under flooding. In the soil solution (pore water), only As(III) (arsenite), As(V) (arsenate), and DMA(V) ( dimethylarsinic acid) were detected, but no MMA(V)(mono methylarsinic acid) was found. With the increasing time of flooding and at the test temperatures, arsenite became the predominant species, averagely accounting for 64%, followed by As(V), with the proportion of 35%, and DMA(V), with the least proportion of 1%. Soil sterilization or non-sterilization had less effect on the concentrations of As(III) and DMA(V) in the soil solution, but remarkably affected the reduction of As(V) and the methylation of As(III). The promotion effect of soil sterilization decreased gradually with the increasing time of flooding and incubation. At 50 degrees C and after flooded for 23 days, the DMA(V) concentration in sterilized soil solution was the highest and up to 23.7 ng x mL(-1), indicating that some thermophilic microbes remained in sterilized soil became predominant species, and promoted the methylation of As(III) In sum, the total arsenic concentration in non-sterilized soil at incubation temperature 27 degrees C and flooded for 23 days was relatively low (501 ng x mL(-1)), and thus, in As-contaminated paddy rice planting areas, to adopt the water management mode of short cycle flooding-non-flooding could decrease the As level in soil solution as far as possible, and in the same time, save water resources and ensure yielding. PMID:24015564

  6. Development of a real-time TaqMan assay to detect mendocina sublineage Pseudomonas species in contaminated metalworking fluids.

    PubMed

    Saha, Ratul; Donofrio, Robert S; Bagley, Susan T

    2010-08-01

    A TaqMan quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay was developed for the detection and enumeration of three Pseudomonas species belonging to the mendocina sublineage (P. oleovorans, P. pseudoalcaligenes, and P. oleovorans subsp. lubricantis) found in contaminated metalworking fluids (MWFs). These microbes are the primary colonizers and serve as indicator organisms of biodegradation of used MWFs. Molecular techniques such as qPCR are preferred for the detection of these microbes since they grow poorly on typical growth media such as R2A agar and Pseudomonas isolation agar (PIA). Traditional culturing techniques not only underestimate the actual distribution of these bacteria but are also time-consuming. The primer-probe pair developed from gyrase B (gyrB) sequences of the targeted bacteria was highly sensitive and specific for the three species. qPCR was performed with both whole cell and genomic DNA to confirm the specificity and sensitivity of the assay. The sensitivity of the assay was 10(1) colony forming units (CFU)/ml for whole cell and 13.7 fg with genomic DNA. The primer-probe pair was successful in determining concentrations from used MWF samples, indicating levels between 2.9 x 10(3) and 3.9 x 10(6) CFU/ml. In contrast, the total count of Pseudomonas sp. recovered on PIA was in the range of <1.0 x 10(1) to 1.4 x 10(5) CFU/ml for the same samples. Based on these results from the qPCR assay, the designed TaqMan primer-probe pair can be efficiently used for rapid (within 2 h) determination of the distribution of these species of Pseudomonas in contaminated MWFs. PMID:20458609

  7. An evaluation of the contaminant impacts on plants serving as habitat for an endangered species

    SciTech Connect

    DeShields, B.R.; Stelljes, M.E.; Hawkins, E.T.; Alsop, W.R.; Collins, W.

    1995-12-31

    As part of an ecological risk assessment at a Superfund site in Monterey County, California, potential impacts on an endangered species, the Smith`s blue butterfly (Euphilotes enoptes smithi) were evaluated. This species of butterfly lives along beach dunes historically used as small arms trainfire ranges. Historical land use resulted in the accumulation of spent bullets and varying concentrations of metals in site soil. Two species of buckwheat occurring at the site (Erigonium parvifolium and E. latifolium) that serve as the sole habitat for the butterfly were evaluated. It was assumed that if there were no impacts to the habitat, there would be no impacts to the endangered species itself. Surface soil and collocated plants were sampled and chemically analyzed in order to correlate soil concentrations with plant tissue concentrations. Surface soil and collocated plants were also sampled at reference sites to determine background concentrations. Tissue concentrations were compared to benchmark concentrations to evaluate potential impacts. In addition, soil samples and seeds from buckwheat growing at the site were collected and used to conduct root elongation assays in the laboratory. The objective of the assays was to assess effects of metals associated with the spent bullets in soil on plant growth. Within the plants, higher concentrations of all metals except zinc were found in the roots; zinc was equally distributed throughout the plants. No chemical-related impacts to the plants were identified.

  8. Campylobacter upsaliensis: Waiting in the Wings

    PubMed Central

    Bourke, Billy; Chan, Voon Loong; Sherman, Philip

    1998-01-01

    Despite strong epidemiological evidence supporting an important role for Campylobacter upsaliensis as a human enteropathogen, it remains relatively unknown in the realm of clinical microbiology. Clinical studies indicate that infection with this organism usually is associated with benign self-limiting diarrhea. However, more serious illnesses, including spontaneous abortion and hemolytic-uremic syndrome, recently have been associated with human infections. Understanding of the virulence properties and molecular biology of C. upsaliensis is beginning to evolve. There is now a pressing need for controlled, prospective epidemiologic studies in addition to further in-depth investigation of the pathogenesis of this enteric campylobacter to more precisely define its role in human disease. Furthermore, since C. upsaliensis is sensitive to the antibiotics routinely used in Campylobacter selective media, widespread appreciation of the importance of this organism will rely on the development of widely applicable, effective techniques for its isolation. PMID:9665977

  9. Septic abortion caused by Campylobacter jejuni bacteraemia.

    PubMed

    Skuhala, Tomislava; Škerk, Višnja; Markotić, Alemka; Bukovski, Suzana; Desnica, Boško

    2016-08-01

    A 20-year-old female patient, 14 weeks pregnant, was admitted to hospital with anamnestic and clinical features of acute pyelonephritis. Clinical signs of septic abortion developed and after obstetric examination the therapy was changed to ampicillin, gentamicin and clindamycin. Campylobacter jejuni was isolated from blood cultures. Pathohistological findings confirmed diagnosis of purulent chorioamnionitis. After 2 weeks of ciprofloxacin administration the patient fully recovered. Campylobacter jejuni was not isolated from stool culture and no signs of acute enteritis were registered during the illness. Invasive forms of Campylobacter disease without enteritis are not unusual in immunocompromised hosts but they are restricted to C. fetus rather than C. jejuni isolates. PMID:25872616

  10. [Characterization of Campylobacter spp. from wild birds].

    PubMed

    Glünder, G

    1989-02-01

    Bacteria of the genus Campylobacter were isolated from 28 Rooks (Corvus frugilegus), 1 Red Kite (Milvus milvus), 1 Lapwing (Vanellus vanellus), 1 Coot (Fulica atra), 1 Common Moorhen (Gallinula chloropus) and 1 Northern Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos). Altogether, C. jejuni biovar 1, was isolated 19x, C. jejuni biovar 2 8x and C. coli 5x. Among C. jejuni biovar 1 and 2 there were 5 isolates tolerating a content of 1.5% NaCl in the medium. H2S proof of 3 C. jejuni biovar 2 and 1 C. coli isolates resulted positive or negative dependent on incubation time of the used bacterial inoculum. Concerning Rooks the findings indicate that nestlings are more often infected with campylobacters than older birds. Only 1 campylobacter isolate could be recovered from altogether 54 birds of prey although 16 Buzzards (Buteo buteo) were investigated as nestlings. PMID:2930449

  11. Monitoring Campylobacter in the poultry production chain—from culture to genes and beyond.

    PubMed

    Josefsen, Mathilde H; Bhunia, Arun K; Engvall, Eva Olsson; Fachmann, Mette S R; Hoorfar, Jeffrey

    2015-05-01

    Improved monitoring tools are important for the control of Campylobacter bacteria in poultry production. Standardized reference culture methods issued by national and international standardization organizations are time-consuming, cumbersome and not amenable to automation for screening of large numbers of samples. The ultimate goal for rapid monitoring of Campylobacter is to prevent contaminated meat from entering the food market. Currently, real-time PCR is fulfilling abovementioned criteria to a certain extent. Further development of real-time PCR, microarray PCR, miniaturized biosensors, chromatographic techniques and DNA sequencing can improve our monitoring capacity at a lower cost. Combined with innovative sampling and sample treatment, these techniques could become realistic options for on-farm and liquid-sample monitoring at slaughterhouses. PMID:25771343

  12. Cronobacter Species Contamination of Powdered Infant Formula and the Implications for Neonatal Health

    PubMed Central

    Kalyantanda, Gautam; Shumyak, Lyudmila; Archibald, Lennox Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    Cronobacter is a class of Enterobacteriaceae that cause infections in neonates, especially those born prematurely. Over 90% of these infections have been linked epidemiologically to powdered infant formula (PIF). Contamination of PIF can occur at manufacture, reconstitution, or storage of reconstituted product. Intrinsic properties that enable Cronobacter to cause disease include resistance to heat, ultraviolet radiation, oxygen radicals, stomach acids, and pasteurization; an ability to utilize sialic acid (a nutrition additive to PIF that facilitates the organism’s growth and survival), and an exceptional affinity for biofilms in enteral feeding tubes. As part of ongoing endeavors to reduce the incidence of neonatal PIF-associated Cronobacter infections, the World Health Organization and the US Food and Drug Administration have established guidelines for PIF production, preparation for infant feeding, and storage of reconstituted product. PMID:26191519

  13. Characterization of urease from Campylobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Mobley, H L; Cortesia, M J; Rosenthal, L E; Jones, B D

    1988-05-01

    Campylobacter pylori, a suspected agent of gastritis and peptic ulceration, rapidly hydrolyzes urea. Because urease serves as the basis of detection of the organism in gastric biopsies and may represent an important virulence factor, biochemical characteristics of the enzyme were determined. C. pylori was isolated from antral biopsies from 10 patients with complaints of abdominal pain or history of peptic ulcer disease. All isolates were urease positive, with an average rate of hydrolysis by cell lysates being 36 +/- 28 mumol of NH3 per min per mg of protein, more than twice that of Proteus mirabilis and 10 times that of other urinary tract isolates. The enzyme had an apparent molecular weight of 625,000 +/- 15,000 by column chromatography, an isoelectric point of 5.9, a Km of 0.8 +/- 0.1 mM urea, an optimal temperature of 45 degrees C, and an optimal pH of 8.2. Ten isolates tested produced ureases with identical electrophoretic mobilities on nondenaturing 5% polyacrylamide activity gels. Acetohydroxamic acid (100 micrograms/ml), hydroxyurea (85 micrograms/ml), flurofamide (0.05 micrograms/ml), and EDTA (8 mM) inhibited enzyme activity by 50%. Cell lysates retained 50% of initial urease activity after 6 days and 40% activity after 18 days when stored at 4 degrees C in 20 mM sodium phosphate, pH 6.8. At -70 degrees C for 18 days, 1 mM EDTA or 15% glycerol preserved 40 or 34%, respectively, of initial activity. The urease of C. pylori appears to be biochemically unique from the enzymes of other common urease-producing species. PMID:3384908

  14. Invasion Assays and Genomotyping to Investigate Differences in Virulence of Campylobacter spp. Isolates from Iceland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter spp. are the leading cause of human gastroenteritis worldwide. Epithelial cell invasion is thought to be essential for Campylobacter spp. infection. Previous invasion studies with intestinal epithelial cells revealed that the ability of different Campylobacter jejuni isolates to inva...

  15. EFFECTS OF A HIGHLY-CONTAMINATED URBAN HARBOR ON AN ESTUARINE FISH SPECIES: NEUTRAL MARKERS OF POPULATION GENETIC STRUCTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fundulus heteroclitus populations indigenous to certain highly contaminated sites demonstrate an inherited tolerance to the toxic effects of local chemical contaminants. Our initial studies examining populations of F. heterclitus indigenous to a PCB-contaminated Superfund site at...

  16. EFFECTS OF A HIGHLY-CONTAMINATED URBAN HARBOR ON AN ESTUARINE FISH SPECIES: ADAPTIVE CHANGES AT SPECIFIC LOCI

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fundulus heteroclitus populations indigenous to certain highly contaminated sites demonstrate an inherited tolerance to the toxic effects of local chemical contaminants. Our initial studies examining populations of F. heterclitus indigenous to a PCB-contaminated Superfund site at...

  17. Co-infection of the Siberian hamster (Phodopus sungorus) with a novel Helicobacter sp. and Campylobacter sp.

    PubMed

    Nagamine, Claude M; Shen, Zeli; Luong, Richard H; McKeon, Gabriel P; Ruby, Norman F; Fox, James G

    2015-05-01

    We report the isolation of a novel helicobacter isolated from the caecum of the Siberian hamster (Phodopus sungorus). Sequence analysis showed 97% sequence similarity to Helicobacter ganmani. In addition, we report the co-infection of these Siberian hamsters with a Campylobacter sp. and a second Helicobacter sp. with 99% sequence similarity to Helicobacter sp. flexispira taxon 8 (Helicobacter bilis), a species isolated previously from patients with bacteraemia. Gross necropsy and histopathology did not reveal any overt pathological lesions of the liver and gastrointestinal tract that could be attributed to the Helicobacter or Campylobacter spp. infections. This is the first helicobacter to be identified in the Siberian hamster and the first report of co-infection of Helicobacter spp. and Campylobacter sp. in asymptomatic Siberian hamsters. PMID:25752854

  18. Co-infection of the Siberian hamster (Phodopus sungorus) with a novel Helicobacter sp. and Campylobacter sp.

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Zeli; Luong, Richard H.; McKeon, Gabriel P.; Ruby, Norman F.; Fox, James G.

    2015-01-01

    We report the isolation of a novel helicobacter isolated from the caecum of the Siberian hamster (Phodopus sungorus). Sequence analysis showed 97 % sequence similarity to Helicobacter ganmani. In addition, we report the co-infection of these Siberian hamsters with a Campylobacter sp. and a second Helicobacter sp. with 99 % sequence similarity to Helicobacter sp. flexispira taxon 8 (Helicobacter bilis), a species isolated previously from patients with bacteraemia. Gross necropsy and histopathology did not reveal any overt pathological lesions of the liver and gastrointestinal tract that could be attributed to the Helicobacter or Campylobacter spp. infections. This is the first helicobacter to be identified in the Siberian hamster and the first report of co-infection of Helicobacter spp. and Campylobacter sp. in asymptomatic Siberian hamsters. PMID:25752854

  19. Germination and root elongation bioassays in six different plant species for testing Ni contamination in soil.

    PubMed

    Visioli, Giovanna; Conti, Federica D; Gardi, Ciro; Menta, Cristina

    2014-04-01

    In vitro short-term chronic phytotoxicity germination and root elongation test were applied to test the effects of nickel (Ni) in seed germination and root elongation in six plants species: Cucumis sativus (Cucurbitaceae), Lepidium sativum and Brassica nigra (Brassicaceae), Trifolium alexandrinum and Medicago sativa (Fabaceae), Phacelia tanacetifolia (Boraginaceae). A naturally Ni rich soil was used to compare the results obtained. Unlike root elongation, germination was not affected by Ni in any of the six species tested. EC50 values, calculated on the root elongation, showed that Ni toxicity decreases in the following order: P. tanacetifolia > B. nigra > C. sativus > L. sativum > M. sativa > T. alexandrinum. The test conducted using soil elutriate revealed a significantly lower effect in both seed germination and root elongation when compared to the results obtained using untreated soil. Conversely, the test performed on soil confirmed the high sensitivity of C. sativus, P. tanacetifolia and L. sativum to Ni. PMID:24288040

  20. Use of an arbitrarily primed PCR product in the development of a Campylobacter jejuni-specific PCR.

    PubMed Central

    Day, W A; Pepper, I L; Joens, L A

    1997-01-01

    Development of a PCR assay for Campylobacter jejuni is based on the isolation of species-specific DNA. An arbitrarily primed PCR incorporating 10-mer primers was used to generate fingerprints of C. jejuni M129 genomic DNA. Fingerprint products were then screened individually for their species specificity in dot blot hybridizations with 6 C. jejuni isolates, 4 Campylobacter species other than C. jejuni, and 27 enteric bacterial species other than Campylobacter spp. A 486-bp fingerprint product hybridized specifically to C. jejuni DNA under stringent conditions; no binding to Campylobacter DNA other than that of C. jejuni or to DNA from enteric bacteria was detected. The 486-bp fingerprint product was sequenced, and primers corresponding to three overlapping regions of the DNA probe were synthesized. Evaluation of the three primer pairs for specificity to C. jejuni DNA identified an oligonucleotide primer pair which amplified a 265-bp product from six C. jejuni isolates only. In sensitivity studies using a crude M129 lysate as the template, the C. jejuni-specific PCR amplified the 265-bp product in a lysate with as few as 100 bacteria. PMID:9055418

  1. COMPARISON OF TWO COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE REAL-TIME PCR FORMATS FOR THE DETECTION OF SALMONELLA AND CAMPYLOBACTER

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two commercially available real-time PCR instruments (A and B) were compared for their capabilities to detect Salmonella and Campylobacter species in poultry ceca. Using the USDA-FSIS method of isolating Salmonella as a gold standard, the detection sensitivity and specificity of Instrument A was 94...

  2. The potential of Thai indigenous plant species for the phytoremediation of arsenic contaminated land.

    PubMed

    Visoottiviseth, P; Francesconi, K; Sridokchan, W

    2002-01-01

    To assess the potential of the native plant species for phytoremediation, plant and soil samples were collected from two areas in Thailand that have histories of arsenic pollution from mine tailings. The areas were the Ron Phibun District (Nakorn Si Thammarat province) and Bannang Sata District (Yala province), and samples were taken in 1998 and 1999 and analysed for total arsenic by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Arsenic concentrations in soil ranged from 21 to 14,000 microg g(-1) in Ron Phibun, and from 540 to 16,000 microg g(-1) in Bannang Sata. The criteria used for selecting plants for phytoremediation were: high As tolerance, high bioaccumulation factor, short life cycle, high propagation rate, wide distribution and large shoot biomass. Of 36 plant species, only two species of ferns (Pityrogramma calomelanos and Pteris vittata), a herb (Mimosa pudica), and a shrub (Melastoma malabrathricum), seemed suitable for phytoremediation. The ferns were by far the most proficient plants at accumulating arsenic from soil, attaining concentrations of up to 8350 microg g(-1) (dry mass) in the frond. PMID:12009144

  3. An integrated approach to safer plant production on metal contaminated soils using species selection and chemical immobilization.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyuck Soo; Seo, Byoung-Hwan; Bae, Jun-Sik; Kim, Won-Il; Owens, Gary; Kim, Kwon-Rae

    2016-09-01

    In order to examine the species specific accumulation of heavy metals in medicinal crops, seven different common medicinal plants were cultivated on a Cd (55mgkg(-1)) and Pb (1283mgkg(-1)) contaminated soil. Subsequently, the effect of various immobilizing agents, applied in isolation and in combination, on Cd and Pb uptake by two medicinal plant species was examined. Cadmium and Pb root concentrations in medicinal plants grown in the control soil varied between 0.5 and 2.6mgkg(-1) for Cd and 3.2 and 36.4mgkg(-1) for Pb. The highest accumulation occurred in Osterici Radix (Ostericum koreanum) and Ginger (Zingiber officinale) and the lowest in Yam (Dioscorea batatas). Application of immobilizing agents significantly reduced both Cd and Pb concentrations in all medicinal plants examined, where the most effective single immobilizing agent was lime fertilizer (LF). Application of combination treatments involving sorption agents such as compost together with lime further decreased Cd and Pb concentrations from 1.3 and 25.3mgkg(-1) to 0.2 and 4.3mgkg(-1), respectively, which was well below the corresponding WHO guidelines. Thus appropriate immobilizing agents in combination with species selection can be practically used for safer medicinal plant production. PMID:27213564

  4. Candida digboiensis sp. nov., a novel anamorphic yeast species from an acidic tar sludge-contaminated oilfield.

    PubMed

    Prasad, G S; Mayilraj, S; Sood, Nitu; Singh, Vijeyta; Biswas, Kakoli; Lal, Banwari

    2005-03-01

    Two strains (TERI-6(T) and TERI-7) of a novel yeast species were isolated from acidic tar sludge-contaminated soil samples collected from Digboi Refinery, Assam, India. These two yeast strains were morphologically, physiologically and phylogenetically identical to each other. No sexual reproduction was observed on corn meal, malt, Gorodkowa, YM or V8 agars. Physiologically, the novel isolates were most closely related to Candida blankii, but differed in eight physiological tests. The prominent differences were the ability of the isolates to assimilate melibiose and inulin and their inability to assimilate d-glucuronate, succinate and citrate. Phylogenetic analysis using the D1/D2 variable domain showed that the closest relative of these strains is C. blankii (2.8 % divergence). Other related species are Zygoascus hellenicus and Candida bituminiphila. The isolates differed from C. blankii by 11 base substitutions in the 18S rRNA gene sequence and by 58 base substitutions in the internal transcribed spacer sequences. The physiological, biochemical and molecular data support the contention that strains TERI-6(T) and TERI-7 represent a novel species, for which the name Candida digboiensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is TERI-6(T) (=MTCC 4371(T)=CBS 9800(T)=JCM 12300(T)). PMID:15774693

  5. Broiler Contamination and Human Campylobacteriosis in Iceland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To examine whether there is a relationship between the degree of Campylobacter contamination observed in product lots of retail Icelandic broiler chicken carcasses and human disease, isolates from individual product lots were genetically matched (using flaA Short Variable Region) to isolates from ca...

  6. Broiler Contamination and Human campylobacteriosis in Iceland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To examine whether there is a relationship between the degree of Campylobacter contamination observed in product lots of retail Icelandic briler chicken carcasses and human disease, 1617 isolates from 327 individual product lots were genetically matched (using flaA Short Variable Region) to 289 isol...

  7. Inflammasome Activation by Campylobacter jejuni

    PubMed Central

    Bouwman, Lieneke I.; de Zoete, Marcel R.; Bleumink-Pluym, Nancy M.C.; Flavell, Richard A.; van Putten, Jos P.M

    2014-01-01

    The Gram-negative pathogen Campylobacter jejuni is the most common cause of bacterial foodborne disease worldwide. The mechanisms that lead to bacterial invasion of eukaryotic cells and massive intestinal inflammation are still unknown. Here we report that C. jejuni infection of mouse macrophages induces up-regulation of pro-IL-1β transcript and secretion of IL-1β without eliciting cell death. Immunoblotting indicated cleavage of caspase-1 and IL-1β in infected cells. In bone-marrow-derived macrophages from different knock-out mice, IL-1β secretion was found to require NLRP3, ASC, and caspase-1/11, but not NLRC4. In contrast to NLRP3 activation by ATP, C. jejuni activation did not require priming of these macrophages. C. jejuni also activated the NLRP3 inflammasome in human macrophages as indicated by the presence of ASC foci and FLICA-positive cells. Analysis of a vast array of C. jejunimutants with defects in capsule formation, LOS biosynthesis, chemotaxis, flagella synthesis and flagellin (-like) secretion, T6SS needle protein or cytolethal distending toxin revealed a direct correlation between the number of intracellular bacteria and NLRP3 inflammasome activation. The C. jejuni invasion related activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome without cytotoxicity and even in non-primed cells extends the known repertoire of bacterial inflammasome activation and likely contributes to C. jejuni-induced intestinal inflammation. PMID:25267974

  8. Campylobacter Fetus Meningitis in Adults

    PubMed Central

    van Samkar, Anusha; Brouwer, Matthijs C.; van der Ende, Arie; van de Beek, Diederik

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The zoonotic pathogen Campylobacter fetus is a rare cause of bacterial meningitis. Little is known about the clinical characteristics, predisposing factors and outcome of C fetus meningitis in adults. We report cases of C fetus meningitis in a nationwide cohort study of adult bacterial meningitis patients in the Netherlands and performed a review of the literature. Two patients with C fetus meningitis were identified from January 2006 through May 2015. The calculated annual incidence was 0.02 per million adults. Combined with the literature, we identified 22 patients with a median age of 48 years. An immunocompromised state was present in 16 patients (73%), mostly due to alcoholism (41%) and diabetes mellitus (27%). The source of infection was identified in 13 out of 19 patients (68%), consisting of regular contact with domestic animals in 5 and working on a farm in 4. Recurrent fever and illness was reported in 4 patients (18%), requiring prolonged antibiotic treatment. Two patients died (9%) and 3 survivors (15%) had neurological sequelae. C fetus is a rare cause of bacterial meningitis and is associated with an immunocompromised state. Based on the apparent slow clinical response seen in this limited number of cases, the authors of this study recommend a prolonged course of antimicrobial therapy when C fetus is identified as a causative agent of bacterial meningitis. Cases appeared to do best with carbapenem therapy. PMID:26937916

  9. Whole-Genome Sequences of Agricultural, Host-Associated Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni Strains

    PubMed Central

    Altermann, Eric; Olson, Jonathan; Wray, Gregory Allan; Siletzky, Robin M.; Kathariou, Sophia

    2016-01-01

    We report here the genome sequences of four agricultural, multidrug-resistant Campylobacter spp.: C. coli 11601 and C. jejuni 11601MD, isolated from turkey cecum and jejunum, respectively, and C. coli 6067 and C. coli 6461, isolated from turkey-house water and swine feces, respectively. The genomes provide insights on Campylobacter antimicrobial resistance and host adaptations. PMID:27540063

  10. Whole-Genome Sequences of Agricultural, Host-Associated Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni Strains.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Vikrant; Altermann, Eric; Olson, Jonathan; Wray, Gregory Allan; Siletzky, Robin M; Kathariou, Sophia

    2016-01-01

    We report here the genome sequences of four agricultural, multidrug-resistant Campylobacter spp.: C. coli 11601 and C. jejuni 11601MD, isolated from turkey cecum and jejunum, respectively, and C. coli 6067 and C. coli 6461, isolated from turkey-house water and swine feces, respectively. The genomes provide insights on Campylobacter antimicrobial resistance and host adaptations. PMID:27540063

  11. Wild griffon vultures (Gyps fulvus) as a source of Salmonella and Campylobacter in Eastern Spain.

    PubMed

    Marin, Clara; Palomeque, Maria-Dolores; Marco-Jiménez, Francisco; Vega, Santiago

    2014-01-01

    The existence of Campylobacter and Salmonella reservoirs in wildlife is a potential hazard to animal and human health; however, the prevalence of these species is largely unknown. Until now, only a few studies have evaluated the presence of Campylobacter and Salmonella in wild griffon vultures and based on a small number of birds. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of Campylobacter and Salmonella in wild griffon vultures (n = 97) during the normal ringing programme at the Cinctorres Observatory in Eastern Spain. In addition, the effect of ages of individuals (juveniles, subadult and adult) on the presence were compared. Campylobacter was isolated from 1 of 97 (1.0%) griffon vultures and identified as C. jejuni. Salmonella was isolated from 51 of 97 (52.6%) griffon vultures. No significant differences were found between the ages of individuals for the presence of Salmonella. Serotyping revealed 6 different serovars among two Salmonella enterica subspecies; S. enterica subsp. enterica (n = 49, 96.1%) and S. enterica subsp. salamae (n = 2, 3.9%). No more than one serovar was isolated per individual. The serovars isolated were S. Typhimurium (n = 42, 82.3%), S. Rissen (n = 4, 7.8%), S. Senftenberg (n = 3, 5.9%) and S. 4,12:b[-] (n = 2, 3.9%). Our results imply that wild griffon vultures are a risk factor for Salmonella transmission, but do not seem to be a reservoir for Campylobacter. We therefore rule out vultures as a risk factor for human campylobacteriosis. Nevertheless, further studies should be undertaken in other countries to confirm these results. PMID:24710464

  12. Wild Griffon Vultures (Gyps fulvus) as a Source of Salmonella and Campylobacter in Eastern Spain

    PubMed Central

    Marin, Clara; Palomeque, Maria-Dolores; Marco-Jiménez, Francisco; Vega, Santiago

    2014-01-01

    The existence of Campylobacter and Salmonella reservoirs in wildlife is a potential hazard to animal and human health; however, the prevalence of these species is largely unknown. Until now, only a few studies have evaluated the presence of Campylobacter and Salmonella in wild griffon vultures and based on a small number of birds. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of Campylobacter and Salmonella in wild griffon vultures (n = 97) during the normal ringing programme at the Cinctorres Observatory in Eastern Spain. In addition, the effect of ages of individuals (juveniles, subadult and adult) on the presence were compared. Campylobacter was isolated from 1 of 97 (1.0%) griffon vultures and identified as C. jejuni. Salmonella was isolated from 51 of 97 (52.6%) griffon vultures. No significant differences were found between the ages of individuals for the presence of Salmonella. Serotyping revealed 6 different serovars among two Salmonella enterica subspecies; S. enterica subsp. enterica (n = 49, 96.1%) and S. enterica subsp. salamae (n = 2, 3.9%). No more than one serovar was isolated per individual. The serovars isolated were S. Typhimurium (n = 42, 82.3%), S. Rissen (n = 4, 7.8%), S. Senftenberg (n = 3, 5.9%) and S. 4,12:b[-] (n = 2, 3.9%). Our results imply that wild griffon vultures are a risk factor for Salmonella transmission, but do not seem to be a reservoir for Campylobacter. We therefore rule out vultures as a risk factor for human campylobacteriosis. Nevertheless, further studies should be undertaken in other countries to confirm these results. PMID:24710464

  13. Accumulation patterns of lipophilic organic contaminants in surface sediments and in economic important mussel and fish species from Jakarta Bay, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Dwiyitno; Dsikowitzky, Larissa; Nordhaus, Inga; Andarwulan, Nuri; Irianto, Hari Eko; Lioe, Hanifah Nuryani; Ariyani, Farida; Kleinertz, Sonja; Schwarzbauer, Jan

    2016-09-30

    Non-target screening analyses were conducted in order to identify a wide range of organic contaminants in sediment and animal tissue samples from Jakarta Bay. High concentrations of di-iso-propylnaphthalenes (DIPNs), linear alkylbenzenes (LABs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were detected in all samples, whereas phenylmethoxynaphthalene (PMN), DDT and DDT metabolites (DDX) were detected at lower concentrations. In order to evaluate the uptake and accumulation by economic important mussel (Perna viridis) and fish species, contaminant patterns of DIPNs, LABs and PAHs in different compartments were compared. Different patterns of these contaminant groups were found in sediment and animal tissue samples, suggesting compound-specific accumulation and metabolism processes. Significantly higher concentrations of these three contaminant groups in mussel tissue as compared to fish tissue from Jakarta Bay were found. Because P. viridis is an important aquaculture species in Asia, this result is relevant for food safety. PMID:26853592

  14. Thermophilic campylobacters in surface waters around Lancaster, UK: negative correlation with Campylobacter infections in the community.

    PubMed

    Jones, K; Betaieb, M; Telford, D R

    1990-11-01

    The incidence of campylobacter enteritis in Lancaster City Health Authority is three times the UK average for similar sizes of population and has marked seasonal peaks in May and June. Environmental monitoring of surface waters around Lancaster showed that thermophilic campylobacters were absent from drinking water from the fells and from the clean upper reaches of the River Conder but were present in the main rivers entering Morecambe Bay, the lower reaches of the River Conder, the Lancaster canal, and seawater from the Lune estuary and Morecambe Bay. All the surface waters tested showed the same seasonality, namely, higher numbers in the winter months and low numbers or none in May, June and July. The absence of thermophilic campylobacters in the summer months may be due to high sunshine levels because experiments on the effects of light showed that campylobacters in sewage effluent and seawater were eliminated within 60 and 30 min of daylight respectively but survived for 24 h in darkness. As the concentrations of campylobacters in surface waters were at their lowest precisely at the time of peak infections in the community it is unlikely that surface waters form Lancaster's reservoir of campylobacter infection for the community. PMID:2276990

  15. On-farm Campylobacter and Escherichia coli in commercial broiler chickens: Re-used bedding does not influence Campylobacter emergence and levels across sequential farming cycles

    PubMed Central

    Chinivasagam, H. N.; Estella, W.; Rodrigues, H.; Mayer, D. G.; Weyand, C.; Tran, T.; Onysk, A.; Diallo, I.

    2016-01-01

    Limitations in quality bedding material have resulted in the growing need to re-use litter during broiler farming in some countries, which can be of concern from a food-safety perspective. The aim of this study was to compare the Campylobacter levels in ceca and litter across three litter treatments under commercial farming conditions. The litter treatments were (a) the use of new litter after each farming cycle; (b) an Australian partial litter re-use practice; and (c) a full litter re-use practice. The study was carried out on two farms over two years (Farm 1, from 2009–2010 and Farm 2, from 2010–2011), across three sheds (35,000 to 40,000 chickens/shed) on each farm, adopting three different litter treatments across six commercial cycles. A random sampling design was adopted to test litter and ceca for Campylobacter and Escherichia coli, prior to commercial first thin-out and final pick-up. Campylobacter levels varied little across litter practices and farming cycles on each farm and were in the range of log 8.0–9.0 CFU/g in ceca and log 4.0–6.0 MPN/g for litter. Similarly the E. coli in ceca were ∼log 7.0 CFU/g. At first thin-out and final pick-up, the statistical analysis for both litter and ceca showed that the three-way interaction (treatments by farms by times) was highly significant (P < 0.01), indicating that the patterns of Campylobacter emergence/presence across time vary between the farms, cycles and pickups. The emergence and levels of both organisms were not influenced by litter treatments across the six farming cycles on both farms. Either C. jejuni or C. coli could be the dominant species across litter and ceca, and this phenomenon could not be attributed to specific litter treatments. Irrespective of the litter treatments in place, cycle 2 on Farm 2 remained Campylobacter-free. These outcomes suggest that litter treatments did not directly influence the time of emergence and levels of Campylobacter and E. coli during commercial farming

  16. Effects of subtherapeutic administration of antimicrobial agents to beef cattle on the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter hyointestinalis.

    PubMed

    Inglis, G D; McAllister, T A; Busz, H W; Yanke, L J; Morck, D W; Olson, M E; Read, R R

    2005-07-01

    a forage-based diet as opposed to a grain-based diet. The findings of this study show that the subtherapeutic administration of tetracycline, alone and in combination with sulfamethazine, to feedlot cattle can select for the carriage of resistant strains of Campylobacter species. Considering the widespread use of in-feed antimicrobial agents and the high frequency of beef cattle that shed campylobacters, the development of AMR should be monitored as part of an on-going surveillance program. PMID:16000800

  17. Effects of Subtherapeutic Administration of Antimicrobial Agents to Beef Cattle on the Prevalence of Antimicrobial Resistance in Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter hyointestinalis†

    PubMed Central

    Inglis, G. D.; McAllister, T. A.; Busz, H. W.; Yanke, L. J.; Morck, D. W.; Olson, M. E.; Read, R. R.

    2005-01-01

    forage-based diet as opposed to a grain-based diet. The findings of this study show that the subtherapeutic administration of tetracycline, alone and in combination with sulfamethazine, to feedlot cattle can select for the carriage of resistant strains of Campylobacter species. Considering the widespread use of in-feed antimicrobial agents and the high frequency of beef cattle that shed campylobacters, the development of AMR should be monitored as part of an on-going surveillance program. PMID:16000800

  18. On-farm Campylobacter and Escherichia coli in commercial broiler chickens: Re-used bedding does not influence Campylobacter emergence and levels across sequential farming cycles.

    PubMed

    Chinivasagam, H N; Estella, W; Rodrigues, H; Mayer, D G; Weyand, C; Tran, T; Onysk, A; Diallo, I

    2016-05-01

    Limitations in quality bedding material have resulted in the growing need to re-use litter during broiler farming in some countries, which can be of concern from a food-safety perspective. The aim of this study was to compare the Campylobacter levels in ceca and litter across three litter treatments under commercial farming conditions. The litter treatments were (a) the use of new litter after each farming cycle; (b) an Australian partial litter re-use practice; and (c) a full litter re-use practice. The study was carried out on two farms over two years (Farm 1, from 2009-2010 and Farm 2, from 2010-2011), across three sheds (35,000 to 40,000 chickens/shed) on each farm, adopting three different litter treatments across six commercial cycles. A random sampling design was adopted to test litter and ceca for Campylobacter and Escherichia coli, prior to commercial first thin-out and final pick-up. Campylobacter levels varied little across litter practices and farming cycles on each farm and were in the range of log 8.0-9.0 CFU/g in ceca and log 4.0-6.0 MPN/g for litter. Similarly the E. coli in ceca were ∼log 7.0 CFU/g. At first thin-out and final pick-up, the statistical analysis for both litter and ceca showed that the three-way interaction (treatments by farms by times) was highly significant (P<0.01), indicating that the patterns of Campylobacter emergence/presence across time vary between the farms, cycles and pickups. The emergence and levels of both organisms were not influenced by litter treatments across the six farming cycles on both farms. Either C. jejuni or C. coli could be the dominant species across litter and ceca, and this phenomenon could not be attributed to specific litter treatments. Irrespective of the litter treatments in place, cycle 2 on Farm 2 remained Campylobacter-free. These outcomes suggest that litter treatments did not directly influence the time of emergence and levels of Campylobacter and E. coli during commercial farming. PMID

  19. Phytoextraction of zinc, copper, nickel and lead from a contaminated soil by different species of Brassica.

    PubMed

    Purakayastha, T J; Viswanath, Thulasi; Bhadraray, S; Chhonkar, P K; Adhikari, P P; Suribabu, K

    2008-01-01

    In a pot culture experiment, five different species of Brassica (Brassica juncea, Brassica campestris, Brassica carinata, Brassica napus, and Brassica nigra) were grown for screening possible accumulators of heavy metals, viz. Zn, Cu, Ni, and Pb. The plants were grown to maturity in a soil irrigated with sewage effluents for more than two decades in West Delhi, India. The soil analysis showed enhanced accumulation of Zn, Cu, Ni, and Pb in this sewage-irrigated soil. Among all species, B. carinata showed the highest concentration (mg kg(-1)) as well as uptake (microg pot(-1)) of Ni and Pb at maturity. Although B. campestris showed a higher concentration of Zn in its shoots (stem plus leaf), B. carinata extracted the largest amount of this metal due to greater biomass production. However, B. juncea phytoextracted the largest amount of Cu from the soil. In general, the highest concentration and uptake of metal was observed in shoots compared to roots or seeds of the different species. Among the Brassica spp., B. carinata cv. DLSC1 emerged as the most promising, showing greater uptake of Zn, Ni, and Pb, while B. juncea cv. Pusa Bold showed the highest uptake of Cu. The B. napus also showed promise, as it ranked second with respect to total uptake of Pb, Zn, and Ni, and third for Cu. Total uptake of metals by Brassica spp. correlated negatively with available as well as the total soil metal concentrations. Among the root parameters, root length emerged as the powerful parameter to dictate the uptake of metals by Brassica spp. Probably for the first time, B. carinata was reported as a promising phytoextractor for Zn, Ni, and Pb, which performed better than B. juncea. PMID:18709932

  20. Phytoremediation efficiency of a pcp-contaminated soil using four plant species as mono- and mixed cultures.

    PubMed

    Hechmi, Nejla; Aissa, Nadhira Ben; Abdenaceur, Hassen; Jedidi, Naceur

    2014-01-01

    Bioremediation of soil polluted by pentachlorophenol (PCP) is of great importance due to the persistence and carcinogenic properties of PCP. Phytoremediation has long been recognized as a promising approach for removal of PCP from soil. The present study was conducted to investigate the capability of four plant species; white clover, ryegrass, alfalfa, and rapeseed grown alone and in combination to remediate pentachlorophenol contaminated soil. After 60 days cultivation, white clover, raygrass, alfalfa, and rapeseed all significantly enhanced the degradation of PCP in soils. Alfalfa showed highest efficiency for the removal of PCP in single cropping flowed by rapeseed and ryegrass. Mixed cropping significantly enhanced the remediation efficiencies as compared to single cropping; about 89.84% of PCP was removed by mixed cropping of rapeseed and alfalfa, and 72.01% of PCP by mixed cropping of rape and white clover. Mixed cropping of rapeseed with alfalfa was however far better for the remediation of soil PCP than single cropping. An evaluation of soil biological activities as a monitoring mechanism for the bioremediation process of a PCP-contaminated soil was made using measurements of microbial counts and dehydrogenase activity. PMID:24933915

  1. Campylobacter jejuni colonization and population structure in urban populations of ducks and starlings in New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Vathsala; Stevenson, Mark; Marshall, Jonathan; Fearnhead, Paul; Holland, Barbara R; Hotter, Grant; French, Nigel P

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A repeated cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. and the population structure of C. jejuni in European starlings and ducks cohabiting multiple public access sites in an urban area of New Zealand. The country's geographical isolation and relatively recent history of introduction of wild bird species, including the European starling and mallard duck, create an ideal setting to explore the impact of geographical separation on the population biology of C. jejuni, as well as potential public health implications. A total of 716 starling and 720 duck fecal samples were collected and screened for C. jejuni over a 12 month period. This study combined molecular genotyping, population genetics and epidemiological modeling and revealed: (i) higher Campylobacter spp. isolation in starlings (46%) compared with ducks (30%), but similar isolation of C. jejuni in ducks (23%) and starlings (21%), (ii) significant associations between the isolation of Campylobacter spp. and host species, sampling location and time of year using logistic regression, (iii) evidence of population differentiation, as indicated by FST, and host-genotype association with clonal complexes CC ST-177 and CC ST-682 associated with starlings, and clonal complexes CC ST-1034, CC ST-692, and CC ST-1332 associated with ducks, and (iv) greater genetic diversity and genotype richness in ducks compared with starlings. These findings provide evidence that host-associated genotypes, such as the starling-associated ST-177 and ST-682, represent lineages that were introduced with the host species in the 19th century. The isolation of sequence types associated with human disease in New Zealand indicate that wild ducks and starlings need to be considered as a potential public health risk, particularly in urban areas. We applied molecular epidemiology and population genetics to obtain insights in to the population structure, host-species relationships, gene flow and

  2. Development of cytochromes P450 in avian species as a biomarker for environmental contaminant exposure and effect: Procedures and baseline values

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Melancon, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    As in mammals and fish, birds respond to many environmental contaminants with induction of hepatic cytochromes P450. In order to monitor cytchromes P450 in specific avian species, for assessing the status of that species or the habitat it utilizes, it is necessary to have background information on the appropriate assay conditions and the responsiveness of cytochrome P450 induction in that species. Assay of four monooxygenases which give resorufin as product using a fluorescence microwell plate scanner has proven to be an effective approach. Information is provided on the incubation conditions and baseline activity for twenty avian species at ages ranging from pipping embryo to adult. Induction responsiveness is presented for sixteen of them. This information can serve as a guide for those who wish to utilize cytochrome P450 as a biomarker for contaminant exposure and effect to aid in selection of appropriate species, age, and monooxygenase assay(s).

  3. Changes in radiocesium contamination from Fukushima in foliar parts of 10 common tree species in Japan between 2011 and 2013.

    PubMed

    Yoshihara, Toshihiro; Matsumura, Hideyuki; Tsuzaki, Masaharu; Wakamatsu, Takashi; Kobayashi, Takuya; Hashida, Shin-Nosuke; Nagaoka, Toru; Goto, Fumiyuki

    2014-12-01

    Yearly changes in radiocesium ((137)Cs) contamination, primarily due to the Fukushima accident of March 2011, were observed in the foliar parts of 10 common woody species in Japan (Chamaecyparis obtusa, Cedrus deodara, Pinus densiflora, Cryptomeria japonica, Phyllostachys pubescens, Cinnamomum camphora, Metasequoia glyptostroboides, Prunus × yedoensis, Acer buergerianum, and Aesculus hippocastanum). The samples were obtained from Abiko (approximately 200 km SSW of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant) during each growing season between 2011 and 2013, and the foliar parts were examined based on their year of expansion and location in each trees. The radiocesium concentrations generally decreased with time; however, the concentrations and rates of decrease varied among species, age of foliar parts, and locations. The radiocesium concentrations in the 2012 current-year foliar parts were 29%-220% of those from 2011, while those from 2013 fell to between 14% and 42% of the 2011 values. The net decontamination in the foliage was higher in evergreen species than in deciduous species. The radiocesium concentrations in the upper foliar parts were higher than those in the lower parts particularly in C. japonica. In addition, the radiocesium concentrations were higher in the current-year foliar parts than in the 1-year-old foliar parts, particularly in 2013. Thus, the influence of the direct deposition of the fallout was reduced with time, and the translocation ability of radiocesium from old to new tissues became more influential. Similar to the behavior of potassium in trees, Cs redistribution probably occurred primarily due to internal nutrient translocation mechanisms. PMID:25261868

  4. The occurrence of enteric pathogens and Aeromonas species in organic vegetables.

    PubMed

    McMahon, M A; Wilson, I G

    2001-10-22

    A range of commercially available organic vegetables (n = 86) was examined for the presence of Salmonella, Campylobacter, Escherichia coli, E. coli O 157. Listeria and Aeromonas spp., to provide information on the occurrence of such organisms in organic vegetables in Northern Ireland. The study was not designed to quantify such organisms or to compare occurrence with conventionally farmed vegetables. Standard enrichment techniques were used to isolate and identify enteric pathogens and Aeromonas species. No Salmonella, Campylobacter, E. coli. E. coli O 157, Listeria were found in any of the samples examined. Aeromonas species were isolated from 34% of the total number of organic vegetables examined. Many (64%) of the organic vegetables examined were "ready-to-eat" after minimal processing, i.e., washing. Aeromonas spp. was isolated from 41% of these vegetables. Aeromonas spp. was not recovered from certain vegetable types. The most commonly isolated species of Aeromonas was Aeromonas schubertii with 21.0% of all samples contaminated with this species; 5.8% of samples contained A. hydrophila, 5.8% A. trota, 3.5% A. caviae and 2.3% contained A. veronii biovar veronii. Although Aeromonas species are frequently detected in organic vegetables, the absence of accepted enteric pathogens was encouraging, and does not support the allegation of organic foods being of high risk due to the farming methods used. PMID:11759753

  5. Campylobacter-From Gate to Plate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter is an important bacterial foodborne pathogen. While the severity of most cases of human campylobacteriosis cases is usually slight, the prevalence of human infection, the potential for the emergence of antimicrobial resistance, and the gravity of long-term sequelae such as Guillain-Bar...

  6. Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus in homosexual males.

    PubMed Central

    Devlin, H R; McIntyre, L

    1983-01-01

    Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus was isolated from the stools of two homosexual males. One was asymptomatic at the time of isolation. The other presented with diarrhea. Both isolates were initially grown at 42 degrees C. This organism should be included among the list of organisms that are found in homosexual males. PMID:6630480

  7. Campylobacter: stress responses and biofilm formation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ability of Campylobacter jejuni to tolerate stresses, including heat and acid stress, in the presence and absence of a competitive microflora was investigated. D-values showed that C. jejuni 81-176 parent and luxS mutant strains were inactivated more rapidly when in the presence of a competitiv...

  8. Hybrid speciation in agricultural Campylobacter coli

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction Hybridization between distantly related organisms can facilitate rapid adaptation but is constrained by epistatic fitness interactions. The zoonotic pathogens Campylobacter coli and C. jejuni differ from each other at an average of nearly 40 amino acids per gene. Nevertheless, they have...

  9. Oxygen requirement and tolerance of Campylobacter jejuni.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The human pathogen Campylobacter jejuni is considered a microaerophile, yet it has been shown to grow in vitro under atmospheres with elevated oxygen tensions. Hence, a better understanding of the oxygen requirement and tolerance of C. jejuni is required. Bacterial growth was measured under various ...

  10. Campylobacter can remain in various organs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Day old broiler chicks were obtained from a commercial hatchery and inoculated either orally or intracloacally with a characterized strain of Campylobacter jejuni. After 1 hr, 1day and 1wk post inoculation, the thymus, spleen, liver/gallbladder, bursa of Fabricius and ceca were aseptically removed ...

  11. Comparative effect of thymol or its glucose conjugate, thymol-β-D-glucopyranoside, on Campylobacter in avian gut contents.

    PubMed

    Epps, Sharon V R; Harvey, Roger B; Byrd, J Allen; Petrujkić, Branko T; Sedej, Ivana; Beier, Ross C; Phillips, Timothy D; Hume, Michael E; Anderson, Robin C; Nisbet, David J

    2015-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is an important human food-borne pathogen that can contaminate meat and poultry during processing. Consequently, strategies are sought to reduce the carriage of C. jejuni in food animals before they arrive at the abattoir. Thymol is a natural product that reduces survivability of Campylobacter in vitro, but its rapid absorption from the proximal alimentary tract limits its bactericidal efficacy in vivo. Thymol-β-D-glucopyranoside is more resistant to absorption than free thymol, but its administration to chickens has not been reported. In the present studies, 1 mM thymol-β-D-glucopyranoside was shown to exhibit near equal anti-Campylobacter activity as 1 mM thymol when incubated anaerobically in avian crop or cecal contents in vitro, resulting in reductions of 1.10-2.32 log10 colony forming units mL(-1) in C. jejuni concentrations after 24 h incubation. In a follow-up live animal study, oral administration of thymol-β-D-glucopyranoside, but not free thymol, significantly lowered (>10-fold) recovery of Campylobacter from the crop of market-aged broilers when compared to placebo-treated controls (n = 6 broilers/treatment). Neither thymol-β-D-glucopyranoside nor thymol affected recovery of Campylobacter from cecal contents of the treated broilers. These results indicate that rapid absorption or passage of free thymol from the crop precluded its anti-Campylobacter activity at this site and throughout the entire gastrointestinal tract. Conversely, lower recovery of Campylobacter from the crop of birds treated with thymol-β-D-glucopyranoside indicates this conjugate was retained and able to be hydrolyzed to biologically active free thymol at this site as intended, yet was not sufficiently protected to allow passage of efficacious amounts of the intact glycoside to the lower gut. Nevertheless, these results warrant further research to see if higher doses or encapsulation of thymol-β-D-glucopyranoside or similar glycosides may yield an

  12. Molecular epidemiology and public health relevance of Campylobacter isolated from dairy cattle and European starlings in Ohio, USA.

    PubMed

    Sanad, Yasser M; Closs, Gary; Kumar, Anand; LeJeune, Jeffrey T; Rajashekara, Gireesh

    2013-03-01

    Dairy cattle serve as a potential source for Campylobacter infection in humans. Outbreaks associated with consumption of either Campylobacter contaminated raw milk or contaminated milk after treatment were previously recorded in the United States. Further, starlings have been implicated in the spread of bacterial pathogens among livestock. Here, we determined the prevalence, genotypic, and phenotypic properties of Campylobacter isolated from fecal samples of dairy cattle and starlings found on the same establishment in northeastern Ohio. Campylobacter were detected in 83 (36.6%) and 57 (50.4%) out of 227 dairy and 113 starling fecal samples, respectively. Specifically, 79 C. jejuni, five C. coli, and two other Campylobacter spp. were isolated from dairy feces, while all isolates from starlings (n=57) were C. jejuni. Our results showed that the prevalence of C. jejuni in birds was significantly (p<0.01) higher than that in dairy cattle. The pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis showed that C. jejuni were genotypically diverse and host restricted; however, there were several shared genotypes between dairy cattle and starling isolates. Likewise, many shared clonal complexes (CC) between dairy cattle and starlings were observed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) analysis. As in humans, both in cattle and starlings, the CC 45 and CC 21 were the most frequently represented CCs. As previously reported, CC 177 and CC 682 were restricted to the bird isolates, while CC 42 was restricted to dairy cattle isolates. Further, two new sequence types (STs) were detected in C. jejuni from dairy cattle. Interestingly, cattle and starling C. jejuni showed high resistance to multiple antimicrobials, including ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, and gentamicin. In conclusion, our results highlight starlings as potential reservoirs for C. jejuni, and they may play an important role in the epidemiology of clinically important C. jejuni in dairy population. PMID:23259503

  13. Egg laying sequence influences egg mercury concentrations and egg size in three bird species: Implications for contaminant monitoring programs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Herzog, Mark P.; Yee, Julie L.; Hartman, C. Alex

    2016-01-01

    Bird eggs are commonly used in contaminant monitoring programs and toxicological risk assessments, but intra-clutch variation and sampling methodology could influence interpretability. We examined the influence of egg laying sequence on egg mercury concentrations and burdens in American avocets, black-necked stilts, and Forster's terns. The average decline in mercury concentrations between the first and last egg laid was 33% for stilts, 22% for terns, and 11% for avocets, and most of this decline occurred between the first and second eggs laid (24% for stilts, 18% for terns, and 9% for avocets). Trends in egg size with egg laying order were inconsistent among species and overall differences in egg volume, mass, length, and width were <3%. We summarized the literature and, among 17 species studied, mercury concentrations generally declined by 16% between the first and second eggs laid. Despite the strong effect of egg laying sequence, most of the variance in egg mercury concentrations still occurred among clutches (75%-91%) rather than within clutches (9%-25%). Using simulations, we determined that to accurately estimate a population's mean egg mercury concentration using only a single random egg from a subset of nests, it would require sampling >60 nests to represent a large population (10% accuracy) or ≥14 nests to represent a small colony that contained <100 nests (20% accuracy).

  14. Phytostabilization of a Pb-contaminated mine tailing by various tree species in pot and field trial experiments.

    PubMed

    Meeinkuirt, Weeradej; Pokethitiyook, Prayad; Kruatrachue, Maleeya; Tanhan, Phanwimol; Chaiyarat, Rattanawat

    2012-10-01

    The potential of 6 tree species (Leucaena leucocephala, Acacia mangium, Peltophorum pterocarpum, Pterocarpus macrocarpus, Lagerstroemia floribunda, Eucalyptus camaldulensis) for phytoremediation of Pb in sand tailings (total Pb >9850 mg kg(-1)) from KEMCO Pb mine in Kanchanaburi province, Thailand, were investigated employing a pot experiment (3 months) and field trial experiment (12 months). In pot study E. camaldulensis treated with Osmocote fertilizer attained the highest total biomass (15.3 g plant(-1)) followed by P. pterocarpum (12.6 g plant(-1)) and A. mangium (10.8 g plant(-1)) both treated with cow manure. Cow manure application resulted in the highest root Pb accumulation (>10000 mg kg(-1)) in L. floribunda and P. macrocarpus. These two species also exhibited the highest Pb uptake (85-88 mg plant(-1)). Results from field trial also showed that Osmocote promoted the best growth performance in E. camaldulensis (biomass 385.7 g plant(-1), height 141.7 cm) followed by A. mangium (biomass 215.9 g plant(-1), height 102.7 cm), and they also exhibited the highest Pb uptake (600-800 microg plant(-1)). A. mangium with the addition of organic fertilizer was the best option for phytostabilization of Pb-contaminated mine tailing because it retained higher Pb concentration in the roots. PMID:22908655

  15. Foodborne disease prevention and broiler chickens with reduced Campylobacter infection.

    PubMed

    Bahrndorff, Simon; Rangstrup-Christensen, Lena; Nordentoft, Steen; Hald, Birthe

    2013-03-01

    Studies have suggested that flies play a linking role in the epidemiology of Campylobacter spp. in broiler chickens and that fly screens can reduce the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. We examined the year-round and long-term effects of fly screens in 10 broiler chicken houses (99 flocks) in Denmark. Prevalence of Campylobacter spp.-positive flocks was significantly reduced, from 41.4% during 2003-2005 (before fly screens) to 10.3% in 2006-2009 (with fly screens). In fly screen houses, Campylobacter spp. prevalence did not peak during the summer. Nationally, prevalence of Campylobacter spp.-positive flocks in Denmark could have been reduced by an estimated 77% during summer had fly screens been part of biosecurity practices. These results imply that fly screens might help reduce prevalence of campylobacteriosis among humans, which is closely linked to Campylobacter spp. prevalence among broiler chicken flocks. PMID:23628089

  16. Bovine Norovirus: Carbohydrate Ligand, Environmental Contamination, and Potential Cross-Species Transmission via Oysters ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Zakhour, Maha; Maalouf, Haifa; Di Bartolo, Ilaria; Haugarreau, Larissa; Le Guyader, Françoise S.; Ruvoën-Clouet, Nathalie; Le Saux, Jean-Claude; Ruggeri, Franco Maria; Pommepuy, Monique; Le Pendu, Jacques

    2010-01-01

    Noroviruses (NoV) are major agents of acute gastroenteritis in humans and the primary pathogens of shellfish-related outbreaks. Previous studies showed that some human strains bind to oyster tissues through carbohydrate ligands that are similar to their human receptors. Thus, based on presentation of shared norovirus carbohydrate ligands, oysters could selectively concentrate animal strains with increased ability to overcome species barriers. In comparison with human GI and GII strains, bovine GIII NoV strains, although frequently detected in bovine feces and waters of two estuaries of Brittany, were seldom detected in oysters grown in these estuaries. Characterization of the carbohydrate ligand from a new GIII strain indicated recognition of the alpha-galactosidase (α-Gal) epitope not expressed by humans, similar to the GIII.2 Newbury2 strain. This ligand was not detectable on oyster tissues, suggesting that oysters may not be able to accumulate substantial amounts of GIII strains due to the lack of shared carbohydrate ligand and that they should be unable to contribute to select GIII strains with an increased ability to recognize humans. PMID:20709837

  17. Use of moss and lichen species to identify (210)Po-contaminated regions.

    PubMed

    Długosz-Lisiecka, Magdalena; Wróbel, Justyna

    2014-12-01

    (210)Po concentration in urban air fluctuates as a result of natural (222)Rn radionuclide exhalation and technical activity that is especially linked with high-temperature processes. Each year, an average 11 GBq of (210)Po is released from local power plants into urban air. Over two months, about 180 samples in central Poland were collected. To detect the concentration of (210)Po activity, two common species of biomonitors were chosen: the moss Pleurozium schreberi and the lichen Hypogymnia physodes. For the same locale, (210)Po in lichen shows an average of twice the amount of activity concentration than the moss. In moss, (210)Po concentrations in Lodz ranged from 41.5 Bq kg(-1) to 258.0 Bq kg(-1), while in lichen it ranges from 74.2 Bq kg(-1) to 670.9 Bq kg(-1). On the basis of the measured activity of (210)Po maps, radionuclide distribution has been prepared. For areas identified with higher concentrations of (210)Po, Quantum Gis has been applied. PMID:25301434

  18. Differential Distribution of Type II CRISPR-Cas Systems in Agricultural and Nonagricultural Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni Isolates Correlates with Lack of Shared Environments

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Bruce M.; Louwen, Rogier; van Baarlen, Peter; van Vliet, Arnoud H.M.

    2015-01-01

    CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats)-Cas (CRISPR-associated) systems are sequence-specific adaptive defenses against phages and plasmids which are widespread in prokaryotes. Here we have studied whether phylogenetic relatedness or sharing of environmental niches affects the distribution and dissemination of Type II CRISPR-Cas systems, first in 132 bacterial genomes from 15 phylogenetic classes, ranging from Proteobacteria to Actinobacteria. There was clustering of distinct Type II CRISPR-Cas systems in phylogenetically distinct genera with varying G+C%, which share environmental niches. The distribution of CRISPR-Cas within a genus was studied using a large collection of genome sequences of the closely related Campylobacter species Campylobacter jejuni (N = 3,746) and Campylobacter coli (N = 486). The Cas gene cas9 and CRISPR-repeat are almost universally present in C. jejuni genomes (98.0% positive) but relatively rare in C. coli genomes (9.6% positive). Campylobacter jejuni and agricultural C. coli isolates share the C. jejuni CRISPR-Cas system, which is closely related to, but distinct from the C. coli CRISPR-Cas system found in C. coli isolates from nonagricultural sources. Analysis of the genomic position of CRISPR-Cas insertion suggests that the C. jejuni-type CRISPR-Cas has been transferred to agricultural C. coli. Conversely, the absence of the C. coli-type CRISPR-Cas in agricultural C. coli isolates may be due to these isolates not sharing the same environmental niche, and may be affected by farm hygiene and biosecurity practices in the agricultural sector. Finally, many CRISPR spacer alleles were linked with specific multilocus sequence types, suggesting that these can assist molecular epidemiology applications for C. jejuni and C. coli. PMID:26338188

  19. Differential Distribution of Type II CRISPR-Cas Systems in Agricultural and Nonagricultural Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni Isolates Correlates with Lack of Shared Environments.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Bruce M; Louwen, Rogier; van Baarlen, Peter; van Vliet, Arnoud H M

    2015-09-01

    CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats)-Cas (CRISPR-associated) systems are sequence-specific adaptive defenses against phages and plasmids which are widespread in prokaryotes. Here we have studied whether phylogenetic relatedness or sharing of environmental niches affects the distribution and dissemination of Type II CRISPR-Cas systems, first in 132 bacterial genomes from 15 phylogenetic classes, ranging from Proteobacteria to Actinobacteria. There was clustering of distinct Type II CRISPR-Cas systems in phylogenetically distinct genera with varying G+C%, which share environmental niches. The distribution of CRISPR-Cas within a genus was studied using a large collection of genome sequences of the closely related Campylobacter species Campylobacter jejuni (N = 3,746) and Campylobacter coli (N = 486). The Cas gene cas9 and CRISPR-repeat are almost universally present in C. jejuni genomes (98.0% positive) but relatively rare in C. coli genomes (9.6% positive). Campylobacter jejuni and agricultural C. coli isolates share the C. jejuni CRISPR-Cas system, which is closely related to, but distinct from the C. coli CRISPR-Cas system found in C. coli isolates from nonagricultural sources. Analysis of the genomic position of CRISPR-Cas insertion suggests that the C. jejuni-type CRISPR-Cas has been transferred to agricultural C. coli. Conversely, the absence of the C. coli-type CRISPR-Cas in agricultural C. coli isolates may be due to these isolates not sharing the same environmental niche, and may be affected by farm hygiene and biosecurity practices in the agricultural sector. Finally, many CRISPR spacer alleles were linked with specific multilocus sequence types, suggesting that these can assist molecular epidemiology applications for C. jejuni and C. coli. PMID:26338188

  20. Prevalence and Distribution of Campylobacter jejuni in Small-Scale Broiler Operations.

    PubMed

    Tangkham, Wannee; Janes, Marlene; LeMieux, Frederick

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni has been recognized as one of the most prevalent causes of foodborne bacterial illnesses in humans. Previous studies have focused on the transmission routes of C. jejuni from commercial flock farms to the final retail product. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of C. jejuni and Campylobacter spp. in eggshells, live birds, feed, drinking water, and the rearing environment in a small-scale broiler operation. Broilers were raised under two different production systems: (i) environmentally controlled housing and (ii) open-air housing with two replications. Each week, samples were collected from eggshells, bird feces, feed, drinking water, enclosures (vertical walls of bird housing), and feed troughs for enumeration and isolation testing. All samples were plated on modified charcoal-cefoperazone-deoxycholate agar to determine the log CFU per gram and percent prevalence of Campylobacter spp. Isolation of C. jejuni was verified with latex agglutination and hippurate hydrolysis tests. The results from this study suggest that vertical transmission of these bacteria from egg surfaces to newly hatched chicks is not a significant risk factor. The results also suggest that the prevalence of C. jejuni at time of harvest (week 6) was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the open-air housing broilers than in those in the environmentally controlled housing. Elevated levels of cross-contaminants, especially water and feed, may have played a role in this outcome. PMID:26735032

  1. [Antibiotic resistance of Campylobacter and its epidemiologic significance].

    PubMed

    Aleksandrova, N Z; Minaev, V I; Gorelov, A V

    1990-03-01

    Sensitivity of 179 strains of thermophilic Campylobacter to 21 chemotherapeutic drugs was studied. Activity of the antibacterial agents against the pathogens was estimated by the MICs. The MIC50 and MIC90 were also determined. All the Campylobacter strains were sensitive to gentamicin, chloramphenicol, neomycin, furazolidone and furagin and resistant to cefazolin, polymyxin E, rifampicin, vancomycin and bacitracin. Differences in the attitude of the Campylobacter isolates from various sources and patients of various age groups to the chemotherapeutic drugs were detected. Possible consideration of the results of comparison of R spectra of Campylobacter strains and the levels of their resistance to antimicrobial drugs as epidemiological markers is discussed. PMID:2360853

  2. Update on the burden of Campylobacter in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Platts-Mills, James A.; Kosek, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review Recent work has added to the understanding of the burden of Campylobacter jejuni, C. coli, and non-jejuni/coli Campylobacter strains in children living in the developing world. Recent findings New diagnostic modalities and carefully-designed field studies are demonstrating that the burden of Campylobacter diarrhea in children in the developing world has been greatly underestimated. Furthermore, there is emerging recognition of an association between Campylobacter infection and malnutrition. Important progress has been made towards a Campylobacter jejuni vaccine. Finally, evidence of antibiotic resistance continues to be an important issue that is accentuated by the realization that the burden of disease is greater than previously recognized. Summary Additional research is needed to refine our understanding of the epidemiology of Campylobacter infections in developing countries, in particular to improve estimates of the burden of Campylobacter diarrhea in endemic settings, to determine the impact of recurrent Campylobacter infections on child development, and to describe the prevalence and clinical significance of non-jejuni/coli Campylobacter infections. Progressive antibiotic resistance of isolates argues for augmented and expanded control measures of antibiotics in livestock. Continued work in vaccine development is warranted as is the extension of data available on the serotypes related to burden in different areas of the world and the relationship of serotypes to disease severity. PMID:25023741

  3. Prevalence of thermotolerant Campylobacter in pheasants (Phasianus colchicus).

    PubMed

    Dipineto, Ludovico; Gargiulo, Antonio; De Luca Bossa, Luigi M; Rinaldi, Laura; Borrelli, Luca; Menna, Lucia F; Fioretti, Alessandro

    2008-10-01

    The present study was undertaken with the aim to evaluate the prevalence of thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. in living pheasants in Italy. To achieve this goal, a total of 240 living pheasants, equally shared between female and male birds, were examined. Thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. was isolated in 104 out of 204 (43.3%) living pheasants analysed. Campylobacter coli (100%) and Campylobacter jejuni (13.5%) were identified by polymerase chain reaction. Adult pheasants showed a significantly higher prevalence value (P < 0.05) than younger pheasants. PMID:18798025

  4. Prevalence and characterization of hippurate-negative Campylobacter jejuni in King County, Washington.

    PubMed Central

    Totten, P A; Patton, C M; Tenover, F C; Barrett, T J; Stamm, W E; Steigerwalt, A G; Lin, J Y; Holmes, K K; Brenner, D J

    1987-01-01

    A total of 593 strains of thermophilic Campylobacter species were isolated either from humans with diarrhea or from poultry in King County, Washington. Of these strains, 98 (52 hippurate-positive strains and all 46 of the hippurate-negative strains) were selected for further phenotypic characterization and genetic classification. Hippurate hydrolysis, the test typically used to differentiate Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli, did not always correlate with the genetic classification. All hippurate-positive strains were classified as C. jejuni. Of the hippurate-negative strains, 20% were C. jejuni, 78% were C. coli, and 2% were C. laridis. Assuming that the remaining hippurate-positive strains were all C. jejuni, then hippurate-negative C. jejuni represented a small percentage (9 of 556 or 1.6%) of C. jejuni strains but a significant percentage (9 of 46 or 20%) of hippurate-negative strains. This finding suggests that hippurate hydrolysis should not be used as the sole criterion for differentiating thermophilic Campylobacter species, particularly when describing the disease states associated with these organisms. Images PMID:3654945

  5. Diversity in the Protein N-Glycosylation Pathways Within the Campylobacter Genus*

    PubMed Central

    Nothaft, Harald; Scott, Nichollas E.; Vinogradov, Evgeny; Liu, Xin; Hu, Rui; Beadle, Bernadette; Fodor, Christopher; Miller, William G.; Li, Jianjun; Cordwell, Stuart J.; Szymanski, Christine M.

    2012-01-01

    The foodborne bacterial pathogen, Campylobacter jejuni, possesses an N-linked protein glycosylation (pgl) pathway involved in adding conserved heptasaccharides to asparagine-containing motifs of >60 proteins, and releasing the same glycan into its periplasm as free oligosaccharides. In this study, comparative genomics of all 30 fully sequenced Campylobacter taxa revealed conserved pgl gene clusters in all but one species. Structural, phylogenetic and immunological studies showed that the N-glycosylation systems can be divided into two major groups. Group I includes all thermotolerant taxa, capable of growth at the higher body temperatures of birds, and produce the C. jejuni-like glycans. Within group I, the niche-adapted C. lari subgroup contain the smallest genomes among the epsilonproteobacteria, and are unable to glucosylate their pgl pathway glycans potentially reminiscent of the glucosyltransferase regression observed in the O-glycosylation system of Neisseria species. The nonthermotolerant Campylobacters, which inhabit a variety of hosts and niches, comprise group II and produce an unexpected diversity of N-glycan structures varying in length and composition. This includes the human gut commensal, C. hominis, which produces at least four different N-glycan structures, akin to the surface carbohydrate diversity observed in the well-studied commensal, Bacteroides. Both group I and II glycans are immunogenic and cell surface exposed, making these structures attractive targets for vaccine design and diagnostics. PMID:22859570

  6. Insights into Campylobacter jejuni colonization and enteritis using a novel infant rabbit model

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Yuwei; Ren, Fangzhe; Song, Zhaojun; Li, Qiuchun; Zhou, Xiaohui; Wang, Xiaobo; Xu, Zhonglan; Bao, Guangyu; Wan, Ting; Lei, Tianyao; Wang, Nan; Jiao, Xin-an; Huang, Jinlin

    2016-01-01

    A lack of relevant disease models for Campylobacter jejuni has long been an obstacle to research into this common enteric pathogen. Here we used an infant rabbit to study C. jejuni infection, which enables us to define several previously unknown but key features of the organism. C. jejuni is capable of systemic invasion in the rabbit, and developed a diarrhea symptom that mimicked that observed in many human campylobacteriosis. The large intestine was the most consistently colonized site and produced intestinal inflammation, where specific cytokines were induced. Genes preferentially expressed during C. jejuni infection were screened, and acs, cj1385, cj0259 seem to be responsible for C. jejuni invasion. Our results demonstrates that the infant rabbit can be used as an alternative experimental model for the study of diarrheagenic Campylobacter species and will be useful in exploring the pathogenesis of other related pathogens. PMID:27357336

  7. Association between the ambient temperature and the occurrence of human Salmonella and Campylobacter infections.

    PubMed

    Yun, Josef; Greiner, Matthias; Höller, Christiane; Messelhäusser, Ute; Rampp, Albert; Klein, Günter

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella spp. and thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. are the most important causes of human bacterial diarrheal infections worldwide. These bacterial species are influenced by several factors like behaviour of the host, shedding, environment incl. directly or indirectly through ambient temperature, and the infections show seasonality. Therefore, the aim of our study was to investigate the association between the occurrence of human campylobacteriosis and salmonellosis and the ambient temperature. The number of campylobacteriosis and salmonellosis cases in two German metropolises, Munich and Berlin, and three rural regions was analysed with simultaneous consideration of the ambient temperature over a period of four years (2001 to 2004) using regression, time series, and cross-correlation analysis. The statistical analysis showed that an increase in the ambient temperature correlated positively with an increase in human Salmonella and Campylobacter cases. The correlation occurred with a delay of approximately five weeks. The seasonal rise in ambient temperature correlated with increased incidence of bacterial diarrheal infections. PMID:27324200

  8. Association between the ambient temperature and the occurrence of human Salmonella and Campylobacter infections

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Josef; Greiner, Matthias; Höller, Christiane; Messelhäusser, Ute; Rampp, Albert; Klein, Günter

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella spp. and thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. are the most important causes of human bacterial diarrheal infections worldwide. These bacterial species are influenced by several factors like behaviour of the host, shedding, environment incl. directly or indirectly through ambient temperature, and the infections show seasonality. Therefore, the aim of our study was to investigate the association between the occurrence of human campylobacteriosis and salmonellosis and the ambient temperature. The number of campylobacteriosis and salmonellosis cases in two German metropolises, Munich and Berlin, and three rural regions was analysed with simultaneous consideration of the ambient temperature over a period of four years (2001 to 2004) using regression, time series, and cross-correlation analysis. The statistical analysis showed that an increase in the ambient temperature correlated positively with an increase in human Salmonella and Campylobacter cases. The correlation occurred with a delay of approximately five weeks. The seasonal rise in ambient temperature correlated with increased incidence of bacterial diarrheal infections. PMID:27324200

  9. Insights into Campylobacter jejuni colonization and enteritis using a novel infant rabbit model.

    PubMed

    Shang, Yuwei; Ren, Fangzhe; Song, Zhaojun; Li, Qiuchun; Zhou, Xiaohui; Wang, Xiaobo; Xu, Zhonglan; Bao, Guangyu; Wan, Ting; Lei, Tianyao; Wang, Nan; Jiao, Xin-An; Huang, Jinlin

    2016-01-01

    A lack of relevant disease models for Campylobacter jejuni has long been an obstacle to research into this common enteric pathogen. Here we used an infant rabbit to study C. jejuni infection, which enables us to define several previously unknown but key features of the organism. C. jejuni is capable of systemic invasion in the rabbit, and developed a diarrhea symptom that mimicked that observed in many human campylobacteriosis. The large intestine was the most consistently colonized site and produced intestinal inflammation, where specific cytokines were induced. Genes preferentially expressed during C. jejuni infection were screened, and acs, cj1385, cj0259 seem to be responsible for C. jejuni invasion. Our results demonstrates that the infant rabbit can be used as an alternative experimental model for the study of diarrheagenic Campylobacter species and will be useful in exploring the pathogenesis of other related pathogens. PMID:27357336

  10. Superoxide dismutase SodB is a protective antigen against Campylobacter jejuni colonisation in chickens

    PubMed Central

    Chintoan-Uta, Cosmin; Cassady-Cain, Robin L.; Al-Haideri, Halah; Watson, Eleanor; Kelly, David J.; Smith, David G.E.; Sparks, Nick H.C.; Kaiser, Pete; Stevens, Mark P.

    2015-01-01

    Campylobacter is the leading cause of foodborne diarrhoeal illness in the developed world and consumption or handling of contaminated poultry meat is the principal source of infection. Strategies to control Campylobacter in broilers prior to slaughter are urgently required and are predicted to limit the incidence of human campylobacteriosis. Towards this aim, a purified recombinant subunit vaccine based on the superoxide dismutase (SodB) protein of C. jejuni M1 was developed and tested in White Leghorn birds. Birds were vaccinated on the day of hatch and 14 days later with SodB fused to glutathione S-transferase (GST) or purified GST alone. Birds were challenged with C. jejuni M1 at 28 days of age and caecal Campylobacter counts determined at weekly intervals. Across three independent trials, the vaccine induced a statistically significant 1 log10 reduction in caecal Campylobacter numbers in vaccinated birds compared to age-matched GST-vaccinated controls. Significant induction of antigen-specific serum IgY was detected in all vaccinated birds, however the magnitude and timing of SodB-specific IgY did not correlate with lower numbers of C. jejuni. Antibodies from SodB-vaccinated chickens detected the protein in the periplasm and not membrane fractions or on the bacterial surface, suggesting that the protection observed may not be strictly antibody-mediated. SodB may be useful as a constituent of vaccines for control of C. jejuni infection in broiler birds, however modest protection was observed late relative to the life of broiler birds and further studies are required to potentiate the magnitude and timing of protection. PMID:26458797

  11. Evaluating best practices for Campylobacter and Salmonella reduction in poultry processing plants.

    PubMed

    Wideman, N; Bailey, M; Bilgili, S F; Thippareddi, H; Wang, L; Bratcher, C; Sanchez-Plata, M; Singh, M

    2016-02-01

    Poultry processing plants in the United States were surveyed on their current Campylobacter and Salmonella control practices. Following surveys, data were collected to develop a baseline for prevalence rates of Salmonella and Campylobacter; then changes in practices were implemented and evaluated for improvements in pathogen control. Surveys were sent to the plant Quality Assurance managers to determine production levels, antimicrobial interventions, and current pathogen testing practices. Initial sampling was performed at 6 plants with similar production volumes, at sites that included carcass samples before any pre-evisceration intervention, after exiting the inside-outside bird washer (IOBW), after exiting the pre-chiller, after exiting the primary chiller, and after exiting any post-chill intervention, as well as a water sample from each scalder, pre-chiller, primary chiller, and post-chill dip tank or finishing chiller. Enumerations and enrichments were performed for Campylobacter and Salmonella. Following the baseline sampling, changes in practices were suggested for each plant and a second sampling was conducted to determine their effectiveness. Results demonstrated that peracetic acid (PAA) was the most effective (P < 0.05) antimicrobial currently in use. The use of a post-chill antimicrobial immersion tank and/or use of a cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) spray cabinet also displayed a further reduction in microbial levels (P < 0.05) when the primary chiller was not sufficient (P > 0.05). Microbial buildup in the immersion tanks demonstrates the need for effective cleaning, sanitation practices, and chiller maintenance to reduce contamination of poultry with Campylobacter and Salmonella. PMID:26574037

  12. Genotypes and Antibiotic Resistances of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli Isolates from Domestic and Travel-Associated Human Cases

    PubMed Central

    Niederer, Lilian; Kuhnert, Peter; Egger, Ralph; Büttner, Sabina; Hächler, Herbert

    2012-01-01

    Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) extended with flaB typing of 425 Campylobacter jejuni isolates and 42 Campylobacter coli isolates revealed quite a low overlap between human isolates from travel-associated and domestic cases in Switzerland. Men were more frequently affected by Campylobacter than women, but strains from women and, overall, from travel-associated cases showed mutations conferring quinolone resistance more frequently than strains from men and domestic cases, respectively. PMID:22020515

  13. Detection of pathogenic Campylobacter, E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp. in wastewater by PCR assay.

    PubMed

    Bonetta, Si; Pignata, C; Lorenzi, E; De Ceglia, M; Meucci, L; Bonetta, Sa; Gilli, G; Carraro, E

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was the evaluation of the occurrence of pathogenic Campylobacter, Escherichia coli O157:H7, E. coli virulence genes and Salmonella spp. in different wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) using a method based on an enrichment step and PCR. This method was sensitive enough to detect low levels (∼2 CFU100 ml(-1) of raw sewage) of all the investigated pathogens. In the WWTP samples, E. coli O157:H7 DNA and the eae gene were never found, but 33 % of influents and effluents exhibited amplicons corresponding to Shiga-like toxin I. Twenty-five percent of the influent and 8 % of the effluent exhibited the presence of Shiga-like toxin II. Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli DNA were identified in 50 and 25 % of the influents and in 8 and 25 % of the effluents, respectively. Salmonella spp. DNA was present in all the samples. Considering the results obtained, the method tested here offers a reliable and expeditious tool for evaluating the efficiency of the effluent treatment in order to mitigate contamination risk. Influent contamination by Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp. provides indirect information about their circulation; moreover, their presence in effluents underlines the role of WWTPs in the contamination of the receiving surface waters, which affects public health directly or indirectly. PMID:27106076

  14. Antimicrobial susceptibilities of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli recovered from organic turkey farms in Germany.

    PubMed

    El-Adawy, Hosny; Ahmed, Marwa F E; Hotzel, Helmut; Tomaso, Herbert; Tenhagen, Bernd-Alois; Hartung, Joerg; Neubauer, Heinrich; Hafez, Hafez M

    2015-11-01

    The popularity of food produced from animals kept under an organic regimen has increased in recent years. In Germany, turkey meat consumption has increased. Despite several studies assessing the susceptibility of campylobacters to various antibiotics in poultry, no sufficient data exists regarding the antimicrobial resistance of campylobacters in organic-reared turkeys. This study provides information about antibiotic resistance in Campylobacter isolated from turkeys reared on organic farms in Germany. Ninety-six Campylobacter strains (41 C. jejuni and 55 C. coli) were isolated from different free-range turkey flocks. In vitro antimicrobial sensitivity testing was done using a broth microdilution test, and the presence of resistance genes to antibiotics (ciprofloxacin, tetracycline) was investigated. All Campylobacter isolates from organic turkeys (n = 96) were phenotypically sensitive to gentamicin, erythromycin, streptomycin, and chloramphenicol. In this study, the antibiotic susceptibilities of C. jejuni to ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, and naladixic acid were 56.0%, 51.3%, and 56.0%, respectively. In contrast, 44.0%, 73.0%, and 74.6% of C. coli isolates were resistant to tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, and nalidixic acid, respectively. Replacement of the Thr-86→Ile in the gyrA gene, and the presence of the tet(O) gene were the mainly identified resistance mechanisms against fluoroquinolones and tetracycline, respectively.These results also reinforce the need to develop strategies and implement specific control procedures to reduce the development of antimicrobial resistance. PMID:26371330

  15. Contaminants and habitat choice in the Baltic Sea: Behavioural experiments with the native species, Monoporeia affinis, and the invasive genus, Marenzelleria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eriksson Wiklund, Ann-Kristin; Vilhelmsson, Sandra; Wiklund, Stig Johan; Eklund, Britta

    2009-01-01

    The invasive polychaete genus, Marenzelleria and the native amphipod, Monoporeia affinis are food and habitat competitors in the Baltic Sea. Previous studies have shown that moderate densities of Marenzelleria can affect the behaviour of M. affinis. To examine the short-term interactive effects of interspecific habitat choice and environmental contaminants a series of habitat colonisation experiments were performed. The contaminants examined included harbor sediments and sediment spiked with the antifouling substances, Cu, Zn and Irgarol. Polychaetes and amphipods were exposed to contaminants in single-species and two-species experiments. In spiked-sediment experiments, M. affinis showed clear dose-dependent response. These experiments verified that behavioural response of M. affinis to different habitats is a sensitive method for testing toxicity under controlled conditions. In experiments with three different harbor sediments and reference sediment both species showed the lowest preference for the reference sediment. This sediment also had the lowest content of quality food, indicating that factors such as food quality and quantity may override the disturbing effects of contaminants in natural sediments. The presence of Marenzelleria spp. did not affect amphipod habitat choice, indicating no short-term effects, which implies that both species can co-exist provided sufficient food is available.

  16. Resistance to antimicrobial agents of Campylobacter spp. strains isolated from animals in Poland.

    PubMed

    Krutkiewicz, A; Sałamaszyńska-Guz, A; Rzewuska, M; Klimuszko, D; Binek, M

    2009-01-01

    A total of 69 Campylobacter jejuni and 16 Campylobacter coli strains isolated from chicken, dog and pig stool samples were characterized based on their resistance to five antimicrobial agents and on plasmid pTet profiles. Antimicrobials used in this study were: amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, tetracycline and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. Among the isolates studied, 91.7% were resistant to one or more antimicrobial agent. The highest level of resistance for the whole test group was to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (57.6%), followed by ciprofloxacin (44.2%) and tetracycline (20%). All isolates were susceptible to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid. Strains isolated from chickens were susceptible to erythromycin. Few erythromycin-resistant strains were isolated from dogs and pigs (5.8%). C. coli strains exhibited a higher antibiotic resistance than C. jejuni strains, excluding resistance to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. The pTet plasmid harboring the tet(O) gene was detected in 14 Campylobacter spp. strains. Our studies demonstrate that the majority (71.4%) of tetracycline-resistant isolates carry a plasmid-borne tet(O) gene, particularly strains for which the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) are > or = 256 microg/ml. In conclusion, we have found high-level trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, ciprofloxacin and tetracycline resistance in Polish strains isolated from different sources. This study has demonstrated that resistance of Campylobacter species differs depending on both the bacterial species and animal origins. All strains that displayed resistance to four antimicrobial agents were isolated from pigs. Localization of the tet(O) gene on either plasmid or chromosome was not found to be correlated with tetracycline resistance. PMID:20169919

  17. Microarray on digital versatile disc for identification and genotyping of Salmonella and Campylobacter in meat products.

    PubMed

    Tortajada-Genaro, Luis Antonio; Rodrigo, Alejandro; Hevia, Elizabeth; Mena, Salvador; Niñoles, Regina; Maquieira, Ángel

    2015-09-01

    Highly portable, cost-effective, and rapid-response devices are required for the subtyping of the most frequent food-borne bacteria; thereby the sample rejection strategies and hygienization techniques along the food chain can be tailor-designed. Here, a novel biosensor is presented for the generic detection of Salmonella and Campylobacter and the discrimination between their most prevalent serovars (Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Typhimurium) and species (Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli), respectively. The method is based on DNA microarray developed on a standard digital versatile disc (DVD) as support for a hybridization assay and a DVD driver as scanner. This approach was found to be highly sensitive (detection limit down to 0.2 pg of genomic DNA), reproducible (relative standard deviation 4-19 %), and high working capacity (20 samples per disc). The inclusivity and exclusivity assays indicated that designed oligonucleotides (primers and probes) were able to discriminate targeted pathogens from other Salmonella serovars, Campylobacter species, or common food-borne pathogens potentially present in the indigenous microflora. One hundred isolates from meat samples, collected in a poultry factory, were analyzed by the DVD microarraying and fluorescent real-time PCR. An excellent correlation was observed for both generic and specific detection (relative sensitivity 93-99 % and relative specificity 93-100 %). Therefore, the developed assay has been shown to be a reliable tool to be used in routine food safety analysis, especially in settings with limited infrastructure due to the excellent efficiency-cost ratio of compact disc technology. Graphical Abstract DNA microarray performed by DVD technology for pathogen genotyping. PMID:26198111

  18. Colonization factors of Campylobacter jejuni in the chicken gut

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Campylobacter contaminated broiler chicken meat is an important source of foodborne gastroenteritis and poses a serious health burden in industrialized countries. Broiler chickens are commonly regarded as a natural host for this zoonotic pathogen and infected birds carry a very high C. jejuni load in their gastrointestinal tract, especially the ceca. This eventually results in contaminated carcasses during processing. Current intervention methods fail to reduce the colonization of broiler chicks by C. jejuni due to an incomplete understanding on the interaction between C. jejuni and its avian host. Clearly, C. jejuni developed several survival and colonization mechanisms which are responsible for its highly adapted nature to the chicken host. But how these mechanisms interact with one another, leading to persistent, high-level cecal colonization remains largely obscure. A plethora of mutagenesis studies in the past few years resulted in the identification of several of the genes and proteins of C. jejuni involved in different aspects of the cellular response of this bacterium in the chicken gut. In this review, a thorough, up-to-date overview will be given of the survival mechanisms and colonization factors of C. jejuni identified to date. These factors may contribute to our understanding on how C. jejuni survival and colonization in chicks is mediated, as well as provide potential targets for effective subunit vaccine development. PMID:21714866

  19. Egg-laying sequence influences egg mercury concentrations and egg size in three bird species: Implications for contaminant monitoring programs.

    PubMed

    Ackerman, Joshua T; Eagles-Smith, Collin A; Herzog, Mark P; Yee, Julie L; Hartman, C Alex

    2016-06-01

    Bird eggs are commonly used in contaminant monitoring programs and toxicological risk assessments, but intraclutch variation and sampling methodology could influence interpretability. The authors examined the influence of egg-laying sequence on egg mercury concentrations and burdens in American avocets, black-necked stilts, and Forster's terns. The average decline in mercury concentrations between the first and last eggs laid was 33% for stilts, 22% for terns, and 11% for avocets, and most of this decline occurred between the first and second eggs laid (24% for stilts, 18% for terns, and 9% for avocets). Trends in egg size with egg-laying order were inconsistent among species, and overall differences in egg volume, mass, length, and width were <3%. The authors summarized the literature, and among 17 species studied, mercury concentrations generally declined by 16% between the first and second eggs laid. Despite the strong effect of egg-laying sequence, most of the variance in egg mercury concentrations still occurred among clutches (75-91%) rather than within clutches (9%-25%). Using simulations, the authors determined that accurate estimation of a population's mean egg mercury concentration using only a single random egg from a subset of nests would require sampling >60 nests to represent a large population (10% accuracy) or ≥14 nests to represent a small colony that contained <100 nests (20% accuracy). Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1458-1469. Published 2015 Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This article is a US Government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America. PMID:26505635

  20. Enhancing Aerobic Growth of Campylobacter in Media Supplemented with Organic Acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of agar and sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) concentration on aerobic growth of Campylobacter in was determined. A fumarate-pyruvate medium was supplemented with 0.0 to 0.2% agar and inoculated with Campylobacter coli, Campylobacter fetus, or Campylobacter jejuni. Portions of the inoculated me...

  1. Mercury contamination in fish in midcontinent great rivers of the united states: Importance of species traits and environmental factors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walters, D.M.; Blocksom, K.A.; Lazorchak, J.M.; Jicha, T.; Angradi, T.R.; Bolgrien, D.W.

    2010-01-01

    We measured mercury (Hg) concentrations in whole fish from the Upper Mississippi, Missouri, and Ohio Rivers to characterize the extent and magnitude of Hg contamination and to identify environmental factors influencing Hg accumulation. Concentrations were generally lower (80% of values between 20?200 ng g1 wet weight) than those reported for other regions (e.g., upper Midwest and Northeast U.S.). Mercury exceeded the risk threshold for belted kingfisher (Ceryle alcyon, the most sensitive species considered) in 33?75% of river length and 1?7% of river length for humans. Concentrations were lower in the Missouri than in the Mississippi and Ohio Rivers, consistent with continental-scale patterns in atmospheric Hg deposition. Body size and trophic guild were the best predictors of Hg concentrations, which were highest in large-bodied top predators. Site geochemical and landscape properties were weakly related with fish Hg. Moreover, relationships often ran contrary to conventional wisdom, and the slopes of the relationships (positive or negative) were inconsistent among fish guilds and rivers. For example, sulfate is positively associated with fish Hg concentrations but was negatively correlated with Hg in five of six regression models of tissue concentrations. Variables such as pH, acid neutralizing capacity, and total phosphorus did not occur at levels associated with high fish Hg concentrations, partially explaining the relatively low Hg values we observed. ?? 2010 American Chemical Society.

  2. Dioxin and PCB contamination in Chinese mitten crabs: human consumption as a control mechanism for an invasive species.

    PubMed

    Clark, Paul F; Mortimer, David N; Law, Robin J; Averns, Jon M; Cohen, Bill A; Wood, David; Rose, Martin D; Fernandes, Alwyn R; Rainbow, Philip S

    2009-03-01

    The Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis is an invasive species in North American and northeastern European rivers and estuaries, especially the Thames, England, with the potential to cause considerable ecological and structural environmental damage. The brown meat of sexually ripe mitten crabs is highly prized in far eastern restaurants, suggesting that harvesting for culinary purposes offers a potential population control mechanism. We have analyzed tissues of Thames and Dutch mitten crabs for potentially toxic dietary contaminants, showing that the brown meat contains raised concentrations of dioxins (polychlorinated dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans) and PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls), organochlorines which are chronic toxins. We have compared estimated daily intakes of these toxins by consumers of meals of mitten crab brown meat against their suggested European Tolerable Daily Intakes (TDI), concluding that a male adult or female beyond childbearing age could consume several portions per week derived from Thames crabs, but fewer from the Dutch crabs. With a caveat that excessive consumption of mitten crab brown meat could lead to exposures of potential concern, particularly in the case of children and women of child-bearing age, it does appear that the harvesting of mitten crabs from the Thames for culinary use need not be discouraged. PMID:19350945

  3. Mercury contamination in fish in midcontinent great rivers of the United States: importance of species traits and environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Walters, David M; Blocksom, Karen A; Lazorchak, James M; Jicha, Terri; Angradi, Theodore R; Bolgrien, David W

    2010-04-15

    We measured mercury (Hg) concentrations in whole fish from the Upper Mississippi, Missouri, and Ohio Rivers to characterize the extent and magnitude of Hg contamination and to identify environmental factors influencing Hg accumulation. Concentrations were generally lower (80% of values between 20-200 ng g(-1) wet weight) than those reported for other regions (e.g., upper Midwest and Northeast U.S.). Mercury exceeded the risk threshold for belted kingfisher (Ceryle alcyon, the most sensitive species considered) in 33-75% of river length and 1-7% of river length for humans. Concentrations were lower in the Missouri than in the Mississippi and Ohio Rivers, consistent with continental-scale patterns in atmospheric Hg deposition. Body size and trophic guild were the best predictors of Hg concentrations, which were highest in large-bodied top predators. Site geochemical and landscape properties were weakly related with fish Hg. Moreover, relationships often ran contrary to conventional wisdom, and the slopes of the relationships (positive or negative) were inconsistent among fish guilds and rivers. For example, sulfate is positively associated with fish Hg concentrations but was negatively correlated with Hg in five of six regression models of tissue concentrations. Variables such as pH, acid neutralizing capacity, and total phosphorus did not occur at levels associated with high fish Hg concentrations, partially explaining the relatively low Hg values we observed. PMID:20297812

  4. Seasonal variability and inter-species comparison of metal bioaccumulation in caged gammarids under urban diffuse contamination gradient: implications for biomonitoring investigations.

    PubMed

    Lebrun, Jérémie D; Geffard, Olivier; Urien, Nastassia; François, Adeline; Uher, Emmanuelle; Fechner, Lise C

    2015-04-01

    Although caging of Gammarus species offers promising lines of inquiry to monitor metal bioavailability in freshwaters, the interspecies responsiveness to metal exposures is still unclear. In addition, abiotic factors inherent to transplantation can hamper the interpretation of field bioaccumulation data. To assess the relevance of using gammarids as biomonitors, we investigated the seasonal influence on metal bioaccumulation in two common species, Gammarus pulex and Gammarus fossarum. During four seasons, caged gammarids were deployed on three sites along the Seine River exhibiting a diffuse gradient of multi-metal contamination: a site upstream and two sites downstream from the Paris megacity. For each seasonal deployment, metal concentrations in animals were determined after 7d-exposure in situ (Ag, Cd, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn). Results show that the seasonal patterns of metal contaminations are similar between both Gammarus species, and closely related to the river axis' contamination gradient. Statistical analyses indicate that bioaccumulation of essential metals in both species is influenced by season, especially by water temperature. This highlights the necessity to consider this climatic factor inherent to the deployment period for a reliable interpretation of bioaccumulation data in the field. The comparison of accumulation factors suggests that these two species coming from different geochemical origins display similar abilities to internalize metals. This generic responsiveness of caged gammarids supports their use as sentinel organisms to quantify low spatiotemporal variations in metal bioavailabilities. PMID:25577736

  5. Darkling Beetles (Alphitobius diaperinus) and Their Larvae as Potential Vectors for the Transfer of Campylobacter jejuni and Salmonella enterica Serovar Paratyphi B Variant Java between Successive Broiler Flocks ▿

    PubMed Central

    Hazeleger, Wilma C.; Bolder, Nico M.; Beumer, Rijkelt R.; Jacobs-Reitsma, Wilma F.

    2008-01-01

    Broiler flocks often become infected with Campylobacter and Salmonella, and the exact contamination routes are still not fully understood. Insects like darkling beetles and their larvae may play a role in transfer of the pathogens between consecutive cycles. In this study, several groups of beetles and their larvae were artificially contaminated with a mixture of Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi B Variant Java and three C. jejuni strains and kept for different time intervals before they were fed to individually housed chicks. Most inoculated insects were positive for Salmonella and Campylobacter just before they were fed to the chicks. However, Campylobacter could not be isolated from insects that were kept for 1 week before they were used to mimic an empty week between rearing cycles. All broilers fed insects that were inoculated with pathogens on the day of feeding showed colonization with Campylobacter and Salmonella at levels of 50 to 100%. Transfer of both pathogens by groups of insects that were kept for 1 week before feeding to the chicks was also observed, but at lower levels. Naturally contaminated insects that were collected at a commercial broiler farm colonized broilers at low levels as well. In conclusion, the fact that Salmonella and Campylobacter can be transmitted via beetles and their larvae to flocks in successive rearing cycles indicates that there should be intensive control programs for exclusion of these insects from broiler houses. PMID:18791034

  6. Campylobacter concisus – A New Player in Intestinal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kaakoush, Nadeem Omar; Mitchell, Hazel Marjory

    2012-01-01

    Over the last decade Campylobacter concisus, a highly fastidious member of the Campylobacter genus has been described as an emergent pathogen of the human intestinal tract. Historically, C. concisus was associated with the human oral cavity and has been linked with periodontal lesions, including gingivitis and periodontitis, although currently its role as an oral pathogen remains contentious. Evidence to support the role of C. concisus in acute intestinal disease has come from studies that have detected or isolated C. concisus as sole pathogen in fecal samples from diarrheic patients. C. concisus has also been associated with chronic intestinal disease, its prevalence being significantly higher in children with newly diagnosed Crohn’s disease (CD) and adults with ulcerative colitis than in controls. Further C. concisus has been isolated from biopsy specimens of patients with CD. While such studies support the role of C. concisus as an intestinal pathogen, its isolation from healthy individuals, and failure of some studies to show a significant difference in C. concisus prevalence in subjects with diarrhea and healthy controls has raised contention as to its role in intestinal disease. Such findings could argue against the role of C. concisus in intestinal disease, however, the fact that C. concisus strains are genetically diverse raises the possibility that differences exist in their pathogenic potential. Evidence to support this view comes from studies showing strain specific differences in the ability of C. concisus to attach to and invade cells and produce virulence factors, including toxins and hemolytic phospholipase A. Further, sequencing of the genome of a C. concisus strain isolated from a child with CD (UNSWCD) and comparison of this with the only other fully sequenced strain (BAA-1457) would suggest that major differences exist in the genetic make-up of this species which could explain different outcomes of C. concisus infection. PMID:22919596

  7. PREVALENCE OF CAMPYLOBACTER AND SALMONELLA IN THE TURKEY BROODER HOUSE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have previously surveyed market weight turkeys for the effect of transport to and holding at the abattoir for the prevalence of Campylobacter and Salmonella. Whereas Campylobacter is frequently found in the ceca of adult birds (~60%), the prevalence of Salmonella varies considerably from farm to...

  8. ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE RATES IN CAMPYLOBACTER ISOLATES DERIVED FROM SWINE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter, a microaerophilic gram-negative rod, is a major foodborne pathogen and commonly present in swine intestinal tract without causing any clinical disease. In this project, we investigated the antimicrobial resistance profiles of fecal Campylobacter isolates (n= 194) obtained from a swin...

  9. Retrospective Study of Campylobacter Infection in a Zoological Collection▿

    PubMed Central

    Taema, Maged M.; Bull, James C.; Macgregor, Shaheed K.; Flach, Edmund J.; Boardman, Wayne S.; Routh, Andrew D.

    2008-01-01

    Little is known about the epidemiology of Campylobacter spp. in wild animal populations. However, zoological collections can provide valuable insights. Using records from the Zoological Society of London Whipsnade Zoo compiled between 1990 and 2003, the roles of a range of biotic and abiotic factors associated with the occurrence of campylobacteriosis were investigated. The occurrence of campylobacteriosis varied widely across host taxonomic orders. Furthermore, in mammals, a combination of changes in both rainfall and temperature in the week preceding the onset of gastroenteritis were associated with isolation of Campylobacter from feces. In birds, there was a weak negative correlation between mean weekly rainfall and isolation of Campylobacter from feces. Importantly, in birds we found that the mean weekly rainfall 3 to 4 weeks before symptoms of gastroenteritis appeared was the best predictor of Campylobacter infection. Campylobacter-related gastroenteritis cases with mixed concurrent infections were positively associated with the presence of parasites (helminths and protozoans) in mammals, while in birds Campylobacter was associated with other concurrent bacterial infections rather than with the presence of helminths and protozoans. This study suggests that climatic elements are important factors associated with Campylobacter-related gastroenteritis. Further investigations are required to improve our understanding of Campylobacter epidemiology in captive wild animal populations. PMID:18165368

  10. Utilizing a gentamicin resistant Campylobacter (C. coli) in poultry research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The capability to perform inoculation studies with Campylobacter is limited without a suitable marker. Performing inoculation studies without a marker requires utilization of molecular techniques for confirmation. The objective of this study was to screen over 3,000 Campylobacter isolates obtained...

  11. THE PREVALENCE OF CAMPYLOBACTER AND SALMONELLA THROUGHOUT TURKEY BROODER PRODUCTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have previously surveyed market weight turkeys for the presence of Campylobacter and Salmonella and have reported that whereas the prevalence of Campylobacter is >60% at slaughter the Salmonella prevalence varies from 0 to 97%. The purpose of this study was to determine the temporal point of ent...

  12. REDUCTION IN CAMPYLOBACTER SPP. LEVELS IN COMMERCIALLY PROCESSED CARCASSES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We sampled Georgia commercial flocks of broilers in 1995 and in 2001 for Campylobacter. We used a direct plating method to quantify Campylobacter within each flock. These flocks were the first processed of the day and we estimated levels of the organism per carcass (50 carcasses per flock pre-chil...

  13. Campylobacter – How did it get in the chicken?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One of the most important bacteria causing human foodborne illness is Campylobacter. It has been associated with undercooked commercial poultry and at present each and every source of introduction into broiler flocks is not known. In past years, it was thought that the only source of Campylobacter...

  14. Efficacy of natural cranberry extracts against campylobacter colonization in poultry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter spp. has been identified as one of the leading causative agents of food borne diarrheal illness. Epi-demiological evidence has shown that poultry is the main source for human infection. Currently there are no consistently effective treatments to eliminate Campylobacter from poultry flo...

  15. Overview of USDA VetNet Campylobacter Database

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    USDA VetNet commenced in March 2004 with submission of Salmonella isolates and in December 2005, Campylobacter isolates were added to the program. The objectives of USDA VetNet are to determine PFGE patterns of Salmonella and Campylobacter isolates submitted to the National Antimicrobial Resistance...

  16. A Comparison of Methods for the Speciation of Campylobacter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: Infection with Campylobacter is of global public health concern as one of the leading causes of enteric illness. Campylobacter is a fastidious organism and conventional culture from food or other samples can take several days, particularly if numbers are low and competing flora is hig...

  17. Rapid identification of Campylobacter jejuni from poultry carcasses and slaughtering environment samples by real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, Mirena; Singh, Randhir; Dharmasena, Muthu; Gong, Chao; Krastanov, Albert; Jiang, Xiuping

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a real-time PCR assay for rapid identification of Campylobacter jejuni and to apply the method in analyzing samples from poultry processing. A C. jejuni-specific primer set targeting a portion of the C. jejuni hippuricase gene was developed. The specificity of the newly designed primer pair was verified using 5 C. jejuni strains and 20 other bacterial strains. Sensitivity was determined to be as low as 1 genome copy per reaction. A total of 73 samples were collected at different sites along the processing line during 2 visits to a poultry slaughterhouse and were examined by direct plating onto modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate agar or after enrichment in Bolton broth followed by plating on modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate agar. The newly developed real-time PCR assay was used to identify the presumptive colonies as belonging to C. jejuni. A real-time PCR assay targeting 16S ribosomal RNA was also applied to determine Campylobacter spp. prevalence. Results from the real-time PCR analysis indicated considerable variability in Campylobacter contamination, with incidence rates of 72.7 and 27.6% for sampling days A and B, respectively. Campylobacter was isolated from 100% of prescalded and preeviscerated carcasses on sampling day A. In contrast, on sampling day B, the highest number of Campylobacter-positive carcasses was recovered after evisceration (60%). The chilling process significantly reduced (P < 0.05) Campylobacter population, but the percentage of positive samples on sampling day A increased to 80%. All samples collected from the processing environment, except scalding tank 3 and the prechiller and chiller tanks, were 100% positive on day A, whereas no campylobacters were isolated from machinery on sampling day B. Our results revealed the widespread of C. jejuni in poultry processing and proved that the newly developed real-time PCR assay is a simple, specific, and inexpensive method for rapid C

  18. L-fucose influences chemotaxis and biofilm formation in Campylobacter jejuni.

    PubMed

    Dwivedi, Ritika; Nothaft, Harald; Garber, Jolene; Xin Kin, Lin; Stahl, Martin; Flint, Annika; van Vliet, Arnoud H M; Stintzi, Alain; Szymanski, Christine M

    2016-08-01

    Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are zoonotic pathogens once considered asaccharolytic, but are now known to encode pathways for glucose and fucose uptake/metabolism. For C. jejuni, strains with the fuc locus possess a competitive advantage in animal colonization models. We demonstrate that this locus is present in > 50% of genome-sequenced strains and is prevalent in livestock-associated isolates of both species. To better understand how these campylobacters sense nutrient availability, we examined biofilm formation and chemotaxis to fucose. C. jejuni NCTC11168 forms less biofilms in the presence of fucose, although its fucose permease mutant (fucP) shows no change. In a newly developed chemotaxis assay, both wild-type and the fucP mutant are chemotactic towards fucose. C. jejuni 81-176 naturally lacks the fuc locus and is unable to swim towards fucose. Transfer of the NCTC11168 locus into 81-176 activated fucose uptake and chemotaxis. Fucose chemotaxis also correlated with possession of the pathway for C. jejuni RM1221 (fuc+) and 81116 (fuc-). Systematic mutation of the NCTC11168 locus revealed that Cj0485 is necessary for fucose metabolism and chemotaxis. This study suggests that components for fucose chemotaxis are encoded within the fuc locus, but downstream signals only in fuc + strains, are involved in coordinating fucose availability with biofilm development. PMID:27145048

  19. Restaurant Cooking Trends and Increased Risk for Campylobacter Infection

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Anna K.; Rigby, Dan; Burton, Michael; Millman, Caroline; Williams, Nicola J.; Jones, Trevor R.; Wigley, Paul; Cross, Paul

    2016-01-01

    In the United Kingdom, outbreaks of Campylobacter infection are increasingly attributed to undercooked chicken livers, yet many recipes, including those of top chefs, advocate short cooking times and serving livers pink. During 2015, we studied preferences of chefs and the public in the United Kingdom and investigated the link between liver rareness and survival of Campylobacter. We used photographs to assess chefs’ ability to identify chicken livers meeting safe cooking guidelines. To investigate the microbiological safety of livers chefs preferred to serve, we modeled Campylobacter survival in infected chicken livers cooked to various temperatures. Most chefs correctly identified safely cooked livers but overestimated the public’s preference for rareness and thus preferred to serve them more rare. We estimated that 19%–52% of livers served commercially in the United Kingdom fail to reach 70°C and that predicted Campylobacter survival rates are 48%–98%. These findings indicate that cooking trends are linked to increasing Campylobacter infections. PMID:27314748

  20. Restaurant Cooking Trends and Increased Risk for Campylobacter Infection.

    PubMed

    Jones, Anna K; Rigby, Dan; Burton, Michael; Millman, Caroline; Williams, Nicola J; Jones, Trevor R; Wigley, Paul; O'Brien, Sarah J; Cross, Paul

    2016-07-01

    In the United Kingdom, outbreaks of Campylobacter infection are increasingly attributed to undercooked chicken livers, yet many recipes, including those of top chefs, advocate short cooking times and serving livers pink. During 2015, we studied preferences of chefs and the public in the United Kingdom and investigated the link between liver rareness and survival of Campylobacter. We used photographs to assess chefs' ability to identify chicken livers meeting safe cooking guidelines. To investigate the microbiological safety of livers chefs preferred to serve, we modeled Campylobacter survival in infected chicken livers cooked to various temperatures. Most chefs correctly identified safely cooked livers but overestimated the public's preference for rareness and thus preferred to serve them more rare. We estimated that 19%-52% of livers served commercially in the United Kingdom fail to reach 70°C and that predicted Campylobacter survival rates are 48%-98%. These findings indicate that cooking trends are linked to increasing Campylobacter infections. PMID:27314748