Science.gov

Sample records for campylobacter species contamination

  1. Quantification of campylobacter species cross-contamination during handling of contaminated fresh chicken parts in kitchens.

    PubMed

    Luber, Petra; Brynestad, Sigrid; Topsch, Daniela; Scherer, Kathrin; Bartelt, Edda

    2006-01-01

    Numerous outbreak investigations and case-control studies for campylobacteriosis have provided evidence that handling Campylobacter-contaminated chicken products is a risk factor for infection and illness. There is currently extremely limited quantitative data on the levels of Campylobacter cross-contamination in the kitchen, hindering risk assessments for the pathogen commodity combination of Campylobacter and chicken meat. An exposure assessment needs to quantify the transfer of the bacteria from chicken to hands and the kitchen environment and from there onto ready-to-eat foods. We simulated some typical situations in kitchens and quantified the Campylobacter transfer from naturally contaminated chicken parts most commonly used in Germany. One scenario simulated the seasoning of five chicken legs and the reuse of the same plate for cooked meat. In another, five chicken breast filets were cut into small slices on a wooden board where, without intermediate cleaning, a cucumber was sliced. We also investigated the transfer of the pathogen from chicken via hands to a bread roll. The numbers of Campylobacter present on the surfaces of the chicken parts, hands, utensils, and ready-to-eat foods were detected by using Preston enrichment and colony counting after surface plating on Karmali agar. The mean transfer rates from legs and filets to hands were 2.9 and 3.8%. The transfer from legs to the plate (0.3%) was significantly smaller (P < 0.01) than the percentage transferred from filets to the cutting board and knife (1.1%). Average transfer rates from hands or kitchen utensils to ready-to-eat foods ranged from 2.9 to 27.5%. PMID:16391026

  2. Detection of Campylobacter species using monoclonal antibodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Colin R.; Lee, Alice; Stanker, Larry H.

    1999-01-01

    A panel of species specific monoclonal antibodies were raised to Campylobacter coli, Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter lari. The isotypes, and cross-reactivity profiles of each monoclonal antibody against an extensive panel of micro- organisms, were determined.

  3. Clinical relevance of infections with zoonotic and human oral species of Campylobacter.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soomin; Lee, Jeeyeon; Ha, Jimyeong; Choi, Yukyung; Kim, Sejeong; Lee, Heeyoung; Yoon, Yohan; Choi, Kyoung-Hee

    2016-07-01

    Genus Campylobacter has been recognized as a causative bacterial agent of animal and human diseases. Human Campylobacter infections have caused more concern. Campylobacters can be classified into two groups in terms of their original host: zoonotic and human oral species. The major zoonotic species are Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli, which mostly reside in the intestines of avian species and are transmitted to humans via consumption of contaminated poultry products, thus causing human gastroenteritis and other diseases as sequelae. The other campylobacters, human oral species, include C. concisus, C. showae, C. gracilis, C. ureolyticus, C. curvus, and C. rectus. These species are isolated from the oral cavity, natural colonization site, but have potential clinical relevance in the periodontal region to varying extent. Two species, C. jejuni and C. coli, are believed to be mainly associated with intestinal diseases, but recent studies suggested that oral Campylobacter species also play a significant role in intestinal diseases. This review offers an outline of the two Campylobacter groups (zoonotic and human oral), their virulence traits, and the associated illnesses including gastroenteritis. PMID:27350611

  4. Quantifying potential sources of surface water contamination with Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli.

    PubMed

    Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Penny, Christian; Ragimbeau, Catherine; Schets, Franciska M; Blaak, Hetty; Duim, Birgitta; Wagenaar, Jaap A; de Boer, Albert; Cauchie, Henry-Michel; Mossong, Joel; van Pelt, Wilfrid

    2016-09-15

    Campylobacter is the most common causative agent of human bacterial gastroenteritis and is frequently found in surface water, where it indicates recent contamination with animal faeces, sewage effluent, and agricultural run-off. The contribution of different animal reservoirs to surface water contamination with Campylobacter is largely unknown. In the Netherlands, the massive poultry culling to control the 2003 avian influenza epidemic coincided with a 44-50% reduction in human campylobacteriosis cases in the culling areas, suggesting substantial environment-mediated spread of poultry-borne Campylobacter. We inferred the origin of surface water Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli strains in Luxembourg and the Netherlands, as defined by multilocus sequence typing, by comparison to strains from poultry, pigs, ruminants, and wild birds, using the asymmetric island model for source attribution. Most Luxembourgish water strains were attributed to wild birds (61.0%), followed by poultry (18.8%), ruminants (15.9%), and pigs (4.3%); whereas the Dutch water strains were mainly attributed to poultry (51.7%), wild birds (37.3%), ruminants (9.8%), and pigs (1.2%). Attributions varied over seasons and surface water types, and geographical variation in the relative contribution of poultry correlated with the magnitude of poultry production at either the national or provincial level, suggesting that environmental dissemination of Campylobacter from poultry farms and slaughterhouses can be substantial in poultry-rich regions. PMID:27244295

  5. Survival after cryogenic freezing of Campylobacter species in ground Turkey patties treated with polyphosphates.

    PubMed

    Gunther Iv, Nereus W; Rajkowski, Kathleen T; Sommers, Christopher

    2015-02-01

    The use of polyphosphate-based marinades in the processing of poultry has been previously shown to increase the survival of Campylobacter species present in the exudates derived from these products. This study investigates the effects that some of the same polyphosphates have on the survival of Campylobacter species within a ground turkey product subjected to cryogenic freezing. Ground turkey patties with two different polyphosphate formulations added in two different concentrations were artificially contaminated with known concentrations of Campylobacter jejuni or Campylobacter coli. The patties were cryogenically frozen at -80°F (-62.2°C) with liquid nitrogen vapor and held at -20°C for 7 or 33 days, after which the number of Campylobacter surviving in the patties was determined. On average the cryogenic freezing resulted in a 2.5-log decrease in the survival of C. jejuni cells and a 2.9-log decrease in C. coli cells present in the turkey patties. Additionally, the presence of polyphosphates in the turkey patties had no effect on Campylobacter survival up to the maximum allowed concentration (0.5%) for polyphosphates in poultry marinades. Finally, it was determined that the added polyphosphates had little effect on the pH of the ground turkey meat; an effect which previously had been implicated in the enhancement of Campylobacter survival due to the presence of polyphosphates. PMID:25710161

  6. Eleutherine americana: a candidate for the control of Campylobacter species.

    PubMed

    Sirirak, T; Voravuthikunchai, S P

    2011-04-01

    The antibacterial activity of ethanolic extracts of selected Thai medicinal plants (Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Aiton) Hassk., Quercus infectoria G. Olivier, and Eleutherine americana Merr.) against Campylobacter spp. was investigated. Sixty-five Campylobacter, including 39 isolates from humans and 26 isolates from chicken samples, were tested. Reference Campylobacter spp. that are commonly encountered in gastroenteritis were included. The ethanolic extract of E. americana demonstrated good antibacterial activity against all the tested isolates. Inhibition zones ranged from 10 to 37 mm. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the extract against Campylobacter isolates from humans and chicken samples ranged from 31.25 to 500 μg/mL and 62.50 to 1,000 μg/mL, respectively. The minimum bactericidal concentration ranged from 31.25 to 1,000 μg/mL for isolates from humans and 125 to 1,000 μg/mL from chicken isolates. The bactericidal activity of the ethanolic extracts of E. americana against important Campylobacter spp., including Campylobacter coli MUMT 18630, Campylobacter fetus ATCC 27374, Campylobacter jejuni ATCC 81176, Campylobacter lari ATCC 43675, and Campylobacter upsaliensis DMST 19055, were assessed at MIC, 2 MIC, and 4 MIC by counting viable cells after various time intervals. At 4 MIC, the level of the tested isolates decreased by 2 to 5 log-fold within 8 h. The ethanolic extract of E. americana demonstrated antibacterial activity against all Campylobacter spp. from both human and chicken isolates. Further investigation of this plant species may provide an alternative medicine for Campylobacter infection and an effective food additive to prevent the infection. PMID:21406364

  7. Influence of enrichment and isolation media on the detection of Campylobacter spp. in naturally contaminated chicken samples.

    PubMed

    Repérant, E; Laisney, M J; Nagard, B; Quesne, S; Rouxel, S; Le Gall, F; Chemaly, M; Denis, M

    2016-09-01

    Investigating Campylobacter epidemiology requires adequate technique and media to ensure optimal culturing and accurate detection and isolation of Campylobacter strains. In the present study, we investigated the performances of three enrichment durations in Bolton broth (0, 24 and 48h) and compared four isolation media (mCCDA, Karmali, Butzler no. 2 and CampyFood agar (CFA)) for the detection of Campylobacter positive samples and the identification of Campylobacter species, from naturally contaminated broiler chicken samples (caeca, neck skin from carcasses, and skin from thighs). We compared our local results to those we obtained with samples from a European survey (caeca and neck skin) and a national survey (neck skin, thigh skin, and breast). Direct plating favored the detection of positive samples highly contaminated by Campylobacter (caeca and neck skin from carcasses) whatever the media. A longer enrichment reduced the rates of Campylobacter recovery except when using Butzler no. 2, more particularly for neck skin which background microflora was less important than in caeca. As a matter of fact, enrichment allowed a higher detection rate of positive samples with low Campylobacter contamination levels (breast, thigh skin), this detection being enhanced when using Butzler no. 2. When comparing the 3 other selective media, CFA was the 2nd most efficient media prior to mCCDA and Karmali. Interestingly, enrichment promoted the growth of Campylobacter coli but this promotion was least with Butzler no. 2 agar. Our study has confirmed the need to adapt the method to the types of samples for improving the detection of Campylobacter and that the method may affect the prevalence of the species. PMID:27373751

  8. Oral Campylobacter species: Initiators of a subgroup of inflammatory bowel disease?

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Li

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, a number of studies detected a significantly higher prevalence of Campylobacter species such as Campylobacter concisus (C. concisus) in intestinal biopsies and fecal samples collected from patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) compared to controls. Most of these Campylobacter species are not of zoonotic origin but are human oral Campylobacter species. Bacterial species usually cause diseases in the location where they colonize. However, C. concisus and other oral Campylobacter species are associated with IBD occurring at the lower parts of the gastrointestinal tract, suggesting that these Campylobacter species may have unique virulence factors that are expressed in the lower parts of the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:26309350

  9. Temporal variation in the prevalence and species richness of Campylobacter spp. in a prairie watershed impacted by urban and agricultural mixed inputs.

    PubMed

    Tambalo, Dinah D; Boa, Tyler; Aryal, Bijaya; Yost, Christopher K

    2016-05-01

    Campylobacter spp. are a substantial cause of gastroenteritis worldwide. Human infection can result from ingestion of contaminated food or water from a variety of sources, including the consumption of fresh produce that is contaminated with the pathogen via the use of contaminated irrigation water. Using molecular methods, we investigated the occurrence of Campylobacter in the Qu'Appelle River watershed, an important source of irrigation water for vegetable producers in southern Saskatchewan, Canada. Water samples were collected from 7 sampling sites from April to September 2009 (145 samples), and from 5 sampling sites from May to October 2013 (116 samples). Campylobacter was detected in 57% and 16% of the samples collected in 2009 and 2013, respectively. Campylobacter detection was highest in May and June for both sampling years. In 2009, the predominant species were Campylobacter lari and Campylobacter jejuni, with prevalences of 84% and 41%, respectively. Other Campylobacter spp. were detected less frequently. Only C. lari was detected in 2013. The results in 2009 demonstrate the species richness of Campylobacter in water sources within the watershed. The occurrence of Campylobacter in the study area also underscores the importance of monitoring irrigation water used to irrigate fresh produce from a public health prospective. PMID:27003220

  10. Culture of pathogenic campylobacter species at Mymensingh Medical College.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, S R; Hossain, M A; Paul, S K; Mahmud, M C; Ahmed, S; Ray, N C; Hoque, S M; Haq, J A; Yasmin, T

    2014-04-01

    Childhood diarrhea represents a major public health problem in developing countries, where campylobacteriosis is widespread and causes significant morbidity and mortality in infants and children. Despite the increasing importance of campylobacteriosis, most developing countries and even many developed countries do not have surveillance systems to measure the health and economic burden of human campylobacteriosis, nor detect trends in outbreaks. The present study was carried out to diagnose etiology of diarrhea caused by Campylobacter species. A total of 150 clinically diagnosed diarrheal pediatric patients were included in this study, of which 98(65.3%) were male and 52(34.6%) female from the Department of Pediatrics, Mymensingh Medical College Hospital, Mymensingh, Bangladesh from July 2011 to April 2012. Stool specimens were collected from each of the cases. The specimens were cultured in appropriate media and Campylobacters were isolated and identified by recommended tests. Among 150 cases, 17(11.3%) were culture positive for Campylobacter species, of which 15(88.2%) were C. jejuni and 02(11.7%) were C. coli. Of the cases, below 1 year of age group were 106(70.6%) cases showing 12(70.5%) positive for Campylobacters and 44(29.33%) cases were above 1 year of age group showing 05(29.41%) positive. The prevalence of Campylobacter infection found in the present study was higher below 1 year age group and was very much close to other countries of this subcontinent. PMID:24858144

  11. PCR detection, identification to species level, and fingerprinting of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli direct from diarrheic samples.

    PubMed Central

    Linton, D; Lawson, A J; Owen, R J; Stanley, J

    1997-01-01

    Three sets of primers were designed for PCR detection and differentiation of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli. The first PCR assay was designed to coidentify C. jejuni and C. coli based on their 16S rRNA gene sequences. The second PCR assay, based on the hippuricase gene sequence, identified all tested reference strains of C. jejuni and also strains of that species which lack detectable hippuricase activity. The third PCR assay, based on the sequence of a cloned (putative) aspartokinase gene and the downstream open reading frame, identified all tested reference strains of C. coli. The assays will find immediate application in the rapid identification to species level of isolates. The assays combine with a protocol for purification of total DNA from fecal samples to allow reproducible PCR identification of campylobacters directly from stools. Of 20 clinical samples from which campylobacters had been cultured, we detected C. jejuni in 17, C. coli in 2, and coinfection of C. jejuni and Campylobacter hyointestinalis in 1. These results were concordant with culture and phenotypic identification to species level. Strain typing by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism of the flagellin (flaA) gene detected identical flaA types in fecal DNA and the corresponding campylobacter isolate. Twenty-five Campylobacter-negative stool samples gave no reaction with the PCR assays. These PCR assays can rapidly define the occurrence, species incidence, and flaA genotypes of enteropathogenic campylobacters. PMID:9316909

  12. Comparison of Campylobacter species Using flaA Short Variable Region DNA Sequence Analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Although the relative rates of Campylobacter infections have been declining in the U.S. over the last decade, Campylobacter species continue to be one of the primary bacterial agents responsible for gastroenteritis worldwide. Infections are usually considered foodborne as Campylobacter...

  13. Differentiation of Campylobacter species by protein banding patterns in polyacrylamide slab gels.

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, D A; Lambe, D W

    1984-01-01

    Soluble protein extracts of 37 catalase-positive strains of Campylobacter species were examined by polyacrylamide slab gel electrophoresis (PAGE). Electrophoretic banding patterns showed good correlation with biochemical tests and with available DNA homology data in distinguishing species of Campylobacter but did not differentiate subspecies or biotypes. PAGE patterns indicated that Campylobacter coli is a distinct species. Furthermore, the PAGE patterns indicated that C. jejuni and nalidixic acid-resistant thermophilic Campylobacter species (C. laridis) are each distinct species. The protein banding patterns of C. fetus subsp. venerealis and C. fetus subsp. fetus strains were distinctly different from those of the three thermophilic species. Images PMID:6490829

  14. Campylobacter jejuni contamination of broiler carcasses: Population dynamics and genetic profiles at slaughterhouse level.

    PubMed

    Gruntar, Igor; Biasizzo, Majda; Kušar, Darja; Pate, Mateja; Ocepek, Matjaž

    2015-09-01

    Six slaughter batches deriving from six typical industrial broiler flocks were examined for the presence, quantity and genetic characteristics of contaminating Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) during various stages of slaughtering and carcass processing. To assess the contamination dynamics of the carcasses, the analyses were always conducted on neck-skin samples from the same pre-selected and carefully marked carcasses in each batch. The skin samples were taken sequentially at three successive slaughter-line locations in the evisceration room, after three-day refrigeration and after three-day freezing procedure. Caecal samples from the same animals were also tested, as well as samples from the slaughterhouse environment before and after slaughtering. The samples were analysed by the ISO10272 isolation method; campylobacters from neck-skin samples were also quantified. Isolates were species-identified and genotyped by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). On average, the highest C. jejuni skin contamination was detected at the first sampling point (post-plucking), suggesting that the majority of Campylobacter contamination actually occurs before the entrance to the eviscerating room, probably during the preceding plucking stage. In two out of five positive batches, an additional increase in contamination was recorded after the evisceration step. An evident trend of increasing contamination level was detected when successive batches were compared at each of two initial sampling sites in the evisceration room, indicating an accumulation of contaminating C. jejuni at some point before the evisceration room. Three-day refrigeration and three-day freezing caused a 4.5- and 142-fold drop in mean C. jejuni CFU counts, respectively. All pre-slaughtering samples from the slaughterhouse environment were negative and all post-slaughtering samples, except water from the scalding tank, were positive. Pulsotypes were limited: altogether five different types were detected

  15. Identification of risk factors for Campylobacter contamination levels on broiler carcasses during the slaughter process.

    PubMed

    Seliwiorstow, Tomasz; Baré, Julie; Berkvens, Dirk; Van Damme, Inge; Uyttendaele, Mieke; De Zutter, Lieven

    2016-06-01

    Campylobacter carcass contamination was quantified across the slaughter line during processing of Campylobacter positive batches. These quantitative data were combined together with information describing slaughterhouse and batch related characteristics in order to identify risk factors for Campylobacter contamination levels on broiler carcasses. The results revealed that Campylobacter counts are influenced by the contamination of incoming birds (both the initial external carcass contamination and the colonization level of caeca) and the duration of transport and holding time that can be linked with feed withdrawal period. In addition, technical aspects of the slaughter process such as a dump based unloading system, electrical stunning, lower scalding temperature, incorrect setting of plucking, vent cutter and evisceration machines were identified as risk factors associated with increased Campylobacter counts on processed carcasses. As such the study indicates possible improvements of the slaughter process that can result in better control of Campylobacter numbers under routine processing of Campylobacter positive batches without use of chemical or physical decontamination. Moreover, all investigated factors were existing variations of the routine processing practises and therefore proposed interventions are practically and economically achievable. PMID:27016637

  16. Survey of Wild Birds in the Southeastern United States for the Presence of Emerging/Novel Campylobacter Species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are considered two major bacterial etiologies of human gastroenteritis in industrialized countries. Routine testing for Campylobacter in the food chain is primarily directed toward detection of these two species, thus the presence of novel Campylobacter sp...

  17. Discrimination among thermophilic Campylobacter species by polymerase chain reaction amplification of 23S rRNA gene fragments.

    PubMed Central

    Eyers, M; Chapelle, S; Van Camp, G; Goossens, H; De Wachter, R

    1993-01-01

    By comparing nucleic acid sequences determined for one of the most variable areas of 23S rRNA genes of 23 Campylobacter strains, we were able to identify regions specific for thermophilic Campylobacter strains. Oligonucleotide primers corresponding to these unique regions were synthesized and used in the polymerase chain reaction. One primer pair selectively detected all thermophilic Campylobacter species, while four other primer pairs allowed discrimination among the thermophilic species Campylobacter coli, Campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni, Campylobacter lari, and Campylobacter upsaliensis. All primer sets were tested successfully on a large number of clinical isolates. Images PMID:7508460

  18. Enumeration and characterization of campylobacter species from retail chicken carcasses in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yao; Cui, Shenghui; Xu, Xiao; Li, Fengqin

    2014-11-01

    Epidemiological data have implicated contaminated raw or undercooked chicken as primary vehicles of Campylobacter transmission to humans. Risk assessment relating to Campylobacter contamination of poultry products in China is frequently hampered by the lack of quantitative data. In this study, whole chicken carcasses (n=240) were collected from the retail markets of Beijing. The level of Campylobacter contamination was enumerated by the plate-counting method. The representative Campylobacter isolates were characterized for antimicrobial resistance. Selected representative isolates were further analyzed by the multilocus sequencing typing method for genetic relatedness. Overall, 26.3% (63/240) of the retail whole chicken carcasses were contaminated by Campylobacter, and the values ranged from 2.5 to 7050 colony-forming units (CFU)/g. The 50th percentile of Campylobacter value was 45 CFU/g in chicken carcass. Multidrug-resistant profiles were observed in 33 (39.2%) C. jejuni isolates (from 27 chicken carcasses) and 57 (86.4%) C. coli isolates (from 30 chicken carcasses). One dominant ST (ST6322) and one dominant clonal complex (CC828) consisting of multidrug-resistant C. coli isolates were identified. Our findings showed a high prevalence of Campylobacter contamination in retail chicken carcasses, which could be a source of exposure to multidrug-resistant isolates for consumers. This study provided baseline enumeration data for the quantitative risk assessment and evaluation of new control measures of Campylobacter contamination in retail chicken products in China. PMID:25238587

  19. External contamination of Campylobacter-free flocks after transport in cleaned and disinfected containers.

    PubMed

    Rasschaert, G; Houf, K; De Zutter, L

    2007-01-01

    The possible colonization of the intestines and contamination of broilers after transport to the slaughterhouse with Campylobacter strains present in cleaned and disinfected transport containers was investigated. Seven broiler flocks with a Campylobacter-free status were sampled once just before loading at the farm and once just before slaughter. On both occasions, samples were also taken from the exterior of the birds and from the intestinal content. Transport containers used to transport the flock were sampled on the farm just before loading the birds. Campylobacters were enumerated and genotyped by flagellin gene A PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. In total, 25 of the 35 sampled containers were Campylobacter contaminated, and 30 genotypes were found. Three broiler flocks became colonized on the farm between initial status determination and transport to the slaughterhouse, and three Campylobacter-free flocks were externally contaminated after transport. In none of the seven flocks was evidence found of intestinal colonization or cocolonization due to transport in Campylobacter-contaminated containers. PMID:17265858

  20. The Biofilm Forming Potential of Bacterial Species in the Genus Campylobacter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The biofilm forming abilities of representative strains of 14 of the 16 species comprising the genus Campylobacter were determined on glass, stainless steel, and polystyrene plastic. The genus Campylobacter is comprised of bacterial species which are both sensitive to oxygen and nutritionally fasti...

  1. Characterization of Campylobacter spp. transferred from naturally contaminated chicken legs to cooked chicken slices via a cutting board.

    PubMed

    Guyard-Nicodème, Muriel; Tresse, Odile; Houard, Emmanuelle; Jugiau, Florence; Courtillon, Céline; El Manaa, Kadhem; Laisney, Marie-José; Chemaly, Marianne

    2013-06-01

    Campylobacter represents the leading cause of gastroenteritis in Europe. Campylobacteriosis is mainly due to C. jejuni and C. coli. Poultry meat is the main source of contamination, and cross-contaminations in the consumer's kitchen appear to be the important route for exposure. The aim of this study was to examine the transfer of Campylobacter from naturally contaminated raw poultry products to a cooked chicken product via the cutting board and to determine the characteristics of the involved isolates. This study showed that transfer occurred in nearly 30% of the assays and that both the C. jejuni and C. coli species were able to transfer. Transfer seems to be linked to specific isolates: some were able to transfer during separate trials while others were not. No correlation was found between transfer and adhesion to inert surfaces, but more than 90% of the isolates presented moderate or high adhesion ability. All tested isolates had the ability to adhere and invade Caco-2 cells, but presented high variability between isolates. Our results highlighted the occurrence of Campylobacter cross-contamination via the cutting board in the kitchen. Moreover, they provided new interesting data to be considered in risk assessment studies. PMID:23587707

  2. Routes for Campylobacter contamination of poultry meat: epidemiological study from hatchery to slaughterhouse.

    PubMed

    Herman, L; Heyndrickx, M; Grijspeerdt, K; Vandekerchove, D; Rollier, I; De Zutter, L

    2003-12-01

    From April 1998 to March 2000, 18 broiler flocks were followed from the hatchery to the slaughterhouse. Campylobacter was not found in the hatchery, 1-day-old chicks or in the rearing house before the arrival of the chicks. The infection of broiler flocks increased continuously during the rearing time, with a total of seven positive flocks at the end of rearing. Farms with Campylobacter-positive broilers were characterized by the circulation of Campylobacter in the environment (puddles, dung hill) and on the footwear of the farmer. The administration of antibiotics did not significantly reduce Campylobacter shedding. With the exception of one flock during rearing and a few flocks in the slaughterhouse with a mixed Campylobacter coli-Campylobacter jejuni infection, C. jejuni exclusively was found both during rearing and on the carcasses. A significant correlation exits between the contamination of the broilers during rearing and the carcasses after processing. No slaughterhouse was able to avoid contamination of carcasses when status-positive animals were delivered. Moreover, six negatively delivered flocks yielded positive carcasses, the result of a supplementary contamination, which occurred during transport and slaughtering. PMID:14959785

  3. Potential Use of Fosfomycin-Tromethamine for Treatment of Recurrent Campylobacter Species Enteritis.

    PubMed

    Aguilar-Company, Juan; Los-Arcos, Ibai; Pigrau, Carles; Rodríguez-Pardo, Dolors; Larrosa, María Nieves; Rodríguez-Garrido, Virginia; Sihuay-Diburga, Denisse; Almirante, Benito

    2016-07-01

    We report 2 cases of recurrent Campylobacter coli enteritis caused by macrolide- and fluoroquinolone-resistant strains in 2 patients with hypogammaglobulinemia, successfully treated with a prolonged course of fosfomycin-tromethamine with no side effects. Fosfomycin-tromethamine may be a feasible alternative therapy for recurrent enteritis caused by Campylobacter species resistant to first-line drugs. PMID:27161640

  4. Evaluation of different plate media for direct cultivation of Campylobacter species from live broilers.

    PubMed

    Potturi-Venkata, L-P; Backert, S; Lastovica, A J; Vieira, S L; Norton, R A; Miller, R S; Pierce, S; Oyarzabal, O A

    2007-07-01

    Accurate identification and optimal culturing procedures for Campylobacter spp. from live broilers are needed for epidemiological studies. Because there is no standardized protocol, we designed and conducted studies to evaluate different selective media for the culturing and isolation of Campylobacter spp. from cecal and fecal samples obtained from battery-reared and commercial broilers. Five media selective for Campylobacter were evaluated: Campylobacter agar base, Campylobacter, Campy-Line, modified Campy-Cefex, and modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate agar. With contaminated broilers reared in battery cages, Campylobacter agar base, Campylobacter, modified Campy-Cefex, and modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate agar revealed similar isolation rates (P > 0.05), whereas Campy-Line showed a lower efficacy (P < 0.05). With commercial live broilers, modified Campy-Cefex agar was more consistent for the isolation of Campylobacter from feces, whereas modified Campy-Cefex and modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate agar showed similar isolation rates from cecal samples. Campy-Line agar showed a lower identification rate (P < 0.05) for both fecal and cecal samples. A multiplex PCR assay used for identification showed that Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli DNA was present in the samples. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis restriction profiles differed among samples collected from different commercial farms but were similar for isolates from the same farm, suggesting clonal differences. No variation was seen in pulsed field gel electrophoresis patterns among isolates cultured on different media. Our data suggest that the choice of plate medium may influence the efficiency of isolating Campylobacter spp. from broiler chickens by direct plating from fecal or cecal samples. PMID:17575175

  5. Effect of refrigeration and frozen storage on the Campylobacter jejuni recovery from naturally contaminated broiler carcasses

    PubMed Central

    Maziero, Maike T.; de Oliveira, Tereza Cristina R. M.

    2010-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is the most common thermophilic Campylobacter associated with human enteritis in many countries. Broilers and their by-products are the main sources for human enteritis. Refrigeration and freezing are used to control bacterial growth in foods. The effect of these interventions on survival of Campylobacter jejuni is yet not quite understood. This study evaluated the effect of storage temperature on the survival of C. jejuni in chicken meat stored for seven days at 4°C and for 28 days at -20°C. The influence of selective enrichment on recovery of Campylobacter was also evaluated. Thirty fresh chicken meat samples were analyzed and 93.3% was contaminated with termotolerant Campylobacter spp. with average count of 3.08 Log10 CFU/g on direct plating. After refrigeration, 53.3% of the analyzed samples tested positive for Campylobacter and the average count was 1.19 Log10 CFU/g. After storage at -20°C, 36.6% of the samples were positive with a verage count of 0.75 Log10 CFU/g. C. jejuni was detected after enrichment, respectively, in 50% of the fresh, 36.7% of the refrigerated and 33.3% of the frozen meat samples analyzed. No difference was detected for the recovery of C. jejuni from fresh, refrigerated or frozen samples after selective enrichment, showing that this microorganism can survive under the tested storage conditions. PMID:24031523

  6. Prevalence and diversity of Campylobacter species in Saskatchewan retail ground beef.

    PubMed

    Trokhymchuk, Anatoliy; Waldner, Cheryl; Chaban, Bonnie; Gow, Sheryl; Hill, Janet E

    2014-12-01

    The primary objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. DNA by PCR in retail ground beef sold in Saskatchewan, Canada, and to identify the presence of individual Campylobacter species (C. coli, C. curvus, C. fetus, C. hyointestinalis, C. jejuni, C. rectus, and C. upsaliensis) using real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). Secondary objectives were to assess potential differences in the prevalence of Campylobacter between ground beef offered for sale during cold and warm seasons as well as that offered for sale fresh and frozen, to investigate any association between the presence of Campylobacter spp. DNA and E. coli and/or aerobic bacterial counts, and finally to compare the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. DNA in ground beef originating from different production and retail environments. Out of the 309 total samples included in the study, 50 (16.2%) samples tested positive for Campylobacter spp. DNA, while 49 (15.9%) samples were determined positive for up to five individual species. Collectively, these assays determined that 14 (4.5%) samples were positive for C. coli, 11 (3.6%) for C. curvus, 6 (1.9%) for C. fetus, 24 (7.8%) for C. hyointestinalis, 12 (3.9%) for C. jejuni, 6 (1.9%) for C. rectus, and 9 (2.9%) for C. upsaliensis. There were 27 (8.7%) samples that were positive at the genus level that did not test positive for any of the seven Campylobacter species investigated (suggesting an alternate Campylobacter species). Also, 26 (8.4%) samples generated positive results by one of the species-specific qPCR assays, but returned no product in the conventional genus-level assay (suggesting a higher sensitivity for the species-specific qPCR assays). There was no significant association between the presence of Campylobacter spp. in Saskatchewan retail ground beef and any of the investigated risk factors. PMID:25474057

  7. Variation in the limit-of-detection of the ProSpecT Campylobacter microplate enzyme immunoassay in stools spiked with emerging Campylobacter species.

    PubMed

    Bojanić, Krunoslav; Midwinter, Anne Camilla; Marshall, Jonathan Craig; Rogers, Lynn Elizabeth; Biggs, Patrick Jon; Acke, Els

    2016-08-01

    Campylobacter enteritis in humans is primarily associated with C. jejuni/coli infection. The impact of other Campylobacter spp. is likely to be underestimated due to the bias of culture methods towards Campylobacter jejuni/coli diagnosis. Stool antigen tests are becoming increasingly popular and appear generally less species-specific. A review of independent studies of the ProSpecT® Campylobacter Microplate enzyme immunoassay (EIA) developed for C. jejuni/coli showed comparable diagnostic results to culture methods but the examination of non-jejuni/coli Campylobacter spp. was limited and the limit-of-detection (LOD), where reported, varied between studies. This study investigated LOD of EIA for Campylobacter upsaliensis, Campylobacter hyointestinalis and Campylobacter helveticus spiked in human stools. Multiple stools and Campylobacter isolates were used in three different concentrations (10(4)-10(9)CFU/ml) to reflect sample heterogeneity. All Campylobacter species evaluated were detectable by EIA. Multivariate analysis showed LOD varied between Campylobacter spp. and faecal consistency as fixed effects and individual faecal samples as random effects. EIA showed excellent performance in replicate testing for both within and between batches of reagents, in agreement between visual and spectrophotometric reading of results, and returned no discordance between the bacterial concentrations within independent dilution test runs (positive results with lower but not higher concentrations). This study shows how limitations in experimental procedures lead to an overestimation of consistency and uniformity of LOD for EIA that may not hold under routine use in diagnostic laboratories. Benefits and limitations for clinical practice and the influence on estimates of performance characteristics from detection of multiple Campylobacter spp. by EIA are discussed. PMID:27317896

  8. Population Diversity of Campylobacter jejuni in Poultry and Its Dynamic of Contamination in Chicken Meat

    PubMed Central

    Marotta, Francesca; Garofolo, Giuliano; Di Donato, Guido; Aprea, Giuseppe; Platone, Ilenia; Cianciavicchia, Silvia; Alessiani, Alessandra; Di Giannatale, Elisabetta

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to analyse the diversity of the Campylobacter jejuni population in broilers and to evaluate the major source of contamination in poultry meat. Eight rearing cycles over one year provided samples from three different broiler farms processed at the same slaughterhouse. A total of 707  C. jejuni were isolated from cloacal swabs before slaughter and from the breast skin of carcasses after slaughter and after chilling. All suspected Campylobacter colonies were identified with PCR assays and C. jejuni was genotyped by sequence analysis of the flaA short variable region (SVR) and by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) using SmaI enzyme. Phenotypic antibiotic resistance profiles were also assayed using minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC). The flocks carried many major C. jejuni clones possibly carrying over the rearing cycles, but cross contamination between farms may happen. Many isolates were resistant to fluoroquinolones, raising an issue of high public concern. Specific Campylobacter populations could be harboured within each poultry farm, with the ability to contaminate chickens during each new cycle. Thus, although biosecurity measures are applied, with a persistent source of contamination, they cannot be efficient. The role of the environment needs further investigation to better address strategies to control Campylobacter. PMID:26543870

  9. DETECTION OF CAMPYLOBACTER FROM POULTRY CARCASSES AT SLAUGHTER AND DIFFERENTIATION OF CAMPYLOBACTER JEJUNI AND CAMPYLOBACTER COLI BY MULTIPLEX PCR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter is a major food-borne pathogen responsible for acute gastroenteritis characterized by diarrhea, which is sometimes bloody, fever, cramps, and vomiting. Campylobacter species are carried in the intestinal tract of mammals and birds, and sources of human infection include contaminated wa...

  10. Prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli species in cats and dogs from Bydgoszcz (Poland) region.

    PubMed

    Andrzejewska, M; Szczepańska, B; Klawe, J J; Spica, D; Chudzińska, M

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of cats and dogs as a potential reservoir of Campylobacter spp. Rectal swabs from 83 dogs and 71 cats were examined. Samples were obtained from the animals aged between 2 weeks and 24 months living in shelters, private households, farms and from veterinary clinics located in Bydgoszcz region during routine check-up. Campylobacter spp. were isolated from 4.81% dogs and 9.86% cats, respectively. C. jejuni was predominant in this study. All strains were isolated in autumn and winter from the animals living in farms and private houses. All the animals positive for Campylobacter prevalence had access to small water basins, accidental source of food and had contact with wild birds, poultry or their feaces. Isolates characterization revealed high prevalence of Campylobacter virulence genes-flaA, cadF and cdtB. 91% of isolated strains were susceptible to erythromycin. 81% among isolated strains were susceptible to azithromycin, 64% to tetracycline and 36% to ciprofloxacin. For 2 C. jejuni strains isolated from cats Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) profiling indicated 80% homology between them. PMID:23691584

  11. Shifts in Campylobacter species abundance may reflect general microbial community shifts in periodontitis progression

    PubMed Central

    Henne, Karsten; Fuchs, Felix; Kruth, Sebastian; Horz, Hans-Peter; Conrads, Georg

    2014-01-01

    Background Oral Campylobacter species have been found to be associated with periodontitis progression. While the etiological significance of Campylobacter rectus is quite established, the association of C. gracilis, C. concisus, and C. curvus with health or disease remains contradictory. Objectives This study hypothesizes that the proportion of species within the Campylobacter genus rather than the absolute abundance of a single species is a suitable indicator for periodontitis progression. Design Subgingival plaque from 90 periodontitis patients and gingival sulcus fluid of 32 healthy individuals were subjected to a newly developed nested PCR approach, in which all Campylobacter spp. were amplified simultaneously. The resulting mixture of 16S-rRNA-gene-amplicons were separated by single-stranded conformation polymorphism (SSCP) gel electrophoresis, followed by sequencing and identification of excised bands and relative quantification of band intensities. In all samples, the abundance of selected periodontitis marker species was determined based on DNA hybridization on a microarray. Results The highly prevalent Campylobacter community was composed of varying proportions of C. rectus, C. gracilis, C. concisus, and C. curvus. Cluster analysis based on SSCP-banding pattern resulted in distinct groups which in turn coincided with significant differences in abundance of established periodontitis marker species (Tannerella forsythia, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Fusobacterium nucleatum) and progression. Conclusions The shift in the Campylobacter community composition seems to display the general microbial community shift during clinical progression in a simplified manner. The focus on members of the Campylobacter in this study suggests that this genus can be an indicator of ecological changes in the subgingival oral microflora. PMID:25412608

  12. Prolonged Survival of Campylobacter Species in Bovine Manure Compost ▿

    PubMed Central

    Inglis, G. Douglas; McAllister, Tim A.; Larney, Francis J.; Topp, Edward

    2010-01-01

    The persistence of naturally occurring campylobacteria in aerobic compost constructed of manure from beef cattle that were administered chlortetracycline and sulfamethazine (AS700) or from cattle not administered antibiotics (control) was examined. Although there were no differences in population sizes of heterotrophic bacteria, the temperature of AS700 compost was more variable and did not become as high as that of control compost. There were significant differences in water content, total carbon (C), total nitrogen (N), and electrical conductivity but not in the C/N ratio or pH between the two compost treatments. Campylobacteria were readily isolated from pen manure, for up to day 15 from control compost, and throughout the active phase of AS700 compost. Campylobacter DNA (including Campylobacter coli, Campylobacter fetus, Campylobacter hyointestinalis, and Campylobacter jejuni) was detected over the ca. 10-month composting period, and no reductions in quantities of C. jejuni DNA were observed over the duration of the active phase. The utilization of centrifugation in combination with ethidium monoazide (EMA) significantly reduced (>90%) the amplification of C. jejuni DNA that did not originate from cells with intact cell membranes. No differences were observed in the frequency of Campylobacter DNA detection between EMA- and non-EMA-treated samples, suggesting that Campylobacter DNA amplified from compost was extracted from cells with intact cell membranes (i.e., from viable cells). The findings of this study indicate that campylobacteria excreted in cattle feces persist for long periods in compost and call into question the common belief that these bacteria do not persist in manure. PMID:20023098

  13. Helicobacter marmotae and novel Helicobacter and Campylobacter species isolated from the livers and intestines of prairie dogs.

    PubMed

    Beisele, Maike; Shen, Zeli; Parry, Nicola; Mobley, Melissa; Taylor, Nancy S; Buckley, Ellen; Abedin, Mohammad Z; Dewhirst, Floyd E; Fox, James G

    2011-09-01

    Prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) are used to study the aetiology and prevention of gallstones because of the similarities of prairie dog and human bile gallstone composition. Epidemiological and experimental studies have suggested a connection between infection with Helicobacter species and cholesterol cholelithiasis, cholecystis and gallbladder cancer. Ten of the 34 prairie dogs in this study had positive Helicobacter species identified by PCR using Helicobacter genus-specific primers. Ten of 34 prairie dogs had positive Campylobacter species identified in the intestine by PCR with Campylobacter genus-specific primers. Six Helicobacter sp. isolates and three Campylobacter sp. isolates were identified taxonomically by 16S rRNA gene analysis. The prairie dog helicobacters fell into three clusters adjacent to Helicobacter marmotae. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, three strains in two adjacent clusters were included in the species H. marmotae. Three strains were only 97.1 % similar to the sequence of H. marmotae and can be considered a novel species with the provisional designation Helicobacter sp. Prairie Dog 3. The prairie dog campylobacters formed a single novel cluster and represent a novel Campylobacter sp. with the provisional designation Campylobacter sp. Prairie Dog. They branched with Campylobacter cuniculorum at 96.3 % similarity and had the greatest sequence similarity to Campylobacter helveticus at 97.1 % similarity. Whether H. marmotae or the novel Helicobacter sp. and Campylobacter sp. identified in prairie dogs play a role in cholesterol gallstones or hepatobiliary disease requires further studies. PMID:21546560

  14. Occurrence of campylobacter species in healthy well-nourished and malnourished children

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, Heriberto; Vera, Fernando; Villanueva, María Paz; García, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    The occurrence of Campylobacter species in healthy, well-nourished and healthy, malnourished children of low socioeconomic level in Southern Chile was determined. Campylobacter carriers were significantly most frequent among malnourished (31.4%) than among well-nourished (9.9%) children. Six species were isolated from malnourished children whereas four were found among well-nourished children. C. upsaliensis was the most frequent (13.3%) species isolated from malnourished children, followed by C. lari (7.6%) and C. fetus ssp. fetus (1.9%). PMID:24031178

  15. Salmonella species and Campylobacter jejuni Cecal Colonization Model in Broilers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella and Campylobacter are of concern to the poultry industry because of the continuing association of poultry-borne transmission of this disease to humans. Live, mature bird interventions can only be demonstrated by comparing colonization in non-treated groups of control birds to tre...

  16. Campylobacter jejuni, other campylobacters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For approximately three decades, the genus Campylobacter has had increased focus as a threat to food safety, due to the rise in enteritis in humans caused by consumption or handling of foods contaminated with the organism. For this reason, numerous research studies have been conducted and books wri...

  17. Survival and persistence of Campylobacter and Salmonella species under various organic loads on food contact surfaces.

    PubMed

    De Cesare, Alessandra; Sheldon, Brian W; Smith, Katie S; Jaykus, Lee-Ann

    2003-09-01

    Although many cases of Campylobacter and Salmonella enteritis have been attributed to the undercooking of poultry and other foods, cross-contamination between raw and cooked foods via food contact surfaces and worker contact has also been identified as a significant risk factor. Cross-contamination may be particularly important in relation to the high prevalence of contamination in raw poultry products and other foods and the low infectious doses that have been reported for Campylobacter species. Lag phase and decimal reduction times (D-values at 27 degrees C [81 degrees F] and 60 to 62% relative humidity) were determined for Campylobacter jejuni and Salmonella species (five-strain pools) suspended in either a phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) solution or Trypticase soy broth (TSB) and then inoculated (0.1-ml drop per surface) on 5-cm2 samples of Formica laminate (F), glazed ceramic tile (CT), 304 polished stainless steel (SS), and 100% cotton dishcloth (D). Triplicate samples were collected from each contact surface periodically, and the populations of surviving organisms were enumerated on Campy Cefex and brain heart infusion agars for C. jejuni and Salmonella species, respectively. Lag time and rate of inactivation were influenced by organism type, contact surface, and suspending medium. Initial mean lag times ranging from 60 to 190 min were followed by log-linear (r2 > 0.94) decreases in cell populations that varied across contact surfaces. D-values of 12.5, 19.1, 24.1, and 29.7 min and of 23.7, 10.5, 12.7, and 13.9 min were calculated for C. jejuni suspended in PBS and TSB and then spotted on D, F, SS, and CT surfaces, respectively. The times required to produce a 3-log reduction in population with PBS and TSB ranged from 102 (D) to 247 (F) min and from 112 (CT) to 167 (F) min, respectively. C. jejuni cells suspended in the nutritionally enriched medium (TSB) and spotted on the hard surfaces were inactivated about 1.4 times as fast as cells suspended in PBS. For

  18. EUCAST recommendations for antimicrobial susceptibility testing applied to the three main Campylobacter species isolated in humans.

    PubMed

    Sifré, Elodie; Salha, Ben Amor; Ducournau, Astrid; Floch, Pauline; Chardon, Hubert; Mégraud, Francis; Lehours, Philippe

    2015-12-01

    Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Campylobacter isolates is of great importance for treatment options especially in systemic diseases. The European Committee for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) recently proposed epidemiological cut-offs (ECOFFs) for a limited number of antimicrobial compounds and for Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli only. In the present study, the EUCAST method was used after minor modifications to define antimicrobial susceptibility patterns for, 1997 C. jejuni, 419 C. coli and 100 Campylobacter fetus strains received at the French National Reference Center for Campylobacters and Helicobacters. Our results show that the ECOFFs defined by EUCAST for tetracycline and ciprofloxacin can be used for C. jejuni and C. coli. The same ECOFF can be used for erythromycin for the three species. The C. jejuni and C. coli ECOFFs for ciprofloxacin however cannot be applied to C. fetus. We also provide data to categorise two 2 β-lactams of interest for systemic diseases, ampicillin and amoxicillin+clavulanate, for the three species. PMID:26519770

  19. Comprehensive detection and discrimination of campylobacter species using confocal micro-raman spectroscopy and multilocus sequence typing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A novel strategy for rapid identification and speciation of traditional and emerging Campylobacter strains based upon Raman spectroscopy (532 nm) is presented here. A total of 200 reference strains and clinical isolates of 11 different Campylobacter species recovered from infected animals and humans...

  20. Intestinal microbiota and species diversity of Campylobacter and Helicobacter spp. in migrating shorebirds in Delaware Bay.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Hodon; Grond, Kirsten; Verheijen, Bram; Elk, Michael; Buehler, Deborah M; Santo Domingo, Jorge W

    2014-03-01

    Using 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis, we examined the bacterial diversity and the presence of opportunistic bacterial pathogens (i.e., Campylobacter and Helicobacter) in red knot (Calidris canutus; n = 40), ruddy turnstone (Arenaria interpres; n = 35), and semipalmated sandpiper (Calidris pusilla; n = 22) fecal samples collected during a migratory stopover in Delaware Bay. Additionally, we studied the occurrence of Campylobacter spp., enterococci, and waterfowl fecal source markers using quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays. Of 3,889 16S rRNA clone sequences analyzed, the bacterial community was mostly composed of Bacilli (63.5%), Fusobacteria (12.7%), Epsilonproteobacteria (6.5%), and Clostridia (5.8%). When epsilonproteobacterium-specific 23S rRNA gene clone libraries (i.e., 1,414 sequences) were analyzed, the sequences were identified as Campylobacter (82.3%) or Helicobacter (17.7%) spp. Specifically, 38.4%, 10.1%, and 26.0% of clone sequences were identified as C. lari (>99% sequence identity) in ruddy turnstone, red knot, and semipalmated sandpiper clone libraries, respectively. Other pathogenic species of Campylobacter, such as C. jejuni and C. coli, were not detected in excreta of any of the three bird species. Most Helicobacter-like sequences identified were closely related to H. pametensis (>99% sequence identity) and H. anseris (92% sequence identity). qPCR results showed that the occurrence and abundance of Campylobacter spp. was relatively high compared to those of fecal indicator bacteria, such as Enterococcus spp., E. faecalis, and Catellicoccus marimammalium. Overall, the results provide insights into the complexity of the shorebird gut microbial community and suggest that these migratory birds are important reservoirs of pathogenic Campylobacter species. PMID:24413599

  1. Intestinal Microbiota and Species Diversity of Campylobacter and Helicobacter spp. in Migrating Shorebirds in Delaware Bay

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Hodon; Grond, Kirsten; Verheijen, Bram; Elk, Michael; Buehler, Deborah M.

    2014-01-01

    Using 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis, we examined the bacterial diversity and the presence of opportunistic bacterial pathogens (i.e., Campylobacter and Helicobacter) in red knot (Calidris canutus; n = 40), ruddy turnstone (Arenaria interpres; n = 35), and semipalmated sandpiper (Calidris pusilla; n = 22) fecal samples collected during a migratory stopover in Delaware Bay. Additionally, we studied the occurrence of Campylobacter spp., enterococci, and waterfowl fecal source markers using quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays. Of 3,889 16S rRNA clone sequences analyzed, the bacterial community was mostly composed of Bacilli (63.5%), Fusobacteria (12.7%), Epsilonproteobacteria (6.5%), and Clostridia (5.8%). When epsilonproteobacterium-specific 23S rRNA gene clone libraries (i.e., 1,414 sequences) were analyzed, the sequences were identified as Campylobacter (82.3%) or Helicobacter (17.7%) spp. Specifically, 38.4%, 10.1%, and 26.0% of clone sequences were identified as C. lari (>99% sequence identity) in ruddy turnstone, red knot, and semipalmated sandpiper clone libraries, respectively. Other pathogenic species of Campylobacter, such as C. jejuni and C. coli, were not detected in excreta of any of the three bird species. Most Helicobacter-like sequences identified were closely related to H. pametensis (>99% sequence identity) and H. anseris (92% sequence identity). qPCR results showed that the occurrence and abundance of Campylobacter spp. was relatively high compared to those of fecal indicator bacteria, such as Enterococcus spp., E. faecalis, and Catellicoccus marimammalium. Overall, the results provide insights into the complexity of the shorebird gut microbial community and suggest that these migratory birds are important reservoirs of pathogenic Campylobacter species. PMID:24413599

  2. Survival of Campylobacter species after cryogenic freezing in ground turkey patties treated with polyphosphates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of polyphosphate-based marinades in the processing of poultry has been previously shown to increase the survival of Campylobacter species present in the exudates derived from these products. This study investigates the effects that some of the same polyphosphates have on the survival of Cam...

  3. Non-stochastic sampling error in quantal analyses for Campylobacter species on poultry products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using primers and fluorescent probes specific for the most common foodborne Campylobacter species (C. jejuni = Cj and C. coli = Cc), we developed a multiplex, most probable number (MPN) assay using quantitative PCR (qPCR) as the determinant for binomial detection: number of p positives out of n = 6 ...

  4. Prevalence and risk factor investigation of Campylobacter species in beef cattle feces from seven large commercial feedlots in Alberta, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Hannon, Sherry J.; Allan, Brenda; Waldner, Cheryl; Russell, Margaret L.; Potter, Andrew; Babiuk, Lorne A.; Townsend, Hugh G.G.

    2009-01-01

    This fecal prevalence study targeted cattle from 7 large (10 000 to > 40 000 head) commercial feedlots in Alberta as a means of establishing Campylobacter levels in cattle just prior to animals entering the food chain. Overall, 87% [95% confidence interval (CI) = 86–88] of 2776 fresh pen-floor fecal samples were culture positive for Campylobacter species, with prevalences ranging from 76% to 95% among the 7 feedlots. Campylobacter spp. prevalence was 88% (95% CI = 86–90) in the summer (n = 1376) and 86% (95% CI = 85–88) in the winter (n = 1400). In addition, 69% (95% CI = 66–71) of 1486 Campylobacter spp. positive samples were identified as Campylobacter jejuni using hippurate hydrolysis testing. Of those, 64% (95% CI = 58–70) of 277 and 70% (95% CI = 67–72) of 1209 Campylobacter isolates were identified as C. jejuni in winter and summer, respectively. After accounting for clustering within pen and feedlot, feedlot size and the number of days on feed were associated with Campylobacter spp. isolation rates. The high isolation rates of Campylobacter spp. and C. jejuni in feedlot cattle feces in this study suggest a potential role for feedlot cattle in the complex epidemiology of campylobacters in Alberta. PMID:20046629

  5. Campylobacter spp. in broiler flocks at farm level and the potential for cross-contamination during slaughter.

    PubMed

    Ellerbroek, L I; Lienau, J-A; Klein, G

    2010-12-01

    Screening of broiler flocks for their Campylobacter carriage on farm level and consequently the spread of Campylobacter spp. during slaughtering can help to identify hygiene control points. Therefore, between December 2001 and August 2002 in total 51 broiler flocks from three farms of different geographical regions in Germany were analysed for thermophilic Campylobacter. Campylobacter spp. were isolated from 45% of the broiler flocks examined. Subsequently, 1101 samples were taken from 22 flocks during different stages of processing. Samples were collected from: transport crates before and after cleaning/disinfection, evisceration, post-scalded and post-chilled carcasses and endproducts. Additionally, 45 selected Campylobacter isolates of droppings were genotyped by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Campylobacter carriage of flocks showed seasonal variation, with the highest contamination rate during the period of June to August. No evidence was found for a horizontal transmission from one broiler flock to the next via a persistent house-contamination. In each positive flock, one to three different genotypes were found. One or two clones dominated isolations obtained from the farm level. The fact that in different flocks indistinguishable isolates of clonal origin were detected during the same rearing period suggested a transmission between the broiler flocks or an intermittent common external source. In one case, isolates of clonal origin were detected in various farms during different rearing periods. Sampling during processing confirmed that the entrance of a positive flock resulted in contamination of the abattoir environment. Campylobacter spp. were isolated from all sampling stages along the processing line, with a percentage of 91.1-100 of isolates at different stages of slaughtering. PMID:20880094

  6. Human disease associated with "Campylobacter upsaliensis" (catalase-negative or weakly positive Campylobacter species) in the United States.

    PubMed Central

    Patton, C M; Shaffer, N; Edmonds, P; Barrett, T J; Lambert, M A; Baker, C; Perlman, D M; Brenner, D J

    1989-01-01

    Catalase-negative or weakly positive (CNW) thermotolerant campylobacteria, first isolated from dogs in 1983, were recently recognized as a new species, "Campylobacter upsaliensis," but their association with human illness has not been established. Twelve human isolates received at the Centers for Disease Control between 1980 and 1986 were identified as CNW campylobacteria by biochemical tests, cellular fatty acid composition, and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns. Eleven CNW Campylobacter strains tested by DNA-DNA hybridization (hydroxyapatite method) were all highly related and were related to two "C. upsaliensis" strains at the species level (86% under optimal conditions and 76% under stringent conditions). Clinical information was obtained for 11 human isolates from three stool and eight blood specimens. They were isolated from four female and seven male patients 6.5 months to 83 years of age residing in 10 different states. The patients had a wide spectrum of illnesses. The stool isolates were obtained from two previously healthy persons during episodes of acute gastroenteritis and from one immunocompromised patient with persistent diarrhea and fever. The blood isolates were obtained from two infants with fever and respiratory symptoms; a young woman with a ruptured ectopic pregnancy; three elderly men with underlying chronic diseases; and two immunocompromised adults. In a bactericidal assay to assess sensitivity to serum, seven of eight blood isolates showed some resistance to killing by pooled normal human serum. These observations suggest that "C. upsaliensis" is a potential human pathogen associated with both gastroenteritis and bacteremia in normal hosts and with opportunistic infection in immunocompromised individuals. PMID:2913038

  7. PCR–Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Detection and Identification of Campylobacter Species: Application to Isolates and Stool Samples

    PubMed Central

    Metherell, L. A.; Logan, J. M. J.; Stanley, J.

    1999-01-01

    We report a PCR–enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay which identifies Campylobacter species by capture hybridization of a single-stranded 16S rRNA gene amplicon with species-specific probes in a microtiter plate format. Specificities were confirmed for both reference and field strains, but the type strain of Campylobacter coli was atypical. The assay was rapid, informative, and usable with stool-extracted DNA. PMID:9889235

  8. BACTERIOPHAGE THERAPY AND CAMPYLOBACTER

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The book chapter reports efforts to exploit Campylobacter-specific bacteriophages to reduce the numbers of Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli colonizing poultry and contaminating poultry meat products. Controlling campylobacters in poultry represents one of the greatest challenges to the agriculture a...

  9. Campylobacter Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... Campylobacter is found in the intestines of many wild and domestic animals. The bacteria are passed in their feces (poop), which can lead to infection in humans via contaminated food, meats (especially chicken), water taken from contaminated sources (streams or rivers ...

  10. Gyr B versus 16s rDNA sequencing for the identification of Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, and Campylobacter lari

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Species of the genus Campylobacter are the causative agents of a sizable number of the cases of food-borne illness in the developed world. The majority of this disease is caused by three of the thermotolerant Campylobacter species: Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, and Campylobacter lari. ...

  11. Campylobacter in Poultry: Ecology and Potential Interventions.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Orhan; Kassem, Issmat I; Shen, Zhangqi; Lin, Jun; Rajashekara, Gireesh; Zhang, Qijing

    2015-06-01

    Avian hosts constitute a natural reservoir for thermophilic Campylobacter species, primarily Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli, and poultry flocks are frequently colonized in the intestinal tract with high numbers of the organisms. Prevalence rates in poultry, especially in slaughter-age broiler flocks, could reach as high as 100% on some farms. Despite the extensive colonization, Campylobacter is essentially a commensal in birds, although limited evidence has implicated the organism as a poultry pathogen. Although Campylobacter is insignificant for poultry health, it is a leading cause of food-borne gastroenteritis in humans worldwide, and contaminated poultry meat is recognized as the main source for human exposure. Therefore, considerable research efforts have been devoted to the development of interventions to diminish Campylobacter contamination in poultry, with the intention to reduce the burden of food-borne illnesses. During the past decade, significant advance has been made in understanding Campylobacter in poultry. This review summarizes the current knowledge with an emphasis on ecology, antibiotic resistance, and potential pre- and postharvest interventions. PMID:26473668

  12. Comparative performance of isolation methods using Preston broth, Bolton broth and their modifications for the detection of Campylobacter spp. from naturally contaminated fresh and frozen raw poultry meat.

    PubMed

    Seliwiorstow, T; De Zutter, L; Houf, K; Botteldoorn, N; Baré, J; Van Damme, I

    2016-10-01

    The performance of different isolation methods was evaluated for the detection of Campylobacter from naturally contaminated raw poultry meat. Therefore, fresh and frozen poultry meat samples were analysed using the standard procedure (ISO 10272-1:2006), enrichment in Preston broth, and enrichment in modified Bolton broth (supplemented with (i) potassium clavulanate (C-BB), (ii) triclosan (T-BB), (iii) polymyxin B (P-BB)). The enrichment cultures were streaked onto both modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate agar (mCCDA) and RAPID'Campylobacter agar (RCA). Moreover, direct plating on mCCDA and RCA was performed to quantify Campylobacter. In total, 33 out of 59 fresh retail meat samples (55.9%) were Campylobacter positive. For both fresh and frozen poultry meat samples, enrichment in Bolton broth (ISO 10272-1:2006) resulted in a higher number of positive samples than enrichment in Preston broth. Supplementation of Bolton broth with potassium clavulanate (C-BB) and triclosan (T-BB) enhanced the Campylobacter recovery from fresh poultry meat compared to non-supplemented Bolton broth, although the use of C-BB was less applicable than T-BB for Campylobacter recovery from frozen samples. Additionally, the use of RCA resulted in a higher isolation rate compared to mCCDA. The present study demonstrates the impact of culture medium on the recovery of Campylobacter from fresh and frozen naturally contaminated poultry meat samples and can support laboratories in choosing the most appropriate culturing method to detect Campylobacter. PMID:27391222

  13. Fluoroquinolone-resistant Campylobacter species and the withdrawal of fluoroquinolones from use in poultry: a public health success story.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Jennifer M; Chiller, Tom M; Powers, John H; Angulo, Frederick J

    2007-04-01

    Campylobacter species cause 1.4 million infections each year in the United States. Fluoroquinolones (e.g., ciprofloxacin) are commonly used in adults with Campylobacter infection and other infections. Fluoroquinolones (e.g., enrofloxacin) are also used in veterinary medicine. Human infections with fluoroquinolone-resistant Campylobacter species have become increasingly common and are associated with consumption of poultry. These findings, along with other data, prompted the US Food and Drug Administration to propose the withdrawal of fluoroquinolone use in poultry in 2000. A lengthy legal hearing concluded with an order to withdraw enrofloxacin from use in poultry (effective in September 2005). Clinicians are likely to continue to encounter patients with fluoroquinolone-resistant Campylobacter infection and other enteric infection because of the continued circulation of fluoroquinolone-resistant Campylobacter species in poultry flocks and in persons returning from foreign travel who have acquired a fluoroquinolone-resistant enteric infection while abroad. Judicious use of fluoroquinolones and other antimicrobial agents in human and veterinary medicine is essential to preserve the efficacy of these important chemotherapeutic agents. PMID:17342653

  14. Campylobacter species occurrence within internal organs and tissues of commercial caged Leghorn laying hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter spp. are frequently present in the intestinal tract and internal tissues of broiler breeder and broiler chickens. Campylobacter spp. ecology in commercial Leghorn laying hens has not been extensively studied. The objectives of the current study were to determine 1) Campylobacter spp. ...

  15. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) methods for the emerging Campylobacter species C. hyointestinalis, C. lanienae, C. sputorum, C. concisus and C. curvus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) systems have been reported previously for multiple food- and food animal-associated Campylobacter species (e.g. C. jejuni, C. coli, C. lari and C. fetus) to both differentiate strains and identify clonal lineages. These MLST methods focused primarily on campylobact...

  16. Comprehensive detection and discrimination of Campylobacter species by use of confocal micro-Raman spectroscopy and multilocus sequence typing.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiaonan; Huang, Qian; Miller, William G; Aston, D Eric; Xu, Jie; Xue, Feng; Zhang, Hongwei; Rasco, Barbara A; Wang, Shuo; Konkel, Michael E

    2012-09-01

    A novel strategy for the rapid detection and identification of traditional and emerging Campylobacter strains based upon Raman spectroscopy (532 nm) is presented here. A total of 200 reference strains and clinical isolates of 11 different Campylobacter species recovered from infected animals and humans from China and North America were used to establish a global Raman spectroscopy-based dendrogram model for Campylobacter identification to the species level and cross validated for its feasibility to predict Campylobacter-associated food-borne outbreaks. Bayesian probability coupled with Monte Carlo estimation was employed to validate the established Raman classification model on the basis of the selected principal components, mainly protein secondary structures, on the Campylobacter cell membrane. This Raman spectroscopy-based typing technique correlates well with multilocus sequence typing and has an average recognition rate of 97.21%. Discriminatory power for the Raman classification model had a Simpson index of diversity of 0.968. Intra- and interlaboratory reproducibility with different instrumentation yielded differentiation index values of 4.79 to 6.03 for wave numbers between 1,800 and 650 cm(-1) and demonstrated the feasibility of using this spectroscopic method at different laboratories. Our Raman spectroscopy-based partial least-squares regression model could precisely discriminate and quantify the actual concentration of a specific Campylobacter strain in a bacterial mixture (regression coefficient, >0.98; residual prediction deviation, >7.88). A standard protocol for sample preparation, spectral collection, model validation, and data analyses was established for the Raman spectroscopic technique. Raman spectroscopy may have advantages over traditional genotyping methods for bacterial epidemiology, such as detection speed and accuracy of identification to the species level. PMID:22740711

  17. Comprehensive Detection and Discrimination of Campylobacter Species by Use of Confocal Micro-Raman Spectroscopy and Multilocus Sequence Typing

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Xiaonan; Huang, Qian; Miller, William G.; Aston, D. Eric; Xu, Jie; Xue, Feng; Zhang, Hongwei; Rasco, Barbara A.

    2012-01-01

    A novel strategy for the rapid detection and identification of traditional and emerging Campylobacter strains based upon Raman spectroscopy (532 nm) is presented here. A total of 200 reference strains and clinical isolates of 11 different Campylobacter species recovered from infected animals and humans from China and North America were used to establish a global Raman spectroscopy-based dendrogram model for Campylobacter identification to the species level and cross validated for its feasibility to predict Campylobacter-associated food-borne outbreaks. Bayesian probability coupled with Monte Carlo estimation was employed to validate the established Raman classification model on the basis of the selected principal components, mainly protein secondary structures, on the Campylobacter cell membrane. This Raman spectroscopy-based typing technique correlates well with multilocus sequence typing and has an average recognition rate of 97.21%. Discriminatory power for the Raman classification model had a Simpson index of diversity of 0.968. Intra- and interlaboratory reproducibility with different instrumentation yielded differentiation index values of 4.79 to 6.03 for wave numbers between 1,800 and 650 cm−1 and demonstrated the feasibility of using this spectroscopic method at different laboratories. Our Raman spectroscopy-based partial least-squares regression model could precisely discriminate and quantify the actual concentration of a specific Campylobacter strain in a bacterial mixture (regression coefficient, >0.98; residual prediction deviation, >7.88). A standard protocol for sample preparation, spectral collection, model validation, and data analyses was established for the Raman spectroscopic technique. Raman spectroscopy may have advantages over traditional genotyping methods for bacterial epidemiology, such as detection speed and accuracy of identification to the species level. PMID:22740711

  18. Complete Genome Sequence of Campylobacter iguaniorum Strain 1485ET, Isolated from a Bearded Dragon (Pogona vitticeps).

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Maarten J; Miller, William G; Yee, Emma; Kik, Marja; Wagenaar, Jaap A; Duim, Birgitta

    2014-01-01

    Campylobacter iguaniorum has been isolated from reptiles. This Campylobacter species is genetically related to Campylobacter fetus and Campylobacter hyointestinalis. Here we present the first whole-genome sequence for this species. PMID:25146144

  19. Complete Genome Sequence of Campylobacter iguaniorum Strain 1485ET, Isolated from a Bearded Dragon (Pogona vitticeps)

    PubMed Central

    Yee, Emma; Kik, Marja; Wagenaar, Jaap A.; Duim, Birgitta

    2014-01-01

    Campylobacter iguaniorum has been isolated from reptiles. This Campylobacter species is genetically related to Campylobacter fetus and Campylobacter hyointestinalis. Here we present the first whole-genome sequence for this species. PMID:25146144

  20. The numbers game: Campylobacter survival in poultry products through the pH effects of polyphosphate additives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter species are responsible for the largest number of food-borne gastrointestinal bacterial infections in the developed world. Poultry products are a primary pathway for the introduction of Campylobacter into the food supply. Undercooked poultry products and the cross-contamination of ot...

  1. Detection of resistance to macrolides in thermotolerant campylobacter species by fluorescence in situ hybridization.

    PubMed

    Haas, Michaela; Essig, Andreas; Bartelt, Edda; Poppert, Sven

    2008-11-01

    The resistance of enteritis-causing Campylobacter strains to erythromycin is an emerging problem. We therefore evaluated fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for the rapid detection of resistance using 74 campylobacter isolates. FISH showed specificity and sensitivity of 100% for the detection of high-level resistance. PMID:18753354

  2. In Silico Analysis of the cadF Gene and Development of a Duplex Polymerase Chain Reaction for Species-Specific Identification of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli

    PubMed Central

    Shams, Saeed; Bakhshi, Bita; Tohidi Moghadam, Tahereh

    2016-01-01

    Background Campylobacteriosis is a zoonotic infectious disease caused by Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli. The cadF gene is considered as a genus-specific gene while other genes are mainly used for discrimination at the species level. Objectives This study aimed to analyze the cadF gene and to develop a duplex PCR assay for simultaneous detection of C. coli and C. jejuni, the two commonly encountered species. Materials and Methods In silico analysis of the cadF gene was carried out by several software and available online tools. A duplex PCR optimized with specific primers was used for detection and differentiation of both species. To evaluate specificity and sensitivity of the test, a panel of different Campylobacter spp. together with several intestinal bacterial pathogens was tested. The limit of detection (LOD) of method was determined using serial dilutions of standard genomes. Results The analysis of the full size cadF gene indicated variations in this gene, which can be used to differentiate C. jejuni and C. coli. The duplex PCR designed in this study showed that it could simultaneously detect and differentiate both C. jejuni and C. coli with product sizes of 737 bp and 461 bp, respectively. This assay, with 100% specificity and sensitivity, had a limit of detection (LOD) of about 14 and 0.7 µg/mL for C. jejuni and C. coli, respectively. Conclusions In silico analysis of the cadF full-gene showed variations between the two species that can be used as a molecular target for differentiating C. jejuni and C. coli in a single-step duplex-PCR assay with high specificity and sensitivity. PMID:27127589

  3. Salmonella and Campylobacter contamination of turkeys, from breeders to processed carcasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella and Campylobacter are two main pathogens of public health concern very often associated with poultry and eggs. Both are zoonotic bacteria frequently colonizing intestinal tracts of turkeys. However, the mechanisms of transmission of these organisms through fertile turkey eggs, and consequ...

  4. Effect of Incubation Temperature on the Detection of Thermophilic Campylobacter Species from Freshwater Beaches, Nearby Wastewater Effluents, and Bird Fecal Droppings

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Stephen; Nowak, Eva; Edge, Thomas A.

    2013-01-01

    This large-scale study compared incubation temperatures (37°C versus 42°C) to study the detection of thermophilic Campylobacter species, including Campylobacter jejuni, C. coli, and C. lari, in various surface water samples and bird fecal droppings around Hamilton Harbor, Lake Ontario. The putative culture isolates obtained from incubation temperatures of 37 and 42°C were confirmed by Campylobacter genus- and species-specific triplex PCR assays targeting the 16S rRNA gene and the 16S-23S rRNA gene internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. A total of 759 water, wastewater, and bird fecal dropping samples were tested. Positive amplification reactions for the genus Campylobacter were found for 454 (60%) samples incubated at 37°C, compared to 258 (34%) samples incubated at 42°C. C. jejuni (16%) and C. lari (12%) were detected significantly more frequently at the 42°C incubation temperature than at 37°C (8% and 5%, respectively). In contrast, significantly higher rates of C. coli (14%) and other Campylobacter spp. (36%) were detected at the 37°C incubation temperature than at 42°C (8% and 7%, respectively). These results were consistent across surface water, wastewater, and bird fecal dropping samples. At times, Campylobacter spp. were recovered and detected at 37°C (3% for C. jejuni, 10% for C. coli, and 3% for C. lari) when the same samples incubated at 42°C were negative. A significantly higher rate of other Campylobacter spp. was detected only at 37°C (32%) than only at 42°C (3%). These results indicate that incubation temperature can significantly influence the culturability and detection of thermophilic and other fastidious Campylobacter spp. and that a comprehensive characterization of the Campylobacter spp. in surface water, wastewaters, or bird fecal droppings will require incubation at both 37 and 42°C. PMID:24077717

  5. The atypical hyperosmotic stress response of Campylobacter jejuni

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Atypical Hyperosmotic Stress Response of Campylobacter jejuni Background. Campylobacter species are unusually sensitive to hyperosmotic stress conditions imposed in the laboratory and encode no characterized osmoprotectant systems. Despite these limitations, the Gram-negative Campylobacter jeju...

  6. Evaluation of culture methods and a DNA probe-based PCR assay for detection of Campylobacter species in clinical specimens of feces.

    PubMed

    Maher, Majella; Finnegan, Cathriona; Collins, Evelyn; Ward, Brid; Carroll, Cyril; Cormican, Martin

    2003-07-01

    Campylobacter species are the leading agents of bacterial gastroenteritis in developed countries. In this study 320 specimens of feces from patients with symptoms of acute gastroenteritis were cultured for Campylobacter species by direct plating on modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate agar and by enrichment in modified Preston broth, with or without blood added, for 48 h at 37 degrees C prior to plating. A 16S/23S PCR/DNA probe membrane-based colorimetric detection assay was evaluated on a subset of the feces (n = 127), including 18 culture-positive and 109 culture-negative specimens. DNA was extracted directly from the fecal specimens by using the QIAamp DNA stool Minikit for the DNA probe-based PCR assay (PCR/DNA probe assay). A second PCR/DNA probe assay based on the 16S rRNA gene in Campylobacter spp. was applied to all specimens that were culture negative, PCR/DNA positive on initial analysis. Campylobacter species were cultured in 20 of the 320 specimens. The 16S/23S PCR/DNA probe assay detected campylobacter DNA in 17 of 18 (94% sensitivity) culture-positive specimens and in 41 (38%) culture-negative specimens. The presence of campylobacter DNA in 35 of 41 culture-negative specimens was confirmed by the 16S PCR/DNA probe assay. DNA sequence analysis of seven 16S/23S PCR products and five 16S PCR products amplified from a selection of these specimens confirmed the presence of campylobacter DNA and more specifically Campylobacter jejuni, C. concisus, C. curvus, and C. gracilis DNA in these specimens. The molecular assays described in this study are rapid methods for the detection and identification of Campylobacter species in fecal specimens. The finding of Campylobacter spp. DNA in a large number of specimens of feces from patients with no other identified cause of diarrhea may suggest that Campylobacter spp. other than C. jejuni and C. coli may account for a proportion of cases of acute gastroenteritis in which no etiological agent is currently

  7. Evaluation of Culture Methods and a DNA Probe-Based PCR Assay for Detection of Campylobacter Species in Clinical Specimens of Feces

    PubMed Central

    Maher, Majella; Finnegan, Cathriona; Collins, Evelyn; Ward, Brid; Carroll, Cyril; Cormican, Martin

    2003-01-01

    Campylobacter species are the leading agents of bacterial gastroenteritis in developed countries. In this study 320 specimens of feces from patients with symptoms of acute gastroenteritis were cultured for Campylobacter species by direct plating on modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate agar and by enrichment in modified Preston broth, with or without blood added, for 48 h at 37°C prior to plating. A 16S/23S PCR/DNA probe membrane-based colorimetric detection assay was evaluated on a subset of the feces (n = 127), including 18 culture-positive and 109 culture-negative specimens. DNA was extracted directly from the fecal specimens by using the QIAamp DNA stool Minikit for the DNA probe-based PCR assay (PCR/DNA probe assay). A second PCR/DNA probe assay based on the 16S rRNA gene in Campylobacter spp. was applied to all specimens that were culture negative, PCR/DNA positive on initial analysis. Campylobacter species were cultured in 20 of the 320 specimens. The 16S/23S PCR/DNA probe assay detected campylobacter DNA in 17 of 18 (94% sensitivity) culture-positive specimens and in 41 (38%) culture-negative specimens. The presence of campylobacter DNA in 35 of 41 culture-negative specimens was confirmed by the 16S PCR/DNA probe assay. DNA sequence analysis of seven 16S/23S PCR products and five 16S PCR products amplified from a selection of these specimens confirmed the presence of campylobacter DNA and more specifically Campylobacter jejuni, C. concisus, C. curvus, and C. gracilis DNA in these specimens. The molecular assays described in this study are rapid methods for the detection and identification of Campylobacter species in fecal specimens. The finding of Campylobacter spp. DNA in a large number of specimens of feces from patients with no other identified cause of diarrhea may suggest that Campylobacter spp. other than C. jejuni and C. coli may account for a proportion of cases of acute gastroenteritis in which no etiological agent is currently identified

  8. Rapid identification and classification of Campylobacter spp. using laser optical scattering technology.

    PubMed

    He, Yiping; Reed, Sue; Bhunia, Arun K; Gehring, Andrew; Nguyen, Ly-Huong; Irwin, Peter L

    2015-05-01

    Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are the two important species responsible for most of the Campylobacter infections in humans. Reliable isolation and detection of Campylobacter spp. from food samples are challenging due to the interferences from complex food substances and the fastidious growth requirements of this organism. In this study, a novel biosensor-based detection called BARDOT (BActerial Rapid Detection using Optical scattering Technology) was developed for high-throughput screening of Campylobacter colonies grown on an agar plate without disrupting the intact colonies. Image pattern characterization and principal component analysis (PCA) of 6909 bacterial colonies showed that the light scatter patterns of C. jejuni and C. coli were strikingly different from those of Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Listeria monocytogenes. Examination of a mixed culture of these microorganisms revealed 85% (34/40) accuracy in differentiating Campylobacter from the other three major foodborne pathogens based on the similarity to the scatter patterns in an established library. The application of BARDOT in real food has been addressed through the analysis of Campylobacter spiked ground chicken and naturally contaminated fresh chicken pieces. Combined with real-time PCR verification, BARDOT was able to identify Campylobacter isolates from retail chicken. Moreover, applying passive filtration to food samples facilitated the isolation of pure Campylobacter colonies and therefore overcame the interference of the food matrix on BARDOT analysis. PMID:25583335

  9. Molecular Epidemiology of Campylobacter Isolates from Poultry Production Units in Southern Ireland

    PubMed Central

    O'Mahony, Emer; Buckley, James F.; Bolton, Declan; Whyte, Paul; Fanning, Séamus

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the sources and routes of transmission of Campylobacter in intensively reared poultry farms in the Republic of Ireland. Breeder flocks and their corresponding broilers housed in three growing facilities were screened for the presence of Campylobacter species from November 2006 through September 2007. All breeder flocks tested positive for Campylobacter species (with C. jejuni and C. coli being identified). Similarly, all broiler flocks also tested positive for Campylobacter by the end of the rearing period. Faecal and environmental samples were analyzed at regular intervals throughout the rearing period of each broiler flock. Campylobacter was not detected in the disinfected house, or in one-day old broiler chicks. Campylobacter jejuni was isolated from environmental samples including air, water puddles, adjacent broiler flocks and soil. A representative subset of isolates from each farm was selected for further characterization using flaA-SVR sub-typing and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) to determine if same-species isolates from different sources were indistinguishable or not. Results obtained suggest that no evidence of vertical transmission existed and that adequate cleaning/disinfection of broiler houses contributed to the prevention of carryover and cross-contamination. Nonetheless, the environment appears to be a potential source of Campylobacter. The population structure of Campylobacter isolates from broiler farms in Southern Ireland was diverse and weakly clonal. PMID:22163024

  10. Campylobacter in broiler slaughter samples assessed by direct count on mCCDA and Campy-Cefex agar.

    PubMed

    Gonsalves, Camila Cristina; Borsoi, Anderlise; Perdoncini, Gustavo; Rodrigues, Laura Beatriz; do Nascimento, Vladimir Pinheiro

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter spp. cause foodborne illnesses in humans primarily through the consumption of contaminated chicken. The aim of this study was to evaluate the United States Department of Agriculture's (USDA) recommended methodology, protocol MLG 41.02, for the isolation, identification and direct plate counting of Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli samples from the broiler slaughtering process. A plating method using both mCCDA and Campy-Cefex agars is recommended to recover Campylobacter cells. It is also possible to use this method in different matrices (cloacal swabs and water samples). Cloacal swabs, samples from pre-chiller and post-chiller carcasses and samples of pre-chiller, chiller and direct supply water were collected each week for four weeks from the same flock at a slaughterhouse located in an abattoir in southern Brazil. Samples were analyzed to directly count Campylobacter spp., and the results showed a high frequency of Campylobacter spp. on Campy-Cefex agar. For the isolated species, 72% were identified as Campylobacter jejuni and 38% as Campylobacter coli. It was possible to count Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli from different samples, including the water supply samples, using the two-agar method. These results suggest that slaughterhouses can use direct counting methods with both agars and different matrices as a monitoring tool to assess the presence of Campylobacter bacteria in their products. PMID:27237112

  11. Emergence of Multidrug-Resistant Campylobacter Species Isolates with a Horizontally Acquired rRNA Methylase

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yang; Zhang, Maojun; Deng, Fengru; Shen, Zhangqi; Wu, Congming; Zhang, Jianzhong

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotic-resistant Campylobacter constitutes a serious threat to public health, and resistance to macrolides is of particular concern, as this class of antibiotics is the drug of choice for clinical therapy of campylobacteriosis. Very recently, a horizontally transferrable macrolide resistance mediated by the rRNA methylase gene erm(B) was reported in a Campylobacter coli isolate, but little is known about the dissemination of erm(B) among Campylobacter isolates and the association of erm(B)-carrying isolates with clinical disease. To address this question and facilitate the control of antibiotic-resistant Campylobacter, we determined the distribution of erm(B) in 1,554 C. coli and Campylobacter jejuni isolates derived from food-producing animals and clinically confirmed human diarrheal cases. The results revealed that 58 of the examined isolates harbored erm(B) and exhibited high-level resistance to macrolides, and most were recent isolates, derived in 2011-2012. In addition, the erm(B)-positive isolates were all resistant to fluoroquinolones, another clinically important antibiotic used for treating campylobacteriosis. The erm(B) gene is found to be associated with chromosomal multidrug resistance genomic islands (MDRGIs) of Gram-positive origin or with plasmids of various sizes. All MDRGIs were transferrable to macrolide-susceptible C. jejuni by natural transformation under laboratory conditions. Molecular typing of the erm(B)-carrying isolates by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) identified diverse genotypes and outbreak-associated diarrheal isolates. Molecular typing also suggested zoonotic transmission of erm(B)-positive Campylobacter. These findings reveal an emerging and alarming trend of dissemination of erm(B) and MDRGIs in Campylobacter and underscore the need for heightened efforts to control their further spread. PMID:24982085

  12. Campylobacter Genotyping to Determine the Source of Human Infection

    PubMed Central

    Sheppard, Samuel K.; Dallas, John F.; Strachan, Norval J. C.; MacRae, Marian; McCarthy, Noel D.; Wilson, Daniel J.; Gormley, Fraser J.; Falush, Daniel; Ogden, Iain D.; Maiden, Martin C. J.; Forbes, Ken J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Campylobacter species cause a high proportion of bacterial gastroenteritis cases and are a significant burden on health care systems and economies worldwide; however, the relative contributions of the various possible sources of infection in humans are unclear. Methods National-scale genotyping of Campylobacter species was used to quantify the relative importance of various possible sources of human infection. Multilocus sequence types were determined for 5674 isolates obtained from cases of human campylobacteriosis in Scotland from July 2005 through September 2006 and from 999 Campylobacter species isolates from 3417 contemporaneous samples from potential human infection sources. These data were supplemented with 2420 sequence types from other studies, representing isolates from a variety of sources. The clinical isolates were attributed to possible sources on the basis of their sequence types with use of 2 population genetic models, STRUCTURE and an asymmetric island model. Results The STRUCTURE and the asymmetric island models attributed most clinical isolates to chicken meat (58% and 78% of Campylobacter jejuni and 40% and 56% of Campylobacter coli isolates, respectively), identifying it as the principal source of Campylobacter infection in humans. Both models attributed the majority of the remaining isolates to ruminant sources, with relatively few isolates attributed to wild bird, environment, swine, and turkey sources. Conclusions National-scale genotyping was a practical and efficient methodology for the quantification of the contributions of different sources to human Campylobacter infection. Combined with the knowledge that retail chicken is routinely contaminated with Campylobacter, these results are consistent with the view that the largest reductions in human campylobacteriosis in industrialized countries will come from interventions that focus on the poultry industry. PMID:19275496

  13. Quantification of water as a potential risk factor for cross-contamination with Salmonella, Campylobacter and Listeria in a poultry abattoir.

    PubMed

    Hamidi, A; Irsigler, H; Jaeger, D; Muschaller, A; Fries, R

    2014-01-01

    Water used in a modern poultry processing line was tested from October 2005 to June 2006 to determine the level of bacteria in an abattoir in Germany. A total of 420 water samples were taken from 14 processing sites (PSs), at 10 times, and from three different hours of the working shift at three sampling hours (SHs) at 5:00 a.m. (SH 1), 9:00 a.m. (SH 2) and 12:00 a.m. (SH 3). Each sample was assessed for the aerobic plate count (APC) and the prevalence of Salmonella, Campylobacter, Listeria and Yersinia over 30 sampling weeks. The APC numbers of each PS from three SHs were compared, and the prevalence of Salmonella, Campylobacter, Listeria and Yersinia from each PS of three SHs was determined as well as change from the initial PS to the end of the processing line. A total of 46 water samples were positive for Salmonella, 120 positive for Campylobacter and 4 positive for Listeria. None of the water samples was found to be positive for Yersinia. During the course of the day, the APC increased. Salmonella was mostly found during SH 1 (5 a.m.) in water from all PSs. A high number of Campylobacter were observed at SH 2 (9 a.m.) and SH 3 (12 a.m.) from all PSs. The results show that water, which is still used in substantial amounts in present poultry processing technology, can serve as a carrier for Salmonella and Campylobacter. The findings indicate that birds might progressively contaminate the equipment and become contaminated via the same equipment, that water at every processing position of the line constitutes a risk and that more attention should be paid to effective water management in the processing plan. PMID:25188272

  14. Diversity in the protein N-glycosylation pathways among campylobacter species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The foodborne bacterial pathogen, Campylobacter jejuni, possesses an N-linked protein glycosylation (pgl) pathway involved in adding conserved heptasaccharides to asparaginecontaining motifs of >60 proteins, and releasing the same glycan into its periplasm as free oligosaccharides. In this study, co...

  15. Comparison of fumerate-pyruvate media and beef extract media for aerobically culturing Campylobacter species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Media supplemented with fumarate, pyruvate, and a vitamin-mineral solution or with beef extract were compared for the ability to support aerobic growth of Campylobacter. Basal broth composed of tryptose, yeast extract, bicarbonate, and agar was supplemented with 30 mM fumarate, 100 mM pyruvate, and ...

  16. Intestinal Microbiota and Species Diversity of Campylobacter and Helicobacter spp. in Migrating Shorebirds in Delaware Bay

    EPA Science Inventory

    Using rDNA sequencing analysis, we examined the bacterial diversity and the presence of opportunistic bacterial pathogens (i.e., Campylobacter and Helicobacter) in Red Knot (Calidris canutus, n=40), Ruddy Turnstone (Arenaria interpres, n=35), and Semipalmated Sandpiper (Calidris ...

  17. Evidence of land-sea transfer of the zoonotic pathogen Campylobacter to a wildlife marine sentinel species.

    PubMed

    Baily, Johanna L; Méric, Guillaume; Bayliss, Sion; Foster, Geoffrey; Moss, Simon E; Watson, Eleanor; Pascoe, Ben; Mikhail, Jane; Pizzi, Romain; Goldstone, Robert J; Smith, David G E; Willoughby, Kim; Hall, Ailsa J; Sheppard, Samuel K; Dagleish, Mark P

    2015-01-01

    Environmental pollution often accompanies the expansion and urbanization of human populations where sewage and wastewaters commonly have an impact on the marine environments. Here, we explored the potential for faecal bacterial pathogens, of anthropic origin, to spread to marine wildlife in coastal areas. The common zoonotic bacterium Campylobacter was isolated from grey seals (Halichoerus grypus), an important sentinel species for environmental pollution, and compared to isolates from wild birds, agricultural sources and clinical samples to characterize possible transmission routes. Campylobacter jejuni was present in half of all grey seal pups sampled (24/50 dead and 46/90 live pups) in the breeding colony on the Isle of May (Scotland), where it was frequently associated with histological evidence of disease. Returning yearling animals (19/19) were negative for C. jejuni suggesting clearance of infection while away from the localized colony infection source. The genomes of 90 isolates from seals were sequenced and characterized using a whole-genome multilocus sequence typing (MLST) approach and compared to 192 published genomes from multiple sources using population genetic approaches and a probabilistic genetic attribution model to infer the source of infection from MLST data. The strong genotype-host association has enabled the application of source attribution models in epidemiological studies of human campylobacteriosis, and here assignment analyses consistently grouped seal isolates with those from human clinical samples. These findings are consistent with either a common infection source or direct transmission of human campylobacter to grey seals, raising concerns about the spread of human pathogens to wildlife marine sentinel species in coastal areas. PMID:25401947

  18. Enumeration and identity of Campylobacter spp. in Italian broilers.

    PubMed

    Manfreda, G; De Cesare, A; Bondioli, V; Stern, N J; Franchini, A

    2006-03-01

    Transmission of Campylobacter to humans has been prominently associated with mishandling or improperly preparing contaminated poultry carcasses. The number of organisms per carcass represents an important measure of human exposure to the agent. Therefore, we wished to estimate this public exposure over 1 yr among Italian broiler carcasses. We sampled 213 broiler carcasses from rinse water samples collected from a single slaughterhouse. Groups of carcasses had mean processed weights ranging from 1.2 to 2.7 kg. These were produced from 22 commercial broiler chicken flocks collected from 12 different farms, 3 of which were seasonally tested. Carcasses were rinsed with sterile water, and the rinse suspension was then serially diluted and spread-plated directly onto Campy-Cefex agar plates. One to 5 typical Campylobacter colonies per plate were identified by polymerase chain reaction as Campylobacter thermo-tolerant species. The overall estimated mean count per carcass in our study was 5.16 +/- 0.80 log10 cfu. This value increased in summer and autumn, as well as on carcasses collected from farms located > 100 km far from the slaughterhouse. A total of 678 Campylobacter colonies were identified by polymerase chain reaction. The majority of isolates were classified as Campylobacter jejuni (49.2%) or Campylobacter coli (47.5%). The overall number of C. jejuni was significantly higher on 1) carcasses weighing > 2 kg, 2) carcasses belonging to flocks with > 10,000 birds, and 3) carcasses collected from farms located > 100 km from the slaughterhouse. Moreover, among farms tested seasonally, C. jejuni was significantly greater than C. coli in winter. These data provide the first results of a continuing survey on Campylobacter loads and species identification from Italian broiler carcasses and represents an important baseline to estimate the human exposure to Campylobacter in Italy. PMID:16553289

  19. The antimicrobial effect of spice-based marinades against Campylobacter jejuni on contaminated fresh broiler wings.

    PubMed

    Zakarienė, Gintarė; Rokaitytė, Anita; Ramonaitė, Sigita; Novoslavskij, Aleksandr; Mulkytė, Kristina; Zaborskienė, Gintarė; Malakauskas, Mindaugas

    2015-03-01

    The antimicrobial effect of spice-based marinades against Campylobacter jejuni on inoculated fresh broiler wings was investigated. Experiments were carried out with 1 strain of C. jejuni and 6 marinades. Four experimental marinades were composed for the study and contained spices (thyme, rosemary, basil, marjoram, and so on) and different combination of bioactive compounds. Two marinades were commercial and contained spices (black pepper, sweet red pepper, and so on) and chemical additives (monosodium glutamate, sodium diacetate, calcium lactate), 1 commercial marinade was also enriched with bioactive compounds (linalool, cinnamaldehyde, lactic acid). Total aerobic bacterial count was examined to estimate the possible effect of tested marinades on the shelf-life of marinated broiler wings. Study revealed that thyme-based marinade was the most effective against C. jejuni on broiler wings and reduced the numbers of campylobacters by 1.04 log colony forming unit (CFU)/g (P ≤ 0.05) during storage for 168 h at 4 °C temperature. Moreover, it was more effective against C. jejuni than commercial marinade with 0.47 log CFU/g (P ≤ 0.05) reduction effect. Both experimental and commercial marinades had very similar effect on the total aerobic bacterial count. Although experimental and commercial marinades had different effect on pH of broiler wings, this parameter did not show a major impact on the antimicrobial effect of tested marinades (P ≥ 0.05). Our study shows that experimental natural thyme-based marinade can reduce numbers of C. jejuni more effectively than tested commercial marinades. PMID:25627752

  20. Understanding microwave vessel contamination by chloride species.

    PubMed

    Recchia, Sandro; Spanu, Davide; Bianchi, Davide; Dossi, Carlo; Pozzi, Andrea; Monticelli, Damiano

    2016-10-01

    Microwaves are widely used to assist digestion, general sample treatment and synthesis. The use of aqua regia is extensively adopted for the closed vessel mineralization of samples prior to trace element detection, leading to the contamination of microwave vessels by chlorine containing species. The latter are entrapped in the polymeric matrix of the vessels, leading to memory effects that are difficult to remove, among which the risk of silver incomplete recoveries by removal of the sparingly soluble chloride is the predominant one. In the present paper, we determined by mass spectrometry that hydrogen chloride is the species entrapped in the polymeric matrix and responsible for vessel contamination. Moreover, several decontamination treatments were considered to assess their efficiency, demonstrating that several cleaning cycles with water, nitric acid or silver nitrate in nitric acid were inefficient in removing chloride contamination (contamination reduction around 90%). Better results (≈95% decrease) were achieved by a single decontamination step in alkaline environment (sodium hydroxide or ammonia). Finally, a thermal treatment in a common laboratory oven (i.e. without vacuum and ventilation) was tested: a one hour heating at 150°C leads to a 98.5% decontamination, a figure higher than the ones obtained by wet treatments which requires comparable time. The latter treatment is a major advancement with respect to existing treatments as it avoids the need of a vacuum oven for at least 17h as presently proposed in the literature. PMID:27474275

  1. Antimicrobial resistance in campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli isolated from chicken carcass rinstates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: The development of antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter species, particularly C. jejuni and C. coli, is of public health concern. Methods: Campylobacter isolates recovered from spent chicken carcass rinsates collected at federally inspected slaughter establishments were submitted t...

  2. Survival with a Helping Hand: Campylobacter and Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Indikova, Ivana; Humphrey, Tom J.; Hilbert, Friederike

    2015-01-01

    Campylobacteriosis is the most important bacterial food-borne disease in the developed world. Consumption of chicken meat, beef or raw milk, direct contact with ruminants and exposure to contaminated surface water or even consumption of tap water have been identified as risk factors for human disease. However, the most important risk factor is consumption of and/or handling contaminated chicken. Campylobacter spp. are fastidious microorganisms but must somehow survive outside the host, especially in food and agricultural environments and also resist the innate and humoral immune responses inside the host. In this paper we hypothesize that other microorganisms in mixed populations with Campylobacter may act to improve survival outside the host and may also protect the pathogen against the intestinal immune system. Our evidence for this hypothesis is based on: 1. newly generated microbial community analysis; 2. the prolonged survival of Campylobacter in mixed species biofilms and in co-culture with environmental bacteria; 3. improved survival in amoebae and rumen fluid; 4. sulfur release and iron uptake systems within the intestinal lumen. This would make Campylobacter an exceptional food-borne pathogen. With this in mind, new strategies are necessary to combat Campylobacter along the total food chain. PMID:26617600

  3. Survival of Campylobacter jejuni in Waterborne Protozoa

    PubMed Central

    Snelling, W. J.; McKenna, J. P.; Lecky, D. M.; Dooley, J. S. G.

    2005-01-01

    The failure to reduce the Campylobacter contamination of intensively reared poultry may be partially due to Campylobacter resisting disinfection in water after their internalization by waterborne protozoa. Campylobacter jejuni and a variety of waterborne protozoa, including ciliates, flagellates, and alveolates, were detected in the drinking water of intensively reared poultry by a combination of culture and molecular techniques. An in vitro assay showed that C. jejuni remained viable when internalized by Tetrahymena pyriformis and Acanthamoeba castellanii for significantly longer (up to 36 h) than when they were in purely a planktonic state. The internalized Campylobacter were also significantly more resistant to disinfection than planktonic organisms. Collectively, our results strongly suggest that protozoa in broiler drinking water systems can delay the decline of Campylobacter viability and increase Campylobacter disinfection resistance, thus increasing the potential of Campylobacter to colonize broilers. PMID:16151149

  4. Prevalence, antibiogram and risk factors of thermophilic campylobacter spp. in dressed porcine carcass of Chitwan, Nepal

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Campylobacter is the primary cause of food borne gastroenteritis. Moreover, the emergence of multiple drug resistant campylobacters from poultry and pork has produced a potential threat to public health. Research addressing these issues is sparse in Nepal. So, this cross-sectional study aims at determining the prevalence, antibiogram and risk factors of campylobacters from dressed porcine carcass of Chitwan, Nepal. Results We collected 139 samples of dressed porcine carcass from 10 different pork shops located in Chitwan district and processed according to OIE Terrestrial Manual, 2008, chapter 2.8.10. Antibiogram of identified Campylobacter spp. was evaluated against nine commonly used antibiotics by using disc diffusion method following CLSI guidelines. The prevalence of Campylobacter spp. was 38.84% (C. coli 76% and C. jejuni 24%). There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) between the prevalence rate of male (32.4%) and female (41%) carcass. Ampicillin and erythromycin showed the highest resistance (92.59% each) followed by colistin (72.2%), tetracycline (61.1%), nalidixic acid and cotrimoxazole (44.4% each), ciprofloxacin (31.5%) and gentamicin (5.56%). Moreover, 77.8% of the isolates were resistant to more than two antimicrobials. Nalidixic acid and tetracycline showed significant difference (p < 0.05) in the resistivity pattern among different species of Campylobacters. The association between prevalence rate and regular sanitization of slaughter slab equipments was significant (p < 0.05). Similarly, prevalence rate was significantly associated (p < 0.01) with chilling and contamination of intestinal content with carcass. Conclusions The pork meat of Chitwan is highly contaminated with antibiotic-resistant Campylobacters and slaughtering practices play significant role in contamination. It is necessary to train the butchers about hygienic slaughtering practice. The consumers as well as butchers should adopt safety measures to prevent themselves

  5. Recovery of Campylobacter jejuni from surfaces of poultry slaughterhouses after cleaning and disinfection procedures: analysis of a potential source of carcass contamination.

    PubMed

    Peyrat, M B; Soumet, C; Maris, P; Sanders, P

    2008-05-31

    Campylobacters are a primary cause of human bacterial enteritis worldwide. They are usually considered susceptible to the disinfectant molecules used in the food industry. The purpose of this study was to see if campylobacters could survive cleaning and disinfection in poultry slaughterhouses and whether the strains recovered could contaminate carcasses during processing. Samples obtained from the environment before and after cleaning and disinfection (transport crates, processing equipment surfaces, scald tank water) and from birds (fresh droppings, neck skins) were collected during 7 investigations in 4 different slaughterhouses. Out of 41 samples collected, 30 Campylobacter jejuni strains were recovered from the surfaces of processing equipment before cleaning and disinfection procedures in three slaughterhouses and 9 C. jejuni out of 51 samples collected were found after cleaning. The study was then focused on one slaughterhouse to trace passage of the pathogen on poultry carcasses. The antimicrobial resistance phenotypes (P) (minimum inhibitory concentration, MIC) of the C. jejuni isolates collected in this slaughterhouse were determined. Nine phenotypes could be distinguished. Three of these were of interest as they were found in isolates recovered after cleaning and disinfection procedures. The genotypes (G) were determined by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) of isolates with one of the three phenotypes of interest. Clusters constructed by combining the phenotype and genotyping observations (PG type) were compared between isolates obtained after cleaning and disinfection, and isolates from droppings, neck skin and transport crate samples of slaughtered poultry flocks. Only one PG type of strain was recovered from surfaces after cleaning and disinfection and from neck skin samples but was also recovered from transport crates. Our findings indicate that C. jejuni is able to survive overnight on food processing

  6. Salmonella and Campylobacter contamination of ready-to-eat street-vended pork meat dishes in Antananarivo, Madagascar: a risk for the consumers?

    PubMed

    Cardinale, Eric; Abat, Cédric; Bénédicte, Contamin; Vincent, Porphyre; Michel, Rakotoharinome; Muriel, Maeder

    2015-03-01

    Street-food vending has been increasing in many developing countries and particularly in Madagascar since 2000. Gastroenteric diseases cause 37% of all deaths each year, and 50% of children <5 years are infected with intestinal pathogens. However, there has been little information regarding the incidence of street-food-related diseases, or foodborne pathogens in pork, which is the most commonly eaten meat, along with chicken. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the safety of traditional ready-to-eat street-vended pork dishes and to assess the association of restaurant characteristics and cooking practices with Salmonella and Campylobacter contamination of these meals. Sixty street-restaurants were studied from March 2012 to August 2012 in Antananarivo. A questionnaire was submitted to the managers, and samples of ready-to-eat pork dishes were bought. Salmonella spp. were isolated in 10% of the 60 street-restaurants studied and in 5% samples of pork dishes. The most prevalent serovars isolated were Salmonella Typhimurium (44%) and Senftenberg (33%). Campylobacter was not detected. Only 4 of the 43 variables tested in the screening analysis were significantly associated with Salmonella spp. contamination of the street-restaurants. The risk for a restaurant to be Salmonella positive decreased when there were specific premises for the restaurant and when the staff was wearing specific clothes when working. Conversely, that risk increased when the temperature of ready-to-eat pork was <52 °C and when tablecloths were used in the restaurant. PMID:25764444

  7. SURROGATE SPECIES IN ASSESSING CONTAMINANT RISK FOR ENDANGERED FISHES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rainbow trout, fathead minnows, and sheepshead minnows were tested as surrogate species to assess contaminant risk for 17 endangered fishes and one toad species. Acute toxicity tests were conducted with carbaryl, copper, 4-nonylphenol, pentachlorophenol, and permethrin in accord...

  8. Post-genome Analysis of the Foodborne Pathogen Campylobacter jejuni

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kay, Emily J.; Gundogdu, Ozan; Wren, Brendan

    The human pathogen Campylobacter jejuni is part of the genus Campylobacter that lies within the epsilon proteobacteria subclass of bacteria. The nearest family in phylogenetic terms is the Helicobacteraceae which includes the Helicobacter and Wolinella genuses. Campylobacter species are Gram-negative, curved rod shaped or spiral and are motile (via polar flagella).

  9. Evaluation of a cytolethal distending toxin (cdt) gene-based species-specific multiplex PCR assay for the identification of Campylobacter strains isolated from poultry in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Samosornsuk, Worada; Asakura, Masahiro; Yoshida, Emi; Taguchi, Takashi; Nishimura, Kazuhiko; Eampokalap, Boonchuay; Phongsisay, Vongsavanh; Chaicumpa, Wanpen; Yamasaki, Shinji

    2007-01-01

    We have recently developed a cytolethal distending toxin (cdt) gene-based species-specific multiplex PCR assay for identifying Campylobacter jejuni, C. coli and C. fetus. In the present study, the applicability of this assay was evaluated with 34 Campylobacter-like organisms isolated from poultry in Thailand for species identification and was compared with other assays including API Campy, 16S rRNA gene sequence, and hippuricase (hipO) gene detection. Of the 34 strains analyzed, 20, 10 and 1 were identified as C. jejuni, C. coli, and Arcobacter cryaerophilus, respectively, and 3 could not be identified by API Campy. However, 16S rRNA gene analysis, showed that all 34 strains are C. jejuni/coli. To discriminate between these 2 species, the hipO gene, which is specifically present in C. jejuni, was examined by PCR and was detected in 20 strains, which were identified as C. jejuni by API Campy but not in the remaining 14 strains. Collective results indicated that 20 strains were C. jejuni whereas the 14 strains were C. coli. When the cdt gene-based multiplex PCR was employed, however, 19, 20 and 19 strains were identified as C. jejuni while 13, 14 and 13 were identified as C. coli by the cdtA, cdtB and cdtC gene-based multiplex PCR, respectively. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis revealed that C. jejuni and C. coli strains analyzed are genetically diverse. Taken together, these data suggest that the cdt gene-based multiplex PCR, particularly cdtB gene-based multiplex PCR, is a simple, rapid and reliable method for identifying the species of Campylobacter strains. PMID:17895609

  10. Antimicrobial Resistance Mechanisms among Campylobacter

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are recognized as the most common causative agents of bacterial gastroenteritis in the world. Humans most often become infected by ingesting contaminated food, especially undercooked chicken, but also other sources of bacteria have been described. Campylobacteriosis is normally a self-limiting disease. Antimicrobial treatment is needed only in patients with more severe disease and in those who are immunologically compromised. The most common antimicrobial agents used in the treatment of Campylobacter infections are macrolides, such as erythromycin, and fluoroquinolones, such as ciprofloxacin. Tetracyclines have been suggested as an alternative choice in the treatment of clinical campylobacteriosis but in practice are not often used. However, during the past few decades an increasing number of resistant Campylobacter isolates have developed resistance to fluoroquinolones and other antimicrobials such as macrolides, aminoglycosides, and beta-lactams. Trends in antimicrobial resistance have shown a clear correlation between use of antibiotics in the veterinary medicine and animal production and resistant isolates of Campylobacter in humans. In this review, the patterns of emerging resistance to the antimicrobial agents useful in treatment of the disease are presented and the mechanisms of resistance to these drugs in Campylobacter are discussed. PMID:23865047

  11. Occurrence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli and their biotypes in beef and dairy cattle from the south of Chile

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, Heriberto; Hitschfeld, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli and their biotypes in beef and dairy cattle from the South of Chile was established. Campylobacter were statistically more prevalent among beef cattle (35.9%) than among dairy cattle (21.3%), being C. jejuni the species most frequently isolated. PMID:24031386

  12. Comparison of Selective Campylobacter Media for Detection and Enumeration of Naturally Occurring Campylobacter spp. on Poultry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter spp. are among the most common cause of bacterial foodborne diarrheal illness; poultry has been linked as a primary source of contamination. Detection and enumeration of low numbers of naturally occurring Campylobacter spp. on poultry is difficult due to the presence of competing micro...

  13. Presence of antibodies against campylobacter flagellar capping proteins versus campylobacter jejuni isolation in broilers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter jejuni is the leading foodborne pathogen that causes human acute bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. Human cases have been linked to consumption and/or handling of contaminated poultry products. Although Campylobacter jejuni is commonly regarded as a commensal in broiler cecal micro...

  14. Campylobacters: the most common bacterial enteropathogens in the Nordic countries.

    PubMed

    Rautelin, H; Hänninen, M L

    2000-10-01

    Campylobacters have been known as important human pathogens since the late 1970s. Campylobacter jejuni and coli are the most common bacterial enteropathogens in the developed countries. During the past years an increasing incidence of campylobacteriosis has been reported in many developed countries. C. jejuni is the most common Campylobacter species while C. coli accounts for about 5-10% of the cases. Although the genome of C. jejuni NCTC 11168 strain was sequenced recently, the exact pathogenetic mechanisms are still not known. Furthermore, there are no reliable animal models available. The epidemiology of this common infection is not well understood; however, eating and handling poultry, contaminated drinking water, and contact with pet animals have been recognized as important risk factors. Most of the cases are sporadic although large water-borne outbreaks have also been reported. Discriminatory typing methods are helpful in tracing the sources and transmission routes. In addition to traditional serotyping, genotyping methods, such as pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, have been developed. As Campylobacter infections probably precede Guillan-Barré syndrome in many cases, a great interest has lately been focused on the possible triggering mechanisms underlying this phenomenon. PMID:11087163

  15. Prevalence and biomolecular characterization of Campylobacter spp. isolated from retail meat.

    PubMed

    Sammarco, Michela Lucia; Ripabelli, Giancarlo; Fanelli, Incoronata; Grasso, Guido Maria; Tamburro, Manuela

    2010-04-01

    We estimated the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in retail meat (n = 352 samples; 104 chicken, 106 pork, and 142 beef) collected in Campobasso, Italy, comparing two microbiological methods. All the isolates were characterized by biomolecular techniques for epidemiological purposes. Campylobacter isolation was performed by selective culture and membrane filtration methods. Phenotypic and genotypic methods for genus and species identification were evaluated together with antimicrobial resistance and plasmid profiling. Sixty-nine (86.2%) samples were positive by selective culture, 49 (61.2%) by membrane filtration, and 38 (47.5%) by both methods. Only 74 of 80 strains were confirmed as Campylobacter spp. by PCR, and two Campylobacter coli were identified as Campylobacter jejuni. Chicken meat was more frequently contaminated than other meats. Selective culture was more sensitive than membrane filtration (85 versus 66%), and specificity of the methods was 98 and 100%, respectively. Among Campylobacter isolates from chicken meat, 86.5% were multidrug resistant. Resistance to ciprofloxacin (51.3%) and enrofloxacin (52.7%) was lower than to nalidixic acid (71.6%). C. coli strains showed the highest cross-resistance for quinolones (82.6%) and fluoroquinolones (60.9%) as well as a high resistance to tetracycline. Plasmids were isolated from six C. coli and two C. jejuni isolates, but no association was detected between antimicrobial resistance and plasmid DNA carriage. Selective culture is considered as the optimal method for Campylobacter isolation, although it was unable to detect all contaminated samples. Membrane filtration provided more specific results but with low sensitivity. A combination of both techniques may offer better results. PMID:20377962

  16. Eugenol wash and chitosan based coating reduces Campylobacter jejuni counts on poultry products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter, a leading cause of foodborne illness globally in humans, is strongly associated with the consumption of contaminated poultry products. Unfortunately, current strategies to reduce Campylobacter counts in poultry have had limited success. Our study investigated the efficacy of eugenol ...

  17. The evidence for horizontal and vertical transmission in Campylobacter passage from hen to her progeny

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter is an important human pathogen and consumption of undercooked poultry and cross-contamination from raw product has been linked to significant human illnesses. To reduce human illness, intervention strategies targeting Campylobacter reduction in poultry are being developed. Researcher...

  18. Ribosomal operon intergenic sequence (IGS) heterogeneity in Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are closely related species that can not be distinguished by their 16S or 23S rRNA genes. However, the intergenic sequence (IGS) fragment that is between the 16S and 23S genes is markedly different and characteristic for each species. A peculiarity of th...

  19. Evaluation of a cytolethal distending toxin (cdt) gene-based species-specific multiplex PCR assay for the identification of Campylobacter strains isolated from diarrheal patients in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kabir, S M Lutful; Kikuchi, Ken; Asakura, Masahiro; Shiramaru, Sachi; Tsuruoka, Naoki; Goto, Aeko; Hinenoya, Atsushi; Yamasaki, Shinji

    2011-01-01

    We have developed a cytolethal distending toxin (cdt) gene-based species-specific multiplex PCR assay for the detection and identification of Campylobacter jejuni, C. coli, and C. fetus. The applicability of this assay was evaluated with 325 Campylobacter strains isolated from diarrheal patients in Japan and the results were compared with those obtained by other genetic methods, including hipO gene detection and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Of the 325 strains analyzed, 314 and 11 were identified as C. jejuni and C. coli, respectively, by combination of hipO gene detection and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. When the multiplex PCR assay was employed, 309, 310, and 314 strains were identified as C. jejuni on the basis of cdtA, cdtB, and cdtC gene-specific primers, respectively. Similarly, 11, 11, and 10 strains were identified as C. coli on the basis of cdtA, cdtB, and cdtC gene-specific primers, respectively. Sequence analysis of the cdt gene region of 6 strains (5 C. jejuni and 1 C. coli) which did not yield specific PCR products in any of the cdt gene-based multiplex PCR assays revealed deletions or mutations of the cdt genes. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis indicated that C. jejuni and C. coli strains were genetically diverse. Taken together, these findings suggest that the cdtC gene-based multiplex PCR seems to be a particularly simple and rapid method for differentiating between species of Campylobacter strains, such as C. jejuni and C. coli. However, combination of these multiplex PCR assays will allow more accurate identification. PMID:21266751

  20. Complete genome sequence of Campylobacter iguaniorum strain 1485ET, isolated from a bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter iguaniorum has been isolated from reptiles. This Campylobacter species is genetically related to C. fetus and C. hyointestinalis. Here we present the first whole genome sequence for this species....

  1. Campylobacter ureolyticus

    PubMed Central

    O'Donovan, Dylan; Corcoran, Gerard D; Lucey, Brigid; Sleator, Roy D

    2014-01-01

    Herein, we provide a brief overview of the emerging bacterial pathogen Campylobacter ureolyticus. We describe the identification of the pathogen by molecular as opposed to classical culture based diagnostics and discuss candidate reservoirs of infection. We also review the available genomic data, outlining some of the major virulence factors, and discuss how these mechanisms likely contribute to pathogenesis of the organism. PMID:24717836

  2. Use of pulsed-field agarose gel electrophoresis to size genomes of Campylobacter species and to construct a SalI map of Campylobacter jejuni UA580.

    PubMed

    Chang, N; Taylor, D E

    1990-09-01

    To determine the physical length of the chromosome of Campylobacter jejuni, the genome was subjected to digestion by a series of restriction endonucleases to produce a small number of large restriction fragments. These fragments were then separated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis with the contour-clamped homogeneous electric field system. The DNA of C. jejuni, with its low G+C content, was found to have no restriction sites for enzymes NotI and SfiI, which cut a high-G+C regions. Most of the restriction enzymes that were used resulted in DNA fragments that were either too numerous or too small for genome size determination, with the exception of the enzymes SalI (5' ... G decreases TCGAG ... 3'), SmaI (5' .... CCC decreases GGG .... 3'), and KpnI (5' ... GGTAC decreases C .... 3'). With SalI, six restriction fragments with average values of 48.5, 80, 110, 220, 280, and 980 kilobases (kb) were obtained when calibrated with both a lambda DNA ladder and yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosome markers. The sum of these fragments yielded an average genome size of 1.718 megabases (Mb). With SmaI, nine restriction fragments with average values ranging from 39 to 371 kb, which yielded an average genome size of 1.726 Mb were obtained. With KpnI, 11 restriction fragments with sizes ranging from 35 to 387.5 kb, which yielded an average genome size of 1.717 Mb were obtained. A SalI restriction map was derived by partial digestion of the C. jejuni DNA. The genome sizes of C. laridis, C. coli, and C. fetus were also determined with the contour-clamped homogeneous electric field system by SalI, SmaI, and KpnI digestion. Average genome sizes were found to be 1.714 Mb for C. coli, 1.267 Mb for C. fetus subsp. fetus, and 1.451 Mb for C. laridis. PMID:2168376

  3. Epidemiological aspects of Campylobacter jejuni enteritis.

    PubMed

    Norkrans, G; Svedhem, A

    1982-08-01

    An epidemiological study on Campylobacter jejuni enterocolitis was performed in an urban Swedish community. The study included 55 patients gathered during a six-month period. Forty-one of the 55 patients (75%) were infected outside Sweden. Campylobacter enterocolitis was rare among children within the country. Patients infected in Sweden had eaten chicken significantly more often than a corresponding control group. Seven out of nine chicken consuming campylobacter patients also had prepared the fresh chicken alone, and none of their family members became ill. Thus the preparation of food contaminated with Campylobacter seems to elevate the risk for contracting the disease. Sick household pets transmitted the campylobacter infection to two patients. Forty-six of the patients had a total of 85 close household members. Three definite secondary cases were found. There was no evidence of transmission of Campylobacter by food prepared by two cooks who were working while still being asymptomatic excreters. Clinical reinfection with Campylobacter was observed in one patient. No patients became long-term carriers of Campylobacter. PMID:7097000

  4. Anti-Campylobacter Activities and Resistance Mechanisms of Natural Phenolic Compounds in Campylobacter

    PubMed Central

    Klančnik, Anja; Možina, Sonja Smole; Zhang, Qijing

    2012-01-01

    Background Campylobacter is a major foodborne pathogen and alternative antimicrobials are needed to prevent or decrease Campylobacter contamination in foods or food producing animals. The objectives of this study are to define the anti-Campylobacter activities of natural phenolic compounds of plant origin and to determine the roles of bacterial drug efflux systems in the resistance to these natural phenolics in Campylobacter jejuni. Methodology/Principal Findings Anti-Campylobacter activities were evaluated by an MIC assay using microdilution coupled with ATP measurement. Mutants of the cmeB and cmeF efflux genes and the cmeR transcriptional repressor gene were compared with the wild-type strain for their susceptibilities to phenolics in the absence and presence of efflux-pump inhibitors (EPIs). The phenolic compounds produced significant, but variable activities against both antibiotic-susceptible and antibiotic resistant Campylobacter. The highest anti-Campylobacter activity was seen with carnosic and rosmarinic acids in their pure forms or in enriched plant extracts. Inactivation of cmeB rendered C. jejuni significantly more susceptible to the phenolic compounds, while mutation of cmeF or cmeR only produced a moderate effect on the MICs. Consistent with the results from the efflux pump mutants, EPIs, especially phenylalanine-arginine β-naphthylamide and NMP, significantly reduced the MICs of the tested phenolic compounds. Further reduction of MICs by the EPIs was also observed in the cmeB and cmeF mutants, suggesting that other efflux systems are also involved in Campylobacter resistance to phenolic compounds. Conclusion/Significance Natural phenolic compounds of plant origin have good anti-Campylobacter activities and can be further developed for potential use in controlling Campylobacter. The drug efflux systems in Campylobacter contribute significantly to its resistance to the phenolics and EPIs potentiate the anti-Campylobacter activities of plant phenolic

  5. Chicken Anti-Campylobacter Vaccine - Comparison of Various Carriers and Routes of Immunization.

    PubMed

    Kobierecka, Patrycja A; Wyszyńska, Agnieszka K; Gubernator, Jerzy; Kuczkowski, Maciej; Wiśniewski, Oskar; Maruszewska, Marta; Wojtania, Anna; Derlatka, Katarzyna E; Adamska, Iwona; Godlewska, Renata; Jagusztyn-Krynicka, Elżbieta K

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter spp, especially the species Campylobacter jejuni, are important human enteropathogens responsible for millions of cases of gastro-intestinal disease worldwide every year. C. jejuni is a zoonotic pathogen, and poultry meat that has been contaminated by microorganisms is recognized as a key source of human infections. Although numerous strategies have been developed and experimentally checked to generate chicken vaccines, the results have so far had limited success. In this study, we explored the potential use of non-live carriers of Campylobacter antigen to combat Campylobacter in poultry. First, we assessed the effectiveness of immunization with orally or subcutaneously delivered Gram-positive Enhancer Matrix (GEM) particles carrying two Campylobacter antigens: CjaA and CjaD. These two immunization routes using GEMs as the vector did not protect against Campylobacter colonization. Thus, we next assessed the efficacy of in ovo immunization using various delivery systems: GEM particles and liposomes. The hybrid protein rCjaAD, which is CjaA presenting CjaD epitopes on its surface, was employed as a model antigen. We found that rCjaAD administered in ovo at embryonic development day 18 by both delivery systems resulted in significant levels of protection after challenge with a heterologous C. jejuni strain. In practice, in ovo chicken vaccination is used by the poultry industry to protect birds against several viral diseases. Our work showed that this means of delivery is also efficacious with respect to commensal bacteria such as Campylobacter. In this study, we evaluated the protection after one dose of vaccine given in ovo. We speculate that the level of protection may be increased by a post-hatch booster of orally delivered antigens. PMID:27242755

  6. Molecular characterization of Campylobacter isolated from chickens and humans in northern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Meeyam, Tongkorn; Padungtod, Pawin; Kaneene, John B

    2004-09-01

    A study was conducted in northern Thailand to characterize Campylobacter spp isolated from chickens at farms, slaughterhouse, and chicken meat at fresh markets, and stools from chicken farmers as well as neighboring crop farmers who served as controls. The Campylobacter isolates were collected during the rainy months of the years 2000, 2001, and 2002. Standard methods were used for primary isolation and identification of Camplobacter and the resulting isolates were frozen and stored in 30% glycerol with Mueller-Hinton broth at -70 degrees C until used in 2003. A multiplex PCR assay was used for differentiation of the Campylobacter spp. A total of 415 Campylobacter spp were isolated from 849 (48.9%) samples from chickens at the farm, slaughter house and fresh chicken meat market. Campylobacter spp were isolated from 5 of the 129 (3.9%) chicken farmers but none from the 100 neighboring crop farmers. C. jejuni was the most prevalent (42.5%) at the farm, followed by C. coli (39.1%) and other species (8.0%). In contrast, C. coli was the most prevalent at the slaughter house (72.4%) while C. jejuni was only 17.2% and others 3.4%. Similarly, at the fresh chicken market, C. coli was the most prevalent (54.4%) while C. jejuni was 26.5% and others were 13.2%. Campylobacter spp isolated from the chicken farmers were predominantly (75%) C. coli and the rest (25%) were C. jejuni. The results of the study show that both C. coli and C. jejuni are highly prevalent in chickens, along the chicken production system and in chicken farmers in northern Thailand. Critical control points for exposure and contamination of the chicken meat supply should be identified so that methods can be developed to protect human exposure to Campylobacter spp. PMID:15689085

  7. Chicken Anti-Campylobacter Vaccine – Comparison of Various Carriers and Routes of Immunization

    PubMed Central

    Kobierecka, Patrycja A.; Wyszyńska, Agnieszka K.; Gubernator, Jerzy; Kuczkowski, Maciej; Wiśniewski, Oskar; Maruszewska, Marta; Wojtania, Anna; Derlatka, Katarzyna E.; Adamska, Iwona; Godlewska, Renata; Jagusztyn-Krynicka, Elżbieta K.

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter spp, especially the species Campylobacter jejuni, are important human enteropathogens responsible for millions of cases of gastro-intestinal disease worldwide every year. C. jejuni is a zoonotic pathogen, and poultry meat that has been contaminated by microorganisms is recognized as a key source of human infections. Although numerous strategies have been developed and experimentally checked to generate chicken vaccines, the results have so far had limited success. In this study, we explored the potential use of non-live carriers of Campylobacter antigen to combat Campylobacter in poultry. First, we assessed the effectiveness of immunization with orally or subcutaneously delivered Gram-positive Enhancer Matrix (GEM) particles carrying two Campylobacter antigens: CjaA and CjaD. These two immunization routes using GEMs as the vector did not protect against Campylobacter colonization. Thus, we next assessed the efficacy of in ovo immunization using various delivery systems: GEM particles and liposomes. The hybrid protein rCjaAD, which is CjaA presenting CjaD epitopes on its surface, was employed as a model antigen. We found that rCjaAD administered in ovo at embryonic development day 18 by both delivery systems resulted in significant levels of protection after challenge with a heterologous C. jejuni strain. In practice, in ovo chicken vaccination is used by the poultry industry to protect birds against several viral diseases. Our work showed that this means of delivery is also efficacious with respect to commensal bacteria such as Campylobacter. In this study, we evaluated the protection after one dose of vaccine given in ovo. We speculate that the level of protection may be increased by a post-hatch booster of orally delivered antigens. PMID:27242755

  8. An Improved Culture Method for Selective Isolation of Campylobacter jejuni from Wastewater.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jinyong; Oh, Euna; Banting, Graham S; Braithwaite, Shannon; Chui, Linda; Ashbolt, Nicholas J; Neumann, Norman F; Jeon, Byeonghwa

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is one of the leading foodborne pathogens worldwide. C. jejuni is isolated from a wide range of foods, domestic animals, wildlife, and environmental sources. The currently available culture-based isolation methods are not highly effective for wastewater samples due to the low number of C. jejuni in the midst of competing bacteria. To detect and isolate C. jejuni from wastewater samples, in this study, we evaluated a few different enrichment conditions using five different antibiotics (i.e., cefoperazone, vancomycin, trimethoprim, polymyxin B, and rifampicin), to which C. jejuni is intrinsically resistant. The selectivity of each enrichment condition was measured with C t value using quantitative real-time PCR, and multiplex PCR to determine Campylobacter species. In addition, the efficacy of Campylobacter isolation on different culture media after selective enrichment was examined by growing on Bolton and Preston agar plates. The addition of polymyxin B, rifampicin, or both to the Bolton selective supplements enhanced the selective isolation of C. jejuni. The results of 16S rDNA sequencing also revealed that Enterococcus spp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are major competing bacteria in the enrichment conditions. Although it is known to be difficult to isolate Campylobacter from samples with heavy contamination, this study well exhibited that the manipulation of antibiotic selective pressure improves the isolation efficiency of fastidious Campylobacter from wastewater. PMID:27617011

  9. Prevalence and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Campylobacter spp. in Oklahoma Conventional and Organic Retail Poultry

    PubMed Central

    Noormohamed, Aneesa; Fakhr, Mohamed K

    2014-01-01

    Campylobacter is one of the most important foodborne pathogens that cause bacterial gastroenteritis.This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter in conventional and organic retail poultry samples purchased from grocery stores in Tulsa, Oklahoma.One hundred and fifty six chilled retail chicken samples (85 conventional and 71 organic) and 65 chilled retail conventional turkey samples were collected in this study. The prevalence of Campylobacter in the conventional chicken samples 32/85 (38%) was higher than in the organic ones 21/71 (30%). The prevalence of Campylobacter in the conventional turkey samples was 11/65 (17%). Of the 53 positive chicken samples, 42 were C. jejuni, 8 were C. coli and three isolates were contaminated with both species. Of the 11 positive turkey samples, 8 contained C. jejuni and 3 harbored C. coli isolates. The antimicrobial susceptibility of one hundred and forty nine recovered Campylobacter isolates (130 chickens and 19 turkeys) towards sixteen antimicrobials was determined. The majority of the recovered turkey isolates (13/19) showed resistance to more than 7 antimicrobials while most of the recovered chicken ones (82/130) were resistant to 5 to 7 antimicrobials. Multidrug resistance was not limited to isolates from conventional sources but was also available in isolates of an organic background and was generally lower in C. jejuni isolates when compared to the C. coli ones. PMID:25408778

  10. An Improved Culture Method for Selective Isolation of Campylobacter jejuni from Wastewater

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jinyong; Oh, Euna; Banting, Graham S.; Braithwaite, Shannon; Chui, Linda; Ashbolt, Nicholas J.; Neumann, Norman F.; Jeon, Byeonghwa

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is one of the leading foodborne pathogens worldwide. C. jejuni is isolated from a wide range of foods, domestic animals, wildlife, and environmental sources. The currently available culture-based isolation methods are not highly effective for wastewater samples due to the low number of C. jejuni in the midst of competing bacteria. To detect and isolate C. jejuni from wastewater samples, in this study, we evaluated a few different enrichment conditions using five different antibiotics (i.e., cefoperazone, vancomycin, trimethoprim, polymyxin B, and rifampicin), to which C. jejuni is intrinsically resistant. The selectivity of each enrichment condition was measured with Ct value using quantitative real-time PCR, and multiplex PCR to determine Campylobacter species. In addition, the efficacy of Campylobacter isolation on different culture media after selective enrichment was examined by growing on Bolton and Preston agar plates. The addition of polymyxin B, rifampicin, or both to the Bolton selective supplements enhanced the selective isolation of C. jejuni. The results of 16S rDNA sequencing also revealed that Enterococcus spp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are major competing bacteria in the enrichment conditions. Although it is known to be difficult to isolate Campylobacter from samples with heavy contamination, this study well exhibited that the manipulation of antibiotic selective pressure improves the isolation efficiency of fastidious Campylobacter from wastewater. PMID:27617011

  11. A quantitative microbiological risk assessment for Campylobacter in petting zoos.

    PubMed

    Evers, Eric G; Berk, Petra A; Horneman, Mijke L; van Leusden, Frans M; de Jonge, Rob

    2014-09-01

    The significance of petting zoos for transmission of Campylobacter to humans and the effect of interventions were estimated. A stochastic QMRA model simulating a child or adult visiting a Dutch petting zoo was built. The model describes the transmission of Campylobacter in animal feces from the various animal species, fences, and the playground to ingestion by visitors through touching these so-called carriers and subsequently touching their lips. Extensive field and laboratory research was done to fulfill data needs. Fecal contamination on all carriers was measured by swabbing in 10 petting zoos, using Escherichia coli as an indicator. Carrier-hand and hand-lip touching frequencies were estimated by, in total, 13 days of observations of visitors by two observers at two petting zoos. The transmission from carrier to hand and from hand to lip by touching was measured using preapplied cow feces to which E. coli WG5 was added as an indicator. Via a Beta-Poisson dose-response function, the number of Campylobacter cases for the whole of the Netherlands (16 million population) in a year was estimated at 187 and 52 for children and adults, respectively, so 239 in total. This is significantly lower than previous QMRA results on chicken fillet and drinking water consumption. Scenarios of 90% reduction of the contamination (meant to mimic cleaning) of all fences and just goat fences reduces the number of cases by 82% and 75%, respectively. The model can easily be adapted for other fecally transmitted pathogens. PMID:24724585

  12. Albatross species demonstrate regional differences in North Pacific marine contamination

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finkelstein, M.; Keitt, B.S.; Croll, D.A.; Tershy, B.; Jarman, Walter M.; Rodriguez-Pastor, S.; Anderson, D.J.; Sievert, P.R.; Smith, D.R.

    2006-01-01

    Recent concern about negative effects on human health from elevated organochlorine and mercury concentrations in marine foods has highlighted the need to understand temporal and spatial patterns of marine pollution. Seabirds, long-lived pelagic predators with wide foraging ranges, can be used as indicators of regional contaminant patterns across large temporal and spatial scales. Here we evaluate contaminant levels, carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios, and satellite telemetry data from two sympatrically breeding North Pacific albatross species to demonstrate that (1) organochlorine and mercury contaminant levels are significantly higher in the California Current compared to levels in the high-latitude North Pacific and (2) levels of organochlorine contaminants in the North Paci.c are increasing over time. Black-footed Albatrosses (Phoebastria nigripes) had 370-460% higher organochlorine (polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs], dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes [DDTs]) and mercury body burdens than a closely related species, the Laysan Albatross (P. immutabilis), primarily due to regional segregation of their North Pacific foraging areas. PCBs (the sum of the individual PCB congeners analyzed) and DDE concentrations in both albatross species were 130-360% higher than concentrations measured a decade ago. Our results demonstrate dramatically high and increasing contaminant concentrations in the eastern North Pacific Ocean, a finding relevant to other marine predators, including humans. ?? 2006 by the Ecological Society of America.

  13. Study on the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. from chicken meat in Hanoi, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Luu, Quynh Huong; Tran, Thi Hanh; Phung, Dac Cam; Nguyen, Thi Be

    2006-10-01

    Campylobacter spp. is considered to be the most common bacterial cause of human gastroenteritis worldwide. In developing countries, Campylobacter spp. diarrhea is an important cause of childhood morbidity. Chicken meat is known to be a major source of Campylobacteriosis infection in the world. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in chicken meat. A total of 100 samples from breast part of chicken carcass were collected from retail market in Hanoi. The samples were taken for bacteriological analysis following the ISO 10272 standards. Thirty one samples (31%) were found positive for Campylobacter spp. The most frequently isolated Campylobacter was Campylobacter jejuni (45.2%) followed by Campylobacter coli (25.8%). Due to high contamination rates of retail chicken products, special attention must be paid to good manufacturing practices of food processors and vendors. Further studies should be done to assess the risk factors of Campylobacter spp. contamination in the Vietnamese fowl production chain. PMID:17135525

  14. Field ecology, fungal sex and food contamination involving Aspergillus species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several species within the genus Aspergillus are capable of producing a myriad of toxic secondary metabolites, with aflatoxin being of most concern. These fungi happen to colonize important agricultural commodities, thereby having the potential to contaminate our food with carcinogenic aflatoxins. P...

  15. Global Epidemiology of Campylobacter Infection

    PubMed Central

    Kaakoush, Nadeem O.; Castaño-Rodríguez, Natalia; Mitchell, Hazel M.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Campylobacter jejuni infection is one of the most widespread infectious diseases of the last century. The incidence and prevalence of campylobacteriosis have increased in both developed and developing countries over the last 10 years. The dramatic increase in North America, Europe, and Australia is alarming, and data from parts of Africa, Asia, and the Middle East indicate that campylobacteriosis is endemic in these areas, especially in children. In addition to C. jejuni, there is increasing recognition of the clinical importance of emerging Campylobacter species, including Campylobacter concisus and Campylobacter ureolyticus. Poultry is a major reservoir and source of transmission of campylobacteriosis to humans. Other risk factors include consumption of animal products and water, contact with animals, and international travel. Strategic implementation of multifaceted biocontrol measures to reduce the transmission of this group of pathogens is paramount for public health. Overall, campylobacteriosis is still one of the most important infectious diseases that is likely to challenge global health in the years to come. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the global epidemiology, transmission, and clinical relevance of Campylobacter infection. PMID:26062576

  16. Antimicrobial Resistance of Campylobacter from Retail Meats and Chicken Carcass Rinses: Results of the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS): 2002-2006

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background - Campylobacter is an important foodborne pathogen in the United States and serves as a commensal-like bacterium in many animal species. Illness in humans is thought to occur through cross-contamination during preparation of foods, particularly poultry products. The U.S. National Antimi...

  17. Antibiotic resistance and resistance mechanisms in Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli.

    PubMed

    Alfredson, David A; Korolik, Victoria

    2007-12-01

    Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are recognized as the most common causative agents of bacterial gastroenteritis in the world and infections with these organisms occur more frequently than do infections due to Salmonella species, Shigella species, or Escherichia coli 0157:H7. The incidence of human Campylobacter infections has increased markedly in both developed and developing countries worldwide and, more significantly, so has the rapid emergence of antibiotic-resistant Campylobacter strains, with evidence suggesting that the use of antibiotics, in particular the fluoroquinolones, as growth promoters in food animals and the veterinary industry is accelerating this trend. In this minireview, the patterns of emerging resistance to the antimicrobial agents useful in treatment of the disease are presented and the mechanisms of resistance to these drugs in Campylobacter spp are discussed. PMID:18031331

  18. ASSESSING CONTAMINANT SENSITIVITY OF ENDANGERED AND THREATENED AQUATIC SPECIES WITH ACUTE TOXICITY TESTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Assessment of contaminant impacts to endangered and threatened (listed) species requires understanding of a species' sensitivity to particular chemicals. The most direct approach would be to determine the sensitivity of a listed species to a particular contaminant or perturbation...

  19. CAMPYLOBACTER COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT IN THE CONTEXT OF SIGNIFICANT GUT MICROBIOTA TRANSITION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter colonization of poultry causes a considerable public health risk. Interactions between the pathogen and the autochthonous intestinal microbiota have not been defined, however, Campylobacter can be excluded from the intestinal habitat by unidentified microbial species. To enhance our un...

  20. Campylobacter and Salmonella in broiler processing – transport through chill

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    When market age broilers are transported to processing plants, feces from individual birds in a Campylobacter positive flock can contaminate transport containers (1). Feces, and therefore Campylobacter, is deposited on the floor surface of transport cages. When placed in soiled transport cages pr...

  1. Incidence and ecology of Campylobacter jejuni and coli in animals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since its initial emergence in the 1970’s, Campylobacter have been estimated to be one of the most common causative agents of foodborne illnesses, along with nontyphoidal Salmonella species. Campylobacter species naturally colonize the gastrointestinal tracts of domestic and feral animals and are a...

  2. Campylobacter jejuni organism (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... after a person has been exposed to the organism. Campylobacter jejuni is one of the most common ... ill cat or dog. This is what Campylobacter organisms look like through a microscope. (Image courtesy of ...

  3. Prevalence, antibiograms, and transferable tet(O) plasmid of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolated from raw chicken, pork, and human clinical cases in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jun Man; Hong, Joonbae; Bae, Wonki; Koo, Hye Cheong; Kim, So Hyun; Park, Yong Ho

    2010-08-01

    The antibiotic resistance patterns and prevalence of the transferable tet(O) plasmid were investigated in Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolates from raw chicken, pork, and humans with clinical campylobacteriosis. A total of 180 C. jejuni and C. coli isolates were identified, and the prevalence rates of C. jejuni and C. coli in raw chicken samples were 83% (83 of 100) and 73% (73 of 100), respectively. Twelve percent (6 of 50) and 10% (5 of 50) of pork samples were contaminated with C. jejuni and C. coli, respectively. Disk diffusion susceptibility testing revealed that the most frequently detected resistance was to tetracycline (92.2%), followed by nalidixic acid (75.6%), ciprofloxacin (65.0%), azithromycin (41.5%), ampicillin (33.3%), and streptomycin (26.1%). Of the C. jejuni and C. coli isolates, 65.7% (n=109) contained plasmids carrying the tet(O) gene. Six C. jejuni isolates and two C. coli isolates with high-level resistance to tetracycline (MIC=256 microg/ml) harbored the tet(O) plasmid, which is transferable to other C. jejuni and C. coli isolates. These results demonstrate the presence of an interspecies transferable plasmid containing the tet(O) gene and a high prevalence of antibiotic resistance in Korean Campylobacter isolates and provide an understanding of the antibiotic resistance distribution among Campylobacter species in Korea. PMID:20819352

  4. Quo vadis? – Monitoring Campylobacter in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Stingl, K.; Knüver, M.-T.; Vogt, P.; Buhler, C.; Krüger, N.-J.; Alt, K.; Tenhagen, B.-A.; Hartung, M.; Schroeter, A.; Ellerbroek, L.; Appel, B.; Käsbohrer, A.

    2012-01-01

    Campylobacter is a poorly recognized foodborne pathogen, leading the statistics of bacterially caused human diarrhoea in Europe during the last years. In this review, we present qualitative and quantitative German data obtained in the framework of specific monitoring programs and from routine surveillance. These also comprise recent data on antimicrobial resistances of food isolates. Due to the considerable reduction of in vitro growth capabilities of stressed bacteria, there is a clear discrepancy between the detection limit of Campylobacter by cultivation and its infection potential. Moreover, antimicrobial resistances of Campylobacter isolates established during fattening of livestock are alarming, since they constitute an additional threat to human health. The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) discusses the establishment of a quantitative limit for Campylobacter contamination of broiler carcasses in order to achieve an appropriate level of protection for consumers. Currently, a considerable amount of German broiler carcasses would not comply with this future criterion. We recommend Campylobacter reduction strategies to be focussed on the prevention of fecal contamination during slaughter. Decontamination is only a sparse option, since the reduction efficiency is low and its success depends on the initial contamination concentration. PMID:24611125

  5. Differential carbon source utilization by Campylobacter jejuni strain 11168 in response to growth temperature variation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter spp. readily colonize the intestinal tracts of both human and avian species. While most often a commensal organism in birds, campylobacters remain the leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in humans. The association of campylobacters with poultry is well established as a primary...

  6. Rapid identification and classification of Campylobacter spp. using laser optical scattering technology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli are the two important species responsible for most of the Campylobacter infections in humans. Reliable isolation and detection of Campylobacter spp. from food samples are challenging due to the interferences from complex food substances and the fastidious growth requ...

  7. Isolation of Campylobacter from circulating blood of commercial broilers.

    PubMed

    Richardson, L J; Cox, N A; Buhr, R J; Harrison, M A

    2011-09-01

    Campylobacter spp. are present in organs and tissues of broiler chickens but the dissemination route is unclear. The aim of the current study was to determine Campylobacter prevalence within circulating blood of commercial broilers. Broilers were acquired from 19 flocks originating from three commercial poultry processing companies. Using aseptic blood collection techniques, 5 ml of circulating blood was collected from each bird and the sample analyzed for Campylobacter. The Campylobacter colonization status of each bird was determined by aseptically sampling and analyzing the ceca. Campylobacter was recovered from 58% (11/19) of flocks sampled. From the 248 total birds sampled, 12% and 46% of the birds had Campylobacter in the blood and ceca, respectively. This study documents Campylobacter prevalence in the circulating blood of commercially raised broilers. Campylobacter presence in the circulatory system may indicate the path used by the organism for rapid dissemination to organs and tissues. From a processing viewpoint, Campylobacter presence in circulating blood of market-age broilers may increase the likelihood of cross-contamination between birds during slaughter. PMID:22017033

  8. Caprylic Acid supplemented in feed reduces enteric Campylobacter jejuni colonization in ten-day-old broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter is one of the leading causes of human food-borne illness in the United States, and epidemiological evidence indicates poultry and poultry products to be a significant source of human Campylobacter infections. Reducing Campylobacter in the intestinal tract would reduce contamination of...

  9. TEMPERATURE AFFECTS SOLE CARBON UTILIZATION PATTERNS OF CAMPYLOBACTER COLI 49941

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter spp. are small, asaccharolytic bacteria exhibiting unique nutritional and environmental requirements. Campylobacter spp. exist as commensal organisms in some animal species, yet are estimated to be the most common causative agents of foodborne illness in humans. C. jejuni is most oft...

  10. Temperature affects sole carbon utilization patterns of Campylobacter coli 49941

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter spp. are small, asaccharolytic bacteria exhibiting unique nutritional and environmental requirements. Campylobacter spp. exist as commensal organisms in some animal species, yet are estimated to be the most common causative agents of foodborne illness in humans. C. jejuni is most oft...

  11. Characterization of Campylobacter jejuni and coli strains isolated in turkeys

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    associated with significant foodborne disease. Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli are the two most prevalent species contributing to human diarrheal disease. The objective of this study was to determine the routes of transmission for Campylobacter throughout turkey production and processing. A floc...

  12. Prevalence and Antimicrobial Resistance of Campylobacter Isolated from Dressed Beef Carcasses and Raw Milk in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kashoma, Isaac P; Kassem, Issmat I; John, Julius; Kessy, Beda M; Gebreyes, Wondwossen; Kazwala, Rudovick R; Rajashekara, Gireesh

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter species are commonly transmitted to humans through consumption of contaminated foods such as milk and meat. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence, antimicrobial resistance, and genetic determinants of resistance of Campylobacter isolated from raw milk and beef carcasses in Tanzania. The antimicrobial resistance genes tested included blaOXA-61 (ampicillin), aph-3-1 (aminoglycoside), tet(O) (tetracycline), and cmeB (multi-drug efflux pump). The prevalence of Campylobacter was 9.5% in beef carcasses and 13.4% in raw milk, respectively. Using multiplex-polymerase chain reaction (PCR), we identified 58.1% of the isolates as Campylobacter jejuni, 30.7% as Campylobacter coli, and 9.7% as other Campylobacter spp. One isolate (1.6%) was positive for both C. jejuni and C. coli specific PCR. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing using the disk diffusion assay and the broth microdilution method showed resistance to: ampicillin (63% and 94.1%), ciprofloxacin (9.3% and 11.8%), erythromycin (53.7% and 70.6%), gentamicin (0% and 15.7%), streptomycin (35.2% and 84.3%), and tetracycline (18.5% and 17.7%), respectively. Resistance to azithromycin (42.6%), nalidixic acid (64.8%), and chloramphenicol (13%) was determined using the disk diffusion assay only, while resistance to tylosin (90.2%) was quantified using the broth microdilution method. The blaOXA-61 (52.6% and 28.1%), cmeB (26.3% and 31.3%), tet(O) (26.3% and 31.3%), and aph-3-1 (5.3% and 3.0%) were detected in C. coli and C. jejuni. These findings highlight the extent of antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter occurring in important foods in Tanzania. The potential risks to consumers emphasize the need for adequate control approaches, including the prudent use of antimicrobials to minimize the spread of antimicrobial-resistant Campylobacter. PMID:26153978

  13. FREQUENCY AND ENUMERATION OF CAMPYLOBACTER SPP. FROM PROCEEDED BROILER CARCASSES USING WEEP AND RINSE SAMPLES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Frequency and numbers of Campylobacter spp. were assessed per freshly processed, contaminated broiler carcass. After bird ceca tested Campylobacter-positive, levels of carcass contamination were estimated using free weep fluids and whole carcass rinses. Estimations of counts were determined by dire...

  14. Campylobacter Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... You get it from eating raw or undercooked poultry. You can also get it from coming in contact with contaminated packages of poultry. Symptoms include Diarrhea Cramping Abdominal pain Fever Nausea ...

  15. Electrokinetic removal of charged contaminant species from soil and other media using moderately conductive adsorptive materials

    DOEpatents

    Lindgren, Eric R.; Mattson, Earl D.

    2001-01-01

    Method for collecting and concentrating charged species, specifically, contaminant species in a medium, preferably soil. The method utilizes electrokinesis to drive contaminant species into and through a bed adjacent to a drive electrode. The bed comprises a moderately electrically conductive adsorbent material which is porous and is infused with water or other solvent capable of conducting electrical current. The bed material, preferably activated carbon, is easily removed and disposed of. Preferably, where activated carbon is used, after contaminant species are collected and concentrated, the mixture of activated carbon and contaminant species is removed and burned to form a stable and easily disposable waste product.

  16. Evaluation of cephamycins as supplements to selective agar for detecting Campylobacter spp. in chicken carcass rinses.

    PubMed

    Chon, Jung-Whan; Kim, Young-Ji; Kim, Hong-Seok; Kim, Dong-Hyeon; Kim, Hyunsook; Song, Kwang-Young; Sung, Kidon; Seo, Kun-Ho

    2016-04-16

    Although cefoperazone is the most commonly used antibiotic in Campylobacter-selective media, the distribution of cefoperazone-resistant bacteria such as extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli is increasing. Here we evaluated the potential of cephamycins for use as supplements to improve modified charcoal-cefoperazone-deoxycholate agar (mCCDA) by replacing cefoperazone with the same concentrations (32 mg/L) of cefotetan (modified charcoal-cefotetan-deoxycholate agar, mCCtDA) and cefoxitin (modified charcoal-cefoxitin-deoxycholate agar, mCCxDA). In chicken carcass rinse samples, the number of mCCDA plates detecting for Campylobacter (18/70, 26%) was significantly lower than that of mCCtDA (42/70, 60%) or mCCxDA plates (40/70, 57%). The number of mCCDA plates (70/70, 100%) that were contaminated with non-Campylobacter species was significantly higher than that of mCCtDA (20/70, 29%) or mCCxDA plates (21/70, 30%). The most common competing species identified using mCCDA was ESBL-producing E. coli, while Pseudomonas species frequently appeared on mCCtDA and mCCxDA. PMID:26915052

  17. Milk-borne campylobacter infection.

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, D A; Jones, D M

    1981-01-01

    The common factor in 13 recent outbreaks of Campylobacter jejuni enteritis was the consumption of unpasteurised or incompletely pasteurised milk. C jejuni is a common commensal in the alimentary tract of milking cows, but it is not clear how the milk becomes contaminated with the organism. Pasteurisation will readily eliminate the organism from milk. In England and Wales 3% of milk retailed is still unpasteurised, and in the light of these findings it is suggested that only pasteurised milk should be sold to the public. PMID:6786504

  18. Milk Modulates Campylobacter Invasion into Caco-2 Intestinal Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Louwen, Rogier; van Neerven, R J Joost

    2015-09-01

    Raw milk is a recognized source of Campylobacter outbreaks, but pasteurization is an effective way to eliminate the causative agent of Campylobacteriosis. Whereas breastfeeding is protective against infectious diseases, consumption of formula milk is thought to be not. However, in relation to Campylobacter, such data is currently unavailable. Although both pasteurized and formula milk are pathogen free and prepared in a quality controlled manner, the effect they have on the virulence of Campylobacter species is unknown. Here, we studied the effect of cow, goat, horse, and formula milk on Campylobacter invasion into intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells, a pathogenic feature of this bacterial species, using a gentamicin exclusion invasion assay. We found that all milk products modulated the invasion of Campylobacter species into the Caco-2 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Control experiments showed that the milks were not toxic for the Caco-2 cells and that the effect on invasion is caused by heat labile (e.g., milk proteins) or heat stable (e.g., sugar/lipids) components depending on the Campylobacter species studied. This in vitro study shows for the first time that pasteurized and formula milk affect the invasion of Campylobacter. We recommend a prospective study to examine whether pasteurized and formula milk affect Campylobacteriosis. PMID:26495128

  19. Milk Modulates Campylobacter Invasion into Caco-2 Intestinal Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Louwen, Rogier; van Neerven, R. J. Joost

    2015-01-01

    Raw milk is a recognized source of Campylobacter outbreaks, but pasteurization is an effective way to eliminate the causative agent of Campylobacteriosis. Whereas breastfeeding is protective against infectious diseases, consumption of formula milk is thought to be not. However, in relation to Campylobacter, such data is currently unavailable. Although both pasteurized and formula milk are pathogen free and prepared in a quality controlled manner, the effect they have on the virulence of Campylobacter species is unknown. Here, we studied the effect of cow, goat, horse, and formula milk on Campylobacter invasion into intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells, a pathogenic feature of this bacterial species, using a gentamicin exclusion invasion assay. We found that all milk products modulated the invasion of Campylobacter species into the Caco-2 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Control experiments showed that the milks were not toxic for the Caco-2 cells and that the effect on invasion is caused by heat labile (e.g., milk proteins) or heat stable (e.g., sugar/lipids) components depending on the Campylobacter species studied. This in vitro study shows for the first time that pasteurized and formula milk affect the invasion of Campylobacter. We recommend a prospective study to examine whether pasteurized and formula milk affect Campylobacteriosis. PMID:26495128

  20. Campylobacter populations in wild and domesticated Mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos)

    PubMed Central

    Colles, Frances M; Ali, Jan S; Sheppard, Samuel K; McCarthy, Noel D; Maiden, Martin C J

    2011-01-01

    Identifying the Campylobacter genotypes that colonize farmed and wild ducks will help to assess the proportion of human disease that is potentially attributable to the consumption of duck meat and environmental exposure to duck faeces. Comparison of temporally and geographically matched farmed and wild ducks showed that they had different Campylobacter populations in terms of: (i) prevalence, (ii) Campylobacter species and (iii) diversity of genotypes. Furthermore, 92.4% of Campylobacter isolates from farmed ducks were sequence types (STs) commonly associated with human disease, in contrast to just one isolate from the wild ducks. Only one ST, ST-45, was shared between the two sources, accounting for 0.9% of wild duck isolates and 5% of farmed duck isolates. These results indicate that domestic ‘niche’ as well as host type may affect the distribution of Campylobacter, and that husbandry practises associated with intensive agriculture may be involved in generating a reservoir of human disease associated lineages. PMID:22164198

  1. Fluoroquinolone resistance in Campylobacter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fluoroquinolone-resistant Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli are common in animals because of the use of fluoroquinolones as therapeutic agents in animal husbandry, particularly in chickens and other poultry. Campylobacter is a commensal in poultry, and therefore, poultry and poultry products are the...

  2. Campylobacter insulaenigrae Isolates from Northern Elephant Seals (Mirounga angustirostris) in California▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Stoddard, Robyn A.; Miller, William G.; Foley, Janet E.; Lawrence, Judy; Gulland, Frances M. D.; Conrad, Patricia A.; Byrne, Barbara A.

    2007-01-01

    There are only two reports in the literature demonstrating the presence of Campylobacter spp. in marine mammals. One report describes the isolation of a new species, Campylobacter insulaenigrae sp. nov., from three harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) and a harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) in Scotland, and the other describes the isolation of Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter lari, and an unknown Campylobacter species from northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) in California. In this study, 72 presumptive C. lari and unknown Campylobacter species strains were characterized using standard phenotypic methods, 16S rRNA PCR, and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Phenotypic characterization of these isolates showed them to be variable in their ability to grow either at 42°C or on agar containing 1% glycine and in their sensitivity to nalidixic acid and cephalothin. Based on both 16S rRNA PCR and MLST, all but 1 of the 72 isolates were C. insulaenigrae, with one isolate being similar to but distinct from both Campylobacter upsaliensis and Campylobacter helveticus. Phylogenetic analysis identified two C. insulaenigrae clades: the primary clade, containing exclusively California strains, and a secondary clade, containing some California strains and all of the original Scottish strains. This study demonstrates the inability of phenotypic characterization to correctly identify all Campylobacter species and emphasizes the importance of molecular characterization via 16S rRNA sequence analysis or MLST for the identification of Campylobacter isolates from marine mammals. PMID:17259365

  3. SURROGATE SPECIES IN ASSESSING CONTAMINANT RISK FOR ENDANGERED FISHES, INCLUDING INTERSPECIES TOXICITY CORRELATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rainbow trout, fathead minnows, and sheepshead minnows were tested as surrogate species to assess contaminant risk for 17 endangered fishes and one toad species. Acute toxicity tests were conducted with carbaryl, copper, 4-nonylphenol, pentachlorophenol, and permethrin in accorda...

  4. Foodborne Campylobacter: Infections, metabolism, pathogenesis and resorvoirs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter species are a leading cause of bacterial-derived foodborne illness worldwide. The emergence of this bacterial group as a significant causative agent of human disease and their propensity to carry antibiotic resistance elements that allows them to resist antibacterial therapy make them...

  5. Multiplex PCR assay for the detection and quantification of Campylobacter spp., Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Salmonella serotypes in water samples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three pathogens, Campylobacter, Salmonella, and Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC), are leading causes of bacterial gastroenteritis in the United States and worldwide. For example, Campylobacter species are responsible for 17% of all hospitalizations related to illness, and although Campy...

  6. Comparison of selective media for detection and enumeration of naturally occurring Campylobacter spp. on poultry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: Campylobacter spp. are known to be among the most common bacteria to cause diarrheal illness, with poultry being linked as the primary source of contamination related to foodborne illness. Enumeration and detection of low numbers of naturally occurring Campylobacter spp. on poultry pro...

  7. The ability of select probiotics to reduce enteric Campylobacter colonization in broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter is the leading cause of foodborne illness worldwide and is often associated with consumption and/or mishandling of contaminated poultry products. Probiotic use in poultry has been an effective strategy in reducing other enteric foodborne pathogens but not consistently for Campylobacter...

  8. Genotype analysis of Campylobacter spp. isolated from various internal organs of commercial broiler breeder hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter spp. are presently believed to be the leading bacterial etiological agent of acute gastroenteritis in the human population. Evidence implicates poultry as a significant source of the organism for human illness; however, the pathways involved in Campylobacter spp. contamination of poul...

  9. Effect of selected modified atmosphere packaging on Campylobacter survival in raw poultry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most current research on Campylobacter has focused on preharvest or processing plant cross contamination. Little is known about the effect of storage environment on the survival of Campylobacter on raw poultry. We evaluated the effects of modified storage atmosphere on the survival of naturally-oc...

  10. Detection of Campylobacter from broiler carcass rinse samples utilizing the TECRA Visual Immunoassay (VIA)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poultry meat is considered to be a major vector of transmission of Campylobacter, either directly, through consumption of poorly prepared product or cross-contamination, or indirectly, through introduction of the bacterium into the food production environment. Efficient detection of Campylobacter is...

  11. PRESENCE OF CAMPYLOBACTER IN THE RESPIRATORY TRACT OF BROILER CARCASSES BEFORE AND AFTER COMMERCIAL SCALDING

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter can be detected in the thoraco-abdominal cavity of broiler carcasses even if they were carefully eviscerated by hand with no evidence of intestinal rupture or leakage. If Campylobacter is present in the air sacs, which are unavoidably torn during evisceration, it could contaminate th...

  12. Detection of Campylobacter in 100 commercial flocks - evaluation of plating media and filtration method

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter is a natural member of the gut microflora in many commercial broilers and as such can become a contaminant on edible surfaces during processing. Culturing gut contents or feces can be a means to determine flock status prior to live-haul. The wide variety of non-Campylobacter backgrou...

  13. OCCURRENCE OF CAMPYLOBACTER SPECIES, SALMONELLA SPECIES, AND GENERIC ESCHERICHIA COLI IN MEAT PRODUCTS FROM RETAIL OUTLETS IN THE FARGO METROPOLITAN AREA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies worldwide have shown that foodborne pathogens are often present in fresh meat and poultry, yet there is a paucity of data in the United States concerning multiple contamination of fresh meat and poultry with these pathogens. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of C...

  14. Comparative genomics of Campylobacter iguaniorum to unravel genetic regions associated with reptilian hosts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter iguaniorum is genetically related to the species C. fetus, C. hyointestinalis, and C. lanienae. Reptiles, chelonians and lizards in particular, appear to be the primary reservoir of this Campylobacter species. Here we report the genome comparison of C. iguaniorum strain 1485E, isolated...

  15. Population Genetics and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Canine Campylobacter Isolates Collected before and after a Raw Feeding Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Roine, Johanna; Hänninen, Marja-Liisa; Hielm-Björkman, Anna; Kivistö, Rauni

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, increasing numbers of consumers have become interested in feeding raw food for their pet dogs as opposed to commercial dry food, in the belief of health advantages. However, raw meat and internal organs, possibly contaminated by pathogens such as Campylobacter spp., may pose a risk of transmission of zoonoses to the pet owners. Campylobacter jejuni is the leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in humans but C. upsaliensis has also been associated with human disease. In this study we investigated the effect of different feeding strategies on the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in Finnish dogs. We further characterized the isolates using multilocus sequence typing (MLST), whole-genome (wg) MLST and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Dogs were sampled before and after a feeding period consisting of commercial raw feed or dry pellet feed. Altogether 56% (20/36) of the dogs yielded at least one Campylobacter-positive fecal sample. C. upsaliensis was the major species detected from 39% of the dogs before and 30% after the feeding period. Two C. jejuni isolates were recovered, both from raw-fed dogs after the dietary regimen. The isolates represented the same genotype (ST-1326), suggesting a common infection source. However, no statistically significant correlation was found between the feeding strategies and Campylobacter spp. carriage. The global genealogy of MLST types of dog and human C. upsaliensis isolates revealed weakly clonal population structure as most STs were widely dispersed. Major antimicrobial resistance among C. upsaliensis isolates was against streptomycin (STR MIC > 4mg/l). Apart from that, all isolates were highly susceptible against the antimicrobials tested. Mutations were found in the genes rpsL or rpsL and rsmG in streptomycin resistant isolates. In conclusion, increasing trend to feed dogs with raw meat warrants more studies to evaluate the risk associated with raw feeding of pets in transmission of zoonoses to humans

  16. Population Genetics and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Canine Campylobacter Isolates Collected before and after a Raw Feeding Experiment.

    PubMed

    Olkkola, Satu; Kovanen, Sara; Roine, Johanna; Hänninen, Marja-Liisa; Hielm-Björkman, Anna; Kivistö, Rauni

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, increasing numbers of consumers have become interested in feeding raw food for their pet dogs as opposed to commercial dry food, in the belief of health advantages. However, raw meat and internal organs, possibly contaminated by pathogens such as Campylobacter spp., may pose a risk of transmission of zoonoses to the pet owners. Campylobacter jejuni is the leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in humans but C. upsaliensis has also been associated with human disease. In this study we investigated the effect of different feeding strategies on the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in Finnish dogs. We further characterized the isolates using multilocus sequence typing (MLST), whole-genome (wg) MLST and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Dogs were sampled before and after a feeding period consisting of commercial raw feed or dry pellet feed. Altogether 56% (20/36) of the dogs yielded at least one Campylobacter-positive fecal sample. C. upsaliensis was the major species detected from 39% of the dogs before and 30% after the feeding period. Two C. jejuni isolates were recovered, both from raw-fed dogs after the dietary regimen. The isolates represented the same genotype (ST-1326), suggesting a common infection source. However, no statistically significant correlation was found between the feeding strategies and Campylobacter spp. carriage. The global genealogy of MLST types of dog and human C. upsaliensis isolates revealed weakly clonal population structure as most STs were widely dispersed. Major antimicrobial resistance among C. upsaliensis isolates was against streptomycin (STR MIC > 4 mg/l). Apart from that, all isolates were highly susceptible against the antimicrobials tested. Mutations were found in the genes rpsL or rpsL and rsmG in streptomycin resistant isolates. In conclusion, increasing trend to feed dogs with raw meat warrants more studies to evaluate the risk associated with raw feeding of pets in transmission of zoonoses to humans

  17. Prevalence and genotypes of Campylobacter jejuni from urban environmental sources in comparison with clinical isolates from children.

    PubMed

    Ramonaite, Sigita; Kudirkiene, Egle; Tamuleviciene, Egle; Leviniene, Giedra; Malakauskas, Alvydas; Gölz, Greta; Alter, Thomas; Malakauskas, Mindaugas

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni in potential contamination sources that are not regularly monitored such as free-living urban pigeons and crows, dogs, cats and urban environmental water and to assess the possible impact on the epidemiology of campylobacteriosis in children using multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Campylobacter spp. were detected in 36.2 % of faecal samples of free-living urban birds and in 40.4 % of environmental water samples. A low prevalence of Campylobacter spp. was detected in dogs and cats, with 7.9 and 9.1 %, respectively. Further identification of isolates revealed that environmental water and pet samples were mostly contaminated by other Campylobacter spp. than C. jejuni, whereas C. jejuni was the most prevalent species in faecal samples of free-living birds (35.4 %). This species was the dominant cause of campylobacteriosis in children (91.5 %). In addition, the diversity of C. jejuni MLST types in free-living birds and children was investigated. Clonal complex (CC) 179 was predominant among free-living urban birds; however, only two isolates from children were assigned to this CC. One dog and one child isolate were assigned to the same clonal complex (CC48) and sequence type (ST) 918. The dominant two clonal complexes among the child clinical isolates (CC353 and CC21) were not detected among C. jejuni strains isolated from environmental sources examined in this study. As only two CCs were shared by environmental and child C. jejuni isolates and a high number of novel alleles and STs were found in C. jejuni isolated from free-living urban birds and environmental water, there is probably only a limited link between urban environmental sources and campylobacteriosis in children, particularly in rather cold climatic conditions. PMID:24987101

  18. ASSESSING CONTAMINANT SENSITIVITY OF ENDANGERED AND THREATENED SPECIES: 3. EFFLUENT TOXICITY TESTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dwyer, F. James, Douglas K. Hardesty, Christopher E. Henke, Christopher G. Ingersoll, David W. Whites, Tom Augspurger, Timothy J. Canfield, David R. Mount and Foster L. Mayer. Submitted. Assessing Contaminant Sensitivity of Endangered and Threatened Species: 3. Effluent Tests. Ar...

  19. High Prevalence and Genetic Diversity of Campylobacter jejuni in Wild Crows and Pigeons.

    PubMed

    Ramonaitė, Sigita; Novoslavskij, Aleksandr; Zakarienė, Gintarė; Aksomaitienė, Jurgita; Malakauskas, Mindaugas

    2015-11-01

    The occurrence, seasonal variation and genetic diversity of Campylobacter spp. in pigeons and crows over a 1-year period were evaluated. Campylobacter spp. were isolated from 166 (34.6 %) out of 480 wild bird faecal samples. The occurrence of Campylobacter spp. in faecal samples was higher among crows (39.2 %) than pigeons (30.0 %), (P < 0.05). Campylobacter jejuni was the most common species detected among wild bird faecal samples (98.2 %). Meanwhile, Campylobacter coli prevalence in wild bird faecal samples was low-6 %. The Simpson's diversity index of C. jejuni flaA RFLP types was lower in pigeons (D = 0.88) compared with C. jejuni isolates detected in crows (D = 0.97). Obtained results revealed that C. jejuni are widely prevalent among crows and pigeons, indicating these wild birds as potential infection sources to humans. Further studies are required to determine crows and pigeons role in zoonotic transmission of Campylobacter. PMID:26228635

  20. The stingless bee species, Scaptotrigona aff. depilis, as a potential indicator of environmental pesticide contamination.

    PubMed

    de Souza Rosa, Annelise; I'Anson Price, Robbie; Ferreira Caliman, Maria Juliana; Pereira Queiroz, Elisa; Blochtein, Betina; Sílvia Soares Pires, Carmen; Imperatriz-Fonseca, Vera Lucia

    2015-08-01

    Neonicotinoids have the potential to enter the diet of pollinators that collect resources from contaminated plants. The species Scaptotrigona aff. depilis (Moure, 1942) can be a useful indicator of the prevalence of these chemicals in the environment. Using high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, the authors devised a protocol for neonicotinoid residue extraction and detected the presence of neonicotinoids in the bee bodies. Thus, the authors consider this species to be a potential indicator of environmental contamination. PMID:26190578

  1. Campylobacter spp. as a Foodborne Pathogen: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Joana; Leite, Daniela; Fernandes, Mariana; Mena, Cristina; Gibbs, Paul Anthony; Teixeira, Paula

    2011-01-01

    Campylobacter is well recognized as the leading cause of bacterial foodborne diarrheal disease worldwide. Symptoms can range from mild to serious infections of the children and the elderly and permanent neurological symptoms. The organism is a cytochrome oxidase positive, microaerophilic, curved Gram-negative rod exhibiting corkscrew motility and is carried in the intestine of many wild and domestic animals, particularly avian species including poultry. Intestinal colonization results in healthy animals as carriers. In contrast with the most recent published reviews that cover specific aspects of Campylobacter/campylobacteriosis, this broad review aims at elucidating and discussing the (i) genus Campylobacter, growth and survival characteristics; (ii) detection, isolation and confirmation of Campylobacter; (iii) campylobacteriosis and presence of virulence factors; and (iv) colonization of poultry and control strategies. PMID:21991264

  2. Calcium concretions: Evidence of contaminant exposure in three species of marine mollusks

    SciTech Connect

    Benyi, S.J.

    1994-12-31

    Researchers have hypothesized that calcium concretions identified in the kidney of quahogs collected along an urban pollution gradient may result from the sequestering of water- and sediment-borne contaminants. The objectives of this study were to determine if renal calcium deposition was a response to contaminants and to assess calcium concretions as a marker of exposure. Renal calcium concretions in three species of marine mollusks (northern quahog (Mercenaria mercenaria), eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) and softshell (Mya arenaria)) were quantified after a 28-day laboratory exposure to a reference or contaminated sediment (Black Rock Harbor, BRH). Hemolymph calcium, the source of calcium for concretions, was measured weekly to detect a calcium concentration change when and if calcium concretions were deposited in the kidney. Results indicated no effect of contaminated sediment on the hemolymph calcium of any species tested. The response to the contaminants, manifested as renal calcium concretions, was species-specific. Renal concretions were not found in the oysters. However, renal calcium concretions increased from 3.7% of reference-exposed to 52.4% of BRH-exposed softshells. While renal calcium concretions were found in the majority of quahogs, there were more renal concretions in BRH-exposed quahogs than the reference exposed quahogs and the concretions were larger. The increase in renal calcium concretions in quahogs and softshells exposed to contaminants in sediment indicates that renal calcium concretion formation may be associated with contaminant exposure in these species.

  3. Campylobacter pylori and gastroduodenal disease.

    PubMed Central

    Buck, G E

    1990-01-01

    Campylobacter pylori is a newly described, spiral-shaped, gram-negative bacillus that is oxidase positive, catalase positive, and urease positive and grows slowly in culture. Although observed in human tissue at the beginning of the century, it was not cultured until 1982. Because there are significant morphological and genetic differences between this organism and other species of Campylobacter, it will probably be reclassified in a new genus. Current information indicates that the organism primarily resides in the stomach tissue of humans and nonhuman primates and may occasionally spread to the esophagus or other parts of the alimentary tract under appropriate conditions. Significant evidence has accumulated in the last several years to show that it causes gastritis, and there is mounting evidence that it may participate in the development of duodenal ulcers. It may also be associated with gastric ulcers and nonulcer dyspepsia. It can be detected in patients by culture of biopsy specimens or histological staining of biopsy tissue. Indirect evidence for the presence of the organism can be obtained by detection of urease in a tissue biopsy specimen, by urea breath tests, or by detection of specific antibody. It may not be necessary to implement these procedures for routine use, however, until the role of the organism can be defined better. Ultimately, the discovery of this organism may lead to radical changes in the diagnosis and treatment of gastric disease. Images PMID:2404565

  4. Osprey: worldwide sentinel species for assessing and monitoring environmental contamination in rivers, lakes, reservoirs, and estuaries.

    PubMed

    Grove, Robert A; Henny, Charles J; Kaiser, James L

    2009-01-01

    In the United States, many fish and wildlife species have been used nationwide to monitor environmental contaminant exposure and effects, including carcasses of the bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), the only top avian predator regularly used in the past. Unfortunately, bald eagles are sensitive to investigator intrusion at the nest. Thus, the osprey (Pandion haliaetus) is evaluated as a potential sentinel species for aquatic ecosystems. Several characteristics support the choice of the osprey as a sentinel species, including: (1) fish-eating diet atop the aquatic food web, (2) long-lived with strong nest fidelity, (3) adapts to human landscapes (potentially the most contaminated), (4) tolerates short-term nest disturbance, (5) nests spatially distributed at regular intervals, (6) highly visible nests easily located for study, (7) ability to accumulate most, if not all, lipophilic contaminants, (8) known sensitivity to many contaminants, and (9) nearly a worldwide distribution. These osprey traits have been instrumental in successfully using the species to understand population distribution, abundance, and changes over time; the effects of various contaminants on reproductive success; how contaminants in prey (fish on biomass basis) contribute to egg concentrations (i.e., biomagnification factors); and spatial residue patterns. Data summarized include nesting population surveys, detailed nesting studies, and chemical analyses of osprey egg, organ, blood, and feather samples for contaminants that bioaccumulate and/or biomagnify in aquatic food webs; and biochemical evaluations of blood and various organs. Studies in the United States, Canada, Mexico, Europe, and elsewhere have shown the osprey to be a useful sentinel species for monitoring selected environmental contaminants, including some emerging contaminants in lakes, reservoirs, rivers, and estuaries. PMID:19117208

  5. CAMPYLOBACTER INSULAENIGRAE ISOLATED FROM NORTHERN ELEPHANT SEALS (MIROUNGA ANGUSTIROSTRIS) IN CALIFORNIA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are only two reports in the literature demonstrating the presence of Campylobacter spp. in marine mammals. One report describes the isolation of a new species, Campylobacter insulaenigrae sp. nov, from three harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) and a harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) in Scotland a...

  6. Molecular Detection of Campylobacter spp. in California Gull (Larus californicus) Excreta

    EPA Science Inventory

    We examined the prevalence, quantity, and diversity of Campylobacter species in the excreta of 159 California gull samples using PCR and qPCR based detection assays. While Campylobacter prevalence and abundance was relatively high in the gull excreta examined, molecular data ind...

  7. Prevalence of Campylobacter spp. isolated from grower-finisher pigs in Ontario

    PubMed Central

    Varela, Norma P.; Friendship, Robert M.; Dewey, Cate E.

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed to establish the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in 80 Ontario grower-finisher pig herds. Ninety-nine percent of the isolates yielded Campylobacter, C. coli being the most common species detected. Control of this microorganism must rely on careful food processing and storage of pork, rather than on an on-farm approach. PMID:17542372

  8. Expanded MLST genotyping and comparative genomic hybridization evidence for host preferred groups in Campylobacter coli

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The majority of previous work on campylobacteriosis has centered on the species Campylobacter jejuni, however, Campylobacter coli, the sister group to C. jejuni, is also a significant problem, but remains a much less studied organism. The purpose of this work was to develop and apply an expanded 16 ...

  9. Campylobacter concisus pathotypes are present at significant levels in patients with gastroenteritis.

    PubMed

    Underwood, Alexander P; Kaakoush, Nadeem O; Sodhi, Nidhi; Merif, Juan; Seah Lee, Way; Riordan, Stephen M; Rawlinson, William D; Mitchell, Hazel M

    2016-03-01

    Given that Campylobacter jejuni is recognized as the most common cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide, recent findings showing comparable levels of Campylobacter concisus in patients with gastroenteritis would suggest that this bacterium is clinically important. The prevalence and abundance of Campylobacter concisus in stool samples collected from patients with acute gastroenteritis was examined using quantitative real-time PCR. The associated virulence determinants exotoxin 9 and zonula occludens toxin DNA were detected for Campylobacter concisus-infected samples using real-time PCR. Campylobacter concisus was detected at high prevalence in patients with gastroenteritis (49.7 %), higher than that observed for Campylobacter jejuni (∼5 %). The levels of Campylobacter concisus were putatively classified into clinically relevant and potentially transient subgroups based on a threshold developed using Campylobacter jejuni levels, as the highly sensitive real-time PCR probably detected transient passage of the bacterium from the oral cavity. A total of 18 % of patients were found to have clinically relevant levels of Campylobacter concisus, a significant number of which also had high levels of one of the virulence determinants. Of these patients, 78 % were found to have no other gastrointestinal pathogen identified in the stool, which strongly suggests a role for Campylobacter concisus in the aetiology of gastroenteritis in these patients. These results emphasize the need for diagnostic laboratories to employ identification protocols for emerging Campylobacter species. Clinical follow-up in patients presenting with high levels of Campylobacter concisus in the intestinal tract is needed, given that it has been associated with more chronic sequelae. PMID:26698172

  10. Oligodeoxynucleotide probes for Campylobacter fetus and Campylobacter hyointestinalis based on 16S rRNA sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Wesley, I V; Wesley, R D; Cardella, M; Dewhirst, F E; Paster, B J

    1991-01-01

    Deoxyoligonucleotide probes were constructed for the identification of Campylobacter fetus and Campylobacter hyointestinalis based on 16S rRNA sequence data. Probes were targeted to hypervariable regions of 16S rRNA. Specificity of oligonucleotide probes was tested in a colony blot assay with type strains of 15 Campylobacter and Arcobacter species as well as in a slot blot format using genomic DNA extracted from field strains of C. fetus and C. hyointestinalis. Two oligonucleotides were constructed for C. fetus that hybridized with equal specificity with each of 57 biochemically confirmed isolates of C. fetus but not with any other Campylobacter species. The C. hyointestinalis probe reacted with 47 of 48 biochemically confirmed field isolates of C. hyointestinalis. In Southern blot hybridization of BglII digests of genomic DNA, the respective probes reacted within three restriction fragments of either C. hyointestinalis (7.2, 8.2, and 10.1 kb) or C. fetus (7.0, 7.7, and 9.0 kb). This suggests multiple copies of genes encoding 16S rRNA. Images PMID:1723076

  11. Evidence for horizontal and vertical transmission in Campylobacter passage from hen to her progeny.

    PubMed

    Cox, N A; Richardson, L J; Maurer, J J; Berrang, M E; Fedorka-Cray, P J; Buhr, R J; Byrd, J A; Lee, M D; Hofacre, C L; O'Kane, P M; Lammerding, A M; Clark, A G; Thayer, S G; Doyle, M P

    2012-10-01

    Campylobacter is an important human pathogen, and consumption of undercooked poultry has been linked to significant human illnesses. To reduce human illness, intervention strategies targeting Campylobacter reduction in poultry are in development. For more than a decade, there has been an ongoing national and international controversy about whether Campylobacter can pass from one generation of poultry to the next via the fertile egg. We recognize that there are numerous sources of Campylobacter entry into flocks of commercial poultry (including egg transmission), yet the environment is often cited as the only source. There has been an abundance of published research globally that refutes this contention, and this article lists and discusses many of them, along with other studies that support environment as the sole or primary source. One must remember that egg passage can mean more than vertical, transovarian transmission. Fecal bacteria, including Campylobacter, can contaminate the shell, shell membranes, and albumen of freshly laid fertile eggs. This contamination is drawn through the shell by temperature differential, aided by the presence of moisture (the "sweating" of the egg); then, when the chick emerges from the egg, it can ingest bacteria such as Campylobacter, become colonized, and spread this contamination to flock mates in the grow house. Improvements in cultural laboratory methods continue to advance our knowledge of the ecology of Campylobacter, and in the not-so-distant future, egg passage will not be a subject continuously debated but will be embraced, thus allowing the development and implementation of more effective intervention strategies. PMID:23043845

  12. Phylogenetic diversity and position of the genus Campylobacter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lau, P. P.; DeBrunner-Vossbrinck, B.; Dunn, B.; Miotto, K.; MacDonnell, M. T.; Rollins, D. M.; Pillidge, C. J.; Hespell, R. B.; Colwell, R. R.; Sogin, M. L.; Fox, G. E.

    1987-01-01

    RNA sequence analysis has been used to examine the phylogenetic position and structure of the genus Campylobacter. A complete 5S rRNA sequence was determined for two strains of Campylobacter jejuni and extensive partial sequences of the 16S rRNA were obtained for several strains of C. jejuni and Wolinella succinogenes. In addition limited partial sequence data were obtained from the 16S rRNAs of isolates of C. coli, C. laridis, C. fetus, C. fecalis, and C. pyloridis. It was found that W. succinogenes is specifically related to, but not included, in the genus Campylobacter as presently constituted. Within the genus significant diversity was noted. C. jejuni, C. coli and C. laridis are very closely related but the other species are distinctly different from one another. C. pyloridis is without question the most divergent of the Campylobacter isolates examined here and is sufficiently distinct to warrant inclusion in a separate genus. In terms of overall position in bacterial phylogeny, the Campylobacter/Wolinella cluster represents a deep branching most probably located within an expanded version of the Division containing the purple photosynthetic bacteria and their relatives. The Campylobacter/Wolinella cluster is not specifically includable in either the alpha, beta or gamma subdivisions of the purple bacteria.

  13. COMPARATIVE ASSESSMENT OF STANDARD CULTURE AND REAL-TIME PCR TO DETECT CAMPYLOBACTER JEJUNI IN RETAIL CHICKEN SAMPLES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Contamination of poultry by Campylobacter is a significant source of human diarrheal illness. Conventional bacteriological methods to detect and speciate Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) from chicken samples are labor-intensive and time-consuming. The purpose of this study was to compare standard c...

  14. Intracloacal inoculation, an effective screening method for determining the efficacy of probiotic bacterial isolates against Campylobacter colonization in broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter is a leading cause of foodborne illness worldwide. It is common in poultry, and human infections are often associated with consumption of contaminated poultry products. One strategy to reduce Campylobacter colonization in poultry is by using oral probiotics. Unfortunately, oral probiot...

  15. Genotype analysis of Campylobacter spp. isolated from various internal organs and unabsorbed yolks of commercial broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter spp. are presently believed to be the leading bacterial etiological agent of acute gastroenteritis in the human population. Evidence implicates poultry as a significant source of the organism for human illness; however, the pathways involved in Campylobacter spp. contamination of poul...

  16. The effect of chilling broiler carcasses in cold air or ice water on the population of Campylobacter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Broiler carcasses from a Campylobacter positive flock may remain contaminated with Campylobacter after processing. Most broiler companies in the U.S. use an ice water immersion method to bring carcasses down in temperature; air chilling of broiler carcasses is more common in Europe. The objective ...

  17. Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment for Campylobacter spp. on Ham in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the risk of illness from Campylobacter spp. on ham. To identify the hazards of Campylobacter spp. on ham, the general characteristics and microbial criteria for Campylobacter spp., and campylobacteriosis outbreaks were investigated. In the exposure assessment, the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. on ham was evaluated, and the probabilistic distributions for the temperature of ham surfaces in retail markets and home refrigerators were prepared. In addition, the raw data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHNES) 2012 were used to estimate the consumption amount and frequency of ham. In the hazard characterization, the Beta-Poisson model for Campylobacter spp. infection was used. For risk characterization, a simulation model was developed using the collected data, and the risk of Campylobacter spp. on ham was estimated with @RISK. The Campylobacter spp. cell counts on ham samples were below the detection limit (<0.70 Log CFU/g). The daily consumption of ham was 23.93 g per person, and the consumption frequency was 11.57%. The simulated mean value of the initial contamination level of Campylobacter spp. on ham was −3.95 Log CFU/g, and the mean value of ham for probable risk per person per day was 2.20×10−12. It is considered that the risk of foodborne illness for Campylobacter spp. was low. Furthermore, these results indicate that the microbial risk assessment of Campylobacter spp. in this study should be useful in providing scientific evidence to set up the criteria of Campylobacter spp.. PMID:26761897

  18. Comparison of two freshwater turtle species as monitors of environmental contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers-Schoene, L. ); Walton, B.T. )

    1990-04-01

    Two species of turtles that occupy different ecological niches were compared for their usefulness as monitors of contamination in freshwater ecosystems. Trachemys scripta (Agassiz) and Chelydra serpentina (Linnaeus) were selected for comparison based on species abundance and differences in food habits and sediment contact. A review of the literature on contaminants in turtles and results of preliminary surveys conducted at the field sites, which are included in this study, were used to direct and focus this research project. White Oak Lake, a settling basin for low-level radioactive and nonradioactive contaminants, and Bearden Creek Embayment, an uncontaminated reference site upriver, were used as study sites in the investigation of turtles as indicators of chemical contamination. Turtles were analyzed for concentrations of strontium-90, cesium-137, cobalt 60, and mercury in specific target tissues, and for single-stranded DNA breaks, a non-specific indicator of possible exposure to genotoxic agents in the environment. 133 refs., 2 figs., 15 tabs.

  19. Contamination by uranium mine drainages affects fungal growth and interactions between fungal species and strains.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Verónica; Gonçalves, Ana Lúcia; Pratas, João; Canhoto, Cristina

    2010-01-01

    The presence of aquatic hyphomycetes has been reported for several heavy metal-contaminated waters. Tolerance probably is one adaptation to coping with heavy metals. To help clarify this issue strains of two species of aquatic hyphomycetes (Tricladium splendens Ingold and Varicosporium elodeae Kegel) were isolated from a reference stream and a stream contaminated with heavy metals and grown on malt extract agar prepared with reference and contaminated water to characterize colony morphology, growth rate, growth inhibition and interaction among species and strains. In V. elodeae the morphology of colonies differed between strains. Colony diameter increased linearly over time with growth rates being lower for strains isolated from contaminated than from reference streams (mostly for V. elodeae). Strains from the contaminated stream grew faster in medium prepared with contaminated water than in medium prepared with reference water, while for strains from the reference stream there was no significant difference in growth rates on the two media. In interacting isolates radial growth toward the opposing colony was generally lower than toward the dish edge. Percentage growth inhibition was higher for isolates in intraspecific interactions (13-37%) than in interspecific interactions (3-27%). However differences in growth inhibition experienced by interacting isolates were observed only in three cases out of 16. The difference between the percentage inhibition caused and experienced by a given isolate was highest in interactions involving isolates with distinct growth rates. Our results suggest that strains from the reference stream tolerate heavy metals while strains from the contaminated stream seem to be adapted to contaminated waters. We hypothesize that in natural environments fungal species-specific limits of tolerance to metal contamination might determine an abrupt or gradual response of the original fungal community to mine pollution giving origin to a poorer

  20. Analysis of in vitro and in vivo effects of probiotics against Campylobacter spp.

    PubMed

    Bratz, Katharina; Gölz, Greta; Janczyk, Pawel; Nöckler, Karsten; Alter, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Campylobacter (C.) spp. are well recognised as the leading cause of bacterial food-borne diarrheal disease worldwide, with C. jejuni and C. coli as the most important species: C. coli is highly abundant in pigs and pork meat has often been implicated as a source for human infection. Intestinal colonisation of C. coli in pigs plays a role in carcass contamination during slaughter. Different pre-harvest intervention measures are proposed to reduce the C. coli burden in the porcine intestine. Among others, the use of probiotics to prevent or reduce the colonisation of intestinal pathogens is discussed. One aim of this study was to screen a variety of probiotics to evaluate their inhibitory activity against Campylobacter spp. in vitro. Therefore, cell-free culture supernatants of Lactobacillus spp., Bifidobacterium spp., Enterococcus (E.) faecium NCIMB 10415, and Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 were tested against C. jejuni and C. coli by a well-diffusion agar assay. Seven out of eleven Lactobacillus strains showed an inhibitory activity against at least one of the three tested Campylobacter strains. This antagonistic activity against Campylobacter spp. was caused by the production of organic acids that lowered the pH. Application with pH neutralised cell-free culture supernatants abolished this inhibitory effect. Other tested strains with probiotic properties showed no inhibitory activity against any Campylobacter spp. strain. The strain E. faecium NCIMB 10415 was chosen to test its inhibitory activity against C. coli in vivo. Twenty weaned piglets were allocated into two groups, a probiotic group and a control group.The diet of the probiotic group was supplemented with E. faecium NCIMB 10415 (10(9) cfu/kg feed, Cylactin) since weaning, whereas the control group received no probiotic treatment. All piglets were naturally colonised with C. coli. The excretion load of C. coli was monitored for 28 days. The results indicate that dietary supplementation of E. faecium NCIMB

  1. Genomics and isolation of emerging CHRO species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Members of the genus Campylobacter have been isolated from a wide variety of environments, as well as multiple avian and mammalian hosts. Campylobacters have been implicated in disease in both livestock and humans, primarily causing gastroenteritis in the latter. Several Campylobacter species, predo...

  2. Fluoroquinolone resistance detection in Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni by Luminex xMAP technology.

    PubMed

    Barco, Lisa; Lettini, Antonia Anna; Dalla Pozza, Maria Cristina; Ramon, Elena; Fasolato, Manuela; Ricci, Antonia

    2010-09-01

    The proportion of Campylobacter spp. isolates that are resistant to fluoroquinolones, the drugs of choice for campylobacteriosis, has been increasing worldwide. We developed an innovative method based on a Luminex xMAP DNA suspension array that allows the identification of Campylobacter species and, simultaneously, the detection of the most common point mutation in the gyrA gene (substitution from threonine 86 to isoleucine 86) that is responsible for fluoroquinolone resistance. Ninety-six Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni isolates collected from turkeys were first investigated by microdilution test to characterize the antimicrobial resistance patterns. The isolates, amplified for the quinolone resistance determining region of the gyrA gene, were then tested using Luminex suspension array. The reliability of the method was demonstrated by the total concordance between the results obtained using Luminex and those of the sequencing of gyrA polymerase chain reaction products. The genotypic characterization of fluoroquinolone resistance using Luminex was also consistent with the data on phenotypical resistance obtained by microdilution test. The results of this study strongly support the potential of Luminex xMAP technology as an efficient molecular method for the rapid and accurate identification of C. coli and C. jejuni isolates and the characterization of the major determinant of fluoroquinolone resistance. PMID:20500084

  3. Campylobacter jejuni abortions in two beef cattle herds in Saskatchewan

    PubMed Central

    Van Donkersgoed, Joyce; Janzen, Eugene D.; Chirino-Trejo, Manuel; Berry, Catherine; Clark, Edward G.; Haines, Deborah M.

    1990-01-01

    Abortions, accompanied by placental retention and weight loss, occurred during February and March in 19% of 120 and 10% of 108 beef cows and heifers on two neighboring ranches in southern Saskatchewan. A diagnosis of Campylobacter jejuni abortion was made based on lesions of necrotizing and suppurative placentitis and fetal bronchopneumonia in association with the culture of large numbers of C. jejuni from placentas and fetal tissues. Campylobacter jejuni was isolated with variable frequency from fecal samples of aborting and healthy cows, and scouring and healthy calves. Campylobacter jejuni serotype 2 (Lior) was isolated from fetal tissues and feces of a scouring calf, whereas C. jejuni serotypes 1, 4, 5 and 99 were isolated from feces of in-contact cattle. We hypothesized that the source and mode of transmission of C. jejuni was fecal contamination of water supplies and feeding grounds by carrier cows or wildlife. PMID:17423586

  4. Epidemiology of Campylobacter spp. at two Dutch broiler farms.

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs-Reitsma, W. F.; van de Giessen, A. W.; Bolder, N. M.; Mulder, R. W.

    1995-01-01

    Broiler flocks on two Dutch poultry farms were screened weekly for the presence of campylobacter in fresh caecal droppings during eight consecutive production cycles. Hatchery and fresh litter samples were taken at the start of each new cycle. Water, feed, insects, and faeces of domestic animals, present on the farms were also included in the sampling. Penner serotyping of isolates was used to identify epidemiological factors that contribute to campylobacter colonization in the broiler flocks. Generally, broiler flocks became colonized with campylobacter at about 3-4 weeks of age with isolation percentages of 100%, and stayed colonized up to slaughter. A similar pattern of serotypes was found within the various broiler houses on one farm during one production cycle. New flocks generally showed also a new pattern of serotypes. Most serotypes isolated from the laying hens, pigs, sheep and cattle were different from those isolated from the broilers at the same time. Campylobacter serotypes from darkling beetles inside the broiler houses were identical to the ones isolated from the broilers. No campylobacter was isolated from any of the hatchery, water, feed or fresh litter samples. Conclusive evidence of transmission routes was not found, but results certainly point towards horizontal transmission from the environment. Horizontal transmission from one broiler flock to the next one via a persistent contamination within the broiler house, as well as vertical transmission from breeder flocks via the hatchery to progeny, did not seem to be very likely. PMID:7781729

  5. Freezing as an intervention to reduce the numbers of campylobacters isolated from chicken livers.

    PubMed

    Harrison, D; Corry, J E L; Tchórzewska, M A; Morris, V K; Hutchison, M L

    2013-09-01

    The aims of this study were (i) to determine the prevalence and numbers of campylobacters in 63 samples of raw livers purchased at retail across the UK and (ii) to investigate whether the freezing of chicken livers contaminated with Campylobacter was a reliable method for decontamination. Chicken livers naturally contaminated with campylobacters were subjected to freezing at -15 and -25°C for one day and 7 days. Numbers of campylobacters on the livers were determined immediately before and after a 24-h or 7-days freeze treatment and daily during 3 days post-thaw refrigerated storage. Freezing for 24 h at -25°C can reduce numbers of Campylobacter by up to 2 log10 CFU g(-1). Freezing the livers for 24 h at -25°C, thawing overnight in a fridge set to 4°C and refreezing for another 24 h at -25°C reduced the numbers of campylobacters by up to three logs. Reduction in the numbers of campylobacters was significantly greater following a second freeze treatment compared with a single freeze treatment. PMID:23647008

  6. Media for the aerobic growth of campylobacter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of agar and sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) concentration on aerobic growth of Campylobacter in a fumarate-pyruvate medium was examined. The broth medium was supplemented with 0.0 to 0.2% agar and inoculated with 106 CFU/ml of Campylobacter coli 33559, Campylobacter fetus 27349, Campylobacter...

  7. Assessment of potential indigenous plant species for the phytoremediation of arsenic-contaminated areas of Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Mahmud, Rezwanul; Inoue, Naoto; Kasajima, Shin-Ya; Shaheen, Riffat

    2008-01-01

    Soil and water contaminated with arsenic (As) pose a major environmental and human health problem in Bangladesh. Phytoremediation, a plant-based technology, may provide an economically viable solution for remediating the As-polluted sites. The use of indigenous plants with a high tolerance and accumulation capacity for As may be a very convenient approach for phytoremediation. To assess the potential of native plant species for phytoremediation, plant and soil samples were collected from four As-contaminated (groundwater) districts in Bangladesh. The main criteria used for selecting plants for phytoremediation were high bioconcentration factors (BCFs) and translocation factors (TFs) of As. From the results of a screening of 49 plant species belonging to 29 families, only one species of fern (Dryopteris filix-mas), three herbs (Blumea lacera, Mikania cordata, and Ageratum conyzoides), and two shrubs (Clerodendrum trichotomum and Ricinus communis) were found to be suitable for phytoremediation. Arsenic bioconcentration and translocation factors > 1 suggest that these plants are As-tolerant accumulators with potential use in phytoextraction. Three floating plants (Eichhornia crassipes, Spirodela polyrhiza, and Azolla pinnata) and a common wetland weed (Monochoria vaginalis) also showed high BCF and TF values; therefore, these plants may be promising candidates for cleaningup As-contaminated surface water and wetland areas. The BCF of Oryza sativa, obtained from As-contaminated districts was > 1, which highlights possible food-chain transfer issues for As-contaminated areas in Bangladesh. PMID:18709925

  8. Genomic Evidence for the Emergence and Evolution of Pathogenicity and Niche Preferences in the Genus Campylobacter

    PubMed Central

    Iraola, Gregorio; Pérez, Ruben; Naya, Hugo; Paolicchi, Fernando; Pastor, Eugenia; Valenzuela, Sebastián; Calleros, Lucía; Velilla, Alejandra; Hernández, Martín; Morsella, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    The genus Campylobacter includes some of the most relevant pathogens for human and animal health; the continuous effort in their characterization has also revealed new species putatively involved in different kind of infections. Nowadays, the available genomic data for the genus comprise a wide variety of species with different pathogenic potential and niche preferences. In this work, we contribute to enlarge this available information presenting the first genome for the species Campylobacter sputorum bv. sputorum and use this and the already sequenced organisms to analyze the emergence and evolution of pathogenicity and niche preferences among Campylobacter species. We found that campylobacters can be unequivocally distinguished in established and putative pathogens depending on their repertory of virulence genes, which have been horizontally acquired from other bacteria because the nonpathogenic Campylobacter ancestor emerged, and posteriorly interchanged between some members of the genus. Additionally, we demonstrated the role of both horizontal gene transfers and diversifying evolution in niche preferences, being able to distinguish genetic features associated to the tropism for oral, genital, and gastrointestinal tissues. In particular, we highlight the role of nonsynonymous evolution of disulphide bond proteins, the invasion antigen B (CiaB), and other secreted proteins in the determination of niche preferences. Our results arise from assessing the previously unmet goal of considering the whole available Campylobacter diversity for genome comparisons, unveiling notorious genetic features that could explain particular phenotypes and set the basis for future research in Campylobacter biology. PMID:25193310

  9. Organic Contaminant Levels in Three Fish Species Downchannel from the Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzales, G.J.; Fresquez, P.R.; Beveridge, J.W.

    1999-06-01

    The LANL contribution, if any, to organic contaminant levels in the common carp, the channel catfish, and the white sucker in the Rio Grande appear to be small; however, low sample sizes, high variation, and potential interaction of species effect with location treatment effect require additional sampling and analysis.

  10. Assessing contaminant sensitivity of endangered and threatened aquatic species: Part I. Acute toxicity of five chemicals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dwyer, F.J.; Mayer, F.L.; Sappington, L.C.; Buckler, D.R.; Bridges, C.M.; Greer, I.E.; Hardesty, D.K.; Henke, C.E.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Kunz, J.L.; Whites, D.W.; Augspurger, T.; Mount, D.R.; Hattala, K.; Neuderfer, G.N.

    2005-01-01

    Assessment of contaminant impacts to federally identified endangered, threatened and candidate, and state-identified endangered species (collectively referred to as "listed" species) requires understanding of a species' sensitivities to particular chemicals. The most direct approach would be to determine the sensitivity of a listed species to a particular contaminant or perturbation. An indirect approach for aquatic species would be application of toxicity data obtained from standard test procedures and species commonly used in laboratory toxicity tests. Common test species (fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas; sheepshead minnow, Cyprinodon variegatus; and rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss) and 17 listed or closely related species were tested in acute 96-hour water exposures with five chemicals (carbaryl, copper, 4-nonylphenol, pentachlorophenol, and permethrin) representing a broad range of toxic modes of action. No single species was the most sensitive to all chemicals. For the three standard test species evaluated, the rainbow trout was more sensitive than either the fathead minnow or sheepshead minnow and was equal to or more sensitive than listed and related species 81% of the time. To estimate an LC50 for a listed species, a factor of 0.63 can be applied to the geometric mean LC50 of rainbow trout toxicity data, and more conservative factors can be determined using variance estimates (0.46 based on 1 SD of the mean and 0.33 based on 2 SD of the mean). Additionally, a low- or no-acute effect concentration can be estimated by multiplying the respective LC50 by a factor of approximately 0.56, which supports the United States Environmental Protection Agency approach of multiplying the final acute value by 0.5 (division by 2). When captive or locally abundant populations of listed fish are available, consideration should be given to direct testing. When direct toxicity testing cannot be performed, approaches for developing protective measures using common test

  11. Potential environmental contaminant risks to avian species at important bird areas in the northeastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, B.A.; Ackerson, B.K.

    2008-01-01

    Environmental contaminants can have profound effects on birds, acting from the molecular through population levels of biological organization. An analysis of potential contaminant threats was undertaken at 52 Important Bird Areas (IBAs) within the northeastern Atlantic coast drainage. Using geographic information system methodology, data layers describing or integrating contamination (impaired waters, fish or wildlife consumption advisories, toxic release inventory sites, and estimates of pesticide use) were overlaid on buffered IBA boundaries, and the relative threat at each site was ranked. The most threatened sites include Jefferson National Forest (NF), Stewart B. McKinney National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Great Dismal Swamp NWR, Blue Ridge Parkway, Shenandoah National Park (NP), Adirondack Park, Edwin B. Forsythe NWR, George Washington NF, Green Mountain NF, Long Island Piping Plover Beaches, and Merrymeeting Bay. These sites exhibited moderate to high percentages of impaired waters and had fish consumption advisories related to mercury and polychlorinated biphenyls, and were located in counties with substantial pesticide use. Endangered, threatened and Watch List bird species are present at these sites. The Contaminant Exposure and Effects--Terrestrial Vertebrates database was searched within buffered IBA boundaries, and for a moderate number of sites there was concordance between the perceived risk and contaminant exposure. Several of the IBAs with apparently substantial contaminant threats had no avian ecotoxicological data (e.g., George Washington NF, Shenandoah NP). Based upon this screening level risk assessment, contaminant biomonitoring is warranted at such sites, and data generated from these efforts should foster natural resource management activities.

  12. Analytical Utility of Campylobacter Methodologies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Foods (NACMCF, or the Committee) was asked to address the analytical utility of Campylobacter methodologies in preparation for an upcoming United States Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) baseline study to enumerate Campylobacter...

  13. Swimming and Campylobacter Infections1

    PubMed Central

    Schönberg-Norio, Daniela; Takkinen, Johanna; Hänninen, Marja-Liisa; Katila, Marja-Leena; Kaukoranta, Suvi-Sirkku; Mattila, Leena

    2004-01-01

    A matched case-control study was conducted to study risk factors for domestically acquired sporadic Campylobacter infections in Finland. Swimming in natural sources of water was a novel risk factor. Eating undercooked meat and drinking dug-well water were also independent risk factors for Campylobacter infection. PMID:15496253

  14. Potential environmental contaminant risks to avian species at importnat bird areas in the northeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Rattner, Barnett A; Ackerson, Betty K

    2008-07-01

    Environmental contaminants can have profound effects on birds, acting from the molecular through population levels of biological organization. An analysis of potential contaminant threats was undertaken at 52 Important Bird Areas (IBAs) within the northeastern Atlantic coast drainage. Using geographic information system methodology, data layers describing or integrating contamination (impaired waters, fish or wildlife consumption advisories, toxic release inventory sites, and estimates of pesticide use) were overlaid on buffered IBA boundaries, and the relative threat at each site was ranked. Some species of birds residing at Jefferson National Forrest (NF), Stewart B. McKinney National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Great Dismal Swamp NWR, Blue Ridge Parkway, Shenandoah National Park (NP), Adirondack Park, Edwin B. Forsythe NWR, George Washington NF, Green Mountain NF, Long Island Piping Plover Beaches, and Merrymeeting Bay may be threatened by environmental contaminants. These sites exhibited moderate to high percentages of impaired waters and had fish consumption advisories related to mercury and polychlorinated biphenyls, and were located in counties with substantial pesticide use. Endangered, threatened, and Watch List bird species are present at these sites. The Contaminant Exposure and Effects-Terrestrial Vertebrates database was searched within buffered IBA boundaries, and for a moderate number of sites there was concordance between the perceived risk and contaminant exposure. Several of the IBAs with apparently substantial contaminant threats had no avian ecotoxicological data (e.g., George Washington NF, Shenandoah NP). Based upon this screening level risk assessment, contaminant biomonitoring of birds is warranted at such sites, and data generated from these efforts could foster natural resource management activities. PMID:18393576

  15. Antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli from poultry in Italy.

    PubMed

    Giacomelli, Martina; Salata, Cristiano; Martini, Marco; Montesissa, Clara; Piccirillo, Alessandra

    2014-04-01

    This study was aimed at assessing the antimicrobial resistance (AMR) of Campylobacter isolates from broilers and turkeys reared in industrial farms in Northern Italy, given the public health concern represented by resistant campylobacters in food-producing animals and the paucity of data about this topic in our country. Thirty-six Campylobacter jejuni and 24 Campylobacter coli isolated from broilers and 68 C. jejuni and 32 C. coli from turkeys were tested by disk diffusion for their susceptibility to apramycin, gentamicin, streptomycin, cephalothin, cefotaxime, ceftiofur, cefuroxime, ampicillin, amoxicillin+clavulanic acid, nalidixic acid, flumequine, enrofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, tilmicosin, tylosin, tiamulin, clindamycin, tetracycline, sulfamethoxazole+trimethoprim, chloramphenicol. Depending on the drug, breakpoints provided by Comité de l'antibiogramme de la Société Française de Microbiologie, Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, and the manufacturer were followed. All broiler strains and 92% turkey strains were multidrug resistant. Very high resistance rates were detected for quinolones, tetracycline, and sulfamethoxazole+trimethoprim, ranging from 65% to 100% in broilers and from 74% to 96% in turkeys. Prevalence of resistance was observed also against ampicillin (97% in broilers, 88% in turkeys) and at least three cephalosporins (93-100% in broilers, 100% in turkeys). Conversely, no isolates showed resistance to chloramphenicol and tiamulin. Susceptibility prevailed for amoxicillin+clavulanic acid and aminoglycosides in both poultry species, and for macrolides and clindamycin among turkey strains and among C. jejuni from broilers, whereas most C. coli strains from broilers (87.5%) were resistant. Other differences between C. jejuni and C. coli were observed markedly in broiler isolates, with the overall predominance of resistance in C. coli compared to C. jejuni. This study provides updates and novel data on the AMR of broiler and

  16. Comparison of Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Campylobacter Strains Isolated from Food Samples and Patients with Diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Bakhshi, Bita; Naseri, Amin; Alebouyeh, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Background: Campylobacter infections may lead to serious conditions, including septicemia or other invasive forms of the disease, which require rapid and accurate laboratory diagnosis and subsequently appropriate antimicrobial therapy. The aim of this study was to compare the species distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Campylobacter spp. strains isolated from patients and food samples. Methods: Biochemical identification was performed on 15 clinical and 30 food isolates of Campylobacter recovered onto Brucella agar containing 5% sheep blood. PCR was carried out to confirm the identity of Campylobacter spp. using primers for cadF, hipO, and asp genes of Campylobacter. To determine antibiotic sensitivity of isolates, Kirby-Bauer assay was carried out using 16 different antibiotic discs. Results: PCR assay and biochemical tests confirmed all 45 isolates as Campylobacter: 20 (44.44%) as C. jujeni, 10 (22.22%) as C. coli, and 15 (33.34%) as other Campylobacter strains. The maximum resistance was observed to cefotaxime and imipenem (each 86.49%) and the maximum sensitivity to erythromycin (48.65%). Conclusion: C. jujeni is dominant among isolates from clinical and food samples. In addition, tetracycline remains the first-line therapeutic agent against Campylobacter infections in Iran. PMID:26783018

  17. Detection of Campylobacter in human and animal field samples in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Osbjer, Kristina; Tano, Eva; Chhayheng, Leang; Mac-Kwashie, Akofa Olivia; Fernström, Lise-Lotte; Ellström, Patrik; Sokerya, Seng; Sokheng, Choup; Mom, Veng; Chheng, Kannarath; San, Sorn; Davun, Holl; Boqvist, Sofia; Rautelin, Hilpi; Magnusson, Ulf

    2016-06-01

    Campylobacter are zoonotic bacteria and a leading cause of human gastroenteritis worldwide with Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli being the most commonly detected species. The aim of this study was to detect Campylobacter in humans and livestock (chickens, ducks, pigs, cattle, water buffalo, quail, pigeons and geese) in rural households by routine culturing and multiplex PCR in faecal samples frozen before analysis. Of 681 human samples, 82 (12%) tested positive by PCR (C. jejuni in 66 samples and C. coli in 16), but none by routine culture. Children were more commonly Campylobacter positive (19%) than adult males (8%) and females (7%). Of 853 livestock samples, 106 (12%) tested positive by routine culture and 352 (41%) by PCR. Campylobacter jejuni was more frequent in chickens and ducks and C. coli in pigs. In conclusion, Campylobacter proved to be highly prevalent by PCR in children (19%), ducks (24%), chickens (56%) and pigs (72%). Routine culturing was insufficiently sensitive in detecting Campylobacter in field samples frozen before analysis. These findings suggest that PCR should be the preferred diagnostic method for detection of Campylobacter in humans and livestock where timely culture is not feasible. PMID:26991032

  18. Concentration of arsenic in water, sediments and fish species from naturally contaminated rivers.

    PubMed

    Rosso, Juan José; Schenone, Nahuel F; Pérez Carrera, Alejo; Fernández Cirelli, Alicia

    2013-04-01

    Arsenic (As) may occur in surface freshwater ecosystems as a consequence of both natural contamination and anthropogenic activities. In this paper, As concentrations in muscle samples of 10 fish species, sediments and surface water from three naturally contaminated rivers in a central region of Argentina are reported. The study area is one of the largest regions in the world with high As concentrations in groundwater. However, information of As in freshwater ecosystems and associated biota is scarce. An extensive spatial variability of As concentrations in water and sediments of sampled ecosystems was observed. Geochemical indices indicated that sediments ranged from mostly unpolluted to strongly polluted. The concentration of As in sediments averaged 6.58 μg/g ranging from 0.23 to 59.53 μg/g. Arsenic in sediments barely followed (r = 0.361; p = 0.118) the level of contamination of water. All rivers showed high concentrations of As in surface waters, ranging from 55 to 195 μg/L. The average concentration of As in fish was 1.76 μg/g. The level of contamination with As differed significantly between species. Moreover, the level of bioaccumulation of As in fish species related to the concentration of As in water and sediments also differed between species. Whilst some fish species seemed to be able to regulate the uptake of this metalloid, the concentration of As in the large catfish Rhamdia quelen mostly followed the concentration of As in abiotic compartments. The erratic pattern of As concentrations in fish and sediments regardless of the invariable high levels in surface waters suggests the existence of complex biogeochemical processes behind the distribution patterns of As in these naturally contaminated ecosystems. PMID:23179469

  19. Comprehensive Genomic Characterization of Campylobacter Genus Reveals Some Underlying Mechanisms for its Genomic Diversification

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yizhuang; Bu, Lijing; Guo, Min; Zhou, Chengran; Wang, Yongdong; Chen, Liyu; Liu, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Campylobacter species.are phenotypically diverse in many aspects including host habitats and pathogenicities, which demands comprehensive characterization of the entire Campylobacter genus to study their underlying genetic diversification. Up to now, 34 Campylobacter strains have been sequenced and published in public databases, providing good opportunity to systemically analyze their genomic diversities. In this study, we first conducted genomic characterization, which includes genome-wide alignments, pan-genome analysis, and phylogenetic identification, to depict the genetic diversity of Campylobacter genus. Afterward, we improved the tetranucleotide usage pattern-based naïve Bayesian classifier to identify the abnormal composition fragments (ACFs, fragments with significantly different tetranucleotide frequency profiles from its genomic tetranucleotide frequency profiles) including horizontal gene transfers (HGTs) to explore the mechanisms for the genetic diversity of this organism. Finally, we analyzed the HGTs transferred via bacteriophage transductions. To our knowledge, this study is the first to use single nucleotide polymorphism information to construct liable microevolution phylogeny of 21 Campylobacter jejuni strains. Combined with the phylogeny of all the collected Campylobacter species based on genome-wide core gene information, comprehensive phylogenetic inference of all 34 Campylobacter organisms was determined. It was found that C. jejuni harbors a high fraction of ACFs possibly through intraspecies recombination, whereas other Campylobacter members possess numerous ACFs possibly via intragenus recombination. Furthermore, some Campylobacter strains have undergone significant ancient viral integration during their evolution process. The improved method is a powerful tool for bacterial genomic analysis. Moreover, the findings would provide useful information for future research on Campylobacter genus. PMID:23940551

  20. Effect of Rhizosphere Enzymes on Phytoremediation in PAH-Contaminated Soil Using Five Plant Species

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Rui; Dai, Yuanyuan; Sun, Libo

    2015-01-01

    A pot experiment was performed to study the effectiveness of remediation using different plant species and the enzyme response involved in remediating PAH-contaminated soil. The study indicated that species Echinacea purpurea, Festuca arundinacea Schred, Fire Phoenix (a combined F. arundinacea), and Medicago sativa L. possess the potential for remediation in PAH-contaminated soils. The study also determined that enzymatic reactions of polyphenol oxidase (except Fire Phoenix), dehydrogenase (except Fire Phoenix), and urease (except Medicago sativa L.) were more prominent over cultivation periods of 60d and 120d than 150d. Urease activity of the tested species exhibited prominently linear negative correlations with alkali-hydrolyzable nitrogen content after the tested plants were cultivated for 150d (R2 = 0.9592). The experiment also indicated that alkaline phosphatase activity in four of the five tested species (Echinacea purpurea, Callistephus chinensis, Festuca arundinacea Schred and Fire Phoenix) was inhibited during the cultivation process (at 60d and 120d). At the same time, the study determined that the linear relationship between alkaline phosphatase activity and effective phosphorus content in plant rhizosphere soil exhibited a negative correlation after a growing period of 120d (R2 = 0.665). Phytoremediation of organic contaminants in the soil was closely related to specific characteristics of particular plant species, and the catalyzed reactions were the result of the action of multiple enzymes in the plant rhizosphere soil. PMID:25822167

  1. Multiple species of scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae) as contaminants in forensic entomology laboratory insect colony.

    PubMed

    Zuha, R M; Jenarthanan, L X Q; Disney, R H L; Omar, B

    2015-09-01

    In forensic entomology, larval rearing usually includes the presence of biological contaminants including scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae). Scuttle flies are recognized as forensically important insects and have been reported causing nuisance and contamination in laboratory environments. This paper reports for the first time the finding of multiple scuttle fly species affecting colonies of third instar larvae of the Oriental latrine blowfly, Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), reared indoors at the Forensic Science Simulation Site, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. Adult scuttle flies were discovered inside a rearing container after the emergence of adult C. megacephala., The scuttle fly species are Megaselia scalaris (Loew), M. spiracularis Schmitz and Puliciphora borinquenensis (Wheeler). Notes on the life history and biology of these species are discussed herein. PMID:26695221

  2. Isolation and Characterization of Campylobacter Strains from Diarrheal Patients in Central and Suburban Bangkok, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Samosornsuk, Worada; Asakura, Masahiro; Yoshida, Emi; Taguchi, Takashi; Eampokalap, Bunchuay; Chaicumpa, Wanpen; Yamasaki, Shinji

    2015-01-01

    Campylobacter-induced diarrhea is increasingly recognized worldwide. However, little information is available regarding the Campylobacter strains associated with diarrheal patients in Thailand. In this study, we attempted to isolate Campylobacter strains from diarrheal patients in Thailand and to characterize the species using a cytolethal distending toxin (cdt) gene-based C. jejuni, C. coli, and C. fetus-specific multiplex PCR assay. Campylobacter species were also confirmed using 16S rRNA gene sequencing and hipO gene detection. From 2,500 diarrheal stool specimens, 76 Campylobacter-like organisms were isolated and identified via conventional culture methods. Among these 76 organisms, 73 were identified as Campylobacter species (43 C. jejuni, 29 C. coli, and 1 C. fetus) via multiplex PCR, whereas 3 remained unidentified. Two Campylobacter-like organisms yielded 2 amplicons corresponding to cdt genes from C. jejuni and C. coli. Subsequently, C. jejuni and C. coli were reisolated from each sample. The third isolate was identified as C. hyointestinalis via 16S rRNA gene sequencing. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the isolation of C. hyointestinalis from a diarrheal patient in Thailand. These data indicate that C. jejuni (58%) and C. coli (40%) are prevalent among diarrheal patients in Thailand. PMID:25672405

  3. Obsolete pesticides and application of colonizing plant species for remediation of contaminated soil in Kazakhstan.

    PubMed

    Nurzhanova, Asil; Kalugin, Sergey; Zhambakin, Kabl

    2013-04-01

    In Kazakhstan, there is a problem of finding ways to clean local sites contaminated with pesticides. In particular, such sites are the deserted and destroyed storehouses where these pesticides were stored; existing storehouses do not fulfill sanitary standards. Phytoremediation is one potential method for reducing risk from these pesticides. Genetic heterogeneity of populations of wild and weedy species growing on pesticide-contaminated soil provides a source of plant species tolerant to these conditions. These plant species may be useful for phytoremediation applications. In 2008-2009 and 2011, we surveyed substances stored in 80 former pesticide storehouses in Kazakhstan (Almaty oblast) to demonstrate an inventory process needed to understand the obsolete pesticide problem throughout the country, and observed a total of 354.7 t of obsolete pesticides. At the sites, we have found organochlorine pesticides residues in soil including metabolites of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and isomers of hexachlorocyclohexane. Twenty-four of the storehouse sites showed pesticides concentrations in soil higher than maximum allowable concentration which is equal to 100 μg kg(-1) in Kazakhstan. Seventeen pesticide-tolerant wild plant species were selected from colonizing plants that grew into/near the former storehouse's pesticides. The results have shown that colonizing plant annual and biannual species growing on soils polluted by pesticides possess ability to accumulate organochlorine pesticide residues and reduce pesticide concentrations in soil. Organochlorine pesticides taken up by the plants are distributed unevenly in different plant tissues. The main organ of organochlorine pesticide accumulation is the root system. The accumulation rate of organochlorine pesticides was found to be a specific characteristic of plant species and dependent on the degree of soil contamination. This information can be used for technology development of phytoremediation of pesticide-contaminated

  4. Accumulation of mercury in selected plant species grown in soils contaminated with different mercury compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Su, Yi; Han, Fengxiang; Shiyab, Safwan; Chen, Jian; Monts, David L.

    2007-07-01

    The objective of our research is to screen and search for suitable plant species for phyto-remediation of mercury-contaminated soil. Currently our effort is specifically focused on mercury removal from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites, where mercury contamination is a major concern. In order to cost effectively implement mercury remediation efforts, it is necessary now to obtain an improved understanding of biological means of removing mercury and mercury compounds.. Phyto-remediation is a technology that uses various plants to degrade, extract, contain, or immobilize contaminants from soil and water. In particular, phyto-extraction is the uptake of contaminants by plant roots and translocation within the plants to shoots or leaves. Contaminants are generally removed by harvesting the plants. We have investigated phyto-extraction of mercury from contaminated soil by using some of the known metal-accumulating plants since no natural plant species with mercury hyper-accumulating properties has yet been identified. Different natural plant species have been studied for mercury uptake, accumulation, toxicity and overall mercury removal efficiency. Various mercury compounds, such as HgS, HgCl{sub 2}, and Hg(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}, were used as contaminant sources. Different types of soil were examined and chosen for phyto-remediation experiments. We have applied microscopy and diffuse reflectance spectrometry as well as conventional analytical chemistry to monitor the phyto-remediation processes of mercury uptake, translocation and accumulation, and the physiological impact of mercury contaminants on selected plant species. Our results indicate that certain plant species, such as beard grass (Polypogon monospeliensis), accumulated a very limited amount of mercury in the shoots (<65 mg/kg), even though root mercury accumulation is significant (maximum 2298 mg/kg). Consequently, this plant species may not be suitable for mercury phyto-remediation. Other plant species

  5. The purification and contamination of liquid crystals by means of nanoparticles. The case of weakly ionized species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garbovskiy, Yuriy

    2016-08-01

    This letter reports the effects of nanoparticles on the concentration of mobile ions in liquid crystals with weakly ionized species. Contrary to the case of fully ionized contaminants, the regimes of the purification and contamination achieved in liquid crystal nanocolloids with weakly ionized species depend on the interplay between the ion adsorption/ion desorption and ion generation/ion recombination. The competition between these processes results in the reduction of the magnitude of the purification and contamination levels in liquid crystals with weakly ionized species as compared to similar effects in the case of full ionization of contaminants.

  6. 76 FR 58813 - Guidance for Industry; Measures to Address the Risk for Contamination by Salmonella Species in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-22

    ... INFORMATION: I. Background In the Federal Register of June 29, 2009 (74 FR 31038), FDA announced the... Contamination by Salmonella Species in Food Containing a Pistachio- Derived Product as an Ingredient... Address the Risk for Contamination by Salmonella Species in Food Containing a Pistachio-Derived Product...

  7. Copper, nickel, and iron in plumage of three upland gamebird species from non-contaminated environments

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, G.H.

    1985-12-01

    High levels of atmospheric contamination and particulate fallout characterizing the Industrial Basin of the copper-nickel smelting operations at Sudbury, Ontario, were shown to be reflected in the feather chemistry of resident ruffed grouse populations. Of considerable concern, however, is the paucity of information on background concentrations of elemental metals that could be considered normal for non-contaminated environments. The present report examines concentrations of copper, nickel and iron in the plumage of three tetraonid species collected from remote and undisturbed areas in Northern Ontario and Quebec.

  8. Campylobacter in: Microbiological Troubleshooting in the Industrial Food Processing Environment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter species are enteric pathogens and are considered one of the leading foodborne disease agents in the United States causing an estimated 2.1 to 2.4 million cases of gastroenteritis annually. This chapter, intended for inclusion in the book, Microbiological Troubleshooting in the Indust...

  9. Differentiation of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli Using Multiplex-PCR and High Resolution Melt Curve Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Banowary, Banya; Dang, Van Tuan; Sarker, Subir; Connolly, Joanne H.; Chenu, Jeremy; Groves, Peter; Ayton, Michelle; Raidal, Shane; Devi, Aruna; Vanniasinkam, Thiru; Ghorashi, Seyed A.

    2015-01-01

    Campylobacter spp. are important causes of bacterial gastroenteritis in humans in developed countries. Among Campylobacter spp. Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) and C. coli are the most common causes of human infection. In this study, a multiplex PCR (mPCR) and high resolution melt (HRM) curve analysis were optimized for simultaneous detection and differentiation of C. jejuni and C. coli isolates. A segment of the hippuricase gene (hipO) of C. jejuni and putative aspartokinase (asp) gene of C. coli were amplified from 26 Campylobacter isolates and amplicons were subjected to HRM curve analysis. The mPCR-HRM was able to differentiate between C. jejuni and C. coli species. All DNA amplicons generated by mPCR were sequenced. Analysis of the nucleotide sequences from each isolate revealed that the HRM curves were correlated with the nucleotide sequences of the amplicons. Minor variation in melting point temperatures of C. coli or C. jejuni isolates was also observed and enabled some intraspecies differentiation between C. coli and/or C. jejuni isolates. The potential of PCR-HRM curve analysis for the detection and speciation of Campylobacter in additional human clinical specimens and chicken swab samples was also confirmed. The sensitivity and specificity of the test were found to be 100% and 92%, respectively. The results indicated that mPCR followed by HRM curve analysis provides a rapid (8 hours) technique for differentiation between C. jejuni and C. coli isolates. PMID:26394042

  10. Identification of the main quinolone resistance determinant in Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli by MAMA-DEG PCR.

    PubMed

    Hormeño, Lorena; Palomo, Gonzalo; Ugarte-Ruiz, María; Porrero, M Concepción; Borge, Carmen; Vadillo, Santiago; Píriz, Segundo; Domínguez, Lucas; Campos, Maria J; Quesada, Alberto

    2016-03-01

    Among zoonotic diseases, campylobacteriosis stands out as the major bacterial infection producing human gastroenteritis. Antimicrobial therapy, only recommended in critical cases, is challenged by resistance mechanisms that should be unambiguously detected for achievement of effective treatments. Quinolone (ciprofloxacin) resistance of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli, the 2 main Campylobacter detected in humans, is conferred by the mutation gyrA C-257-T, which can be genotyped by several methods that require a previous identification of the pathogen species to circumvent the sequence polymorphism of the gene. A multiplex PCR, based on degenerated oligonucleotides, has been designed for unambiguous identification of the quinolone resistance determinant in Campylobacter spp. isolates. The method was verified with 249 Campylobacter strains isolated from humans (141 isolates) and from the 3 most important animal sources for this zoonosis: poultry (34 isolates), swine (38 isolates), and cattle (36 isolates). High resistance to ciprofloxacin, MIC above 4μg/mL, linked to the mutated genotype predicted by MAMA-DEG PCR (mismatch amplification mutation assay PCR with degenerated primers) was found frequently among isolates from the different hosts. PMID:26658311

  11. Effectiveness of radiation processing in elimination of Campylobacter from poultry meat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raut, Amol D.; Shashidhar, Ravindranath; Bandekar, Jayant R.; Kapadnis, Balu P.

    2012-01-01

    Campylobacter, a common poultry intestine commensal, is a well known cause of human gastric illnesses across the globe. Consumption of contaminated poultry meat is a major cause of Campylobacter related infections. In the present study, radiation sensitivity of indigenous strains of C. jejuni and C. coli isolated from poultry was evaluated. The decimal reduction dose (D 10) values of different Campylobacter isolates at 0-4 °C in saline and blood broth were in the range of 0.120-0.210 kGy and 0.170-0.234 kGy, respectively. D 10 values in chicken meat homogenate for Campylobacter were in the range of 0.110-0.190 kGy. Chicken meat samples were inoculated with C. jejuni and exposed to gamma radiation to study the effectiveness of radiation treatment in elimination of Campylobacter. Radiation treatment with a dose of 1 kGy could achieve complete elimination of 10 5 CFU of Campylobacter/g in poultry meat samples. No recovery of Campylobacter was observed, even after enrichment and selective plating in 1 kGy treated chicken meat samples stored at 4 °C up to 7 days. Present study shows that irradiation of poultry meat with 1 kGy can ensure safety of poultry meat.

  12. Assessment of heavy metal tolerance in native plant species from soils contaminated with electroplating effluent.

    PubMed

    Sainger, Poonam Ahlawat; Dhankhar, Rajesh; Sainger, Manish; Kaushik, Anubha; Singh, Rana Pratap

    2011-11-01

    Heavy metals concentrations of (Cr, Zn, Fe, Cu and Ni) were determined in plants and soils contaminated with electroplating industrial effluent. The ranges of total soil Cr, Zn, Fe, Cu and Ni concentrations were found to be 1443-3240, 1376-3112, 683-2228, 263-374 and 234-335 mg kg⁻¹, respectively. Metal accumulation, along with hyperaccumulative characteristics of the screened plants was investigated. Present study highlighted that metal accumulation in different plants varied with species, tissues and metals. Only one plant (Amaranthus viridis) accumulated Fe concentrations over 1000 mg kg⁻¹. On the basis of TF, eight plant species for Zn and Fe, three plant species for Cu and two plant species for Ni, could be used in phytoextraction technology. Although BAF of all plant species was lesser than one, these species exhibited high metal adaptability and could be considered as potential hyperaccumulators. Phytoremediation potential of these plants can be used to remediate metal contaminated soils, though further investigation is still needed. PMID:21820739

  13. Antimicrobial Resistance in Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolated from Chicken Carcass Rinsates: Update from the Animal Arm of NARMS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: The development of antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter species, particularly C. jejuni and C. coli, is of public health concern. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to analyze the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for antimicrobials used in susceptibility testing of C....

  14. Phytoremediation of soil co-contaminated with heavy metals and TNT using four plant species.

    PubMed

    Lee, Insook; Baek, Kyunghwa; Kim, Hyunhee; Kim, Sunghyun; Kim, Jaisoo; Kwon, Youngseok; Chang, Yoontoung; Bae, Bumhan

    2007-11-01

    We investigated the germination, growth rates and uptake of contaminants of four plant species, barnyard grass (Echinochloa crusgalli), sunflower (Helianthus annuus), Indian mallow (Abutilon avicennae) and Indian jointvetch (Aeschynomene indica), grown in soil contaminated with cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT). These contaminants are typically found at shooting ranges. Experiments were carried out over 180 days using both single plant cultures and cultures containing an equal mix of the 4 plant species. Germination rates differed among the species in single culture (92% for H. annuus, 84% for E. crusgalli, 48% for A. avicennae and 38% Ae. indica). In the 4-plant mix culture, < 20% of seeds germinated for all 4 species. E. crusgalli and H. annuus grew slightly faster in the four-plant mix culture than in single culture, whereas A. avicennae and Ae. indica grew much slower in the 4-plant mix culture. In both single and 4-plant mix cultures, Cd concentrations in the roots of A. avicennae and E. crusgalliwere high, and Pb concentrations were high in A. avicennae and H. annuus. Cd and Pb concentrations in shoots were low to negligible in both treatment cultures for all species, except E. crusgalli in the 4-plant mix culture. The concentrations of TNT and its metabolites, 2-amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene (2ADNT) and 4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene (4ADNT) were high in H. annuus, Ae. indica and A. avicennae. Total Cd removal from soil differed among species, with E. crusgalliremoving the most (50.1%) followed by H. annuus(41.3%), Ae. indica(41.1%) and A. avicennae(33.3%). The four-plant mix removed more Cd (25.8%) than a no-plant control (12.9%). Pb removal was negligible for all plant species. All plant species rapidly removed TNT and its metabolites, regardless of whether the culture was single or mixed. From in these results, we conclude that a phytoremediation for the removal of heavy metals and TNT from contaminated soils should use a single plant species

  15. Survey of Campylobacter spp. in owned and unowned dogs and cats in Northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Giacomelli, M; Follador, N; Coppola, L M; Martini, M; Piccirillo, A

    2015-06-01

    Campylobacteriosis is among the most common bacterial causes of human gastroenteritis worldwide and pet ownership has been identified as a risk factor for Campylobacter infection in humans. Since canine and feline prevalence data are scarce in Italy, the present study was carried out to assess the prevalence, species distribution and risk factors for Campylobacter infection in dogs and cats under different husbandry conditions. Rectal swabs were collected from 171 dogs (household pets, n = 100; shelter-housed dogs, n = 50; dogs from breeding kennels, n = 21) and 102 cats (household pets, n = 52; shelter-housed cats, n = 21; free-roaming cats n = 29) in Northern Italy. Campylobacter was isolated from 17% (n = 29) of dogs and 14.7% (n = 15) of cats. C. jejuni was the most common isolate in both species (Campylobacter spp.-positive dogs, 55.2%; Campylobacter spp.-positive cats, 53.3%), followed by C. upsaliensis (Campylobacter spp.-positive dogs, 27.6%; Campylobacter spp.-positive cats, 40%). Other Campylobacter species were rarely detected, but included C. hyointestinalis subsp. hyointestinalis, C. lari and C. coli in dogs and C. coli and C. helveticus in cats. Among considered variables (sex, age, origin, diarrhoea, season of sampling), origin was identified as a risk factor for dogs, with shelter-housed dogs at higher risk than household dogs (odds ratio, 2.84; 95% CI 1.17, 6.92; P = 0.021). The results of this study, particularly the high prevalence of C. jejuni in Campylobacter-positive animals, demonstrated that household and stray dogs and cats in Northern Italy might pose a zoonotic risk for humans. Moreover, biosecurity measures should be improved in dog shelters. PMID:25951986

  16. Identification of EF group 22 campylobacters from gastroenteritis cases as Campylobacter concisus.

    PubMed Central

    Vandamme, P; Falsen, E; Pot, B; Hoste, B; Kersters, K; De Ley, J

    1989-01-01

    EF (E. Falsen) group 22, a group of Campylobacter strains sorted out by routine immunotyping among unidentified or misidentified human nonoral clinical specimens, was characterized by numerical analysis of gel electrophoretic protein profiles and immunotyping. The protein electrophoretic and immunotyping analyses, DNA:DNA hybridizations, and the DNA base composition demonstrated unambiguously that all EF group 22 strains belong to Campylobacter concisus. EF group 22 strains have DNA binding values of at least 42% with the type strain of C. concisus, showing a considerable degree of genomic heterogeneity. The isolation from blood, esophagus, stomach, duodenum, and feces of humans in association with different gastrointestinal disorders considerably extends the clinical significance of this species. Our results indicate that sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunotyping are excellent tools for the identification of the fastidious C. concisus strains and relatives. Images PMID:2768465

  17. Campylobacter sugars sticking out.

    PubMed

    Guerry, Patricia; Szymanski, Christine M

    2008-09-01

    The amazing repertoire of glycoconjugates that are found in Campylobacter jejuni includes lipooligosaccharides mimicking human glycolipids, capsular polysaccharides with complex and unusual sugars, and proteins that are post-translationally modified with either O- or N-linked glycans. Thus, the glycome of this important food-borne pathogen is an excellent toolbox for glycobiologists to understand the fundamentals of these pathways and their role in host-microbe interactions, develop new techniques for glycobiology and exploit these pathways for novel diagnostics and therapeutics. The exciting surge in recent research activities will be summarized in this review. PMID:18707886

  18. Comparison of Two Freshwater Turtle Species as Monitors of Environmental Contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers-Schone, L.

    1990-01-01

    Two species of turtles that occupy different ecological niches were compared for their usefulness as monitors of contamination in freshwater ecosystems. Trachemvs scrinta (Agassiz) (yellow-bellied slider) and Chelvdra sernentina (Linnaeus) (common snapping turtle) were selected for comparison based on species abundance and differences in food habits and sediment contact. A review of the literature on contaminants in turtles and results of preliminary surveys conducted at the field sites, which are included in this study, were used to direct and focus this research project. White Oak Lake, a settling basin for low-level radioactive and nonradioactive contaminants, and Bearden Creek Embayment, an uncontaminated reference site upriver, were used as study sites in the investigation of turtles as indicators of chemical contamination. Turtles were analyzed for concentrations of strontium-go, cesium-137, cobalt 60, and mercury in specific target tissues, and for single-stranded DNA breaks, a non-specific indicator of possible exposure to genotoxic agents in the environment. Significantly higher concentrations of {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 60}Co, and mercury were detected in turtles from White Oak Lake than in turtles from the reference site. In addition, turtles from White Oak Lake contained a significantly greater amount of DNA damage than those from the reference site. Although this suggests greater exposure of White Oak Lake turtles to genotoxic agents, further studies are needed to establish the cause of the enhanced amount of single-stranded breaks. Interspecific comparisons of the turtles from White Oak Lake indicated that diet may play a significant role in the exposure of turtles to certain contaminants. No difference was detected between the concentrations of {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 60}Co between the two species.

  19. Prevalence and characterization of Campylobacter jejuni from chicken meat sold in French retail outlets.

    PubMed

    Guyard-Nicodème, Muriel; Rivoal, Katell; Houard, Emmanuelle; Rose, Valérie; Quesne, Ségolène; Mourand, Gwenaëlle; Rouxel, Sandra; Kempf, Isabelle; Guillier, Laurent; Gauchard, Françoise; Chemaly, Marianne

    2015-06-16

    Campylobacter was detected in 76% of broiler meat products collected in retail outlets during a monitoring plan carried out in France throughout 2009. Campylobacter jejuni was the most prevalent species (64.7% of products being contaminated). The 175 C. jejuni isolates collected were characterized. MLST typing results confirmed substantial genetic diversity as the 175 C. jejuni isolates generated 76 sequence types (STs). The ST-21, ST-45 and ST-464 complexes predominated accounting for 43% of all isolates. A class-specific PCR to screen the sialylated lipooligosaccharide (LOS) locus classes A, B and C showed that 50.3% of the C. jejuni isolates harbored sialylated LOS. The antimicrobial resistance profiles established using a subset of 97 isolates showed that resistance to tetracycline was the most common (53.6%), followed with ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid (32.9%, and 32.0% respectively). All the tested isolates were susceptible to erythromycin, chloramphenicol and gentamicin. Clear associations were demonstrated between certain clonal complexes and LOS locus classes and between certain clonal complexes and antimicrobial resistance. This work paints a representative picture of C. jejuni isolated from poultry products circulating in France, providing data on STs, LOS locus classes and antibiotic resistance profiles in isolates recovered from products directly available to the consumer. PMID:25770428

  20. Swallows as a sentinel species for contaminant exposure and effect studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, Christine M.

    2011-01-01

    Tree swallows are an important model species to study the effects of contaminants in wild bird populations and have been used extensively in studies across North America. The advantages of swallows compared to other avian species are detailed. Three case histories are provided where swallows have been successfully used in Natural Resource Damage and Ecological Risk Assessments. The final two sections of this chapter are for individuals who want more in-depth information and include a summary of the chemical classes for which there are swallow data, including effect levels when known. Information provided in this section can be used to put exposure to most classes of contaminants into context with other sites across North America. Finally, commonly used endpoints, ranging from population-level down to cellular and genetic endpoints, are discussed including considerations and pitfalls, and when further work is needed to more fully understand the role of environmental and biological variation in interpreting these endpoints.

  1. Two recently sequenced vertebrate genomes are contaminated with apicomplexan species of the Sarcocystidae family.

    PubMed

    Orosz, Ferenc

    2015-11-01

    This paper highlights a general problem, namely that host genome sequences can easily be contaminated with parasite sequences, thus careful isolation of genetic material and careful bioinformatics analysis are needed in all cases. Two recently published genomes are shown here to be contaminated with sequences of apicomplexan parasites which belong to the Sarcocystidae family. Sequences of the characteristic apicomplexan organelle, the apicoplast, were used as queries in BLASTN searches against nucleotide sequences of various animal groups looking for possible contamination. Draft genomes of a bird, Colinus virginianus (Halley et al., 2014), and a bat, Myotis davidii (Zhang et al., 2013) were found to contain at least six and 17 contigs, respectively, originating from the apicoplast of an apicomplexan species, and other genes specific to this phylum can also be found in the published genomes. Obviously, the sources of the genetic material, the muscle and the kidney of the animals, respectively, contained the parasitic cysts. Phylogenetic analyses using 18S rRNA and internal transcribed spacer 1 genes show that the parasite contaminating C. virginianus is a species of Sarcocystis related to ones known to cycle between avian and mammalian hosts. In the case of M. davidii it belongs to the Nephroisospora genus, the only member of which, Nephroisospora eptesici, has been recently identified from the kidney of big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus). PMID:26264549

  2. The complete genome sequence and annotation of a Campylobacter jejuni strain, MTVDSCj20, isolated from a naturally colonized farm-raised chicken

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter jejuni is a major cause of human foodborne illness worldwide with contaminated poultry products serving as a main source of human infection. C. jejuni strain MTVDSCj20 was isolated from the cecal contents of a farm-raised chicken naturally colonized with Campylobacter. The complete,...

  3. ENUMERATION OF CAMPYLOBACTER SPP. IN BROILER FECES AND IN CORRESPONDING PROCESSED CARCASSES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The study presents the levels of Campylobacter spp. contamination in feces at the end of broiler production and the levels found on the processed carcasses. We also compared levels of contamination on carcasses produced in 1995 and 2001, before and after HACCP implementation. Over 3,500 samples we...

  4. Frequency of Salmonella and Campylobacter detection in the Satilla River Basin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transmission of Salmonella and Campylobacter to humans can occur by many routes, including consumption of food animal products or raw produce contaminated with animal waste, contact with animals and their environment, and contaminated water; including surface waters that are potential reservoirs and...

  5. Effect of environmental contaminants in the Mississippi River Basin on carboxylesterases from four aquatic species

    SciTech Connect

    Jaiswal, R.; Huang, T.; Obih, P.; Hartley, W.

    1995-12-31

    The objectives of this study are to investigate the sensitivity of different classes of esterases in various aquatic species to environmental contaminants and the possible use of these enzymes as biomarkers for monitoring the effects of pollutants. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE), and the non-specific carboxylesterases (CaE) were analyzed in three fish species, Ictiobus bubalus (small mouth buffalo), Ictiobus cyprinellus (big mouth buffalo) and Lepisosteus oculatus (spotted gar) and the green tree frog, Hyla cinerea. These samples were collected from the Devil`s Swamp Site (DSS), an industrial site known to be highly contaminated at the Mississippi River Basin, and Lake Tunica, a nonindustrial site. ACHE and BuChE activities in the subcellular fractions of liver and brain were significantly lower in fishes and frogs obtained from DSS when compared to the same species obtained from Tunica swamp site. The greatest decrease was observed with ACHE activity in the liver and brain of Ictiobus bubalus from DSS. CaE activity analyzed with p-nitrophenyl acetate was found to be significantly lower in the liver of all three fish species collected from DSS when compared to the same fish species obtained from the Tunica swamp site.

  6. Microsatellite loci to recognize species for the cheese starter and contaminating strains associated with cheese manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Giraud, Frédéric; Giraud, Tatiana; Aguileta, Gabriela; Fournier, Elisabeth; Samson, Robert; Cruaud, Corine; Lacoste, Sandrine; Ropars, Jeanne; Tellier, Aurélien; Dupont, Joëlle

    2010-02-28

    We report the development of 17 microsatellite markers in the cheese fungi Penicillium camemberti and P. roqueforti, using an enrichment protocol. Polymorphism and cross-amplification were explored using 23 isolates of P. camemberti, 26 isolates of P. roqueforti, and 2 isolates of each of the P. chrysogenum and P. nalgiovense species, used to produce meat fermented products. The markers appeared useful for differentiating species, both using their amplification sizes and the sequences of their flanking regions. The microsatellite locus PC4 was particularly suitable for distinguishing contaminant species closely related to P. camemberti and for clarifying the phylogenetic relationship of this species with its supposed ancestral form, P. commune. We analyzed 22 isolates from different culture collections assigned to the morphospecies P. commune, most of them occurring as food spoilers, mainly from the cheese environment. None of them exhibited identical sequences with the ex-type isolate of the species P. commune. They were instead distributed into two other distinct lineages, corresponding to the old species P. fuscoglaucum and P. biforme, previously synonymized respectively with P. commune and P. camemberti. The ex-type isolate of P. commune was strictly identical to P. camemberti at all the loci examined. P. caseifulvum, a non toxinogenic species described as a new candidate for cheese fermentation, also exhibited sequences identical to P. camemberti. The microsatellite locus PC4 may therefore be considered as a useful candidate for the barcode of these economically important species. PMID:20031244

  7. Species Identification of Food Contaminating Beetles by Recognizing Patterns in Microscopic Images of Elytra Fragments.

    PubMed

    Park, Su Inn; Bisgin, Halil; Ding, Hongjian; Semey, Howard G; Langley, Darryl A; Tong, Weida; Xu, Joshua

    2016-01-01

    A crucial step of food contamination inspection is identifying the species of beetle fragments found in the sample, since the presence of some storage beetles is a good indicator of insanitation or potential food safety hazards. The current pratice, visual examination by human analysts, is time consuming and requires several years of experience. Here we developed a species identification algorithm which utilizes images of microscopic elytra fragments. The elytra, or hardened forewings, occupy a large portion of the body, and contain distinctive patterns. In addition, elytra fragments are more commonly recovered from processed food products than other body parts due to their hardness. As a preliminary effort, we chose 15 storage product beetle species frequently detected in food inspection. The elytra were then separated from the specimens and imaged under a microscope. Both global and local characteristics were quantified and used as feature inputs to artificial neural networks for species classification. With leave-one-out cross validation, we achieved overall accuracy of 80% through the proposed global and local features, which indicates that our proposed features could differentiate these species. Through examining the overall and per species accuracies, we further demonstrated that the local features are better suited than the global features for species identification. Future work will include robust testing with more beetle species and algorithm refinement for a higher accuracy. PMID:27341524

  8. Species Identification of Food Contaminating Beetles by Recognizing Patterns in Microscopic Images of Elytra Fragments

    PubMed Central

    Park, Su Inn; Bisgin, Halil; Ding, Hongjian; Semey, Howard G.; Langley, Darryl A.; Tong, Weida

    2016-01-01

    A crucial step of food contamination inspection is identifying the species of beetle fragments found in the sample, since the presence of some storage beetles is a good indicator of insanitation or potential food safety hazards. The current pratice, visual examination by human analysts, is time consuming and requires several years of experience. Here we developed a species identification algorithm which utilizes images of microscopic elytra fragments. The elytra, or hardened forewings, occupy a large portion of the body, and contain distinctive patterns. In addition, elytra fragments are more commonly recovered from processed food products than other body parts due to their hardness. As a preliminary effort, we chose 15 storage product beetle species frequently detected in food inspection. The elytra were then separated from the specimens and imaged under a microscope. Both global and local characteristics were quantified and used as feature inputs to artificial neural networks for species classification. With leave-one-out cross validation, we achieved overall accuracy of 80% through the proposed global and local features, which indicates that our proposed features could differentiate these species. Through examining the overall and per species accuracies, we further demonstrated that the local features are better suited than the global features for species identification. Future work will include robust testing with more beetle species and algorithm refinement for a higher accuracy. PMID:27341524

  9. The genus Campylobacter: a decade of progress.

    PubMed Central

    Penner, J L

    1988-01-01

    In 1977, microbiologists and clinicians were awakened to the importance of the genus Campylobacter when it was learned that one species, Campylobacter jejuni, was a major cause of human enteritis. In the following decade substantial advances were made in diagnosis, isolation technology, identification, classification, serotyping, and epidemiology. The genus has undergone rapid expansion as advantage was taken of the deoxyribonucleic acid-deoxyribonucleic acid hybridization technique in defining new species. The 14 species now included in the genus, however, constitute a widely diverse group, and one species, C. pylori, which is associated with human gastroduodenitis, is under consideration for reassignment to another genus. The nomenclature of the subspecies of C. fetus has been resolved and the role of C. fetus subsp. fetus as an agent of human infections has been more clearly defined. The thermophilic campylobacteria that are etiological agents of human enteritis now include three species, C. jejuni, C. coli, and C. laridis. Recently defined species that have also been implicated as enteritis-causing agents include C. hyointestinalis, "C. upsaliensis," "C. cinaedi," and "C. fennelliae." The aerotolerant campylobacteria are now included in the species C. cryaerophila, and the campylobacteria isolated from salt marshes are included in C. nitrofigilis. The taxonomy and nomenclature of C. sputorum have been revised. C. sputorum now consists of three biovars (biotypes). Two of these, biovar sputorum and biovar bubulus, were previously considered to be separate subspecies and the third, biovar fecalis, was previously regarded as a separate species and known as "C. fecalis." The former subspecies C. sputorum subsp. mucosalis has been elevated to the rank of species. C. mucosalis is metabolically closely related to C. consisus. Human pathogens have not been identified among C. sputorum, C. mucosalis, or C. concisus. The goal of this article is to review developments

  10. Molecular subtyping methods for campylobacter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter jejuni is a major cause worldwide of foodborne bacterial gastroenteritis. The continued development of more effective and informative typing methods is necessary to improve our understanding of the epidemiology and population dynamics of this important pathogen. Comparative genome ind...

  11. Comparison of mercury contamination in live and dead dolphins from a newly described species, Tursiops australis.

    PubMed

    Monk, Alissa; Charlton-Robb, Kate; Buddhadasa, Saman; Thompson, Ross M

    2014-01-01

    Globally it is estimated that up to 37% of all marine mammals are at a risk of extinction, due in particular to human impacts, including coastal pollution. Dolphins are known to be at risk from anthropogenic contaminants due to their longevity and high trophic position. While it is known that beach-cast animals are often high in contaminants, it has not been possible to determine whether levels may also be high in live animals from the same populations. In this paper we quantitatively assess mercury contamination in the two main populations of a newly described dolphin species from south eastern Australia, Tursiops australis. This species appear to be limited to coastal waters in close proximity to a major urban centre, and as such is likely to be vulnerable to anthropogenic pollution. For the first time, we were able to compare blubber mercury concentrations from biopsy samples of live individuals and necropsies of beach-cast animals and show that beach-cast animals were highly contaminated with mercury, at almost three times the levels found in live animals. Levels in live animals were also high, and are attributable to chronic low dose exposure to mercury from the dolphin's diet. Measurable levels of mercury were found in a number of important prey fish species. This illustrates the potential for low dose toxins in the environment to pass through marine food webs and potentially contribute to marine mammal deaths. This study demonstrates the potential use of blubber from biopsy samples to make inferences about the health of dolphins exposed to mercury. PMID:25137255

  12. Comparison of Mercury Contamination in Live and Dead Dolphins from a Newly Described Species, Tursiops australis

    PubMed Central

    Monk, Alissa; Charlton-Robb, Kate; Buddhadasa, Saman; Thompson, Ross M.

    2014-01-01

    Globally it is estimated that up to 37% of all marine mammals are at a risk of extinction, due in particular to human impacts, including coastal pollution. Dolphins are known to be at risk from anthropogenic contaminants due to their longevity and high trophic position. While it is known that beach-cast animals are often high in contaminants, it has not been possible to determine whether levels may also be high in live animals from the same populations. In this paper we quantitatively assess mercury contamination in the two main populations of a newly described dolphin species from south eastern Australia, Tursiops australis. This species appear to be limited to coastal waters in close proximity to a major urban centre, and as such is likely to be vulnerable to anthropogenic pollution. For the first time, we were able to compare blubber mercury concentrations from biopsy samples of live individuals and necropsies of beach-cast animals and show that beach-cast animals were highly contaminated with mercury, at almost three times the levels found in live animals. Levels in live animals were also high, and are attributable to chronic low dose exposure to mercury from the dolphin's diet. Measurable levels of mercury were found in a number of important prey fish species. This illustrates the potential for low dose toxins in the environment to pass through marine food webs and potentially contribute to marine mammal deaths. This study demonstrates the potential use of blubber from biopsy samples to make inferences about the health of dolphins exposed to mercury. PMID:25137255

  13. Mercury contamination in some marine biota species from Khuzestan shore, Persian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Mehdi; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad Bagher; Parsa, Yaghoob; Saadatmand, Maryam

    2016-07-01

    In this study, concentrations of mercury (Hg) were analyzed in some marine biota species (fish, shrimp, and crab) from Khuzestan shore, north part of the Persian Gulf. It was also our intention to evaluate potential risks to human health associated with seafood consumption. The results indicated that concentrations of Hg in the fish and crustacean were different among the species and tissues. Liver in fish and hepatopancreas in crustacean exhibited higher Hg concentration than the other tissues. The highest concentration of Hg was detected in Acanthopagrus latus liver (1.37 µg/g), followed by Labeo rohita (0.87 µg/g), Johnius belangerii (0.79 µg/g), and Barbus grypus (0.69 µg/g), respectively. Also the highest Hg concentrations were detected in shrimp species, Penaeus semisulcatus hepatopancreas (0.95 µg/g), followed by blue crab Portunus pelagicus (0.76 µg/g) and Metapenaues affinis (0.64 µg/g), respectively. The comparison indicated that benthic species were more contaminated than were other pelagic species. The results indicated that highest concentrations of Hg between different stations were detected in Musa estuary. The Hg concentration in all species were low than standards, expect in A. latus and P. semisulcatus collected from Musa estuary (S4). The variation in Hg levels among the species is likely to have resulted from metal bioavailability, changes in tissue composition, habitat,s and locations. PMID:25500758

  14. Potential of weed species applied to remediation of soils contaminated with heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Wei, Shu-He; Zhou, Qi-Xing; Wang, Xin; Cao, Wei; Ren, Li-Ping; Song, Yu-Fang

    2004-01-01

    To screen out a series of ideal plants that can effectively remedy contaminated soils by heavy metals is the main groundwork of phytoremediation engineering and the first step of its commercial application on a large scale. In this study, accumulation and endurance of 45 weed species in 16 families from an agricultural site were in situ examined by using the pot-culture field experiment, and the remediation potential of some weed species with high accumulation of heavy metals was assayed. The results showed that Solanum nigrum and Conyza canadensis can not only accumulate high concentration of Cd, but also strongly endure to single Cd and Cd-Pb-Cu-Zn combined pollution. Thus 2 weed species can be regarded as good hyperaccumulators for the remediation of Cd-contaminated soils. Although there were high Cd-accumulation in Artemigia selengensis, Znula britannica and Cephalanoplos setosum, their biomass was adversely affected due to action of heavy metals in the soils. If the problem of low endurance to heavy metals can be solved by a reinforcer, 3 weed species can be perhaps applied commercially. PMID:15559831

  15. Heavy-metal-contaminated industrial soil: Uptake assessment in native plant species from Brazilian Cerrado.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Sylvia Therese; Castro, Samuel Rodrigues; Fernandes, Marcus Manoel; Soares, Aylton Carlos; de Souza Freitas, Guilherme Augusto; Ribeiro, Edvan

    2016-08-01

    Plants of the Cerrado have shown some potential for restoration and/or phytoremediation projects due to their ability to grow in and tolerate acidic soils rich in metals. The aim of this study is to evaluate the tolerance and accumulation of metals (Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn) in five native tree species of the Brazilian Cerrado (Copaifera langsdorffii, Eugenia dysenterica, Inga laurina, Cedrela fissilis, Handroanthus impetiginosus) subjected to three experiments with contaminated soils obtained from a zinc processing industry (S1, S2, S3) and control soil (S0). The experimental design was completely randomized (factorial 5 × 4 × 3) and conducted in a greenhouse environment during a 90-day experimentation time. The plant species behavior was assessed by visual symptoms of toxicity, tolerance index (TI), translocation factor (TF), and bioaccumulation factor (BF). C. fissilis has performed as a Zn accumulator by the higher BFs obtained in the experiments, equal to 3.72, 0.88, and 0.41 for S1, S2, and S3 respectively. This species had some ability of uptake control as a defense mechanism in high stress conditions with the best behavior for phytoremediation and high tolerance to contamination. With economical and technical benefits, this study may support a preliminary analysis necessary for using native tree species in environmental projects. PMID:26852633

  16. The hyperosmotic stress response of Campylobacter jejuni

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The hyperosmotic stress response of Campylobacter jejuni: The diarrheal pathogen Campylobacter jejuni and other gastrointestinal bacteria encounter changes in osmolarity in the environment, through exposure to food processing, or upon entering host organisms, where osmotic adaptation can be associa...

  17. Comparative genomics of the Campylobacter lari group

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Campylobacter lari group is a phylogenetic clade within the epsilon subdivision of the Proteobacteria and is part of the thermotolerant campylobacters, a division within the genus that includes the human pathogen Campylobacter jejuni. The lari group is currently composed of five validly-named sp...

  18. Accumulation of polychlorinated organic contaminants from sediment by three benthic marine species

    SciTech Connect

    Pruell, R.J.; Rubinstein, N.I.; Taplin, B.K.; LiVolsi, J.A.; Bowen, R.D.

    1993-01-01

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to measure the accumulation of selected polychlorinated compounds by marine benthos exposed to environmentally contaminated sediment. Sandworms (Nereis virens), clams (Macoma nasuta), and grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio) were exposed to sediment collected from the Passaic River, New Jersey. All three species accumulated 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD), 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran (2,3,7,8-TCDF) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from the sediment. In addition, a recently identified sulfur containing analog of tetrachlorinated dibenzofurans. The objectives of the study were to determine the relative bioavailability of 2,3,7,8-TCDD, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran (2,3,7,8-TCDF) and selected PCB congeners from bottom sediments as well as to examine the relationship between contaminant concentrations in sediments and biota.

  19. Occurrence of ochratoxin a contamination and detection of ochratoxigenic aspergillus species in retail samples of dried fruits and nuts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin produced by several species of Aspergillus and Penicillium and is a potential contaminant of a wide variety of food products. To determine the incidence of OTA contamination in dried fruits and tree nuts, retail packaged and bulk raisins, dates, figs, prunes, almon...

  20. Efficacy of feed additives against Campylobacter in live broilers during the entire rearing period.

    PubMed

    Guyard-Nicodème, M; Keita, A; Quesne, S; Amelot, M; Poezevara, T; Le Berre, B; Sánchez, J; Vesseur, P; Martín, Á; Medel, P; Chemaly, Marianne

    2016-02-01

    Poultry meat is the major source of human campylobacteriosis, the most frequently reported zoonosis in the EU. The prevalence of Campylobacter colonization in European broiler flocks is 71%. Despite considerable efforts, there is still no effective strategy available to prevent or reduce Campylobacter colonization in broilers. This study tested a wide variety of feed additives to reduce Campylobacter shedding in primary poultry production. Twelve additives containing organic or fatty acids, monoglycerides, plant extracts, prebiotics, or probiotics were tested. For each additive, broilers contaminated with Campylobacter jejuni were fed with an additive free diet (control group) or with a supplemented diet (treated group) and Campylobacter loads compared at three sampling times. No treatment was able to prevent broiler colonization by Campylobacter, and there was a high degree of variation in contamination among the birds. At 14 d of age, eight treatments significantly decreased the colonization level compared to the control group by a maximum of 2 log10 CFU/g. At 35 d of age, three of these treatments still had a significant effect with a maximum reduction of 1.88 log10 CFU/g for a probiotic. At 42 d of age, only one short-chain fatty acid was still significantly efficient with a mean reduction over 2 log10 CFU/g. In addition, a probiotic and a prebiotic-like compound significantly decreased the contamination by a maximum of 3 log10 CFU/g, only at the 42-d sampling period. This study gives promising results regarding the use of feed additives to reduce Campylobacter infection in flocks. Nevertheless, a global approach, combining intervention measures at the different steps of the broiler meat production chain could have a greater impact on the reduction of public health risk. PMID:26706356

  1. Comparison of two freshwater turtle species as monitors of radionuclide and chemical contamination: DNA damage and residue analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers-Schoene, L. ); Shugart, L.R.; Beauchamp, J.J.; Walton, B.T. )

    1993-08-01

    Two species of turtles that occupy different ecological niches were compared for their usefulness as monitors of freshwater ecosystems where both low-level radioactive and nonradioactive contaminants are present. The pond slider (Trachemys scripta) and common snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina) were analyzed for the presence of [sup 90]Sr, [sup 137]Cs, [sup 60]Co, and Hg, radionuclides and chemicals known to be present at the contaminated site, and single-strand breaks in liver DNA. The integrity of the DNA was examined by the alkaline unwinding assay, a technique that detects strand breaks as a biological marker of possible exposure to genotoxic agents. This measure of DNA damage was significantly increased in both species of turtles at the contaminated site compared with turtles of the same species at a reference site, and shows that contaminant-exposed populations were under more severe genotoxic stress than those at the reference site. The level of strand breaks observed at the contaminated site was high and in the range reported for other aquatic species exposed to deleterious concentrations of genotoxic agents such as chemicals and ionizing radiation. Statistically significantly higher concentrations of radionuclides and Hg were detected in the turtles from the contaminated area. Mercury concentrations were significantly higher in the more carnivorous snapping turtle compared with the slider; however, both species were effective monitors of the contaminants.

  2. Lack of CYP1A responsiveness in species inhabiting chronically contaminated habitats: two varieties of resistance?

    PubMed

    Brammell, Ben F; Price, David J; Birge, Wesley J; Elskus, Adria A

    2013-03-01

    Organisms chronically exposed to organic pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) can develop resistance to these chemicals, a condition associated with reduced inducibility of the biomarker enzyme cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A). This study addresses the CYP1A response of members of the families Ictaluridae and Centrarchidae, two fish families found throughout much of the United States. We measured CYP1A expression, PCB body burdens, and conducted CYP1A challenge experiments in species from these families residing in the Town Branch/Mud River system (Logan County, KY, USA), a stream system historically contaminated with high levels of PCBs. Despite PCB concentrations in muscle tissue typically associated with elevated CYP1A (16.7 to 75.2μgPCB/g wet edible flesh), resident fish in the contaminated Town Branch/Mud River sites (yellow bullhead [Ameiurus natalis], green sunfish [Lepomis cyanellus], and spotted bass [Micropterus punctulatus]) had hepatic CYP1A activity levels similar to, rather than higher than, those in reference fish, suggesting reduced sensitivity to CYP1A induction. Lack of CYP1A expression following direct contaminant exposure has often been associated with resistance to those contaminants. To determine if CYP1A in resident populations was resistant to induction by PCBs, we exposed resident fish to a single, intraperitoneal injection with a potent CYP1A inducer, 3,4,3',4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB 77). PCB 77 treatment significantly induced hepatic CYP1A activity and protein in yellow bullhead from reference, but not contaminated, sites and had no effect on CYP1A in green sunfish from either site. The low CYP1A expression levels in resident fish with elevated PCB body burdens, together with the failure of PCB injection to induce CYP1A in certain populations, indicate an acclimatory CYP1A response in yellow bullheads and likely an inherently resistant CYP1A in green sunfish. This work demonstrates for the first time acclimation of CYP1A to

  3. Mussels (Perna perna) as bioindicator of environmental contamination by Cryptosporidium species with zoonotic potential.

    PubMed

    Mariné Oliveira, Geisi Ferreira; do Couto, Melissa Carvalho Machado; de Freitas Lima, Marcelo; do Bomfim, Teresa Cristina Bergamo

    2016-04-01

    Sources of contamination such as animal feces runoff, organic fertilizer application, and the release of partially treated or untreated sewage can lead to the contamination of aquatic environments by Cryptosporidium spp. The quality of mussels as food is closely related to the sanitary conditions of the marine environment where these bivalves are found. Marine mollusks are filter feeders that are able to retain Cryptosporidium oocysts in their tissue, thus functioning as bioindicators. A total of 72 pooled mussel samples of the species Perna perna were collected at two sites (A and B) in the municipality of Mangaratiba, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Sampling involved removal of 30 mussels, from each collection site every month for one year. The 30 mussels from each sampling were then allocated into three groups of 10. Two Cryptosporidium spp. genes (18S and GP60) were targeted for DNA amplification from the samples obtained. After purification, all of the products obtained were sequenced and phylogenetic analyses were performed. Of the 72 samples analyzed using the nested-PCR for the 18S gene target, 29.2% were positive for the presence of Cryptosporidium spp. Of these samples, 52.4% were collected at site A (ie 11/21) and 47.6% at site B (ie 10/21). The 18S genes of all the samples considered positive for Cryptosporidium spp. were sequenced, and the following three species were identified: Cryptosporidium parvum, C. meleagridis, and C. andersoni. Three distinct C. parvum subtypes (IIaA19G2R2; IIaA20G2R2; IIaA20G3R2) were identified using the GP60 gene. More studies to evaluate the zoonotic potential of this species should be performed as both sampling locations contain human and/or animal fecal contaminants. PMID:26977402

  4. Mussels (Perna perna) as bioindicator of environmental contamination by Cryptosporidium species with zoonotic potential

    PubMed Central

    Mariné Oliveira, Geisi Ferreira; do Couto, Melissa Carvalho Machado; de Freitas Lima, Marcelo; do Bomfim, Teresa Cristina Bergamo

    2016-01-01

    Sources of contamination such as animal feces runoff, organic fertilizer application, and the release of partially treated or untreated sewage can lead to the contamination of aquatic environments by Cryptosporidium spp. The quality of mussels as food is closely related to the sanitary conditions of the marine environment where these bivalves are found. Marine mollusks are filter feeders that are able to retain Cryptosporidium oocysts in their tissue, thus functioning as bioindicators. A total of 72 pooled mussel samples of the species Perna perna were collected at two sites (A and B) in the municipality of Mangaratiba, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Sampling involved removal of 30 mussels, from each collection site every month for one year. The 30 mussels from each sampling were then allocated into three groups of 10. Two Cryptosporidium spp. genes (18S and GP60) were targeted for DNA amplification from the samples obtained. After purification, all of the products obtained were sequenced and phylogenetic analyses were performed. Of the 72 samples analyzed using the nested-PCR for the 18S gene target, 29.2% were positive for the presence of Cryptosporidium spp. Of these samples, 52.4% were collected at site A (ie 11/21) and 47.6% at site B (ie 10/21). The 18S genes of all the samples considered positive for Cryptosporidium spp. were sequenced, and the following three species were identified: Cryptosporidium parvum, C. meleagridis, and C. andersoni. Three distinct C. parvum subtypes (IIaA19G2R2; IIaA20G2R2; IIaA20G3R2) were identified using the GP60 gene. More studies to evaluate the zoonotic potential of this species should be performed as both sampling locations contain human and/or animal fecal contaminants. PMID:26977402

  5. A feasibility study of perennial/annual plant species to restore soils contaminated with heavy metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zacarías, Montserrat; Beltrán, Margarita; Gilberto Torres, Luis; González, Abelardo

    A feasibility study was carried out to evaluate the application of perennial/annual plant species in a phytoextraction process of a previously washed industrial urban soil contaminated by nickel, arsenic and cupper. The plant species selected for this study were Ipomea (Ipomea variada); grass (Poa pratensis); grass mixture (Festuca rubra, Cynodon dactylon, Lolium multiforum, Pennisetum sp.); Monks Cress (Tropaeolum majus); ficus (Ficus benajamina) and fern (Pteris cretica). Soil was characterized and it presented the following heavy metals concentrations (dry weight): 80 mg of Ni/kg, 456-656 mg of As/kg and 1684-3166 mg of Cu/kg. Germination and survival in contaminated soil tests were conducted, from these, P. pratensis was discarded and the rest of plant species tested were used for the phytoextraction selection test. After 4 months of growth, biomass production was determined, and content of Ni, As and Cu was analyzed in plant’s tissue. Metal biological absorption coefficient (BAC), bio-concentration factor (BCF) and translocation factor (TF), were calculated. Regarding to biomass generation it was observed, in every case, an inhibition of the plant growth compared with blanks sown in a non contaminated soil; inhibition ranged from 22.5% for the Monk cress to 98% for Ipomea. Even though the later presented high BAC, BCF and TF, its growth was severely inhibited, and therefore, due its low biomass generation, it is not recommended for phytoextraction under conditions for this study. Heavy metals concentrations in plant’s tissue (dry weight) were as high as 866 mg Cu/kg and 602 mg As/kg for grass mixture; and 825 mg As/kg was observed for Monks cress. Grass mixture and monks cress had high BAC, BCF and TF, also they had high metal concentrations in its plants tissues and the lowest growth inhibition rates; hence the application in phytoextraction processes of these plants is advisable.

  6. Antibacterial effect of trans-cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, carvacrol, and thymol on Salmonella Enteritidis and Campylobacter jejuni in chicken cecal contents in vitro

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella Enteritidis and Campylobacter jejuni are two major food-borne pathogens that are transmitted through poultry products. These pathogens colonize the chicken cecum leading, to contamination of carcasses during slaughter and subsequent processing operations. We investigated the antimicrobial...

  7. Mercury Contamination in an Indicator Fish Species from Andean Amazonian Rivers Affected by Petroleum Extraction.

    PubMed

    Webb, Jena; Coomes, Oliver T; Mainville, Nicolas; Mergler, Donna

    2015-09-01

    Elevated mercury (Hg) concentrations in fish from Amazonia have been associated with gold-mining, hydroelectric dams and deforestation but few studies consider the role of petroleum extraction. Hg levels were determined in fish samples collected in three river basins in Ecuador and Peru with contrasting petroleum exploitation and land-use characteristics. The non-migratory, piscivorous species, Hoplias malabaricus, was used as a bioindicator. The rate of Hg increase with body weight for this species was significantly higher on the Corrientes River, near the site of a recent oil spill, than on the other two rivers. In the absence of substantial deforestation and other anthropogenic sources in the Corrientes River basin, this finding suggests that oil contamination in Andean Amazonia may have a significant impact on Hg levels in fish. PMID:26205230

  8. Forest floor leachate fluxes under six different tree species on a metal contaminated site.

    PubMed

    Van Nevel, Lotte; Mertens, Jan; De Schrijver, An; Baeten, Lander; De Neve, Stefaan; Tack, Filip M G; Meers, Erik; Verheyen, Kris

    2013-03-01

    Trees play an important role in the biogeochemical cycling of metals, although the influence of different tree species on the mobilization of metals is not yet clear. This study examined effects of six tree species on fluxes of Cd, Zn, DOC, H(+) and base cations in forest floor leachates on a metal polluted site in Belgium. Forest floor leachates were sampled with zero-tension lysimeters in a 12-year-old post-agricultural forest on a sandy soil. The tree species included were silver birch (Betula pendula), oak (Quercus robur and Q. petraea), black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia), aspen (Populus tremula), Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii). We show that total Cd fluxes in forest floor leachate under aspen were slightly higher than those in the other species' leachates, yet the relative differences between the species were considerably smaller when looking at dissolved Cd fluxes. The latter was probably caused by extremely low H(+) amounts leaching from aspen's forest floor. No tree species effect was found for Zn leachate fluxes. We expected higher metal leachate fluxes under aspen as its leaf litter was significantly contaminated with Cd and Zn. We propose that the low amounts of Cd and Zn leaching under aspen's forest floor were possibly caused by high activity of soil biota, for example burrowing earthworms. Furthermore, our results reveal that Scots pine and oak were characterized by high H(+) and DOC fluxes as well as low base cation fluxes in their forest floor leachates, implying that those species might enhance metal mobilization in the soil profile and thus bear a potential risk for belowground metal dispersion. PMID:23376521

  9. Low-cost monitoring of Campylobacter in poultry houses by air sampling and quantitative PCR.

    PubMed

    Søndergaard, M S R; Josefsen, M H; Löfström, C; Christensen, L S; Wieczorek, K; Osek, J; Hoorfar, J

    2014-02-01

    The present study describes the evaluation of a method for the quantification of Campylobacter by air sampling in poultry houses. Sampling was carried out in conventional chicken houses in Poland, in addition to a preliminary sampling in Denmark. Each measurement consisted of three air samples, two standard boot swab fecal samples, and one airborne particle count. Sampling was conducted over an 8-week period in three flocks, assessing the presence and levels of Campylobacter in boot swabs and air samples using quantitative real-time PCR. The detection limit for air sampling was approximately 100 Campylobacter cell equivalents (CCE)/m3. Airborne particle counts were used to analyze the size distribution of airborne particles (0.3 to 10 μm) in the chicken houses in relation to the level of airborne Campylobacter. No correlation was found. Using air sampling, Campylobacter was detected in the flocks right away, while boot swab samples were positive after 2 weeks. All samples collected were positive for Campylobacter from week 2 through the rest of the rearing period for both sampling techniques, although levels 1- to 2-log CCE higher were found with air sampling. At week 8, the levels were approximately 10(4) and 10(5) CCE per sample for boot swabs and air, respectively. In conclusion, using air samples combined with quantitative real-time PCR, Campylobacter contamination could be detected earlier than by boot swabs and was found to be a more convenient technique for monitoring and/or to obtain enumeration data useful for quantitative risk assessment of Campylobacter. PMID:24490929

  10. Screening of native plant species for phytoremediation potential at a Hg-contaminated mining site.

    PubMed

    Marrugo-Negrete, José; Marrugo-Madrid, Siday; Pinedo-Hernández, José; Durango-Hernández, José; Díez, Sergi

    2016-01-15

    Artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) is the largest sector of demand for mercury (Hg), and therefore, one of the major sources of Hg pollution in the environment. This study was conducted in the Alacrán gold-mining site, one of the most important ASGM sites in Colombia, to identify native plant species growing in Hg-contaminated soils used for agricultural purposes, and to assess their potential as phytoremediation systems. Twenty-four native plant species were identified and analysed for total Hg (THg) in different tissues (roots, stems, and leaves) and in underlying soils. Accumulation factors (AF) in the shoots, translocation (TF) from roots to shoots, and bioconcentration (BCF) from soil-to-roots were determined. Different tissues from all plant species were classified in the order of decreasing accumulation of Hg as follows: roots > leaves > stems. THg concentrations in soil ranged from 230 to 6320 ng g(-1). TF values varied from 0.33 to 1.73, with high values in the lower Hg-contaminated soils. No correlation was found between soils with low concentrations of Hg and plant leaves, indicating that TF is not a very accurate indicator, since most of the Hg input to leaves at ASGM sites comes from the atmosphere. On the other hand, the BCF ranged from 0.28 to 0.99, with Jatropha curcas showing the highest value. Despite their low biomass production, several herbs and sub-shrubs are suitable for phytoremediation application in the field, due to their fast growth and high AF values in large and easily harvestable plant parts. Among these species, herbs such as Piper marginathum and Stecherus bifidus, and the sub-shrubs J. curcas and Capsicum annuum are promising native plants with the potential to be used in the phytoremediation of soils in tropical areas that are impacted by mining. PMID:26556744