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Sample records for campylobacter spp isolated

  1. Invasion Assays and Genomotyping to Investigate Differences in Virulence of Campylobacter spp. Isolates from Iceland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter spp. are the leading cause of human gastroenteritis worldwide. Epithelial cell invasion is thought to be essential for Campylobacter spp. infection. Previous invasion studies with intestinal epithelial cells revealed that the ability of different Campylobacter jejuni isolates to inva...

  2. Evaluation of Eukaryotic Cell Invasion on a Library of Genetically Diverse Campylobacter spp. Isolates.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter spp. are the largest cause of sporadic bacterial gastrointestinal infection in the industrialized world. Epithelial cell invasion is thought to be necessary to bring about infection in humans. Invasion studies have shown that different Campylobacter jejuni isolates may differ in thei...

  3. Prevalence of Campylobacter spp. isolated from grower-finisher pigs in Ontario

    PubMed Central

    Varela, Norma P.; Friendship, Robert M.; Dewey, Cate E.

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed to establish the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in 80 Ontario grower-finisher pig herds. Ninety-nine percent of the isolates yielded Campylobacter, C. coli being the most common species detected. Control of this microorganism must rely on careful food processing and storage of pork, rather than on an on-farm approach. PMID:17542372

  4. Prevalence and biomolecular characterization of Campylobacter spp. isolated from retail meat.

    PubMed

    Sammarco, Michela Lucia; Ripabelli, Giancarlo; Fanelli, Incoronata; Grasso, Guido Maria; Tamburro, Manuela

    2010-04-01

    We estimated the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in retail meat (n = 352 samples; 104 chicken, 106 pork, and 142 beef) collected in Campobasso, Italy, comparing two microbiological methods. All the isolates were characterized by biomolecular techniques for epidemiological purposes. Campylobacter isolation was performed by selective culture and membrane filtration methods. Phenotypic and genotypic methods for genus and species identification were evaluated together with antimicrobial resistance and plasmid profiling. Sixty-nine (86.2%) samples were positive by selective culture, 49 (61.2%) by membrane filtration, and 38 (47.5%) by both methods. Only 74 of 80 strains were confirmed as Campylobacter spp. by PCR, and two Campylobacter coli were identified as Campylobacter jejuni. Chicken meat was more frequently contaminated than other meats. Selective culture was more sensitive than membrane filtration (85 versus 66%), and specificity of the methods was 98 and 100%, respectively. Among Campylobacter isolates from chicken meat, 86.5% were multidrug resistant. Resistance to ciprofloxacin (51.3%) and enrofloxacin (52.7%) was lower than to nalidixic acid (71.6%). C. coli strains showed the highest cross-resistance for quinolones (82.6%) and fluoroquinolones (60.9%) as well as a high resistance to tetracycline. Plasmids were isolated from six C. coli and two C. jejuni isolates, but no association was detected between antimicrobial resistance and plasmid DNA carriage. Selective culture is considered as the optimal method for Campylobacter isolation, although it was unable to detect all contaminated samples. Membrane filtration provided more specific results but with low sensitivity. A combination of both techniques may offer better results. PMID:20377962

  5. Genomotype Analyses for the Investigation of Campylobacter spp. Isolates with Distinct flaA Alleles of Recovered from Iceland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Gram-negative bacteria, Campylobacter jejuni, is the leading bacterial etiology of acute gastroenteritis in humans. Evidence implicates poultry as a potential source of the organism for human illness. Campylobacter spp. isolates vary in their virulence properties and recent comparative phyloge...

  6. Genotype analysis of Campylobacter spp. isolated from various internal organs of commercial broiler breeder hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter spp. are presently believed to be the leading bacterial etiological agent of acute gastroenteritis in the human population. Evidence implicates poultry as a significant source of the organism for human illness; however, the pathways involved in Campylobacter spp. contamination of poul...

  7. Resistance to antimicrobial agents of Campylobacter spp. strains isolated from animals in Poland.

    PubMed

    Krutkiewicz, A; Sałamaszyńska-Guz, A; Rzewuska, M; Klimuszko, D; Binek, M

    2009-01-01

    A total of 69 Campylobacter jejuni and 16 Campylobacter coli strains isolated from chicken, dog and pig stool samples were characterized based on their resistance to five antimicrobial agents and on plasmid pTet profiles. Antimicrobials used in this study were: amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, tetracycline and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. Among the isolates studied, 91.7% were resistant to one or more antimicrobial agent. The highest level of resistance for the whole test group was to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (57.6%), followed by ciprofloxacin (44.2%) and tetracycline (20%). All isolates were susceptible to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid. Strains isolated from chickens were susceptible to erythromycin. Few erythromycin-resistant strains were isolated from dogs and pigs (5.8%). C. coli strains exhibited a higher antibiotic resistance than C. jejuni strains, excluding resistance to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. The pTet plasmid harboring the tet(O) gene was detected in 14 Campylobacter spp. strains. Our studies demonstrate that the majority (71.4%) of tetracycline-resistant isolates carry a plasmid-borne tet(O) gene, particularly strains for which the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) are > or = 256 microg/ml. In conclusion, we have found high-level trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, ciprofloxacin and tetracycline resistance in Polish strains isolated from different sources. This study has demonstrated that resistance of Campylobacter species differs depending on both the bacterial species and animal origins. All strains that displayed resistance to four antimicrobial agents were isolated from pigs. Localization of the tet(O) gene on either plasmid or chromosome was not found to be correlated with tetracycline resistance. PMID:20169919

  8. Comparison of Prevalence and Antimicrobial Susceptibilities of Campylobacter spp. Isolates from Organic and Conventional Dairy Herds in Wisconsin

    PubMed Central

    Sato, K.; Bartlett, P. C.; Kaneene, J. B.; Downes, F. P.

    2004-01-01

    The prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibilities of Campylobacter spp. isolates from bovine feces were compared between organic and conventional dairy herds. Thirty organic dairy herds, where antimicrobials are rarely used for calves and never used for cows, were compared with 30 neighboring conventional dairy farms, where antimicrobials were routinely used for animals for all ages. Fecal specimens from 10 cows and 10 calves on 120 farm visits yielded 332 Campylobacter isolates. The prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in organic and conventional farms was 26.7 and 29.1%, and the prevalence was not statistically different between the two types of farms. Campylobacter prevalence was significantly higher in March than in September, higher in calves than in cows, and higher in smaller farms than in large farms. The rates of retained placenta, pneumonia, mastitis, and abortion were associated with the proportion of Campylobacter isolation from fecal samples. The gradient disk diffusion MIC method (Etest) was used for testing susceptibility to four antimicrobial agents: ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, erythromycin, and tetracycline. Two isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin, and none of isolates was resistant to gentamicin or erythromycin. Resistance to tetracycline was 45% (148 of 332 isolates). Tetracycline resistance was found more frequently in calves than in cows (P = 0.042), but no difference was observed between organic and conventional farms. When we used Campylobacter spp. as indicator bacteria, we saw no evidence that restriction of antimicrobial use on dairy farms was associated with prevalence of resistance to ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, erythromycin, and tetracycline. PMID:15006764

  9. [Campylobacter spp.: prevalence and pheno-genotypic characterization of isolates recovered from patients suffering from diarrhea and their pets in La Pampa Province, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Tamborini, Ana L; Casabona, Luis M; Viñas, María R; Asato, Valeria; Hoffer, Alicia; Farace, María I; Lucero, María C; Corso, Alejandra; Pichel, Mariana

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of Campylobacter spp. was investigated in 327 patients suffering from diarrhea and in 36 animals (dogs, cats and chickens) owned by the patients that presented infection by Campylobacter in Santa Rosa, La Pampa, Argentina. Campylobacter spp. was isolated in 50/327 patients and in 12/36 animals, being Campylobacter jejuni the most common species. Resistance to ciprofloxacin (65 %) and tetracycline (32 %) was found among 35 isolates of human origin studied. Seven genetic subtypes were observed among 13 C. jejuni isolates by pulsed field gel electrophoresis. Two subtypes grouped isolates belonging to patients and their respective dogs whereas another subtype grouped one isolate of human origin and two isolates from the patient's chickens. The results of this investigation highlight the need to strengthen surveillance of Campylobacter spp. not only in poultry, which is recognized as the main reservoir, but also in pets, which were shown to be asymptomatic carriers of the pathogen. PMID:23267623

  10. Prevalence of thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. in farmed hares (Lepus europaeus).

    PubMed

    Santaniello, Antonio; Dipineto, Ludovico; Veneziano, Vincenzo; Mariani, Ugo; Fioretti, Alessandro; Menna, Lucia Francesca

    2014-10-01

    Thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. were isolated from 118/240 (49.2%) rectal swabs from commercially farmed hares (Lepus europaeus) in southern Italy. Using multiplex PCR, Campylobacter coli was identified in 118/118 (100%) positive samples, while 17/118 (14.4%) positive samples were also positive for Campylobacter jejuni. Adult hares had a higher prevalence of infection with Campylobacter spp. than juvenile hares. PMID:25168717

  11. Molecular Phylogeny of the flaA Short Variable Region and invasiveness among Campylobacter spp. isolated from the blood and ceca of commercial broilers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter spp. have been recovered from several internal tissues of broilers and broiler breeders including aseptic recovery from the circulating blood of commercial broilers. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the genetic relatedness of the Campylobacter isolates obtained from the c...

  12. Enrichment culture for the isolation of Campylobacter spp: Effects of incubation conditions and the inclusion of blood in selective broths.

    PubMed

    Williams, Lisa K; Jørgensen, Frieda; Grogono-Thomas, Rose; Humphrey, Tom J

    2009-03-31

    Isolation of Campylobacter spp. using enrichment culture is time consuming and complex. Reducing the time taken to confirm the presence or absence of Campylobacter spp. would have many advantages for diagnostic, commercial and research applications. Rapid techniques such as real-time PCR can detect campylobacters from complex samples but blood in enrichment culture can inhibit the PCR reaction, if applied directly to enriched samples. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of blood in enrichment culture on the isolation of campylobacters from chicken caeca, carcass rinses and bootsock (gauze sock walked through a broiler chicken house) samples using Bolton broth. The effect of incubation temperature (37 degrees C or 41.5 degrees C for 48 h, or 37 degrees C for 4 h then transfer to 41.5 degrees C for 44 h) and method of generating atmosphere (incubation of container in jar gassed with microaerobic atmosphere or incubation of container with small headspace and tightly screwed lid in an aerobic atmosphere) with and without blood on isolation from chicken carcass rinses and chicken faeces was also investigated. The presence of blood in enrichment culture did not improve the isolation of campylobacters from chicken faeces or bootsock samples but significantly improved recovery from chicken carcass rinse samples. There was no significant effect of the method used to generate incubation atmosphere. Isolation rates did also not depend significantly on whether broths were incubated at 37 or 41.5 degrees C for 24 or 48 h. Overall, the presence of blood in such media is not essential, although isolation can vary depending on sample type and enrichment method used. PMID:19217181

  13. Genotype analysis of Campylobacter spp. isolated from various internal organs and unabsorbed yolks of commercial broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter spp. are presently believed to be the leading bacterial etiological agent of acute gastroenteritis in the human population. Evidence implicates poultry as a significant source of the organism for human illness; however, the pathways involved in Campylobacter spp. contamination of poul...

  14. Improved protocol for isolation of Campylobacter spp. from retail broiler meat and use of pulsed field gel electrophoresis for the typing of isolates.

    PubMed

    Oyarzabal, Omar A; Williams, Aretha; Zhou, Ping; Samadpour, Mansour

    2013-10-01

    To improve the detection of Campylobacter spp. in retail broiler meat, a reference method (R subsamples) based on the enrichment of 25 g of meat in Bolton broth at 42°C under microaerobiosis was compared with an alternative method (A subsamples) consisting in the rinsing of meat samples for 30s in buffered peptone water with antimicrobials with incubation at 42°C under aerobiosis. One piece of meat (breasts, tenderloins and thighs) was rinse in experiment 1 (A1) and two pieces in experiment 2 (A2). Campylobacter spp. were isolated on agar plates and identified by PCR. Retail samples in Alabama had less prevalence (P ≤ 0.05) than samples in the state of Washington. The percentage of positive was higher (P ≤ 0.05) in A than in R subsamples and rinsing two pieces of meat yielded the highest percentage of positive subsamples. R subsamples showed variations in the prevalence by product. However, A subsamples had similar prevalence of positives among products compare to the result from reference method. More Campylobacter coli isolates were collected in A2 subsamples. Pulse field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was used as subtyping method to study the genome similarity among the isolates from all methods. A larger diversity of isolates were detected by PFGE in A2 subsamples. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis suggested that the initial bacterial populations of the meat samples impact the final bacterial profile after enrichment. Rinsing broiler meats was less time consuming, required less sample preparation and was more sensitive than the reference method for the isolation of naturally occurring Campylobacter spp. This new method could help with epidemiological and intervention studies to control Campylobacter spp. PMID:23545445

  15. Development of a selective agar plate for the detection of Campylobacter spp. in fresh produce.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jin-Hee; Choi, Na-Young; Bae, Young-Min; Lee, Jung-Su; Lee, Sun-Young

    2014-10-17

    This study was conducted to develop a selective medium for the detection of Campylobacter spp. in fresh produce. Campylobacter spp. (n=4), non-Campylobacter (showing positive results on Campylobacter selective agar) strains (n=49) isolated from fresh produce, indicator bacteria (n=13), and spoilage bacteria isolated from fresh produce (n=15) were plated on four Campylobacter selective media. Bolton agar and modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate agar (mCCDA) exhibited higher sensitivity for Campylobacter spp. than did Preston agar and Hunt agar, although certain non-Campylobacter strains isolated from fresh produce by using a selective agar isolation method, were still able to grow on Bolton agar and mCCDA. To inhibit the growth of non-Campylobacter strains, Bolton agar and mCCDA were supplemented with 5 antibiotics (rifampicin, polymyxin B, sodium metabisulfite, sodium pyruvate, ferrous sulfate) and the growth of Campylobacter spp. (n=7) and non-Campylobacter strains (n=44) was evaluated. Although Bolton agar supplemented with rifampicin (BR agar) exhibited a higher selectivity for Campylobacter spp. than did mCCDA supplemented with antibiotics, certain non-Campylobacter strains were still able to grow on BR agar (18.8%). When BR agar with various concentrations of sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim were tested with Campylobacter spp. (n=8) and non-Campylobacter (n=7), sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim was inhibitory against 3 of 7 non-Campylobacter strains. Finally, we validated the use of BR agar containing 50mg/L sulfamethoxazole (BRS agar) or 0.5mg/L ciprofloxacin (BRCS agar) and other selective agars for the detection of Campylobacter spp. in chicken and fresh produce. All chicken samples were positive for Campylobacter spp. when tested on mCCDA, BR agar, and BRS agar. In fresh produce samples, BRS agar exhibited the highest selectivity for Campylobacter spp., demonstrating its suitability for the detection of Campylobacter spp. in fresh produce. PMID:25126968

  16. Antibiotic resistance and polymorphism in the quinolone resistance-determining region of Campylobacter spp. isolated from 1-day-old ducklings.

    PubMed

    Hamed, Engy A; AbdelRahman, Mona A A; Shalaby, Azhar G; Morsy, Mai M; Nasef, Soad A

    2016-05-01

    Thirty-three isolates of Campylobacter coli and three isolates of Campylobacter jejuni were recovered from 150 1-day-old ducklings. All isolates were sensitive to chloramphenicol and amikacin, but resistant to sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (SXT) by the disc diffusion method. Most isolates were susceptible to tetracycline and erythromycin, but resistant to ofloxacin and ciprofloxacin. Of the 33 C. coli isolates, nine were positive for the tetracycline resistance gene tet(O), although only two of these were resistant to tetracycline in the disc diffusion test. None of the isolates possessed mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining region (QRDR) of the gyrA gene infrequently linked to FQ-resistance. The finding indicated that ducklings may be a source of antibiotic resistant Campylobacter spp. with potential poultry and public health hazard. PMID:27068149

  17. Prevalence, Haemolytic and Haemagglutination Activities and Antibiotic Susceptibility Profiles of Campylobacter spp. Isolated from Human Diarrhoeal Stools in Vhembe District, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Samie, A.; Ramalivhana, J.; Igumbor, E.O.; Obi, C.L.

    2007-01-01

    Campylobacter species are increasingly being recognized as agents of gastroenteritis worldwide. However, data on the pathogenic characteristics of the organism isolated in rural communities in South Africa are lacking. In this study, the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. from diarrhoeal stools, haemolytic and haemagglutinating activities of the isolates, and antibiotic susceptibility profiles, including minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) patterns to different antibiotics, were determined using the standard microbiological techniques. Campylobacter spp. were isolated from individuals of all age-groups; however, the infection rate was higher among individuals aged less than two years (30.4%). Of 115 Campylobacter strains isolated, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis indicated that 98 (85%) were C. jejuni, while 17 (15%) were C. coli. Seventy-one (62%) of the strains showed haemolysis on human blood, and 80% agglutinated human blood, whereas 22.6% were β-lactamase-positive. Resistance to antimicrobials, such as erythromycin, ciprofloxacin, vancomycin, and fusidic acid, was high. Increased resistance to macrolide and quinolone antibiotics poses major risks for treatment failure. Haemolytic and haemagglutinating activities may be useful in preliminary characterization of pathogenic strains in settings where Campylobacter-associated infections are common. PMID:18402183

  18. Evaluation of antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter spp. isolated from broiler carcasses.

    PubMed

    Ferro, I D; Benetti, T M; Oliveira, T C R M; Abrahão, W M; Farah, S M S S; Luciano, F B; Macedo, R E F

    2015-01-01

    1. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter strains (C. jejuni, C. coli and C. lari) isolated from broiler carcasses processed in the State of Paraná, Brazil. 2. Rates of microbial resistance and susceptibility were assessed by both Disk Diffusion (DD) and Etest (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration) techniques. Antibiotics were tested using DD (12 antibiotics) and/or MIC (7 antibiotics) methods. 3. A total of 95.8% of the strains were resistant to at least two agents. In terms of multidrug resistance, 75% of strains were resistant to three or more groups of antibiotics. The highest rates of resistance were detected for cefalotin, ciprofloxacin, tetracycline and nalidixic acid. A high rate of susceptibility of the strains to erythromycin (95.8%) was found confirming that this is considered the agent of choice for treating campylobacteriosis. Comparison of the microbial resistance and susceptibility, as determined simultaneously by the two methods, found the techniques to be statistically equivalent for 5 out of the 6 antibiotics tested. 4. The results of this study suggest the need for adopting measures to control the use of antibiotics in broiler production to prevent multidrug resistance of Campylobacter strains and reduce the risk of serious human diseases caused by the consumption of contaminated chicken meat. PMID:25567139

  19. Comparison of gauze swabs and membrane filters for isolation of Campylobacter spp. from surface water.

    PubMed Central

    el-Sherbeeny, M R; Bopp, C; Wells, J G; Morris, G K

    1985-01-01

    The epidemiology of Campylobacter jejuni indicates that waterborne transmission is important; the organism has been isolated from seawater, fresh water, and estuarine sites. Membrane filtration, with and without use of an enrichment broth, has been the most common method for isolating C. jejuni from water. We evaluated two methods for isolating C. jejuni from water: membrane filtration and gauze filtration. The membrane filters evaluated included 0.22- and 0.45-micron-pore Millipore filters (Millipore Corp., Bedford, Mass.), 0.2- and 0.4-micron-pore Nuclepore filters (Nucleopore Corp., Pleasanton, Calif.), and a 0.45-micron-pore Zetapor filters (AMF Cuno, Meridian, Conn.). The gauze filters included both Moore and Spira swabs. Of the membrane filters evaluated, the 0.45-micron-pore Millipore and Zetapor filters were the most sensitive for recovery of C. jejuni from seeded waters. The 0.45-micron-pore Millipore filter placed in Oosterom broth was better for recovery of C. jejuni from seeded stationary surface waters than either the Spira or Moore swab. However, the 0.45-micron-pore Millipore filter placed on a plate or in enrichment broth was equivalent to the Spira gauze swab when used to examine water from Atlanta area streams. C. jejuni organisms were isolated from 9 of 24 surface water samples representing 5 of 12 streams. PMID:4073894

  20. Study on the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. from chicken meat in Hanoi, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Luu, Quynh Huong; Tran, Thi Hanh; Phung, Dac Cam; Nguyen, Thi Be

    2006-10-01

    Campylobacter spp. is considered to be the most common bacterial cause of human gastroenteritis worldwide. In developing countries, Campylobacter spp. diarrhea is an important cause of childhood morbidity. Chicken meat is known to be a major source of Campylobacteriosis infection in the world. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in chicken meat. A total of 100 samples from breast part of chicken carcass were collected from retail market in Hanoi. The samples were taken for bacteriological analysis following the ISO 10272 standards. Thirty one samples (31%) were found positive for Campylobacter spp. The most frequently isolated Campylobacter was Campylobacter jejuni (45.2%) followed by Campylobacter coli (25.8%). Due to high contamination rates of retail chicken products, special attention must be paid to good manufacturing practices of food processors and vendors. Further studies should be done to assess the risk factors of Campylobacter spp. contamination in the Vietnamese fowl production chain. PMID:17135525

  1. Multicenter Evaluation of Clinical Diagnostic Methods for Detection and Isolation of Campylobacter spp. from Stool.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Collette; Patrick, Mary; Gonzalez, Anthony; Akin, Joshua; Polage, Christopher R; Wymore, Kate; Gillim-Ross, Laura; Xavier, Karen; Sadlowski, Jennifer; Monahan, Jan; Hurd, Sharon; Dahlberg, Suzanne; Jerris, Robert; Watson, Renee; Santovenia, Monica; Mitchell, David; Harrison, Cassandra; Tobin-D'Angelo, Melissa; DeMartino, Mary; Pentella, Michael; Razeq, Jafar; Leonard, Celere; Jung, Carrianne; Achong-Bowe, Ria; Evans, Yaaqobah; Jain, Damini; Juni, Billie; Leano, Fe; Robinson, Trisha; Smith, Kirk; Gittelman, Rachel M; Garrigan, Charles; Nachamkin, Irving

    2016-05-01

    The use of culture-independent diagnostic tests (CIDTs), such as stool antigen tests, as standalone tests for the detection of Campylobacter in stool is increasing. We conducted a prospective, multicenter study to evaluate the performance of stool antigen CIDTs compared to culture and PCR for Campylobacter detection. Between July and October 2010, we tested 2,767 stool specimens from patients with gastrointestinal illness with the following methods: four types of Campylobacter selective media, four commercial stool antigen assays, and a commercial PCR assay. Illnesses from which specimens were positive by one or more culture media or at least one CIDT and PCR were designated "cases." A total of 95 specimens (3.4%) met the case definition. The stool antigen CIDTs ranged from 79.6% to 87.6% in sensitivity, 95.9 to 99.5% in specificity, and 41.3 to 84.3% in positive predictive value. Culture alone detected 80/89 (89.9% sensitivity) Campylobacter jejuni/Campylobacter coli-positive cases. Of the 209 noncases that were positive by at least one CIDT, only one (0.48%) was positive by all four stool antigen tests, and 73% were positive by just one stool antigen test. The questionable relevance of unconfirmed positive stool antigen CIDT results was supported by the finding that noncases were less likely than cases to have gastrointestinal symptoms. Thus, while the tests were convenient to use, the sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value of Campylobacter stool antigen tests were highly variable. Given the relatively low incidence of Campylobacter disease and the generally poor diagnostic test characteristics, this study calls into question the use of commercially available stool antigen CIDTs as standalone tests for direct detection of Campylobacter in stool. PMID:26962088

  2. Influence of enrichment and isolation media on the detection of Campylobacter spp. in naturally contaminated chicken samples.

    PubMed

    Repérant, E; Laisney, M J; Nagard, B; Quesne, S; Rouxel, S; Le Gall, F; Chemaly, M; Denis, M

    2016-09-01

    Investigating Campylobacter epidemiology requires adequate technique and media to ensure optimal culturing and accurate detection and isolation of Campylobacter strains. In the present study, we investigated the performances of three enrichment durations in Bolton broth (0, 24 and 48h) and compared four isolation media (mCCDA, Karmali, Butzler no. 2 and CampyFood agar (CFA)) for the detection of Campylobacter positive samples and the identification of Campylobacter species, from naturally contaminated broiler chicken samples (caeca, neck skin from carcasses, and skin from thighs). We compared our local results to those we obtained with samples from a European survey (caeca and neck skin) and a national survey (neck skin, thigh skin, and breast). Direct plating favored the detection of positive samples highly contaminated by Campylobacter (caeca and neck skin from carcasses) whatever the media. A longer enrichment reduced the rates of Campylobacter recovery except when using Butzler no. 2, more particularly for neck skin which background microflora was less important than in caeca. As a matter of fact, enrichment allowed a higher detection rate of positive samples with low Campylobacter contamination levels (breast, thigh skin), this detection being enhanced when using Butzler no. 2. When comparing the 3 other selective media, CFA was the 2nd most efficient media prior to mCCDA and Karmali. Interestingly, enrichment promoted the growth of Campylobacter coli but this promotion was least with Butzler no. 2 agar. Our study has confirmed the need to adapt the method to the types of samples for improving the detection of Campylobacter and that the method may affect the prevalence of the species. PMID:27373751

  3. A simplified and cost-effective enrichment protocol for the isolation of Campylobacter spp. from retail broiler meat without microaerobic incubation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background To simplify the methodology for the isolation of Campylobacter spp. from retail broiler meat, we evaluated 108 samples (breasts and thighs) using an unpaired sample design. The enrichment broths were incubated under aerobic conditions (subsamples A) and for comparison under microaerobic conditions (subsamples M) as recommended by current reference protocols. Sensors were used to measure the dissolved oxygen (DO) in the broth and the percentage of oxygen (O2) in the head space of the bags used for enrichment. Campylobacter isolates were identified with multiplex PCR assays and typed using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Ribosomal intergenic spacer analyses (RISA) and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) were used to study the bacterial communities of subsamples M and A after 48 h enrichment. Results The number of Campylobacter positive subsamples were similar for A and M when all samples were combined (P = 0.81) and when samples were analyzed by product (breast: P = 0.75; thigh: P = 1.00). Oxygen sensors showed that DO values in the broth were around 6 ppm and O2 values in the head space were 14-16% throughout incubation. PFGE demonstrated high genomic similarity of isolates in the majority of the samples in which isolates were obtained from subsamples A and M. RISA and DGGE results showed a large variability in the bacterial populations that could be attributed to sample-to-sample variations and not enrichment conditions (aerobic or microaerobic). These data also suggested that current sampling protocols are not optimized to determine the true number of Campylobacter positive samples in retail boiler meat. Conclusions Decreased DO in enrichment broths is naturally achieved. This simplified, cost-effective enrichment protocol with aerobic incubation could be incorporated into reference methods for the isolation of Campylobacter spp. from retail broiler meat. PMID:21812946

  4. Rapid identification and classification of Campylobacter spp. using laser optical scattering technology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli are the two important species responsible for most of the Campylobacter infections in humans. Reliable isolation and detection of Campylobacter spp. from food samples are challenging due to the interferences from complex food substances and the fastidious growth requ...

  5. Epidemiological aspects of enteritis due to Campylobacter spp. in Norway.

    PubMed Central

    Lassen, J; Kapperud, G

    1984-01-01

    Data pertaining to 249 patients with stool cultures positive for thermophilic campylobacters are presented. Campylobacters were isolated from about 3% of all cases of acute enteritis and occupied second place in the bacterial etiology of this syndrome following Salmonella spp. Concomitant isolation of salmonellae or shigellae or both was achieved in 40 (16.1%) of the patients infected with campylobacters. The results suggest a bimodal age distribution with highest rates in young adults aged 20 to 29 years and children below 10 years of age. A majority of the campylobacters were isolated from travellers returning from abroad, and, to a lesser extent, from immigrants, particularly from Asia. Immigrants accounted for 45.2% of the patients below 10 years of age. The number of cases increased during the warmer months of the year. Travelling habits could, at least in part, explain the observed seasonality, age distribution, and geographical origin of infection. Eight outbreaks of Campylobacter enteritis were detected, five of which were family outbreaks, whereas three involved people from different families. PMID:6699143

  6. [Characterization of Campylobacter spp. from wild birds].

    PubMed

    Glünder, G

    1989-02-01

    Bacteria of the genus Campylobacter were isolated from 28 Rooks (Corvus frugilegus), 1 Red Kite (Milvus milvus), 1 Lapwing (Vanellus vanellus), 1 Coot (Fulica atra), 1 Common Moorhen (Gallinula chloropus) and 1 Northern Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos). Altogether, C. jejuni biovar 1, was isolated 19x, C. jejuni biovar 2 8x and C. coli 5x. Among C. jejuni biovar 1 and 2 there were 5 isolates tolerating a content of 1.5% NaCl in the medium. H2S proof of 3 C. jejuni biovar 2 and 1 C. coli isolates resulted positive or negative dependent on incubation time of the used bacterial inoculum. Concerning Rooks the findings indicate that nestlings are more often infected with campylobacters than older birds. Only 1 campylobacter isolate could be recovered from altogether 54 birds of prey although 16 Buzzards (Buteo buteo) were investigated as nestlings. PMID:2930449

  7. Prevalence of Campylobacter spp. relative to other enteric pathogens in grow-finish pigs with diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Burrough, Eric; Terhorst, Samantha; Sahin, Orhan; Zhang, Qijing

    2013-08-01

    Salmonella spp., Lawsonia intracellularis, and Brachyspira spp. are pathogens commonly associated with diarrhea in growing and finishing pigs. Brachyspira spp. infection has recently reemerged as a significant concern due to an increase in the incidence of swine dysentery; however, the mechanisms underlying this increase in dysentery remain largely unknown. Pigs are also well-recognized as potential carriers of Campylobacter spp., particularly Campylobacter coli, yet enteric disease in swine associated with infection by these bacteria is considered uncommon and diagnosis has historically been based upon exclusion of other causes. Accordingly, Campylobacter culture is often excluded in routine diagnostic testing of cases of porcine enterocolitis and the incidence of infection is therefore largely unknown. In this study, feces from 155 cases of clinical diarrhea in grow-finish pigs submitted to the Iowa State University Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory were cultured for Campylobacter spp. in addition to other testing as indicated for routine diagnostic investigation. Campylobacter culture was positive from 82.6% (128/155) of samples with C. coli accounting for 75% of isolates and Campylobacter jejuni for the remaining 25%. In 14.8% (23/155) of cases a Campylobacter spp. was the sole infectious agent detected; however, there was no association with any particular Campylobacter spp. Interestingly, for those cases with a laboratory diagnosis of Brachyspira-associated disease, 100% (15/15) were also culture positive for Campylobacter spp. suggesting a possible interrelationship between these bacteria in the pig gut. No association was noted between Campylobacter culture results and infection with either Salmonella spp. or L. intracellularis. PMID:23792232

  8. Campylobacter spp., Giardia spp., Cryptosporidium spp., noroviruses, and indicator organisms in surface water in southwestern Finland, 2000-2001.

    PubMed

    Hörman, Ari; Rimhanen-Finne, Ruska; Maunula, Leena; von Bonsdorff, Carl-Henrik; Torvela, Niina; Heikinheimo, Annamari; Hänninen, Marja-Liisa

    2004-01-01

    A total of 139 surface water samples from seven lakes and 15 rivers in southwestern Finland were analyzed during five consecutive seasons from autumn 2000 to autumn 2001 for the presence of various enteropathogens (Campylobacter spp., Giardia spp., Cryptosporidium spp., and noroviruses) and fecal indicators (thermotolerant coliforms, Escherichia coli, Clostridium perfringens, and F-RNA bacteriophages) and for physicochemical parameters (turbidity and temperature); this was the first such systematic study. Altogether, 41.0% (57 of 139) of the samples were positive for at least one of the pathogens; 17.3% were positive for Campylobacter spp. (45.8% of the positive samples contained Campylobacter jejuni, 25.0% contained Campylobacter lari, 4.2% contained Campylobacter coli, and 25.0% contained Campylobacter isolates that were not identified), 13.7% were positive for Giardia spp., 10.1% were positive for Cryptosporidium spp., and 9.4% were positive for noroviruses (23.0% of the positive samples contained genogroup I and 77.0% contained genogroup II). The samples were positive for enteropathogens significantly (P < 0.05) less frequently during the winter season than during the other sampling seasons. No significant differences in the prevalence of enteropathogens were found when rivers and lakes were compared. The presence of thermotolerant coliforms, E. coli, and C. perfringens had significant bivariate nonparametric Spearman's rank order correlation coefficients (P < 0.001) with samples that were positive for one or more of the pathogens analyzed. The absence of these indicators in a logistic regression model was found to have significant predictive value (odds ratios, 1.15 x 10(8), 7.57, and 2.74, respectively; P < 0.05) for a sample that was negative for the pathogens analyzed. There were no significant correlations between counts or count levels for thermotolerant coliforms or E. coli or the presence of F-RNA phages and pathogens in the samples analyzed. PMID

  9. Screening and Rapid Identification of Campylobacter Spp. DNA by FlaA PCR Based Method on Chicken and Human Fecal Samples in Egypt

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter is a foodborne pathogen which has a potential public health concern worldwide. Due to discriminatory problems encountered by conventional isolation of Campylobacter spp. and its genetic similarities, rapid molecular techniques for its genetic characterization are useful. In this study,...

  10. Rapid identification and classification of Campylobacter spp. using laser optical scattering technology.

    PubMed

    He, Yiping; Reed, Sue; Bhunia, Arun K; Gehring, Andrew; Nguyen, Ly-Huong; Irwin, Peter L

    2015-05-01

    Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are the two important species responsible for most of the Campylobacter infections in humans. Reliable isolation and detection of Campylobacter spp. from food samples are challenging due to the interferences from complex food substances and the fastidious growth requirements of this organism. In this study, a novel biosensor-based detection called BARDOT (BActerial Rapid Detection using Optical scattering Technology) was developed for high-throughput screening of Campylobacter colonies grown on an agar plate without disrupting the intact colonies. Image pattern characterization and principal component analysis (PCA) of 6909 bacterial colonies showed that the light scatter patterns of C. jejuni and C. coli were strikingly different from those of Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Listeria monocytogenes. Examination of a mixed culture of these microorganisms revealed 85% (34/40) accuracy in differentiating Campylobacter from the other three major foodborne pathogens based on the similarity to the scatter patterns in an established library. The application of BARDOT in real food has been addressed through the analysis of Campylobacter spiked ground chicken and naturally contaminated fresh chicken pieces. Combined with real-time PCR verification, BARDOT was able to identify Campylobacter isolates from retail chicken. Moreover, applying passive filtration to food samples facilitated the isolation of pure Campylobacter colonies and therefore overcame the interference of the food matrix on BARDOT analysis. PMID:25583335

  11. Comparative performance of isolation methods using Preston broth, Bolton broth and their modifications for the detection of Campylobacter spp. from naturally contaminated fresh and frozen raw poultry meat.

    PubMed

    Seliwiorstow, T; De Zutter, L; Houf, K; Botteldoorn, N; Baré, J; Van Damme, I

    2016-10-01

    The performance of different isolation methods was evaluated for the detection of Campylobacter from naturally contaminated raw poultry meat. Therefore, fresh and frozen poultry meat samples were analysed using the standard procedure (ISO 10272-1:2006), enrichment in Preston broth, and enrichment in modified Bolton broth (supplemented with (i) potassium clavulanate (C-BB), (ii) triclosan (T-BB), (iii) polymyxin B (P-BB)). The enrichment cultures were streaked onto both modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate agar (mCCDA) and RAPID'Campylobacter agar (RCA). Moreover, direct plating on mCCDA and RCA was performed to quantify Campylobacter. In total, 33 out of 59 fresh retail meat samples (55.9%) were Campylobacter positive. For both fresh and frozen poultry meat samples, enrichment in Bolton broth (ISO 10272-1:2006) resulted in a higher number of positive samples than enrichment in Preston broth. Supplementation of Bolton broth with potassium clavulanate (C-BB) and triclosan (T-BB) enhanced the Campylobacter recovery from fresh poultry meat compared to non-supplemented Bolton broth, although the use of C-BB was less applicable than T-BB for Campylobacter recovery from frozen samples. Additionally, the use of RCA resulted in a higher isolation rate compared to mCCDA. The present study demonstrates the impact of culture medium on the recovery of Campylobacter from fresh and frozen naturally contaminated poultry meat samples and can support laboratories in choosing the most appropriate culturing method to detect Campylobacter. PMID:27391222

  12. Comparison of Selective Campylobacter Media for Detection and Enumeration of Naturally Occurring Campylobacter spp. on Poultry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter spp. are among the most common cause of bacterial foodborne diarrheal illness; poultry has been linked as a primary source of contamination. Detection and enumeration of low numbers of naturally occurring Campylobacter spp. on poultry is difficult due to the presence of competing micro...

  13. Genomotyping and flaA Sequencing to Investigate Differences in Virulence of Campylobacter Isolates from Iceland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter spp. are the leading cause of human enteritis in the United States, accounting for an estimated 2.4 million cases per year. Different Campylobacter spp. isolates vary in their virulence properties and sequence analysis of the single locus of the flaA short variable region (SVR) of Camp...

  14. Survey of Campylobacter spp. in owned and unowned dogs and cats in Northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Giacomelli, M; Follador, N; Coppola, L M; Martini, M; Piccirillo, A

    2015-06-01

    Campylobacteriosis is among the most common bacterial causes of human gastroenteritis worldwide and pet ownership has been identified as a risk factor for Campylobacter infection in humans. Since canine and feline prevalence data are scarce in Italy, the present study was carried out to assess the prevalence, species distribution and risk factors for Campylobacter infection in dogs and cats under different husbandry conditions. Rectal swabs were collected from 171 dogs (household pets, n = 100; shelter-housed dogs, n = 50; dogs from breeding kennels, n = 21) and 102 cats (household pets, n = 52; shelter-housed cats, n = 21; free-roaming cats n = 29) in Northern Italy. Campylobacter was isolated from 17% (n = 29) of dogs and 14.7% (n = 15) of cats. C. jejuni was the most common isolate in both species (Campylobacter spp.-positive dogs, 55.2%; Campylobacter spp.-positive cats, 53.3%), followed by C. upsaliensis (Campylobacter spp.-positive dogs, 27.6%; Campylobacter spp.-positive cats, 40%). Other Campylobacter species were rarely detected, but included C. hyointestinalis subsp. hyointestinalis, C. lari and C. coli in dogs and C. coli and C. helveticus in cats. Among considered variables (sex, age, origin, diarrhoea, season of sampling), origin was identified as a risk factor for dogs, with shelter-housed dogs at higher risk than household dogs (odds ratio, 2.84; 95% CI 1.17, 6.92; P = 0.021). The results of this study, particularly the high prevalence of C. jejuni in Campylobacter-positive animals, demonstrated that household and stray dogs and cats in Northern Italy might pose a zoonotic risk for humans. Moreover, biosecurity measures should be improved in dog shelters. PMID:25951986

  15. Phenotypic and Genotypic Diversity of Thermophilic Campylobacter spp. in Commercial Turkey Flocks: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Kashoma, Isaac P.; Kumar, Anand; Sanad, Yasser M.; Gebreyes, Wondwossen; Kazwala, Rudovick R.; Garabed, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Poultry are recognized as a main reservoir of Campylobacter spp. However, longitudinal studies investigating the persistence of Campylobacter on commercial meat turkeys are rare. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence, antimicrobial susceptibility, and persistence of genotypically related strains of Campylobacter spp. recovered from three commercial turkey farms in Ohio belonging to a single producer. Eight hundred ten samples were collected from birds aged 1 week to slaughter, consisting of 750 fecal droppings and 60 ceca at slaughter. Overall Campylobacter prevalence was 55.9%. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) confirmed 72.3% of all isolates as C. coli, 5.3% as C. jejuni, 10.6% as both, and 11.9% as other Campylobacter spp. PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism of the flaA gene subtyping detected 70 types—62 for C. coli and 8 for C. jejuni isolates—with most (80%) of flaA-types constituting farm homogeneous groups. Multilocus sequence typing of 99 selected Campylobacter isolates resulted in 23 sequence types (STs), consisting of 8 STs for C. jejuni and 15 STs for C. coli isolates. Six novel STs—four for C. jejuni and two—for C. coli, were detected. In a subset of isolates (n=98) tested for antimicrobial resistance, the most common resistance was to tetracycline (95%), followed by azithromycin (43%), while 42% and 18% of the isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin and erythromycin, respectively. All isolates were susceptible to florfenicol. C. coli isolates displayed a higher proportion of resistance than C. jejuni to most antimicrobials. This study highlights the high prevalence, genotypic diversity, and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter spp. in commercial turkey from farm to slaughter. PMID:25184688

  16. Comparative media investigation and MLST characterization of Campylobacter spp. recovered from broiler fecal, carcass rinse, and exudate samples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter spp. are considered a leading bacterial etiology of acute gastroenteritis in human populations. Several investigations focused on delineating Campylobacter spp. epidemiology have been conducted; however a complete understanding of the critical sources for Campylobacter spp. transmissio...

  17. Prevalence, quantitative load and genetic diversity of Campylobacter spp. in dairy cattle herds in Lithuania

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Campylobacteriosis is a zoonotic disease, and animals such as poultry, pigs and cattle may act as reservoirs for Campylobacter spp. Cattle shed Campylobacter spp. into the environment and they can act as a reservoir for human infection directly via contact with cattle or their faeces or indirectly by consumption of contaminated food. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, the quantitative load and the genetic strain diversity of Campylobacter spp. in dairy cattle of different age groups. Results Faecal samples of 200 dairy cattle from three farms in the central part of Lithuania were collected and examined for Campylobacter. Cattle herds of all three farms were Campylobacter spp. positive, with a prevalence ranging from 75% (farm I), 77.5% (farm II) to 83.3% (farm III). Overall, the highest prevalence was detected in calves (86.5%) and heifers (86.2%). In contrast, the lowest Campylobacter prevalence was detectable in dairy cows (60.6%). C. jejuni, C. coli, C. lari and C. fetus subsp. fetus were identified in faecal samples of dairy cattle. C. upsaliensis was not detectable in any sample. The high counts of Campylobacter spp. were observed in faecal material of dairy cattle (average 4.5 log10 cfu/g). The highest numbers of Campylobacter spp. were found in faecal samples from calves (average 5.3 log10 cfu/g), whereas, faecal samples from cows harboured the lowest number of Campylobacter spp. (average 3.7 log10 cfu/g). Genotyping by flaA PCR-RFLP analysis of selected C. jejuni isolates showed that some genotypes were present in all farms and all age groups. However, farm or age specific genotypes were also identified. Conclusions Future studies are needed to investigate risk factors related to the degree of colonisation in cattle. Based on that, possible measures to reduce the colonisation and subsequent shedding of Campylobacter in cattle could be established. It is important to further investigate the epidemiology of Campylobacter in the

  18. Avian wildlife reservoir of Campylobacter fetus subsp. jejuni, Yersinia spp., and Salmonella spp. in Norway.

    PubMed

    Kapperud, G; Rosef, O

    1983-02-01

    Cloacal swabs from 540 wild-living birds were cultured for Campylobacter fetus subsp. jejuni, Yersinia spp., and Salmonella spp. The carrier rates detected were as follows: C. fetus subsp. jejuni, 28.4%; Yersinia spp., 1.2%; and Salmonella spp., 0.8%. All birds were apparently healthy when captured. C. fetus subsp. jejuni was isolated from 11 of the 40 bird species examined. Among birds inhabiting the city of Oslo, the highest isolation rate was found in crows (Corvus corone cornix) (89.8%), followed by gulls (Larus spp.) (50.0%) and domestic pigeons (Columba livia domesticus) (4.2%). The gulls and crows scavenge on refuse dumps. High carrier rates were also detected among the following birds from nonurban, coastal areas: puffin (Fratercula arctica) (51.3%), common tern (Sterna hirundo) (5.6%), common gull (Larus canus) (18.9%), black-headed gull (Larus ridibundus) (13.2%), and herring gull (Larus argentatus) (4.2%). The list of species harboring C. fetus subsp. jejuni also includes the Ural owl (Strix uralensis), goldeneye (Bucephala clangula), and reed bunting (Emberiza schoeniclus). The following five Yersinia strains were isolated: Y. kristensenii (two strains), Y. intermedia (two strains), and "Yersinia X2" (one strain). Four strains belonging to the genus Salmonella were isolated from three different species of gulls. These isolates were identified as S. typhimurium, S. indiana, and S. djugu. The results indicate that campylobacters are a normal component of the intestinal flora in several bird species, whereas Salmonella and Yersinia carriers are more sporadic. PMID:6338824

  19. Prevalence of Salmonella spp. and thermophilic Campylobacter spp. in the small Asian mongoose (Herpestes javanicus) in Barbados, West Indies.

    PubMed

    Rhynd, Kamara J R; Leighton, Patrick A; Elcock, David A; Whitehall, Pamela J; Rycroft, Andrew; Macgregor, Shaheed K

    2014-12-01

    From April to July 2005, rectal swabs were collected from 48 free-ranging small Asian mongooses (Herpestes javanicus) on the east and south coasts of Barbados and analyzed for Salmonella and Campylobacter spp. Salmonella was recovered in 21.12% (7/33) of mongooses at the east-coast site and 26.67% (4/15) at the south-coast site. Four serotypes were isolated: Salmonella enterica serovar Rubislaw, Kentucky, Javiana, and Panama. One east-coast sample of 11 tested for Campylobacter was positive (9.09%). These results indicate that mongooses in Barbados are carriers and shedders of Salmonella and Campylobacter spp. and are a potential wildlife reservoir for these enteropathogens. PMID:25632681

  20. Incidence and Mechanism of Ciprofloxacin Resistance in Campylobacter spp. Isolated from Commercial Poultry Flocks in the United Kingdom before, during, and after Fluoroquinolone Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Griggs, Deborah J.; Johnson, Maggie M.; Frost, Jennifer A.; Humphrey, Tom; Jørgensen, Frieda; Piddock, Laura J. V.

    2005-01-01

    Five commercial broiler flocks were treated with a fluoroquinolone for a clinically relevant infection. Fresh feces from individual chickens and environmental samples were cultured for campylobacters before, during, and weekly posttreatment until slaughter. Both Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli were isolated during all treatment phases. An increased proportion of quinolone-resistant strains was seen during treatment, and these strains persisted posttreatment. One quinolone-resistant isolate of each species, each serotype, and each phage type from each sample at all treatment phases was examined for its phenotype and mechanism of resistance. Two resistant phenotypes were isolated: Nalr Cipr and Nalr Cips. The majority (269 of 290) of fluoroquinolone-resistant isolates, whether they were C. jejuni or C. coli, had a mutation in gyrA that resulted in the substitution Thr-86→Ile. The other gyrA mutations detected were Thr-86→Ala (n = 17) and Asp-90→Asn (n = 10). The genotypic variation, based on the silent mutations in gyrA identified by the denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography pattern and DNA sequencing, was used to supplement typing data and provided evidence for both the spread of preexisting resistant strains and the selection of spontaneous resistant mutants in treated flocks. Multidrug resistance was significantly (P < 0.01) associated with resistance to ciprofloxacin. Twenty-five percent (73 of 290) of ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates but only 13% (24 of 179) of susceptible isolates were resistant to three or more unrelated antimicrobial agents. In conclusion, quinolone-resistant campylobacters were isolated from commercial chicken flocks in high numbers following therapy with a veterinary fluoroquinolone. Most ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates had the GyrA substitution Thr-86→Ile. Resistant isolates were isolated from the feces of some flocks up to the point of slaughter, which may have consequences for public health. PMID:15673754

  1. A survey of Salmonella spp and Campylobacter spp in dairy goat faeces and bulk tank milk in the Murcia region of Spain

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the occurrence of Salmonella spp and Campylobacter spp in faeces samples from 222 healthy Murciano-Granadina dairy goats reared on 12 farms in Spain and in samples of bulk tank milk from 11 of those herds. Neither Salmonella spp nor Campylobacter spp were isolated from any of the samples. Our results suggest that, under the management practices applied to this breed in Spain, Murciano-Granadina goats are not likely to be a significant reservoir for these food-borne pathogens. PMID:21851684

  2. Isolation, identification and antibiotic resistance of Campylobacter strains isolated from domestic and free-living pigeons.

    PubMed

    Dudzic, A; Urban-Chmiel, R; Stępień-Pyśniak, D; Dec, M; Puchalski, A; Wernicki, A

    2016-04-01

    1. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of Campylobacter spp. in domestic and free-living pigeons and to evaluate the antibiotic resistance profiles. 2. The material consisted of cloacal swabs obtained from 108 homing pigeons and fresh faeces from 72 wild birds from Lublin and its vicinity. The identification of strains isolated on differential/selective media for Campylobacter spp. was carried out by MALDI-TOF and PCR. The susceptibility to antibiotics was evaluated by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) in Mueller-Hinton broth. 3. A total of 35 strains of Campylobacter spp. were isolated; 27 were identified as Campylobacter jejuni and 8 as Campylobacter coli. Over half of the isolates were resistant to erythromycin and streptomycin, 40% of strains were resistant to tetracycline and ampicillin and 37% isolates were resistant to amoxicillin. Resistance to two or more antibiotics was observed in all strains tested. 4. The results indicate that both domestic and free-living pigeons are reservoirs for bacteria of the genus Campylobacter, which are characterised by varied and growing resistance to commonly used antibiotics. PMID:26841300

  3. CAMPYLOBACTER INSULAENIGRAE ISOLATED FROM NORTHERN ELEPHANT SEALS (MIROUNGA ANGUSTIROSTRIS) IN CALIFORNIA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are only two reports in the literature demonstrating the presence of Campylobacter spp. in marine mammals. One report describes the isolation of a new species, Campylobacter insulaenigrae sp. nov, from three harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) and a harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) in Scotland a...

  4. Occurrence of thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. and adenoviruses in Finnish bathing waters and purified sewage effluents.

    PubMed

    Hokajärvi, Anna-Maria; Pitkänen, Tarja; Siljanen, Henri M P; Nakari, Ulla-Maija; Torvinen, Eila; Siitonen, Anja; Miettinen, Ilkka T

    2013-03-01

    A total of 50 Finnish bathing water samples and 34 sewage effluent samples originating from 17 locations were studied in the summers of 2006 and 2007. Campylobacter were present in 58% and adenoviruses in 12% of all bathing water samples; 53% of all sewage effluent samples were positive for Campylobacter spp. and 59% for adenoviruses. C. jejuni was the most common Campylobacter species found and human adenovirus serotype 41 was the most common identified adenovirus type. Bathing water temperature displayed a significant negative relationship with the occurrence of Campylobacter. One location had identical pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns of C. coli isolates in the bathing water and in sewage effluent, suggesting that sewage effluent was the source of C. coli at this bathing site. The counts of faecal indicator bacteria were not able to predict the presence of Campylobacter spp. or adenoviruses in the bathing waters. Thus the observed common presence of these pathogens in Finnish sewage effluents and bathing waters may represent a public health risk. The low water temperature in Finland may enhance the prevalence of Campylobacter in bathing waters. More attention needs to be paid to minimizing the concentrations of intestinal pathogens in bathing waters. PMID:23428555

  5. Campylobacter insulaenigrae Isolates from Northern Elephant Seals (Mirounga angustirostris) in California▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Stoddard, Robyn A.; Miller, William G.; Foley, Janet E.; Lawrence, Judy; Gulland, Frances M. D.; Conrad, Patricia A.; Byrne, Barbara A.

    2007-01-01

    There are only two reports in the literature demonstrating the presence of Campylobacter spp. in marine mammals. One report describes the isolation of a new species, Campylobacter insulaenigrae sp. nov., from three harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) and a harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) in Scotland, and the other describes the isolation of Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter lari, and an unknown Campylobacter species from northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) in California. In this study, 72 presumptive C. lari and unknown Campylobacter species strains were characterized using standard phenotypic methods, 16S rRNA PCR, and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Phenotypic characterization of these isolates showed them to be variable in their ability to grow either at 42°C or on agar containing 1% glycine and in their sensitivity to nalidixic acid and cephalothin. Based on both 16S rRNA PCR and MLST, all but 1 of the 72 isolates were C. insulaenigrae, with one isolate being similar to but distinct from both Campylobacter upsaliensis and Campylobacter helveticus. Phylogenetic analysis identified two C. insulaenigrae clades: the primary clade, containing exclusively California strains, and a secondary clade, containing some California strains and all of the original Scottish strains. This study demonstrates the inability of phenotypic characterization to correctly identify all Campylobacter species and emphasizes the importance of molecular characterization via 16S rRNA sequence analysis or MLST for the identification of Campylobacter isolates from marine mammals. PMID:17259365

  6. Campylobacter iguaniorum sp. nov., isolated from reptiles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During samplings of reptiles for Epsilonproteobacteria, Campylobacter strains were isolated from lizards and chelonians not belonging to any of the established taxa. Initial AFLP, PCR, and 16S rRNA sequence analysis showed that these strains were most closely related to Campylobacter fetus and Campy...

  7. Prevalence, antibiogram and risk factors of thermophilic campylobacter spp. in dressed porcine carcass of Chitwan, Nepal

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Campylobacter is the primary cause of food borne gastroenteritis. Moreover, the emergence of multiple drug resistant campylobacters from poultry and pork has produced a potential threat to public health. Research addressing these issues is sparse in Nepal. So, this cross-sectional study aims at determining the prevalence, antibiogram and risk factors of campylobacters from dressed porcine carcass of Chitwan, Nepal. Results We collected 139 samples of dressed porcine carcass from 10 different pork shops located in Chitwan district and processed according to OIE Terrestrial Manual, 2008, chapter 2.8.10. Antibiogram of identified Campylobacter spp. was evaluated against nine commonly used antibiotics by using disc diffusion method following CLSI guidelines. The prevalence of Campylobacter spp. was 38.84% (C. coli 76% and C. jejuni 24%). There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) between the prevalence rate of male (32.4%) and female (41%) carcass. Ampicillin and erythromycin showed the highest resistance (92.59% each) followed by colistin (72.2%), tetracycline (61.1%), nalidixic acid and cotrimoxazole (44.4% each), ciprofloxacin (31.5%) and gentamicin (5.56%). Moreover, 77.8% of the isolates were resistant to more than two antimicrobials. Nalidixic acid and tetracycline showed significant difference (p < 0.05) in the resistivity pattern among different species of Campylobacters. The association between prevalence rate and regular sanitization of slaughter slab equipments was significant (p < 0.05). Similarly, prevalence rate was significantly associated (p < 0.01) with chilling and contamination of intestinal content with carcass. Conclusions The pork meat of Chitwan is highly contaminated with antibiotic-resistant Campylobacters and slaughtering practices play significant role in contamination. It is necessary to train the butchers about hygienic slaughtering practice. The consumers as well as butchers should adopt safety measures to prevent themselves

  8. Comparison of Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Campylobacter Strains Isolated from Food Samples and Patients with Diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Bakhshi, Bita; Naseri, Amin; Alebouyeh, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Background: Campylobacter infections may lead to serious conditions, including septicemia or other invasive forms of the disease, which require rapid and accurate laboratory diagnosis and subsequently appropriate antimicrobial therapy. The aim of this study was to compare the species distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Campylobacter spp. strains isolated from patients and food samples. Methods: Biochemical identification was performed on 15 clinical and 30 food isolates of Campylobacter recovered onto Brucella agar containing 5% sheep blood. PCR was carried out to confirm the identity of Campylobacter spp. using primers for cadF, hipO, and asp genes of Campylobacter. To determine antibiotic sensitivity of isolates, Kirby-Bauer assay was carried out using 16 different antibiotic discs. Results: PCR assay and biochemical tests confirmed all 45 isolates as Campylobacter: 20 (44.44%) as C. jujeni, 10 (22.22%) as C. coli, and 15 (33.34%) as other Campylobacter strains. The maximum resistance was observed to cefotaxime and imipenem (each 86.49%) and the maximum sensitivity to erythromycin (48.65%). Conclusion: C. jujeni is dominant among isolates from clinical and food samples. In addition, tetracycline remains the first-line therapeutic agent against Campylobacter infections in Iran. PMID:26783018

  9. Molecular characterization of Campylobacter isolated from chickens and humans in northern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Meeyam, Tongkorn; Padungtod, Pawin; Kaneene, John B

    2004-09-01

    A study was conducted in northern Thailand to characterize Campylobacter spp isolated from chickens at farms, slaughterhouse, and chicken meat at fresh markets, and stools from chicken farmers as well as neighboring crop farmers who served as controls. The Campylobacter isolates were collected during the rainy months of the years 2000, 2001, and 2002. Standard methods were used for primary isolation and identification of Camplobacter and the resulting isolates were frozen and stored in 30% glycerol with Mueller-Hinton broth at -70 degrees C until used in 2003. A multiplex PCR assay was used for differentiation of the Campylobacter spp. A total of 415 Campylobacter spp were isolated from 849 (48.9%) samples from chickens at the farm, slaughter house and fresh chicken meat market. Campylobacter spp were isolated from 5 of the 129 (3.9%) chicken farmers but none from the 100 neighboring crop farmers. C. jejuni was the most prevalent (42.5%) at the farm, followed by C. coli (39.1%) and other species (8.0%). In contrast, C. coli was the most prevalent at the slaughter house (72.4%) while C. jejuni was only 17.2% and others 3.4%. Similarly, at the fresh chicken market, C. coli was the most prevalent (54.4%) while C. jejuni was 26.5% and others were 13.2%. Campylobacter spp isolated from the chicken farmers were predominantly (75%) C. coli and the rest (25%) were C. jejuni. The results of the study show that both C. coli and C. jejuni are highly prevalent in chickens, along the chicken production system and in chicken farmers in northern Thailand. Critical control points for exposure and contamination of the chicken meat supply should be identified so that methods can be developed to protect human exposure to Campylobacter spp. PMID:15689085

  10. Epidemiology of Campylobacter spp. at two Dutch broiler farms.

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs-Reitsma, W. F.; van de Giessen, A. W.; Bolder, N. M.; Mulder, R. W.

    1995-01-01

    Broiler flocks on two Dutch poultry farms were screened weekly for the presence of campylobacter in fresh caecal droppings during eight consecutive production cycles. Hatchery and fresh litter samples were taken at the start of each new cycle. Water, feed, insects, and faeces of domestic animals, present on the farms were also included in the sampling. Penner serotyping of isolates was used to identify epidemiological factors that contribute to campylobacter colonization in the broiler flocks. Generally, broiler flocks became colonized with campylobacter at about 3-4 weeks of age with isolation percentages of 100%, and stayed colonized up to slaughter. A similar pattern of serotypes was found within the various broiler houses on one farm during one production cycle. New flocks generally showed also a new pattern of serotypes. Most serotypes isolated from the laying hens, pigs, sheep and cattle were different from those isolated from the broilers at the same time. Campylobacter serotypes from darkling beetles inside the broiler houses were identical to the ones isolated from the broilers. No campylobacter was isolated from any of the hatchery, water, feed or fresh litter samples. Conclusive evidence of transmission routes was not found, but results certainly point towards horizontal transmission from the environment. Horizontal transmission from one broiler flock to the next one via a persistent contamination within the broiler house, as well as vertical transmission from breeder flocks via the hatchery to progeny, did not seem to be very likely. PMID:7781729

  11. Campylobacter spp. as a Foodborne Pathogen: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Joana; Leite, Daniela; Fernandes, Mariana; Mena, Cristina; Gibbs, Paul Anthony; Teixeira, Paula

    2011-01-01

    Campylobacter is well recognized as the leading cause of bacterial foodborne diarrheal disease worldwide. Symptoms can range from mild to serious infections of the children and the elderly and permanent neurological symptoms. The organism is a cytochrome oxidase positive, microaerophilic, curved Gram-negative rod exhibiting corkscrew motility and is carried in the intestine of many wild and domestic animals, particularly avian species including poultry. Intestinal colonization results in healthy animals as carriers. In contrast with the most recent published reviews that cover specific aspects of Campylobacter/campylobacteriosis, this broad review aims at elucidating and discussing the (i) genus Campylobacter, growth and survival characteristics; (ii) detection, isolation and confirmation of Campylobacter; (iii) campylobacteriosis and presence of virulence factors; and (iv) colonization of poultry and control strategies. PMID:21991264

  12. Campylobacter spp. in broiler flocks at farm level and the potential for cross-contamination during slaughter.

    PubMed

    Ellerbroek, L I; Lienau, J-A; Klein, G

    2010-12-01

    Screening of broiler flocks for their Campylobacter carriage on farm level and consequently the spread of Campylobacter spp. during slaughtering can help to identify hygiene control points. Therefore, between December 2001 and August 2002 in total 51 broiler flocks from three farms of different geographical regions in Germany were analysed for thermophilic Campylobacter. Campylobacter spp. were isolated from 45% of the broiler flocks examined. Subsequently, 1101 samples were taken from 22 flocks during different stages of processing. Samples were collected from: transport crates before and after cleaning/disinfection, evisceration, post-scalded and post-chilled carcasses and endproducts. Additionally, 45 selected Campylobacter isolates of droppings were genotyped by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Campylobacter carriage of flocks showed seasonal variation, with the highest contamination rate during the period of June to August. No evidence was found for a horizontal transmission from one broiler flock to the next via a persistent house-contamination. In each positive flock, one to three different genotypes were found. One or two clones dominated isolations obtained from the farm level. The fact that in different flocks indistinguishable isolates of clonal origin were detected during the same rearing period suggested a transmission between the broiler flocks or an intermittent common external source. In one case, isolates of clonal origin were detected in various farms during different rearing periods. Sampling during processing confirmed that the entrance of a positive flock resulted in contamination of the abattoir environment. Campylobacter spp. were isolated from all sampling stages along the processing line, with a percentage of 91.1-100 of isolates at different stages of slaughtering. PMID:20880094

  13. Prevalence and Genetic Diversity of Campylobacter spp. in Environmental Water Samples from a 100-Square-Kilometer Predominantly Dairy Farming Area

    PubMed Central

    Kemp, R.; Leatherbarrow, A. J. H.; Williams, N. J.; Hart, C. A.; Clough, H. E.; Turner, J.; Wright, E. J.; French, N. P.

    2005-01-01

    Water samples were taken systematically from a 100-km2 area of mainly dairy farmland in northwestern England and examined for Campylobacter spp. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PFGE-RFLP) and flaA strain typing of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolates were done. Data on the water source and the adjacent environment were recorded and examined as explanatory variables. Campylobacter spp. were isolated from 40.5% (n = 119) of the water samples tested. C. jejuni was isolated from 14.3%, C. coli was isolated from 18.5%, and Campylobacter lari was isolated from 4.2% of the samples. Campylobacter hyointestinalis was not isolated from any water source. The difference in prevalence between water types (trough, running, and standing) was significant (P = 0.001). C. jejuni was the species most commonly isolated from trough-water and running-water sources, while C. coli was the most frequently isolated from standing water (P < 0.001). No association was found between the presence of Escherichia coli and that of Campylobacter spp. The final multivariable logistic regression model for Campylobacter spp. included the following variables: water source, soil type, aspect, and amount of cattle fecal material in the environment (fecal pat count). Strain typing demonstrated a diverse population of C. jejuni and the presence of a common C. coli flaA type that was widely distributed throughout the area. Most of the isolates within the common flaA type were discriminated by PFGE-RFLP. These findings suggest a possible role for environmental water in the epidemiology of Campylobacter spp. in a farming environment. PMID:15812015

  14. Antimicrobial resistance in campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli isolated from chicken carcass rinstates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: The development of antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter species, particularly C. jejuni and C. coli, is of public health concern. Methods: Campylobacter isolates recovered from spent chicken carcass rinsates collected at federally inspected slaughter establishments were submitted t...

  15. Enumeration and identity of Campylobacter spp. in Italian broilers.

    PubMed

    Manfreda, G; De Cesare, A; Bondioli, V; Stern, N J; Franchini, A

    2006-03-01

    Transmission of Campylobacter to humans has been prominently associated with mishandling or improperly preparing contaminated poultry carcasses. The number of organisms per carcass represents an important measure of human exposure to the agent. Therefore, we wished to estimate this public exposure over 1 yr among Italian broiler carcasses. We sampled 213 broiler carcasses from rinse water samples collected from a single slaughterhouse. Groups of carcasses had mean processed weights ranging from 1.2 to 2.7 kg. These were produced from 22 commercial broiler chicken flocks collected from 12 different farms, 3 of which were seasonally tested. Carcasses were rinsed with sterile water, and the rinse suspension was then serially diluted and spread-plated directly onto Campy-Cefex agar plates. One to 5 typical Campylobacter colonies per plate were identified by polymerase chain reaction as Campylobacter thermo-tolerant species. The overall estimated mean count per carcass in our study was 5.16 +/- 0.80 log10 cfu. This value increased in summer and autumn, as well as on carcasses collected from farms located > 100 km far from the slaughterhouse. A total of 678 Campylobacter colonies were identified by polymerase chain reaction. The majority of isolates were classified as Campylobacter jejuni (49.2%) or Campylobacter coli (47.5%). The overall number of C. jejuni was significantly higher on 1) carcasses weighing > 2 kg, 2) carcasses belonging to flocks with > 10,000 birds, and 3) carcasses collected from farms located > 100 km from the slaughterhouse. Moreover, among farms tested seasonally, C. jejuni was significantly greater than C. coli in winter. These data provide the first results of a continuing survey on Campylobacter loads and species identification from Italian broiler carcasses and represents an important baseline to estimate the human exposure to Campylobacter in Italy. PMID:16553289

  16. Prevalence and Pathogenic Potential of Campylobacter Isolates from Free-Living, Human-Commensal American Crows

    PubMed Central

    Weis, Allison M.; Miller, Woutrina A.; Byrne, Barbara A.; Chouicha, Nadira; Boyce, Walter M.

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested a potential role for wild birds in zoonotic transmission of Campylobacter jejuni, the leading cause of gastroenteritis in humans worldwide. In this study, we detected Campylobacter spp. in 66.9% (85/127) of free-ranging American crows (Corvus brachyrhyncos) sampled in the Sacramento Valley of California in 2012 and 2013. Biochemical testing and sequence analysis of 16S rRNA revealed that 93% of isolates (n = 70) were C. jejuni, with cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) and flagellin A genes detected by PCR in 20% and 46% of the C. jejuni isolates (n = 59), respectively. The high prevalence of C. jejuni, coupled with the occurrence of known virulence markers CDT and flagellin A, demonstrates that crows shed Campylobacter spp. in their feces that are potentially pathogenic to humans. Crows are abundant in urban, suburban, and agricultural settings, and thus further study to determine their role in zoonotic transmission of Campylobacter will inform public health. PMID:24375131

  17. Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment for Campylobacter spp. on Ham in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the risk of illness from Campylobacter spp. on ham. To identify the hazards of Campylobacter spp. on ham, the general characteristics and microbial criteria for Campylobacter spp., and campylobacteriosis outbreaks were investigated. In the exposure assessment, the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. on ham was evaluated, and the probabilistic distributions for the temperature of ham surfaces in retail markets and home refrigerators were prepared. In addition, the raw data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHNES) 2012 were used to estimate the consumption amount and frequency of ham. In the hazard characterization, the Beta-Poisson model for Campylobacter spp. infection was used. For risk characterization, a simulation model was developed using the collected data, and the risk of Campylobacter spp. on ham was estimated with @RISK. The Campylobacter spp. cell counts on ham samples were below the detection limit (<0.70 Log CFU/g). The daily consumption of ham was 23.93 g per person, and the consumption frequency was 11.57%. The simulated mean value of the initial contamination level of Campylobacter spp. on ham was −3.95 Log CFU/g, and the mean value of ham for probable risk per person per day was 2.20×10−12. It is considered that the risk of foodborne illness for Campylobacter spp. was low. Furthermore, these results indicate that the microbial risk assessment of Campylobacter spp. in this study should be useful in providing scientific evidence to set up the criteria of Campylobacter spp.. PMID:26761897

  18. Comparison of selective media for detection and enumeration of naturally occurring Campylobacter spp. on poultry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: Campylobacter spp. are known to be among the most common bacteria to cause diarrheal illness, with poultry being linked as the primary source of contamination related to foodborne illness. Enumeration and detection of low numbers of naturally occurring Campylobacter spp. on poultry pro...

  19. Fecal Shedding of Campylobacter and Arcobacter spp. in Dairy Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Wesley, I. V.; Wells, S. J.; Harmon, K. M.; Green, A.; Schroeder-Tucker, L.; Glover, M.; Siddique, I.

    2000-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, and Arcobacter spp. were detected in feces of healthy dairy cows by highly specific multiplex-PCR assays. For C. jejuni, at this one-time sampling, cows from 80.6% of farm operations (n = 31) and 37.7% of individual dairy cattle fecal samples (n = 2,085) were positive. Farm management factors were correlated with prevalence in herds in which >25% of cows were positive for C. jejuni. Statistical significance was set at a P of 0.20. Using these criteria, application of manure with broadcast spreaders (P = 0.17), feeding of whole cottonseed or hulls (P = 0.17) or alfalfa (P = 0.15), and accessibility of feed to birds (P = 0.17) were identified as possible risk factors for C. jejuni infection. C. coli was detected in at least one animal in 19.4% of operations and 1.8% of individual cows (n = 2,085). At the herd level, use of broadcaster spreaders was not a risk factor for C. coli infection. For Arcobacter, cows from 71% of dairy operations (n = 31) and 14.3% of individual dairy cattle fecal samples (n = 1,682) were positive. At the herd level, for Arcobacter spp., feeding of alfalfa (P = 0.11) and use of individual waterers (P = 0.19) were protective. This is the first description of Arcobacter spp. in clinically healthy dairy cattle and the first attempt to correlate their presence with C. jejuni. PMID:10788372

  20. Complete Genome Sequence of Campylobacter iguaniorum Strain 1485ET, Isolated from a Bearded Dragon (Pogona vitticeps).

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Maarten J; Miller, William G; Yee, Emma; Kik, Marja; Wagenaar, Jaap A; Duim, Birgitta

    2014-01-01

    Campylobacter iguaniorum has been isolated from reptiles. This Campylobacter species is genetically related to Campylobacter fetus and Campylobacter hyointestinalis. Here we present the first whole-genome sequence for this species. PMID:25146144

  1. Complete Genome Sequence of Campylobacter iguaniorum Strain 1485ET, Isolated from a Bearded Dragon (Pogona vitticeps)

    PubMed Central

    Yee, Emma; Kik, Marja; Wagenaar, Jaap A.; Duim, Birgitta

    2014-01-01

    Campylobacter iguaniorum has been isolated from reptiles. This Campylobacter species is genetically related to Campylobacter fetus and Campylobacter hyointestinalis. Here we present the first whole-genome sequence for this species. PMID:25146144

  2. SEASONAL OCCURRENCE OF 'CAMPYLOBACTER' SPP. IN SURFACE WATERS AND THEIR CORRELATION WITH STANDARD INDICATOR BACTERIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, and a Campylobacter-like organism were isolated from a number of natural water sources in central Washington including ponds, lakes, and small mountain streams ranging in elevation from 1460 to 5400 feet above sea level. At the two sites ...

  3. FREQUENCY AND ENUMERATION OF CAMPYLOBACTER SPP. FROM PROCEEDED BROILER CARCASSES USING WEEP AND RINSE SAMPLES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Frequency and numbers of Campylobacter spp. were assessed per freshly processed, contaminated broiler carcass. After bird ceca tested Campylobacter-positive, levels of carcass contamination were estimated using free weep fluids and whole carcass rinses. Estimations of counts were determined by dire...

  4. Typing of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolated from live broilers and retail broiler meat by flaA-RFLP, MSLT, PFGE, and REP-PCR.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We analyzed a selection of 101 Campylobacter spp. isolates sampled from Grenada, Puerto Rico and Alabama in order to evaluate the discriminatory strength of four prominent molecular fingerprinting methods: restriction fragment length polymorphism of the flaA gene (flaA-RFLP), pulsed-field gel electr...

  5. An Improved Culture Method for Selective Isolation of Campylobacter jejuni from Wastewater.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jinyong; Oh, Euna; Banting, Graham S; Braithwaite, Shannon; Chui, Linda; Ashbolt, Nicholas J; Neumann, Norman F; Jeon, Byeonghwa

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is one of the leading foodborne pathogens worldwide. C. jejuni is isolated from a wide range of foods, domestic animals, wildlife, and environmental sources. The currently available culture-based isolation methods are not highly effective for wastewater samples due to the low number of C. jejuni in the midst of competing bacteria. To detect and isolate C. jejuni from wastewater samples, in this study, we evaluated a few different enrichment conditions using five different antibiotics (i.e., cefoperazone, vancomycin, trimethoprim, polymyxin B, and rifampicin), to which C. jejuni is intrinsically resistant. The selectivity of each enrichment condition was measured with C t value using quantitative real-time PCR, and multiplex PCR to determine Campylobacter species. In addition, the efficacy of Campylobacter isolation on different culture media after selective enrichment was examined by growing on Bolton and Preston agar plates. The addition of polymyxin B, rifampicin, or both to the Bolton selective supplements enhanced the selective isolation of C. jejuni. The results of 16S rDNA sequencing also revealed that Enterococcus spp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are major competing bacteria in the enrichment conditions. Although it is known to be difficult to isolate Campylobacter from samples with heavy contamination, this study well exhibited that the manipulation of antibiotic selective pressure improves the isolation efficiency of fastidious Campylobacter from wastewater. PMID:27617011

  6. An Improved Culture Method for Selective Isolation of Campylobacter jejuni from Wastewater

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jinyong; Oh, Euna; Banting, Graham S.; Braithwaite, Shannon; Chui, Linda; Ashbolt, Nicholas J.; Neumann, Norman F.; Jeon, Byeonghwa

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is one of the leading foodborne pathogens worldwide. C. jejuni is isolated from a wide range of foods, domestic animals, wildlife, and environmental sources. The currently available culture-based isolation methods are not highly effective for wastewater samples due to the low number of C. jejuni in the midst of competing bacteria. To detect and isolate C. jejuni from wastewater samples, in this study, we evaluated a few different enrichment conditions using five different antibiotics (i.e., cefoperazone, vancomycin, trimethoprim, polymyxin B, and rifampicin), to which C. jejuni is intrinsically resistant. The selectivity of each enrichment condition was measured with Ct value using quantitative real-time PCR, and multiplex PCR to determine Campylobacter species. In addition, the efficacy of Campylobacter isolation on different culture media after selective enrichment was examined by growing on Bolton and Preston agar plates. The addition of polymyxin B, rifampicin, or both to the Bolton selective supplements enhanced the selective isolation of C. jejuni. The results of 16S rDNA sequencing also revealed that Enterococcus spp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are major competing bacteria in the enrichment conditions. Although it is known to be difficult to isolate Campylobacter from samples with heavy contamination, this study well exhibited that the manipulation of antibiotic selective pressure improves the isolation efficiency of fastidious Campylobacter from wastewater. PMID:27617011

  7. Antimicrobial Resistance and Genotypic Diversity of Campylobacter Isolated from Pigs, Dairy, and Beef Cattle in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kashoma, Isaac P; Kassem, Issmat I; Kumar, Anand; Kessy, Beda M; Gebreyes, Wondwossen; Kazwala, Rudovick R; Rajashekara, Gireesh

    2015-01-01

    Foodborne Campylobacter infections pose a serious threat to public health worldwide. However, the occurrence and characteristics of Campylobacter in food animals and products remain largely unknown in Tanzania. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence, antibiotic resistance, and genetic profiles (sequence types, STs) of Campylobacter isolated from feces of pigs and dairy and beef cattle in Tanzania. Overall, 259 (~30%) of 864 samples were positive for Campylobacter spp, which were detected in 32.5, 35.4, and 19.6% of the pig, dairy, and beef cattle samples, respectively. Multiplex PCR analysis identified 64.5 and 29.3% of the Campylobacter isolates as C. coli and C. jejuni, respectively. The majority (91.9%) of the isolates from pig samples were identified as C. coli, while C. jejuni accounted for 65.5% of the isolates from cattle. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing using the disk diffusion assay and the broth microdilution method revealed resistance to: ampicillin (Amp) (70.3% and 75.7%, respectively), gentamicin (Gen) (1.8% and 12.6%), streptomycin (Str) (65.8 and 74.8%), erythromycin (Ery) (41.4 and 48.7%), tetracycline (Tet) (18.9 and 23.4%), and ciprofloxacin (Cip) (14.4 and 7.2%). Resistance to nalidixic acid (Nal) (39.6%), azithromycin (Azm) (13.5%), and chloramphenicol (Chl) (4.5%) was determined using the disk diffusion assay only, while resistance to tylosin (Tyl) (38.7%) was quantified using the broth microdilution method. Multilocus sequence typing of 111 Campylobacter isolates resulted in the identification of 48 STs (26 C. jejuni and 22 C. coli) of which seven were novel (six C. jejuni and one C. coli). Taken together, this study revealed the high prevalence, genetic diversity and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter in important food animals in Tanzania, which highlights the urgent need for the surveillance and control of Campylobacter in this country. PMID:26617582

  8. Antimicrobial Resistance and Genotypic Diversity of Campylobacter Isolated from Pigs, Dairy, and Beef Cattle in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Kashoma, Isaac P.; Kassem, Issmat I.; Kumar, Anand; Kessy, Beda M.; Gebreyes, Wondwossen; Kazwala, Rudovick R.; Rajashekara, Gireesh

    2015-01-01

    Foodborne Campylobacter infections pose a serious threat to public health worldwide. However, the occurrence and characteristics of Campylobacter in food animals and products remain largely unknown in Tanzania. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence, antibiotic resistance, and genetic profiles (sequence types, STs) of Campylobacter isolated from feces of pigs and dairy and beef cattle in Tanzania. Overall, 259 (~30%) of 864 samples were positive for Campylobacter spp, which were detected in 32.5, 35.4, and 19.6% of the pig, dairy, and beef cattle samples, respectively. Multiplex PCR analysis identified 64.5 and 29.3% of the Campylobacter isolates as C. coli and C. jejuni, respectively. The majority (91.9%) of the isolates from pig samples were identified as C. coli, while C. jejuni accounted for 65.5% of the isolates from cattle. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing using the disk diffusion assay and the broth microdilution method revealed resistance to: ampicillin (Amp) (70.3% and 75.7%, respectively), gentamicin (Gen) (1.8% and 12.6%), streptomycin (Str) (65.8 and 74.8%), erythromycin (Ery) (41.4 and 48.7%), tetracycline (Tet) (18.9 and 23.4%), and ciprofloxacin (Cip) (14.4 and 7.2%). Resistance to nalidixic acid (Nal) (39.6%), azithromycin (Azm) (13.5%), and chloramphenicol (Chl) (4.5%) was determined using the disk diffusion assay only, while resistance to tylosin (Tyl) (38.7%) was quantified using the broth microdilution method. Multilocus sequence typing of 111 Campylobacter isolates resulted in the identification of 48 STs (26 C. jejuni and 22 C. coli) of which seven were novel (six C. jejuni and one C. coli). Taken together, this study revealed the high prevalence, genetic diversity and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter in important food animals in Tanzania, which highlights the urgent need for the surveillance and control of Campylobacter in this country. PMID:26617582

  9. Isolation of Campylobacter from circulating blood of commercial broilers.

    PubMed

    Richardson, L J; Cox, N A; Buhr, R J; Harrison, M A

    2011-09-01

    Campylobacter spp. are present in organs and tissues of broiler chickens but the dissemination route is unclear. The aim of the current study was to determine Campylobacter prevalence within circulating blood of commercial broilers. Broilers were acquired from 19 flocks originating from three commercial poultry processing companies. Using aseptic blood collection techniques, 5 ml of circulating blood was collected from each bird and the sample analyzed for Campylobacter. The Campylobacter colonization status of each bird was determined by aseptically sampling and analyzing the ceca. Campylobacter was recovered from 58% (11/19) of flocks sampled. From the 248 total birds sampled, 12% and 46% of the birds had Campylobacter in the blood and ceca, respectively. This study documents Campylobacter prevalence in the circulating blood of commercially raised broilers. Campylobacter presence in the circulatory system may indicate the path used by the organism for rapid dissemination to organs and tissues. From a processing viewpoint, Campylobacter presence in circulating blood of market-age broilers may increase the likelihood of cross-contamination between birds during slaughter. PMID:22017033

  10. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Campylobacter spp. in live and dressed chicken in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Osaili, Tareq M; Alaboudi, Akram R; Al-Akhras, Rani R

    2012-01-01

    A total of 140 broiler flocks presented for slaughtering at Amman slaughterhouse were tested for Campylobacter spp. via collection of cloacal swabs from live birds, feathered skin samples at prescalding, and skin samples at postscalding (62°C or 57°C scalding temperature), postevisceration, and postchilling. The results indicated that 40% of the flocks tested by cloacal swabs, 34% at prescalding, 32% at post 57°C scalding, and 32% postevisceration were harboring Campylobacter jejuni. None of the skin samples collected from dressed birds at postscalding (62°C) or postwashing-chilling steps (regardless of scalding temperature) revealed the presence of C. jejuni. Thirty eight isolates were tested for susceptibility to ten antimicrobials by using the microbroth dilution method. Almost 50% of the isolates were multidrug resistant to 9 or 10 out of the ten tested antimicrobials. The other half of tested isolates were sensitive to erythromycin, tetracycline, doxycyclin, chlortetracycline, ciprofloxacin, enorfloxacin, gentamycin, tilmicosin, amoxicillin, and trimethoprim. PMID:21988398

  11. ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE RATES IN CAMPYLOBACTER ISOLATES DERIVED FROM SWINE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter, a microaerophilic gram-negative rod, is a major foodborne pathogen and commonly present in swine intestinal tract without causing any clinical disease. In this project, we investigated the antimicrobial resistance profiles of fecal Campylobacter isolates (n= 194) obtained from a swin...

  12. Presence and survival of culturable Campylobacter spp. and Escherichia coli in a temperate urban estuary.

    PubMed

    Schang, Christelle; Lintern, Anna; Cook, Perran L M; Osborne, Catherine; McKinley, Anand; Schmidt, Jonathon; Coleman, Rhys; Rooney, Graham; Henry, Rebekah; Deletic, Ana; McCarthy, David

    2016-11-01

    Urban estuaries throughout the world typically contain elevated levels of faecal contamination, the extent of which is generally assessed using faecal indicator organisms (FIO) such as Escherichia coli. This study assesses whether the bacterial FIO, E. coli is a suitable surrogate for Campylobacter spp., in estuaries. The presence and survival dynamics of culturable E. coli and Campylobacter spp. are compared in the water column, bank sediments and bed sediments of the Yarra River estuary (located in Melbourne, Australia). The presence of E. coli did not necessarily indicate detectable levels of Campylobacter spp. in the water column, bed and bank sediments, but the inactivation rates of the two bacteria were similar in the water column. A key finding of the study is that E. coli and Campylobacter spp. can survive for up to 14days in the water column and up to 21days in the bed and bank sediments of the estuary. Preliminary data presented in this study also suggests that the inactivation rates of the two bacteria may be similar in bed and bank sediments. This undermines previous hypotheses that Campylobacter spp. cannot survive outside of its host and indicates that public health risks can persist in aquatic systems for up to three weeks after the initial contamination event. PMID:27395075

  13. Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., Verocytotoxic Escherichia coli, and Antibiotic Resistance in Indicator Organisms in Wild Cervids

    PubMed Central

    Lillehaug, A; Bergsjø, B; Schau, J; Bruheim, T; Vikøren, T; Handeland, K

    2005-01-01

    Faecal samples were collected, as part of the National Health Surveillance Program for Cervids (HOP) in Norway, from wild red deer, roe deer, moose and reindeer during ordinary hunting seasons from 2001 to 2003. Samples from a total of 618 animals were examined for verocytotoxic E. coli (VTEC); 611 animals for Salmonella and 324 animals for Campylobacter. A total of 50 samples were cultivated from each cervid species in order to isolate the indicator bacterial species E. coli and Enterococcus faecalis/E. faecium for antibiotic resistance pattern studies. Salmonella and the potentially human pathogenic verocytotoxic E. coli were not isolated, while Campylobacter jejuni jejuni was found in one roe deer sample only. Antibiotic resistance was found in 13 (7.3%) of the 179 E. coli isolates tested, eight of these being resistant against one type of antibiotic only. The proportion of resistant E. coli isolates was higher in wild reindeer (24%) than in the other cervids (2.2%). E. faecalis or E. faecium were isolated from 19 of the samples, none of these being reindeer. All the strains isolated were resistant against one (84%) or more (16%) antibiotics. A total of 14 E. faecalis-strains were resistant to virginiamycin only. The results indicate that the cervid species studied do not constitute an important infectious reservoir for either the human pathogens or the antibiotic resistant microorganisms included in the study. PMID:16108210

  14. A Charcoal- and Blood-Free Enrichment Broth for Isolation and PCR Detection of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter spp. is a Gram negative bacterium and is the major cause of foodborne gastroenteritis worldwide. The microaerophilic nature of Campylobacter and its requirement of ~5% O2 for growth have complicated its recovery from foods. This is achieved with the addition to the enrichment media of ...

  15. Characterization of a Differentially Translated Protein, OMP85, from Two Campylobacter jejuni Isolates with Different Colonization Potentials in Broiler Chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter spp., considered a leading bacterial etiology of acute gastroenteritis in humans, is commonly associated with poultry. However, the factors involved in colonization of poultry with Campylobacter spp. remain unclear. Determination of colonization-associated factors should facilitate ou...

  16. Differential behaviour of Escherichia coli and Campylobacter spp. in a stream draining dairy pasture.

    PubMed

    Stott, Rebecca; Davies-Colley, Robert; Nagels, John; Donnison, Andrea; Ross, Colleen; Muirhead, Richard

    2011-03-01

    The faecal indicator bacterium Escherichia coli and thermotolerant Campylobacter spp., which are potentially pathogenic, were investigated in the Toenepi Stream draining a pastoral catchment dominated by dairying. Bacteria concentrations were monitored routinely at fortnightly intervals over 12 months and intensively during storm events to compare the transport dynamics of bacterial indicator and pathogen under varying hydro-meteorological conditions. Routine monitoring indicated median concentrations of 345 E. coli MPN 100 ml(-1) and relatively low concentrations of 2.3 Campylobacter MPN 100 ml(-1). The bacterial flux was three orders of magnitude greater under elevated stream flow compared with base-flow. E. coli peak concentrations occurred very close to the turbidity peak and consistently ahead of the Campylobacter spp. peak (which was close to the hydrograph peak). We postulate that, under flood conditions, the E. coli peak reflects the entrainment and mobilisation of in-stream stores on the flood wave front. In contrast, Campylobacter spp. are derived from wash-in from land stores upstream and have travelled at the mean water velocity which is slower than the speed of the flood wave. Our findings of different dynamics for E. coli and Campylobacter spp. suggest that mitigation to reduce faecal microbial impacts from farms will need to take account of these differences. PMID:21301115

  17. REDUCTION IN CAMPYLOBACTER SPP. LEVELS IN COMMERCIALLY PROCESSED CARCASSES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We sampled Georgia commercial flocks of broilers in 1995 and in 2001 for Campylobacter. We used a direct plating method to quantify Campylobacter within each flock. These flocks were the first processed of the day and we estimated levels of the organism per carcass (50 carcasses per flock pre-chil...

  18. Genotypes and Antibiotic Resistances of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli Isolates from Domestic and Travel-Associated Human Cases

    PubMed Central

    Niederer, Lilian; Kuhnert, Peter; Egger, Ralph; Büttner, Sabina; Hächler, Herbert

    2012-01-01

    Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) extended with flaB typing of 425 Campylobacter jejuni isolates and 42 Campylobacter coli isolates revealed quite a low overlap between human isolates from travel-associated and domestic cases in Switzerland. Men were more frequently affected by Campylobacter than women, but strains from women and, overall, from travel-associated cases showed mutations conferring quinolone resistance more frequently than strains from men and domestic cases, respectively. PMID:22020515

  19. Efficacy of mini VIDAS for the detection of Campylobacter spp. from retail broiler meat enriched in Bolton broth, with or without the supplementation of blood.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lin; Hussain, Syeda K; Miller, Robert S; Oyarzabal, Omar A

    2009-11-01

    The goals of this study were to evaluate the efficacy of the mini VIDAS automated immunoassay chemistry system to detect Campylobacter spp. from retail broiler meat enriched in Bolton broth supplemented with lysed blood (B+B) or without blood (B-B), and to detect positive samples at 24 versus 48 h after enrichment. Retail broiler meat was enriched and tested for Campylobacter spp. with the mini VIDAS and with an agar plate. Isolates were speciated with a multiplex PCR and typed with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) to evaluate relatedness of isolates collected from subsamples enriched in B+B or B-B. The number of Campylobacter-positive samples by mini VIDAS was similar (P > 0.05) to the results found with traditional plating media for naturally contaminated broiler meat, regardless of whether the comparison was made between B+B and B-B, or among different meat products (breast, tenders, and thighs). More positive samples were found at 48 h of enrichment than at 24 h of enrichment (P < 0.05). A Campylobacter jejuni:Campylobacter coli ratio of 4:1 was found in this study. Most of the isolates from both subsamples (B+B and B-B) were similar or identical by PFGE analysis, except for a few samples in which the PFGE profiles of the isolates from the subsamples were different. Mini VIDAS allowed for the detection of Campylobacter spp. within 48 h after enrichment. However, the sensitivity is similar to plate media, and retail broiler samples need to be enriched for 48 h to avoid false negatives. PMID:19903413

  20. Isolation Method (direct plating or enrichment) does not affect Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Campylobacter from Chicken Carcasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To determine if Campylobacter isolation method influenced antimicrobial susceptibility results, the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of nine antimicrobials were compared for 291 pairs of Campylobacter isolates recovered from chicken carcass rinse samples using direct plating and an enrichment...

  1. Intestinal microbiota and species diversity of Campylobacter and Helicobacter spp. in migrating shorebirds in Delaware Bay.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Hodon; Grond, Kirsten; Verheijen, Bram; Elk, Michael; Buehler, Deborah M; Santo Domingo, Jorge W

    2014-03-01

    Using 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis, we examined the bacterial diversity and the presence of opportunistic bacterial pathogens (i.e., Campylobacter and Helicobacter) in red knot (Calidris canutus; n = 40), ruddy turnstone (Arenaria interpres; n = 35), and semipalmated sandpiper (Calidris pusilla; n = 22) fecal samples collected during a migratory stopover in Delaware Bay. Additionally, we studied the occurrence of Campylobacter spp., enterococci, and waterfowl fecal source markers using quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays. Of 3,889 16S rRNA clone sequences analyzed, the bacterial community was mostly composed of Bacilli (63.5%), Fusobacteria (12.7%), Epsilonproteobacteria (6.5%), and Clostridia (5.8%). When epsilonproteobacterium-specific 23S rRNA gene clone libraries (i.e., 1,414 sequences) were analyzed, the sequences were identified as Campylobacter (82.3%) or Helicobacter (17.7%) spp. Specifically, 38.4%, 10.1%, and 26.0% of clone sequences were identified as C. lari (>99% sequence identity) in ruddy turnstone, red knot, and semipalmated sandpiper clone libraries, respectively. Other pathogenic species of Campylobacter, such as C. jejuni and C. coli, were not detected in excreta of any of the three bird species. Most Helicobacter-like sequences identified were closely related to H. pametensis (>99% sequence identity) and H. anseris (92% sequence identity). qPCR results showed that the occurrence and abundance of Campylobacter spp. was relatively high compared to those of fecal indicator bacteria, such as Enterococcus spp., E. faecalis, and Catellicoccus marimammalium. Overall, the results provide insights into the complexity of the shorebird gut microbial community and suggest that these migratory birds are important reservoirs of pathogenic Campylobacter species. PMID:24413599

  2. Intestinal Microbiota and Species Diversity of Campylobacter and Helicobacter spp. in Migrating Shorebirds in Delaware Bay

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Hodon; Grond, Kirsten; Verheijen, Bram; Elk, Michael; Buehler, Deborah M.

    2014-01-01

    Using 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis, we examined the bacterial diversity and the presence of opportunistic bacterial pathogens (i.e., Campylobacter and Helicobacter) in red knot (Calidris canutus; n = 40), ruddy turnstone (Arenaria interpres; n = 35), and semipalmated sandpiper (Calidris pusilla; n = 22) fecal samples collected during a migratory stopover in Delaware Bay. Additionally, we studied the occurrence of Campylobacter spp., enterococci, and waterfowl fecal source markers using quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays. Of 3,889 16S rRNA clone sequences analyzed, the bacterial community was mostly composed of Bacilli (63.5%), Fusobacteria (12.7%), Epsilonproteobacteria (6.5%), and Clostridia (5.8%). When epsilonproteobacterium-specific 23S rRNA gene clone libraries (i.e., 1,414 sequences) were analyzed, the sequences were identified as Campylobacter (82.3%) or Helicobacter (17.7%) spp. Specifically, 38.4%, 10.1%, and 26.0% of clone sequences were identified as C. lari (>99% sequence identity) in ruddy turnstone, red knot, and semipalmated sandpiper clone libraries, respectively. Other pathogenic species of Campylobacter, such as C. jejuni and C. coli, were not detected in excreta of any of the three bird species. Most Helicobacter-like sequences identified were closely related to H. pametensis (>99% sequence identity) and H. anseris (92% sequence identity). qPCR results showed that the occurrence and abundance of Campylobacter spp. was relatively high compared to those of fecal indicator bacteria, such as Enterococcus spp., E. faecalis, and Catellicoccus marimammalium. Overall, the results provide insights into the complexity of the shorebird gut microbial community and suggest that these migratory birds are important reservoirs of pathogenic Campylobacter species. PMID:24413599

  3. Effects of thymol and diphenyliodonium chloride against Campylobacter spp. during pure and mixed culture in vitro

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter spp. are a leading cause of bacterial associated human foodborne illness in the United States, causing greater than 1.9 million illnesses at a cost of more than $1.2 billion annually. The aim of this study was to determine if the purported deaminase inhibitors diphenyliodonium chlorid...

  4. Microscale electrodes integrated on COP for real sample Campylobacter spp. detection.

    PubMed

    Morant-Miñana, M Carmen; Elizalde, J

    2015-08-15

    Campylobacter spp. are responsible for acute bacterial diseases in human worldwide. Nowadays campilobacteriosis is considered the most common foodborne illness in the European Union. In this paper the first electrochemical genosensor based on thin-film gold electrodes deposited onto Cyclo Olefin Polymer (COP) substrates was fabricated for the detection of Campylobacter spp in food matrices. The sensing element is characterized by several surface techniques and the sensitivity of the biosensor have been studied. A good linear relationship was obtained for the concentrations of PCR amplicon of Campylobacter spp. between 1 and 25 nM with a limit of detection (LOD) of 90 pM. Real samples have been validated with poultry meat samples and results were comparable with the PCR product samples. This is the last step for the fabrication of a Lab on a Chip (LOC), a biodevice integrating DNA sensor technology into microfluidic system, believed to perform an automated and complete assay, including sample preparation, PCR amplification, and electrochemical detection of Campylobacter spp. in raw poultry meat samples. PMID:25889259

  5. Simplified Capacitance Monitoring for the Determination of Campylobacter spp. Growth Rates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Capacitance monitoring is commonly used as an efficient means to measure growth curves of bacterial pathogens. However, the use of capacitance monitoring with Campylobacter spp. was previously determined difficult due to the complexity of the required media. We investigated capacitance monitoring ...

  6. ENUMERATION OF CAMPYLOBACTER SPP. IN BROILER FECES AND IN CORRESPONDING PROCESSED CARCASSES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The study presents the levels of Campylobacter spp. contamination in feces at the end of broiler production and the levels found on the processed carcasses. We also compared levels of contamination on carcasses produced in 1995 and 2001, before and after HACCP implementation. Over 3,500 samples we...

  7. Prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in bulk tank milk and filters from US dairies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter spp. is an important zoonotic microaerophilic bacterial pathogen that caused the majority of US outbreaks associated with nonpasteurized milk from 2007 to 2012. Bulk tank milk and milk filter samples were collected from 236 dairy operations in 17 top dairy states from March through Jul...

  8. Proteomic Analyses of a Robust versus a Poor Chicken Gastrointestinal Colonizing Isolate of Campylobacter jejuni

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter spp. are a significant contributor to the bacterial etiology of acute gastroenteritis in humans. Epidemiological evidence implicates poultry as a major source of the organism for human illness. However, the factors involved in colonization of poultry with Campylobacter spp. remain un...

  9. Mitigation strategies for Campylobacter spp. in broiler at pre-harvest and harvest level.

    PubMed

    Klein, Günter; Jansen, Wiebke; Kittler, Sophie; Reich, Felix

    2015-01-01

    In contrast to other foodborne zoonotic agents an elimination of Campylobacter spp. from animal production, especially poultry production, seems not to be feasible. Therefore mitigation strategies focus on reduction of the Campylobacter spp. concentration in primary production and further minimalisation during processing. In primary production biosecurity measures (incl. hygiene barriers and restricted access) are the methods applied most commonly and most effectively so far. Experimental approaches and few field trials also showed that bacteriophages, electrolyzed oxidizing water, organic acids or medium chain fatty acids (applied via drinking water) are also effective in reducing Campylobacter prevalence and/or concentration However this reduction cannot be transferred in all cases to the situation in the slaughterhouse. Therefore additional measures have to be taken in account in the slaughterhouse to prevent cross-contamination. Logistic or scheduled slaughter can prevent cross-contamination but cannot further reduce Campylobacter concentration. Process parameters like elevated scalding temperature can contribute to such a reduction, but may also alter the product quality. Therefore no single pre- or harvest measure is sufficient for the reduction of Campylobacter concentration, but a combination of measures in both production levels is needed. PMID:25876273

  10. Population Genetics and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Canine Campylobacter Isolates Collected before and after a Raw Feeding Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Roine, Johanna; Hänninen, Marja-Liisa; Hielm-Björkman, Anna; Kivistö, Rauni

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, increasing numbers of consumers have become interested in feeding raw food for their pet dogs as opposed to commercial dry food, in the belief of health advantages. However, raw meat and internal organs, possibly contaminated by pathogens such as Campylobacter spp., may pose a risk of transmission of zoonoses to the pet owners. Campylobacter jejuni is the leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in humans but C. upsaliensis has also been associated with human disease. In this study we investigated the effect of different feeding strategies on the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in Finnish dogs. We further characterized the isolates using multilocus sequence typing (MLST), whole-genome (wg) MLST and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Dogs were sampled before and after a feeding period consisting of commercial raw feed or dry pellet feed. Altogether 56% (20/36) of the dogs yielded at least one Campylobacter-positive fecal sample. C. upsaliensis was the major species detected from 39% of the dogs before and 30% after the feeding period. Two C. jejuni isolates were recovered, both from raw-fed dogs after the dietary regimen. The isolates represented the same genotype (ST-1326), suggesting a common infection source. However, no statistically significant correlation was found between the feeding strategies and Campylobacter spp. carriage. The global genealogy of MLST types of dog and human C. upsaliensis isolates revealed weakly clonal population structure as most STs were widely dispersed. Major antimicrobial resistance among C. upsaliensis isolates was against streptomycin (STR MIC > 4mg/l). Apart from that, all isolates were highly susceptible against the antimicrobials tested. Mutations were found in the genes rpsL or rpsL and rsmG in streptomycin resistant isolates. In conclusion, increasing trend to feed dogs with raw meat warrants more studies to evaluate the risk associated with raw feeding of pets in transmission of zoonoses to humans

  11. Population Genetics and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Canine Campylobacter Isolates Collected before and after a Raw Feeding Experiment.

    PubMed

    Olkkola, Satu; Kovanen, Sara; Roine, Johanna; Hänninen, Marja-Liisa; Hielm-Björkman, Anna; Kivistö, Rauni

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, increasing numbers of consumers have become interested in feeding raw food for their pet dogs as opposed to commercial dry food, in the belief of health advantages. However, raw meat and internal organs, possibly contaminated by pathogens such as Campylobacter spp., may pose a risk of transmission of zoonoses to the pet owners. Campylobacter jejuni is the leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in humans but C. upsaliensis has also been associated with human disease. In this study we investigated the effect of different feeding strategies on the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in Finnish dogs. We further characterized the isolates using multilocus sequence typing (MLST), whole-genome (wg) MLST and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Dogs were sampled before and after a feeding period consisting of commercial raw feed or dry pellet feed. Altogether 56% (20/36) of the dogs yielded at least one Campylobacter-positive fecal sample. C. upsaliensis was the major species detected from 39% of the dogs before and 30% after the feeding period. Two C. jejuni isolates were recovered, both from raw-fed dogs after the dietary regimen. The isolates represented the same genotype (ST-1326), suggesting a common infection source. However, no statistically significant correlation was found between the feeding strategies and Campylobacter spp. carriage. The global genealogy of MLST types of dog and human C. upsaliensis isolates revealed weakly clonal population structure as most STs were widely dispersed. Major antimicrobial resistance among C. upsaliensis isolates was against streptomycin (STR MIC > 4 mg/l). Apart from that, all isolates were highly susceptible against the antimicrobials tested. Mutations were found in the genes rpsL or rpsL and rsmG in streptomycin resistant isolates. In conclusion, increasing trend to feed dogs with raw meat warrants more studies to evaluate the risk associated with raw feeding of pets in transmission of zoonoses to humans

  12. Virulence characterization of Campylobacter jejuni isolated from resident wild birds in Tokachi area, Japan

    PubMed Central

    SHYAKA, Anselme; KUSUMOTO, Akiko; CHAISOWWONG, Warangkhana; OKOUCHI, Yoshiki; FUKUMOTO, Shinya; YOSHIMURA, Aya; KAWAMOTO, Keiko

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni in wild birds is a potential hazard for human and animal health. The aim of this study was to establish the prevalence of C. jejuni in wild birds in Tokachi area, Hokkaido, Japan and investigate their virulence in vitro. In total, 173 cloacal swabs from individual wild birds were collected for the detection of Campylobacter spp. Thirty four samples (19.7%) were positive for Campylobacter of which 94.1% (32/34 samples) were C. jejuni. Additionally, one C. coli and one C. fetus were isolated. Seven C. jejuni isolates (one from crows and the other from pigeons) had important virulence genes including all three CDT genes (cdtA, cdtB and cdtC) and flaA, flaB, ciaB and cadF, and the other isolates were lacking cdtA gene. Further studies on in vitro virulence-associated phenotypes, such as motility assay on soft agar and invasion assay in Caco-2 cells, were performed. The wild bird C. jejuni isolates adhered and invaded human cells. Although the numbers of viable intracellular bacteria of wild bird isolates were lower than a type strain NCTC11168, they persisted at 48-hr and underwent replication in host cells. PMID:25843040

  13. Prevalence and Antimicrobial Resistance of Campylobacter Isolated from Dressed Beef Carcasses and Raw Milk in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kashoma, Isaac P; Kassem, Issmat I; John, Julius; Kessy, Beda M; Gebreyes, Wondwossen; Kazwala, Rudovick R; Rajashekara, Gireesh

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter species are commonly transmitted to humans through consumption of contaminated foods such as milk and meat. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence, antimicrobial resistance, and genetic determinants of resistance of Campylobacter isolated from raw milk and beef carcasses in Tanzania. The antimicrobial resistance genes tested included blaOXA-61 (ampicillin), aph-3-1 (aminoglycoside), tet(O) (tetracycline), and cmeB (multi-drug efflux pump). The prevalence of Campylobacter was 9.5% in beef carcasses and 13.4% in raw milk, respectively. Using multiplex-polymerase chain reaction (PCR), we identified 58.1% of the isolates as Campylobacter jejuni, 30.7% as Campylobacter coli, and 9.7% as other Campylobacter spp. One isolate (1.6%) was positive for both C. jejuni and C. coli specific PCR. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing using the disk diffusion assay and the broth microdilution method showed resistance to: ampicillin (63% and 94.1%), ciprofloxacin (9.3% and 11.8%), erythromycin (53.7% and 70.6%), gentamicin (0% and 15.7%), streptomycin (35.2% and 84.3%), and tetracycline (18.5% and 17.7%), respectively. Resistance to azithromycin (42.6%), nalidixic acid (64.8%), and chloramphenicol (13%) was determined using the disk diffusion assay only, while resistance to tylosin (90.2%) was quantified using the broth microdilution method. The blaOXA-61 (52.6% and 28.1%), cmeB (26.3% and 31.3%), tet(O) (26.3% and 31.3%), and aph-3-1 (5.3% and 3.0%) were detected in C. coli and C. jejuni. These findings highlight the extent of antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter occurring in important foods in Tanzania. The potential risks to consumers emphasize the need for adequate control approaches, including the prudent use of antimicrobials to minimize the spread of antimicrobial-resistant Campylobacter. PMID:26153978

  14. Combination of different methods for detection of Campylobacter spp. in young children with moderate to severe diarrhea.

    PubMed

    do Nascimento Veras, Herlice; da Silva Quetz, Josiane; Lima, Ila Fernanda Nunes; Rodrigues, Tamara Silva; Havt, Alexandre; Rey, Luís Carlos; Mota, Rosa Maria Salani; Soares, Alberto Melo; Singhal, Mitra; Weigl, Bernhard; Guerrant, Richard; Lima, Aldo Angelo Moreira

    2016-09-01

    Campylobacter spp. were detected - using culture, ELISA, PCR, and qPCR - among children (0-36months) with moderate to severe diarrhea in Northeastern Brazil. Our data showed that either the qPCR alone or PCR along with ELISA might be an alternative to culture to diagnose Campylobacter due to their enhanced sensitivity. PMID:27350584

  15. Prevalence and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Campylobacter spp. in Oklahoma Conventional and Organic Retail Poultry

    PubMed Central

    Noormohamed, Aneesa; Fakhr, Mohamed K

    2014-01-01

    Campylobacter is one of the most important foodborne pathogens that cause bacterial gastroenteritis.This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter in conventional and organic retail poultry samples purchased from grocery stores in Tulsa, Oklahoma.One hundred and fifty six chilled retail chicken samples (85 conventional and 71 organic) and 65 chilled retail conventional turkey samples were collected in this study. The prevalence of Campylobacter in the conventional chicken samples 32/85 (38%) was higher than in the organic ones 21/71 (30%). The prevalence of Campylobacter in the conventional turkey samples was 11/65 (17%). Of the 53 positive chicken samples, 42 were C. jejuni, 8 were C. coli and three isolates were contaminated with both species. Of the 11 positive turkey samples, 8 contained C. jejuni and 3 harbored C. coli isolates. The antimicrobial susceptibility of one hundred and forty nine recovered Campylobacter isolates (130 chickens and 19 turkeys) towards sixteen antimicrobials was determined. The majority of the recovered turkey isolates (13/19) showed resistance to more than 7 antimicrobials while most of the recovered chicken ones (82/130) were resistant to 5 to 7 antimicrobials. Multidrug resistance was not limited to isolates from conventional sources but was also available in isolates of an organic background and was generally lower in C. jejuni isolates when compared to the C. coli ones. PMID:25408778

  16. Development and stability of bacteriocin resistance 1 in Campylobacter spp

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aims: Several bacteriocins (BCNs) identified from chicken commensal bacteria dramatically reduced Campylobacter colonization in poultry and aredirected toward on farm control of this important food-borne human pathogen. BCN resistance in C. jejuni is very difficult to develop in vitro. In this study...

  17. Temporal Prevalence of Antimicrobial Resistance in Campylobacter spp. from Beef Cattle in Alberta Feedlots†

    PubMed Central

    Inglis, G. D.; Morck, D. W.; McAllister, T. A.; Entz, T.; Olson, M. E.; Yanke, L. J.; Read, R. R.

    2006-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) was temporally assessed in campylobacters isolated from beef cattle (7,738 fecal samples from 2,622 animals) in four commercial feedlots in Alberta. All calves were administered chlortetracycline and oxytetracycline in feed, and a majority of the animals (93%) were injected with long-acting oxytetracycline upon arrival at the feedlot. Fecal samples from individual animals were collected upon arrival (i.e., entry sample), 69 days (standard deviation [SD] = 3 days) after arrival (i.e., interim sample), and 189 days (SD = 33 days) after arrival (i.e., exit sample) at the feedlot. In total, 1,586 Campylobacter isolates consisting of Campylobacter coli (n = 154), Campylobacter fetus (n = 994), Campylobacter jejuni (n = 431), Campylobacter hyointestinalis (n = 4), and Campylobacter lanienae (n = 3) were recovered and characterized. The administration of antimicrobials did not decrease carriage rates of campylobacters, and minimal resistance (≤4%) to azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, gentamicin, and meropenem was observed. In contrast, substantive increases in the prevalence of isolates resistant to tetracycline and doxycycline (56 to 89%) for C. coli, C. fetus, and C. jejuni, as well as in the number of animals (7 to 42%) from which resistant isolates were recovered, were observed during the feedlot period. Increased resistance to erythromycin (total isolates and carriages rates) was also observed in isolates of C. coli over the three isolation times. The majority of C. fetus isolates recovered were resistant to nalidixic acid, but this was independent of when they were isolated. A relatively limited number of multidrug-resistant isolates were recovered and consisted primarily of C. coli resistant to tetracyclines and erythromycin (10% of isolates). Over the course of the feedlot period, considerable increases in antimicrobial resistance were observed in C. coli, C. fetus, and C. jejuni, but with the exception of erythromycin

  18. Ability of lactate and pyruvate to stimulate aerobic growth of campylobacter in media supplemented with fumarate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter spp. are human, foodborne, and bacterial pathogens that are frequently isolated from live poultry and processed poultry products. These pathogens are classified as microaerophiles; therefore, Campylobacter cultures are generally grown in atmospheres with reduced oxygen levels and elev...

  19. Complete Genome Sequence of Campylobacter iguaniorum Strain RM11343, Isolated from an Alpaca.

    PubMed

    Miller, William G; Yee, Emma; Huynh, Stephen; Chapman, Mary H; Parker, Craig T

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter iguaniorum is a member of the C. fetus group of campylobacters and is one of two Campylobacter taxa isolated from reptiles. This study describes the whole-genome sequence of the C. iguaniorum strain RM11343, which was isolated from a California alpaca fecal sample. PMID:27365359

  20. Complete genome sequence of the Campylobacter iguaniorum strain RM11343, isolated from an alpaca

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter iguaniorum is a member of the C. fetus group of campylobacters and is one of two Campylobacter taxa isolated from reptiles. This study describes the whole-genome sequence of the C. iguaniorum strain RM11343, which was isolated from a California alpaca fecal sample....

  1. Complete genome sequence of the Campylobacter iguaniorum strain RM11343, isolated from an alpaca.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter iguaniorum is a member of the C. fetus group of campylobacters and is one of two Campylobacter taxa isolated from reptiles. This study describes the whole-genome sequence of the C. iguaniorum strain RM11343, which was isolated from a California alpaca fecal sample....

  2. Complete Genome Sequence of Campylobacter iguaniorum Strain RM11343, Isolated from an Alpaca

    PubMed Central

    Yee, Emma; Huynh, Stephen; Chapman, Mary H.; Parker, Craig T.

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter iguaniorum is a member of the C. fetus group of campylobacters and is one of two Campylobacter taxa isolated from reptiles. This study describes the whole-genome sequence of the C. iguaniorum strain RM11343, which was isolated from a California alpaca fecal sample. PMID:27365359

  3. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolates obtained in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, from 2002 to 2013.

    PubMed

    Gaudreau, Christiane; Boucher, France; Gilbert, Huguette; Bekal, Sadjia

    2014-07-01

    From 2002 to 2013 in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, 38 Campylobacter coli isolates were more frequently erythromycin, tetracycline, and ciprofloxacin resistant than 440 Campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni isolates (18.4% versus 1.8%; P = 0.00005), of which the 148 isolates acquired abroad were more frequently erythromycin, tetracycline, and ciprofloxacin resistant than the 292 isolates acquired locally (5.4% versus 0%; P = 0.0001). PMID:24759726

  4. Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli Isolates Obtained in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, from 2002 to 2013

    PubMed Central

    Boucher, France; Gilbert, Huguette; Bekal, Sadjia

    2014-01-01

    From 2002 to 2013 in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, 38 Campylobacter coli isolates were more frequently erythromycin, tetracycline, and ciprofloxacin resistant than 440 Campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni isolates (18.4% versus 1.8%; P = 0.00005), of which the 148 isolates acquired abroad were more frequently erythromycin, tetracycline, and ciprofloxacin resistant than the 292 isolates acquired locally (5.4% versus 0%; P = 0.0001). PMID:24759726

  5. Complete genome sequence of Campylobacter iguaniorum strain 1485ET, isolated from a bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter iguaniorum has been isolated from reptiles. This Campylobacter species is genetically related to C. fetus and C. hyointestinalis. Here we present the first whole genome sequence for this species....

  6. Campylobacter MLST Subtypes and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Broiler Cecal Isolates: A Two Year Study from 142 Commercial Flocks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: Campylobacter spp. are recognized as important agents of human foodborne gastroenteritis. To monitor trends in food safety and public health, antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Campylobacter derived from poultry products and infected patients has become common practice in both r...

  7. Bacteriocins to control Campylobacter spp. in poultry--A review.

    PubMed

    Svetoch, E A; Stern, N J

    2010-08-01

    The unacceptably high frequency of Campylobacter jejuni transmission from poultry to humans encourages scientists to consider and create alternative intervention strategies to control the pathogen in poultry production. Extremely high numbers of Campylobacter (often >10(8) cfu/g of poultry intestinal material) potentiate high numbers of the organism on the processed broiler carcass with increasing consequent human health risk. Many scientists believe interventions during poultry production portend the greatest opportunity for reducing risk of disease. Over the past 10 yr, we have focused our studies on nonantibiotic bacteriocin application to intervene during animal production and this is the subject of the current review. The application of therapeutic bacteriocin treatments to reduce poultry colonization diminishes Campylobacter from >10(8) cfu/g of cecal materials to nondetectable or very low levels in treated birds. Further, the review provides scientists with a useful starting point for the further development of industry-applicable interventions leading to reduced transmission of this agent in human disease. PMID:20634535

  8. Genotypes and antibiotic resistance of canine Campylobacter jejuni isolates.

    PubMed

    Amar, Chantal; Kittl, Sonja; Spreng, David; Thomann, Andreas; Korczak, Bożena M; Burnens, André P; Kuhnert, Peter

    2014-01-10

    Campylobacter jejuni is the most important cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in humans. It is a commensal in many wild and domestic animals, including dogs. Whereas genotypes of human and chicken C. jejuni isolates have been described in some detail, only little information on canine C. jejuni genotypes is available. To gain more information on genotypes of canine C. jejuni and their zoonotic potential, isolates from routine diagnostics of diarrheic dogs as well as isolates of a prevalence study in non-diarrheic dogs were analyzed. Prevalence of thermophilic Campylobacter among non-diarrheic dogs was 6.3% for C. jejuni, 5.9% for Campylobacter upsaliensis and 0.7% for Campylobacter coli. The C. jejuni isolates were genotyped by multi locus sequence typing (MLST) and flaB typing. Resistance to macrolides and quinolones was genetically determined in parallel. Within the 134 genotyped C. jejuni isolates 57 different sequence types (ST) were found. Five STs were previously unrecognized. The most common STs were ST-48 (11.2%), ST-45 (10.5%) and ST-21 (6.0%). Whereas no macrolide resistance was found, 28 isolates (20.9%) were resistant to quinolones. ST-45 was significantly more prevalent in diarrheic than in non-diarrheic dogs. Within the common time frame of isolation 94% of the canine isolates had a ST that was also found in human clinical isolates. In conclusion, prevalence of C. jejuni in Swiss dogs is low but there is a large genetic overlap between dog and human isolates. Given the close contact between human and dogs, the latter should not be ignored as a potential source of human campylobacteriosis. PMID:24210812

  9. Analysis of in vitro and in vivo effects of probiotics against Campylobacter spp.

    PubMed

    Bratz, Katharina; Gölz, Greta; Janczyk, Pawel; Nöckler, Karsten; Alter, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Campylobacter (C.) spp. are well recognised as the leading cause of bacterial food-borne diarrheal disease worldwide, with C. jejuni and C. coli as the most important species: C. coli is highly abundant in pigs and pork meat has often been implicated as a source for human infection. Intestinal colonisation of C. coli in pigs plays a role in carcass contamination during slaughter. Different pre-harvest intervention measures are proposed to reduce the C. coli burden in the porcine intestine. Among others, the use of probiotics to prevent or reduce the colonisation of intestinal pathogens is discussed. One aim of this study was to screen a variety of probiotics to evaluate their inhibitory activity against Campylobacter spp. in vitro. Therefore, cell-free culture supernatants of Lactobacillus spp., Bifidobacterium spp., Enterococcus (E.) faecium NCIMB 10415, and Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 were tested against C. jejuni and C. coli by a well-diffusion agar assay. Seven out of eleven Lactobacillus strains showed an inhibitory activity against at least one of the three tested Campylobacter strains. This antagonistic activity against Campylobacter spp. was caused by the production of organic acids that lowered the pH. Application with pH neutralised cell-free culture supernatants abolished this inhibitory effect. Other tested strains with probiotic properties showed no inhibitory activity against any Campylobacter spp. strain. The strain E. faecium NCIMB 10415 was chosen to test its inhibitory activity against C. coli in vivo. Twenty weaned piglets were allocated into two groups, a probiotic group and a control group.The diet of the probiotic group was supplemented with E. faecium NCIMB 10415 (10(9) cfu/kg feed, Cylactin) since weaning, whereas the control group received no probiotic treatment. All piglets were naturally colonised with C. coli. The excretion load of C. coli was monitored for 28 days. The results indicate that dietary supplementation of E. faecium NCIMB

  10. Prevalence and genotypes of Campylobacter jejuni from urban environmental sources in comparison with clinical isolates from children.

    PubMed

    Ramonaite, Sigita; Kudirkiene, Egle; Tamuleviciene, Egle; Leviniene, Giedra; Malakauskas, Alvydas; Gölz, Greta; Alter, Thomas; Malakauskas, Mindaugas

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni in potential contamination sources that are not regularly monitored such as free-living urban pigeons and crows, dogs, cats and urban environmental water and to assess the possible impact on the epidemiology of campylobacteriosis in children using multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Campylobacter spp. were detected in 36.2 % of faecal samples of free-living urban birds and in 40.4 % of environmental water samples. A low prevalence of Campylobacter spp. was detected in dogs and cats, with 7.9 and 9.1 %, respectively. Further identification of isolates revealed that environmental water and pet samples were mostly contaminated by other Campylobacter spp. than C. jejuni, whereas C. jejuni was the most prevalent species in faecal samples of free-living birds (35.4 %). This species was the dominant cause of campylobacteriosis in children (91.5 %). In addition, the diversity of C. jejuni MLST types in free-living birds and children was investigated. Clonal complex (CC) 179 was predominant among free-living urban birds; however, only two isolates from children were assigned to this CC. One dog and one child isolate were assigned to the same clonal complex (CC48) and sequence type (ST) 918. The dominant two clonal complexes among the child clinical isolates (CC353 and CC21) were not detected among C. jejuni strains isolated from environmental sources examined in this study. As only two CCs were shared by environmental and child C. jejuni isolates and a high number of novel alleles and STs were found in C. jejuni isolated from free-living urban birds and environmental water, there is probably only a limited link between urban environmental sources and campylobacteriosis in children, particularly in rather cold climatic conditions. PMID:24987101

  11. Activation of human and chicken toll-like receptors by Campylobacter spp.

    PubMed

    de Zoete, Marcel R; Keestra, A Marijke; Roszczenko, Paula; van Putten, Jos P M

    2010-03-01

    Campylobacter infection in humans is accompanied by severe inflammation of the intestinal mucosa, in contrast to colonization of chicken. The basis for the differential host response is unknown. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) sense and respond to microbes in the body and participate in the induction of an inflammatory response. Thus far, the interaction of Campylobacter with chicken TLRs has not been studied. Here, we investigated the potential of four Campylobacter strains to activate human TLR1/2/6, TLR4, TLR5, and TLR9 and chicken TLR2t2/16, TLR4, TLR5, and TLR21. Live bacteria showed no or very limited potential to activate TLR2, TLR4, and TLR5 of both the human and chicken species, with minor but significant differences between Campylobacter strains. In contrast, lysed bacteria induced strong NF-kappaB activation through human TLR1/2/6 and TLR4 and chicken TLR2t2/16 and TLR4 but not via TLR5 of either species. Interestingly, C. jejuni induced TLR4-mediated beta interferon in human but not chicken cells. Furthermore, isolated chromosomal Campylobacter DNA was unable to activate human TLR9 in our system, whereas chicken TLR21 was activated by DNA from all of the campylobacters tested. Our data are the first comparison of TLR-induced immune responses in humans and chickens. The results suggest that differences in bacterial cell wall integrity and in TLR responses to Campylobacter LOS and/or DNA may contribute to the distinct clinical manifestation between the species. PMID:20038539

  12. Activation of Human and Chicken Toll-Like Receptors by Campylobacter spp.▿

    PubMed Central

    de Zoete, Marcel R.; Keestra, A. Marijke; Roszczenko, Paula; van Putten, Jos P. M.

    2010-01-01

    Campylobacter infection in humans is accompanied by severe inflammation of the intestinal mucosa, in contrast to colonization of chicken. The basis for the differential host response is unknown. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) sense and respond to microbes in the body and participate in the induction of an inflammatory response. Thus far, the interaction of Campylobacter with chicken TLRs has not been studied. Here, we investigated the potential of four Campylobacter strains to activate human TLR1/2/6, TLR4, TLR5, and TLR9 and chicken TLR2t2/16, TLR4, TLR5, and TLR21. Live bacteria showed no or very limited potential to activate TLR2, TLR4, and TLR5 of both the human and chicken species, with minor but significant differences between Campylobacter strains. In contrast, lysed bacteria induced strong NF-κB activation through human TLR1/2/6 and TLR4 and chicken TLR2t2/16 and TLR4 but not via TLR5 of either species. Interestingly, C. jejuni induced TLR4-mediated beta interferon in human but not chicken cells. Furthermore, isolated chromosomal Campylobacter DNA was unable to activate human TLR9 in our system, whereas chicken TLR21 was activated by DNA from all of the campylobacters tested. Our data are the first comparison of TLR-induced immune responses in humans and chickens. The results suggest that differences in bacterial cell wall integrity and in TLR responses to Campylobacter LOS and/or DNA may contribute to the distinct clinical manifestation between the species. PMID:20038539

  13. Campylobacter spp. recovered from the Upper Oconee River Watershed, Georgia, in a four-year study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Waterways should be considered in the migration routes of Campylobacter and the genus has been isolated from several water sources. Inferences on migration routes can be made from tracking genetic types in populations found in the habitats and testing how they are linked to other types. Water samp...

  14. First isolation of Mycobacterium spp. in Mullus spp. in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Sevim, P; Ozer, S; Rad, F

    2015-01-01

    Ichthyozoonotic Mycobacterium spp. poses health risks both to fish and humans. In this study, the presence of ichthyozoonotic Mycobacterium spp. was investigated in red mullet (Mullus barbatus barbatus) and surmullet (Mullus surmuletus), widely caught species in the Mediterranean and the Aegean Sea. A total of 208 fish samples, provided from fishermen of Mersin province (Turkey) were studied. Using conventional methods, Mycobacterium spp. was isolated and identified at the genus level by PCR and at the species level by PCR-RFLP. Thirteen Mycobacterium spp. were detected in 13 (6.25%) fish samples. Four mycobacteria were identified as M. genavense, three as M. fortuitum, three as M. scrofulaceum, one as M. marinum, one as M. vaccae and one as M. aurum. No signs of mycobacteriosis were observed in fish samples. Findings of this study can contribute to future studies of onichthyozoonotic Mycobacterium spp. in seafood. PMID:27175166

  15. Kitchen practices used in handling broiler chickens and survival of Campylobacter spp. on cutting surfaces in Kampala, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Wanyenya, Irene; Muyanja, Charles; Nasinyama, George William

    2004-09-01

    Cross-contamination during food preparation has been identified as an important factor associated with foodborne illnesses. Handling practices used during preparation of broiler chickens in 31 fast-food restaurants and 86 semisettled street stands (street vendors) were assessed by use of a standard checklist. These establishments used wood, plastic, or metal cutting surfaces during the preparation of broiler chickens. The survival of Campylobacter spp. on kitchen cutting surfaces was determined by inoculating approximately 10(6) CFU of Campylobacter jejuni onto sterile plastic, wooden, and metal cutting boards. The concentrations of the organisms were then assessed in triplicate on each type of cutting board over a 3-h period using standard microbiological methods for thermophilic Campylobacter spp. In 87% of food establishments, the same work area was used for preparation of raw and cooked chicken, and in 68% of these establishments the same cutting boards were used for raw and cooked chicken. None of the establishments applied disinfectants or sanitizers when washing contact surfaces. Campylobacter spp. survived on wooden and plastic but not on metal cutting boards after 3 h of exposure. The handling practices in food preparation areas, therefore, provide an opportunity for cross-contamination of Campylobacter spp. to ready-to-eat foods. PMID:15453589

  16. Molecular epidemiology and public health relevance of Campylobacter isolated from dairy cattle and European starlings in Ohio, USA.

    PubMed

    Sanad, Yasser M; Closs, Gary; Kumar, Anand; LeJeune, Jeffrey T; Rajashekara, Gireesh

    2013-03-01

    Dairy cattle serve as a potential source for Campylobacter infection in humans. Outbreaks associated with consumption of either Campylobacter contaminated raw milk or contaminated milk after treatment were previously recorded in the United States. Further, starlings have been implicated in the spread of bacterial pathogens among livestock. Here, we determined the prevalence, genotypic, and phenotypic properties of Campylobacter isolated from fecal samples of dairy cattle and starlings found on the same establishment in northeastern Ohio. Campylobacter were detected in 83 (36.6%) and 57 (50.4%) out of 227 dairy and 113 starling fecal samples, respectively. Specifically, 79 C. jejuni, five C. coli, and two other Campylobacter spp. were isolated from dairy feces, while all isolates from starlings (n=57) were C. jejuni. Our results showed that the prevalence of C. jejuni in birds was significantly (p<0.01) higher than that in dairy cattle. The pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis showed that C. jejuni were genotypically diverse and host restricted; however, there were several shared genotypes between dairy cattle and starling isolates. Likewise, many shared clonal complexes (CC) between dairy cattle and starlings were observed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) analysis. As in humans, both in cattle and starlings, the CC 45 and CC 21 were the most frequently represented CCs. As previously reported, CC 177 and CC 682 were restricted to the bird isolates, while CC 42 was restricted to dairy cattle isolates. Further, two new sequence types (STs) were detected in C. jejuni from dairy cattle. Interestingly, cattle and starling C. jejuni showed high resistance to multiple antimicrobials, including ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, and gentamicin. In conclusion, our results highlight starlings as potential reservoirs for C. jejuni, and they may play an important role in the epidemiology of clinically important C. jejuni in dairy population. PMID:23259503

  17. Prevalence and risk factors for Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., Coxiella burnetii, and Newcastle disease virus in feral pigeons (Columba livia) in public areas of Montreal, Canada.

    PubMed

    Gabriele-Rivet, Vanessa; Fairbrother, Julie-Hélène; Tremblay, Donald; Harel, Josée; Côté, Nathalie; Arsenault, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Feral pigeons (Columbia livia) can harbor a range of zoonotic pathogens. A transversal study was undertaken to estimate the prevalence of feral pigeons infected by various pathogens in public areas in Montreal, Quebec. Cloacal swabs from captured birds were cultured for Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp. and tested by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for the detection of Coxiella burnetii. An oropharyngeal swab was also submitted to real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RRT-PCR) for the detection of Newcastle disease virus. Among the 187 pigeons tested from 10 public areas, 9.1% (95% CI: 3.0 to 15.2) were positive for Campylobacter spp. with all strains identified as Campylobacter jejuni. The Campylobacter status of birds was not associated with individual characteristics of birds, with the exception of body score. None of the pigeons tested positive for the other pathogens. Direct or indirect contacts with feral pigeons may constitute a potential risk for Campylobacter infection in humans. PMID:26733736

  18. Prevalence and risk factors for Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., Coxiella burnetii, and Newcastle disease virus in feral pigeons (Columba livia) in public areas of Montreal, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Gabriele-Rivet, Vanessa; Fairbrother, Julie-Hélène; Tremblay, Donald; Harel, Josée; Côté, Nathalie; Arsenault, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Feral pigeons (Columbia livia) can harbor a range of zoonotic pathogens. A transversal study was undertaken to estimate the prevalence of feral pigeons infected by various pathogens in public areas in Montreal, Quebec. Cloacal swabs from captured birds were cultured for Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp. and tested by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for the detection of Coxiella burnetii. An oropharyngeal swab was also submitted to real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RRT-PCR) for the detection of Newcastle disease virus. Among the 187 pigeons tested from 10 public areas, 9.1% (95% CI: 3.0 to 15.2) were positive for Campylobacter spp. with all strains identified as Campylobacter jejuni. The Campylobacter status of birds was not associated with individual characteristics of birds, with the exception of body score. None of the pigeons tested positive for the other pathogens. Direct or indirect contacts with feral pigeons may constitute a potential risk for Campylobacter infection in humans. PMID:26733736

  19. A severe case of persistent diarrhoea associated with Arcobacter cryaerophilus but attributed to Campylobacter sp. and a review of the clinical incidence of Arcobacter spp.

    PubMed Central

    Figueras, M J; Levican, A; Pujol, I; Ballester, F; Rabada Quilez, M J; Gomez-Bertomeu, F

    2014-01-01

    Although rarely, Arcobacter spp. have been associated with diarrhoea and bacteraemia. We report a persistent case in a healthy 26-year-old Spanish male of bloody diarrhoea, which was attributed to Campylobacter but in fact was caused by Arcobacter cryaerophilus, as determined by sequencing of the rpoB gene. The isolate was re-identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight (MALDI-TOF) and genotyped for five putative virulence genes and for seven genes included in the Arcobacter multilocus sequence typing database. The low score obtained by MALDI-TOF indicates the need to complement the database with more isolates. Only the ciaB gene, which encodes for an invasin, was detected. Despite the isolate belonging to a new sequence type, three of the alleles (glnA, pgm and tkt) had been found previously in isolates from faeces of patients with diarrhoea. This study, together with the reviewed literature, indicates that Arcobacter can produce bacteraemia and that the isolation from patients with diarrhoea range from 0.11% to 1.25%. This study also demonstrates that Arcobacter species are confused with Campylobacter spp., as previously suggested. This is one of the factors that leads to underestimation of their incidence together with the use of inappropriate detection and identification methods. PMID:25356338

  20. Isolation of Campylobacter from circulating blood of commercial broilers via vena-puncture of exposed/unexposed brachial veins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter spp. have recently been recovered from several lymphoid tissues of commercial poultry. The objective of this study was to determine whether naturally occurring Campylobacter spp. could be recovered from the circulating blood of market age commercial broilers utilizing aseptic techniqu...

  1. Description of Campylobacter fetus subsp. testudinum subsp. nov., isolated from humans and reptiles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A polyphasic study was undertaken to determine the taxonomic position of 13 Campylobacter fetus-like isolates from humans (n=8) and reptiles (n=5). Phenotypic characterization, Genusgenus-specific and sap insertion-PCR initially identified all human isolates as type A Campylobacter fetus. Phylogenet...

  2. Activities of Telithromycin, Erythromycin, Fluoroquinolones, and Doxycycline against Campylobacter Strains Isolated from Finnish Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Schönberg-Norio, Daniela; Hänninen, Marja-Liisa; Katila, Marja-Leena; Kaukoranta, Suvi-Sirkku; Koskela, Markku; Eerola, Erkki; Uksila, Jaakko; Pajarre, Sini; Rautelin, Hilpi

    2006-01-01

    The in vitro susceptibilities of 478 Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli strains isolated from Finnish subjects during 2002 to 2004 were determined. Susceptibility to erythromycin remained high, and telithromycin did not offer any advantage over erythromycin. Reduced susceptibilities to fluoroquinolones and doxycycline were detected almost exclusively among isolates of foreign origin. PMID:16495275

  3. Campylobacter spp. in New Zealand raw sheep liver and human campylobacteriosis cases.

    PubMed

    Cornelius, A J; Nicol, C; Hudson, J A

    2005-03-01

    Sheep liver samples were tested for the presence and numbers of Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli during both spring and autumn. Over the same period, isolates were obtained from human clinical cases from the same geographical area as where the food samples were purchased. A subset of the C. jejuni isolates was typed by both Penner serotyping and pulsed field gel electrophoresis using the restriction enzyme SmaI, to estimate the proportion of liver isolate types that were also isolated from human cases of campylobacteriosis. Of the 272 liver samples tested, 180 (66.2%) contained Campylobacter. Most of the positive samples contained <3 MPN/g of the organism, and only 12 (6.7%) were contaminated at a level exceeding 100 MPN/g. A total of 180 C. jejuni isolates were obtained from sheep liver and another 200 from human faeces. Of these, 212 isolates were randomly selected for typing, half from raw liver and half from human faeces. More than half (61.1%) of the 106 C. jejuni isolates from liver were of subtypes that were also isolated from human cases. While the C. jejuni present in sheep liver were mostly of subtypes also isolated from human cases, the significance of this food as a vehicle of human campylobacteriosis needs to be examined further in respect to other factors such as dose-response information, consumption data, frequency of undercooking and cross contamination. PMID:15718033

  4. DNA identification and characterization of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolated from cecal samples of chickens in Grenada

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To speciate Campylobacter strains from the ceca of chickens in Grenada by PCR and to evaluate DNA-based typing methods for the characterization of these isolates. Isolates were speciated with two multiplex PCR assays and were typed with flaA-RFLP, PFGE and MLST. Results confirmed that C. coli strain...

  5. A Systematic Review Characterizing On-Farm Sources of Campylobacter spp. for Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Agunos, Agnes; Waddell, Lisa; Léger, David; Taboada, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Campylobacter and antimicrobial-resistant Campylobacter are frequently isolated from broiler chickens worldwide. In Canada, campylobacteriosis is the third leading cause of enteric disease and the regional emergence of ciprofloxacin-resistant Campylobacter in broiler chickens has raised a public health concern. This study aimed to identify, critically appraise, and synthesize literature on sources of Campylobacter in broilers at the farm level using systematic review methodology. Literature searches were conducted in January 2012 and included electronic searches in four bibliographic databases. Relevant studies in French or English (n = 95) conducted worldwide in any year and all study designs were included. Risk of Bias and GRADE criteria endorsed by the Cochrane collaboration was used to assess the internal validity of the study and overall confidence in the meta-analysis. The categories for on-farm sources were: broiler breeders/vertical transfer (number of studies = 32), animals (n = 57), humans (n = 26), environment (n = 54), and water (n = 63). Only three studies examined the antimicrobial resistance profiles of Campylobacter from these on-farm sources. Subgroups of data by source and outcome were analyzed using random effect meta-analysis. The highest risk for contaminating a new flock appears to be a contaminated barn environment due to insufficient cleaning and disinfection, insufficient downtime, and the presence of an adjacent broiler flock. Effective biosecurity enhancements from physical barriers to restricting human movement on the farm are recommended for consideration to enhance local on-farm food safety programs. Improved sampling procedures and standardized laboratory testing are needed for comparability across studies. Knowledge gaps that should be addressed include farm-level drug use and antimicrobial resistance information, further evaluation of the potential for vertical transfer, and improved genotyping methods to

  6. ISOLATION AND MOLECULAR IDENTIFICATION OF POTENTIALLY PATHOGENIC Escherichia coli AND Campylobacter jejuni IN FERAL PIGEONS FROM AN URBAN AREA IN THE CITY OF LIMA, PERU.

    PubMed

    Caballero, Moisés; Rivera, Isabel; Jara, Luis M; Ulloa-Stanojlovic, Francisco M; Shiva, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Feral pigeons (Columbia livia) live in close contact with humans and other animals. They can transmit potentially pathogenic and zoonotic agents. The objective of this study was to isolate and detect strains of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli and Campylobacter jejuni of urban feral pigeons from an area of Lima, Peru. Fresh dropping samples from urban parks were collected for microbiological isolation of E. coli strains in selective agar, and Campylobacter by filtration method. Molecular identification of diarrheagenic pathotypes of E.coli and Campylobacter jejuni was performed by PCR. Twenty-two parks were sampled and 16 colonies of Campylobacter spp. were isolated. The 100% of isolates were identified as Campylobacter jejuni. Furthermore, 102 colonies of E. coli were isolated and the 5.88% resulted as Enteropathogenic (EPEC) type and 0.98% as Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC). The urban feral pigeons of Lima in Peru can act as a reservoir or carriers of zoonotic potentially pathogenic enteric agents. PMID:26603225

  7. ISOLATION AND MOLECULAR IDENTIFICATION OF POTENTIALLY PATHOGENIC Escherichia coli AND Campylobacter jejuni IN FERAL PIGEONS FROM AN URBAN AREA IN THE CITY OF LIMA, PERU

    PubMed Central

    CABALLERO, Moisés; RIVERA, Isabel; JARA, Luis M.; ULLOA-STANOJLOVIC, Francisco M.; SHIVA, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Feral pigeons (Columbia livia) live in close contact with humans and other animals. They can transmit potentially pathogenic and zoonotic agents. The objective of this study was to isolate and detect strains of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli and Campylobacter jejuni of urban feral pigeons from an area of Lima, Peru. Fresh dropping samples from urban parks were collected for microbiological isolation of E. coli strains in selective agar, and Campylobacter by filtration method. Molecular identification of diarrheagenic pathotypes of E.coli and Campylobacter jejuni was performed by PCR. Twenty-two parks were sampled and 16 colonies of Campylobacter spp. were isolated. The 100% of isolates were identified as Campylobacter jejuni. Furthermore, 102 colonies of E. coliwere isolated and the 5.88% resulted as Enteropathogenic (EPEC) type and 0.98% as Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC). The urban feral pigeons of Lima in Peru can act as a reservoir or carriers of zoonotic potentially pathogenic enteric agents. PMID:26603225

  8. Enumeration of Salmonella and Campylobacter spp. in Environmental Farm Samples and Processing Plant Carcass Rinses from Commercial Broiler Chicken Flocks

    PubMed Central

    Thayer, Stephan G.; Law, Bibiana F.; Mild, Rita M.; Hofacre, Charles L.; Singer, Randall S.

    2013-01-01

    A prospective cohort study was performed to evaluate the prevalences and loads of Salmonella and Campylobacter spp. in farm and processing plant samples collected from 55 commercial broiler chicken flocks. Environmental samples were collected from broiler houses within 48 h before slaughter, and carcass rinses were performed on birds from the same flocks at 4 different stages of processing. Salmonella was detected in farm samples of 50 (90.9%) flocks and in processing samples of 52 (94.5%) flocks. Campylobacter was detected in farm samples of 35 (63.6%) flocks and in processing samples of 48 (87.3%) flocks. There was a significant positive relationship between environmental farm samples and processing plant carcass rinses with respect to both Salmonella and Campylobacter prevalences and loads. Campylobacter loads were significantly higher than Salmonella loads, and the correlations between samples collected from the same flocks were higher for Campylobacter than they were for Salmonella. Boot socks were the most sensitive sample type for detection of Salmonella on the farm, whereas litter samples had the strongest association with Salmonella loads in pre- and postchill carcass rinses. Boot socks, drag swabs, and fecal samples all had similar sensitivities for detecting Campylobacter on the farm, and all were more strongly associated with Campylobacter loads in carcass rinses than were litter samples. Farm samples explained a greater proportion of the variability in carcass rinse prevalences and loads for Campylobacter than they did for Salmonella. Salmonella and Campylobacter prevalences and loads both decreased significantly as birds progressed through the processing plant. PMID:23624481

  9. Typing of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolated from live broilers and retail broiler meat by flaA-RFLP, MLST, PFGE and REP-PCR.

    PubMed

    Behringer, Megan; Miller, William G; Oyarzabal, Omar A

    2011-02-01

    We analyzed 100 Campylobacter spp. isolates (C. jejuni and C. coli) from Grenada, Puerto Rico and Alabama, which were collected from live broilers or retail broiler meat. We analyzed these isolates with four molecular typing methods: restriction fragment length polymorphism of the flaA gene (flaA-RFLP), multilocus sequence typing (MLST), pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and automated repetitive extragenic palindromic polymerase chain reaction (REP-PCR) using the DiversiLab system. All methods performed similarly for the typing of C. jejuni and C. coli. The DNA extraction method appears to influence the results obtained with REP-PCR. This method was better for the typing of C. jejuni than C. coli, however both REP-PCR and flaA-RFLP generated types that were indistinguishable between C. jejuni and C. coli and appeared to be random, without any relationship to species, location, or source of isolates. PFGE and MLST generated typing results that had a better correlation with the geographic location of the isolates and showed higher concordance with the Wallace coefficient. The adjusted Rand coefficient did not show higher concordance among the methods, although the PFGE/MLST combination exhibited the highest concordance. PFGE and MLST revealed a better discriminatory power for C. coli isolates than REP-PCR or flaA-RFLP. The use of readily available online tools to calculate the confidence interval of the Simpson's index of diversity and the adjusted Rand and Wallace coefficients helped estimate the discriminatory power of typing methods. Further studies using different C. jejuni and C. coli strains may expand our understanding of the benefits and limitations of each of these typing methods for epidemiological studies of Campylobacter spp. PMID:21130125

  10. Eleutherine americana: a candidate for the control of Campylobacter species.

    PubMed

    Sirirak, T; Voravuthikunchai, S P

    2011-04-01

    The antibacterial activity of ethanolic extracts of selected Thai medicinal plants (Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Aiton) Hassk., Quercus infectoria G. Olivier, and Eleutherine americana Merr.) against Campylobacter spp. was investigated. Sixty-five Campylobacter, including 39 isolates from humans and 26 isolates from chicken samples, were tested. Reference Campylobacter spp. that are commonly encountered in gastroenteritis were included. The ethanolic extract of E. americana demonstrated good antibacterial activity against all the tested isolates. Inhibition zones ranged from 10 to 37 mm. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the extract against Campylobacter isolates from humans and chicken samples ranged from 31.25 to 500 μg/mL and 62.50 to 1,000 μg/mL, respectively. The minimum bactericidal concentration ranged from 31.25 to 1,000 μg/mL for isolates from humans and 125 to 1,000 μg/mL from chicken isolates. The bactericidal activity of the ethanolic extracts of E. americana against important Campylobacter spp., including Campylobacter coli MUMT 18630, Campylobacter fetus ATCC 27374, Campylobacter jejuni ATCC 81176, Campylobacter lari ATCC 43675, and Campylobacter upsaliensis DMST 19055, were assessed at MIC, 2 MIC, and 4 MIC by counting viable cells after various time intervals. At 4 MIC, the level of the tested isolates decreased by 2 to 5 log-fold within 8 h. The ethanolic extract of E. americana demonstrated antibacterial activity against all Campylobacter spp. from both human and chicken isolates. Further investigation of this plant species may provide an alternative medicine for Campylobacter infection and an effective food additive to prevent the infection. PMID:21406364

  11. A cross-sectional study examining Campylobacter and other zoonotic enteric pathogens in dogs that frequent dog parks in three cities in south-western Ontario and risk factors for shedding of Campylobacter spp.

    PubMed

    Procter, T D; Pearl, D L; Finley, R L; Leonard, E K; Janecko, N; Reid-Smith, R J; Weese, J S; Peregrine, A S; Sargeant, J M

    2014-05-01

    An estimated 6 million pet dogs live in Canadian households with the potential to transmit zoonotic pathogens to humans. Dogs have been identified as carriers of Salmonella, Giardia and Campylobacter spp., particularly Campylobacter upsaliensis, but little is known about the prevalence and risk factors for these pathogens in pet dogs that visit dog parks. This study examined the prevalence of these organisms in the faeces of dogs visiting dog parks in three cities in south-western Ontario, as well as risk factors for shedding Campylobacter spp. and C. upsaliensis. From May to August 2009, canine faecal samples were collected at ten dog parks in the cities of Guelph and Kitchener-Waterloo, Ontario, Canada. Owners were asked to complete a questionnaire related to pet characteristics and management factors including age, diet and activities in which the dog participates. Faecal samples were collected from 251 dogs, and 189 questionnaires were completed. Salmonella, Giardia and Campylobacter spp. were present in 1.2%, 6.4% and 43.0% of faecal samples, respectively. Of the Campylobacter spp. detected, 86.1% were C. upsaliensis, 13% were C. jejuni and 0.9% were C. coli. Statistically significant sparing factors associated with the shedding of Campylobacter spp. included the feeding of a commercial dry diet and the dog's exposure to compost. Age of dog had a quadratic effect, with young dogs and senior dogs having an increased probability of shedding Campylobacter spp. compared with adult dogs. The only statistically significant risk factor for shedding C. upsaliensis was outdoor water access including lakes and ditches, while dogs >1 year old were at a lower risk than young dogs. Understanding the pet-related risk factors for Campylobacter spp. and C. upsaliensis shedding in dogs may help in the development of awareness and management strategies to potentially reduce the risk of transmitting this pathogen from dogs to humans. PMID:23802765

  12. Molecular Epidemiology of Campylobacter Isolates from Poultry Production Units in Southern Ireland

    PubMed Central

    O'Mahony, Emer; Buckley, James F.; Bolton, Declan; Whyte, Paul; Fanning, Séamus

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the sources and routes of transmission of Campylobacter in intensively reared poultry farms in the Republic of Ireland. Breeder flocks and their corresponding broilers housed in three growing facilities were screened for the presence of Campylobacter species from November 2006 through September 2007. All breeder flocks tested positive for Campylobacter species (with C. jejuni and C. coli being identified). Similarly, all broiler flocks also tested positive for Campylobacter by the end of the rearing period. Faecal and environmental samples were analyzed at regular intervals throughout the rearing period of each broiler flock. Campylobacter was not detected in the disinfected house, or in one-day old broiler chicks. Campylobacter jejuni was isolated from environmental samples including air, water puddles, adjacent broiler flocks and soil. A representative subset of isolates from each farm was selected for further characterization using flaA-SVR sub-typing and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) to determine if same-species isolates from different sources were indistinguishable or not. Results obtained suggest that no evidence of vertical transmission existed and that adequate cleaning/disinfection of broiler houses contributed to the prevention of carryover and cross-contamination. Nonetheless, the environment appears to be a potential source of Campylobacter. The population structure of Campylobacter isolates from broiler farms in Southern Ireland was diverse and weakly clonal. PMID:22163024

  13. Virulence characteristics of five new Campylobacter jejuni chicken isolates.

    PubMed

    Stef, Lavinia; Cean, Ada; Vasile, Aida; Julean, Calin; Drinceanu, Dan; Corcionivoschi, Nicolae

    2013-01-01

    Campylobacter enteritis has emerged as one of the most common forms of human diarrheal illness. In this study we have investigated the virulence potential of five new C. jejuni chicken isolates (RO14, RO19, RO24, RO29 and RO37) originated from private households in the rural regions of Banat and Transylvania in Romania. Following isolation and in vitro virulence assay, on HCT-8 cells, our results show that all the C. jejuni chicken isolates overcome the virulence abilities of the highly virulent strain C. jejuni 81-176. Motility, an important virulence factor was significantly improved in all the new chicken isolates. The ability to survive to the antimicrobial activity of the human serum, to resist to the violent attack of bile acids and to survive in the presence of synthetic antibiotics was increased in all the chicken isolates. However, these were statistically significant only for isolates RO29 and RO37. In conclusion our study shows, based on invasiveness and motility, and also on the data provided by the serum and bile resistance experiments that all the new chicken isolates are able to infect human cells, in vitro, and could potentially represent a health hazard for humans. PMID:24330718

  14. Comparison of the Penner and Lior methods for serotyping Campylobacter spp.

    PubMed Central

    Patton, C M; Barrett, T J; Morris, G K

    1985-01-01

    We compared two Campylobacter serotyping systems by using 1,405 isolates of Campylobacter collected from human, animal, and environmental sources during epidemiologic investigations and special studies. We found 96.1% of isolates to be typable by the Penner method for heat-stable antigens, which involved the use of an indirect hemagglutination technique, and 92.1% of isolates to be typable by the Lior method for heat-labile antigens, which involved the use of a slide agglutination technique and absorbed antisera. Absorbed antisera were not required for the Penner method, making that method less difficult to implement. The Lior method was simpler to perform and gave more rapid results than did the Penner method. Cultures frequently reacted in multiple antisera with the Penner method, whereas multiple reactions were rare with the Lior method. Thus, results were easier to interpret with the Lior system. Strains of a single serotype in one system were sometimes found to be multiple serotypes in the other system; hence, the two methods have the potential to be complementary. Both systems were comparable in serotyping isolates from human and nonhuman sources and for evaluating the relationship of strains collected during outbreak investigations. PMID:4077967

  15. Prevalence of thermotolerant Campylobacter in pheasants (Phasianus colchicus).

    PubMed

    Dipineto, Ludovico; Gargiulo, Antonio; De Luca Bossa, Luigi M; Rinaldi, Laura; Borrelli, Luca; Menna, Lucia F; Fioretti, Alessandro

    2008-10-01

    The present study was undertaken with the aim to evaluate the prevalence of thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. in living pheasants in Italy. To achieve this goal, a total of 240 living pheasants, equally shared between female and male birds, were examined. Thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. was isolated in 104 out of 204 (43.3%) living pheasants analysed. Campylobacter coli (100%) and Campylobacter jejuni (13.5%) were identified by polymerase chain reaction. Adult pheasants showed a significantly higher prevalence value (P < 0.05) than younger pheasants. PMID:18798025

  16. Detection of pathogenic Campylobacter, E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp. in wastewater by PCR assay.

    PubMed

    Bonetta, Si; Pignata, C; Lorenzi, E; De Ceglia, M; Meucci, L; Bonetta, Sa; Gilli, G; Carraro, E

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was the evaluation of the occurrence of pathogenic Campylobacter, Escherichia coli O157:H7, E. coli virulence genes and Salmonella spp. in different wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) using a method based on an enrichment step and PCR. This method was sensitive enough to detect low levels (∼2 CFU100 ml(-1) of raw sewage) of all the investigated pathogens. In the WWTP samples, E. coli O157:H7 DNA and the eae gene were never found, but 33 % of influents and effluents exhibited amplicons corresponding to Shiga-like toxin I. Twenty-five percent of the influent and 8 % of the effluent exhibited the presence of Shiga-like toxin II. Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli DNA were identified in 50 and 25 % of the influents and in 8 and 25 % of the effluents, respectively. Salmonella spp. DNA was present in all the samples. Considering the results obtained, the method tested here offers a reliable and expeditious tool for evaluating the efficiency of the effluent treatment in order to mitigate contamination risk. Influent contamination by Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp. provides indirect information about their circulation; moreover, their presence in effluents underlines the role of WWTPs in the contamination of the receiving surface waters, which affects public health directly or indirectly. PMID:27106076

  17. Presence of antibodies against campylobacter flagellar capping proteins versus campylobacter jejuni isolation in broilers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter jejuni is the leading foodborne pathogen that causes human acute bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. Human cases have been linked to consumption and/or handling of contaminated poultry products. Although Campylobacter jejuni is commonly regarded as a commensal in broiler cecal micro...

  18. Temporal variation in the prevalence and species richness of Campylobacter spp. in a prairie watershed impacted by urban and agricultural mixed inputs.

    PubMed

    Tambalo, Dinah D; Boa, Tyler; Aryal, Bijaya; Yost, Christopher K

    2016-05-01

    Campylobacter spp. are a substantial cause of gastroenteritis worldwide. Human infection can result from ingestion of contaminated food or water from a variety of sources, including the consumption of fresh produce that is contaminated with the pathogen via the use of contaminated irrigation water. Using molecular methods, we investigated the occurrence of Campylobacter in the Qu'Appelle River watershed, an important source of irrigation water for vegetable producers in southern Saskatchewan, Canada. Water samples were collected from 7 sampling sites from April to September 2009 (145 samples), and from 5 sampling sites from May to October 2013 (116 samples). Campylobacter was detected in 57% and 16% of the samples collected in 2009 and 2013, respectively. Campylobacter detection was highest in May and June for both sampling years. In 2009, the predominant species were Campylobacter lari and Campylobacter jejuni, with prevalences of 84% and 41%, respectively. Other Campylobacter spp. were detected less frequently. Only C. lari was detected in 2013. The results in 2009 demonstrate the species richness of Campylobacter in water sources within the watershed. The occurrence of Campylobacter in the study area also underscores the importance of monitoring irrigation water used to irrigate fresh produce from a public health prospective. PMID:27003220

  19. Isolation and Characterization of Campylobacter Strains from Diarrheal Patients in Central and Suburban Bangkok, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Samosornsuk, Worada; Asakura, Masahiro; Yoshida, Emi; Taguchi, Takashi; Eampokalap, Bunchuay; Chaicumpa, Wanpen; Yamasaki, Shinji

    2015-01-01

    Campylobacter-induced diarrhea is increasingly recognized worldwide. However, little information is available regarding the Campylobacter strains associated with diarrheal patients in Thailand. In this study, we attempted to isolate Campylobacter strains from diarrheal patients in Thailand and to characterize the species using a cytolethal distending toxin (cdt) gene-based C. jejuni, C. coli, and C. fetus-specific multiplex PCR assay. Campylobacter species were also confirmed using 16S rRNA gene sequencing and hipO gene detection. From 2,500 diarrheal stool specimens, 76 Campylobacter-like organisms were isolated and identified via conventional culture methods. Among these 76 organisms, 73 were identified as Campylobacter species (43 C. jejuni, 29 C. coli, and 1 C. fetus) via multiplex PCR, whereas 3 remained unidentified. Two Campylobacter-like organisms yielded 2 amplicons corresponding to cdt genes from C. jejuni and C. coli. Subsequently, C. jejuni and C. coli were reisolated from each sample. The third isolate was identified as C. hyointestinalis via 16S rRNA gene sequencing. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the isolation of C. hyointestinalis from a diarrheal patient in Thailand. These data indicate that C. jejuni (58%) and C. coli (40%) are prevalent among diarrheal patients in Thailand. PMID:25672405

  20. Molecular detection of Campylobacter spp. and fecal indicator bacteria during the northern migration of sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) at the central Platte River.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jingrang; Ryu, Hodon; Vogel, Jason; Santo Domingo, Jorge; Ashbolt, Nicholas J

    2013-06-01

    The risk to human health of the annual sandhill crane (Grus canadensis) migration through Nebraska, which is thought to be a major source of fecal pollution of the central Platte River, is unknown. To better understand potential risks, the presence of Campylobacter species and three fecal indicator bacterial groups (Enterococcus spp., Escherichia coli, and Bacteroidetes) was assayed by PCR from crane excreta and water samples collected during their stopover at the Platte River, Nebraska, in 2010. Genus-specific PCR assays and sequence analyses identified Campylobacter jejuni as the predominant Campylobacter species in sandhill crane excreta. Campylobacter spp. were detected in 48% of crane excreta, 24% of water samples, and 11% of sediment samples. The estimated densities of Enterococcus spp. were highest in excreta samples (mean, 4.6 × 10(8) cell equivalents [CE]/g), while water samples contained higher levels of Bacteroidetes (mean, 5.1 × 10(5) CE/100 ml). Enterococcus spp., E. coli, and Campylobacter spp. were significantly increased in river water and sediments during the crane migration period, with Enterococcus sp. densities (~3.3 × 10(5) CE/g) 2 to 4 orders of magnitude higher than those of Bacteroidetes (4.9 × 10(3) CE/g), E. coli (2.2 × 10(3) CE/g), and Campylobacter spp. (37 CE/g). Sequencing data for the 16S rRNA gene and Campylobacter species-specific PCR assays indicated that C. jejuni was the major Campylobacter species present in water, sediments, and crane excreta. Overall, migration appeared to result in a significant, but temporary, change in water quality in spring, when there may be a C. jejuni health hazard associated with water and crops visited by the migrating birds. PMID:23584775

  1. Prevalence and Subtypes of Ciprofloxacin-Resistant Campylobacter spp. in Commercial Poultry Flocks before, during, and after Treatment with Fluoroquinolones

    PubMed Central

    Humphrey, Tom J.; Jørgensen, Frieda; Frost, Jennifer A.; Wadda, Haddy; Domingue, Gil; Elviss, Nicola C.; Griggs, Deborah J.; Piddock, Laura J. V.

    2005-01-01

    Five commercial broiler chicken flocks were treated with either difloxacin or enrofloxacin for a clinically relevant infection, as instructed by a veterinarian. Campylobacters were isolated from individual fecal samples and from samples associated with the broiler environment before, during, and after treatment. Ciprofloxacin-resistant Campylobacter jejuni and/or C. coli strains were detected pretreatment in four flocks, but they constituted a very small proportion of the campylobacters present. When the broilers were treated with a fluoroquinolone, a rapid increase in the proportion of ciprofloxacin-resistant campylobacters was observed. During treatment nearly 100% of campylobacters were resistant, and in some flocks a high proportion of resistant strains persisted for up to 4 weeks after treatment. Prior to treatment a variety of campylobacter subtypes were present. During and after treatment considerable changes in both species and subtype prevalence were observed, but no single fluoroquinolone-resistant clone became dominant. Instead, resistant C. coli strains or a mixture of resistant C. coli and C. jejuni strains became dominant, whereas susceptible C. jejuni strains had usually been dominant prior to treatment. The resistant subtypes which emerged and became dominant were not always the same as those detected pretreatment. The persistence of resistant strains for up to 4 weeks posttreatment has important implications for any strategy designed to avoid the introduction of such strains into the food chain. PMID:15673753

  2. Novel Campylobacter isolation method using hydrophobic grid membrane filter and semisolid medium.

    PubMed

    Valdivieso-Garcia, Alfonso; Harris, Kathleen; Riche, Edward; Campbell, Stephanie; Jarvie, Anne; Popa, Maria; Deckert, Anne; Reid-Smith, Richard; Rahn, Kris

    2007-02-01

    Culture procedures for isolation of thermophilic campylobacters from food matrices are complex, labor intensive, and time-consuming. Most available methods include the use of antibiotics as selective agents to prevent the growth of competing microflora. A simple procedure for isolation of thermophilic campylobacters after enrichment in Rosef's enrichment broth was developed using a hydrophobic grid membrane filter (HGMF) on semisolid medium (SSM). SSM contains no antibiotics, and the HGMF physically separates Campylobacter from the enrichment broth, allowing isolation based on differential motility. The HGMF-SSM method was compared to the Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada Food Safety Procedures Manual (FSPM-10) method (Isolation of Thermophilic Campylobacters from Fresh Pork, Beef Veal, Poultry and Ready-to-Eat Meat Products), which includes the use of selective antibiotics. During the initial study, after enrichment the HGMF-SSM method yielded pure cultures of campylobacters after 16 to 18 h (overnight) compared with 48 h for the FSPM-10 method. Ninety-four turkey samples collected at local retail stores and 38 frozen pig fecal samples were processed by both methods. Thirty-five samples (26.5%) were positive by the HGMF-SSM method; 24 (18.2%) of these positive samples contained Campylobacter jejuni and 11 (8.3%) contained Campylobacter coli. With the FSPM-10 method, 25 samples (18.9%) were positive: 21 (15.9%) with C. jejuni and 4 (3%) with C. coli. For a subsequent field study, only the HGMF-SSM method was used to isolate Campylobacter from 1,200 chicken samples and 454 turkey samples sold at retail. Analysis of five subisolates from various samples indicated that only one type of Campylobacter was recovered by the HGMF-SSM method, as ascertained by MICs for 10 antimicrobials, sequencing of the short variable region of the flaA gene, and fingerprinting based on amplified fragment length polymorphism. The absence of antibiotics in the SSM may explain the higher

  3. Colonization properties of Campylobacter jejuni in chickens

    PubMed Central

    Pielsticker, C.; Glünder, G.; Rautenschlein, S.

    2012-01-01

    Campylobacter is the most common bacterial food-borne pathogen worldwide. Poultry and specifically chicken and raw chicken meat is the main source for human Campylobacter infection. Whilst being colonized by Campylobacter spp. chicken in contrast to human, do scarcely develop pathological lesions. The immune mechanisms controlling Campylobacter colonization and infection in chickens are still not clear. Previous studies and our investigations indicate that the ability to colonize the chicken varies significantly not only between Campylobacter strains but also depending on the original source of the infecting isolate. The data provides circumstantial evidence that early immune mechanisms in the gut may play an important role in the fate of Campylobacter in the host. PMID:24611122

  4. Antimicrobial Activities of Isothiocyanates Against Campylobacter jejuni Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Dufour, Virginie; Alazzam, Bachar; Ermel, Gwennola; Thepaut, Marion; Rossero, Albert; Tresse, Odile; Baysse, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Food-borne human infection with Campylobacter jejuni is a medical concern in both industrialized and developing countries. Efficient eradication of C. jejuni reservoirs within live animals and processed foods is limited by the development of antimicrobial resistances and by practical problems related to the use of conventional antibiotics in food processes. We have investigated the bacteriostatic and bactericidal activities of two phytochemicals, allyl-isothiocyanate (AITC), and benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC), against 24 C. jejuni isolates from chicken feces, human infections, and contaminated foods, as well as two reference strains NCTC11168 and 81-176. AITC and BITC displayed a potent antibacterial activity against C. jejuni. BITC showed a higher overall antibacterial effect (MIC of 1.25–5 μg mL−1) compared to AITC (MIC of 50–200 μg mL−1). Both compounds are bactericidal rather than bacteriostatic. The sensitivity levels of C. jejuni isolates against isothiocyanates were neither correlated with the presence of a GGT (γ-Glutamyl Transpeptidase) encoding gene in the genome, with antibiotic resistance nor with the origin of the biological sample. However the ggt mutant of C. jejuni 81-176 displayed a decreased survival rate compared to wild-type when exposed to ITC. This work determined the MIC of two ITC against a panel of C. jejuni isolates, showed that both compounds are bactericidal rather than bacteriostatic, and highlighted the role of GGT enzyme in the survival rate of C. jejuni exposed to ITC. PMID:22919644

  5. Emergence of Multidrug-Resistant Campylobacter Species Isolates with a Horizontally Acquired rRNA Methylase

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yang; Zhang, Maojun; Deng, Fengru; Shen, Zhangqi; Wu, Congming; Zhang, Jianzhong

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotic-resistant Campylobacter constitutes a serious threat to public health, and resistance to macrolides is of particular concern, as this class of antibiotics is the drug of choice for clinical therapy of campylobacteriosis. Very recently, a horizontally transferrable macrolide resistance mediated by the rRNA methylase gene erm(B) was reported in a Campylobacter coli isolate, but little is known about the dissemination of erm(B) among Campylobacter isolates and the association of erm(B)-carrying isolates with clinical disease. To address this question and facilitate the control of antibiotic-resistant Campylobacter, we determined the distribution of erm(B) in 1,554 C. coli and Campylobacter jejuni isolates derived from food-producing animals and clinically confirmed human diarrheal cases. The results revealed that 58 of the examined isolates harbored erm(B) and exhibited high-level resistance to macrolides, and most were recent isolates, derived in 2011-2012. In addition, the erm(B)-positive isolates were all resistant to fluoroquinolones, another clinically important antibiotic used for treating campylobacteriosis. The erm(B) gene is found to be associated with chromosomal multidrug resistance genomic islands (MDRGIs) of Gram-positive origin or with plasmids of various sizes. All MDRGIs were transferrable to macrolide-susceptible C. jejuni by natural transformation under laboratory conditions. Molecular typing of the erm(B)-carrying isolates by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) identified diverse genotypes and outbreak-associated diarrheal isolates. Molecular typing also suggested zoonotic transmission of erm(B)-positive Campylobacter. These findings reveal an emerging and alarming trend of dissemination of erm(B) and MDRGIs in Campylobacter and underscore the need for heightened efforts to control their further spread. PMID:24982085

  6. Nonpeptidic mimics of host defense proteins as antimicrobial agents for E. coli O104:H4, campylobacter spp. and other foodborne pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Foodborne illness is a serious public health problem. According to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Campylobacter jejuni is the leading cause of bacterial diarrheal illness in the United States, causing more disease than Shigella spp. and Salmonella spp. combined. The CDC estima...

  7. Characterization of Campylobacter jejuni and coli strains isolated in turkeys

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    associated with significant foodborne disease. Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli are the two most prevalent species contributing to human diarrheal disease. The objective of this study was to determine the routes of transmission for Campylobacter throughout turkey production and processing. A floc...

  8. High Prevalence and Genetic Diversity of Campylobacter jejuni in Wild Crows and Pigeons.

    PubMed

    Ramonaitė, Sigita; Novoslavskij, Aleksandr; Zakarienė, Gintarė; Aksomaitienė, Jurgita; Malakauskas, Mindaugas

    2015-11-01

    The occurrence, seasonal variation and genetic diversity of Campylobacter spp. in pigeons and crows over a 1-year period were evaluated. Campylobacter spp. were isolated from 166 (34.6 %) out of 480 wild bird faecal samples. The occurrence of Campylobacter spp. in faecal samples was higher among crows (39.2 %) than pigeons (30.0 %), (P < 0.05). Campylobacter jejuni was the most common species detected among wild bird faecal samples (98.2 %). Meanwhile, Campylobacter coli prevalence in wild bird faecal samples was low-6 %. The Simpson's diversity index of C. jejuni flaA RFLP types was lower in pigeons (D = 0.88) compared with C. jejuni isolates detected in crows (D = 0.97). Obtained results revealed that C. jejuni are widely prevalent among crows and pigeons, indicating these wild birds as potential infection sources to humans. Further studies are required to determine crows and pigeons role in zoonotic transmission of Campylobacter. PMID:26228635

  9. Whole-Genome Sequences of Agricultural, Host-Associated Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni Strains

    PubMed Central

    Altermann, Eric; Olson, Jonathan; Wray, Gregory Allan; Siletzky, Robin M.; Kathariou, Sophia

    2016-01-01

    We report here the genome sequences of four agricultural, multidrug-resistant Campylobacter spp.: C. coli 11601 and C. jejuni 11601MD, isolated from turkey cecum and jejunum, respectively, and C. coli 6067 and C. coli 6461, isolated from turkey-house water and swine feces, respectively. The genomes provide insights on Campylobacter antimicrobial resistance and host adaptations. PMID:27540063

  10. Whole-Genome Sequences of Agricultural, Host-Associated Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni Strains.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Vikrant; Altermann, Eric; Olson, Jonathan; Wray, Gregory Allan; Siletzky, Robin M; Kathariou, Sophia

    2016-01-01

    We report here the genome sequences of four agricultural, multidrug-resistant Campylobacter spp.: C. coli 11601 and C. jejuni 11601MD, isolated from turkey cecum and jejunum, respectively, and C. coli 6067 and C. coli 6461, isolated from turkey-house water and swine feces, respectively. The genomes provide insights on Campylobacter antimicrobial resistance and host adaptations. PMID:27540063

  11. Whole-Genome Sequencing Analysis Accurately Predicts Antimicrobial Resistance Phenotypes in Campylobacter spp.

    PubMed

    Zhao, S; Tyson, G H; Chen, Y; Li, C; Mukherjee, S; Young, S; Lam, C; Folster, J P; Whichard, J M; McDermott, P F

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to identify antimicrobial resistance genotypes for Campylobacter and to evaluate the correlation between resistance phenotypes and genotypes using in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility testing and whole-genome sequencing (WGS). A total of 114 Campylobacter species isolates (82 C. coli and 32 C. jejuni) obtained from 2000 to 2013 from humans, retail meats, and cecal samples from food production animals in the United States as part of the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System were selected for study. Resistance phenotypes were determined using broth microdilution of nine antimicrobials. Genomic DNA was sequenced using the Illumina MiSeq platform, and resistance genotypes were identified using assembled WGS sequences through blastx analysis. Eighteen resistance genes, including tet(O), blaOXA-61, catA, lnu(C), aph(2″)-Ib, aph(2″)-Ic, aph(2')-If, aph(2″)-Ig, aph(2″)-Ih, aac(6')-Ie-aph(2″)-Ia, aac(6')-Ie-aph(2″)-If, aac(6')-Im, aadE, sat4, ant(6'), aad9, aph(3')-Ic, and aph(3')-IIIa, and mutations in two housekeeping genes (gyrA and 23S rRNA) were identified. There was a high degree of correlation between phenotypic resistance to a given drug and the presence of one or more corresponding resistance genes. Phenotypic and genotypic correlation was 100% for tetracycline, ciprofloxacin/nalidixic acid, and erythromycin, and correlations ranged from 95.4% to 98.7% for gentamicin, azithromycin, clindamycin, and telithromycin. All isolates were susceptible to florfenicol, and no genes associated with florfenicol resistance were detected. There was a strong correlation (99.2%) between resistance genotypes and phenotypes, suggesting that WGS is a reliable indicator of resistance to the nine antimicrobial agents assayed in this study. WGS has the potential to be a powerful tool for antimicrobial resistance surveillance programs. PMID:26519386

  12. OLED-based DNA biochip for Campylobacter spp. detection in poultry meat samples.

    PubMed

    Manzano, Marisa; Cecchini, Francesca; Fontanot, Marco; Iacumin, Lucilla; Comi, Giuseppe; Melpignano, Patrizia

    2015-04-15

    Integrated biochips are the ideal solution for producing portable diagnostic systems that uncouple diagnosis from centralized laboratories. These portable devices exploit a multi-disciplinary approach, are cost effective and have several advantages including broader accessibility, high sensitivity, quick test results and ease of use. The application of such a device in food safety is considered in this paper. Fluorescence detection of a specific biological probe excited by an optical source is one of the most commonly used methods for quantitative analysis on biochips. In this study, we designed and characterized a miniaturized, highly-sensitive DNA biochip based on a deep-blue organic light-emitting diode. The molecular design of the diode was optimized to excite a fluorophore-conjugated DNA probe and tested using real meat samples to obtain a high sensitivity and specificity against one of the most common poultry meat contaminants: Campylobacter spp. Real samples were analyzed also by classical plate methods and molecular methods to validate the results obtained by the new DNA-biochip. The high sensitivity obtained by the OLED based biochip (0.37ng/μl) and the short time required for the results (about 24h) indicate the usefulness of the system. PMID:25437363

  13. Genomic Difference between Campylobacter jejuni Isolates Identify Surface membrane and Flagellar Function Gene Products Potentially Important for Colonizing the Chicken Intestine.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter spp. are considered the leading bacterial etiology of acute human gastroenteritis in industrialized countries. Evidence implicates poultry as a major source of the organism for human illness; however, the factors involved in the colonization of poultry with Campylobacter spp. remain ...

  14. Whole-Genome Sequences of Two Campylobacter coli Isolates from the Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring Program in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Bernal, Johan F.; Donado-Godoy, Pilar; Valencia, María Fernanda; León, Maribel; Gómez, Yolanda; Rodríguez, Fernando; Agarwala, Richa; Landsman, David

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter coli, along with Campylobacter jejuni, is a major agent of gastroenteritis and acute enterocolitis in humans. We report the whole-genome sequences of two multidrug-resistance C. coli strains, isolated from the Colombian poultry chain. The isolates contain a variety of antimicrobial resistance genes for aminoglycosides, lincosamides, fluoroquinolones, and tetracycline. PMID:26988048

  15. Influence of Refuse Sites on the Prevalence of Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella Serovars in Seagulls▿

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Raül; Cerdà-Cuéllar, Marta; Ramírez, Francisco; Jover, Lluís; Ruiz, Xavier

    2010-01-01

    Wild animals are well-known reservoirs of Campylobacter and Salmonella. We investigated the influence of insalubrious diets on the prevalence of both enterobacteria in seagulls. Campylobacter occurrence in gull chicks sampled along the northeastern Iberian coast was directly related to the degree of refuse consumption. High Salmonella values from the sampling sites did not reflect any dietary relationship. PMID:20208027

  16. Molecular Detection of Campylobacter spp. in California Gull (Larus californicus) Excreta

    EPA Science Inventory

    We examined the prevalence, quantity, and diversity of Campylobacter species in the excreta of 159 California gull samples using PCR and qPCR based detection assays. While Campylobacter prevalence and abundance was relatively high in the gull excreta examined, molecular data ind...

  17. Complete genome sequence of the clinical Campylobacter coli isolate 15-537360

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter coli strain 15-537360 was originally isolated from a 42 year-old patient with gastroenteritis. Here we report its complete genome sequence, which comprises a 1.7 Mbp chromosome and a 29 kbp conjugative cryptic plasmid. This is the first complete genome sequence of a clinical isolate of...

  18. Complete genome sequence of the Campylobacter ureolyticus clinical isolate RIGS 9880

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The emerging pathogen Campylobacter ureolyticus has been isolated from human and animal genital infections, human periodontal infections, domestic and food animals, and from cases of human gastroenteritis. We report the whole-genome sequence of the human clinical isolate RIGS 9880, which is the firs...

  19. Biofiltration for stormwater harvesting: Comparison of Campylobacter spp. and Escherichia coli removal under normal and challenging operational conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandrasena, G. I.; Deletic, A.; McCarthy, D. T.

    2016-06-01

    Knowledge of pathogen removal in stormwater biofilters (also known as stormwater bioretention systems or rain gardens) has predominately been determined using bacterial indicators, and the removal of reference pathogens in these systems has rarely been investigated. Furthermore, current understanding of indicator bacteria removal in these systems is largely built upon laboratory-scale work. This paper examines whether indicator organism removal from urban stormwater using biofilters in laboratory settings are representative of the removal of pathogens in field conditions, by studying the removal of Escherichia coli (a typical indicator microorganism) and Campylobacter spp. (a typical reference pathogen) from urban stormwater by two established field-scale biofilters. It was found that E. coli log reduction was higher than that of Campylobacter spp. in both biofilters, and that there was no correlation between E. coli and Campylobacter spp. log removal performance. This confirms that E. coli behaves significantly differently to this reference pathogen, reinforcing that single organisms should not be employed to understand faecal microorganism removal in urban stormwater treatment systems. The average reduction in E. coli from only one of the tested biofilters was able to meet the log reduction targets suggested in the current Australian stormwater harvesting guidelines for irrigating sports fields and golf courses. The difference in the performance of the two biofilters is likely a result of a number of design and operational factors; the most important being that the biofilter that did not meet the guidelines was tested using extremely high influent volumes and microbial concentrations, and long antecedent dry weather periods. As such, the E. coli removal performances identified in this study confirmed laboratory findings that inflow concentration and antecedent dry period impact overall microbial removal. In general, this paper emphasizes the need for the

  20. Characterization of Campylobacter spp. transferred from naturally contaminated chicken legs to cooked chicken slices via a cutting board.

    PubMed

    Guyard-Nicodème, Muriel; Tresse, Odile; Houard, Emmanuelle; Jugiau, Florence; Courtillon, Céline; El Manaa, Kadhem; Laisney, Marie-José; Chemaly, Marianne

    2013-06-01

    Campylobacter represents the leading cause of gastroenteritis in Europe. Campylobacteriosis is mainly due to C. jejuni and C. coli. Poultry meat is the main source of contamination, and cross-contaminations in the consumer's kitchen appear to be the important route for exposure. The aim of this study was to examine the transfer of Campylobacter from naturally contaminated raw poultry products to a cooked chicken product via the cutting board and to determine the characteristics of the involved isolates. This study showed that transfer occurred in nearly 30% of the assays and that both the C. jejuni and C. coli species were able to transfer. Transfer seems to be linked to specific isolates: some were able to transfer during separate trials while others were not. No correlation was found between transfer and adhesion to inert surfaces, but more than 90% of the isolates presented moderate or high adhesion ability. All tested isolates had the ability to adhere and invade Caco-2 cells, but presented high variability between isolates. Our results highlighted the occurrence of Campylobacter cross-contamination via the cutting board in the kitchen. Moreover, they provided new interesting data to be considered in risk assessment studies. PMID:23587707

  1. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis for epidemiologic studies of Campylobacter hyointestinalis isolates.

    PubMed Central

    Salama, S M; Tabor, H; Richter, M; Taylor, D E

    1992-01-01

    Campylobacter hyointestinalis was isolated from five members of the same family who had previously consumed raw milk. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of genomic DNAs from the five strains, after digestion with restriction endonuclease SalI, revealed that three strains had identical genome patterns and therefore appeared to be related, whereas the other two had completely different genome patterns and appeared to be unrelated. We report here for the first time the isolation of C. hyointestinalis from family members who had consumed raw milk. Our study also demonstrates the usefulness of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis for epidemiologic studies of this unusual campylobacter. Images PMID:1500503

  2. Inaccuracy of the Disk Diffusion Method Compared with the Agar Dilution Method for Susceptibility Testing of Campylobacter spp.

    PubMed Central

    Kotilainen, Pirkko; Puukka, Pauli; Nakari, Ulla-Maija; Siitonen, Anja; Eerola, Erkki; Huovinen, Pentti; Hakanen, Antti J.

    2012-01-01

    The agar dilution method has been standardized by the CLSI for the susceptibility testing of Campylobacter species, and according to these standards, the disk diffusion method should be used only in screening for macrolide and ciprofloxacin resistance. Nevertheless, the disk diffusion test is currently widely used, since it is easy to perform in clinical microbiology laboratories. In this study, the disk diffusion method was compared to the agar dilution method by analyzing the in vitro activities of seven antimicrobial agents against 174 Campylobacter strains collected in Finland between 2003 and 2008. Recommendations of the CLSI were followed using Mueller-Hinton agar plates with 5% of sheep blood. For each strain, the disk diffusion tests were performed two to four times. Of the 33 erythromycin-resistant strains (MIC, ≥16 μg/ml), 24 (73%) constantly showed a 6-mm erythromycin inhibition zone (i.e., no inhibition), while for seven strains the inhibition zone varied from 6 to 44 mm in repeated measurements. Among the 141 erythromycin-susceptible strains (MIC, <16 μg/ml), erythromycin inhibition zones varied between 6 and 61 mm. Of the 87 ciprofloxacin-resistant strains, 47 (54%) showed 6-mm inhibition zones, while 40 strains showed inhibition zones between 6 and 60 mm. Significant differences between the repetitions were observed in the disk diffusion for all antimicrobial agents and all strains except for the macrolide-resistant strains regarding the macrolides. For 17 (10%) strains, the variation in repeated measurements was substantial. These results show that the disk diffusion method may not be a reliable tool for the susceptibility testing of Campylobacter spp. Further studies are needed to assess whether the disk diffusion test could be improved or whether all susceptibilities of campylobacters should be tested using an MIC-based method. PMID:22075583

  3. Genetic Diversity of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli Isolates from Conventional Broiler Flocks and the Impacts of Sampling Strategy and Laboratory Method

    PubMed Central

    Colles, F. M.; Rodgers, J. D.; McCarthy, N. D.; Davies, R. H.; Maiden, M. C. J.; Clifton-Hadley, F. A.

    2016-01-01

    The genetic diversity of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolates from commercial broiler farms was examined by multilocus sequence typing (MLST), with an assessment of the impact of the sample type and laboratory method on the genotypes of Campylobacter isolated. A total of 645 C. jejuni and 106 C. coli isolates were obtained from 32 flocks and 17 farms, with 47 sequence types (STs) identified. The Campylobacter jejuni isolates obtained by different sampling approaches and laboratory methods were very similar, with the same STs identified at similar frequencies, and had no major effect on the genetic profile of Campylobacter population in broiler flocks at the farm level. For C. coli, the results were more equivocal. While some STs were widely distributed within and among farms and flocks, analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed a high degree of genetic diversity among farms for C. jejuni, where farm effects accounted for 70.5% of variance, and among flocks from the same farm (9.9% of variance for C. jejuni and 64.1% for C. coli). These results show the complexity of the population structure of Campylobacter in broiler production and that commercial broiler farms provide an ecological niche for a wide diversity of genotypes. The genetic diversity of C. jejuni isolates among broiler farms should be taken into account when designing studies to understand Campylobacter populations in broiler production and the impact of interventions. We provide evidence that supports synthesis of studies on C. jejuni populations even when laboratory and sampling methods are not identical. PMID:26873321

  4. Quinolone and macrolide resistance in Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli: resistance mechanisms and trends in human isolates.

    PubMed Central

    Engberg, J.; Aarestrup, F. M.; Taylor, D. E.; Gerner-Smidt, P.; Nachamkin, I.

    2001-01-01

    The incidence of human Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli infections has increased markedly in many parts of the world in the last decade as has the number of quinolone-resistant and, to a lesser extent, macrolide-resistant Campylobacter strains causing infections. We review macrolide and quinolone resistance in Campylobacter and track resistance trends in human clinical isolates in relation to use of these agents in food animals. Susceptibility data suggest that erythromycin and other macrolides should remain the drugs of choice in most regions, with systematic surveillance and control measures maintained, but fluoroquinolones may now be of limited use in the empiric treatment of Campylobacter infections in many regions. PMID:11266291

  5. Helicobacter marmotae and novel Helicobacter and Campylobacter species isolated from the livers and intestines of prairie dogs.

    PubMed

    Beisele, Maike; Shen, Zeli; Parry, Nicola; Mobley, Melissa; Taylor, Nancy S; Buckley, Ellen; Abedin, Mohammad Z; Dewhirst, Floyd E; Fox, James G

    2011-09-01

    Prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) are used to study the aetiology and prevention of gallstones because of the similarities of prairie dog and human bile gallstone composition. Epidemiological and experimental studies have suggested a connection between infection with Helicobacter species and cholesterol cholelithiasis, cholecystis and gallbladder cancer. Ten of the 34 prairie dogs in this study had positive Helicobacter species identified by PCR using Helicobacter genus-specific primers. Ten of 34 prairie dogs had positive Campylobacter species identified in the intestine by PCR with Campylobacter genus-specific primers. Six Helicobacter sp. isolates and three Campylobacter sp. isolates were identified taxonomically by 16S rRNA gene analysis. The prairie dog helicobacters fell into three clusters adjacent to Helicobacter marmotae. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, three strains in two adjacent clusters were included in the species H. marmotae. Three strains were only 97.1 % similar to the sequence of H. marmotae and can be considered a novel species with the provisional designation Helicobacter sp. Prairie Dog 3. The prairie dog campylobacters formed a single novel cluster and represent a novel Campylobacter sp. with the provisional designation Campylobacter sp. Prairie Dog. They branched with Campylobacter cuniculorum at 96.3 % similarity and had the greatest sequence similarity to Campylobacter helveticus at 97.1 % similarity. Whether H. marmotae or the novel Helicobacter sp. and Campylobacter sp. identified in prairie dogs play a role in cholesterol gallstones or hepatobiliary disease requires further studies. PMID:21546560

  6. Evaluation of a real-time multiplex PCR for the simultaneous detection of Campylobacter jejuni, Salmonella spp., Shigella spp./EIEC, and Yersinia enterocolitica in fecal samples.

    PubMed

    Van Lint, P; De Witte, E; De Henau, H; De Muynck, A; Verstraeten, L; Van Herendael, B; Weekx, S

    2015-03-01

    Conventional diagnosis of infectious diarrhea caused by bacteria is time-consuming, labor-intensive, and has a suboptimal sensitivity. We have therefore developed a multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the simultaneous detection of Campylobacter jejuni, Salmonella spp., Shigella spp./enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC), and Yersinia enterocolitica in fecal samples. No cross reactivity between the different pathogens was observed, and the multiplex setup of the assay did not have an impact on the sensitivity of the PCR. The analytical sensitivity was 87 CFU/mL for C. jejuni, 61 CFU/mL for Shigella spp./EIEC, 5,528 CFU/mL for Salmonella spp., and 1,306 CFU/mL for Y. enterocolitica. An extensive validation of the assay was performed by testing 1,687 patient samples by both PCR and with conventional techniques. The use of PCR increased the overall clinical sensitivity from 78 to 100 % (p < 0.0001), the specificity was 99.4 % for the PCR, compared with 99.9 % for conventional culture. The novel PCR assay allows for rapid, sensitive, inexpensive, and high-throughput testing of the most common bacterial causes of gastroenteritis. PMID:25326870

  7. Analysis of Campylobacter jejuni whole genome DNA microarrays: significance of prophage and hypervariable regions for discriminating isolates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: Campylobacter jejuni is a major cause of gastroenteritis in humans and is carried in many common food animals. In order to reduce human infections a better understanding of Campylobacter epidemiology is needed. Identifying genes that enable discriminating between isolates is an importa...

  8. Multilocus sequence typing (and phylogenetic analysis) of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli strains isolated from clinical cases in Greece

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The molecular epidemiology of C. jejuni and C. coli clinical strains isolated from children with gastroenteritis, was investigated using the multilocus sequence typing method (MLST). This analysis establishes for the first time in Greece and constitutes an important tool for the epidemiological surveillance and control of Campylobacter infection in our country. Methods The MLST genotypes were compared with those gained by other typing methods (HS-typing, PFGE and FlaA typing) and were also phylogenetically analyzed, in order to uncover genetic relationships. Results Among 68 C. jejuni strains, 41 different MLST-Sequence Types (MLST-STs) were found. Fifty six strains or 34 MLST-STs could be sorted into 15 different MLST-Sequence Type Complexes (MLST-STCs), while twelve strains or seven MLST-STs did not match any of the MLST-STCs of the database. Twenty C. coli strains belonged to 14 different MLST-STs. Eleven MLST-STs were classified in the same MLST-STC (828), and three were unclassifiable. There was no significant association between the MLST-STs and the results of the other typing methods. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that some strains, classified to the species of C. jejuni, formed a separate, phylogenetically distinct group. In eight strains some alleles belonging to the taxonomic cluster of C. jejuni, were also detected in C. coli and vice versa, a phenomenon caused by the genetic mosaic encountered inside the genus Campylobacter. Conclusions The MLST-ST determination proved to be a very useful tool for the typing as well as the identification of Campylobacter on the species level. PMID:24010733

  9. Temperature-related risk factors associated with the colonization of broiler-chicken flocks with Campylobacter spp. in Iceland, 2001-2004

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objective was to identify temperature-related risk factors associated with the colonization of broiler-chicken flocks with Campylobacter spp. in Iceland, with an underlying assumption that at minimum ambient temperatures, flies (Musca domestica) play a role in the epidemiology and seasonality of...

  10. Comparison of Poultry Exudate and Carcass Rinse Sampling Methods for the Recovery of Campylobacter spp. Subtypes Demonstrates Unique Subtypes Recovered from Exudate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The carcass rinse procedure is a method commonly used for the detection of Campylobacter spp. on processed poultry products. Alternatively, carcass exudate (weep or drip), a viscous fluid comprised of blood and water that leaks into packaging, can also be sampled. It is unknown however if these me...

  11. Comparison of antimicrobial resistance determinants among Salmonella, Campylobacter, Escherichia coli, and Enterococcus isolated from Swine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: The importance of Salmonella, Campylobacter, E.coli, and Enterococcus as carriers of antimicrobial resistance is well known, but limited work has been done to examine the relationship between this phenotypic characteristic and genotypic attributes among strains isolated in similar set...

  12. Comparison of selective media for primary isolation of Campylobacter fetus subsp. jejuni.

    PubMed Central

    Patton, C M; Mitchell, S W; Potter, M E; Kaufmann, A F

    1981-01-01

    Three selective media, Skirrow, Butzler, and a modification of Butzler medium, were compared for the primary isolation of Campylobacter fetus subsp. jejuni. This organism was isolated from 87 of 347 specimens (72 from 240 dogs rectal swabs and 15 from 107 cats rectal swabs). The positive rate for dogs (30%) was twice as high as that for cats (14%). Skirrow and Butzler media were comparable in their isolation of C. fetus subsp. jejuni. A significantly higher rate of positive results was obtained with modified Butzler medium. The best combination of two media was that of modified Butzler and Skirrow media, which detected 98% of the isolates obtained. The percentage of Campylobacter-positive specimens was increased by 9% by holding primary isolation plates 72 h. Images PMID:7204549

  13. EUCAST recommendations for antimicrobial susceptibility testing applied to the three main Campylobacter species isolated in humans.

    PubMed

    Sifré, Elodie; Salha, Ben Amor; Ducournau, Astrid; Floch, Pauline; Chardon, Hubert; Mégraud, Francis; Lehours, Philippe

    2015-12-01

    Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Campylobacter isolates is of great importance for treatment options especially in systemic diseases. The European Committee for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) recently proposed epidemiological cut-offs (ECOFFs) for a limited number of antimicrobial compounds and for Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli only. In the present study, the EUCAST method was used after minor modifications to define antimicrobial susceptibility patterns for, 1997 C. jejuni, 419 C. coli and 100 Campylobacter fetus strains received at the French National Reference Center for Campylobacters and Helicobacters. Our results show that the ECOFFs defined by EUCAST for tetracycline and ciprofloxacin can be used for C. jejuni and C. coli. The same ECOFF can be used for erythromycin for the three species. The C. jejuni and C. coli ECOFFs for ciprofloxacin however cannot be applied to C. fetus. We also provide data to categorise two 2 β-lactams of interest for systemic diseases, ampicillin and amoxicillin+clavulanate, for the three species. PMID:26519770

  14. Intracloacal inoculation, an effective screening method for determining the efficacy of probiotic bacterial isolates against Campylobacter colonization in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Arsi, K; Donoghue, A M; Woo-Ming, A; Blore, P J; Donoghue, D J

    2015-01-01

    Campylobacter is a leading cause of foodborne illness worldwide. It is common in poultry, and human infections are often associated with consumption of contaminated poultry products. One strategy to reduce Campylobacter colonization in poultry is the use of oral probiotics, but this produces variable results, possibly because the probiotics are destroyed in the stomach's acidic environment. Protection (e.g., encapsulation) of isolates may overcome this problem, but there is no assurance that these isolates will have efficacy in the lower gastrointestinal tract. Therefore, screening candidate isolates by directly placing them in the lower intestinal tract via cloacal inoculation may eliminate the time and expense of encapsulating ineffective isolates. Thus, the purpose of this study was to collect bacterial isolates with anti-Campylobacter activity in vitro and evaluate their efficacy in vivo upon either oral or intracloacal administration. Bacterial isolates were collected from healthy birds and were evaluated for efficacy against C. jejuni in vitro. Isolates having generally regarded as safe status and demonstrating in vitro anti-Campylobacter properties were evaluated after oral or intracloacal inoculation into chicks on day 1 (n = 10 birds per isolate per route of administration). On day 7, birds were dosed by oral gavage with a four-strain mixture of wild-type Campylobacter containing at least 1 × 10(7) CFU/ml organisms. On day 14, birds were euthanized and the ceca were collected aseptically for Campylobacter enumeration. When dosed orally, only one isolate had a 1-log reduction in cecal Campylobacter counts, whereas when administered intracloacally, six of these isolates produced a 1- to 3-log reduction in cecal Campylobacter counts in 14-day-old chickens. These results support the strategy of evaluating the efficacy of potential probiotic isolates via cloacal inoculation prior to undergoing the effort of encapsulating isolates for oral administration. PMID

  15. Prevalence, antibiograms, and transferable tet(O) plasmid of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolated from raw chicken, pork, and human clinical cases in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jun Man; Hong, Joonbae; Bae, Wonki; Koo, Hye Cheong; Kim, So Hyun; Park, Yong Ho

    2010-08-01

    The antibiotic resistance patterns and prevalence of the transferable tet(O) plasmid were investigated in Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolates from raw chicken, pork, and humans with clinical campylobacteriosis. A total of 180 C. jejuni and C. coli isolates were identified, and the prevalence rates of C. jejuni and C. coli in raw chicken samples were 83% (83 of 100) and 73% (73 of 100), respectively. Twelve percent (6 of 50) and 10% (5 of 50) of pork samples were contaminated with C. jejuni and C. coli, respectively. Disk diffusion susceptibility testing revealed that the most frequently detected resistance was to tetracycline (92.2%), followed by nalidixic acid (75.6%), ciprofloxacin (65.0%), azithromycin (41.5%), ampicillin (33.3%), and streptomycin (26.1%). Of the C. jejuni and C. coli isolates, 65.7% (n=109) contained plasmids carrying the tet(O) gene. Six C. jejuni isolates and two C. coli isolates with high-level resistance to tetracycline (MIC=256 microg/ml) harbored the tet(O) plasmid, which is transferable to other C. jejuni and C. coli isolates. These results demonstrate the presence of an interspecies transferable plasmid containing the tet(O) gene and a high prevalence of antibiotic resistance in Korean Campylobacter isolates and provide an understanding of the antibiotic resistance distribution among Campylobacter species in Korea. PMID:20819352

  16. Prevalence and risk factor investigation of Campylobacter species in beef cattle feces from seven large commercial feedlots in Alberta, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Hannon, Sherry J.; Allan, Brenda; Waldner, Cheryl; Russell, Margaret L.; Potter, Andrew; Babiuk, Lorne A.; Townsend, Hugh G.G.

    2009-01-01

    This fecal prevalence study targeted cattle from 7 large (10 000 to > 40 000 head) commercial feedlots in Alberta as a means of establishing Campylobacter levels in cattle just prior to animals entering the food chain. Overall, 87% [95% confidence interval (CI) = 86–88] of 2776 fresh pen-floor fecal samples were culture positive for Campylobacter species, with prevalences ranging from 76% to 95% among the 7 feedlots. Campylobacter spp. prevalence was 88% (95% CI = 86–90) in the summer (n = 1376) and 86% (95% CI = 85–88) in the winter (n = 1400). In addition, 69% (95% CI = 66–71) of 1486 Campylobacter spp. positive samples were identified as Campylobacter jejuni using hippurate hydrolysis testing. Of those, 64% (95% CI = 58–70) of 277 and 70% (95% CI = 67–72) of 1209 Campylobacter isolates were identified as C. jejuni in winter and summer, respectively. After accounting for clustering within pen and feedlot, feedlot size and the number of days on feed were associated with Campylobacter spp. isolation rates. The high isolation rates of Campylobacter spp. and C. jejuni in feedlot cattle feces in this study suggest a potential role for feedlot cattle in the complex epidemiology of campylobacters in Alberta. PMID:20046629

  17. Multicenter Evaluation of the BD Max Enteric Bacterial Panel PCR Assay for Rapid Detection of Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., Campylobacter spp. (C. jejuni and C. coli), and Shiga Toxin 1 and 2 Genes

    PubMed Central

    Doern, C.; Fader, R.; Ferraro, M. J.; Pillai, D. R.; Rychert, J.; Doyle, L.; Lainesse, A.; Karchmer, T.; Mortensen, J. E.

    2015-01-01

    Diarrhea due to enteric bacterial pathogens causes significant morbidity and mortality in the United States and worldwide. However, bacterial pathogens may be infrequently identified. Currently, culture and enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) are the primary methods used by clinical laboratories to detect enteric bacterial pathogens. We conducted a multicenter evaluation of the BD Max enteric bacterial panel (EBP) PCR assay in comparison to culture for the detection of Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., Campylobacter jejuni, and Campylobacter coli and an EIA for Shiga toxins 1 and 2. A total of 4,242 preserved or unpreserved stool specimens, including 3,457 specimens collected prospectively and 785 frozen, retrospective samples, were evaluated. Compared to culture or EIA, the positive percent agreement (PPA) and negative percent agreement (NPA) values for the BD Max EBP assay for all specimens combined were as follows: 97.1% and 99.2% for Salmonella spp., 99.1% and 99.7% for Shigella spp., 97.2% and 98.4% for C. jejuni and C. coli, and 97.4% and 99.3% for Shiga toxins, respectively. Discrepant results for prospective samples were resolved with alternate PCR assays and bidirectional sequencing of amplicons. Following discrepant analysis, PPA and NPA values were as follows: 97.3% and 99.8% for Salmonella spp., 99.2% and 100% for Shigella spp., 97.5% and 99.0% for C. jejuni and C. coli, and 100% and 99.7% for Shiga toxins, respectively. No differences in detection were observed for samples preserved in Cary-Blair medium and unpreserved samples. In this large, multicenter study, the BD Max EBP assay showed superior sensitivity compared to conventional methods and excellent specificity for the detection of enteric bacterial pathogens in stool specimens. PMID:25740779

  18. Multicenter evaluation of the BD max enteric bacterial panel PCR assay for rapid detection of Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., Campylobacter spp. (C. jejuni and C. coli), and Shiga toxin 1 and 2 genes.

    PubMed

    Harrington, S M; Buchan, B W; Doern, C; Fader, R; Ferraro, M J; Pillai, D R; Rychert, J; Doyle, L; Lainesse, A; Karchmer, T; Mortensen, J E

    2015-05-01

    Diarrhea due to enteric bacterial pathogens causes significant morbidity and mortality in the United States and worldwide. However, bacterial pathogens may be infrequently identified. Currently, culture and enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) are the primary methods used by clinical laboratories to detect enteric bacterial pathogens. We conducted a multicenter evaluation of the BD Max enteric bacterial panel (EBP) PCR assay in comparison to culture for the detection of Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., Campylobacter jejuni, and Campylobacter coli and an EIA for Shiga toxins 1 and 2. A total of 4,242 preserved or unpreserved stool specimens, including 3,457 specimens collected prospectively and 785 frozen, retrospective samples, were evaluated. Compared to culture or EIA, the positive percent agreement (PPA) and negative percent agreement (NPA) values for the BD Max EBP assay for all specimens combined were as follows: 97.1% and 99.2% for Salmonella spp., 99.1% and 99.7% for Shigella spp., 97.2% and 98.4% for C. jejuni and C. coli, and 97.4% and 99.3% for Shiga toxins, respectively. Discrepant results for prospective samples were resolved with alternate PCR assays and bidirectional sequencing of amplicons. Following discrepant analysis, PPA and NPA values were as follows: 97.3% and 99.8% for Salmonella spp., 99.2% and 100% for Shigella spp., 97.5% and 99.0% for C. jejuni and C. coli, and 100% and 99.7% for Shiga toxins, respectively. No differences in detection were observed for samples preserved in Cary-Blair medium and unpreserved samples. In this large, multicenter study, the BD Max EBP assay showed superior sensitivity compared to conventional methods and excellent specificity for the detection of enteric bacterial pathogens in stool specimens. PMID:25740779

  19. Quantitative Campylobacter spp., antibiotic resistance genes, and veterinary antibiotics in surface and ground water following manure application: Influence of tile drainage control.

    PubMed

    Frey, Steven K; Topp, Edward; Khan, Izhar U H; Ball, Bonnie R; Edwards, Mark; Gottschall, Natalie; Sunohara, Mark; Lapen, David R

    2015-11-01

    This work investigated chlortetracycline, tylosin, and tetracycline (plus transformation products), and DNA-based quantitative Campylobacter spp. and Campylobacter tetracycline antibiotic resistant genes (tet(O)) in tile drainage, groundwater, and soil before and following a liquid swine manure (LSM) application on clay loam plots under controlled (CD) and free (FD) tile drainage. Chlortetracycline/tetracycline was strongly bound to manure solids while tylosin dominated in the liquid portion of manure. The chlortetracycline transformation product isochlortetracycline was the most persistent analyte in water. Rhodamine WT (RWT) tracer was mixed with manure and monitored in tile and groundwater. RWT and veterinary antibiotic (VA) concentrations were strongly correlated in water which supported the use of RWT as a surrogate tracer. While CD reduced tile discharge and eliminated application-induced VA movement (via tile) to surface water, total VA mass loading to surface water was not affected by CD. At both CD and FD test plots, the biggest 'flush' of VA mass and highest VA concentrations occurred in response to precipitation received 2d after application, which strongly influenced the flow abatement capacity of CD on account of highly elevated water levels in field initiating overflow drainage for CD systems (when water level <0.3m below surface). VA concentrations in tile and groundwater became very low within 10d following application. Both Campylobacter spp. and Campylobacter tet(O) genes were present in groundwater and soil prior to application, and increased thereafter. Unlike the VA compounds, Campylobacter spp. and Campylobacter tet(O) gene loadings in tile drainage were reduced by CD, in relation to FD. PMID:26065824

  20. Evaluation of different plate media for direct cultivation of Campylobacter species from live broilers.

    PubMed

    Potturi-Venkata, L-P; Backert, S; Lastovica, A J; Vieira, S L; Norton, R A; Miller, R S; Pierce, S; Oyarzabal, O A

    2007-07-01

    Accurate identification and optimal culturing procedures for Campylobacter spp. from live broilers are needed for epidemiological studies. Because there is no standardized protocol, we designed and conducted studies to evaluate different selective media for the culturing and isolation of Campylobacter spp. from cecal and fecal samples obtained from battery-reared and commercial broilers. Five media selective for Campylobacter were evaluated: Campylobacter agar base, Campylobacter, Campy-Line, modified Campy-Cefex, and modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate agar. With contaminated broilers reared in battery cages, Campylobacter agar base, Campylobacter, modified Campy-Cefex, and modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate agar revealed similar isolation rates (P > 0.05), whereas Campy-Line showed a lower efficacy (P < 0.05). With commercial live broilers, modified Campy-Cefex agar was more consistent for the isolation of Campylobacter from feces, whereas modified Campy-Cefex and modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate agar showed similar isolation rates from cecal samples. Campy-Line agar showed a lower identification rate (P < 0.05) for both fecal and cecal samples. A multiplex PCR assay used for identification showed that Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli DNA was present in the samples. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis restriction profiles differed among samples collected from different commercial farms but were similar for isolates from the same farm, suggesting clonal differences. No variation was seen in pulsed field gel electrophoresis patterns among isolates cultured on different media. Our data suggest that the choice of plate medium may influence the efficiency of isolating Campylobacter spp. from broiler chickens by direct plating from fecal or cecal samples. PMID:17575175

  1. Quantification of Campylobacter spp. in chicken rinse samples by using flotation prior to real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Wolffs, Petra; Norling, Börje; Hoorfar, Jeffrey; Griffiths, Mansel; Rådström, Peter

    2005-10-01

    Real-time PCR is fast, sensitive, specific, and can deliver quantitative data; however, two disadvantages are that this technology is sensitive to inhibition by food and that it does not distinguish between DNA originating from viable, viable nonculturable (VNC), and dead cells. For this reason, real-time PCR has been combined with a novel discontinuous buoyant density gradient method, called flotation, in order to allow detection of only viable and VNC cells of thermotolerant campylobacters in chicken rinse samples. Studying the buoyant densities of different Campylobacter spp. showed that densities changed at different time points during growth; however, all varied between 1.065 and 1.109 g/ml. These data were then used to develop a flotation assay. Results showed that after flotation and real-time PCR, cell concentrations as low as 8.6 x 10(2) CFU/ml could be detected without culture enrichment and amounts as low as 2.6 x 10(3) CFU/ml could be quantified. Furthermore, subjecting viable cells and dead cells to flotation showed that viable cells were recovered after flotation treatment but that dead cells and/or their DNA was not detected. Also, when samples containing VNC cells mixed with dead cells were treated with flotation after storage at 4 or 20 degrees C for 21 days, a similar percentage resembling the VNC cell fraction was detected using real-time PCR and 5-cyano-2,3-ditolyl tetrazolium chloride-4',6'-diamidino-2-phenylindole staining (20% +/- 9% and 23% +/- 4%, respectively, at 4 degrees C; 11% +/- 4% and 10% +/- 2%, respectively, at 20 degrees C). This indicated that viable and VNC Campylobacter cells could be positively selected and quantified using the flotation method. PMID:16204485

  2. Intestinal Microbiota and Species Diversity of Campylobacter and Helicobacter spp. in Migrating Shorebirds in Delaware Bay

    EPA Science Inventory

    Using rDNA sequencing analysis, we examined the bacterial diversity and the presence of opportunistic bacterial pathogens (i.e., Campylobacter and Helicobacter) in Red Knot (Calidris canutus, n=40), Ruddy Turnstone (Arenaria interpres, n=35), and Semipalmated Sandpiper (Calidris ...

  3. Simultaneous occurrence of Salmonella enterica, Campylobacter spp. and Yersinia enterocolitica along the pork production chain from farm to meat processing in five conventional fattening pig herds in Lower Saxony.

    PubMed

    Niemann, Jana-Kristin; Alter, Thomas; Gölz, Greta; Tietze, Erhard; Fruth, Angelika; Rabsch, Wolfgang; von Münchhausen, Christiane; Merle, Roswitha; Kreienbrock, Lothar

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to gather data on the occurrence of Salmonella (S.) enterica, Campylobacter spp. and Yersinia (Y.) enterocolitica along the pork production chain and to further analyze detected Salmonella isolates by additionally applying MLVA (multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis). In total, 336 samples were collected at primary production, slaughter and meat processing from five conventional fattening pig farms and one common slaughterhouse. At farm level, S. enterica, Campylobacter spp. and Y. enterocolitica were detected in 19.4%, 38.9% and 11.1% of pooled fecal samples of fattening pigs. At slaughter, more than two-thirds of examined carcasses, 24% of carcass surfaces samples and about 60% of cecal content samples were positive for at least one of the examined pathogens. An amount of 4% of meat samples were positive for non-human pathogenic Y. enterocolitica. Identical MLVA patterns of Salmonella isolates from farm- and associated slaughterhouse samples demonstrated transmission across both production stages. Other MLVA patterns found at slaughter indicated possible colonization of pigs during transport or lairage and/or cross-contamination during slaughter. Identical MLVA patterns from risk tissues and the nearby carcass surface evidenced a direct contamination of carcasses as well. Overall, our data showed wide distribution ranges for all three examined pathogens within the pig production chain and underline the need for appropriate intervention strategies at pre- and postharvest. PMID:27529991

  4. Variation in the limit-of-detection of the ProSpecT Campylobacter microplate enzyme immunoassay in stools spiked with emerging Campylobacter species.

    PubMed

    Bojanić, Krunoslav; Midwinter, Anne Camilla; Marshall, Jonathan Craig; Rogers, Lynn Elizabeth; Biggs, Patrick Jon; Acke, Els

    2016-08-01

    Campylobacter enteritis in humans is primarily associated with C. jejuni/coli infection. The impact of other Campylobacter spp. is likely to be underestimated due to the bias of culture methods towards Campylobacter jejuni/coli diagnosis. Stool antigen tests are becoming increasingly popular and appear generally less species-specific. A review of independent studies of the ProSpecT® Campylobacter Microplate enzyme immunoassay (EIA) developed for C. jejuni/coli showed comparable diagnostic results to culture methods but the examination of non-jejuni/coli Campylobacter spp. was limited and the limit-of-detection (LOD), where reported, varied between studies. This study investigated LOD of EIA for Campylobacter upsaliensis, Campylobacter hyointestinalis and Campylobacter helveticus spiked in human stools. Multiple stools and Campylobacter isolates were used in three different concentrations (10(4)-10(9)CFU/ml) to reflect sample heterogeneity. All Campylobacter species evaluated were detectable by EIA. Multivariate analysis showed LOD varied between Campylobacter spp. and faecal consistency as fixed effects and individual faecal samples as random effects. EIA showed excellent performance in replicate testing for both within and between batches of reagents, in agreement between visual and spectrophotometric reading of results, and returned no discordance between the bacterial concentrations within independent dilution test runs (positive results with lower but not higher concentrations). This study shows how limitations in experimental procedures lead to an overestimation of consistency and uniformity of LOD for EIA that may not hold under routine use in diagnostic laboratories. Benefits and limitations for clinical practice and the influence on estimates of performance characteristics from detection of multiple Campylobacter spp. by EIA are discussed. PMID:27317896

  5. Campylobacter in broiler slaughter samples assessed by direct count on mCCDA and Campy-Cefex agar.

    PubMed

    Gonsalves, Camila Cristina; Borsoi, Anderlise; Perdoncini, Gustavo; Rodrigues, Laura Beatriz; do Nascimento, Vladimir Pinheiro

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter spp. cause foodborne illnesses in humans primarily through the consumption of contaminated chicken. The aim of this study was to evaluate the United States Department of Agriculture's (USDA) recommended methodology, protocol MLG 41.02, for the isolation, identification and direct plate counting of Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli samples from the broiler slaughtering process. A plating method using both mCCDA and Campy-Cefex agars is recommended to recover Campylobacter cells. It is also possible to use this method in different matrices (cloacal swabs and water samples). Cloacal swabs, samples from pre-chiller and post-chiller carcasses and samples of pre-chiller, chiller and direct supply water were collected each week for four weeks from the same flock at a slaughterhouse located in an abattoir in southern Brazil. Samples were analyzed to directly count Campylobacter spp., and the results showed a high frequency of Campylobacter spp. on Campy-Cefex agar. For the isolated species, 72% were identified as Campylobacter jejuni and 38% as Campylobacter coli. It was possible to count Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli from different samples, including the water supply samples, using the two-agar method. These results suggest that slaughterhouses can use direct counting methods with both agars and different matrices as a monitoring tool to assess the presence of Campylobacter bacteria in their products. PMID:27237112

  6. Phenotypes and genotypes of campylobacter strains isolated after cleaning and disinfection in poultry slaughterhouses.

    PubMed

    Peyrat, M B; Soumet, C; Maris, P; Sanders, P

    2008-04-30

    Campylobacter is responsible for human bacterial enteritis and poultry meat is recognised as a primary source of infection. In slaughterhouses, cleaning and disinfection procedures are performed daily, and it has been suggested that disinfectant molecules might select for antibiotic resistant strains if shared targets or combined resistance mechanisms were involved. The aim of the study was to investigate if cleaning and disinfection procedures in poultry slaughterhouses select for antibiotic resistance in Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli and to determine the genotypes of isolates collected after cleaning and disinfection. Nine sampling visits were made to four French slaughterhouses. Samples were collected from transport crates and equipment surfaces, before and after cleaning and disinfection. Minimal inhibitory concentrations of the recovered C. jejuni and C. coli isolates to six antibiotics and two disinfectants were measured. The C. jejuni isolates collected from equipment surfaces after cleaning and disinfection were subjected to PCR-RFLP typing. Twenty-five C. jejuni isolates and 1 C. coli were recovered from equipment surfaces after cleaning and disinfection during five visits to three different slaughterhouses. Those isolates did not show an increased resistance to the tested antibiotics compared to isolates collected before cleaning and disinfection. Only one or two genotypes were recovered after cleaning and disinfection during single visits to each slaughterhouse. This observation suggests that such genotypes may be particularly adapted to survive cleaning and disinfection stress. Understanding the survival mechanisms of Campylobacter should facilitate the implementation of better-targeted strategies and reduce the public health burden associated with Campylobacter infection. PMID:18077112

  7. Contrast in the Antibiotic Resistance Profiles of Campylobacter Isolates Originating from Different Poultry Production Facilities (Broiler Breeder Hens, Broilers, and Leghorn Hens) in the Same Geographical Region

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: Antimicrobial resistance of foodborne pathogens is of major concern from both human and animal health perspectives and resistance profiles of Campylobacter spp. from individual poultry facilities have been extensively studied. However, a comparison of antimicrobial resistance profile...

  8. Characterization of Antimicrobial Resistance Patterns and Detection of Virulence Genes in Campylobacter Isolates in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Di Giannatale, Elisabetta; Di Serafino, Gabriella; Zilli, Katiuscia; Alessiani, Alessandra; Sacchini, Lorena; Garofolo, Giuliano; Aprea, Giuseppe; Marotta, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    Campylobacter has developed resistance to several antimicrobial agents over the years, including macrolides, quinolones and fluoroquinolones, becoming a significant public health hazard. A total of 145 strains derived from raw milk, chicken faeces, chicken carcasses, cattle faeces and human faeces collected from various Italian regions, were screened for antimicrobial susceptibility, molecular characterization (SmaI pulsed-field gel electrophoresis) and detection of virulence genes (sequencing and DNA microarray analysis). The prevalence of C. jejuni and C. coli was 62.75% and 37.24% respectively. Antimicrobial susceptibility revealed a high level of resistance for ciprofloxacin (62.76%), tetracycline (55.86%) and nalidixic acid (55.17%). Genotyping of Campylobacter isolates using PFGE revealed a total of 86 unique SmaI patterns. Virulence gene profiles were determined using a new microbial diagnostic microarray composed of 70-mer oligonucleotide probes targeting genes implicated in Campylobacter pathogenicity. Correspondence between PFGE and microarray clusters was observed. Comparisons of PFGE and virulence profiles reflected the high genetic diversity of the strains examined, leading us to speculate different degrees of pathogenicity inside Campylobacter populations. PMID:24556669

  9. Biosecurity-Based Interventions and Strategies To Reduce Campylobacter spp. on Poultry Farms▿

    PubMed Central

    Newell, D. G.; Elvers, K. T.; Dopfer, D.; Hansson, I.; Jones, P.; James, S.; Gittins, J.; Stern, N. J.; Davies, R.; Connerton, I.; Pearson, D.; Salvat, G.; Allen, V. M.

    2011-01-01

    The prevention and control of Campylobacter colonization of poultry flocks are important public health strategies for the control of human campylobacteriosis. A critical review of the literature on interventions to control Campylobacter in poultry on farms was undertaken using a systematic approach. Although the focus of the review was on aspects appropriate to the United Kingdom poultry industry, the research reviewed was gathered from worldwide literature. Multiple electronic databases were employed to search the literature, in any language, from 1980 to September 2008. A primary set of 4,316 references was identified and scanned, using specific agreed-upon criteria, to select relevant references related to biosecurity-based interventions. The final library comprised 173 references. Identification of the sources of Campylobacter in poultry flocks was required to inform the development of targeted interventions to disrupt transmission routes. The approach used generally involved risk factor-based surveys related to culture-positive or -negative flocks, usually combined with a structured questionnaire. In addition, some studies, either in combination or independently, undertook intervention trials. Many of these studies were compromised by poor design, sampling, and statistical analysis. The evidence for each potential source and route of transmission on the poultry farm was reviewed critically, and the options for intervention were considered. The review concluded that, in most instances, biosecurity on conventional broiler farms can be enhanced and this should contribute to the reduction of flock colonization. However, complementary, non-biosecurity-based approaches will also be required in the future to maximize the reduction of Campylobacter-positive flocks at the farm level. PMID:21984249

  10. Evaluation of cephamycins as supplements to selective agar for detecting Campylobacter spp. in chicken carcass rinses.

    PubMed

    Chon, Jung-Whan; Kim, Young-Ji; Kim, Hong-Seok; Kim, Dong-Hyeon; Kim, Hyunsook; Song, Kwang-Young; Sung, Kidon; Seo, Kun-Ho

    2016-04-16

    Although cefoperazone is the most commonly used antibiotic in Campylobacter-selective media, the distribution of cefoperazone-resistant bacteria such as extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli is increasing. Here we evaluated the potential of cephamycins for use as supplements to improve modified charcoal-cefoperazone-deoxycholate agar (mCCDA) by replacing cefoperazone with the same concentrations (32 mg/L) of cefotetan (modified charcoal-cefotetan-deoxycholate agar, mCCtDA) and cefoxitin (modified charcoal-cefoxitin-deoxycholate agar, mCCxDA). In chicken carcass rinse samples, the number of mCCDA plates detecting for Campylobacter (18/70, 26%) was significantly lower than that of mCCtDA (42/70, 60%) or mCCxDA plates (40/70, 57%). The number of mCCDA plates (70/70, 100%) that were contaminated with non-Campylobacter species was significantly higher than that of mCCtDA (20/70, 29%) or mCCxDA plates (21/70, 30%). The most common competing species identified using mCCDA was ESBL-producing E. coli, while Pseudomonas species frequently appeared on mCCtDA and mCCxDA. PMID:26915052

  11. Relationship between Presence of Anti-Campylobacter FliD Protein Antibodies and Campylobacter jejuni Isolation from Broiler Chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter jejuni, a Gram-negative rod, is a zoonotic pathogen associated with human acute bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. Poultry products are regarded as a major source of this bacterium for human infection. Although this bacterium is a commensal in chicken cecal microbiome, Campylobacte...

  12. SMALL RODENTS AND OTHER MAMMALS ASSOCIATED WITH MOUNTAIN MEADOWS AS RESERVOIRS OF 'GEARDIA' SPP. AND 'CAMPYLOBACTER' SPP

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sixty-five percent of the fecal samples collected from small rodents in the central Washington Cascades were positive for Giardia spp. Trapping studies showed that microtines of the genus Microtus were heavily infected with the parasite. Morphologically the cysts and trophozoites...

  13. Evaluation of a PCR/DNA Probe Colorimetric Membrane Assay for Identification of Campylobacter spp. in Human Stool Specimens

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Evelyn; Glennon, Maura; Hanley, Shirley; Murray, Anne-Marie; Cormican, Martin; Smith, Terry; Maher, Majella

    2001-01-01

    DNA was extracted from 50 human stool specimens using the QIAamp DNA stool minikit. PCR amplification was followed by post-PCR hybridization to DNA probes specific for the Campylobacter genus, Campylobacter jejuni, and Campylobacter coli in a colorimetric membrane assay. Thirty-two of 38 culture-positive specimens were PCR/DNA probe positive for C. jejuni. The assay is rapid and simple and can be applied to stool specimens for the detection of Campylobacter. PMID:11682549

  14. The Genotypic Characterization of Cronobacter spp. Isolated in China

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Jinghua; Du, Xiaoli; Liu, Hui; Hu, Guangchun; Lv, Guoping; Xu, Baohong; Yang, Xiaorong; Li, Wei; Cui, Zhigang

    2014-01-01

    Cronobacter spp. (Enterobacter sakazakii) is an important pathogen contaminating powdered infant formula (PIF). To describe the genotypic diversity of Cronobacter isolated in China, we identified the isolates using fusA allele sequencing, and subtyped all of the isolates using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multi-locus sequence typing (MLST), and multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA). A total of 105 isolates were identified, which included C. sakazakii (58 isolates), C. malonaticus (30 isolates), C. dublinensis (11 isolates), C. turicensis (5 isolates), and C. muytjensii (1 isolate). These isolates were showed to have 85 PFGE-patterns, 71 sequence types (STs), and 55 MLVA-patterns. Comparisons among the three molecular subtyping methods revealed that the PFGE method was the most distinguishable tool in identifying clusters of Cronobacter spp. through DNA fingerprinting, and MLST method came second. However, ESTR-1, ESTR-2, ESTR-3, and ESTR-4 were not effective loci for subtyping Cronobacter spp. such that the MLVA method requires further improvement. PMID:25029018

  15. Characterization of Antimicrobial Susceptibility and Its Association with Virulence Genes Related to Adherence, Invasion, and Cytotoxicity in Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli Isolates from Animals, Meat, and Humans.

    PubMed

    Lapierre, Lisette; Gatica, María A; Riquelme, Víctor; Vergara, Constanza; Yañez, José Manuel; San Martín, Betty; Sáenz, Leonardo; Vidal, Maricel; Martínez, María Cristina; Araya, Pamela; Flores, Roberto; Duery, Oscar; Vidal, Roberto

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this research was to statistically analyze the association between antimicrobial susceptibility/resistance to erythromycine, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, and tetracycline and 11 virulence genes associated with adherence, invasion, and cytotoxicity in 528 isolates of Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni obtained from retail meat and fecal samples from food-producing animals and human patients. A high percentage of Campylobacter strains were resistant to antimicrobials, specifically ciprofloxacin and tetracycline. Moreover, we observed a wide distribution of virulence genes within the analyzed strains. C. jejuni strains were more susceptible to antimicrobials, and showed greater number of virulence genes than C. coli strains. Genes related to invasion capability, such as racR, ciaB, and pldA, were associated with antimicrobial-susceptible strains in both species. The genes cdtA and dnaJ, a citotoxin unit and an adherence-related gene, respectively, were associated with antimicrobial-resistant strains in both species. In conclusion, Campylobacter strains show a statistically significant association between antimicrobial susceptibility and the presence of virulence genes. PMID:26779841

  16. Widespread acquisition of antimicrobial resistance among Campylobacter isolates from UK retail poultry and evidence for clonal expansion of resistant lineages

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Antimicrobial resistance is increasing among clinical Campylobacter cases and is common among isolates from other sources, specifically retail poultry - a major source of human infection. In this study the antimicrobial susceptibility of isolates from a UK-wide survey of Campylobacter in retail poultry in 2001 and 2004–5 was investigated. The occurrence of phenotypes resistant to tetracycline, quinolones (ciprofloxacin and naladixic acid), erythromycin, chloramphenicol and aminoglycosides was quantified. This was compared with a phylogeny for these isolates based upon Multi Locus Sequence Typing (MLST) to investigate the pattern of antimicrobial resistance acquisition. Results Antimicrobial resistance was present in all lineage clusters, but statistical testing showed a non-random distribution. Erythromycin resistance was associated with Campylobacter coli. For all antimicrobials tested, resistant isolates were distributed among relatively distant lineages indicative of widespread acquisition. There was also evidence of clustering of resistance phenotypes within lineages; indicative of local expansion of resistant strains. Conclusions These results are consistent with the widespread acquisition of antimicrobial resistance among chicken associated Campylobacter isolates, either through mutation or horizontal gene transfer, and the expansion of these lineages as a proportion of the population. As Campylobacter are not known to multiply outside of the host and long-term carriage in humans is extremely infrequent in industrialized countries, the most likely location for the proliferation of resistant lineages is in farmed chickens. PMID:23855904

  17. Retrospective Study of Campylobacter Infection in a Zoological Collection▿

    PubMed Central

    Taema, Maged M.; Bull, James C.; Macgregor, Shaheed K.; Flach, Edmund J.; Boardman, Wayne S.; Routh, Andrew D.

    2008-01-01

    Little is known about the epidemiology of Campylobacter spp. in wild animal populations. However, zoological collections can provide valuable insights. Using records from the Zoological Society of London Whipsnade Zoo compiled between 1990 and 2003, the roles of a range of biotic and abiotic factors associated with the occurrence of campylobacteriosis were investigated. The occurrence of campylobacteriosis varied widely across host taxonomic orders. Furthermore, in mammals, a combination of changes in both rainfall and temperature in the week preceding the onset of gastroenteritis were associated with isolation of Campylobacter from feces. In birds, there was a weak negative correlation between mean weekly rainfall and isolation of Campylobacter from feces. Importantly, in birds we found that the mean weekly rainfall 3 to 4 weeks before symptoms of gastroenteritis appeared was the best predictor of Campylobacter infection. Campylobacter-related gastroenteritis cases with mixed concurrent infections were positively associated with the presence of parasites (helminths and protozoans) in mammals, while in birds Campylobacter was associated with other concurrent bacterial infections rather than with the presence of helminths and protozoans. This study suggests that climatic elements are important factors associated with Campylobacter-related gastroenteritis. Further investigations are required to improve our understanding of Campylobacter epidemiology in captive wild animal populations. PMID:18165368

  18. Serotyping of Campylobacter jejuni isolated from sporadic cases and outbreaks in British Columbia.

    PubMed Central

    McMyne, P M; Penner, J L; Mathias, R G; Black, W A; Hennessy, J N

    1982-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni from sporadic cases and outbreaks of gastroenteritis were serotyped on the basis of heat-extracted soluble thermostable antigens identified with the use of the passive hemagglutination technique. A total of 168 isolates were separated into 45 different types. The largest proportion of the isolates fell into three serotypes, each with 11 to 12.5% of the total number. Three less frequently occurring serotypes each included approximately 5%, and the remaining 50% of the isolates were distributed among 39 other serotypes. In most cases, serotyping demonstrated that epidemiologically linked isolates were of the same serotype, but the outbreak strains could belong either to frequently or to infrequently isolated serotypes. The high correlation between clinical findings and serotyping results confirmed the applicability of the serotyping scheme in epidemiological investigations of C. jejuni infections. PMID:7119100

  19. An alternative bacteriological medium for the isolation of Aeromonas spp.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jenkins, J.A.; Taylor, P.W.

    1995-01-01

    Two solid bacteriologic media were compared for cultivating Aeromonas spp. from piscine sources: the Rimler-Shotts (RS) medium and a starch-glutamate-ampicillin-penicillin-based medium (SGAP-10C) used for the recovery of Aeromonas spp. from water samples. The selective and differential capacities of the media were assessed March through October 1992 by recovery rate and phenotype of 99 isolates representing 15 genera of bacteria. Recovery frequency of Aeromonas spp. (n = 62) was similar at 97% on RS and 95% on SGAP-10C. The SGAP-10C medium proved to be more specific than RS toward Aeromonas species (P ≤ 0.005). Use of SGAP-10C at 24 C for 48 hr offers a better choice for the laboratory recovery of Aeromonas spp. from clinical fish specimens.

  20. Differential Distribution of Type II CRISPR-Cas Systems in Agricultural and Nonagricultural Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni Isolates Correlates with Lack of Shared Environments.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Bruce M; Louwen, Rogier; van Baarlen, Peter; van Vliet, Arnoud H M

    2015-09-01

    CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats)-Cas (CRISPR-associated) systems are sequence-specific adaptive defenses against phages and plasmids which are widespread in prokaryotes. Here we have studied whether phylogenetic relatedness or sharing of environmental niches affects the distribution and dissemination of Type II CRISPR-Cas systems, first in 132 bacterial genomes from 15 phylogenetic classes, ranging from Proteobacteria to Actinobacteria. There was clustering of distinct Type II CRISPR-Cas systems in phylogenetically distinct genera with varying G+C%, which share environmental niches. The distribution of CRISPR-Cas within a genus was studied using a large collection of genome sequences of the closely related Campylobacter species Campylobacter jejuni (N = 3,746) and Campylobacter coli (N = 486). The Cas gene cas9 and CRISPR-repeat are almost universally present in C. jejuni genomes (98.0% positive) but relatively rare in C. coli genomes (9.6% positive). Campylobacter jejuni and agricultural C. coli isolates share the C. jejuni CRISPR-Cas system, which is closely related to, but distinct from the C. coli CRISPR-Cas system found in C. coli isolates from nonagricultural sources. Analysis of the genomic position of CRISPR-Cas insertion suggests that the C. jejuni-type CRISPR-Cas has been transferred to agricultural C. coli. Conversely, the absence of the C. coli-type CRISPR-Cas in agricultural C. coli isolates may be due to these isolates not sharing the same environmental niche, and may be affected by farm hygiene and biosecurity practices in the agricultural sector. Finally, many CRISPR spacer alleles were linked with specific multilocus sequence types, suggesting that these can assist molecular epidemiology applications for C. jejuni and C. coli. PMID:26338188

  1. Differential Distribution of Type II CRISPR-Cas Systems in Agricultural and Nonagricultural Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni Isolates Correlates with Lack of Shared Environments

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Bruce M.; Louwen, Rogier; van Baarlen, Peter; van Vliet, Arnoud H.M.

    2015-01-01

    CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats)-Cas (CRISPR-associated) systems are sequence-specific adaptive defenses against phages and plasmids which are widespread in prokaryotes. Here we have studied whether phylogenetic relatedness or sharing of environmental niches affects the distribution and dissemination of Type II CRISPR-Cas systems, first in 132 bacterial genomes from 15 phylogenetic classes, ranging from Proteobacteria to Actinobacteria. There was clustering of distinct Type II CRISPR-Cas systems in phylogenetically distinct genera with varying G+C%, which share environmental niches. The distribution of CRISPR-Cas within a genus was studied using a large collection of genome sequences of the closely related Campylobacter species Campylobacter jejuni (N = 3,746) and Campylobacter coli (N = 486). The Cas gene cas9 and CRISPR-repeat are almost universally present in C. jejuni genomes (98.0% positive) but relatively rare in C. coli genomes (9.6% positive). Campylobacter jejuni and agricultural C. coli isolates share the C. jejuni CRISPR-Cas system, which is closely related to, but distinct from the C. coli CRISPR-Cas system found in C. coli isolates from nonagricultural sources. Analysis of the genomic position of CRISPR-Cas insertion suggests that the C. jejuni-type CRISPR-Cas has been transferred to agricultural C. coli. Conversely, the absence of the C. coli-type CRISPR-Cas in agricultural C. coli isolates may be due to these isolates not sharing the same environmental niche, and may be affected by farm hygiene and biosecurity practices in the agricultural sector. Finally, many CRISPR spacer alleles were linked with specific multilocus sequence types, suggesting that these can assist molecular epidemiology applications for C. jejuni and C. coli. PMID:26338188

  2. [Antibiotic resistance analysis of Enterococcus spp. and Enterobacteriaceae spp. isolated from food].

    PubMed

    Korotkevich, Yu V

    2016-01-01

    The isolates from foods were screened for sensitivity to clinically significant antibiotics to assess the actual situation related to the prevalence of the antibiotic-resistant microorganisms in food. The goal of this work was to study the phenotypic characteristics of the antibiotic susceptibility of Enterobacteriaceae and Enterococcus spp. isolated from the good quality foods, and evaluation of the prevalence of tetracycline resistance in this groups of microbial contaminants. 68 strains of Enterobacteriaceae family and Enterococcus spp. isolated from poultry and livestock meat, pasteurized dairy products, acquired in the retail in the Moscow region, were studied. The disk-diffusion method (DDM) analysis showed a rather high prevalence of bacteria that are resistant and forming resistance to broad-spectrum antibiotics: in general 38% of Enterobacteriaceae strains and 40% of Enterococcus spp., isolated from meat products were resistant to tetracycline and doxycycline, and 21 and 33% - from dairy products, respectively; 26% of milk isolates and 54% of meat isolates were resistant to ampicillin. Considering that the tetracyclines is the most frequently used in animal husbandry and veterinary, the incidence and levels of tetracycline resistance were evaluated using tests with higher sensitivity to minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), than the DDM. It was shown that among the Enterobacteriaceae strains 26% of isolates and 38% isolates were highly resistant to tetracycline (MIC ranged from 8 to 120 mg/kg) and 17-40% - among Enterococcus spp. These data obtained on a small number of samples, however, correspond to the frequency of tetracycline resistant strains detected in animal products in the EU (10-50%). Two multidrug-resistant enterobacteria strains - Klebsiella pneumoniae (farmer cheese) and Escherichia coli (minced turkey) were found among the .46 strains (4.4%), and they were resistant to 8 antibiotics. PMID:27455596

  3. Prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli species in cats and dogs from Bydgoszcz (Poland) region.

    PubMed

    Andrzejewska, M; Szczepańska, B; Klawe, J J; Spica, D; Chudzińska, M

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of cats and dogs as a potential reservoir of Campylobacter spp. Rectal swabs from 83 dogs and 71 cats were examined. Samples were obtained from the animals aged between 2 weeks and 24 months living in shelters, private households, farms and from veterinary clinics located in Bydgoszcz region during routine check-up. Campylobacter spp. were isolated from 4.81% dogs and 9.86% cats, respectively. C. jejuni was predominant in this study. All strains were isolated in autumn and winter from the animals living in farms and private houses. All the animals positive for Campylobacter prevalence had access to small water basins, accidental source of food and had contact with wild birds, poultry or their feaces. Isolates characterization revealed high prevalence of Campylobacter virulence genes-flaA, cadF and cdtB. 91% of isolated strains were susceptible to erythromycin. 81% among isolated strains were susceptible to azithromycin, 64% to tetracycline and 36% to ciprofloxacin. For 2 C. jejuni strains isolated from cats Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) profiling indicated 80% homology between them. PMID:23691584

  4. Differentiation of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli Using Multiplex-PCR and High Resolution Melt Curve Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Banowary, Banya; Dang, Van Tuan; Sarker, Subir; Connolly, Joanne H.; Chenu, Jeremy; Groves, Peter; Ayton, Michelle; Raidal, Shane; Devi, Aruna; Vanniasinkam, Thiru; Ghorashi, Seyed A.

    2015-01-01

    Campylobacter spp. are important causes of bacterial gastroenteritis in humans in developed countries. Among Campylobacter spp. Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) and C. coli are the most common causes of human infection. In this study, a multiplex PCR (mPCR) and high resolution melt (HRM) curve analysis were optimized for simultaneous detection and differentiation of C. jejuni and C. coli isolates. A segment of the hippuricase gene (hipO) of C. jejuni and putative aspartokinase (asp) gene of C. coli were amplified from 26 Campylobacter isolates and amplicons were subjected to HRM curve analysis. The mPCR-HRM was able to differentiate between C. jejuni and C. coli species. All DNA amplicons generated by mPCR were sequenced. Analysis of the nucleotide sequences from each isolate revealed that the HRM curves were correlated with the nucleotide sequences of the amplicons. Minor variation in melting point temperatures of C. coli or C. jejuni isolates was also observed and enabled some intraspecies differentiation between C. coli and/or C. jejuni isolates. The potential of PCR-HRM curve analysis for the detection and speciation of Campylobacter in additional human clinical specimens and chicken swab samples was also confirmed. The sensitivity and specificity of the test were found to be 100% and 92%, respectively. The results indicated that mPCR followed by HRM curve analysis provides a rapid (8 hours) technique for differentiation between C. jejuni and C. coli isolates. PMID:26394042

  5. Legionella spp. isolation and quantification from greywater

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Martínez, Sara; Blanky, Marina; Friedler, Eran; Halpern, Malka

    2015-01-01

    Legionella, an opportunistic human pathogen whose natural environment is water, is transmitted to humans through inhalation of contaminated aerosols. Legionella has been isolated from a high diversity of water types. Due its importance as a pathogen, two ISO protocols have been developed for its monitoring. However, these two protocols are not suitable for analyzing Legionella in greywater (GW). GW is domestic wastewater excluding the inputs from toilets and kitchen. It can serve as an alternative water source, mainly for toilet flushing and garden irrigation; both producing aerosols that can cause a risk for Legionella infection. Hence, before reuse, GW has to be treated and its quality needs to be monitored. The difficulty of Legionella isolation from GW strives in the very high load of contaminant bacteria. Here we describe a modification of the ISO protocol 11731:1998 that enables the isolation and quantification of Legionella from GW samples. The following modifications were made:•To enable isolation of Legionella from greywater, a pre-filtration step that removes coarse matter is recommended.•Legionella can be isolated after a combined acid-thermic treatment that eliminates the high load of contaminant bacteria in the sample. PMID:26740925

  6. Legionella spp. isolation and quantification from greywater.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Martínez, Sara; Blanky, Marina; Friedler, Eran; Halpern, Malka

    2015-01-01

    Legionella, an opportunistic human pathogen whose natural environment is water, is transmitted to humans through inhalation of contaminated aerosols. Legionella has been isolated from a high diversity of water types. Due its importance as a pathogen, two ISO protocols have been developed for its monitoring. However, these two protocols are not suitable for analyzing Legionella in greywater (GW). GW is domestic wastewater excluding the inputs from toilets and kitchen. It can serve as an alternative water source, mainly for toilet flushing and garden irrigation; both producing aerosols that can cause a risk for Legionella infection. Hence, before reuse, GW has to be treated and its quality needs to be monitored. The difficulty of Legionella isolation from GW strives in the very high load of contaminant bacteria. Here we describe a modification of the ISO protocol 11731:1998 that enables the isolation and quantification of Legionella from GW samples. The following modifications were made:•To enable isolation of Legionella from greywater, a pre-filtration step that removes coarse matter is recommended.•Legionella can be isolated after a combined acid-thermic treatment that eliminates the high load of contaminant bacteria in the sample. PMID:26740925

  7. Screening of Feral Pigeon (Colomba livia), Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) and Graylag Goose (Anser anser) Populations for Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., Avian Influenza Virus and Avian Paramyxovirus

    PubMed Central

    Lillehaug, A; Jonassen, C Monceyron; Bergsjø, B; Hofshagen, M; Tharaldsen, J; Nesse, LL; Handeland, K

    2005-01-01

    A total of 119 fresh faecal samples were collected from graylag geese migrating northwards in April. Also, cloacal swabs were taken from 100 carcasses of graylag geese shot during the hunting season in August. In addition, samples were taken from 200 feral pigeons and five mallards. The cultivation of bacteria detected Campylobacter jejuni jejuni in six of the pigeons, and in one of the mallards. Salmonella diarizona 14:k:z53 was detected in one graylag goose, while all pigeons and mallards were negative for salmonellae. No avian paramyxovirus was found in any of the samples tested. One mallard, from an Oslo river, was influenza A virus positive, confirmed by RT-PCR and by inoculation of embryonated eggs. The isolate termed A/Duck/Norway/1/03 was found to be of H3N8 type based on sequence analyses of the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase segments, and serological tests. This is the first time an avian influenza virus has been isolated in Norway. The study demonstrates that the wild bird species examined may constitute a reservoir for important bird pathogens and zoonotic agents in Norway. PMID:16398331

  8. Assessment of two different types of sample for the early detection and isolation of thermophilic Campylobacter in broiler farms.

    PubMed

    Urdaneta, Saulo; Dolz, Roser; Cerdà-Cuéllar, Marta

    2015-01-01

    In order to assess the optimal method for the early detection and isolation of thermophilic Campylobacter in broilers at farm level, two types of samples were compared: caecal contents obtained by necropsy and cloacal swabs transported in charcoal Amies medium. The study was conducted in five batches of broilers from five different farms, where weekly samples (caecal contents and cloacal swabs) from 30 birds were obtained. Samples were plated onto selective agar (modified charcoal cefoperazone desoxycholate agar, mCCDA) for Campylobacter isolation. Four out of five batches were positive for Campylobacter. No marked differences in sensitivity of both sample types were observed. However, a higher percentage of positive birds were detected when cloacal swabs were used. The results show that cloacal swab samples are adequate, and in some cases even better than caecal samples for the early detection of Campylobacter in broiler flocks at farm level. Also, this sample avoids sacrificing birds to test Campylobacter, which not only allows saving time in sample collection, transportation and processing at the laboratory, but also improves bird welfare and cost of sampling. PMID:25588419

  9. Evaluation of Phenotypic and Genotypic Methods for Subtyping Campylobacter jejuni Isolates from Humans, Poultry, and Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Eva Møller; Engberg, Jørgen; Fussing, Vivian; Petersen, Lise; Brogren, Carl-Henrik; On, Stephen L. W.

    2000-01-01

    Six methods for subtyping of Campylobacter jejuni were compared and evaluated with a collection of 90 isolates from poultry, cattle, and sporadic human clinical cases as well as from a waterborne outbreak. The applied methods were Penner heat-stable serotyping; automated ribotyping (RiboPrinting); random amplified polymorphic DNA typing (RAPD); pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE); restriction fragment length polymorphisms of the flagellin gene, flaA (fla-RFLP); and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of flaA (fla-DGGE). The methods were evaluated and compared on the basis of their abilities to identify isolates from one outbreak and discriminate between unrelated isolates and the agreement between methods in identifying clonal lines. All methods identified the outbreak strain. For a collection of 80 supposedly unrelated isolates, RAPD and PFGE were the most discriminatory methods, followed by fla-RFLP and RiboPrinting. fla-DGGE and serotyping were the least discriminative. All isolates included in this study were found to be typeable by each of the methods. Thirteen groups of potentially related isolates could be identified using a criterion that at least four of the methods agreed on clustering of isolates. None of the subtypes could be related to only one source; rather, these groups represented isolates from different sources. Furthermore, in two cases isolates from cattle and human patients were found to be identical according to all six methods. PMID:11015406

  10. Triclosan in Campy-Cefex Agar to aid in Enumeration of Naturally Occurring Campylobacter spp. in Broiler Ceca

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Detecting and enumerating Campylobacter from poultry samples can be difficult without highly selective media because of competing microflora. We have found that adding 0.1 µg/ mL of Triclosan, an antibacterial agent, to Bolton enrichment broth prevents overgrowth of non-Campylobacter bacteria and si...

  11. Antimicrobial Resistance in Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolated from Chicken Carcass Rinsates: Update from the Animal Arm of NARMS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: The development of antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter species, particularly C. jejuni and C. coli, is of public health concern. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to analyze the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for antimicrobials used in susceptibility testing of C....

  12. Characterization of macrolide-resistant Campylobacter coli isolates from food-producing animals on farms across Japan during 2004.

    PubMed

    Harada, Kazuki; Asai, Tetsuo; Kojima, Akemi; Sameshima, Toshiya; Takahashi, Toshio

    2006-10-01

    We investigated the susceptibilities against 7 antimicrobial agents in Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli isolates from food-producing animals in 2004. In comparison with the results of past surveillance, no significant difference was observed in resistance rates against all of the antimicrobials tested in Campylobacter isolates. However, slight increase of erythromycin (EM) resistance was found in C. coli isolates from pigs. We examined the mutation of the 23S rRNA gene and their susceptibilities against azithromycin, tylosin, and lincomycin in 44 EM-resistant isolates and 28 susceptible isolates of porcine origin. All the EM-resistant isolates contained A2075G in the 23S rRNA gene and showed cross-resistance to azithromycin, tylosin, and lyncomycin. PMID:17085893

  13. Isolation of Campylobacter from feral swine (Sus scrofa) on the ranch associated with the 2006 Escherichia coli O157:H7 spinach outbreak investigation in California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report the isolation of Campylobacter species from the same population of feral swine that was investigated in San Benito County, California during the 2006 spinach-related Escherichia coli O157:H7 outbreak. This is the first survey of Campylobacter in a free-ranging feral swine population in the...

  14. The complete genome sequence and annotation of a Campylobacter jejuni strain, MTVDSCj20, isolated from a naturally colonized farm-raised chicken

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter jejuni is a major cause of human foodborne illness worldwide with contaminated poultry products serving as a main source of human infection. C. jejuni strain MTVDSCj20 was isolated from the cecal contents of a farm-raised chicken naturally colonized with Campylobacter. The complete,...

  15. Isolation of a novel thermophilic Campylobacter from cases of spotty liver disease in laying hens and experimental reproduction of infection and microscopic pathology.

    PubMed

    Crawshaw, Tim R; Chanter, Jeremy I; Young, Stuart C L; Cawthraw, Shaun; Whatmore, Adrian M; Koylass, Mark S; Vidal, Ana B; Salguero, Francisco J; Irvine, Richard M

    2015-09-30

    The condition known as spotty liver disease or spotty liver syndrome can cause significant mortality in free range laying hen flocks. It has been described in Europe and Australia but the aetiology has not been established. There are similarities between spotty liver disease and avian vibrionic hepatitis, a condition which was reported in the 1950s. A Vibrio-like organism was suspected to be the cause of avian vibrionic hepatitis, although this organism was never fully characterised. We report the isolation of a novel Campylobacter from five separate outbreaks of spotty liver disease. The conditions required for culture, the growth characteristics, electron microscopical morphology and results of the phenotypic tests used in the identification of this novel Campylobacter sp. are described. The novel Campylobacter is slow growing and fastidious and does not grow on media routinely used for isolating Campylobacter sp. The morphology is typical for a Campylobacter sp. and phenotypic tests and a duplex real time PCR test differentiate the novel Campylobacter from other members of the genus. 16S rRNA analysis of 19 isolates showed an identical sequence which appears to represent a hitherto unknown sub lineage within the genus Campylobacter. Experimental intraperitoneal infection of four week old SPF chickens produced microscopic liver pathology indistinguishable from natural disease and the novel Campylobacter was recovered from the experimentally infected chicks. The isolates described appear to be a possible causal organism for spotty liver disease. PMID:26130518

  16. Whole-Genome Sequence of Multidrug-Resistant Campylobacter coli Strain COL B1-266, Isolated from the Colombian Poultry Chain.

    PubMed

    Bernal, Johan F; Donado-Godoy, Pilar; Arévalo, Alejandra; Duarte, Carolina; Realpe, María E; Díaz, Paula L; Gómez, Yolanda; Rodríguez, Fernando; Agarwala, Richa; Landsman, David; Mariño-Ramírez, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter coli is considered one of the main causes of food-borne illness worldwide. We report here the whole-genome sequence of multidrug-resistant Campylobacter coli strain COL B1-266, isolated from the Colombian poultry chain. The genome sequences encode genes for a variety of antimicrobial resistance genes, including aminoglycosides, β-lactams, lincosamides, fluoroquinolones, and tetracyclines. PMID:26988047

  17. Whole-Genome Sequence of Multidrug-Resistant Campylobacter coli Strain COL B1-266, Isolated from the Colombian Poultry Chain

    PubMed Central

    Bernal, Johan F.; Donado-Godoy, Pilar; Arévalo, Alejandra; Duarte, Carolina; Realpe, María E.; Díaz, Paula L.; Gómez, Yolanda; Rodríguez, Fernando; Agarwala, Richa; Landsman, David

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter coli is considered one of the main causes of food-borne illness worldwide. We report here the whole-genome sequence of multidrug-resistant Campylobacter coli strain COL B1-266, isolated from the Colombian poultry chain. The genome sequences encode genes for a variety of antimicrobial resistance genes, including aminoglycosides, β-lactams, lincosamides, fluoroquinolones, and tetracyclines. PMID:26988047

  18. Comparison of epidemiologically linked Campylobacter jejuni isolated from human and poultry sources.

    PubMed

    Lajhar, S A; Jennison, A V; Patel, B; Duffy, L L

    2015-12-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is responsible for most foodborne bacterial infections worldwide including Australia. The aim of this study was to investigate a combination of typing methods in the characterization of C. jejuni isolated from clinical diarrhoeal samples (n = 20) and chicken meat (n = 26) in order to identify the source of infection and rank isolates based on their relative risk to humans. Sequencing of the flaA short variable region demonstrated that 86% of clinical isolates had genotypes that were also found in chicken meat. A polymerase chain reaction binary typing system identified 27 different codes based on the presence or absence of genes that have been reported to be associated with various aspects of C. jejuni pathogenicity, indicating that not all isolates may be of equal risk to human health. The lipooligosaccharide (LOS) of the C. jejuni isolates was classified into six classes (A, B, C, E, F, H) with 10·4% remaining unclassified. The majority (72·7%) of clinical isolates possessed sialylated LOS classes. Sialylated LOS classes were also detected in chicken isolates (80·7%). Antimicrobial tests indicated a low level of resistance, with no phenotypic resistance found to most antibiotics tested. A combination of typing approaches was useful to assign isolates to a source of infection and assess their risk to humans. PMID:25936829

  19. Analysis of Campylobacter jejuni whole-genome DNA microarrays: Significance of prophage and hypervariable regions for discriminating isolates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter is a leading cause of food borne illness in humans and improving our understanding of the epidemiology of this organism is essential. The objective of this study was to identify the genes that were most significant for discriminating isolates of C. jejuni by analyzing whole genome DNA ...

  20. First Isolates of Leptospira spp., from Rodents Captured in Angola.

    PubMed

    Fortes-Gabriel, Elsa; Carreira, Teresa; Vieira, Maria Luísa

    2016-05-01

    Rodents play an important role in the transmission of pathogenic Leptospira spp. However, in Angola, neither the natural reservoirs of these spirochetes nor leptospirosis diagnosis has been considered. Regarding this gap, we captured rodents in Luanda and Huambo provinces to identify circulating Leptospira spp. Rodent kidney tissue was cultured and DNA amplified and sequenced. Culture isolates were evaluated for pathogenic status and typing with rabbit antisera; polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing were also performed. A total of 37 rodents were captured: Rattus rattus (15, 40.5%), Rattus norvegicus (9, 24.3%), and Mus musculus (13, 35.2%). Leptospiral DNA was amplified in eight (21.6%) kidney samples. From the cultures, we obtained four (10.8%) Leptospira isolates belonging to the Icterohaemorrhagiae and Ballum serogroups of Leptospira interrogans and Leptospira borgpetersenii genospecies, respectively. This study provides information about circulating leptospires spread by rats and mice in Angola. PMID:26928840

  1. First Isolates of Leptospira spp., from Rodents Captured in Angola

    PubMed Central

    Fortes-Gabriel, Elsa; Carreira, Teresa; Vieira, Maria Luísa

    2016-01-01

    Rodents play an important role in the transmission of pathogenic Leptospira spp. However, in Angola, neither the natural reservoirs of these spirochetes nor leptospirosis diagnosis has been considered. Regarding this gap, we captured rodents in Luanda and Huambo provinces to identify circulating Leptospira spp. Rodent kidney tissue was cultured and DNA amplified and sequenced. Culture isolates were evaluated for pathogenic status and typing with rabbit antisera; polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing were also performed. A total of 37 rodents were captured: Rattus rattus (15, 40.5%), Rattus norvegicus (9, 24.3%), and Mus musculus (13, 35.2%). Leptospiral DNA was amplified in eight (21.6%) kidney samples. From the cultures, we obtained four (10.8%) Leptospira isolates belonging to the Icterohaemorrhagiae and Ballum serogroups of Leptospira interrogans and Leptospira borgpetersenii genospecies, respectively. This study provides information about circulating leptospires spread by rats and mice in Angola. PMID:26928840

  2. Antimicrobial resistance profiles and mechanisms of resistance in Campylobacter jejuni isolates from pets.

    PubMed

    Acke, Els; McGill, Kevina; Quinn, Teresa; Jones, Boyd R; Fanning, Seamus; Whyte, Paul

    2009-01-01

    The presence of antimicrobial resistance in 51 Campylobacter jejuni isolates obtained from cats and dogs was determined by E-testing. Resistance to nalidixic acid (37.3% of isolates), ciprofloxacin (19.6%), tetracycline (13.7%), ampicillin (13.7%), erythromycin (11.8%), and chloramphenicol (5.9%) was detected. Resistance to two antimicrobials or more was present in 31.4% of isolates, and one isolate was resistant to all six antimicrobials. Of the isolates with ciprofloxacin and/or nalidixic acid resistance, 54.5% had the gyrA substitution Thr-86-Ile on sequencing. The tet o gene was detected in 75.0% isolates with high-level resistance to tetracycline. With the observed antimicrobial resistance in C. jejuni isolates from pets in this study, and the detection of identical mechanisms for quinolone and tetracycline resistance in pets and humans, pets should be considered a potential source of (multi)resistant C. jejuni infections in humans. PMID:19580444

  3. Campylobacter hyointestinalis Isolated from Pigs Produces Multiple Variants of Biologically Active Cytolethal Distending Toxin.

    PubMed

    Kamei, Kazumasa; Hatanaka, Noritoshi; Asakura, Masahiro; Somroop, Srinuan; Samosornsuk, Worada; Hinenoya, Atsushi; Misawa, Naoaki; Nakagawa, Shinsaku; Yamasaki, Shinji

    2015-11-01

    Campylobacter hyointestinalis isolated from swine with proliferative enteritis often is considered to be pathogenic. While the precise virulence mechanisms of this species remain unclear, we have recently identified a cytolethal distending toxin (cdt) gene cluster in C. hyointestinalis isolated from a patient with diarrhea (W. Samosornsuk et al., J Med Microbiol, 27 July 2015, http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/jmm.0.000145). However, the sequences of the cdt genes in C. hyointestinalis were found to be significantly different and the gene products are immunologically distinct from those of other Campylobacter species. In this study, we demonstrate the presence of a second variant of the cdt gene cluster in C. hyointestinalis, designated cdt-II, while the former is named cdt-I. Sequencing of the cdt-II gene cluster and deduced amino acid sequences revealed that homologies between the subunits CdtA, CdtB, and CdtC of ChCDT-I and ChCDT-II are 25.0, 56.0, and 24.8%, respectively. Furthermore, the CdtB subunit of ChCDT-II was found to be immunologically unrelated to that of ChCDT-I by Ouchterlony double gel diffusion test. Recombinant ChCDT-II also induced cell distention and death of HeLa cells by blocking the cell cycle at G2/M phase. Interestingly, the cdt-II genes were detected in all 23 animal isolates and in 1 human isolate of C. hyointestinalis, and 21 of these strains carried both cdt-I and cdt-II gene clusters. Altogether, our results indicate that ChCDT-II is an important virulence factor of C. hyointestinalis in animals. PMID:26283337

  4. Campylobacter hyointestinalis Isolated from Pigs Produces Multiple Variants of Biologically Active Cytolethal Distending Toxin

    PubMed Central

    Kamei, Kazumasa; Hatanaka, Noritoshi; Asakura, Masahiro; Somroop, Srinuan; Samosornsuk, Worada; Hinenoya, Atsushi; Misawa, Naoaki; Nakagawa, Shinsaku

    2015-01-01

    Campylobacter hyointestinalis isolated from swine with proliferative enteritis often is considered to be pathogenic. While the precise virulence mechanisms of this species remain unclear, we have recently identified a cytolethal distending toxin (cdt) gene cluster in C. hyointestinalis isolated from a patient with diarrhea (W. Samosornsuk et al., J Med Microbiol, 27 July 2015, http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/jmm.0.000145). However, the sequences of the cdt genes in C. hyointestinalis were found to be significantly different and the gene products are immunologically distinct from those of other Campylobacter species. In this study, we demonstrate the presence of a second variant of the cdt gene cluster in C. hyointestinalis, designated cdt-II, while the former is named cdt-I. Sequencing of the cdt-II gene cluster and deduced amino acid sequences revealed that homologies between the subunits CdtA, CdtB, and CdtC of ChCDT-I and ChCDT-II are 25.0, 56.0, and 24.8%, respectively. Furthermore, the CdtB subunit of ChCDT-II was found to be immunologically unrelated to that of ChCDT-I by Ouchterlony double gel diffusion test. Recombinant ChCDT-II also induced cell distention and death of HeLa cells by blocking the cell cycle at G2/M phase. Interestingly, the cdt-II genes were detected in all 23 animal isolates and in 1 human isolate of C. hyointestinalis, and 21 of these strains carried both cdt-I and cdt-II gene clusters. Altogether, our results indicate that ChCDT-II is an important virulence factor of C. hyointestinalis in animals. PMID:26283337

  5. Mutant prevention concentrations of fluoroquinolones against Campylobacter jejuni isolated from chicken.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liping; Yuanshu, Zhang; Yuhan, Zhang; Yaojie; Yingxia, Li

    2010-08-26

    The mutant prevention concentration (MPC) and mutant selection window (MSW) concepts have been used to evaluate antibiotic concentration ranges that prevent the emergence of antibiotic resistant mutants. Campylobacter jejuni is highly mutable to fluoroquinolone (FQ) antibiotics, but it is unknown if the MPC concept can be used to prevent mutant emergence. In this study, the MPCs of three FQs including enrofloxacin, norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin were determined using 13 C. jejuni isolates. Also, first- and second-step FQ-resistant mutants were selected and the mutations in gyrA and gyrB as well as the contribution of efflux pump to FQ resistance were investigated. The MICs of all selected mutants were determined in the presence or absence of the efflux pump inhibitors carbonyl cyanide 3-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP) and reserpine. Our results revealed that the three tested FQs had different MPC ranges and the MPC order was norfloxacin > ciprofloxacin > enrofloxacin, suggesting a better in vitro efficacy of enrofloxacin over ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin in reducing the emergence of C. jejuni mutants. The results also confirmed the single-step mechanism of acquired FQs resistance in C. jejuni mutants. Both point mutations (Thr-86-Ile and Asp-90-Asn) in the gyrA gene and the function of efflux pumps contributed to the acquired resistance to ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin, while gyrA mutations (Thr-86-Ile and Asp-90-Asn) were the main mechanism for enrofloxacin resistance. These findings provide new insights into the development and mechanisms of FQ resistance in Campylobacter. PMID:20226601

  6. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of the Campylobacter spp. Prevalence and Concentration in Household Pets and Petting Zoo Animals for Use in Exposure Assessments.

    PubMed

    Pintar, Katarina D M; Christidis, Tanya; Thomas, M Kate; Anderson, Maureen; Nesbitt, Andrea; Keithlin, Jessica; Marshall, Barbara; Pollari, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Canada and abroad. Within this literature, knowledge gaps were identified, and include: a lack of concentration data reported in the literature for Campylobacter spp. in animal feces, a distinction between ill and diarrheic pets in the reported studies, noted differences in shedding and concentrations for various subtypes of Campylobacter, and consistent reporting between studies. PMID:26683667

  7. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of the Campylobacter spp. Prevalence and Concentration in Household Pets and Petting Zoo Animals for Use in Exposure Assessments

    PubMed Central

    Pintar, Katarina D. M.; Christidis, Tanya; Thomas, M. Kate; Anderson, Maureen; Nesbitt, Andrea; Keithlin, Jessica; Marshall, Barbara; Pollari, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Canada and abroad. Within this literature, knowledge gaps were identified, and include: a lack of concentration data reported in the literature for Campylobacter spp. in animal feces, a distinction between ill and diarrheic pets in the reported studies, noted differences in shedding and concentrations for various subtypes of Campylobacter, and consistent reporting between studies. PMID:26683667

  8. Selective medium for isolation and enumeration of Bifidobacterium spp.

    PubMed Central

    Muñoa, F J; Pares, R

    1988-01-01

    A new method was developed for the isolation and enumeration of Bifidobacterium spp. from natural aquatic environments. The method was based on the utilization of a new medium, Bifidobacterium iodoacetate medium 25, and resuscitation techniques were used to isolate injured bifidobacteria. The new medium was tested with a nonselective reference medium on sewage and sewage-polluted surface waters. Relatively little colonial growth of any other bacterial genera occurred; when such colonies did grow, Bifidobacterium could be easily differentiated by its colonial morphology or, after Gram staining, by its typical bifidobacterial morphology. PMID:3415235

  9. Discussing State-of-the-Art Spatial Visualization Techniques Applicable for the Epidemiological Surveillance Data on the Example of Campylobacter spp. in Raw Chicken Meat.

    PubMed

    Plaza-Rodríguez, C; Appel, B; Kaesbohrer, A; Filter, M

    2016-08-01

    Within the European activities for the 'Monitoring and Collection of Information on Zoonoses', annually EFSA publishes a European report, including information related to the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in Germany. Spatial epidemiology becomes here a fundamental tool for the generation of these reports, including the representation of prevalence as an essential element. Until now, choropleth maps are the default visualization technique applied in epidemiological monitoring and surveillance reports made by EFSA and German authorities. However, due to its limitations, it seems to be reasonable to explore alternative chart type. Four maps including choropleth, cartogram, graduated symbols and dot-density maps were created to visualize real-world sample data on the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in raw chicken meat samples in Germany in 2011. In addition, adjacent and coincident maps were created to visualize also the associated uncertainty. As an outcome, we found that there is not a single data visualization technique that encompasses all the necessary features to visualize prevalence data alone or prevalence data together with their associated uncertainty. All the visualization techniques contemplated in this study demonstrated to have both advantages and disadvantages. To determine which visualization technique should be used for future reports, we recommend to create a dialogue between end-users and epidemiologists on the basis of sample data and charts. The final decision should also consider the knowledge and experience of end-users as well as the specific objective to be achieved with the charts. PMID:26404056

  10. Identification of the main quinolone resistance determinant in Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli by MAMA-DEG PCR.

    PubMed

    Hormeño, Lorena; Palomo, Gonzalo; Ugarte-Ruiz, María; Porrero, M Concepción; Borge, Carmen; Vadillo, Santiago; Píriz, Segundo; Domínguez, Lucas; Campos, Maria J; Quesada, Alberto

    2016-03-01

    Among zoonotic diseases, campylobacteriosis stands out as the major bacterial infection producing human gastroenteritis. Antimicrobial therapy, only recommended in critical cases, is challenged by resistance mechanisms that should be unambiguously detected for achievement of effective treatments. Quinolone (ciprofloxacin) resistance of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli, the 2 main Campylobacter detected in humans, is conferred by the mutation gyrA C-257-T, which can be genotyped by several methods that require a previous identification of the pathogen species to circumvent the sequence polymorphism of the gene. A multiplex PCR, based on degenerated oligonucleotides, has been designed for unambiguous identification of the quinolone resistance determinant in Campylobacter spp. isolates. The method was verified with 249 Campylobacter strains isolated from humans (141 isolates) and from the 3 most important animal sources for this zoonosis: poultry (34 isolates), swine (38 isolates), and cattle (36 isolates). High resistance to ciprofloxacin, MIC above 4μg/mL, linked to the mutated genotype predicted by MAMA-DEG PCR (mismatch amplification mutation assay PCR with degenerated primers) was found frequently among isolates from the different hosts. PMID:26658311

  11. Antimicrobial Susceptibility Profiles of Human Campylobacter jejuni Isolates and Association with Phylogenetic Lineages

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Wonhee; Mosci, Rebekah; Wengert, Samantha L.; Singh, Pallavi; Newton, Duane W.; Salimnia, Hossein; Lephart, Paul; Khalife, Walid; Mansfield, Linda S.; Rudrik, James T.; Manning, Shannon D.

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a zoonotic pathogen and the most common bacterial cause of human gastroenteritis worldwide. With the increase of antibiotic resistance to fluoroquinolones and macrolides, the drugs of choice for treatment, C. jejuni was recently classified as a serious antimicrobial resistant threat. Here, we characterized 94 C. jejuni isolates collected from patients at four Michigan hospitals in 2011 and 2012 to determine the frequency of resistance and association with phylogenetic lineages. The prevalence of resistance to fluoroquinolones (19.1%) and macrolides (2.1%) in this subset of C. jejuni isolates from Michigan was similar to national reports. High frequencies of fluoroquinolone-resistant C. jejuni isolates, however, were recovered from patients with a history of foreign travel. A high proportion of these resistant isolates were classified as multilocus sequence type (ST)-464, a fluoroquinolone-resistant lineage that recently emerged in Europe. A significantly higher prevalence of tetracycline-resistant C. jejuni was also found in Michigan and resistant isolates were more likely to represent ST-982, which has been previously recovered from ruminants and the environment in the U.S. Notably, patients with tetracycline-resistant C. jejuni infections were more likely to have contact with cattle. These outcomes prompt the need to monitor the dissemination and diversification of imported fluoroquinolone-resistant C. jejuni strains and to investigate the molecular epidemiology of C. jejuni recovered from cattle and farm environments to guide mitigation strategies. PMID:27199922

  12. Campylobacter spp. from a season-long “farm-to-fork” study of all natural, antibiotic-free, pasture-raised broiler flocks in the southeastern united states

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The transmission of Campylobacter spp. and baseline level of antimicrobial resistance associated with these organisms has significant implications for environmental, animal, and human health. One focus is the use of antibiotics in animal agriculture and the effects on antibiotic resistant bacterial ...

  13. Production of a bacteriocin by a poultry derived Campylobacter jejuni isolate with antimicrobial activity against Clostridium perfringens and other Gram positive bacteria.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have purified a bacteriocin peptide (termed CUV-3), produced by a poultry cecal isolate of Campylobacter jejuni (strain CUV-3) with inhibitory activity against Gram positive bacteria including Clostridium perfringens (38 strains), Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Listeria mon...

  14. Antimicrobial Susceptibilities of Aeromonas spp. Isolated from Environmental Sources▿

    PubMed Central

    Huddleston, Jennifer R.; Zak, John C.; Jeter, Randall M.

    2006-01-01

    Aeromonas spp. are ubiquitous aquatic bacteria that cause serious infections in both poikilothermic and endothermic animals, including humans. Clinical isolates have shown an increasing incidence of antibiotic and antimicrobial drug resistance since the widespread use of antibiotics began. A total of 282 Aeromonas pure cultures were isolated from both urban and rural playa lakes in the vicinity of Lubbock, Texas, and several rivers in West Texas and New Mexico. Of these, at least 104 were subsequently confirmed to be independent isolates. The 104 isolates were identified by Biolog and belonged to 11 different species. The MICs of six metals, one metalloid, five antibiotics, and two antimicrobial drugs were determined. All aeromonads were sensitive to chromate, cobalt, copper, nickel, zinc, cefuroxime, kanamycin, nalidixic acid, ofloxacin, tetracycline, and sulfamethoxazole. Low incidences of trimethoprim resistance, mercury resistance, and arsenite resistance were found. Dual resistances were found in 5 of the 104 Aeromonas isolates. Greater numbers of resistant isolates were obtained from samples taken in March versus July 2002 and from sediment versus water. Plasmids were isolated from selected strains of the arsenite- and mercury-resistant organisms and were transformed into Escherichia coli XL1-Blue MRF′. Acquisition of the resistance phenotypes by the new host showed that these resistance genes were carried on the plasmids. Mercury resistance was found to be encoded on a conjugative plasmid. Despite the low incidence of resistant isolates, the six playa lakes and three rivers that were sampled in this study can be considered a reservoir for antimicrobial resistance genes. PMID:16950901

  15. Comparative genomics of Campylobacter concisus isolates reveals genetic diversity and provides insights into disease association

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In spite of its association with gastroenteritis and inflammatory bowel diseases, the isolation of Campylobacter concisus from both diseased and healthy individuals has led to controversy regarding its role as an intestinal pathogen. One proposed reason for this is the presence of high genetic diversity among the genomes of C. concisus strains. Results In this study the genomes of six C. concisus strains were sequenced, assembled and annotated including two strains isolated from Crohn’s disease patients (UNSW2 and UNSW3), three from gastroenteritis patients (UNSW1, UNSWCS and ATCC 51562) and one from a healthy individual (ATCC 51561). The genomes of C. concisus BAA-1457 and UNSWCD, available from NCBI, were included in subsequent comparative genomic analyses. The Pan and Core genomes for the sequenced C. concisus strains consisted of 3254 and 1556 protein coding genes, respectively. Conclusion Genes were identified with specific conservation in C. concisus strains grouped by phenotypes such as invasiveness, adherence, motility and diseased states. Phylogenetic trees based on ribosomal RNA sequences and concatenated host-related pathways for the eight C. concisus strains were generated using the neighbor-joining method, of which the 16S rRNA gene and peptidoglycan biosynthesis grouped the C. concisus strains according to their pathogenic phenotypes. Furthermore, 25 non-synonymous amino acid changes with 14 affecting functional domains, were identified within proteins of conserved host-related pathways, which had possible associations with the pathogenic potential of C. concisus strains. Finally, the genomes of the eight C. concisus strains were compared to the nine available genomes of the well-established pathogen Campylobacter jejuni, which identified several important differences in the respiration pathways of these two species. Our findings indicate that C. concisus strains are genetically diverse, and suggest the genomes of this bacterium contain

  16. Prevalence, virulence, and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in white stork Ciconia ciconia in Poland.

    PubMed

    Szczepańska, Bernadeta; Kamiński, Piotr; Andrzejewska, Małgorzata; Śpica, Dorota; Kartanas, Edmund; Ulrich, Werner; Jerzak, Leszek; Kasprzak, Mariusz; Bocheński, Marcin; Klawe, Jacek J

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of white stork Ciconia ciconia as a potential reservoir of Campylobacter spp. Antimicrobial resistance and the presence of putative virulence genes of the isolates were also examined. A total of 398 white stork chicks sampled in Western Poland in habitats with high density of breeding were examined. Rectal swabs were collected during breeding season 2009-2012 from storks developing in a relatively pure environment (Odra meadows), in polluted areas (a copper mining-smelting complex), and in suburbs. Of the anal swabs collected, 7.6% were positive for Campylobacter among chicks (5.3% samples positive for C. jejuni and 2.3% samples positive for C. coli). Samples from polluted areas had the highest prevalence of Campylobacter (12.2%). The prevalence of resistance among C. jejuni and C. coli isolates from young storks was as follows: to ciprofloxacin (52.4%, 44.4%), and to tetracycline (19%, 77.8%). All of the analyzed isolates were susceptible to macrolides. The resistance to both classes of antibiotics was found in the 23.3% of Campylobacter spp. All Campylobacter spp. isolates had cadF gene and flaA gene responsible for adherence and motility. CdtB gene associated with toxin production was present in 88.9% of C. coli isolates and 57.1% of C. jejuni isolates. The iam marker was found more often in C. coli strains (55.6%) compared to C. jejuni isolates (42.9%). Our results confirm the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in the white stork in natural conditions and, because it lives in open farmlands with access to marshy wetlands, the environmental sources such as water reservoirs and soil-water can be contaminated from white stork feces and the pathogens can be widely disseminated. We can thus conclude that Campylobacter spp. may easily be transmitted to waterfowl, other birds, and humans via its environmental sources and/or by immediate contact. PMID:25456607

  17. Multilocus Sequence Typing and Antimicrobial Resistance of Campylobacter jejuni Isolated from Dairy Calves in Austria

    PubMed Central

    Klein-Jöbstl, Daniela; Sofka, Dmitri; Iwersen, Michael; Drillich, Marc; Hilbert, Friederike

    2016-01-01

    Human campylobacteriosis is primarily associated with poultry but also cattle. In this study, 55 Campylobacter jejuni strains isolated from 382 dairy calves’ feces were differentiated by multilocus sequence typing and tested for antimicrobial resistance. The most prevalent sequence type (ST) was ST883 (20.0%), followed by ST48 (14.5%), and ST50 (9.1%). In contrast to ST48 and ST50, ST883 has rarely been described in cattle previously. Furthermore, risk factor analysis was performed for the presence of the most prevalent STs in these calves. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the type of farm (organic vs. conventional) and calf housing (place, and individual vs. group) were identified as significantly (p < 0.05) associated with the presence of ST883 in calves, and ST50 was associated with calf diarrhea. Antimicrobial resistance was detected in 58.2% of the isolates. Most of the resistant isolates (81.3%) were resistant to more than one antimicrobial. Most frequently, resistance to ciprofloxacin (49.1%), followed by nalidixic acid (42.8%), and tetracycline (14.5%) was observed. The results of the present study support the hypothesis that dairy calves may serve as a potential reservoir for C. jejuni and pose a risk for transmission, including antimicrobial resistant isolates to the environment and to humans. PMID:26870027

  18. Multilocus Sequence Typing and Antimicrobial Resistance of Campylobacter jejuni Isolated from Dairy Calves in Austria.

    PubMed

    Klein-Jöbstl, Daniela; Sofka, Dmitri; Iwersen, Michael; Drillich, Marc; Hilbert, Friederike

    2016-01-01

    Human campylobacteriosis is primarily associated with poultry but also cattle. In this study, 55 Campylobacter jejuni strains isolated from 382 dairy calves' feces were differentiated by multilocus sequence typing and tested for antimicrobial resistance. The most prevalent sequence type (ST) was ST883 (20.0%), followed by ST48 (14.5%), and ST50 (9.1%). In contrast to ST48 and ST50, ST883 has rarely been described in cattle previously. Furthermore, risk factor analysis was performed for the presence of the most prevalent STs in these calves. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the type of farm (organic vs. conventional) and calf housing (place, and individual vs. group) were identified as significantly (p < 0.05) associated with the presence of ST883 in calves, and ST50 was associated with calf diarrhea. Antimicrobial resistance was detected in 58.2% of the isolates. Most of the resistant isolates (81.3%) were resistant to more than one antimicrobial. Most frequently, resistance to ciprofloxacin (49.1%), followed by nalidixic acid (42.8%), and tetracycline (14.5%) was observed. The results of the present study support the hypothesis that dairy calves may serve as a potential reservoir for C. jejuni and pose a risk for transmission, including antimicrobial resistant isolates to the environment and to humans. PMID:26870027

  19. Source Attribution of Human Campylobacter Isolates by MLST and Fla-Typing and Association of Genotypes with Quinolone Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Kittl, Sonja; Heckel, Gerald; Korczak, Bożena M.; Kuhnert, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Campylobacteriosis is the most frequent zoonosis in developed countries and various domestic animals can function as reservoir for the main pathogens Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli. In the present study we compared population structures of 730 C. jejuni and C. coli from human cases, 610 chicken, 159 dog, 360 pig and 23 cattle isolates collected between 2001 and 2012 in Switzerland. All isolates had been typed with multi locus sequence typing (MLST) and flaB-typing and their genotypic resistance to quinolones was determined. We used complementary approaches by testing for differences between isolates from different hosts with the proportion similarity as well as the fixation index and by attributing the source of the human isolates with Bayesian assignment using the software STRUCTURE. Analyses were done with MLST and flaB data in parallel and both typing methods were tested for associations of genotypes with quinolone resistance. Results obtained with MLST and flaB data corresponded remarkably well, both indicating chickens as the main source for human infection for both Campylobacter species. Based on MLST, 70.9% of the human cases were attributed to chickens, 19.3% to cattle, 8.6% to dogs and 1.2% to pigs. Furthermore we found a host independent association between sequence type (ST) and quinolone resistance. The most notable were ST-45, all isolates of which were susceptible, while for ST-464 all were resistant. PMID:24244747

  20. Source attribution of human Campylobacter isolates by MLST and fla-typing and association of genotypes with quinolone resistance.

    PubMed

    Kittl, Sonja; Heckel, Gerald; Korczak, Bożena M; Kuhnert, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Campylobacteriosis is the most frequent zoonosis in developed countries and various domestic animals can function as reservoir for the main pathogens Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli. In the present study we compared population structures of 730 C. jejuni and C. coli from human cases, 610 chicken, 159 dog, 360 pig and 23 cattle isolates collected between 2001 and 2012 in Switzerland. All isolates had been typed with multi locus sequence typing (MLST) and flaB-typing and their genotypic resistance to quinolones was determined. We used complementary approaches by testing for differences between isolates from different hosts with the proportion similarity as well as the fixation index and by attributing the source of the human isolates with Bayesian assignment using the software STRUCTURE. Analyses were done with MLST and flaB data in parallel and both typing methods were tested for associations of genotypes with quinolone resistance. Results obtained with MLST and flaB data corresponded remarkably well, both indicating chickens as the main source for human infection for both Campylobacter species. Based on MLST, 70.9% of the human cases were attributed to chickens, 19.3% to cattle, 8.6% to dogs and 1.2% to pigs. Furthermore we found a host independent association between sequence type (ST) and quinolone resistance. The most notable were ST-45, all isolates of which were susceptible, while for ST-464 all were resistant. PMID:24244747

  1. Minimum inhibitory concentration distribution in environmental Legionella spp. isolates.

    PubMed

    Sandalakis, Vassilios; Chochlakis, Dimosthenis; Goniotakis, Ioannis; Tselentis, Yannis; Psaroulaki, Anna

    2014-12-01

    In Greece standard tests are performed in the watering and cooling systems of hotels' units either as part of the surveillance scheme or following human infection. The purpose of this study was to establish the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) distributions of environmental Legionella isolates for six antimicrobials commonly used for the treatment of Legionella infections, by MIC-test methodology. Water samples were collected from 2004 to 2011 from 124 hotels from the four prefectures of Crete (Greece). Sixty-eight (68) Legionella isolates, comprising L. pneumophila serogroups 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 8, 12, 13, 15, L. anisa, L. rubrilucens, L. maceachernii, L. quinlivanii, L. oakridgensis, and L. taurinensis, were included in the study. MIC-tests were performed on buffered charcoal yeast extract with α-ketoglutarate, L-cysteine, and ferric pyrophosphate. The MICs were read after 2 days of incubation at 36 ± 1 °C at 2.5% CO2. A large distribution in MICs was recorded for each species and each antibiotic tested. Rifampicin proved to be the most potent antibiotic regardless of the Legionella spp.; tetracycline appeared to have the least activity on our environmental isolates. The MIC-test approach is an easy, although not so cost-effective, way to determine MICs in Legionella spp. These data should be kept in mind especially since these Legionella species may cause human disease. PMID:25473976

  2. Cryptococcus spp isolated from dust microhabitat in Brazilian libraries

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Cryptococcus spp is currently composed of encapsulated yeasts of cosmopolitan distribution, including the etiological agents of cryptococcosis. The fungus are found mainly in substrates of animal and plant origin. Human infection occurs through inhalation of spores present in the environment. Methods Eighty-four swab collections were performed on dust found on books in three libraries in the city of Cuiabá, state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. The material was seeded in Sabouraud agar and then observed for characteristics compatible with colonies with a creamy to mucous aspect; the material was then isolated in birdseed (Niger) agar and cultivated at a temperature of 37°C for 5 to 7 days. Identification of isolated colonies was performed by microscopic observation in fresh preparations dyed with India ink, additional tests performed on CGB (L-canavanine glycine bromothymol blue), urea broth, and carbohydrate assimilation tests (auxanogram). Results Of the 84 samples collected from book dust, 18 (21.4%) were positive for Cryptococcus spp totalizing 41 UFC’s. The most frequently isolated species was C. gattii 15 (36.6%); followed by C. terreus, 12 (29.3%); C. luteolus 4 (9.8%); C. neoformans, and C. uniguttulatus 3 (7.3%), and C. albidus and C. humiculus with 2 (4.6%) of the isolates. Conclusion The high biodiversity of the yeasts of the Cryptococcus genus, isolated from different environmental sources in urban areas of Brazil suggests the possibility of individuals whose immune systems have been compromised or even healthy individuals coming into sources of fungal propagules on a daily bases throughout their lives. This study demonstrates the acquisition possible of cryptococcosis infection from dust in libraries. PMID:22682392

  3. Genotypes and Antibiotic Resistances of Campylobacter jejuni Isolates from Cattle and Pigeons in Dairy Farms

    PubMed Central

    Bianchini, Valentina; Luini, Mario; Borella, Laura; Parisi, Antonio; Jonas, Romie; Kittl, Sonja; Kuhnert, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is the most common food-borne zoonotic pathogen causing human gastroenteritis worldwide and has assumed more importance in Italy following the increased consumption of raw milk. Our objectives were to get an overview of genotypes and antibiotic resistances in C. jejuni isolated from milk, cattle feces, and pigeons in dairy herds of Northern Italy. flaB-typing was applied to 78 C. jejuni isolates, previously characterized by Multi-Locus Sequence Typing, and genotypic resistances towards macrolides and quinolones based on point mutations in the 23S rRNA and gyrA genes, respectively, were determined. flaB-typing revealed 22 different types with one of them being novel and was useful to further differentiate strains with an identical Sequence Type (ST) and to identify a pigeon-specific clone. Macrolide resistance was not found, while quinolone resistance was detected in 23.3% of isolates. A relationship between specific genotypes and antibiotic resistance was observed, but was only significant for the Clonal Complex 206. Our data confirm that pigeons do not play a role in the spread of C. jejuni among cattle and they are not responsible for milk contamination. A relevant number of bulk milk samples were contaminated by C. jejuni resistant to quinolones, representing a possible source of human resistant strains. PMID:25026083

  4. Genotypes and antibiotic resistances of Campylobacter jejuni isolates from cattle and pigeons in dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Bianchini, Valentina; Luini, Mario; Borella, Laura; Parisi, Antonio; Jonas, Romie; Kittl, Sonja; Kuhnert, Peter

    2014-07-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is the most common food-borne zoonotic pathogen causing human gastroenteritis worldwide and has assumed more importance in Italy following the increased consumption of raw milk. Our objectives were to get an overview of genotypes and antibiotic resistances in C. jejuni isolated from milk, cattle feces, and pigeons in dairy herds of Northern Italy. flaB-typing was applied to 78 C. jejuni isolates, previously characterized by Multi-Locus Sequence Typing, and genotypic resistances towards macrolides and quinolones based on point mutations in the 23S rRNA and gyrA genes, respectively, were determined. flaB-typing revealed 22 different types with one of them being novel and was useful to further differentiate strains with an identical Sequence Type (ST) and to identify a pigeon-specific clone. Macrolide resistance was not found, while quinolone resistance was detected in 23.3% of isolates. A relationship between specific genotypes and antibiotic resistance was observed, but was only significant for the Clonal Complex 206. Our data confirm that pigeons do not play a role in the spread of C. jejuni among cattle and they are not responsible for milk contamination. A relevant number of bulk milk samples were contaminated by C. jejuni resistant to quinolones, representing a possible source of human resistant strains. PMID:25026083

  5. Genetic Diversity and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Campylobacter jejuni Isolates Associated with Sheep Abortion in the United States and Great Britain

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zuowei; Sippy, Rachel; Plummer, Paul; Vidal, Ana; Newell, Diane; Zhang, Qijing

    2014-01-01

    Campylobacter infection is a leading cause of ovine abortion worldwide. Historically, genetically diverse Campylobacter fetus and Campylobacter jejuni strains have been implicated in such infections, but since 2003 a highly pathogenic, tetracycline-resistant C. jejuni clone (named SA) has become the predominant cause of sheep abortions in the United States. Whether clone SA was present in earlier U.S. abortion isolates (before 2000) and is associated with sheep abortions outside the United States are unknown. Here, we analyzed 54 C. jejuni isolates collected from U.S. sheep abortions at different time periods and compared them with 42 C. jejuni isolates associated with sheep abortion during 2002 to 2008 in Great Britain, using multilocus sequence typing (MLST), pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and array-based comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). Although clone SA (ST-8) was present in the early U.S. isolates, it was not as tetracycline resistant (19% versus 100%) or predominant (66% versus 91%) as it was in the late U.S isolates. In contrast, C. jejuni isolates from Great Britain were genetically diverse, comprising 19 STs and lacking ST-8. PFGE and CGH analyses of representative strains further confirmed the population structure of the abortion isolates. Notably, the Great Britain isolates were essentially susceptible to most tested antibiotics, including tetracycline, while the late U.S. isolates were universally resistant to this antibiotic, which could be explained by the common use of tetracyclines for control of sheep abortions in the United States but not in Great Britain. These results suggest that the dominance of clone SA in sheep abortions is unique to the United States, and the use of tetracyclines may have facilitated selection of this highly pathogenic clone. PMID:24648552

  6. Determination of the incidence of Salmonella spp., Campylobacter jejuni, and Clostridium perfringens in wild birds near broiler chicken houses by sampling intestinal droppings.

    PubMed

    Craven, S E; Stern, N J; Line, E; Bailey, J S; Cox, N A; Fedorka-Cray, P

    2000-01-01

    Several methods were evaluated for collecting fecal and intestinal samples from wild birds found near broiler chicken houses. A few intestinal samples and cloacal swabs were obtained from European starlings and house sparrows. Most of the samples collected consisted of wild bird droppings found on or near the houses. Samples were collected from each of four farms of a broiler integrator during a grow-out cycle: a cycle in the summer for farm A, fall for farm B, and spring, summer, fall, and winter for farms C and D. Of the 25 wild bird intestinal and fecal samples collected from a broiler house on farm A during a grow-out cycle in July-August 1997, 24% were positive for Salmonella spp., 4% for Campylobacter jejuni, and 28% for Clostridium perfringens. Of the nine fecal samples collected from broiler house B in a grow-out cycle in September-November 1997, 33% were positive for Salmonella spp., 11% for C. jejuni, and 22% for C. perfringens. For farms C and D, of the 23 samples collected in March-April 1998, 0 were positive for Salmonella spp., 11% for C. jejuni, and 52% for C. perfringens; of 27 samples collected in June-July 1998, 4% were positive for Salmonella spp., 0 for C. jejuni, and 13% for C. perfringens; of 24 samples collected in August-October 1998, 14% were positive for Salmonella spp., 5% for C. jejuni, and 4% for C. perfringens; of 14 samples collected December 1998-January 1999, 0 were positive for Salmonella, 50% for C. jejuni, and 14% for C. perfringens. The incidence of these bacterial enteropathogens in wild birds near the broiler chicken houses suggests that wild birds that gain entry to poultry grow-out houses have the potential to transmit these pathogens to poultry. PMID:11007026

  7. Campylobacter epidemiology from breeders to their progeny in Eastern Spain.

    PubMed

    Ingresa-Capaccioni, S; Jiménez-Trigos, E; Marco-Jiménez, F; Catalá, P; Vega, S; Marin, C

    2016-03-01

    While horizontal transmission is a route clearly linked to the spread of Campylobacter at the farm level, few studies support the transmission of Campylobacter spp. from breeder flocks to their offspring. Thus, the present study was carried out to investigate the possibility of vertical transmission. Breeders were monitored from the time of housing day-old chicks, then throughout the laying period (0 to 60 wk) and throughout their progeny (broiler fattening, 1 to 42 d) until slaughter. All samples were analyzed according with official method ISO 10272:2006. Results revealed that on breeder farms, Campylobacter isolation started from wk 16 and reached its peak at wk 26, with 57.0% and 93.2% of positive birds, respectively. After this point, the rate of positive birds decreased slightly to 86.0% at 60 wk. However, in broiler production all day-old chicks were found negative for Campylobacter spp, and the bacteria was first isolated at d 14 of age (5.0%), with a significant increase in detection during the fattening period with 62% of Campylobacter positive animals at the end of the production cycle. Moreover, non-positive sample was determined from environmental sources. These results could be explained because Campylobacter may be in a low concentration or in a non-culturable form, as there were several studies that successfully detected Campylobacter DNA, but failed to culture. This form can survive in the environment and infect successive flocks; consequently, further studies are needed to develop more modern, practical, cost-effective and suitable techniques for routine diagnosis. PMID:26628341

  8. Inverse trends of Campylobacter and Salmonella in Swiss surveillance data, 1988-2013.

    PubMed

    Schmutz, Claudia; Mäusezahl, Daniel; Jost, Marianne; Baumgartner, Andreas; Mäusezahl-Feuz, Mirjam

    2016-01-01

    Clinical isolates of Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella spp. are notifiable in Switzerland. In 1995, Campylobacter replaced Salmonella as the most frequently reported food-borne pathogen. We analysed notification data (1988-2013) for these two bacterial, gastrointestinal pathogens of public health importance in Switzerland. Notification rates were calculated using data for the average resident population. Between 1988 and 2013, notified campylobacteriosis cases doubled from 3,127 to 7,499, while Salmonella case notifications decreased, from 4,291 to 1,267. Case notifications for both pathogens peaked during summer months. Campylobacter infections showed a distinct winter peak, particularly in the 2011/12, 2012/13 and 2013/14 winter seasons. Campylobacter case notifications showed more frequent infection in males than females in all but 20-24 year-olds. Among reported cases, patients' average age increased for campylobacteriosis but not for salmonellosis. The inverse trends observed in case notifications for the two pathogens indicate an increase in campylobacteriosis cases. It appears unlikely that changes in patients' health-seeking or physicians' testing behaviour would affect Campylobacter and Salmonella case notifications differently. The implementation of legal microbiological criteria for foodstuff was likely an effective means of controlling human salmonellosis. Such criteria should be decreed for Campylobacter, creating incentives for producers to lower Campylobacter prevalence in poultry. PMID:26898102

  9. Fluoroquinolone resistance detection in Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni by Luminex xMAP technology.

    PubMed

    Barco, Lisa; Lettini, Antonia Anna; Dalla Pozza, Maria Cristina; Ramon, Elena; Fasolato, Manuela; Ricci, Antonia

    2010-09-01

    The proportion of Campylobacter spp. isolates that are resistant to fluoroquinolones, the drugs of choice for campylobacteriosis, has been increasing worldwide. We developed an innovative method based on a Luminex xMAP DNA suspension array that allows the identification of Campylobacter species and, simultaneously, the detection of the most common point mutation in the gyrA gene (substitution from threonine 86 to isoleucine 86) that is responsible for fluoroquinolone resistance. Ninety-six Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni isolates collected from turkeys were first investigated by microdilution test to characterize the antimicrobial resistance patterns. The isolates, amplified for the quinolone resistance determining region of the gyrA gene, were then tested using Luminex suspension array. The reliability of the method was demonstrated by the total concordance between the results obtained using Luminex and those of the sequencing of gyrA polymerase chain reaction products. The genotypic characterization of fluoroquinolone resistance using Luminex was also consistent with the data on phenotypical resistance obtained by microdilution test. The results of this study strongly support the potential of Luminex xMAP technology as an efficient molecular method for the rapid and accurate identification of C. coli and C. jejuni isolates and the characterization of the major determinant of fluoroquinolone resistance. PMID:20500084

  10. Colonization of Campylobacter spp. in Broiler Chickens and Laying Hens Reared in Tropical Climates with Low-Biosecurity Housing

    PubMed Central

    Kalupahana, R. S.; Kottawatta, K. S. A.; Kanankege, K. S. T.; van Bergen, M. A. P.; Abeynayake, P.

    2013-01-01

    The onset and prevalence of Campylobacter colonization in broilers and layers at commercial farms with low biosecurity in tropical climates were tested. Despite the presence of positive animals at the same farms, the broiler flocks tested negative until, on average, 21 days. Prelaying flocks showed a higher prevalence than laying flocks. PMID:23087035