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Sample records for canada geological survey

  1. The Geological Survey of Canada: Energy needs of tomorrow through collaboration today

    SciTech Connect

    Prior, D.B.; Mossop, G.D.

    1995-08-01

    Canada`s national centre for geoscience research and information is the Geological Survey of Canada (GSC). Two of its divisions, the Institute of Sedimentary and Petroleum Geology and the Atlantic Geoscience Centre work closely with the energy exploration and production industry and universities. One successful GSC innovation is the Industrial Farmers Program that promotes cost-shared projects on geoscience problems of mutual interest. An example is the Hydrocarbon Charge Modelling Project which has struck a series of mutually beneficial alliances among the GSC, oil and gas companies and universities. The GSC`s high quality skills in basin analysis, including sequence stratigraphy, biostratigraphy, structure and tectonics, petroleum geology, geophysics, geochemistry and environmental work are underpinned by vast data holdings on Canada`s mature Western Canada Sedimentary Basin and onshore/offshore frontier basins. Laboratory facilities include laser ablation ICP-mass spectrometry, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, Rock-Eval/TOC, pyrolysis and thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction and fluorescence, scanning electron microscopy, organic and inorganic petrology and paleontology processing. Sophisticated computing facilities provide capabilities in basin and crustal modelling, 2- and 3-D seismic interpretation and seismic processing and computerised cartography. Solutions to the exploration, production and environmental problems faced by a cyclical business sector are mom efficiently sought through cooperative research by bringing together the diverse capabilities of industry, government and universities. Through such broad, collaborative partnerships society will ensure the economic and environmentally sustainable development of its future energy needs.

  2. 77 FR 19032 - Geological Survey

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-29

    ... Geological Survey Announcement of National Geospatial Advisory Committee Meeting AGENCY: U.S. Geological Survey, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The National Geospatial Advisory Committee (NGAC... advance. Please register by contacting Arista Maher at the U.S. Geological Survey (703-648-6283,...

  3. OECD Economic Surveys: Canada 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2012

    2012-01-01

    Canada weathered the global economic crisis well, mainly reflecting sustained growth in domestic pending, and the economy is continuing to grow despite the persistence of international turbulence, most recently stemming from the euro zone sovereign debt crisis. In Canada's case, several factors are acting in its favour. Federal fiscal plans are…

  4. Minnesota Geological Survey may close

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bush, Susan

    The future of the Minnesota Geological Survey is up in the air until January 1992, when the state legislature reconvenes. On June 4, Governor Arne H. Carlson vetoed a line-item of the 2-year University of Minnesota budget that contains funding for the MGS. If funds are not restored by special legislative appropriation and approved by the governor during the spring of 1992, MGS will be abolished effective July 1992.The possibility of closing the survey reflects a financial decision, according to Robert A. Schroeder, assistant to the governor. It is not based on the usefulness of the survey's work. “The governor's objective with his line-item vetoes was to control overall spending, not to target specific programs,” he said. Since MGS is university-affiliated, it is funded under Minnesota's Higher Education bill, rather than as a state agency. Because of overspending in 1991, the state has had to cut back funds, and the university is one area hit by budget cuts. The university may still choose to fund the program and has the flexibility to reallocate funds within the system.

  5. Results of magnetic HGI and radiometric surveys in W. Canada

    SciTech Connect

    LeSchack, L.A.

    1997-05-19

    This article presents four case histories in which ground-based magnetic horizontal gradient intensity (HGI) and radiometric surveys were used in Western Canada for cost-effective geochemical exploration for hydrocarbons. The authors has developed these two surface exploration techniques from published studies and adapted them for use on the prairies the past 7 years. These surveys are used in conjunction with the usual geologic and seismic studies for: (1) evaluating prospects and land; (2) verifying seismic anomalies and inexpensively locating areas for conducting expensive 3D seismic surveys. Occasionally, as in two of the case histories discussed, these surveys were used successfully as stand-alone exploration methods where seismic exploration is not effective. The HGI and radiometric surveys measure, by geophysical methods, those effects associated with geochemical alterations due to vertical microseepage of hydrocarbons. The total cost, including permitting, data acquisition, data processing, and interpretation of the combination HGI and radiometric surveys is about 15% the total cost of a 3D seismic survey. Because of this, the author finds them an attractive and rapid survey adjunct to traditional exploration. They substantially reduce finding costs and significantly raise the probability of financial success.

  6. Efficient Geological Modelling of Large AEM Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bach, Torben; Martlev Pallesen, Tom; Jørgensen, Flemming; Lundh Gulbrandsen, Mats; Mejer Hansen, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Combining geological expert knowledge with geophysical observations into a final 3D geological model is, in most cases, not a straight forward process. It typically involves many types of data and requires both an understanding of the data and the geological target. When dealing with very large areas, such as modelling of large AEM surveys, the manual task for the geologist to correctly evaluate and properly utilise all the data available in the survey area, becomes overwhelming. In the ERGO project (Efficient High-Resolution Geological Modelling) we address these issues and propose a new modelling methodology enabling fast and consistent modelling of very large areas. The vision of the project is to build a user friendly expert system that enables the combination of very large amounts of geological and geophysical data with geological expert knowledge. This is done in an "auto-pilot" type functionality, named Smart Interpretation, designed to aid the geologist in the interpretation process. The core of the expert system is a statistical model that describes the relation between data and geological interpretation made by a geological expert. This facilitates fast and consistent modelling of very large areas. It will enable the construction of models with high resolution as the system will "learn" the geology of an area directly from interpretations made by a geological expert, and instantly apply it to all hard data in the survey area, ensuring the utilisation of all the data available in the geological model. Another feature is that the statistical model the system creates for one area can be used in another area with similar data and geology. This feature can be useful as an aid to an untrained geologist to build a geological model, guided by the experienced geologist way of interpretation, as quantified by the expert system in the core statistical model. In this project presentation we provide some examples of the problems we are aiming to address in the project

  7. Crustal-scale geological and thermal models of the Beaufort-Mackenzie Basin, Arctic Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sippel, Judith; Scheck-Wenderoth, Magdalena; Kröger, Karsten; Lewerenz, Björn

    2010-05-01

    The Beaufort-Mackenzie Basin is a petroliferous province in northwest Arctic Canada and one of the best-known segments of the Arctic Ocean margin due to decades of exploration. Our study is part of the programme MOM (Methane On the Move), which aims to quantify the methane contribution from natural petroleum systems to the atmosphere over geological times. Models reflecting the potential of a sedimentary basin to release methane require well-assessed boundary conditions such as the crustal structure and large-scale temperature variation. We focus on the crustal-scale thermal field of the Beaufort-Mackenzie Basin. This Basin has formed on a post-rift, continental margin which, during the Late Cretaceous and Tertiary, developed into the foreland of the North American Cordilleran foldbelt providing space for the accumulation of up to 16 km of foreland deposits. We present a 3D geological model which integrates the present topography, depth maps of Upper Cretaceous and Tertiary horizons (Kroeger et al., 2008, 2009), tops of formations derived from interpreted 2D reflection seismic lines and 284 boreholes (released by the National Energy Board of Canada), and the sequence stratigraphic framework established by previous studies (e.g. Dixon et al., 1996). To determine the position and geometry of the crust-mantle boundary, an isostatic calculation (Airýs model) is applied to the geological model. We present different crustal-scale models combining isostatic modelling, published deep reflection and refraction seismic lines (e.g. Stephenson et al., 1994; O'Leary et al., 1995), and calculations of the 3D conductive thermal field. References: Dixon, J., 1996. Geological Atlas of the Beaufort-Mackenzie Area, Geological Survey of Canada Miscellaneous Report, 59, Ottawa, 173 pp. Kroeger, K.F., Ondrak, R., di Primio, R. and Horsfield, B., 2008. A three-dimensional insight into the Mackenzie Basin (Canada): Implications for the thermal history and hydrocarbon generation potential

  8. US Geological Survey customers speak out

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gillespie, S.; Snyder, G.

    1995-01-01

    Provides results of a customer survey carried out in 1994 by the US Geological Survey. Uses of cartographic products are classified, as are application areas, accuracy satisfaction, media, Digital Line Graph requirements in update, and frequency of product use. USGS responses and plans for the future are noted. -M.Blakemore

  9. Geologic Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the West Greenland-East Canada Province

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, Christopher J.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently assessed the potential for undiscovered oil and gas resources of the West Greenland-East Canada Province as part of the USGS Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal program. The province lies in the offshore area between western Greenland and eastern Canada and includes Baffin Bay, Davis Strait, Lancaster Sound, and Nares Strait west of and including part of Kane Basin. A series of major tectonic events led to the formation of several distinct structural domains that are the geologic basis for defining five assessment units (AU) in the province, all of which are within the Mesozoic-Cenozoic Composite Total Petroleum System (TPS). Potential petroleum source rocks within the TPS include strata of Ordovician, Early and Late Cretaceous, and Paleogene ages. The five AUs defined for this study-the Eurekan Structures AU, Northwest Greenland Rifted Margin AU, Northeast Canada Rifted Margin AU, Baffin Bay Basin AU, and the Greater Ungava Fault Zone AU-encompass the entire province and were assessed for undiscovered, technically recoverable resources.

  10. National Association of Geology Teachers--U.S. Geological Survey Cooperative Summer Field Training Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedman, Jacob

    1977-01-01

    Provides detailed procedures and policies concerning the National Association of Geology Teachers--U.S. Geological Survey Cooperative Summer Field Training Program to provide professional geologic field experiences for undergraduate Geology majors. (SL)

  11. Canada First: The 2009 Survey of International Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphries, Jennifer, Ed.; Knight-Grofe, Janine, Ed.; Klabunde, Niels, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    The Canadian Bureau for International Education (CBIE) regularly evaluates the experience of international students in Canada through a benchmarking survey. Canada First 2009 represents the fourth time CBIE has conducted this research. Previous editions appeared in 1988, 1999 and 2004. This year's survey used a revised questionnaire similar…

  12. Geoscientific Site Evaluation Approach for Canada's Deep Geological Repository for Used Nuclear Fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Rico Castejon, M.; Hirschorn, S.; Ben Belfadhel, M.

    2015-12-01

    The Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO) is responsible for implementing Adaptive Phased Management, the approach selected by the Government of Canada for long-term management of used nuclear fuel generated by Canadian nuclear reactors. The ultimate objective of APM is the centralized containment and isolation of Canada's used nuclear fuel in a Deep Geological Repository in a suitable crystalline or sedimentary rock formation. In May 2010, the NWMO published and initiated a nine-step site selection process to find an informed and willing community to host a deep geological repository for Canada's used nuclear fuel. The site selection process is designed to address a broad range of technical and social, economic and cultural factors. The site evaluation process includes three main technical evaluation steps: Initial Screenings; Preliminary Assessments; and Detailed Site Characterizations, to assess the suitability of candidate areas in a stepwise manner over a period of many years. By the end of 2012, twenty two communities had expressed interest in learning more about the project. As of July 2015, nine communities remain in the site selection process. To date (July 2015), NWMO has completed Initial Screenings for the 22 communities that expressed interest, and has completed the first phase of Preliminary Assessments (desktop) for 20 of the communities. Phase 2 of the Preliminary Assessments has been initiated in a number of communities, with field activities such as high-resolution airborne geophysical surveys and geological mapping. This paper describes the approach, methods and criteria being used to assess the geoscientific suitability of communities currently involved in the site selection process.

  13. Canada's Deep Geological Repository For Used Nuclear Fuel -The Geoscientific Site Evaluation Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirschorn, S.; Ben Belfadhel, M.; Blyth, A.; DesRoches, A. J.; McKelvie, J. R. M.; Parmenter, A.; Sanchez-Rico Castejon, M.; Urrutia-Bustos, A.; Vorauer, A.

    2014-12-01

    The Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO) is responsible for implementing Adaptive Phased Management, the approach selected by the Government of Canada for long-term management of used nuclear fuel generated by Canadian nuclear reactors. In May 2010, the NWMO published and initiated a nine-step site selection process to find an informed and willing community to host a deep geological repository for Canada's used nuclear fuel. The site selection process is designed to address a broad range of technical and social, economic and cultural factors. The suitability of candidate areas will be assessed in a stepwise manner over a period of many years and include three main steps: Initial Screenings; Preliminary Assessments; and Detailed Site Characterizations. The Preliminary Assessment is conducted in two phases. NWMO has completed Phase 1 preliminary assessments for the first eight communities that entered into this step. While the Phase 1 desktop geoscientific assessments showed that each of the eight communities contains general areas that have the potential to satisfy the geoscientific safety requirements for hosting a deep geological repository, the assessment identified varying degrees of geoscientific complexity and uncertainty between communities, reflecting their different geological settings and structural histories. Phase 2 activities will include a sequence of high-resolution airborne geophysical surveys and focused geological field mapping to ground-truth lithology and structural features, followed by limited deep borehole drilling and testing. These activities will further evaluate the site's ability to meet the safety functions that a site would need to ultimately satisfy in order to be considered suitable. This paper provides an update on the site evaluation process and describes the approach, methods and criteria that are being used to conduct the geoscientific Preliminary Assessments.

  14. Quaternary Geologic Framework of the St. Clair River between Michigan and Ontario, Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foster, David S.; Denny, Jane F.

    2009-01-01

    Concern about the effect of geomorphic changes in the St. Clair River on water levels in the Upper Great Lakes resulted in the need for information on the geologic framework of the river. A geophysical survey of the Upper St. Clair River between Port Huron, MI, and Sarnia, Ontario, Canada, was conducted to determine the Quaternary geologic framework of the region. Previously available and new sediment samples and photographic and video data support the interpretation of the seismic stratigraphy and surficial geology. Three seismic stratigraphic units and two unconformities were identified. Glacial drift, consisting of interbedded till and glaciolacustrine deposits, overlies shale. Glaciofluvial and modern fluvial processes have eroded the glacial drift. Glaciofluvial, glaciolacustrine, fluvial, and lacustrine deposits overlie this unconformity. Seismic facies were interpreted to identify areas where these geologic facies exist; however, in the absence of distinct boundaries between facies, these deposits were mapped as one undifferentiated unit. This unit is thickest in the northernmost 3 kilometers of the river, where it consists of relatively coarse-grained fluvial, reworked glaciofluvial, and possibly glaciofluvial deposits. To the south, this coarse-grained unit thins or is absent. The undifferentiated unit comprises most of the surficial deposits in the northernmost river area. Some areas of glacial drift, predominantly till, are exposed at the lake and riverbed. The shale is not exposed anywhere in the region. Geophysical surveys at sites downriver, together with the results of previous studies, indicate that the geologic framework is similar to that in the northernmost river area except for the absence or reduced thickness of the coarse-grained fluvial deposits. Instead, glacial drift is exposed at the riverbed or is covered by a veneer of sediment. This information on the substrate is important for ongoing sediment transport studies.

  15. Quaternary geologic map of the Winnipeg 4 degrees x 6 degrees quadrangle, United States and Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fullerton, D. S., (compiler); Ringrose, S.M.; Clayton, Lee; Schreiner, B.T.; Goebel, J.E.

    2000-01-01

    The Quaternary Geologic Map of the Winnipeg 4? ? 6? Quadrangle, United States and Canada, is a component of the U.S. Geological Survey Quaternary Geologic Atlas of the United States map series (Miscellaneous Investigations Series I-1420), an effort to produce 4? ? 6? Quaternary geologic maps, at 1:1 million scale, of the entire conterminous United States and adjacent Canada. The map and the accompanying text and supplemental illustrations provide a regional overview of the areal distributions and characteristics of surficial deposits and materials of Quaternary age (~1.8 Ma to present) in parts of North Dakota, Minnesota, Manitoba, and Saskatchewan. The map is not a map of soils as soils are recognized in agriculture. Rather, it is a map of soils as recognized in engineering geology, or of substrata or parent materials in which agricultural soils are formed. The map units are distinguished chiefly on the basis of (1)genesis (processes of origin) or environments of deposition: for example, sediments deposited primarily by glacial ice (glacial deposits or till), sediments deposited in lakes (lacustrine deposits), or sediments deposited by wind (eolian deposits); (2) age: for example, how long ago the deposits accumulated; (3) texture (grain size)of the deposits or materials; (4) composition (particle lithology) of the deposits or materials; (5) thickness; and (6) other physical, chemical, and engineering properties. Supplemental illustrations show (1) temporal correlation of the map units, (2) the areal relationships of late Wisconsin glacial ice lobes and sublobes, (3) temporal and spatial correlation of late Wisconsin glacial phases, readvance limits, and ice margin stillstands, (4) temporal and stratigraphic correlation of surface and subsurface glacial deposits in the Winnipeg quadrangle and in adjacent 4? ? 6? quadrangles, and (5) responsibility for state and province compilations. The database provides information related to geologic hazards (for example

  16. An Interactive Map Viewer for the Urban Geology of Ottawa (Canada): an Example of Web Publishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giroux, D.; Bélanger, R.

    2003-04-01

    Developed by the Terrain Sciences Division (TSD) of the Geological Survey of Canada (GSC), an interactive map viewer, called GEOSERV (www.geoserv.org), is now available on the Internet. The purpose of this viewer is to provide engineers, planners, decision makers, and the general public with the geoscience information required for sound regional planning in densely populated areas, such as Canada's national capital, Ottawa (Ontario). Urban geology studies rely on diverse branches of earth sciences such as hydrology, engineering geology, geochemistry, stratigraphy, and geomorphology in order to build a three-dimensional model of the character of the land and to explain the geological processes involved in the dynamic equilibrium of the local environment. Over the past few years, TSD has compiled geoscientific information derived from various sources such as borehole logs, geological maps, hydrological reports and digital elevation models, compiled it in digital format and stored it in georeferenced databases in the form of point, linear, and polygonal data. This information constitutes the geoscience knowledge base which is then processed by Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to integrate the various sources of information and produce derived graphics, maps and models describing the geological infrastructure and response of the geological environment to human activities. Urban Geology of Canada's National Capital Area is a pilot project aiming at developing approaches, methodologies and standards that can be applied to other major urban centres of the country, while providing the geoscience knowledge required for sound regional planning and environmental protection of the National Capital Area. Based on an application developed by ESRI (Environmental System Research Institute), namely ArcIMS, the TSD has customized this web application to give free access to geoscience information of the Ottawa/Outaouais (Ontario/Québec) area including geological history

  17. Geological Setting and Petroleum Potential of the Paleozoic Hudson Platform, Northern Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietrich, J.; Hamblin, T.; Lavoie, D.; Duchesne, M.; Lajeunesse, P.; Zhang, Z.

    2009-05-01

    The Hudson Platform covers an area of 600,000 km2 and represents one of the largest Paleozoic sedimentary basins in Canada. The Hudson Platform contains the large Hudson Bay Basin and smaller Moose River Basin. The Hudson Bay and Moose River basins are surrounded and underlain by Precambrian igneous and metamorphic rocks of the Canadian Shield. The Hudson Platform contains Ordovician to Cretaceous sedimentary strata, with a maximum known thickness of about 2500 m in Hudson Bay. The lower Paleozoic succession includes Late Ordovician to Early Devonian shallow marine carbonates and thin mudstones, deposited during widespread early Paleozoic marine inundation of the Canadian Shield, and Early to Late Devonian marine carbonates, evaporates, and mudstones deposited in saucer-shaped, isolated basin depocentres. There is no record of late Paleozoic sedimentation in the region, perhaps related to cratonic uplift accompanying the Alleghenian Orogeny. Lower Paleozoic strata are unconformably overlain by thin, erosional remnants of Middle Jurassic and Early Cretaceous nonmarine sandstones, mudstones and lignite seams (Moose River Basin) and Early Cretaceous marine sandstones and mudstones (Hudson Bay Basin). The Hudson Platform is currently considered a frontier prospect for hydrocarbon exploration. However, the long- held view that the region is underlain by a thin sedimentary succession with no appreciable hydrocarbon source rocks or reservoir intervals is erroneous. Geological and geophysical data indicate the Hudson Bay Basin contains many prospective petroleum reservoir and trap types, potentially including hydrothermal dolomite. Recent studies indicate Upper Ordovician oil shales are widespread and may have generated hydrocarbons in deeper parts of the Hudson Bay Basin. New high resolution bathymetric surveys in northern Hudson Bay have led to the recognition of circular sea-floor depressions similar to fluid or gas-escape pockmarks. A modern re-evaluation of the

  18. New York State Geological Survey crystalline rock project. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-03-01

    Presented is a preliminary geologic map of the West-Central Adirondack Region, based on mapping by members of the New York State Geological Survey and participants from several universities during the 1984 field season. The area mapped comprises portions of the West Canada Lakes, Old Forge, McKeever, Number Four, Big Moose and Raquette Lake 15 minute quadrangles. The geology of the area is dominated by two major groups of hornblende-granulite facies rocks: (a) a supracrustal sequence locally showing internal stratigraphy, including quartzofeldspathic leucogneiss, kinzigite, marble, calcsilicate granulite and amphibolite, and (b) granitic and charnockitic gneisses of both plutonic and supracrustal origin, which are widespread and often occur as elliptical domes and lenses, as well as being interstratified with the metasedimentary sequence. Clear intrusive relationships are few. In addition to these rocks, minor intrusions of meta-anorthosite and metagabbro are locally present. At least three phases of folding are present. The first is expressed by regional foliation development. The second generation is tight to isoclinal and overturned with axial trends ranging from east to northeast. The third generation is open folds with north to northwest axial trends. Good correlation exists between photogeology, aeromagnetics, and field observations.

  19. U.S. Geological Survey Information Sources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2001-01-01

    As the Nation's largest water, earth, and biological science and civilian mapping agency, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) works in cooperation with more than 2,000 organizations across the country to provide reliable, impartial scientific information to resource managers, planners, and other customers. This information is gathered in every State by USGS scientists to minimize the loss of life and property from natural disasters, to contribute to the conservation and the sound economic and physical development of the Nation's natural resources, and to enhance the quality of life by monitoring water, biological, energy, and mineral resources

  20. U.S. Geological Survey Information Sources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2000-01-01

    As the nation's largest water, earth and biological science and civilian mapping agency, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) works in cooperation with more than 2000 organizations across the country to provide reliable, impartial, scientific information to resource managers, planners, and other customers. This information is gathered in every state by USGS scientists to minimize the loss of life and property from natural disasters, to contribute to the conservation and the sound economic and physical development of the nation's natural resources, and to enhance the quality of life by monitoring water, biological, energy and mineral resources.

  1. Ontario Power Generation's Proposed Deep Geologic Repository, Tiverton, Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, M.

    2009-05-01

    Ontario Power Generation is proposing to develop a Deep Geologic Repository (DGR) for the long-term management of its Low and Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste (L&ILW) at the Bruce site located near Tiverton, Ontario, 225 km northwest of Toronto. The shaft accessed repository, as envisioned, would accommodate 200,000 m3 (as packaged) of L&ILW in emplacement rooms excavated at a depth of 680 m within the Ordovician age argillaceous limestone Cobourg Formation. The Bruce site is underlain by an approximate 860 m thick Paleozoic sedimentary sequence comprised of near horizontally bedded carbonates, shales, evaporates and sandstones, Devonian to Cambrian in age, overlying crystalline basement rocks. Regional and site-specific geoscientific studies to verify the suitability of the Bruce site to host the DGR were initiated in 2006. The focus for the geoscientific investigations has been on gathering data to develop and test an understanding of the evolution and stability of the geologic, hydrogeologic, hydrogeochemical and geomechanical environ as it relates to demonstrating repository safety. Scheduled for completion in 2010, the interim results, which have included the drilling, coring and testing of 4 deep boreholes, are providing evidence of a predictable geosphere with a deep seated (>400 m), low permeability (K < 10-13 m sec-1), low porosity (0.01-0.08), saline (TDS > 250 gm l-1) groundwater regime that is ancient and resilient to external perturbations (e.g. glaciation). Work program activities in this regard have included, among others, detailed studies of rock core lithology, mineralogy and petrophysics, rock matrix pore fluid and groundwater characterisation, in-situ rock mass hydraulic testing, geomechanical rock core testing, 2-D seismic reflection surveys and long-term hydraulic borehole instrumentation. These data, in addition to regional and site-scale hydrogeologic modelling of the sedimentary sequence that among other aspects is examining groundwater

  2. Canada in 3D - Toward a Sustainable 3D Model for Canadian Geology from Diverse Data Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brodaric, B.; Pilkington, M.; Snyder, D. B.; St-Onge, M. R.; Russell, H.

    2015-12-01

    Many big science issues span large areas and require data from multiple heterogeneous sources, for example climate change, resource management, and hazard mitigation. Solutions to these issues can significantly benefit from access to a consistent and integrated geological model that would serve as a framework. However, such a model is absent for most large countries including Canada, due to the size of the landmass and the fragmentation of the source data into institutional and disciplinary silos. To overcome these barriers, the "Canada in 3D" (C3D) pilot project was recently launched by the Geological Survey of Canada. C3D is designed to be evergreen, multi-resolution, and inter-disciplinary: (a) it is to be updated regularly upon acquisition of new data; (b) portions vary in resolution and will initially consist of four layers (surficial, sedimentary, crystalline, and mantle) with intermediary patches of higher-resolution fill; and (c) a variety of independently managed data sources are providing inputs, such as geophysical, 3D and 2D geological models, drill logs, and others. Notably, scalability concerns dictate a decentralized and interoperable approach, such that only key control objects, denoting anchors for the modeling process, are imported into the C3D database while retaining provenance links to original sources. The resultant model is managed in the database, contains full modeling provenance as well as links to detailed information on rock units, and is to be visualized in desktop and online environments. It is anticipated that C3D will become the authoritative state of knowledge for the geology of Canada at a national scale.

  3. The United States Geological Survey in Alaska; accomplishments during 1983

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartsch-Winkler, S., (Edited By); Reed, K.M.

    1985-01-01

    This circular contains short reports about many of the geologic studies carried out in Alaska by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating agencies during 1983. The topics cover a wide range in scientific and economic interest.

  4. State geological surveys: Their growing national role in policy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gerhard, L.C.

    2000-01-01

    State geological surveys vary in organizational structure, but are political powers in the field of geology by virtue of their intimate knowledge of and involvement in legislative and political processes. Origins of state geological surveys lie in the recognition of society that settlement and prosperity depended on access to a variety of natural resources, resources that are most familiar to geologists. As the surveys adapt to modern societal pressures, making geology serve the public has become the new mission for many state geological surveys. Geologic mapping was the foundation of most early surveys, and the state surveys have brought mapping back into the public realm to meet today's challenges of growing population density, living environment desires, and resource access.

  5. Chapter 34: Geology and petroleum potential of the rifted margins of the Canada Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Houseknecht, D.W.; Bird, K.J.

    2011-01-01

    Three sides of the Canada Basin are bordered by high-standing, conjugate rift shoulders of the Chukchi Borderland, Alaska and Canada. The Alaska and Canada margins are mantled with thick, growth-faulted sediment prisms, and the Chukchi Borderland contains only a thin veneer of sediment. The rift-margin strata of Alaska and Canada reflect the tectonics and sediment dispersal systems of adjacent continental regions whereas the Chukchi Borderland was tectonically isolated from these sediment dispersal systems. Along the eastern Alaska-southern Canada margin, termed herein the 'Canning-Mackenzie deformed margin', the rifted margin is deformed by ongoing Brooks Range tectonism. Additional contractional structures occur in a gravity fold belt that may be present along the entire Alaska and Canada margins of the Canada Basin. Source-rock data inboard of the rift shoulders and regional palaeogeographic reconstructions suggest three potential source-rock intervals: Lower Cretaceous (Hauterivian-Albian), Upper Cretaceous (mostly Turonian) and Lower Palaeogene. Burial history modelling indicates favourable timing for generation from all three intervals beneath the Alaska and Canada passive margins, and an active petroleum system has been documented in the Canning-Mackenzie deformed margin. Assessment of undiscovered petroleum resources indicates the greatest potential in the Canning-Mackenzie deformed margin and significant potential in the Canada and Alaska passive margins. ?? 2011 The Geological Society of London.

  6. Stability Zone of Natural Gas Hydrates in a Permafrost-Bearing Region of the Beaufort-Mackenzie Basin: Study of a Feasible Energy Source (Geological Survey of Canada Contribution No.1999275)

    SciTech Connect

    Majorowicz, J. A. Hannigan, P. K.

    2000-03-15

    Analysis of geological and geophysical data from 150 wells in the Beaufort-Mackenzie region(study area between 68 deg. 30'-70 deg. 00'N and 131 deg. -39 deg. W) led to reinterpretation of the depth of methane hydrate stability and construction of the first contour maps displaying thickness of hydrate stability zones as well as hydrate stability zone thicknesses below permafrost. Calculations were based on construction of temperature-depth profiles incorporating regional heat-flow values, temperature at the base of ice-bearing permafrost, and models relating thermal conductivity with depth. Data analysis indicates the presence and extent of the methane hydrate stability zone is related mainly to the history of permafrost development and less so by the relatively small regional variations of temperature gradients. Analysis of well logs and other indicators in conjunction with knowledge of the hydrate stability zone allows reevaluation of the location of possible gas hydrate occurrences. Log analysis indicates that in the onshore and shallow sea area of the Beaufort-Mackenzie Basin, methane hydrate occurs in 27 wells. Fifteen of these locations coincides with underlying conventional hydrocarbon occurrences. Previous analyses place some of the hydrate occurrences at greater depths than proposed for the methane hydrate stability zone described in this study. Interpretation of geological cross sections reveals that hydrates are related mainly to sandy deltaic and delta-plain deposits in Iperk, Kugmallit, and Reindeer sequences although additional hydrate picks have been inferred in other sequences, such as Richards. Overlying permafrost may act as seal for hydrate accumulations; however, the thickness of permafrost and its related hydrate stability zone fluctuated during geological time. It is interpreted that only in the last tens of thousand of years (i.e., Sangamonian to Holocene), conditions for hydrates changed from nonstable to stable. During Early and Late

  7. A Geospatial Information Grid Framework for Geological Survey

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Liang; Xue, Lei; Li, Chaoling; Lv, Xia; Chen, Zhanlong; Guo, Mingqiang; Xie, Zhong

    2015-01-01

    The use of digital information in geological fields is becoming very important. Thus, informatization in geological surveys should not stagnate as a result of the level of data accumulation. The integration and sharing of distributed, multi-source, heterogeneous geological information is an open problem in geological domains. Applications and services use geological spatial data with many features, including being cross-region and cross-domain and requiring real-time updating. As a result of these features, desktop and web-based geographic information systems (GISs) experience difficulties in meeting the demand for geological spatial information. To facilitate the real-time sharing of data and services in distributed environments, a GIS platform that is open, integrative, reconfigurable, reusable and elastic would represent an indispensable tool. The purpose of this paper is to develop a geological cloud-computing platform for integrating and sharing geological information based on a cloud architecture. Thus, the geological cloud-computing platform defines geological ontology semantics; designs a standard geological information framework and a standard resource integration model; builds a peer-to-peer node management mechanism; achieves the description, organization, discovery, computing and integration of the distributed resources; and provides the distributed spatial meta service, the spatial information catalog service, the multi-mode geological data service and the spatial data interoperation service. The geological survey information cloud-computing platform has been implemented, and based on the platform, some geological data services and geological processing services were developed. Furthermore, an iron mine resource forecast and an evaluation service is introduced in this paper. PMID:26710255

  8. A Geospatial Information Grid Framework for Geological Survey.

    PubMed

    Wu, Liang; Xue, Lei; Li, Chaoling; Lv, Xia; Chen, Zhanlong; Guo, Mingqiang; Xie, Zhong

    2015-01-01

    The use of digital information in geological fields is becoming very important. Thus, informatization in geological surveys should not stagnate as a result of the level of data accumulation. The integration and sharing of distributed, multi-source, heterogeneous geological information is an open problem in geological domains. Applications and services use geological spatial data with many features, including being cross-region and cross-domain and requiring real-time updating. As a result of these features, desktop and web-based geographic information systems (GISs) experience difficulties in meeting the demand for geological spatial information. To facilitate the real-time sharing of data and services in distributed environments, a GIS platform that is open, integrative, reconfigurable, reusable and elastic would represent an indispensable tool. The purpose of this paper is to develop a geological cloud-computing platform for integrating and sharing geological information based on a cloud architecture. Thus, the geological cloud-computing platform defines geological ontology semantics; designs a standard geological information framework and a standard resource integration model; builds a peer-to-peer node management mechanism; achieves the description, organization, discovery, computing and integration of the distributed resources; and provides the distributed spatial meta service, the spatial information catalog service, the multi-mode geological data service and the spatial data interoperation service. The geological survey information cloud-computing platform has been implemented, and based on the platform, some geological data services and geological processing services were developed. Furthermore, an iron mine resource forecast and an evaluation service is introduced in this paper. PMID:26710255

  9. Mineral resources, geological structures, and landform surveys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Short, N. M.

    1974-01-01

    Since March 1973 there has been a shift in ERTS results in geology from the initial show-and-tell stage to a period in which scientific studies predominated, and now to an emphasis on effective applications having economic benefits and clearcut relevance to national needs. Many years will be spent on geological tasks resulting from ERTS alone; reconnaissance mapping in inaccessible regions, map revisions, regional or synoptic analysis of crustal fractures, assessment of dynamic surficial processes, systematic search for mineral wealth, use of sophisticated enhancement techniques, recognition of potential geologic hazards, and many more applications that still need to be defined.

  10. U.S. Geological Survey technology transfer opportunity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1996-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is interested in entering into a partnership with private industry for commercialization of the Spatial Data Transfer Standard (SDTS)-Common Software Platform (CSP) software.

  11. Volcanic and geologic database projects of the Geological Survey of Japan (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takarada, S.; Nakano, S.; Hoshizumi, H.; Itoh, J.; Urai, M.; Nishiki, K.

    2009-12-01

    Geological Survey of Japan (GSJ) is presently implementing the GEO-DB project, which aims to integrate all kinds of geological information in GSJ. GSJ published more than 50 CD-ROM series and established more than 20 databases at the Research Information Database (RIO-DB) of the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST). Presently, four volcanic databases are open to the public: (1) Quaternary volcano database (RIO-DB), (2) Active volcano database (RIO-DB), and (3) ASTER satellite image database of major volcanoes. The Quaternary volcano database contains information such as volcanic type, history, age and pictures of more than 300 Quaternary volcanoes in Japan. More detailed volcanic information will be added to the database in the near future. The active volcano database contains information of active volcanoes in Japan such as the catalog of eruptive events during the last 10,000 years and geological maps of active volcanoes. The ASTER satellite image database provides sequential ASTER satellite image datasets of major volcanoes in the world. Collaboration between Quaternary and active volcano databases and the VOGRIPA project is the next important activity at the Geological Survey of Japan. The Geological Survey of Japan introduced the Integrated Geological Map Database (GeoMapDB) in 2006. The GeoMapDB is based on a WebGIS technology, which makes it possible to browse, overlay and search geological maps online. The database contains geological maps with scales ranging from 1:2 million to 1:25,000. Links to aforementioned volcanic database and active fault database in RIO-DB are also available. OneGeology is an international initiative of the geological surveys of the world and a flagship project of the ‘International Year of Planet Earth’. It aims to create dynamic geological map of the world available at the world wide web. Geological Surveys from 109 countries of the world are participating in this project. The Geological

  12. Quaternary Geologic Map of the Lake of the Woods 4 Degrees x 6 Degrees Quadrangle, United States and Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sado, Edward V., (compiler); Fullerton, David S.; Goebel, Joseph E.; Ringrose, Susan M.; Edited and Integrated by Fullerton, David S.

    1995-01-01

    The Quaternary Geologic Map of the Lake of the Woods 4 deg x 6 deg Quadrangle, United States and Canada, was mapped as part of the U.S. Geological Survey Quaternary Geologic Atlas of the United States map series (Miscellaneous Investigations Series I-1420, NM-15). The atlas was begun as an effort to depict the areal distribution of surficial geologic deposits and other materials that accumulated or formed during the past 2+ million years, the period that includes all activities of the human species. These materials are at the surface of the earth. They make up the 'ground' on which we walk, the 'dirt' in which we dig foundations, and the 'soil' in which we grow crops. Most of our human activity is related in one way or another to these surface materials that are referred to collectively by many geologists as regolith, the mantle of fragmental and generally unconsolidated material that overlies the bedrock foundation of the continent. The maps were compiled at 1:1,000,000 scale. This map is a product of collaboration of the Ontario Geological Survey, the Minnesota Geological Survey, the Manitoba Department of Energy and Mines, and the U.S. Geological Survey, and is designed for both scientific and practical purposes. It was prepared in two stages. First, separate maps and map explanations were prepared by the compilers. Second, the maps were combined, integrated, and supplemented by the editor. Map unit symbols were revised to a uniform system of classification and the map unit descriptions were prepared by the editor from information received from the compilers and from additional sources listed under Sources of Information. Diagrams accompanying the map were prepared by the editor. For scientific purposes, the map differentiates Quaternary surficial deposits on the basis of lithology or composition, texture or particle size, structure, genesis, stratigraphic relationships, engineering geologic properties, and relative age, as shown on the correlation diagram and

  13. Consideration from a geological risk in a geological survey of mountain tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasegawa, Nobusuke; Ohtsu, Hiroyasu

    In mountain tunnel construction project, ground condition expected in a preliminary survey and a real condition cause often large deviations. As the result, the large increase of construction cost occurs after the start of excavation. One of the causes of such deviations is the uncertainty of ground information in a preliminary survey. Then, we have studied on the evaluation technique for the uncertainty of ground information and the risk in tunnel digging cost fluctuation caused by the uncertainty (the following, geological risk). In the past study, we paid our attention to the quantity of deviations with an expected digging cost considering the uncertainty and a real cost. However, in geological risk management, it is important to consider the situation that occurs a significant loss when actualized, too. Therefore, conducting a case study in a tunnel that carried out an addition al survey because a bad ground condition which was not foreseen in a preliminary survey appear ed, we studied the geological risk in the preliminary and the additional survey, and compared with construction cost and geological risk. We expected that the probability that the real cost appeared on the risk curve in the additional survey would be higher than the one in the preliminary survey. However, the probability in the additional survey became lower than the one in the preliminary survey when the ground information was added without evaluating uncertainty of ground information appropriately. As the result, we found that it was important to add geological information which is evaluated appropriately, instead of simply adding geological information.

  14. Investigating Atmospheric Mercury with the U.S. Geological Survey Mobile Mercury Laboratory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kolker, Allan

    2007-01-01

    Atmospheric mercury is thought to be an important source of mercury present in fish, resulting in numerous local, statewide, tribal, and province-wide fish consumption advisories in the United States and Canada (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2007a). To understand how mercury occurs in the atmosphere and its potential to be transferred from the atmosphere to the biosphere, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been investigating sources and forms of atmospheric mercury, especially in locations where the amount of mercury deposited from precipitation is above average.

  15. The United States Geological Survey in Alaska; organization and status of programs in 1976

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cobb, Edward Huntington, (Edited By)

    1976-01-01

    This report of the activities of the U.S. Geological Survey in Alaska is organized in four parts (1) services and responsibilities of the U.S. Geological Survey; (2) organization of the U.S. Geological Survey; 13) current U.S. Geological Survey activities; and (4) cooperative projects with Federal, State, and local agencies.

  16. Geological Survey data as a support for EPOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tulstrup, Jørgen; Robida, Francois; Harrison, Matthew; Bogaard, Paul; Pedersen, Mikael

    2015-04-01

    The National Geological Surveys of Europe have through many years collaborated on making their large possessions of geological data available for researchers, the general public and decision makers at all levels. Numerous projects have been carried out with the aim of harmonizing data across national boundaries and making data interoperable by delivering them according to international standards like those defined by INSPIRE, OGC, CGI and others. In 2012 - 2014 an EU co-funded study was carried out with the title of EGDI-Scope. The study showed how an integrated European Geological Data Infrastructure (EGDI) can be established so that all sorts of geological data form the Geological Surveys can be accessed in a common way by the relevant stakeholders. The establishment of such an EGDI is a cornerstone of the strategy of the organization of the Geological Surveys of Europe, EuroGeoSurveys, and the organization has decided to start implementing the infrastructure and establishing an organization which will ensure that this will be sustained. One of the most obvious user groups for the geological information is EPOS, the European Plate Observing System, which will be implemented in the coming years. The EPOS implementation project therefore contains a specific workpackage to establish the connection between the Geological Survey data and the rest of EPOS. A Thematic Core Service (TCS) for geological data and modeling will be built for making the data available for the Integrated Core Services of EPOS. The TCS will deal with borehole data, digital geological maps, geophysical data like seismics and borehole logs, archived physical geological material like samples and cores, geochemical and other analyses of rocks, soil and minerals as well as with 3D and 4D geological models of the subsurface. Great emphasis will be put on making the system sustainable and with easy access and the idea is also to further develop and promote the international standards for data exchange

  17. 3-DIMENSIONAL Geological Mapping and Modeling Activities at the Geological Survey of Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarna, A.; Bang-Kittilsen, A.; Haase, C.; Henderson, I. H. C.; Høgaas, F.; Iversen, S.; Seither, A.

    2015-10-01

    Geology and all geological structures are three-dimensional in space. Geology can be easily shown as four-dimensional when time is considered. Therefore GIS, databases, and 3D visualization software are common tools used by geoscientists to view, analyse, create models, interpret and communicate geological data. The NGU (Geological Survey of Norway) is the national institution for the study of bedrock, mineral resources, surficial deposits and groundwater and marine geology. The interest in 3D mapping and modelling has been reflected by the increase of number of groups and researches dealing with 3D in geology within NGU. This paper highlights 3D geological modelling techniques and the usage of these tools in bedrock, geophysics, urban and groundwater studies at NGU, same as visualisation of 3D online. The examples show use of a wide range of data, methods, software and an increased focus on interpretation and communication of geology in 3D. The goal is to gradually expand the geospatial data infrastructure to include 3D data at the same level as 2D.

  18. Mineral resources, geological structure, and landform surveys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Short, N. M.

    1974-01-01

    Diagnostic ERTS imagery has been used to pinpoint surface conditions associated with known mining districts. These include enhancements which depict hitherto unrecognized surface alteration and allow analysis of ore-controlling fractures distribution in a regional context. ERTS has likewise provided observational data containing previously unrecognized surface anomalies in large oil-producing basins which correlate closely with known oil fields. These observational data offer promise of providing new and powerful techniques for oil exploration, especially if further work using more sophisticated enhancement-processing proves capable of emphasizing the anomalies. ERTS is showing a better-than-anticipated potential for producing accurate small-scale (large-area) geologic maps, often containing details that were previously not recorded on similar regional maps. The maps produced from ERTS imagery can be prepared more effectively than previously possible, mainly because of the synoptic, multispectral, and repetitive character of ERTS data. ERTS has also provided extensive information on possible geologic hazards. Many new fractures have been identified in several regions of the Pacific Coast seismic belt that have histories of recent earthquakes. This has obvious implications for engineering projects such as dams, aqueducts, and transportation routes. In the mid-continent area, ERTS data have been used to predict zones of rooffall danger in a working coal mine from newly discovered lineations (probably fractures) used as indicators of hazards.

  19. Fiftieth annual report of the Director of the Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, George Otis

    1929-01-01

    The appropriations made directly for the work of the Geological Survey for the fiscal year 1929 included 14 items, amounting to $2,135,609. In addition $120,000 was appropriated for printing and binding for the Geological Survey, and an allotment of $14,765 for miscellaneous supplies was made from appropriations for the Interior Department. A detailed statement of the amounts appropriated and expended is given at the end of this report. The balance on July 31 was $28,165. The total amount of funds made available for disbursement by the Geological Survey, together with State funds directly disbursed for work administered by the Federal officials, was $3,875,332.

  20. The new camera calibration system at the US Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Light, D.L.

    1992-01-01

    Modern computerized photogrammetric instruments are capable of utilizing both radial and decentering camera calibration parameters which can increase plotting accuracy over that of older analog instrumentation technology from previous decades. Also, recent design improvements in aerial cameras have minimized distortions and increased the resolving power of camera systems, which should improve the performance of the overall photogrammetric process. In concert with these improvements, the Geological Survey has adopted the rigorous mathematical model for camera calibration developed by Duane Brown. An explanation of the Geological Survey's calibration facility and the additional calibration parameters now being provided in the USGS calibration certificate are reviewed. -Author

  1. Records and history of the United States Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, Clifford M.

    2000-01-01

    This publication contains two presentations in Portable Document Format (PDF). The first is Renee M. Jaussaud's inventory of the documents accessioned by the end of 1997 into Record Group 57 (Geological Survey) at the National Archives and Records Administration's (NARA) Archives II facility in College Park, Md., but not the materials in NARA's regional archives. The second is Mary C. Rabbitt's 'The United States Geological Survey 1879-1989,' which appeared in 1989 as USGS Circular 1050. Additionally, USGS Circular 1050 is also presented in Hyper Text Markup Language (HTML) format.

  2. Demographic survey of veterinarians employed in western Canada.

    PubMed

    Jelinski, Murray D; Campbell, John R; Naylor, Jonathan M; Lawson, Karen L; Derkzen, Dena

    2009-06-01

    The objective of this study was to generate demographic data on veterinarians working in western Canada. A sample of 551 veterinarians was randomly selected from a population of 2474 veterinarians employed in western Canada, 425 (77.1%) of whom responded to the survey. The respondents were evenly split between males (53.1%) and females (46.9%). More than half (58.0%) of the private practitioners practised exclusively on companion animals (small animals and horses), while 2.9% devoted 100% of their time to food animals. There were 351 respondents who had had > or = 2 employers since graduation; 80% of those who had begun their careers in companion animal (CA) practice had remained in this type of practice, while 54.3% of those who had begun their careers in mixed animal practice had switched to CA practice. Analyses of wage and workload data from 85 full-time veterinary employees showed that CA practitioners worked the fewest hours/week (47.0), had the least number of evenings on-call/month (3.7), and earned the highest hourly wage (35.79 dollars) as compared with non-CA practitioners. PMID:19721782

  3. A Survey of On-Line Search Service Centers in Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deschatelets, Gilles H.

    This survey of online search service centers in Canada was conducted to provide data on these centers and, more specifically, on the characteristics of the human search intermediary; and to provide an accurate overall picture of online searching in Canada. The survey questionnaires were mailed to approximately 765 Canadian customers of seven…

  4. A Survey of Geologic Resources. Chapter 11

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edmonson, Jennifer; Rickman, Doug

    2012-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the resources available from the Moon itself: regolith, geologically concentrated materials, and lunar physical features that will enable habitation and generation of power on the surface. This chapter briefly covers the formation of the Moon and thus the formation of the crust of the Moon, as well as the evolution of the regolith. The characteristics of the regolith are provided in some detail, including its mineralogy and lithology. The location of high concentrations of specific minerals or rocks is noted. Other ideal locations for in situ resource utilization technology and lunar habitation are presented. This chapter is intended to be a brief review of current knowledge, and to serve as a foundational source for further study. Each concept presented here has a wealth of literature associated with it; the reader is therefore directed to that literature with each discussion. With great interest in possible manned lunar landings and continued study of the Moon by multiple satellites, the available information changes regularly.

  5. Canada's Deep Geological Repository for Used Nuclear Fuel - Geo-scientific Site Evaluation Process - 13117

    SciTech Connect

    Blyth, Alec; Ben Belfadhel, Mahrez; Hirschorn, Sarah; Hamilton, Duncan; McKelvie, Jennifer

    2013-07-01

    The Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO) is responsible for implementing Adaptive Phased Management (APM), the approach selected by the Government of Canada for long-term management of used nuclear fuel generated by Canadian nuclear reactors. The ultimate objective of APM is the centralized containment and isolation of Canada's used nuclear fuel in a Deep Geological Repository in a suitable rock formation at a depth of approximately 500 meters (m) (1,640 feet [ft]). In May 2010, the NWMO published a nine-step site selection process that serves as the road map to decision-making on the location for the deep geological repository. The safety and appropriateness of any potential site will be assessed against a number of factors, both technical and social in nature. The selected site will be one that can be demonstrated to be able to safely contain and isolate used nuclear fuel, protecting humans and the environment over the very long term. The geo-scientific suitability of potential candidate sites will be assessed in a stepwise manner following a progressive and thorough site evaluation process that addresses a series of geo-scientific factors revolving around five safety functions. The geo-scientific site evaluation process includes: Initial Screenings; Preliminary Assessments; and Detailed Site Evaluations. As of November 2012, 22 communities have entered the site selection process (three in northern Saskatchewan and 18 in northwestern and southwestern Ontario). (authors)

  6. Geologic mapping of Kentucky; a history and evaluation of the Kentucky Geological Survey--U.S. Geological Survey Mapping Program, 1960-1978

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cressman, Earle Rupert; Noger, Martin C.

    1981-01-01

    In 1960, the U.S. Geological Survey and the Kentucky Geological Survey began a program to map the State geologically at a scale of 1:24,000 and to publish the maps as 707 U.S. Geological Survey Geologic Quadrangle Maps. Fieldwork was completed by the spring of 1977, and all maps were published by December 1978. Geologic mapping of the State was proposed by the Kentucky Society of Professional Engineers in 1959. Wallace W. Hagan, Director and State Geologist of the Kentucky Geological Survey, and Preston McGrain, Assistant State Geologist, promoted support for the proposal among organizations such as Chambers of Commerce, industrial associations, professional societies, and among members of the State government. It was also arranged for the U.S. Geological Survey to supply mapping personnel and to publish the maps; the cost would be shared equally by the two organizations. Members of the U.S. Geological Survey assigned to the program were organized as the Branch of Kentucky Geology. Branch headquarters, including an editorial staff, was at Lexington, Ky., but actual mapping was conducted from 18 field offices distributed throughout the State. The Publications Division of the U.S. Geological Survey established a cartographic office at Lexington to prepare the maps for publication. About 260 people, including more than 200 professionals, were assigned to the Branch of Kentucky Geology by the U.S. Geological Survey at one time or another. The most geologists assigned any one year was 61. To complete the mapping and ancillary studies, 661 professional man-years were required, compared with an original estimate of 600 man-years. A wide variety of field methods were used, but most geologists relied on the surveying altimeter to obtain elevations. Surface data were supplemented by drill-hole records, and several dozen shallow diamond-drill holes were drilled to aid the mapping. Geologists generally scribed their own maps, with a consequent saving of publication costs

  7. LAND USE LAND COVER (LULC) - US GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Mapping Program, a component of the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS), produces and distributes land use and land cover maps and digitized data for the conterminous U.S. and Hawaii. Land use refers to the human activities that are directly related to the land. The int...

  8. Abbreviations used in publications of the United States Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1953-01-01

    The use of abbreviations in publications of the Geological Survey is determined by several forces working in different directions. Pulling in the direction of greater condensation and the freer use of abbreviations and symbols is the desire to achieve greater economy in publications. Working in the opposite direction is the desire to have the publications used more conveniently by an increasingly heterogeneous public.

  9. Resident duty hours in Canada: a survey and national statement.

    PubMed

    Masterson, Mark F; Shrichand, Pankaj; Maniate, Jerry M

    2014-01-01

    Physicians in general, and residents in particular, are adapting to duty schedules in which they have fewer continuous work hours; however, there are no Canadian guidelines on duty hours restrictions. To better inform resident duty hour policy in Canada, we set out to prepare a set of recommendations that would draw upon evidence reported in the literature and reflect the experiences of resident members of the Canadian Association of Internes and Residents (CAIR). A survey was prepared and distributed electronically to all resident members of CAIR. A total of 1796 eligible residents participated in the survey. Of those who responded, 38% (601) reported that they felt they could safely provide care for up to 16 continuous hours, and 20% (315) said that 12 continuous hours was the maximum period during which they could safely provide care (n=1592). Eighty-two percent (1316) reported their perception that the quality of care they had provided suffered because of the number of consecutive hours worked (n=1598). Only 52% (830) had received training in handover (n=1594); those who had received such training reported that it was commonly provided through informal modelling. On the basis of these data and the existing literature, CAIR recommends that resident duty hours be managed in a way that does not endanger the health of residents or patients; does not impair education; is flexible; and does not violate ethical or legal standards. Further, residents should be formally trained in handover skills and alternative duty hour models. PMID:25559388

  10. Implementation of softcopy photogrammetric workstations at the US Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Skalet, C.D.; Lee, G.Y.G.; Ladner, L. J.

    1992-01-01

    The US Geological Survey has provided the Nation with primary quadrangle maps and map products for the last 50 years. The Survey recently completed initial coverage of the conterminous United States and Hawaii at 1:24 000 scale. In Alaska, complete coverage exists at 1:63 360 scale. Effort is underway to build a National Digital Cartographic Data Base (NDCDB) composed of the digital representation of these and other map series. In addition the Survey plans to meet the demand for more current and complete data through the development and promotion of spatial data standards in cooperation with other Federal, State, local and private organizations. -from Authors

  11. Maps out, models in at the British Geological Survey!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathers, Steve; Kessler, Holger

    2013-04-01

    BGS has stopped its' systematic onshore geological surveying programme and the litho-printing of geological maps will cease after a final batch of completed maps are published. In future BGS will undertake integrated mapping and 3D modelling in user defined target areas considering all our available geospatial data (map, boreholes, geophysics etc) assessed in a single 3D workspace. The output will be 3D geological framework models that capture the understanding and interpretation of the survey geologist and honour all available data at the time. As well as building new models in these strategic areas, BGS is collating all existing models assembled over the last 25 years into a common framework to produce a multi-scaled National Geological Model of Britain. comprising crustal, bedrock and quaternary and anthropocene themes (http://www.bgs.ac.uk/research/UKGeology/nationalgeologicalmodel/home.html). Different to the traditional geological map, the national model will not be completed at any specific scale, but at every point in the model there may be a different geological resolution available, depending on the purpose mof the original model or the strategic national need for subsurface information. The need for a complete and robust nested stratigraphic framework (BGS Lexicon) is becoming more important as we advance this model. Archive copies of all legacy models will be approved and stored in their native formats. In addition a newly designed Geological Object Store will hold geological objects such as coverages, surfaces and cross-sections from these models inside a relational database to ensure versioning and long-term security of the National Geological Model. In the mid-term these models will be attributed with physical properties such as porosity and density and form inputs to process models such as groundwater and landslide models to help predict and simulate environmental change. A key challenge for geologists and their systems building the geological

  12. 50 CFR 37.45 - Exploration by the U.S. Geological Survey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exploration by the U.S. Geological Survey....S. Geological Survey. Notwithstanding the requirement found in § 37.21(b) on when exploration plans shall be submitted, the U.S. Geological Survey may at any time apply for a special use permit to...

  13. 50 CFR 37.45 - Exploration by the U.S. Geological Survey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Exploration by the U.S. Geological Survey....S. Geological Survey. Notwithstanding the requirement found in § 37.21(b) on when exploration plans shall be submitted, the U.S. Geological Survey may at any time apply for a special use permit to...

  14. 50 CFR 37.45 - Exploration by the U.S. Geological Survey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Exploration by the U.S. Geological Survey....S. Geological Survey. Notwithstanding the requirement found in § 37.21(b) on when exploration plans shall be submitted, the U.S. Geological Survey may at any time apply for a special use permit to...

  15. 50 CFR 37.45 - Exploration by the U.S. Geological Survey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Exploration by the U.S. Geological Survey....S. Geological Survey. Notwithstanding the requirement found in § 37.21(b) on when exploration plans shall be submitted, the U.S. Geological Survey may at any time apply for a special use permit to...

  16. 50 CFR 37.45 - Exploration by the U.S. Geological Survey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Exploration by the U.S. Geological Survey....S. Geological Survey. Notwithstanding the requirement found in § 37.21(b) on when exploration plans shall be submitted, the U.S. Geological Survey may at any time apply for a special use permit to...

  17. Directions of the US Geological Survey Landslide Hazards Reduction Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wieczorek, G.F.

    1993-01-01

    The US Geological Survey (USGS) Landslide Hazards Reduction Program includes studies of landslide process and prediction, landslide susceptibility and risk mapping, landslide recurrence and slope evolution, and research application and technology transfer. Studies of landslide processes have been recently conducted in Virginia, Utah, California, Alaska, and Hawaii, Landslide susceptibility maps provide a very important tool for landslide hazard reduction. The effects of engineering-geologic characteristics of rocks, seismic activity, short and long-term climatic change on landslide recurrence are under study. Detailed measurement of movement and deformation has begun on some active landslides. -from Author

  18. Chapter 50: Geology and tectonic development of the Amerasia and Canada Basins, Arctic Ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grantz, A.; Hart, P.E.; Childers, V.A.

    2011-01-01

    Amerasia Basin is the product of two phases of counterclockwise rotational opening about a pole in the lower Mackenzie Valley of NW Canada. Phase 1 opening brought ocean-continent transition crust (serpentinized peridotite?) to near the seafloor of the proto-Amerasia Basin, created detachment on the Eskimo Lakes Fault Zone of the Canadian Arctic margin and thinned the continental crust between the fault zone and the proto-Amerasia Basin to the west, beginning about 195 Ma and ending prior to perhaps about 160 Ma. The symmetry of the proto-Amerasia Basin was disrupted by clockwise rotation of the Chukchi Microcontinent into the basin from an original position along the Eurasia margin about a pole near 72??N, 165 Wabout 145.5-140 Ma. Phase 2 opening enlarged the proto-Amerasia Basin by intrusion of mid-ocean ridge basalt along its axis between about 131 and 127.5 Ma. Following intrusion of the Phase 2 crust an oceanic volcanic plateau, the Alpha-Mendeleev Ridge LIP (large igneous province), was extruded over the northern Amerasia Basin from about 127 to 89-75 Ma. Emplacement of the LIP halved the area of the Amerasia Basin, and the area lying south of the LIP became the Canada Basin. ?? 2011 The Geological Society of London.

  19. Effect of geological processes on coal quality and utilization potential: review with examples from western Canada.

    PubMed

    Thomas, G; Fariborz, G

    2000-05-29

    This review article compares the elemental and radionuclide concentrations in coals from western Canada, the vast majority of which are used for power generation in Alberta. The coals range in age from lower Cretaceous to middle Eocene, and in rank from subbituminous to high volatile bituminous. Some of the coals were deposited in deltaic lagoonal to marine settings while others formed under lacustrine conditions in intermontane graben settings or in alluvial plains. The role of source rock (provenance), depositional environment, tectonic regime and hydrologic conditions on elemental concentration and distribution will be discussed, with specific examples from western Canada. In addition, the effect of natural weathering, igneous intrusion and self-burning (spontaneous combustion) on the enrichment and/or depletion of elements will be presented. The emphasis throughout this review article will be on the fate of elements of environmental concern and interest (e.g. As, Ba, B, Cl, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Mo, Se, Th, U, V and Zn) and of radionuclides of the U and Th series upon coal utilization. This article is also intended for those not familiar with the geological or environmental sciences, particularly as related to fossil fuel utilization. PMID:10781721

  20. Short papers in geology, hydrology, and topography; Articles 1-59: Geological Survey Research 1962

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1962-01-01

    This collection of 59 short papers on subjects in the fields of geology, hydrology, topography, and related sciences is one of a, series to be relea~ed during the year as chapters of Professional Paper 450. The papers in this chapter report on the scientific and economic· results of current work by members of the Geologic, Topographic, and 'Vater Resources Division of the United States Geological Survey. Some of the pa.pers annom1ce new discoveries or present observations on problems of limited scope; other papers draw conclusions from more extensive or continuing investigations that in large part will be discussed in greater detail in reports to be published in the future.

  1. The U.S. Geological Survey in Alaska, 1979 programs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reed, Katherine M., (Edited By); Technical assistance by Gilmore, Robert F.; Harris, Linda-Lee; Tennison, Lisa D.

    1979-01-01

    This circular describes the 1979 programs of the U.S. Geological Survey in Alaska. The mission of the Geological Survey is to identify the Nation 's land, water, energy, and mineral resources; to classify federally-owned mineral lands and water-power sites; to resolve the exploration and development of energy and natural resources on Federal and Indian lands; and to explore and appraise the petroleum potential of the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska. Alaska is at once the largest, the least populated, the least explored, and the least developed State in the Nation. More than half of the Nation 's 600 million acres of Outer Continental Shelf lies off Alaska 's coast, and nearly half of the remaining 762 million acres of Federal land are within its borders. Its resources of all kinds present an opportunity to demonstrate how the needs of both conservation and development can be met for the benefit of the American people. (Kosco-USGS)

  2. The US Geological Survey's national coal resource assessment: The results

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruppert, L.F.; Kirschbaum, M.A.; Warwick, P.D.; Flores, R.M.; Affolter, R.H.; Hatch, J.R.

    2002-01-01

    The US Geological Survey and the State geological surveys of many coal-bearing States recently completed a new assessment of the top producing coal beds and coal zones in five major producing coal regions the Appalachian Basin, Gulf Coast, Illinois Basin, Colorado Plateau, and Northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains. The assessments, which focused on both coal quality and quantity, utilized geographic information system technology and large databases. Over 1,600,000 million short tons of coal remain in over 60 coal beds and coal zones that were assessed. Given current economic, environmental, and technological restrictions, the majority of US coal production will occur in that portion of the assessed coal resource that is lowest in sulfur content. These resources are concentrated in parts of the central Appalachian Basin, Colorado Plateau, and the Northern Rocky Mountains. ?? Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Practical geological comparison of some seafloor survey instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleinrock, Martin C.; Hey, R. N.; Theberge, A. E., Jr.

    1992-07-01

    Seafloor survey instruments are integral to the study of marine geology. Because understanding their resolution and limitations is critical, we compare how different survey systems represent the seafloor. Coincident data collected at the Galapagos propagator (GLORIA, SeaMARC II, Sea Beam, Deep-Tow, camera sled, and Alvin) allow comparisons of how well seafloor features (e.g., faults and volcanoes) observed and characterized in high resolution data are represented in lower resolution, coarser-scale data sets. Our reported values for the minimum sizes of detected and well-represented features show that practical geological resolutions are generally ˜2-10 times lower than theoretical resolutions; care must be taken in evaluating which system to use to address a particular problem.

  4. The internal geology and emplacement history of the Renard 2 kimberlite, Superior Province, Quebec, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzgerald, C. E.; Hetman, C. M.; Lepine, I.; Skelton, D. S.; McCandless, T. E.

    2009-11-01

    The Renard 2 kimberlite is located in the Otish Mountains region of Quebec, Canada and is one of the largest pipes in the Renard cluster. The cluster consists of nine kimberlite bodies and was discovered in 2001 by Ashton Mining of Canada Inc. and its joint venture partner SOQUEM Inc. Renard 2 was emplaced into Archean meta-greywacke derived migmatite, gneiss and granite of the Opinaca Subprovince of the eastern Superior Province at approximately 640.5 ± 2.8 Ma. An undetermined amount of erosion has occurred since emplacement with the present surface expression of the pipe estimated to be 0.75 ha. This kimberlite is interpreted as a steep-sided diatreme with minor irregularities in the external shape. The dominant infill is a massive volcaniclastic kimberlite (MVK) that is classified as tuffisitic kimberlite breccia (TKB) and is characterized by a high proportion of granitoid country rock xenoliths. A second dominant infill is a texturally complex, less diluted coherent kimberlite (CK) characterized locally by a transitional textures between CK and TKB. Surrounding the diatreme is a significant zone of variable width comprised of extensively brecciated country rock (+/-kimberlite) and referred to as marginal breccia. In addition to the two main rock types infilling the pipe, a number of hypabyssal kimberlite (HK) dykes and irregular shaped intrusions occur throughout the body, along the pipe contacts, within the marginal breccia and in the surrounding country rock. Geological features displayed by Renard 2 are similar to those described from Class 1 kimberlites of the Kimberley area of South Africa, the Gahcho Kué cluster of Canada and the Pimenta Bueno kimberlite field of Brazil. The economic evaluation of Renard 2 is in progress and to date has included extensive diamond and reverse circulation drilling as well as the collection of an underground bulk sample. Results from material sampled from Renard 2, including a 2449 tonne bulk sample, suggest Renard 2 has

  5. Digital photogrammetry at the U.S. Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greve, Clifford W.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is converting its primary map production and revision operations to use digital photogrammetric techniques. The primary source of data for these operations is the digital orthophoto quadrangle derived from National Aerial Photography Program images. These digital orthophotos are used on workstations that permit comparison of existing vector and raster data with the orthophoto and interactive collection and revision of the vector data.

  6. U.S. Geological Survey Business Partner Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1999-01-01

    The Business Partner Program is composed of a network of private sector organizations that distribute U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) products. By engaging the private sector, State and local government, and academic and nonprofit organizations in product dissemination, the USGS expects to increase the availability of its products to end users, locate customer service closer to the user, and provide cost savings to the Federal Government.

  7. The OECD 2012 Economic Survey of Canada and the Relationship between Higher Education and Productivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skolnik, Michael L.

    2012-01-01

    The report entitled, "OECD Economic Surveys: Canada 2012," offers an exceptionally rigorous, in-depth, well-informed and well-documented review of policy and performance of Canada's economy and postsecondary system. The report is divided into three parts. The first part contains an overview of the Canadian economy, a summary of the rest of the…

  8. USGS Coastal and Marine Geology Survey Data in Google Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiss, C.; Steele, C.; Ma, A.; Chin, J.

    2006-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Coastal and Marine Geology (CMG) program has a rich data catalog of geologic field activities and metadata called InfoBank, which has been a standard tool for researchers within and outside of the agency. Along with traditional web maps, the data are now accessible in Google Earth, which greatly expands the possible user audience. The Google Earth interface provides geographic orientation and panning/zooming capabilities to locate data relative to topography, bathymetry, and coastal areas. Viewing navigation with Google Earth's background imagery allows queries such as, why areas were not surveyed (answer presence of islands, shorelines, cliffs, etc.). Detailed box core subsample photos from selected sampling activities, published geotechnical data, and sample descriptions are now viewable on Google Earth, (for example, M-1-95-MB, P-2-95-MB, and P-1-97- MB box core samples). One example of the use of Google Earth is CMG's surveys of San Francisco's Ocean Beach since 2004. The surveys are conducted with an all-terrain vehicle (ATV) and shallow-water personal watercraft (PWC) equipped with Global Positioning System (GPS), and elevation and echo sounder data collectors. 3D topographic models with centimeter accuracy have been produced from these surveys to monitor beach and nearshore processes, including sand transport, sedimentation patterns, and seasonal trends. Using Google Earth, multiple track line data (examples: OB-1-05-CA and OB-2-05-CA) can be overlaid on beach imagery. The images also help explain the shape of track lines as objects are encountered.

  9. The United States Geological Survey: 1879-1989

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rabbitt, Mary C.

    1989-01-01

    The United States Geological Survey was established on March 3, 1879, just a few hours before the mandatory close of the final session of the 45th Congress, when President Rutherford B. Hayes signed the bill appropriating money for sundry civil expenses of the Federal Government for the fiscal year beginning July 1, 1879. The sundry civil expenses bill included a brief section establishing a new agency, the United States Geological Survey, placing it in the Department of the Interior, and charging it with a unique combination of responsibilities: 'classification of the public lands, and examination of the geological structure, mineral resources, and products of the national domain.' The legislation stemmed from a report of the National Academy of Sciences, which in June 1878 had been asked by Congress to provide a plan for surveying the Territories of the United States that would secure the best possible results at the least possible cost. Its roots, however, went far back into the Nation's history. The first duty enjoined upon the Geological Survey by the Congress, the classification of the public lands, originated in the Land Ordinance of 1785. The original public lands were the lands west of the Allegheny Mountains claimed by some of the colonies, which became a source of contention in writing the Articles of Confederation until 1781 when the States agreed to cede their western lands to Congress. The extent of the public lands was enormously increased by the Louisiana Purchase in 1803 and later territorial acquisitions. At the beginning of Confederation, the decision was made not to hold the public lands as a capital asset, but to dispose of them for revenue and to encourage settlement. The Land Ordinance of 1785 provided the method of surveying and a plan for disposal of the lands, but also reserved 'one-third part of all gold, silver, lead, and copper mines to be sold or otherwise disposed of, as Congress shall thereafter direct,' thus implicitly requiring

  10. A Survey of the Use of the Tadoma Method in the United States and Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Martin C.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Results of a survey to document the character, extent, and effectiveness of Tadoma training (a means of teaching speechreading and speech production using vibrotactile information) and use in the United States and Canada are presented. (Author/CL)

  11. Aufeis accumulations in stream bottoms in arctic and subarctic environments as a possible indicator of geologic structure: Chapter F in Recent U.S. Geological Survey studies in the Tintina Gold Province, Alaska, United States, and Yukon, Canada--results of a 5-year project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wanty, Richard B.; Wang, Bronwen; Vohden, Jim; Day, Warren C.; Gough, Larry P.

    2007-01-01

    The thickest (>3 meters) and most extensive aufeis (100’s of meters to kilometers along valleys) coincided with locations of laterally extensive (>5 kilometers) mapped high-angle brittle fault zones, suggesting that the fault zones are hydraulically conductive. Additional evidence of water flow is provided by observed changes in stream-water chemistry in reaches in which aufeis forms, despite a lack of surface tributaries. Minor or no aufeis was observed in many other drainage valleys where no laterally extensive structures have been mapped, implying that aufeis formation results from more than a topographic effect or discharge from bank storage. Thus, the presence of thick, laterally extensive aufeis in highgradient streams may be a useful aid to geologic structural mapping in arctic and subarctic climates.

  12. A brief history of the U.S. Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey; Rabbitt, Mary C.

    1975-01-01

    Established by an Act of Congress in 1879 and charged with responsibility for "classification of the public lands, and examination of the geological structure, mineral resources, and products of the national domain," the U. S. Department of the Interior's Geological Survey has been the Nation's principal source of information about its physical resources the configuration and character of the land surface, the composition and structure of the underlying rocks, and the quality, extent, and distribution of water and mineral resources. Although primarily a research and fact-finding agency, it has responsibility also for the classification of Federal mineral lands and waterpower sites, and since 1926 it has been responsible for the supervision of oil and mining operations authorized under leases on Federal land. From the outset, the Survey has been concerned with critical land and resource problems. Often referred to as the Mother of Bureaus, many of its activities led to the formation of new organizations where a management or developmental function evolved. These included the Reclamation Service (1902), the Bureau of Mines (1910), the Federal Power Commission (1920), and the Grazing Service (1934, since combined with other functions as the Bureau of Land Management). Mrs. Rabbitt's summary of the Survey's history in the following pages brings out well the development of these diverse activities and the Survey's past contributions to national needs related to land and resources.

  13. The U.S. Geological Survey Energy Resources Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2006-01-01

    The United States uses tremendous amounts of geologic energy resources. In 2004 alone, the United States consumed more than 7.4 billion barrels of oil, 21.9 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 1.1 billion short tons of coal. Forecasts indicate the Nation's need for energy resources will continue to grow, raising several questions: How much domestic and foreign petroleum resources are available to meet the growing energy demands of the Nation and world? Does the United States have coal deposits of sufficient quantity and quality to meet demand over the next century? What other geologic energy resources can be added to the U.S. energy mix? How do the occurrence and use of energy resources affect environmental quality and human health? Unbiased information from robust scientific studies is needed for sound energy policy and resource management decisions addressing these issues. The U.S. Geological Survey Energy Resources Program provides impartial, scientifically robust information to advance the understanding of geologically based energy resources including: petroleum (oil, natural gas, natural gas liquids), coal, gas hydrates, geothermal resources, oil shale, oil sands, uranium, and heavy oil and natural bitumen. This information can be used to contribute to plans for a secure energy future and to facilitate evaluation and responsible use of resources.

  14. The U.S. Geological Survey's TRIGA® reactor

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeBey, Timothy M.; Roy, Brycen R.; Brady, Sally R.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) operates a low-enriched uranium-fueled, pool-type reactor located at the Federal Center in Denver, Colorado. The mission of the Geological Survey TRIGA® Reactor (GSTR) is to support USGS science by providing information on geologic, plant, and animal specimens to advance methods and techniques unique to nuclear reactors. The reactor facility is supported by programs across the USGS and is organizationally under the Associate Director for Energy and Minerals, and Environmental Health. The GSTR is the only facility in the United States capable of performing automated delayed neutron analyses for detecting fissile and fissionable isotopes. Samples from around the world are submitted to the USGS for analysis using the reactor facility. Qualitative and quantitative elemental analyses, spatial elemental analyses, and geochronology are performed. Few research reactor facilities in the United States are equipped to handle the large number of samples processed at the GSTR. Historically, more than 450,000 sample irradiations have been performed at the USGS facility. Providing impartial scientific information to resource managers, planners, and other interested parties throughout the world is an integral part of the research effort of the USGS.

  15. U. S. Geological Survey investigation of Mississippi Embayment area

    SciTech Connect

    Glick, E.E.

    1983-09-01

    Prior to about 1974, most of the work in the Mississippi embayment area by members of the U.S. Geological Survey was motivated by interest in the embayment's paleontologic aspects, stratigraphy, and economic resources, especially ground water. However, an excellent description of the effects of the New Madrid earthquake series was published on the centennial of that 1811-1812 seismicity. During World War II, combined efforts of the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Bureau of Mines produced a wealth of information about the Little Rock pluton and the process of laterizing exposed nepheline syenite to form bauxite. That project, in a search for additional intrusive bodies at shallow depth, sponsored a reconnaissance aeromagnetic survey along the embayment edge from Little Rock, Arkansas, to Cairo, Illinois. Magnetic anomalies that were identified then are now known to be related to the series of buried plutons aligned along the northwestern margin of the upper Mississippi embayment graben. Later investigations assessed the geochemistry of the more mafic parts of the Little Rock pluton. In 1974, U.S. Geological survey effort, along with that of other federal agencies, state agencies, and academic institutions, was directed toward finding the cause of ongoing seismicity in the upper embayment and toward assessing the related potential effects on persons and property. The purpose of this poster display is to summarize the more significant findings in this area related to (a) the rock sequence, lower crust to surface; (b) the major structural features, including a rift system; (c) the current state of stress; and (d) the present-day seismicity.

  16. Digital Field Mapping with the British Geological Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leslie, Graham; Smith, Nichola; Jordan, Colm

    2014-05-01

    The BGS•SIGMA project was initiated in 2001 in response to a major stakeholder review of onshore mapping within the British Geological Survey (BGS). That review proposed a significant change for BGS with the recommendation that digital methods should be implemented for field mapping and data compilation. The BGS•SIGMA project (System for Integrated Geoscience MApping) is an integrated workflow for geoscientific surveying and visualisation using digital methods for geological data visualisation, recording and interpretation, in both 2D and 3D. The project has defined and documented an underpinning framework of best practice for survey and information management, best practice that has then informed the design brief and specification for a toolkit to support this new methodology. The project has now delivered BGS•SIGMA2012. BGS•SIGMA2012 is a integrated toolkit which enables assembly and interrogation/visualisation of existing geological information; capture of, and integration with, new data and geological interpretations; and delivery of 3D digital products and services. From its early days as a system which used PocketGIS run on Husky Fex21 hardware, to the present day system which runs on ruggedized tablet PCs with integrated GPS units, the system has evolved into a complete digital mapping and compilation system. BGS•SIGMA2012 uses a highly customised version of ESRI's ArcGIS 10 and 10.1 with a fully relational Access 2007/2010 geodatabase. BGS•SIGMA2012 is the third external release of our award-winning digital field mapping toolkit. The first free external release of the award-winning digital field mapping toolkit was in 2009, with the third version (BGS-SIGMAmobile2012 v1.01) released on our website (http://www.bgs.ac.uk/research/sigma/home.html) in 2013. The BGS•SIGMAmobile toolkit formed the major part of the first two releases but this new version integrates the BGS•SIGMAdesktop functionality that BGS routinely uses to transform our field

  17. What are parasitologists doing in the United States Geological Survey?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cole, R.A.

    2002-01-01

    The United States Geological Survey (USGS) was formed in 1879 as the nation's primary natural science and information agency. The mission of the agency is to provide scientific information to a??describe and understand the Earth; minimize loss of life and property from natural disasters; manage water, biological, energy, and mineral resources; and enhance and protect our quality of life.a?? Prior to 1996, the USGS comprised 3 divisions or disciplines: geology, mapping, and water. Historically, the agency was most noted for cartographic products that were used widely by both government and private sector. With the inclusion of the National Biological Service into the USGS in 1996 as the Biological Resource Discipline (BRD), a living resources dimension was added to the earth sciences character of the USGS. With the addition of BRD, the bureau is able now to contribute both the physical and biological sciences to address the nation's resource management problems.

  18. The U.S. Geological Survey in Alaska 1980 programs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reed, Katherine M., (Edited By); Technical assistance by Gilmore, Robert F.; Harris, Linda-Lee; Tennison, Lisa D.

    1980-01-01

    This circular describes the 1980 programs of the U.S. Geological Survey in Alaska. A brief description of the Alaskan operations of each major division of the Survey is followed by project descriptions arranged by geographic regions in which the work takes place. The mission of the Geological Survey is to identify the Nation 's land, water, energy, and mineral resources; to classify federally-owned mineral lands and waterpower sites; to resolve the exploration and development of energy and natural resources on Federal and Indian lands; and to explore and appraise the petroleum potential of the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska. Alaska is at once the largest, the least populated, the least explored, and the least developed State in the Nation. More than half of the Nation 's 600 million acres of Outer Continental Shelf lies off Alaska 's coast. The land area of Alaska contains 375 million acres, 16 percent of the onshore land of the Nation. Its resources of all kinds present an opportunity to demonstrate how the needs of both conservation and development can be met for the benefit of the American people. (USGS)

  19. Geophysical and Geologic Training of the Afghan Geological Survey, May, 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mooney, W. D.; Bohannon, R.; Abraham, J.; Medlin, J.

    2008-12-01

    Afghanistan lies within the Alpine-Himalayan orogeny, and consists of four primary tectonic units: (1) the North Afghan Platform, part of the greater Kazakhstan craton that includes Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan; (2) the mountainous Hindu Kush-Pamirs in the northeast; (3) the transpressional plate boundary at the Chaman fault near the border with Pakistan; and (4) the southern accreted terranes located south of the east-west oriented Herat fault. The diverse geology of Afghanistan affords the country abundant natural resources, as well as many natural hazards. In order to assist in the identification of these resources and to map hazardous faults, a multi-agency consortium including the Afghan Ministry of Mines and Industry, the USGS and the US Navel Research Lab conducted a detailed airborne geophysical survey of the western half of Afghanistan during 2007. Over 110,000 km of data were collected, including aeromagnetic, gravity, hyperspectral imagery, synthetic aperture radar and photogrammetric data. These data provide remarkable images of the surficial and sub-surface structure of the country. Armed with these new, high quality data, USGS trainers conducted an in-depth training course at the offices of the Afghan Geological Survey (AGS) during May, 2008. Eighty staff members of the AGS attended the four-day course which covered the following topics: (1) the geology and tectonics of Afghanistan; (2) a synthesis of modern plate tectonic processes; (3) use of geophysical and geological data to identify natural resources and hazardous faults. Particular emphasis was placed on oil and gas, mineral, coal and water resources. Earthquake and landslide hazards in Afghanistan were also discussed in detail. The building of scientific and technical capabilities at the AGS is a high priority because the development of their natural resources will have a positive impact on economic growth in Afghanistan. Future courses will benefit from hands-on training in methods of

  20. Appraising U.S. Geological Survey science records

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Faundeen, John L.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center has legislative charters to preserve and make accessible land remote sensing records important to the United States. This essay explains the appraisal process developed by EROS to ensure the science records it holds and those offered to it align with those charters. The justifications behind the questions employed to weed and to complement the EROS archive are explained along with the literature reviewed supporting their inclusion. Appraisal results are listed by individual collection and include the recommendations accepted by EROS management. Reprinted by permission of the publisher.

  1. Computer generated K indices adopted by the British Geological Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, T. D. G.

    1992-04-01

    On 1 January 1991 the British Geological Survey adopted a computer method for generating K indices from its three geomagnetic observatories. This replaced the traditional handscaling method, resulting in saving of staff time. Other advantages are the ability to distribute K indices to users in real time and the fact that there will not be any change in bias of the K index caused by a change of handscaler in future. The computer algorithm is described. The results of a comparison between the computed and handscaled K indices are presented, which show the computer method to be compatible with handscaling.

  2. Energy Resources Program of the U.S. Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weedman, Suzanne

    2001-01-01

    Our Nation faces the simultaneous challenges of increasing demand for energy, declining domestic production from existing oil and gas fields, and increasing expectations for environmental protection. The Energy Information Administration (2000) forecasts that worldwide energy consumption will increase 32 percent between 1999 and 2020 because of growth of the world economy. Forecasts indicate that in the same time period, U.S. natural gas consumption will increase 62 percent, petroleum consumption will increase 33 percent, and coal consumption will increase 22 percent. The U.S. Geological Survey provides the objective scientific information our society needs for sound decisions regarding land management, environmental quality, and economic, energy, and strategic policy.

  3. Geologic insights from multibeam bathymetry and seascape maps of the Bay of Fundy, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, John; Todd, Brian J.; Li, Michael Z.

    2014-07-01

    The macrotidal Bay of Fundy, Canada, was systematically mapped in the early 2000s using multibeam sonar technology, partly to support efforts to develop hydropower. The primary product was a suite of 1:50,000-scale maps of shaded seafloor relief and backscatter. In addition, a ‘seascape’ map was produced in an attempt to classify the entire bay in terms of morphology, texture, and biota. The eight seascape groups that are delineated reflect the strong signature of glaciation in much of the bay, the effects of Holocene tidal range expansion, and the results of modern processes under a dynamic current regime. As a result of the recent mapping we are able to argue that the muddy depocentre in the southwest of the bay was primarily active before the well-documented expansion of tidal range that occurred in the Bay of Fundy in the Holocene epoch. We further demonstrate the complexity of the seafloor in one of the glacial seascapes, and discuss the morphology and stability of a major tidal scour. The evidence obtained from multibeam sonar mapping reveals the complexity of the sea floor in the Bay of Fundy not necessarily apparent on the 1977 surficial geology map based on sparse lines of single-beam echo sounder data.

  4. US Geological Survey publications on western tight gas reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Krupa, M.P.; Spencer, C.W.

    1989-02-01

    This bibliography includes reports published from 1977 through August 1988. In 1977 the US Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the US Department of Energy's, (DOE), Western Gas Sands Research program, initiated a geological program to identify and characterize natural gas resources in low-permeability (tight) reservoirs in the Rocky Mountain region. These reservoirs are present at depths of less than 2,000 ft (610 m) to greater than 20,000 ft (6,100 m). Only published reports readily available to the public are included in this report. Where appropriate, USGS researchers have incorporated administrative report information into later published studies. These studies cover a broad range of research from basic research on gas origin and migration to applied studies of production potential of reservoirs in individual wells. The early research included construction of regional well-log cross sections. These sections provide a basic stratigraphic framework for individual areas and basins. Most of these sections include drill-stem test and other well-test data so that the gas-bearing reservoirs can be seen in vertical and areal dimensions. For the convenience of the reader, the publications listed in this report have been indexed by general categories of (1) authors, (2) states, (3) geologic basins, (4) cross sections, (5) maps (6) studies of gas origin and migration, (7) reservoir or mineralogic studies, and (8) other reports of a regional or specific topical nature.

  5. U.S. Geological Survey library classification system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sasscer, R. Scott

    1992-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey Library classification system has been designed for earth science libraries. It is a tool for assigning call numbers to earth science and allied pure science materials in order to collect these materials into related subject groups on the library shelves and arrange them alphabetically by author and title. The classification can be used as a retrieval system to access materials through the subject and geographic numbers. The classification scheme has been developed over the years since 1904 to meet the ever-changing needs of increased specialization and the development of new areas of research in the earth sciences. The system contains seven schedules: * Subject schedule * Geological survey schedule * Earth science periodical schedule * Government document periodical schedule * General science periodical schedule * Earth science map schedule * Geographic schedule Introduction provides detailed instructions on the construction of call numbers for works falling into the framework of the classification schedules. The tables following the introduction can be quickly accessed through the use of the newly expanded subject index. The purpose of this publication is to provide the earth science community with a classification and retrieval system for earth science materials, to offer sufficient explanation of its structure and use, and to enable library staff and clientele to classify or access research materials in a library collection.

  6. Agile Data Curation at a State Geological Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hills, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    State agencies, including geological surveys, are often the gatekeepers for myriad data products essential for scientific research and economic development. For example, the Geological Survey of Alabama (GSA) is mandated to explore for, characterize, and report Alabama's mineral, energy, water, and biological resources in support of economic development, conservation, management, and public policy for the betterment of Alabama's citizens, communities, and businesses. As part of that mandate, the GSA has increasingly been called upon to make our data more accessible to stakeholders. Even as demand for greater data accessibility grows, budgets for such efforts are often small, meaning that agencies must do more for less. Agile software development has yielded efficient, effective products, most often at lower cost and in shorter time. Taking guidance from the agile software development model, the GSA is working towards more agile data management and curation. To date, the GSA's work has been focused primarily on data rescue. By using workflows that maximize clear communication while encouraging simplicity (e.g., maximizing the amount of work not done or that can be automated), the GSA is bringing decades of dark data into the light. Regular checks by the data rescuer with the data provider (or their proxy) provides quality control without adding an overt burden on either party. Moving forward, these workflows will also allow for more efficient and effective data management.

  7. Topographic and hydrographic GIS dataset for the Afghanistan Geological Survey and U.S. Geological Survey 2010 Minerals Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chirico, P.G.; Moran, T.W.

    2011-01-01

    This dataset contains a collection of 24 folders, each representing a specific U.S. Geological Survey area of interest (AOI; fig. 1), as well as datasets for AOI subsets. Each folder includes the extent, contours, Digital Elevation Model (DEM), and hydrography of the corresponding AOI, which are organized into feature vector and raster datasets. The dataset comprises a geographic information system (GIS), which is available upon request from the USGS Afghanistan programs Web site (http://afghanistan.cr.usgs.gov/minerals.php), and the maps of the 24 areas of interest of the USGS AOIs.

  8. The STRATAFORM Project: U.S. Geological Survey geotechnical studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Minasian, Diane L.; Lee, Homa J.; Locat, Jaques; Orzech, Kevin M.; Martz, Gregory R.; Israel, Kenneth

    2001-01-01

    This report presents physical property logs of core samples from an offshore area near Eureka, CA. The cores were obtained as part of the STRATAFORM Program (Nittrouer and Kravitz, 1995, 1996), a study investigating how present sedimentation and sediment transport processes influence long-term stratigraphic sequences preserved in the geologic record. The core samples were collected during four separate research cruises to the northern California study area, and data shown in the logs of the cores were collected using a multi-sensor whole core logger. The physical properties collected are useful in identifying stratigraphic units, ground-truthing acoustic imagery and sub-bottom profiles, and in understanding mass movement processes. STRATA FORmation on Margins was initiated in 1994 by the Office of Naval Research, Marine Geology and Geophysics Department as a coordinated multi-investigator study of continental-margin sediment transport processes and stratigraphy (Nittrouer and Kravitz, 1996). The program is investigating the stratigraphic signature of the shelf and slope parts of the continental margins, and is designed to provide a better understanding of the sedimentary record and a better prediction of strata. Specifically, the goals of the STRATAFORM Program are to (Nittrouer and Kravitz, 1995): - determine the geological relevance of short-term physical processes that erode, transport, and deposit particles and those processes that subsequently rework the seabed over time scales - improve capabilities for identifying the processes that form the strata observed within the upper ~100 m of the seabed commonly representing 104-106 years of sedimentation. - synthesize this knowledge and bridge the gap between time scales of sedimentary processes and those of sequence stratigraphy. The STRATAFORM Program is divided into studies of the continental shelf and the continental slope; the geotechnical group within the U.S. Geological Survey provides support to both parts

  9. Canada.

    PubMed

    1987-03-01

    In 1986, Canada's population stood at 25.5 million, with an annual growth rate of 1.2%. The infant mortality rate is 15/1000, and life expectancy is 69 years for males and 76 years for females. Of the labor force of 12.9 million, 3.5% are engaged in agriculture, 52% work in industry and commerce, 28.4% are in the services sector, and 5.9% are employed by the government. The gross national product was US$367.2 billion in 1986, with a per capita income of about $13,000. Canada is a constitutional monarchy with a bilingual federal system, a parliamentary form of government, and strong democratic traditions. The spectacular growth of Canadian manufacturing in recent decades has transformed the country from a rural agricultural society into a primarily urban and industrial society. The mineral industry has been a major factor in Canada's economic development. PMID:12178065

  10. Strawberry Virus Survey in the United States and Canada

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In an effort to determine the distribution of strawberry viruses in the United States and Canada, approximately 1500 samples were collected and either brought back or shipped to the USDA-ARS laboratory in Corvallis between 2002 and 2007. RNA was extracted from leaf tissue and archived at -80C for s...

  11. Virus Survey in Strawberry in the United States and Canada

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In an effort to determine the distribution of strawberry viruses in the United States and Canada, approximately 1500 samples were collected and either brought back or shipped to the USDA-ARS laboratory in Corvallis between 2002 and 2007. RNA was extracted from leaf tissue and archived at -80C for s...

  12. Delivery mechanisms of 3D geological models - a perspective from the British Geological Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terrington, Ricky; Myers, Antony; Wood, Ben; Arora, Baneet

    2013-04-01

    The past decade has seen the British Geological Survey (BGS) construct over one hundred 3D geological models using software such as GOCAD®, GSI3D, EarthVision and Petrel across the United Kingdom and overseas. These models have been produced for different purposes and at different scales and resolutions in the shallow and deep subsurface. Alongside the construction of these models, the BGS and its collaborators have developed several options for disseminating these 3D geological models to external partners and the public. Initially, the standard formats for disseminating these 3D geological models by the BGS comprised of 2D images of cross-sections, GIS raster data and specialised visualisation software such as the LithoFrame Viewer. The LithoFrame Viewer is a thick-client software that allows the user to explore the 3D geometries of the geological units using a 3D interface, and generate synthetic cross-sections and boreholes on the fly. Despite the increased functionality of the LithoFrame Viewer over the other formats, the most popular data formats distributed remained 2D images of cross-sections, CAD based formats (e.g. DWG and DXF) and GIS raster data of surfaces and thicknesses, as these were the types of data that the external partners were most used too. Since 2009 software for delivering 3D geological models has advanced and types of data available have increased. Feature Manipulation Engine (FME) has been used to increase the number of outputs from 3D geological models. These include: • 3D PDFs (Adobe Acrobat) • KMZ/KML (GoogleEarth) • 3D shapefiles (ESRI) Alongside these later outputs, the BGS has developed other software such as GroundhogTM and Geovisionary (in collaboration with Virtalis). Groundhog is fully a web based application that allows the user to generate synthetic cross-sections, boreholes and horizontal slices from 3D geological models on the fly. Geovisionary provides some of the most advanced visualisation of 3D geological models in

  13. Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Robert F.; Ghosh, Ratna

    1986-01-01

    Discusses Canada's problems in searching for a national identity and the controversy of the Federal policy of multiculturalism. Presents its objectives within a bilingual framework and the contradictions involved. Suggests a workable model involving assimilation conditioned by regional or local circumstances, useful also as a development strategy.…

  14. Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillham, Virginia

    1991-01-01

    Lists and annotates 130 publications from the federal government of Canada and from the various Canadian provinces. Major topics include environmental concerns, particularly ecologically responsible forestry, global warming, and waste disposal/recycling; education at all levels, including bilingual concerns; and the Belanger-Campeau report, which…

  15. 1-D/3-D geologic model of the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Higley, D.K.; Henry, M.; Roberts, L.N.R.; Steinshouer, D.W.

    2005-01-01

    The 3-D geologic model of the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin comprises 18 stacked intervals from the base of the Devonian Woodbend Group and age equivalent formations to ground surface; it includes an estimated thickness of eroded sediments based on 1-D burial history reconstructions for 33 wells across the study area. Each interval for the construction of the 3-D model was chosen on the basis of whether it is primarily composed of petroleum system elements of reservoir, hydrocarbon source, seal, overburden, or underburden strata, as well as the quality and areal distribution of well and other data. Preliminary results of the modeling support the following interpretations. Long-distance migration of hydrocarbons east of the Rocky Mountains is indicated by oil and gas accumulations in areas within which source rocks are thermally immature for oil and (or) gas. Petroleum systems in the basin are segmented by the northeast-trending Sweetgrass Arch; hydrocarbons west of the arch were from source rocks lying near or beneath the Rocky Mountains, whereas oil and gas east of the arch were sourced from the Williston Basin. Hydrocarbon generation and migration are primarily due to increased burial associated with the Laramide Orogeny. Hydrocarbon sources and migration were also influenced by the Lower Cretaceous sub-Mannville unconformity. In the Peace River Arch area of northern Alberta, Jurassic and older formations exhibit high-angle truncations against the unconformity. Potential Paleozoic though Mesozoic hydrocarbon source rocks are in contact with overlying Mannville Group reservoir facies. In contrast, in Saskatchewan and southern Alberta the contacts are parallel to sub-parallel, with the result that hydrocarbon source rocks are separated from the Mannville Group by seal-forming strata within the Jurassic. Vertical and lateral movement of hydrocarbons along the faults in the Rocky Mountains deformed belt probably also resulted in mixing of oil and gas from numerous

  16. National Geothermal Data System: State Geological Survey Contributions to Date

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patten, K.; Allison, M. L.; Richard, S. M.; Clark, R.; Love, D.; Coleman, C.; Caudill, C.; Matti, J.; Musil, L.; Day, J.; Chen, G.

    2012-12-01

    In collaboration with the Association of American State Geologists the Arizona Geological Survey is leading the effort to bring legacy geothermal data to the U.S. Department of Energy's National Geothermal Data System (NGDS). NGDS is a national, sustainable, distributed, interoperable network of data and service (application) providers entering its final stages of development. Once completed the geothermal industry, the public, and policy makers will have access to consistent and reliable data, which in turn, reduces the amount of staff time devoted to finding, retrieving, integrating, and verifying information. With easier access to information, the high cost and risk of geothermal power projects (especially exploration drilling) is reduced. This presentation focuses on the scientific and data integration methodology as well as State Geological Survey contributions to date. The NGDS is built using the U.S. Geoscience Information Network (USGIN) data integration framework to promote interoperability across the Earth sciences community and with other emerging data integration and networking efforts. Core to the USGIN concept is that of data provenance; by allowing data providers to maintain and house their data. After concluding the second year of the project, we have nearly 800 datasets representing over 2 million data points from the state geological surveys. A new AASG specific search catalog based on popular internet search formats enables end users to more easily find and identify geothermal resources in a specific region. Sixteen states, including a consortium of Great Basin states, have initiated new field data collection for submission to the NGDS. The new field data includes data from at least 21 newly drilled thermal gradient holes in previously unexplored areas. Most of the datasets provided to the NGDS are being portrayed as Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Web Map Services (WMS) and Web Feature Services (WFS), meaning that the data is compatible with a

  17. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration hydrographic survey data used in a U.S. Geological Survey regional geologic framework study along the Delmarva Peninsula

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pendleton, Elizabeth A.; Brothers, Laura L.; Thieler, E. Robert; Danforth, William W.; Parker, Castle E.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey obtained raw Reson multibeam data files from Science Applications International Corporation and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration for 20 hydrographic surveys and extracted backscatter data using the Fledermaus Geocoder Toolbox from Quality Positioning Service. The backscatter mosaics produced by the U.S. Geological Survey for the inner continental shelf of the Delmarva Peninsula using National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration data increased regional geophysical surveying efficiency, collaboration among government agencies, and the area over which geologic data can be interpreted by the U.S. Geological Survey. This report describes the methods by which the backscatter data were extracted and processed and includes backscatter mosaics and interpolated bathymetric surfaces.

  18. Geotherm: the U.S. geological survey geothermal information system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bliss, J.D.; Rapport, A.

    1983-01-01

    GEOTHERM is a comprehensive system of public databases and software used to store, locate, and evaluate information on the geology, geochemistry, and hydrology of geothermal systems. Three main databases address the general characteristics of geothermal wells and fields, and the chemical properties of geothermal fluids; the last database is currently the most active. System tasks are divided into four areas: (1) data acquisition and entry, involving data entry via word processors and magnetic tape; (2) quality assurance, including the criteria and standards handbook and front-end data-screening programs; (3) operation, involving database backups and information extraction; and (4) user assistance, preparation of such items as application programs, and a quarterly newsletter. The principal task of GEOTHERM is to provide information and research support for the conduct of national geothermal-resource assessments. The principal users of GEOTHERM are those involved with the Geothermal Research Program of the U.S. Geological Survey. Information in the system is available to the public on request. ?? 1983.

  19. The U.S. Geological Survey Drinking Water Initiative

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1997-01-01

    Safe drinking-water supplies are critical to maintaining and preserving public health. Although the Nation's drinking water is generally safe, natural and introduced contaminants in water supplies throughout the country have adversely affected human health. This new U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) initiative will provide information on the vulnerability of water supplies to be used by water-supply and regulatory agencies who must balance water-supply protection with the wise use of public funds. Using the results of the initiative, they will be better able to focus on the supplies most at risk and the variability of contaminants of most concern, and so address the mandates of the Safe Drinking Water Act. With its store of geologic, hydrologic, and land use and land cover data and its network of information in every State, the USGS can help to identify potential sources of contamination, delineate source areas, determine the vulnerability of waters to potential contamination, and evaluate strategies being used to protect source waters in light of the scientific information available. Many recent and ongoing studies by the USGS concern drinking-water issues. This fact sheet highlights four particular studies begun under the Drinking Water Initiative.

  20. Geotherm: the U.S. geological survey geothermal information system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bliss, J. D.; Rapport, A.

    GEOTHERM is a comprehensive system of public databases and software used to store, locate, and evaluate information on the geology, geochemistry, and hydrology of geothermal systems. Three main databases address the general characteristics of geothermal wells and fields, and the chemical properties of geothermal fluids; the last database is currently the most active. System tasks are divided into four areas: (1) data acquisition and entry, involving data entry via word processors and magnetic tape; (2) quality assurance, including the criteria and standards handbook and front-end data-screening programs; (3) operation, involving database backups and information extraction; and (4) user assistance, preparation of such items as application programs, and a quarterly newsletter. The principal task of GEOTHERM is to provide information and research support for the conduct of national geothermal-resource assessments. The principal users of GEOTHERM are those involved with the Geothermal Research Program of the U.S. Geological Survey. Information in the system is available to the public on request.

  1. Groundwater technical procedures of the U.S. Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cunningham, William L.; Schalk, Charles W.

    2011-01-01

    A series of groundwater technical procedures documents (GWPDs) has been released by the U.S. Geological Survey, Water-Resources Discipline, for general use by the public. These technical procedures were written in response to the need for standardized technical procedures of many aspects of groundwater science, including site and measuring-point establishment, measurement of water levels, and measurement of well discharge. The techniques are described in the GWPDs in concise language and are accompanied by necessary figures and tables derived from cited manuals, reports, and other documents. Because a goal of this series of procedures is to remain current with the state of the science, and because procedures change over time, this report is released in an online format only. As new procedures are developed and released, they will be linked to this document.

  2. Recent U.S. Geological Survey applications of Lidar

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Queija, Vivian R.; Stoker, Jason M.; Kosovich, John J.

    2005-01-01

    As lidar (light detection and ranging) technology matures, more applications are being explored by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists throughout the Nation, both in collaboration with other Federal agencies and alone in support of USGS natural-hazards research (Crane et al., 2004). As the technology continues to improve and evolve, USGS scientists are finding new and unique methods to use and represent high-resolution lidar data, and new ways to make these data and derived information publicly available. Different lidar sensors and configurations have offered opportunities to use high-resolution elevation data for a variety of projects across all disciplines of the USGS. The following examples are just a few of the diverse projects in the USGS where lidar data is being used.

  3. The United States Geological Survey Science Data Lifecycle Model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Faundeen, John L.; Burley, Thomas E.; Carlino, Jennifer A.; Govoni, David L.; Henkel, Heather S.; Holl, Sally L.; Hutchison, Vivian B.; Martín, Elizabeth; Montgomery, Ellyn T.; Ladino, Cassandra; Tessler, Steven; Zolly, Lisa S.

    2014-01-01

    U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) data represent corporate assets with potential value beyond any immediate research use, and therefore need to be accounted for and properly managed throughout their lifecycle. Recognizing these motives, a USGS team developed a Science Data Lifecycle Model (SDLM) as a high-level view of data—from conception through preservation and sharing—to illustrate how data management activities relate to project workflows, and to assist with understanding the expectations of proper data management. In applying the Model to research activities, USGS scientists can ensure that data products will be well-described, preserved, accessible, and fit for re-use. The Model also serves as a structure to help the USGS evaluate and improve policies and practices for managing scientific data, and to identify areas in which new tools and standards are needed.

  4. Reaeration equations derived from U.S. geological survey database

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Melching, C.S.; Flores, H.E.

    1999-01-01

    Accurate estimation of the reaeration-rate coefficient (K2) is extremely important for waste-load allocation. Currently, available K2 estimation equations generally yield poor estimates when applied to stream conditions different from those for which the equations were derived because they were derived from small databases composed of potentially highly inaccurate measurements. A large data set of K2 measurements made with tracer-gas methods was compiled from U.S. Geological Survey studies. This compilation included 493 reaches on 166 streams in 23 states. Careful screening to detect and eliminate erroneous measurements reduced the date set to 371 measurements. These measurements were divided into four subgroups on the basis of flow regime (channel control or pool and riffle) and stream scale (discharge greater than or less than 0.556 m3/s). Multiple linear regression in logarithms was applied to relate K2 to 12 stream hydraulic and water-quality characteristics. The resulting best-estimation equations had the form of semiempirical equations that included the rate of energy dissipation and discharge or depth and width as variables. For equation verification, a data set of K2 measurements made with tracer-gas procedures by other agencies was compiled from the literature. This compilation included 127 reaches on at least 24 streams in at least seven states. The standard error of estimate obtained when applying the developed equations to the U.S. Geological Survey data set ranged from 44 to 61%, whereas the standard error of estimate was 78% when applied to the verification data set.Accurate estimation of the reaeration-rate coefficient (K2) is extremely important for waste-load allocation. Currently, available K2 estimation equations generally yield poor estimates when applied to stream conditions different from those for which the equations were derived because they were derived from small databases composed of potentially highly inaccurate measurements. A large

  5. The United States Geological Survey in Alaska; organization and status of programs in 1977

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blean, Kathleen M., (Edited By)

    1977-01-01

    United States Geological Survey projects in Alaska include a wide range of topics of economic and scientific interest. Studies in 1976 include economic geology, regional geology, stratigraphy, environmental geology, engineering geology, hydrology, and marine geology. Discussions of the findings or, in some instances, narratives of the course of the investigations are grouped in eight subdivisions corresponding to the six major onshore geographic regions, the offshore projects, and projects that are statewide in scope. Locations of the study areas are shown. In addition, many reports and maps covering various aspects of the geology and mineral and water resources of the State were published. These publications are listed. (Woodard-USGS)

  6. U.S. Geological Survey heavy metals program progress report 1968 - Field studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1969-01-01

    The Heavy Metals program of the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Bureau of Mines began in mid-1966 and thus at the end of calendar year 1968 was halfway through its third year. This progress report summarizes field studies carried out under the Geological Survey's part of the program during 1968. Topical studies for 1968 are summarized in U.S. Geological Survey Circular 622. Background of the program and results during 1966 and 1967 were reported in U.S. Geological Survey Circular 560 and will not be further discussed herein.

  7. U.S. Geological Survey energy and minerals science strategy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ferrero, Richard C.; Kolak, Jonathan J.; Bills, Donald J.; Bowen, Zachary H.; Cordier, Daniel J.; Gallegos, Tanya J.; Hein, James R.; Kelley, Karen D.; Nelson, Philip H.; Nuccio, Vito F.; Schmidt, Jeanine M.; Seal, Robert R., II

    2012-01-01

    The economy, national security, and standard of living of the United States depend heavily on adequate and reliable supplies of energy and mineral resources. Based on current population and consumption trends, the Nation's use of energy and minerals can be expected to grow, driving the demand for ever broader scientific understanding of resource formation, location, and availability. In addition, the increasing importance of environmental stewardship, human health, and sustainable growth place further emphasis on energy and mineral resources research and understanding. Collectively, these trends in resource demand and the interconnectedness among resources will lead to new challenges and, in turn, require cutting-edge science for the next generation of societal decisions. The contributions of the U.S. Geological Survey to energy and minerals research are well established. Based on five interrelated goals, this plan establishes a comprehensive science strategy. It provides a structure that identifies the most critical aspects of energy and mineral resources for the coming decade. * Goal 1. - Understand fundamental Earth processes that form energy and mineral resources. * Goal 2. - Understand the environmental behavior of energy and mineral resources and their waste products. * Goal 3. - Provide inventories and assessments of energy and mineral resources. * Goal 4. - Understand the effects of energy and mineral development on natural resources. * Goal 5. - Understand the availability and reliability of energy and mineral resource supplies. Within each goal, multiple, scalable actions are identified. The level of specificity and complexity of these actions varies, consistent with the reality that even a modest refocus can yield large payoffs in the near term whereas more ambitious plans may take years to reach fruition. As such, prioritization of actions is largely dependent on policy direction, available resources, and the sequencing of prerequisite steps that will

  8. Surveying Cross Sections of the Kootenai River Between Libby Dam, Montana, and Kootenay Lake, British Columbia, Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barton, Gary J.; Moran, Edward H.; Berenbrock, Charles

    2004-01-01

    The declining population of Kootenai River white sturgeon, which was listed as an Endangered Species in 1994, has prompted a recovery team to assess the feasibility of various habitat enhancement scenarios to reestablish white sturgeon populations. As the first phase in this assessment, the U.S. Geological Survey collected stream channel cross-section and longitudinal data during 2002—03 at about 400 locations along the Kootenai River from Libby Dam near Libby, Montana, to where the river empties into Kootenay Lake near Creston, British Columbia, Canada. Survey control stations with a horizontal and vertical accuracy of less than 0.1 foot were established using a global positioning system (GPS) prior to collection of stream channel cross-section data along the Kootenai River. A total of 245 cross sections were surveyed. Six cross sections upstream from Kootenai Falls were surveyed using a total station where the river was too shallow or dangerous to navigate by vessel. The remaining 239 cross sections were surveyed by interfacing real-time GPS equipment with an echo sounder to obtain bathymetric data and with a laser range- finder to obtain streambank data. These data were merged, straightened, ordered, and reduced in size to be useful. Spacing between these cross sections ranged from about 600 feet in the valley flat near Deep Creek and Shorty Island and near bridges to as much as several miles in other areas. These stream channel cross sections will provide information that can be used to develop hydraulic flow models of the Kootenai River from Libby Dam, Montana, to Queens Bay on Kootenay Lake in British Columbia, Canada.

  9. The U.S. Geological Survey in Alaska; 1981 programs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reed, Katherine M., (Edited By); Gilmore, Robert F.; Harris, Linda-Lee; Tennison, Lisa D.

    1981-01-01

    This Circular describes the 1981 programs and projects of the U.S. Geological Survey in Alaska. A brief description of the Alaskan operations of each office and division of the Survey is followed by project descriptions arranged by geographic regions in which the work takes place. The largest program at present is related to oil and gas exploration, but programs also include mineral appraisal, water-resource studies, volcanic and seismic programs, topographic mapping, glaciological and geohazard studies, and many other activities. Alaska is the largest and the least populated, least explored, and least developed of the Nation 's States. The land area contains 375 million acres and comprises 16 percent of the onshore land and more than half of the Outer Continental Shelf of the Nation. After Native and State of Alaska land selections of 44 million acres have been made, approximately 60 percent, 225 million acres, of Alaska land will remain under Federal jurisdiction. Federal lands in Alaska then will comprise approximately 30 percent of all onshore land in the Nation 's public domain. (USGS)

  10. A Survey of Student Assessment/Evaluation in Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canadian Education Statistics Council, Edmonton. Alberta Working Group.

    One of the first tasks in developing the academic achievement indicator for the Plan-Canadian Education Indicators Program was to survey each province and territory about existing student assessment and examination practices. Survey results are reported. There is considerable diversity in Canadian assessment and evaluation practices because…

  11. Data Management and Rescue at a State Geological Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hills, D. J.; McIntyre-Redden, M. R.

    2015-12-01

    As new technologies are developed to utilize data more fully, and as shrinking budgets mean more needs to be done with less, well-documented and discoverable legacy data is vital for continued research and economic growth. Many governmental agencies are mandated to maintain scientific data, and the Geological Survey of Alabama (GSA) is no different. As part of the mandate to explore for, characterize, and report Alabama's mineral, energy, water, and biological resources for the betterment of Alabama's citizens, communities, and businesses, the GSA has increasingly been called upon to make our data (including samples) more accessible to stakeholders. The GSA has been involved in several data management, preservation, and rescue projects, including the National Geothermal Data System and the National Geological and Geophysical Data Preservation Program. GSA staff utilizes accepted standards for metadata, such as those found at the US Geoscience Information Network (USGIN). Through the use of semi-automated workflows, these standards can be applied to legacy data records. As demand for more detailed information on samples increases, especially so that a researcher can do a preliminary assessment prior to a site visit, it has become critical for the efficiency of the GSA to have better systems in place for sample tracking and data management. Thus, GSA is in the process of registering cores and related samples for International Geo Sample Numbers (IGSNs) through the System for Earth Sample Registration. IGSNs allow the GSA to use asset management software to better curate the physical samples and provide more accurate information to stakeholders. Working with other initiatives, such as EarthCube's iSamples project, will ensure that GSA continues to use best practices and standards for sample identification, documentation, citation, curation, and sharing.

  12. The U.S. Geological Survey National Helium Resource Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brennan, S. T.; East, J. A., II

    2015-12-01

    In 2013, the U.S. Congress passed legislation directing the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to complete a national assessment of subsurface helium gas resources. As part of this assessment, the USGS has constructed a database of helium concentration from compositional analyses of produced gas. Though most data of this data is non-proprietary, helium data have been taken from both public and proprietary sources, with a majority taken from the USGS geochemical database (http://energy.usgs.gov/GeochemistryGeophysics/GeochemistryLaboratories/GeochemistryLaboratories-GeochemistryDatabase.aspx#4413382-introduction) and from the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM) natural gas database. Altogether, there are over 16,000 analyses of natural gas composition compiled. In order to complete the assessment, it was necessary to correlate the well data with geologic reservoir data so that the helium concentrations could be compared with the reservoir and field-level gas production, in place gas volumes, and gas recovery factors. The well data from the compiled database were initially cross-referenced with the proprietary IHS Inc. well database, where possible. The results of that effort were then cross-referenced with three additional databases: the proprietary NRG Associates database of significant oil and gas fields of the United States, the non-proprietary U.S. Department of Energy's gas information system (GASIS), and an internal BLM reservoir and field database. These field and reservoir databases provide the data needed to estimate the in-place helium resources for fields with economic concentrations of helium. In order for helium production to be economic, the gas produced from geologic reservoirs must be greater than 0.3 mole percent (mol%), or in the case of liquefied natural gas processing, greater than 0.04 mol%. The field and reservoir specific estimates of total gas in place volumes, gas recovery factors, and helium concentrations, can be used as inputs for a

  13. Privatisation Of Education In Canada: A Survey Of Trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson-Harden, Adam; Majhanovich, Suzanne

    2004-07-01

    The construct of `neo-liberalism' well defines privatisation within a global convergence of educational policy discourses and practices. This study analyses initiatives for and processes of privatisation in Canadian education from K-12 to post-secondary levels. In considering how privatisation is affecting public education systems in Canada, the authors focus on the commodification and marketisation of education. They also examine issues of equity and the viability of universally accessible and publicly funded education systems. Finally, the study highlights two main interrelated trends: the intrusion of market discourse into education at all levels on one hand and on the other a growing tension between contrasting conceptions of education as a tradable commodity and as a social right.

  14. Geomorphology in North American Geology Departments, 1971

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Sidney E.; Malcolm, Marshall D.

    1972-01-01

    Presents results of a 1970-71 survey of 350 geomorphologists and geology departments to determine what sort of geomorphology is being taught in the colleges and universities of the United States and Canada. (PR)

  15. Activities and services of the U.S. Geological Survey, Denver area, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1969-01-01

    This booklet is a summary of the activities and services of the United States Geological Survey, written for people who have visited or plan to visit one or more of its offices in the Denver area as well as to provide general information about the Geological Survey and its work. Sources of additional information are listed on pages 42-43.

  16. 77 FR 34062 - Announcement of the U.S. Geological Survey Science Strategy Planning Feedback Process

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-08

    ....S. Geological Survey Announcement of the U.S. Geological Survey Science Strategy Planning Feedback.... This process involves gathering input from the public on draft strategy documents. Feedback can be... closes at midnight on August 1, 2012. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Listed below are contacts for...

  17. 77 FR 43110 - Announcement of the U.S. Geological Survey Science Strategy Planning Feedback Process

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-23

    ....S. Geological Survey Announcement of the U.S. Geological Survey Science Strategy Planning Feedback.... This process involves gathering input from the public on draft strategy documents. Feedback can be... been extended to midnight on September 1, 2012. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Listed below...

  18. The United States Geological Survey in Alaska; organization and status of programs in 1978

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Kathleen M.

    1978-01-01

    United States Geological Survey projects in Alaska study a wide range of topics of economic and scientific interest. Work done in 1977 includes contributions to economic geology, regional geology, stratigraphy, engineering geology, hydrology, and marine geology. Many maps and reports covering various aspects of the geology and mineral and water resources of the State were published. In addition, the published 1:1,000,000-scale map of the State has been revised in two areas. A bibliography containing 263 reports on Alaska published in 1977 is included. (Woodard-USGS)

  19. Analysis of the U.S. geological survey streamgaging network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, A.G.

    1987-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results from the first 3 years of a 5-year cost-effectiveness study of the U.S. Geological Survey streamgaging network. The objective of the study is to define and document the most cost-effective means of furnishing streamflow information. In the first step of this study, data uses were identified for 3,493 continuous-record stations currently being operated in 32 States. In the second step, evaluation of alternative methods of providing streamflow information, flow-routing models, and regression models were developed for estimating daily flows at 251 stations of the 3,493 stations analyzed. In the third step of the analysis, relationships were developed between the accuracy of the streamflow records and the operating budget. The weighted standard error for all stations, with current operating procedures, was 19.9 percent. By altering field activities, as determined by the analyses, this could be reduced to 17.8 percent. The existing streamgaging networks in four Districts were further analyzed to determine the impacts that satellite telemetry would have on the cost effectiveness. Satellite telemetry was not found to be cost effective on the basis of hydrologic data collection alone, given present cost of equipment and operation.This paper summarizes the results from the first 3 years of a 5-year cost-effectiveness study of the U. S. Geological Survey streamgaging network. The objective of the study is to define and document the most cost-effective means of furnishing streamflow information. In the first step of this study, data uses were identified for 3,493 continuous-record stations currently being operated in 32 States. In the second step, evaluation of alternative methods of providing streamflow information, flow-routing models, and regression models were developed for estimating daily flows at 251 stations of the 3, 493 stations analyzed. In the third step of the analysis, relationships were developed between the accuracy of the

  20. Geologic map of the Sherbrooke-Lewiston area, Maine, New Hampshire, and Vermont, United States, and Quebec, Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moench, R.H.; Boone, G.M.; Bothner, W.A.; Boudette, E.L.; Hatch, N.L., Jr.; Hussey, A. M., III; Marvinney, R.G.

    1995-01-01

    This map is part of a folio of maps of the Lewiston I o x 2° quadrangle, Maine, New Hampshire, and Vermont, and part of the Sherbrooke I o x 2° quadrangle, Maine, New Hampshire, and Vermont, United States, and Quebec, Canada, prepared under the Conterminous United States Mineral Assessment Program (CUSMAP). Adjacent areas in Quebec are shown, in order to illustrate the geologic continuity between northwestern Maine and northern Vermont and New Hampshire. Other results of the project are contained in reports by Nowlan and others (1990a,b,c; stream sediment geochemistry), and Cox (1990; potential tin resources related to the White Mountain Plutonic-Volcanic Suite), Bothner and others (in press; complete Bouguer gravity and aeromagnetic maps), Moench and Boudette (in press, geologic synthesis and mineral occurrence map), and Moench (in press; metallic mineral resources).

  1. The U.S. Geological Survey land remote sensing program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saunders, T.; Feuquay, J.; Kelmelis, J.A.

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has been a provider of remotely sensed information for decades. As the availability and use of satellite data has grown, USGS has placed increasing emphasis on expanding the knowledge about the science of remote sensing and on making remotely sensed data more accessible. USGS encourages widespread availability and distribution of these data and through its programs, encourages and enables a variety of research activities and the development of useful applications of the data. The science of remote sensing has great potential for assisting in the monitoring and assessment of the impacts of natural disasters, management and analysis of environmental, biological, energy, and mineral investigations, and supporting informed public policy decisions. By establishing the Land Remote Sensing Program (LRS) as a major unit of the USGS Geography Program, USGS has taken the next step to further increase support for the accessibility, understanding, and use of remotely sensed data. This article describes the LRS Program, its mission and objectives, and how the program has been structured to accomplish its goals.

  2. ANALYSIS OF THE U. S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY STREAMGAGING NETWORK.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, Arthur G.

    1986-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results from the first 3 years of a 5-year cost-effectiveness study of the U. S. Geological Survey streamgaging network. The objective of the study is to define and document the most cost-effective means of furnishing streamflow information. In the first step of this study, data uses were identified for 3,493 continuous-record stations currently being operated in 32 States. In the second step, evaluation of alternative methods of providing streamflow information, flow-routing models, and regression models were developed for estimating daily flows at 251 stations of the 3,493 stations analyzed. In the third step of the analysis, relationships were developed between the accuracy of the streamflow records and the operating budget. The existing streamgaging networks in four Districts were further analyzed to determine the impacts that satellite telemetry would have on the cost effectiveness. Satellite telemetry was not found to be cost effective on the basis of hydrologic-data collection alone, given present cost of equipment and operation.

  3. Geographic analysis and monitoring at the United States Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Findley, J.

    2003-01-01

    The Geographic Analysis and Monitoring (GAM) Program of the U.S. Geological Survey assesses the Nation's land surface at a variety of spatial and temporal scales to understand the rates, causes, and consequences of natural and human-induced processes and their interactions that affect the landscape over time. The program plays an important role in developing National Map tools and application. The GAM is a science and synthesis program that not only assesses the rates of changes to the Earth's land surface, but also provides reports on the status and trends of the Nation's land resources on a periodic basis, produces a land-use and land- cover database for the periodically updated map and data set-the Geographic Face of the Nation, and conducts research leading to improved understanding and knowledge about geographic processes. Scientific investigations provide comprehensive information needed to understand the environmental, resource, and economic consequences of landscape change. These analyses responds to the needs of resource managers and offers the American public baseline information to help them understand the dynamic nature of our national landscape and to anticipate the opportunities and consequences of our actions.

  4. Seismicity surveys with ocean bottom seismographs off Western Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Hyndman, R.D.; Rogers, G.C.

    1981-05-10

    Three arrays of ocean bottom seismographs have been deployed to study the seismicity at the northern end of the Juan de Fuca ridge system off western Canada. Nearly 100 events were located with estimated accuracies generally better than +- 10 km, all lying on or near the en echelon ridge-transform fault plate boundaries as defined in this area by the magnetic anomalies, the seafloor morphology and by other geophysical data. The depths of 12 events were determined to lie between 2 and 6 km below the top of the crust. The seismograms exhibit clear P and S wave arrivals along with phases that involve P to S and sometimes S to P conversion probably at the base of the sediments beneath the instruments. The event magnitudes have been estimated from signal duration using four calibration events that were well recorded by a land station. The magnitude estimates permit the determination of rough magnitude-frequency of occurrence relations over the magnitude range of 1 to 3 that are in surprisingly good agreement with the recurrence relations for the area at larger magnitudes from 75 years of land station data. The mean P wave velocity in the uppermost mantle from the earthquake data recorded by the sea floor arrays is 7.6 km s/sup -1/ and the mean V/sub p//V/sub s/ ratio is 1.71 or a Poisson's ratio of 0.24.

  5. Survey of bisphenol A in bottled water products in Canada.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xu-Liang; Corriveau, Jeannette

    2008-01-01

    A method based on isotope dilution headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to assess levels of bisphenol A (BPA) in 56 samples of bottled water products sold in Canada. Levels of BPA in samples of all 51 non-polycarbonate (PC) bottled water products were lower than the method detection limit (0.50 µg l(-1)). Levels of BPA in most bottled water products in PC carboys were low, ranging from <0.50 to 1.4 µg l(-1) with an average of 0.75 µg l(-1). However, BPA was detected at levels of 8.8 and 6.5 µg l(-1) in two bottles of the bottled water products in PC carboys from the same product analysed over a 5-week period, likely due to accidental or careless exposure of the products to heat (e.g. under the sun) during storage and/or transportation for extended periods of time. PMID:24784814

  6. A Survey of Educational Acceleration Practices in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanevsky, Lannie

    2011-01-01

    A nationwide survey of Canadian school districts was undertaken to determine the extent to which 18 forms of acceleration were permitted and practiced. Of the high enrollment provinces, BC school districts' participation rates were highest in the most types of acceleration. A surprising number of districts did not allow some forms of acceleration.…

  7. U.S. Geological Survey Rewarding Environment Culture Study, 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nash, Janis C.; Paradise-Tornow, Carol A.; Gray, Vicki K.; Griffin-Bemis, Sarah P.; Agnew, Pamela R.; Bouchet, Nicole M.

    2010-01-01

    In its 2001 review of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the National Research Council (NRC, p. 126) cautioned that ?high-quality personnel are essential for developing high-quality science information? and urged the USGS to ?devote substantial efforts to recruiting and retaining excellent staff.? Recognizing the importance of the NRC recommendation, the USGS has committed time and resources to create a rewarding work environment with the goal of achieving the following valued outcomes: ? USGS science vitality ? Customer satisfaction with USGS products and services ? Employee perceptions of the USGS as a rewarding place to work ? Heightened employee morale and commitment ? The ability to recruit and retain employees with critical skills To determine whether this investment of time and resources was proving to be successful, the USGS Human Resources Office conducted a Rewarding Environment Culture Study to answer the following four questions. ? Question 1: Does a rewarding work environment lead to the valued outcomes (identified above) that the USGS is seeking? ? Question 2: Which management, supervisory, and leadership behaviors contribute most to creating a rewarding work environment and to achieving the valued outcomes that the USGS is seeking? ? Question 3: Do USGS employees perceive that the USGS is a rewarding place to work? ? Question 4: What actions can and should be taken to enhance the USGS work environment? To begin the study, a conceptual model of a rewarding USGS environment was developed to test assumptions about a rewarding work environment. The Rewarding Environment model identifies the key components that are thought to contribute to a rewarding work environment and the valued outcomes that are thought to result from having a rewarding work environment. The 2002 Organizational Assessment Survey (OAS) was used as the primary data source for the study because it provided the most readily available data. Additional survey data were included as they

  8. Instructions to rain-fall observers of U.S. Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1889-01-01

    In the prosecution of the general "survey of the arid lands for purposes of irrigation," authorized by Congress to be undertaken by the U. S. Geological Survey, a determination of the amount of water supplied by the natural rain and snow fall in different localities is of fundamental importance. To obtain this knowledge the Geological Survey must depend in large measure upon the residents, to whom the benefit of the work will accrue, for their voluntary cooperation in making; the necessary observations.

  9. Coast Salish and U.S. Geological Survey 2009 Tribal Journey water quality project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Akin, Sarah K.; Grossman, Eric E.

    2010-01-01

    The Salish Sea, contained within the United States and British Columbia, Canada, is the homeland of the Coast Salish Peoples and contains a diverse array of marine resources unique to this area that have sustained Coast Salish cultures and traditions for millennia. In July 2009, the Coast Salish People and U.S. Geological Survey conducted a second water quality study of the Salish Sea to examine spatial and temporal variability of environmental conditions of these surface waters as part of the annual Tribal Journey. Six canoes of approximately 100 towed multi parameter water-quality sondes as the Salish People traveled their ancestral waters during the middle of summer. Sea surface temperature, salinity, pH, dissolved oxygen, and turbidity were measured simultaneously at ten-second intervals, and more than 54,000 data points spanning 1,300 kilometers of the Salish Sea were collected. The project also synthesized Coast Salish ecological knowledge and culture with scientific monitoring to better understand and predict the response of coastal habitats and marine resources. Comparisons with data collected in 2008 reveal significantly higher mean surface-water temperatures in most subbasins in 2009 linked to record air temperatures that affected the Pacific Northwest in July 2009. Through large-scale spatial measurements collected each summer, the project helps to identify patterns in summer water quality, areas of water-quality impairment, and trends occurring through time.

  10. The U.S. Geological Survey World Energy Program

    SciTech Connect

    Ahlbrandt, T.S.

    1995-08-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has conducted four assessments of world oil and gas resources over the past 15 years. Recently, a new five year plan for the World Energy Program was completed. Eight regional coordinators were appointed and planning activities for a new world assessment which will include oil, natural gas and coal resources is planned within four years. Currently the program is undertaking U.S. AID sponsored collaborative work with research organizations in Russia including VINIGNI and VNIGRI. Some of the products planned for this collaborative effort include a petroleum basin map of the former Soviet Union and eventually a basin map of the world at a scale of 1:5,000,000 and databases characterizing past exploration activities in Russia. Centers are being established in Moscow and Tyumen to where state of the art seismic processing, organic geochemistry and geographic information systems will be operational. Additionally, collaborative research particularly organic geochemical studies and unconventional natural gas studies in the Timon-Pechora basin are underway. Training of Russian scientists both at the USGS and in Russia on equipment purchased for the Russian institutes has been underway for the past year. An analogous program, but at a smaller scale, focusing primarily on seismic processing and compilation of databases is underway with Ukranian geologists. Similar collaborative activities in coal research are underway in Armenian and Kyrgyzstan, and recently completed in India and Pakistan. Collaborative organic geochemical research, natural gas research with particular emphasis on basin centered gas accumulations or unconventional natural gas accumulations such as coal bed methane have been undertaken or are anticipated in several countries including Hungary, Poland, China, several Middle East countries, South America and Indonesia.

  11. Use of growth charts in Canada: A National Canadian Paediatric Surveillance Program survey

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Sarah; Cummings, Elizabeth; Chanoine, Jean-Pierre; Metzger, Daniel; Palmert, Mark; Sharma, Aul; Rodd, Celia

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In 2010, the WHO Growth Charts for Canada were recommended for use in Canada, while the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (Georgia, USA) charts remained in active use. OBJECTIVE: To assess the availability, utilization of and satisfaction with growth charts in clinical practice in Canada. METHODS: In October 2012, a one-time survey was sent through the Canadian Paediatric Surveillance Program (CPSP) to 2544 paediatricians and 280 family physicians with a stated interest in paediatrics. RESULTS: The response rate was 24% (63% general paediatricians, 36% subspecialists, 1% family physicians). Of these respondents, 68% preferred the WHO charts for infants and 49% for children and youth. Regarding the WHO charts, 49.7% of respondents reported concerns with their inability to assess weight for children >10 years of age, and many believed that there were too few percentile lines between the third and 97th percentiles for infant (24%) and for child and youth measures (19%). The addition of extreme percentiles (0.1 and 99.9), shading on charts and lack of availability with electronic medical record providers were other concerns mentioned by 10% to 13% of respondents. CONCLUSION: There is support for the use of the WHO data for monitoring the growth of Canadian children. Concerns regarding the design of the charts were raised. These survey results lend support to the redesign of the WHO Growth Charts for Canada, as was recently completed in 2014. PMID:26038634

  12. Geology

    SciTech Connect

    Reidel, Stephen P.

    2008-01-17

    This chapter summarizes the geology of the single-shell tank (SST) farms in the context of the region’s geologic history. This chapter is based on the information in the geology data package for the SST waste management areas and SST RFI Appendix E, which builds upon previous reports on the tank farm geology and Integrated Disposal Facility geology with information available after those reports were published.

  13. Serial publications commonly cited in technical bibliographies of the United States Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1967-01-01

    This compilation is a listing of the serial publications cited in the following publications of the United States Geological Survey: Geophysical Abstracts, Abstracts of North American Geology, Bibliography of North American Geology, and Bibliography of Hydrology of the United States. A supplement of publications added since the main list was compiled begins on page 83. New journals cited in Geophysical . Abstracts are listed in each monthly issue. Serial publications cited in each annual bibliography are listed in that volume.

  14. Geological assessing of urban environments with a systematic mapping survey: The 1:5000 urban geological map of Catalonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilà, Miquel; Pi, Roser; Cirés, Jordi; de Paz, Ana; Berástegui, Xavier

    2010-05-01

    The ground features of urban areas and the geologic processes that operate on them are, in general, strongly altered from their natural original condition as a result of anthropogenic activities. Assessing the stability of the ground, the flooding areas, and, the health risk as a consequence of soil pollution, are, among others, fundamental topics of urban areas that require a better understanding. The development of systematic urban geological mapping projects provides valuable resources to address these issues. Since 2007, the Institut Geologic de Catalunya (IGC) runs an urban geological mapping project, to provide accurate geologic information of county capitals and towns of more than 10000 inhabitants of Catalonia. The urban zones of 131 towns will be surveyed for this project, totalizing an area of about 2200 km2 to be mapped in 15 years. According to the 2008 census, the 82 % of the population of Catalonia (7.242.458 inhabitants) lives in the areas to be mapped in this project. The mapping project integrates in a GIS environment the following subjects: - Data from pre-existing geotechnical reports, historical geological and topographical maps and, from historical aerial photographs. - Data from available borehole databases. - Geological characterization of outcrops inside the urban network and neighbouring areas. - Geological, chemical and physical characterisation of representative rocks, sediments and soils. - Ortophotographs (0.5 m pixel size) and digital elevation models (5 meter grid size) made from historical aerial photographs, to depict land use changes, artificial deposits and geomorphological elements that are either hidden or destroyed by urban sprawl. - Detailed geological mapping of quaternary sediments, subsurface bedrock and artificial deposits. - Data from subsurface prospection in areas with insufficient or confuse data. - 3D modelling of the main geological surfaces such as the top of the pre-quaternary basement. All the gathered data is

  15. Thermal hydraulics modeling of the US Geological Survey TRIGA reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alkaabi, Ahmed K.

    The Geological Survey TRIGA reactor (GSTR) is a 1 MW Mark I TRIGA reactor located in Lakewood, Colorado. Single channel GSTR thermal hydraulics models built using RELAP5/MOD3.3, RELAP5-3D, TRACE, and COMSOL Multiphysics predict the fuel, outer clad, and coolant temperatures as a function of position in the core. The results from the RELAP5/MOD3.3, RELAP5-3D, and COMSOL models are similar. The TRACE model predicts significantly higher temperatures, potentially resulting from inappropriate convection correlations. To more accurately study the complex fluid flow patterns within the core, this research develops detailed RELAP5/MOD3.3 and COMSOL multichannel models of the GSTR core. The multichannel models predict lower fuel, outer clad, and coolant temperatures compared to the single channel models by up to 16.7°C, 4.8°C, and 9.6°C, respectively, as a result of the higher mass flow rates predicted by these models. The single channel models and the RELAP5/MOD3.3 multichannel model predict that the coolant temperatures in all fuel rings rise axially with core height, as the coolant in these models flows predominantly in the axial direction. The coolant temperatures predicted by the COMSOL multichannel model rise with core height in the B-, C-, and D-rings and peak and then decrease in the E-, F-, and G-rings, as the coolant tends to flow from the bottom sides of the core to the center of the core in this model. Experiments at the GSTR measured coolant temperatures in the GSTR core to validate the developed models. The axial temperature profiles measured in the GSTR show that the flow patterns predicted by the COMSOL multichannel model are consistent with the actual conditions in the core. Adjusting the RELAP5/MOD3.3 single and multichannel models by modifying the axial and cross-flow areas allow them to better predict the GSTR coolant temperatures; however, the adjusted models still fail to predict accurate axial temperature profiles in the E-, F-, and G-rings.

  16. U.S. Geological Survey spatial data access

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Faundeen, John L.; Kanengieter, Ronald L.; Buswell, Michael D.

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has done a progress review on improving access to its spatial data holdings over the Web. The USGS EROS Data Center has created three major Web-based interfaces to deliver spatial data to the general public; they are Earth Explorer, the Seamless Data Distribution System (SDDS), and the USGS Web Mapping Portal. Lessons were learned in developing these systems, and various resources were needed for their implementation. The USGS serves as a fact-finding agency in the U.S. Government that collects, monitors, analyzes, and provides scientific information about natural resource conditions and issues. To carry out its mission, the USGS has created and managed spatial data since its inception. Originally relying on paper maps, the USGS now uses advanced technology to produce digital representations of the Earth’s features. The spatial products of the USGS include both source and derivative data. Derivative datasets include Digital Orthophoto Quadrangles (DOQ), Digital Elevation Models, Digital Line Graphs, land-cover Digital Raster Graphics, and the seamless National Elevation Dataset. These products, created with automated processes, use aerial photographs, satellite images, or other cartographic information such as scanned paper maps as source data. With Earth Explorer, users can search multiple inventories through metadata queries and can browse satellite and DOQ imagery. They can place orders and make payment through secure credit card transactions. Some USGS spatial data can be accessed with SDDS. The SDDS uses an ArcIMS map service interface to identify the user’s areas of interest and determine the output format; it allows the user to either download the actual spatial data directly for small areas or place orders for larger areas to be delivered on media. The USGS Web Mapping Portal provides views of national and international datasets through an ArcIMS map service interface. In addition, the map portal posts news about new

  17. U.S. Geological Survey Near Real-Time Dst Index

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gannon, J.L.; Love, J.J.; Friberg, P.A.; Stewart, D.C.; Lisowski, S.W.

    2011-01-01

    The operational version of the United States Geological Survey one-minute Dst index (a global geomagnetic disturbance-intensity index for scientific studies and definition of space-weather effects) uses either four- or three-station input (including Honolulu, Hawaii; San Juan, Puerto Rico; Hermanus, South Africa; and Kakioka, Japan; or Honolulu, San Juan and Guam) and a method based on the U.S. Geological Survey definitive Dst index, in which Dst is more rigorously calculated. The method uses a combination of time-domain techniques and frequency-space filtering to produce the disturbance time series at an individual observatory. The operational output is compared to the U.S. Geological Survey one-minute Dst index (definitive version) and to the Kyoto (Japan) Final Dst to show that the U.S. Geological Survey operational output matches both definitive indices well.

  18. U.S. Geological Survey coastal and marine geology research; recent highlights and achievements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, S. Jeffress; Barnes, Peter W.; Prager, Ellen J.

    2000-01-01

    The USGS Coastal and Marine Geology Program has large-scale national and regional research projects that focus on environmental quality, geologic hazards, natural resources, and information transfer. This Circular highlights recent scientific findings of the program, which play a vital role in the USGS endeavor to understand human interactions with the natural environment and to determine how the fundamental geologic processes controlling the Earth work. The scientific knowledge acquired through USGS research and monitoring is critically needed by planners, government agencies, and the public. Effective communication of the results of this research will enable the USGS Coastal and Marine Geology Program to play an integral part in assisting the Nation in responding the pressing Earth science challenges of the 21st century.

  19. Quaternary geologic map of the Sudbury 4 degree by 6 degree quadrangle, United States and Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fullerton, David S.; Sado, Edward V., (compiler); Baker, C.L.; Farrand, William R.

    2004-01-01

    The Quaternary Geologic Map of the Sudbury 4 degrees x 6 degrees Quadrangle was mapped as part of the Quaternary Geologic Atlas of the United States. The atlas was begun as an effort to depict the areal distribution of surficial geologic deposits and other materials that accumulated or formed during the past 2+ million years, the period that includes all activities of the human species. These materials are at the surface of the earth. They make up the 'ground' on which we walk, the 'dirt' in which we dig foundations, and the 'soil' in which we grow crops. Most of our human activity is related in one way or another to these surface materials that are referred to collectively by many geologists as regolith, the mantle of fragmental and generally unconsolidated material that overlies the bedrock foundation of the continent. The maps were compiled at 1:1,000,000 scale.

  20. Quaternary geologic map of the Quebec 4 degrees x 6 degrees quadrangle, United States and Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    State compilations by Borns, H. W., Jr.; Gadd, N.R.; LaSalle, Pierre; Martineau, Ghismond; Chauvin, Luc; Fulton, R.J.; Chapman, W.F.; Wagner, W.P.; Grant, D.R.; edited and integrated by Richmond, Gerald Martin; Fullerton, David S.

    1987-01-01

    The Quaternary Geologic Map of the Quebec 4? x 6? Quadrangle was mapped as part of the Quaternary Geologic Atlas of the United States. The atlas was begun as an effort to depict the areal distribution of surficial geologic deposits and other materials that accumulated or formed during the past 2+ million years, the period that includes all activities of the human species. These materials are at the surface of the Earth. They make up the 'ground' on which we walk, the 'dirt' in which we dig foundations, and the 'soil' in which we grow crops. Most of our human activity is related in one way or another to these surface materials that are referred to collectively by many geologists as regolith, the mantle of fragmental and generally unconsolidated material that overlies the bedrock foundation of the continent. The maps were compiled at 1:1,000,000 scale.

  1. Quaternary geologic map of the Ottawa 4 degrees x 6 degrees quadrangle, United States and Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fullerton, David S.; Gadd, N. R., (compiler); Veillette, J.J.; Wagner, P.W.; Chapman, W.F.

    1993-01-01

    The Quaternary Geologic Map of the Ottawa 4 degree x 6 degree Quadrangle was mapped as part of the Quaternary Geologic Atlas of the United States. The atlas was begun as an effort to depict the areal distribution of surficial geologic deposits and other materials that accumulated or formed during the past 2+ million years, the period that includes all activities of the human species. These materials are at the surface of the earth. They make up the 'ground' on which we walk, the 'dirt' in which we dig foundations, and the 'soil' in which we grow crops. Most of our human activity is related in one way or another to these surface materials that are referred to collectively by many geologists as regolith, the mantle of fragmental and generally unconsolidated material that overlies the bedrock foundation of the continent. The maps were compiled at 1:1,000,000 scale.

  2. Quaternary geologic map of the Boston 4 degrees x 6 degrees quadrangle, United States and Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    State compilations by Hartshorn, Joseph H.; Thompson, W.B.; Chapman, W.F.; Black, R.F.; Richmond, Gerald Martin; Grant, D.R.; Fullerton, David S.; edited and integrated by Richmond, Gerald Martin

    1991-01-01

    The Quaternary Geologic Map of the Boston 4 deg x 6 deg Quadrangle was mapped as part of the Quaternary Geologic Atlas of the United States. The atlas was begun as an effort to depict the areal distribution of surficial geologic deposits and other materials that accumulated or formed during the past 2+ million years, the period that includes all activities of the human species. These materials are at the surface of the earth. They make up the 'ground' on which we walk, the 'dirt' in which we dig foundations, and the 'soil' in which we grow crops. Most of our human activity is related in one way or another to these surface materials that are referred to collectively by many geologists as regolith, the mantle of fragmental and generally unconsolidated material that overlies the bedrock foundation of the continent. The maps were compiled at 1:1,000,000 scale.

  3. Issues of geologically-focused situational awareness in robotic planetary missions: Lessons from an analogue mission at Mistastin Lake impact structure, Labrador, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonenko, I.; Osinski, G. R.; Battler, M.; Beauchamp, M.; Cupelli, L.; Chanou, A.; Francis, R.; Mader, M. M.; Marion, C.; McCullough, E.; Pickersgill, A. E.; Preston, L. J.; Shankar, B.; Unrau, T.; Veillette, D.

    2013-07-01

    Remote robotic data provides different information than that obtained from immersion in the field. This significantly affects the geological situational awareness experienced by members of a mission control science team. In order to optimize science return from planetary robotic missions, these limitations must be understood and their effects mitigated to fully leverage the field experience of scientists at mission control.Results from a 13-day analogue deployment at the Mistastin Lake impact structure in Labrador, Canada suggest that scale, relief, geological detail, and time are intertwined issues that impact the mission control science team's effectiveness in interpreting the geology of an area. These issues are evaluated and several mitigation options are suggested. Scale was found to be difficult to interpret without the reference of known objects, even when numerical scale data were available. For this reason, embedding intuitive scale-indicating features into image data is recommended. Since relief is not conveyed in 2D images, both 3D data and observations from multiple angles are required. Furthermore, the 3D data must be observed in animation or as anaglyphs, since without such assistance much of the relief information in 3D data is not communicated. Geological detail may also be missed due to the time required to collect, analyze, and request data.We also suggest that these issues can be addressed, in part, by an improved understanding of the operational time costs and benefits of scientific data collection. Robotic activities operate on inherently slow time-scales. This fact needs to be embraced and accommodated. Instead of focusing too quickly on the details of a target of interest, thereby potentially minimizing science return, time should be allocated at first to more broad data collection at that target, including preliminary surveys, multiple observations from various vantage points, and progressively smaller scale of focus. This operational model

  4. Integrated analysis of remote sensing products from basic geological surveys. [Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dasilvafagundesfilho, E. (Principal Investigator)

    1984-01-01

    Recent advances in remote sensing led to the development of several techniques to obtain image information. These techniques as effective tools in geological maping are analyzed. A strategy for optimizing the images in basic geological surveying is presented. It embraces as integrated analysis of spatial, spectral, and temporal data through photoptic (color additive viewer) and computer processing at different scales, allowing large areas survey in a fast, precise, and low cost manner.

  5. Water resources investigations of the U.S. Geological Survey in Missouri, fiscal year 1983

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kratzer, Wanietia M., (compiler)

    1983-01-01

    Water-resources investigations of the U.S. Geological Survey in Missouri consist of collecting hydrologic data and making interpretive investigations. These data and the results of the investigations are published or released by either the U.S. Geological Survey or by cooperating agencies. This report describes the data-collection activities and investigations in Missouri for the 1983 fiscal year and provides an extensive list of water-resources references for the State of Missouri. (USGS)

  6. Water-resources investigations of the U.S. Geological Survey in Missouri, fiscal year 1981

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kratzer, Wanietia M., (compiler)

    1981-01-01

    Water-resources investigations of the U.S. Geological Survey in Missouri consist of collecting hydrologic data and making interpretative investigations. The data and the results of the investigations are published or released by either the U.S. Geological Survey or by cooperating agencies. The report describes the data-collection activities and investigations in Missouri for the 1981 fiscal year and provides an extensive list of water-resources references for the State. (USGS)

  7. Mapping surficial geology and assessment of permafrost conditions under the Iqaluit airport, Nunavut, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathon-Dufour, V.; Allard, M.; Leblanc, A.; L'Hérault, E.; Oldenborger, G. A.; Sladen, W. E.

    2012-12-01

    Formerly, characterization of permafrost conditions was minimal before the construction of infrastructures. It was assumed that the permafrost would forever remain a solid substrate. Before global warming, transportation infrastructures were not designed, especially in terms of materials and dimensions, to withstand without damage an increased input of heat in the soil. Iqaluit airport, the hub of the eastern Canadian Arctic, is currently affected by thawing permafrost. In fact, the runway, taxiways and apron are affected by differential settlements resulting from the presence of localized ice-rich soils. This study uses a GIS approach that makes up for the absence of appropriate characterization before the construction of the airport during WWII and in the 1950s. Mapping of surficial geology, hydrography and landforms indicative of the presence of ground ice (e.g. tundra polygons) was produced by interpreting aerial photographs dating back from the initial phases of construction (1948) and photographs taken at intervals since then, to the most recent high-resolution satellite images. Subsequent map analysis shows that the original terrain conditions prevailing before the construction of the airport have a significant impact on the current stability of the infrastructure. Data integration allowed us to summarize the main problems affecting the Iqaluit airport which are: 1) Differential settlements associated with pre-construction drainage network 2) Cracking due to thermal contraction, 3) Linear depressions associated with ice wedge degradation and 4) Sink holes. Most of the sectors affected by differential settlements and instabilities are perfectly coincident with the original streams and lakes network that has been filled to increase the size of the runway, taxiways and the apron. In addition, the runway is affected by intense frost cracking. Similarities with nearby natural terrain suggest that the network pattern of the cracks follows pre-existing ice wedges

  8. Isotopic Approaches to Evaluate the Fate of Injected CO2 in Two Geological Storage Projects in Mature Oilfields in Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, B.; Johnson, G.; Nightingale, M.; Maurice, S.; Raistrick, M.; Taylor, S.; Hutcheon, I.; Perkins, E.

    2008-12-01

    Monitoring and verification of CO2 storage is an essential component of geological storage projects. We present evidence from two enhanced oil recovery projects in Canada that geochemical and isotopic techniques can be successfully used to trace the fate of injected CO2. Geochemical and isotopic data for fluids and gases obtained from multiple wells at the International Energy Agency Greenhouse Gas Weyburn CO2 Monitoring and Storage Project (Saskatchewan, Canada) and from the Penn West Pembina Cardium CO2-Enhanced Oil Recovery Monitoring Pilot (Alberta, Canada) were collected before and throughout the CO2 injection phase. Carbon isotope ratios of injected CO2 in the Weyburn project were significantly lower than those of background CO2 in the reservoir. In contrast, carbon isotope ratios of injected CO2 at Penn West's Pembina Cardium CO2-Enhanced Oil Recovery Monitoring Pilot were markedly higher than those of background CO2. After commencement of CO2 injection, the concentrations and carbon isotope values of CO2 and HCO3- in fluids and gases repeatedly obtained from monitoring wells were determined. Increasing CO2 and HCO3- concentrations in concert with carbon isotope values trending towards those of the injected CO2 revealed effective solubility and ionic trapping of injected CO2 at several monitoring wells at both study sites. In addition, changes in the oxygen isotope values of reservoir fluids provided independent evidence for dissolution of injected CO2 in the produced waters. We conclude that geochemical and isotopic monitoring techniques can play an essential role in verification of CO2 storage provided that the isotopic composition of the injected CO2 is distinct.

  9. Geology for a changing world 2010-2020-Implementing the U.S. Geological Survey science strategy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gundersen, Linda C.S.; Belnap, Jayne; Goldhaber, Martin; Goldstein, Arthur; Haeussler, Peter J.; Ingebritsen, S.E.; Jones, John W.; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Thieler, E. Robert; Thompson, Robert S.; Back, Judith M.

    2011-01-01

    This report describes a science strategy for the geologic activities of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for the years 2010-2020. It presents six goals with accompanying strategic actions and products that implement the science directions of USGS Circular 1309, 'Facing Tomorrow's Challenges-U.S. Geological Survey Science in the Decade 2007-2017.' These six goals focus on providing the geologic underpinning needed to wisely use our natural resources, understand and mitigate hazards and environmental change, and understand the relationship between humans and the environment. The goals emphasize the critical role of the USGS in providing long-term research, monitoring, and assessments for the Nation and the world. Further, they describe measures that must be undertaken to ensure geologic expertise and knowledge for the future. The natural science issues facing today's world are complex and cut across many scientific disciplines. The Earth is a system in which atmosphere, oceans, land, and life are all connected. Rocks and soils contain the answers to important questions about the origin of energy and mineral resources, the evolution of life, climate change, natural hazards, ecosystem structures and functions, and the movements of nutrients and toxicants. The science of geology has the power to help us understand the processes that link the physical and biological world so that we can model and forecast changes in the system. Ensuring the success of this strategy will require integration of geological knowledge with the other natural sciences and extensive collaboration across USGS science centers and with partners in Federal, State, and local agencies, academia, industry, nongovernmental organizations and, most importantly, the American public. The first four goals of this report describe the scientific issues facing society in the next 10 years and the actions and products needed to respond to these issues. The final two goals focus on the expertise and

  10. The use of U.S. Geological Survey CD-ROM-based petroleum assessments in undergraduate geology laboratories

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eves, R.L.; Davis, L.E.; Dyman, T.S.; Takahashi, K.I.

    2002-01-01

    Domestic oil production is declining and United States reliance on imported oil is increasing. America will be faced with difficult decisions that address the strategic, economic, and political consequences of its energy resources shortage. The geologically literate under-graduate student needs to be aware of current and future United States energy issues. The U.S. Geological Survey periodically provides energy assessment data via digitally-formatted CD-ROM publications. These publications are free to the public, and are well suited for use in undergraduate geology curricula. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 1995 National Assessment of United States Oil and Gas Resources (Digital Data Series or DDS-30) (Gautier and others, 1996) is an excellent resource for introducing students to the strategies of hydrocarbon exploration and for developing skills in problem-solving and evaluating real data. This paper introduces the reader to DDS-30, summarizes the essential terminology and methodology of hydrocarbon assessment, and offers examples of exercises or questions that might be used in the introductory classroom. The USGS contact point for obtaining DDS-30 and other digital assessment volumes is also provided. Completing the sample exercises in this report requires a copy of DDS-30.

  11. Obtaining maps and data from the U.S. Geological Survey*

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hallam, C.A.

    1982-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey produces a variety of resource information for the United States. This includes many data bases of particular interest to planners such as land use and terrain information prepared by the National Mapping Division, water quantity and quality data collected by Water Resources Division, and coal resource information gathered by the Geologic Division. These data are stored in various forms, and information on their availability can be obtained from appropriate offices in the U.S. Geological Survey as well as from USGS Circular 777. These data have been used for the management, development, and monitoring of our Nation's resources by Federal, State, and local agencies. ?? 1982.

  12. Chapter 50 Geology and tectonic development of the Amerasia and Canada Basins, Arctic Ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grantz, Arthur; Hart, Patrick E.; Childers, Vicki A

    2011-01-01

    Amerasia Basin is the product of two phases of counterclockwise rotational opening about a pole in the lower Mackenzie Valley of NW Canada. Phase 1 opening brought ocean–continent transition crust (serpentinized peridotite?) to near the seafloor of the proto-Amerasia Basin, created detachment on the Eskimo Lakes Fault Zone of the Canadian Arctic margin and thinned the continental crust between the fault zone and the proto-Amerasia Basin to the west, beginning about 195 Ma and ending prior to perhaps about 160 Ma. The symmetry of the proto-Amerasia Basin was disrupted by clockwise rotation of the Chukchi Microcontinent into the basin from an original position along the Eurasia margin about a pole near 72°N, 165 W about 145.5–140 Ma. Phase 2 opening enlarged the proto-Amerasia Basin by intrusion of mid-ocean ridge basalt along its axis between about 131 and 127.5 Ma. Following intrusion of the Phase 2 crust an oceanic volcanic plateau, the Alpha–Mendeleev Ridge LIP (large igneous province), was extruded over the northern Amerasia Basin from about 127 to 89–75 Ma. Emplacement of the LIP halved the area of the Amerasia Basin, and the area lying south of the LIP became the Canada Basin.

  13. Racialized identity and health in Canada: results from a nationally representative survey.

    PubMed

    Veenstra, Gerry

    2009-08-01

    This article uses survey data to investigate health effects of racialization in Canada. The operative sample was comprised of 91,123 Canadians aged 25 and older who completed the 2003 Canadian Community Health Survey. A "racial and cultural background" survey question contributed a variable that differentiated respondents who identified with Aboriginal, Black, Chinese, Filipino, Latin American, South Asian, White, or jointly Aboriginal and White racial/cultural backgrounds. Indicators of diabetes, hypertension and self-rated health were used to assess health. The healthy immigrant effect suppressed some disparity in risk for diabetes by racial/cultural identification. In logistic regression models also containing gender, age, and immigrant status, no racial/cultural identifications corresponded with significantly better health outcomes than those reported by survey respondents identifying as White. Subsequent models indicated that residential locale did little to explain the associations between racial/cultural background and health and that socioeconomic status was only implicated in relatively poor health outcomes for respondents identifying as Aboriginal or Aboriginal/White. Sizable and statistically significant relative risks for poor health for respondents identifying as Aboriginal, Aboriginal/White, Black, Chinese, or South Asian remained unexplained by the models, suggesting that other explanations for health disparities by racialized identity in Canada - perhaps pertaining to experiences with institutional racism and/or the wear and tear of experiences of racism and discrimination in everyday life - also deserve empirical investigation in this context. PMID:19560246

  14. Groundwater contaminant science activities of the U.S. Geological Survey in New England

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weiskel, Peter K.

    2016-01-01

    Aquifers in New England provide water for human needs and natural ecosystems. In some areas, however, aquifers have been degraded by contaminants from geologic and human sources. In recent decades, the U.S. Geological Survey has been a leader in describing contaminant occurrence in the bedrock and surficial aquifers of New England. In cooperation with Federal, State, and local agencies, the U.S. Geological Survey has also studied the vulnerability of groundwater to contaminants, the factors affecting the geographic distribution of contaminants, and the geochemical processes controlling contaminant transport and fate. This fact sheet describes some of the major science needs in the region related to groundwater contaminants and highlights recent U.S. Geological Survey studies that provide a foundation for future investigations.

  15. Quaternary Geologic Map of the Regina 4 Degrees x 6 Degrees Quadrangle, United States and Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fullerton, David S.; Christiansen, Earl A.; Schreiner, Bryan T.; Colton, Roger B.; Clayton, Lee; Bush, Charles A.

    2007-01-01

    For scientific purposes, the map differentiates Quaternary surficial deposits and materials on the basis of clast lithology or composition, matrix texture or particle size, structure, genesis, stratigraphic relations, engineering geologic properties, and relative age, as shown on the correlation diagram and indicated in the 'Description of Map Units'. Deposits of some constructional landforms, such as end moraines, are distinguished as map units. Deposits of erosional landforms, such as outwash terraces, are not distinguished, although glaciofluvial, ice-contact, fluvial, and lacustrine deposits that are mapped may be terraced. Differentiation of sequences of fluvial and glaciofluvial deposits at this scale is not possible. For practical purposes, the map is a surficial materials map. Materials are distinguished on the basis of lithology or composition, texture or particle size, and other physical, chemical, and engineering characteristics. It is not a map of soils that are recognized and classified in pedology or agronomy. Rather, it is a generalized map of soils as recognized in engineering geology, or of substrata or parent materials in which pedologic or agronomic soils are formed. As a materials map, it serves as a base from which a variety of maps for use in planning engineering, land-use planning, or land-management projects can be derived and from which a variety of maps relating to earth surface processes and Quaternary geologic history can be derived.

  16. Framework for a U.S. Geological Survey Hydrologic Climate-Response Program in Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hodgkins, Glenn A.; Lent, Robert M.; Dudley, Robert W.; Schalk, Charles W.

    2009-01-01

    It is important to monitor hydrologic systems in the United States that could change dramatically over the short term as a result of climate change. Many ecological effects of climate change can be understood only if hydrologic data networks are in place. Because of its humid, temperate climate and its substantial annual snowpack, Maine's seasonal water cycle is sensitive to air temperature changes (Hodgkins and others, 2003). Monitoring of relevant hydrologic data would provide important baseline information against which future climate change can be measured. A series of recent investigations by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has documented changes in several components of the water cycle, including earlier snowmelt runoff in Maine during the last 30 to 40 years (Hodgkins and others, 2003), earlier lake- and river-ice breakups (Hodgkins and others, 2002; Hodgkins and others, 2005), and a denser and thinner late-winter snowpack (Hodgkins and Dudley, 2006). Snowmelt runoff timing was measured as the date, each year, by which half of the total winter-spring streamflow passed a streamflow-gaging station. Historical snowmelt runoff timing for the Piscataquis River in central Maine is shown in figure 1 as an example. Results of climate projections input to hydrologic models indicate that hydrologic trends, such as earlier spring snowmelt runoff, are expected to continue into the future (Hayhoe and others, 2007). These trends could affect species at the southern edge of their range in Maine, such as Atlantic salmon and Canada lynx, and may also affect availability of water for human use. This fact sheet describes the framework of a hydrologic climate-response program that would improve understanding of the effects of future climate change in Maine.

  17. The Geologic Story of Canyonlands National Park. Geological Survey Bulletin 1327.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohman, S. W.

    In 1964, Canyonlands was established as the 32nd U.S. national park, covering 400 square miles at the junction of the Green and Colorado Rivers in Utah. This booklet gives the early history of the area, a summary of the geologic history of the park, and a description of the high mesas, benchlands, and canyons. There are 81 illustrations including…

  18. To the Application of LiDAR to Detect the Geological Structures in Sulphurets Property, British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koohzare, A.; Rezaeian, M.; McIntosh, A.

    2009-05-01

    The Kerr Sulphurets property in North Western British Columbia has been explored primarily as a placer gold holding since the 1880s; and, potentially includes one of Canada's largest gold deposits (e.g. the Mitchell Zone). The Sulphurets camp has been classified by Taylor in 2007 as a prominent global epithermal high-sulphidation subtype with 10 million tonnes of ore (reserves + production) containing approximately 10 g/t gold. The geological and geophysical observations of this deposit indicate intrusion- related mineralized veins which are known to overlap as the result of structural complexities. Faulting predates mineralization and alteration and dramatically dominates the location of the mineralization for this porphyry- epithermal high-sulphidation deposit (Britton and Alldrick 1988, British Columbia Ministry of Energy, Mines and Petroleum Resources, 1992; Margolis, 1993). However, the surface trace of these structures and lineaments within the site is obscured by vegetation, glacial cover and steep topographic relief. We used high resolution LiDAR airborne bare-earth sensing (vegetative data deleted) in an effort to detect the surface geological features and lineaments in the Kerr Sulphurets site. The LiDAR flight was designed to acquire high density data with 2 points per square meter using a 150 kHz multipulse system. High resolution LiDAR data provides a level of detail not achievable by other digital terrain modelling techniques, whether extracted from aerial photography, low-resolution topographic contour maps, 10-30 meter USGS, or SRTM digital elevation models. LiDAR bare-earth data spectacularly revealed hidden geological structures within the property district, which in turn assisted in identifying the high potential zones for mineralization in Sulphurets.

  19. NASA Earth Resources Survey Symposium. Volume 1-B: Geology, Information Systems and Services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A symposium was conducted on the practical applications of earth resources survey technology including utilization and results of data from programs involving LANDSAT, the Skylab earth resources experiment package, and aircraft. Topics discussed include geological structure, landform surveys, energy and extractive resources, and information systems and services.

  20. Survey of nine surface mines in North America. [Nine different mines in USA and Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, L.G.; Brackett, R.D.; Floyd, F.D.

    1981-01-01

    This report presents the information gathered by three mining engineers in a 1980 survey of nine surface mines in the United States and Canada. The mines visited included seven coal mines, one copper mine, and one tar sands mine selected as representative of present state of the art in open pit, strip, and terrace pit mining. The purpose of the survey was to investigate mining methods, equipment requirements, operating costs, reclamation procedures and costs, and other aspects of current surface mining practices in order to acquire basic data for a study comparing conventional and terrace pit mining methods, particularly in deeper overburdens. The survey was conducted as part of a project under DOE Contract No. DE-AC01-79ET10023 titled The Development of Optimal Terrace Pit Coal Mining Systems.

  1. Canada's health promotion survey as a milestone in public health research.

    PubMed

    Rootman, Irving; Warren, Reg; Catlin, Gary

    2010-01-01

    This commentary describes the contribution of the 1985 Canadian National Health Promotion Survey to the development of public health research and policy-making in Canada and argues that on the basis of that contribution, it should be considered to be a public health research milestone. In terms of research, among its contributions which subsequently have been adopted in other survey studies were: going beyond risk factors to operationalize concepts implicit in the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion; empowering users to participate in knowledge translation, sharing and transfer; ensuring sufficient sample sizes for each jurisdiction to be able to confidently generalize to its population; establishing a model as well as questions for subsequent health surveys; encouraging widespread use of data through making them available early; and developing and using an explicit social marketing strategy to reach target audiences, including the general public. With regard to policy-making, among its contributions which have been adopted were: using survey data to develop and enhance healthy public policy initiatives; encouraging researchers to work with policy-makers in developing policies; using survey data to contribute to the evaluation of public health initiatives; engaging policy-makers in the development of surveys; and encouraging the use of survey data for advocacy. PMID:21370775

  2. Geological and meteorological controls on icing (aufeis) dynamics (1985 to 2014) in subarctic Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morse, P. D.; Wolfe, S. A.

    2015-09-01

    Icings are widespread yet poorly understood winter hydrological phenomena that develop over the winter by freezing successive overflows of groundwater to the surface. Groundwater hydrology in arctic regions is constrained by geological setting and permafrost extent, and overflows are possibly driven by cold winters, winter warming intervals, high antecedent autumn rainfall, and low early winter snowfall. Consequently, icings are spatially recurrent but not necessarily annually nor to the same extent. We test the significance of identified meteorological forcing variables against a long-term data set of icing dynamics and distribution we developed for the Great Slave region around Yellowknife, Northwest Territories. Climate is regionally consistent, but variable geology and permafrost create hydrological conditions representative of much of the subarctic. We mapped 5500 icings in the study area (21,887 km2) with a semiautomated approach utilizing late spring Landsat archival images (1985 to 2014). Individual icing size, ranging 3 orders of magnitude (1.8 × 10-3 km2 to 4.1 km2), is related to return frequency. Infrequent ice (25% return frequency) accounts for 94% of the total icing area (86 km2). Winter warming intervals (≥5°C; typically over 1-3 days) and autumn rainfall (September and October) explain 28% of icing density interannual variation overall. Interannual icing variation and significant meteorological forcing variables differ among ecoregions where varied geological settings and permafrost conditions influence the hydrological regime. Future icings may develop less frequently due to decreasing winter warming intervals, but increasing autumn rainfall may increase icing density where Canadian Shield leads to strong threshold-mediated runoff generation processes.

  3. The Business of Urban Animals Survey: The facts and statistics on companion animals in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Perrin, Terri

    2009-01-01

    At the first Banff Summit for Urban Animal Strategies (BSUAS) in 2006, delegates clearly indicated that a lack of reliable Canadian statistics hampers municipal leaders and legislators in their efforts to develop urban animal strategies that create and sustain a healthy community for pets and people. To gain a better understanding of the situation, BSUAS municipal delegates and other industry stakeholders partnered with Ipsos Reid, one of the world’s leading polling firms, to conduct a national survey on the “Business of Urban Animals.” The results of the survey, summarized in this article, were presented at the BSUAS meeting in October 2008. In addition, each participating community will receive a comprehensive written analysis, as well as a customized report. The online survey was conducted from September 22 to October 1, 2008. There were 7208 participants, including 3973 pet and 3235 non-pet owners from the Ipsos-Reid’s proprietary Canadian online panel. The national results were weighted to reflect the true population distribution across Canada and the panel was balanced on all major demographics to mirror Statistics Canada census information. The margin for error for the national results is 1/− 1.15%. PMID:19337613

  4. Uncertainty in mapped geological boundaries held by a national geological survey:eliciting the geologists' tacit error model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lark, R. M.; Lawley, R. S.; Barron, A. J. M.; Aldiss, D. T.; Ambrose, K.; Cooper, A. H.; Lee, J. R.; Waters, C. N.

    2015-06-01

    It is generally accepted that geological line work, such as mapped boundaries, are uncertain for various reasons. It is difficult to quantify this uncertainty directly, because the investigation of error in a boundary at a single location may be costly and time consuming, and many such observations are needed to estimate an uncertainty model with confidence. However, it is recognized across many disciplines that experts generally have a tacit model of the uncertainty of information that they produce (interpretations, diagnoses, etc.) and formal methods exist to extract this model in usable form by elicitation. In this paper we report a trial in which uncertainty models for geological boundaries mapped by geologists of the British Geological Survey (BGS) in six geological scenarios were elicited from a group of five experienced BGS geologists. In five cases a consensus distribution was obtained, which reflected both the initial individually elicited distribution and a structured process of group discussion in which individuals revised their opinions. In a sixth case a consensus was not reached. This concerned a boundary between superficial deposits where the geometry of the contact is hard to visualize. The trial showed that the geologists' tacit model of uncertainty in mapped boundaries reflects factors in addition to the cartographic error usually treated by buffering line work or in written guidance on its application. It suggests that further application of elicitation, to scenarios at an appropriate level of generalization, could be useful to provide working error models for the application and interpretation of line work.

  5. Boundary|Time|Surface: Art and Geology Meet in Gros Morne National Park, NL, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lancaster, Sydney; Waldron, John

    2015-04-01

    Environmental Art works range in scope from major permanent interventions in the landscape to less intrusive, more ephemeral site-specific installations constructed of materials from the local environment. Despite this range of intervention, however, these works all share in a tradition of art making that situates the artwork in direct response to the surrounding landscape. Andy Goldsworthy and Richard Long, for example, both favour methods that combine elements of both sculpture and performance in the creation of non-permanent interventions in the landscape, and both rely upon photographic, text-based, or video documentation as the only lasting indication of the works' existence. Similarly, Earth Scientists are responsible for interventions in the landscape, both physical and conceptual. For example, in Earth science, the periods of the geologic timescale - Cambrian, Ordovician, Silurian, etc. - were established by 19th century pioneers of geology at a time when they were believed to represent natural chapters in Earth history. Since the mid-20th century, stratigraphers have attempted to resolve ambiguities in the original definitions by defining stratotypes: sections of continuously deposited strata where a single horizon is chosen as a boundary. One such international stratotype, marking the Cambrian-Ordovician boundary, is defined at Green Point in Gros Morne National Park, Newfoundland. Boundary|Time|Surface was an ephemeral sculptural installation work constructed in June 2014. The main installation work was a fence of 52 vertical driftwood poles, 2-3 m tall, positioned precisely along the boundary stratotype horizon at Green Point in Newfoundland. The fence extended across a 150 m wave-cut platform from sea cliffs to the low-water mark, separating Ordovician from Cambrian strata. The installation was constructed by hand (with volunteer assistance) on June 22, as the wave-cut platform was exposed by the falling tide. During the remainder of the tidal cycle

  6. Survey of public perceptions of prion disease risks in Canada: what does the public care about?

    PubMed

    Lemyre, L; Gibson, S; Markon, M P L; Lee, J E C; Brazeau, I; Carroll, A; Boutette, P; Krewski, D

    2009-01-01

    A national public survey on public perceptions of prion disease risk in Canada was conducted from October to December 2007. The survey aimed at documenting the public's perceptions of prion diseases, within the broader context of food safety, in establishing parameters of risk acceptability. It also documented the public's perceptions of prion diseases in delineating social values and ethics that can guide Canada's future policies on prion disease risk management. In addition, the survey served to establish baseline data against which to monitor the evolution of the public's views on and understanding of this important risk issue. In total, 1517 Canadians were randomly selected to be representative of the adult population by region, age, and gender, as per the 2001 Census. This study presents descriptive findings from the survey regarding perceived risk, perceived control, uncertainty, sources of information, trust and knowledge, and beliefs pertaining to bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). The survey data reveal that Canadians do not perceive mad cow disease as a salient risk but consider it more of an economic, political, social, and foreign trade issue than a public health one. Canadians are somewhat prepared to pay a premium to have a safer food supply, but not to the same extent that they desire extra measures pertaining to BSE risk management. In the context of increasing accountability in risk management decisions about food safety and population health issues, it is important to understand the way Canadians perceive such matters and identify their information needs and the factors that influence the acceptability of risks and of risk management policies. PMID:19697248

  7. Quaternary Geologic Map of the Lake Nipigon 4 Degrees x 6 Degrees Quadrangle, United States and Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sado, Edward V., (compiler); Fullerton, David S.; Farrand, William R.; Edited and Integrated by Fullerton, David S.

    1994-01-01

    The Quaternary Geologic Map of the Lake Nipigon 4 degree x 6 degree Quadrangle was mapped as part of the Quaternary Geologic Atlas of the United States. The atlas was begun as an effort to depict the areal distribution of surficial geologic deposits and other materials that accumulated or formed during the past 2+ million years, the period that includes all activities of the human species. These materials are at the surface of the earth. They make up the 'ground' on which we walk, the 'dirt' in which we dig foundations, and the 'soil' in which we grow crops. Most of our human activity is related in one way or another to these surface materials that are referred to collectively by many geologists as regolith, the mantle of fragmental and generally unconsolidated material that overlies the bedrock foundation of the continent. The maps were compiled at 1:1,000,000 scale. This map is a product of collaboration of the Ontario Geological Survey, the University of Michigan, and the U.S. Geological Survey, and is designed for both scientific and practical purposes. It was prepared in two stages. First, separate maps and map explanations were prepared by the compilers. Second, the maps were combined, integrated, and supplemented by the editor. Map unit symbols were revised to a uniform system of classification and the map unit descriptions were prepared by the editor from information received from the compilers and from additional sources listed under Sources of Information. Diagrams accompanying the map were prepared by the editor. For scientific purposes, the map differentiates Quaternary surficial deposits on the basis of lithology or composition, texture or particle size, structure, genesis, stratigraphic relationships, engineering geologic properties, and relative age, as shown on the correlation diagram and indicated in the map unit descriptions. Deposits of some constructional landforms, such as kame moraine deposits, are distinguished as map units. Deposits of

  8. Geology and diagenetic history of overpressured sandstone reservoirs, Venture Gas field, offshore Nova Scotia, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Jansa, L.F. Dalhousie Univ., Halifax, Nova Scotia ); Urrea V.H.N. )

    1990-10-01

    Deep exploratory wells in the Scotian Basin, offshore Nova Scotia, Canada, have encountered overpressured formations with pressures 1.9 {times} the normal hydrostatic gradient. The overpressures occur over an area of approximately 10,000 km{sup 2}. In the Venture field, the abnormal pressures are confined below a depth of 4,500 m and are associated with Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous gas- and condensate-bearing sandstone reservoirs. The overpressures occur within normally compacted shales containing numerous overpressured sandstone reservoir beds. The development of overpressures, seals, and secondary reservoirs are all diagenetically driven. Three secondary porosity depth levels, which top at 2,500 m (65C), 3,700 m (95C), and 4,600 m (130C), correlate with major steps in the organic matter maturation in the basin. Secondary porosity is initially achieved by aluminosilicate dissolution, with ferroan sparry calcite cement dissolution dominating below 4,000 m. Porosity enhancement and preservation is not the result of a single diagenetic event but instead the result of a series of diagenetic events that overlapped in time. Formation of dynamic diagenetic barriers within the zone of peak gas generation helps retard the diffusive migration of hydrocarbons and other fluids expelled during shale diagenesis resulting in pressure build up. The preservation of up to 32% porosity under 500-1,000 atm of pressure could not be achieved without simultaneous pressuring of developing voids. Significant for hydrocarbon exploration is that Venture-type diagenetic overpressures are not associated with undercompacted sediments and, hence, they cannot be predicted from compaction trends during drilling. Petrographic diagenetic, and lithofacies studies can be instrumental in predicting potential areas of deep subsurface secondary reservoirs dependent.

  9. Fifty-first annual report of the Director of the Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, George Otis

    1930-01-01

    The appropriations made directly for the work of the Geological Survey for the fiscal year 1930 included 13 items, amounting to $2,182,671. In addition $150,000 was appropriated for printing and binding for the Geological Survey, and an allotment of $12,960 for miscellaneous supplies was made from appropriations for the Interior Department. A detailed statement of the amounts appropriated and expended is given at the end of the report. The balance on July 31 was $8,149. The total amount of funds made available for disbursement by the Geological Survey, together with State funds directly disbursed for work administered by the Federal officials, was $4,212,294.

  10. Geological, Geochemical, and Geophysical Studies by the U.S. Geological Survey in Big Bend National Park, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gray, J. E., (Edited By); Page, W.R.

    2008-01-01

    Big Bend National Park (BBNP), Tex., covers 801,163 acres (3,242 km2) and was established in 1944 through a transfer of land from the State of Texas to the United States. The park is located along a 118-mile (190-km) stretch of the Rio Grande at the United States-Mexico border. The park is in the Chihuahuan Desert, an ecosystem with high mountain ranges and basin environments containing a wide variety of native plants and animals, including more than 1,200 species of plants, more than 450 species of birds, 56 species of reptiles, and 75 species of mammals. In addition, the geology of BBNP, which varies widely from high mountains to broad open lowland basins, also enhances the beauty of the park. For example, the park contains the Chisos Mountains, which are dominantly composed of thick outcrops of Tertiary extrusive and intrusive igneous rocks that reach an altitude of 7,832 ft (2,387 m) and are considered the southernmost mountain range in the United States. Geologic features in BBNP provide opportunities to study the formation of mineral deposits and their environmental effects; the origin and formation of sedimentary and igneous rocks; Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic fossils; and surface and ground water resources. Mineral deposits in and around BBNP contain commodities such as mercury (Hg), uranium (U), and fluorine (F), but of these, the only significant mining has been for Hg. Because of the biological and geological diversity of BBNP, more than 350,000 tourists visit the park each year. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been investigating a number of broad and diverse geologic, geochemical, and geophysical topics in BBNP to provide fundamental information needed by the National Park Service (NPS) to address resource management goals in this park. Scientists from the USGS Mineral Resources and National Cooperative Geologic Mapping Programs have been working cooperatively with the NPS and several universities on several research studies within BBNP

  11. Sci—Thur PM: Imaging — 06: Canada's National Computed Tomography (CT) Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Wardlaw, GM; Martel, N; Blackler, W; Asselin, J-F

    2014-08-15

    The value of computed tomography (CT) in medical imaging is reflected in its' increased use and availability since the early 1990's; however, given CT's relatively larger exposures (vs. planar x-ray) greater care must be taken to ensure that CT procedures are optimised in terms of providing the smallest dose possible while maintaining sufficient diagnostic image quality. The development of CT Diagnostic Reference Levels (DRLs) supports this process. DRLs have been suggested/supported by international/national bodies since the early 1990's and widely adopted elsewhere, but not on a national basis in Canada. Essentially, CT DRLs provide guidance on what is considered good practice for common CT exams, but require a representative sample of CT examination data to make any recommendations. Canada's National CT Survey project, in collaboration with provincial/territorial authorities, has collected a large national sample of CT practice data for 7 common examinations (with associated clinical indications) of both adult and pediatric patients. Following completion of data entry into a common database, a survey summary report and recommendations will be made on CT DRLs from this data. It is hoped that these can then be used by local regions to promote CT practice optimisation and support any dose reduction initiatives.

  12. Geologic reservoir model for the Triassic Doig Formation, northeast British Columbia, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Moslow, T.F. ); Munroe, H.D. )

    1991-03-01

    A subsurface investigation of the mid-Triassic Doig formation in northeastern British Columbia documented two main reservoir facies. Both are a product of mass movement and sediment gravity flow processes on a progradational, tectonically active continental shelf margin. Substrate instability was likely a product of sediment loading, perhaps in concert with seismic activity. Sedimentary facies and reservoir parameters were determined from analysis of approximately 150 cores and 900 well logs. Laterally discontinuous Doig sandstones are up to 60 m thick and trend northeasterly within the study area. The main reservoir facies are incised density flow deposits and laterally extensive slump deposits. Reservoir quality within these sands is extremely variable with porosity ranging from less than 5% to 15%. In core, these deposits consist of moderately well sorted, very fine grained sandstones with no vertical grain size variation. The best production to date is in the Buick Creek field with initial flows of 346 BOPD. The slump deposits are thinner and tend to be more elongate parallel to paleoshoreline. These sands were subject to some wave or current reworking. Modern analogs where similar processes and products of deposition are known to occur include the Gulf of Alaska continental shelf and the Fraser River Delta slope. Doig sandstones usually are enclosed in fine-grained shelf deposits that provide a good stratigraphic trapping mechanism. Successful development of Doig reservoirs must incorporate geologic modes that assist in understanding the complex and highly variable reservoir quality of sandstones units.

  13. The geology and emplacement history of the Pigeon kimberlite, EKATI Diamond Mine, Northwest Territories, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, Barbara; Hetman, Casey; Nowicki, Tom; Baumgartner, Mike; Harrison, Sara

    2009-11-01

    The Pigeon kimberlite is located approximately 6 km to the northwest of the Koala cluster of the EKATI Diamond Mine, and is presently one of ten kimberlite occurrences in the EKATI resource development plan. It was emplaced along a regional lithological contact between syn-Yellowknife Supergroup granitoid rocks and Yellowknife Supergroup metasedimentary rocks that were covered by a now eroded veneer of poorly consolidated muddy sediments. Detailed age dating has not been undertaken, however the emplacement age is inferred from sedimentary xenoliths present within the pipe to range between 45-75 Ma. Pigeon is a small kimberlite body, estimated to be approximately 3.5 ha at surface, consisting of a steep-sided pipe that can be separated into four main geological domains that are characterized by contrasting textures, different diamond characteristics and unique mineral abundance and compositional signatures. The uppermost portion of the body consists of mud-rich resedimented volcaniclastic kimberlite that was formed by the deposition of extra crater deposits by debris flow type processes into an open diatreme. Texturally complex kimberlite is present within the lower portion of the kimberlite and includes rocks that display a range of features consistent with coherent (magmatic) and less common volcaniclastic (fragmental) rocks. This texturally complex zone is interpreted to represent a clastogenic deposit formed by a low energy eruption within an open diatreme.

  14. Fifty-second annual report of the Director of the Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, George Otis

    1931-01-01

    The appropriations made directly :for the work of the Geological Survey for the fiscal year 1931 included 17 items, amounting to $2,869,990.85. In addition there was allotted $13,013.75 for miscellaneous supplies from appropriations for the Interior Department. A detailed statement of the amounts appropriated and expended is given at the end of the report. The balance on July 31 was $171,300.31. The total amount of funds made available for disbursement by the Geological Survey, together with State funds directly disbursed for work administered by the Federal officials, was $4,842,151.02.

  15. Forty-eighth annual report of the Director of the Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, George Otis

    1927-01-01

    The appropriations made directly for the work of the Geological Survey for the fiscal year 1927 included 10 items, amounting to $1,819,440. In addition $81,000 was appropriated for printing the reports of the Geological Survey, and $11,000 for miscellaneous printing and binding, and an allotment of $13,707 for miscellaneous supplies was made from appropriations for the Interior Department. A detailed statement of the amounts appropriated and expended is given at the end of this report. The balance on August 30, including a budget reserve of $26,620, was $51,331.24.

  16. Support by the U.S. Geological Survey for adjudications, compacts, and treaties

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Condes de la Torre, Alberto

    1982-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey supports interstate compacts, treaties, and court decrees by providing hydrologic data and analysis needed in their administration and by providing Federal representation on compact commissions. As part of this program, in fiscal year 1982 the Geological Survey operated 171 streamflow stations, 3 sediment stations, and 13 water-quality stations, and conducted ground-water studies at a cost of $1,014,000. Funding for Federal representation to i0 interstate compacts is presently budgeted at $56,000.

  17. Water-resources activities of the U.S. Geological Survey in Missouri, fiscal year 1985

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kratzer, W.M.; Jenkins, K.L.

    1985-01-01

    Water-resource activities of the U.S. Geological Survey in Missouri consist of collecting hydrologic data and making interpretive studies. These projects are funded through joint-funding agreements with State and local agencies, transfer of funds from other Federal agencies, and direct Federal funds. These data and the results of the investigations are published or released by either the U.S. Geological Survey or by cooperating agencies. This report describes the hydrologic data-collection program and local or areal investigations in Missouri for fiscal year 1985 and provides a list of selected water-resources references for Missouri. (USGS)

  18. The Black Mountain tectonic zone--a reactivated northeast-trending crustal shear zone in the Yukon-Tanana Upland of east-central Alaska: Chapter D in Recent U.S. Geological Survey studies in the Tintina Gold Province, Alaska, United States, and Yukon, Canada--results of a 5-year project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Neill, J. Michael; Day, Warren C.; Alienikoff, John N.; Saltus, Richard W.

    2007-01-01

    The Black Mountain tectonic zone in the YukonTanana terrane of east-central Alaska is a belt of diverse northeast-trending geologic features that can been traced across Black Mountain in the southeast corner of the Big Delta 1°×3° degree quadrangle. Geologic mapping in the larger scale B1 quadrangle of the Big Delta quadrangle, in which Black Mountain is the principal physiographic feature, has revealed a continuous zone of normal and left-lateral strikeslip high-angle faults and shear zones, some of which have late Tertiary to Quaternary displacement histories. The tectonic zone includes complexly intruded wall rocks and intermingled apophyses of the contiguous mid-Cretaceous Goodpaster and Mount Harper granodioritic plutons, mafic to intermediate composite dike swarms, precious metal mineralization, early Tertiary volcanic activity and Quaternary fault scarps. These structures define a zone as much as 6 to 13 kilometers (km) wide and more than 40 km long that can be traced diagonally across the B1 quadrangle into the adjacent Eagle 1°×3° quadrangle to the east. Recurrent activity along the tectonic zone, from at least mid-Cretaceous to Quaternary, suggests the presence of a buried, fundamental tectonic feature beneath the zone that has influenced the tectonic development of this part of the Yukon-Tanana terrane. The tectonic zone, centered on Black Mountain, lies directly above a profound northeast-trending aeromagnetic anomaly between the Denali and Tintina fault systems. The anomaly separates moderate to strongly magnetic terrane on the northwest from a huge, weakly magnetic terrane on the southeast. The tectonic zone is parallel to the similarly oriented left-lateral, strike-slip Shaw Creek fault zone 85 km to the west.

  19. Magnetic HGI, radiometric surveys prove cost-effective in W. Canada

    SciTech Connect

    LeSchack, L.A.

    1997-05-26

    The Rumsey Leduc reef (Late Devonian) in Central Alberta is an after-the-fact case history that illustrates the congruence of horizontal gradient intensity and seismic anomalies. The Rumsey reef is situated on the Feen-Big Valley Shoal near Stettler, Alberta. The geology of that shoal was described by Andrichuk. Andrichuk observed that at least 30 m of secondary dolomites indicative of subsequent Leduc reef formation can be seen underlying the Erskine, Stettler, Fenn, and Big Valley Leduc reef fields on the shoal. They further suggested that because this dolomitic trend extends about 7 miles southwest of Big Valley field, that area to the southwest may well contain productive reef buildups as yet undiscovered (in 1958). The Rumsey reef, discovered in that are in 1982, is the most significant new productive Leduc build-up discovered on the shoal since 1958. Subsequent to the Rumsey discovery, Gulf conducted a 3D seismic survey to determine the full extent of the reef. In 1994 Gulf participated in a joint project with the author to share and make public the 3D survey in exchange for the author`s HGI and DRAD survey of the same area. Gulf provided the 3D survey only after the author presented his survey results. The paper discusses results from these surveys as well as survey costs.

  20. Surface-water, ground-water, and sediment geochemistry of epizonal and shear-hosted mineral deposits in the Tintina Gold Province--arsenic and antimony distribution and mobility: Chapter G in Recent U.S. Geological Survey studies in the Tintina Gold Province, Alaska, United States, and Yukon, Canada--results of a 5-year project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mueller, Seth H.; Goldfarb, Richard J.; Verplanck, Philip L.; Trainor, Thomas P.; Sanzolone, Richard F.; Adams, Monique

    2007-01-01

    Epigenetic mineral deposits in the Tintina Gold Province are generally characterized by high concentrations of arsenic and antimony in their mineral assemblage. A total of 347 samples (ground water, surface water, and stream sediment) were collected to investigate the distribution and mobility of arsenic and antimony in the environment near known mineral deposits. Samples were collected from east to west at Keno Hill and Brewery Creek, Yukon, Canada; and Cleary Hill, True North, Scrafford Mine, Fairbanks, Ryan Lode, Stampede Creek, Slate Creek, and Donlin Creek, all in Alaska. Surface- and ground-water samples are all slightly acidic to near-neutral in pH (5-8), have a wide range in specific conductance (surface water 17-2,980 microsiemens per centimeter and ground water 170-2,940 microsiemens per centimeter), and show elevated dissolved arsenic and antimony concentrations (arsenic in surface water is less than 1 to 380 micrograms per liter and in ground water is less than 1 micrograms per liter to 1.5 milligrams per liter; antimony in surface water is less than 2 to 660 micrograms per liter and in ground water is less than 2 to 60 micrograms per liter). Stream sediments downstream from these deposits have high concentrations of arsenic and antimony (arsenic median is 1,670 parts per million, maximum is 10,000 parts per million; antimony median is 192 parts per million, maximum is 7,200 parts per million). The mobility of arsenic and antimony is controlled by the local redox environment, with arsenic being less mobile in oxidized surface waters relative to antimony, and arsenic more mobile in reduced ground water. These factors suggest that both antimony and arsenic may be useful pathfinder elements in water and sediment for targeting similar style deposits elsewhere in the Tintina Gold Province.

  1. U. S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY'S NATIONAL REAL-TIME HYDROLOGIC INFORMATION SYSTEM USING GOES SATELLITE TECHNOLOGY.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shope, William G., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The U. S. Geological Survey maintains the basic hydrologic data collection system for the United States. The Survey is upgrading the collection system with electronic communications technologies that acquire, telemeter, process, and disseminate hydrologic data in near real-time. These technologies include satellite communications via the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite, Data Collection Platforms in operation at over 1400 Survey gaging stations, Direct-Readout Ground Stations at nine Survey District Offices and a network of powerful minicomputers that allows data to be processed and disseminate quickly.

  2. Application of reservoir geology of enhanced oil recovery from upper Devonian Nisku Reefs, Alberta, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Watts, N.R. ); Coppold, M.P. , Calgary, Alberta ); Douglas, J.L. )

    1994-01-01

    The Upper Devonian West Pembina reef trend of west-central Alberta contains recoverable reserves of over 79 x 10[sup 6] m[sup 3] (500 million bbl) of oil and 1.4 x 10[sup 10] m[sup 3] (500 billion ft[sup 3]) of gas within approximately 50 pinnacle reefs in the Nisku Formation. Although the oil is saturated with gas at original reservoir pressure, primary depletion would soon lower the reservoir pressure below the bubble point, decreasing recovery. Thus, pressure maintenance is applied early in the producing life of the pools through waterflood or miscible flood schemes. Selection of the appropriate enhanced recovery scheme depends upon the internal flow-unit geometry of the reefs. The Bigoray Nisku C pool and the Pembina Nisku L pool form end members of the reservoir spectrum. They can be used as flow-unit models in the geological input for reservoir simulation studies. The Bigoray Nisku C pool is dominantly limestone. The primary textures, well perserved in this reef, provide the key to interpreting the relict textures in fully dolomitized reefs. Due to the presence of horizontal permeability barriers associated with the limestone lithology, the pool is developed with a waterflood displacement scheme. Ultimate recovery is estimated to be on the order of 0.55 x 10[sup 6] m[sup 3] (3.5 million bbl) or 46% or original oil in place (OOIP). The Pembina Nisku L pool is a completely dolomitized reef. In contrast to the Bigoray Nisku C pool, the complete dolomitization reduces the number of generic reservoir flow units observed in the L pool reef from six to three. Due to the excellent reservoir quality and absence of horizontal permeability barriers, it is being exploited by a vertical miscible flood. The Nisku L pool is one of the largest pinnacle reefs discovered in the Nisku reef fairway and contains an estimated 5 x 10[sup 6] m[sup 3] (31 million bbl) OOIP. Ultimate recovery is estimated to be approximately 4.1 x 10[sup 6] m[sup 3] (25.8 million bbl) or 82% of OOIP.

  3. The Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey: Stacked Images and Catalogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwyn, Stephen D. J.

    2012-02-01

    This paper describes the image stacks and catalogs of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey produced using the MegaPipe data pipeline at the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre. The Legacy Survey is divided into two parts. The Deep Survey consists of four fields each of 1 deg2, with magnitude limits (50% completeness for point sources) of u = 27.5, g = 27.9, r = 27.7, i = 27.4, and z = 26.2. It contains 1.6 × 106 sources. The Wide Survey consists of 150 deg2 split over four fields, with magnitude limits of u = 26.0, g = 26.5, r = 25.9, i = 25.7, and z = 24.6. It contains 3 × 107 sources. This paper describes the calibration, image stacking, and catalog generation process. The images and catalogs are available on the web through several interfaces: normal image and text file catalog downloads, a "Google Sky" interface, an image cutout service, and a catalog database query service.

  4. THE CANADA-FRANCE-HAWAII TELESCOPE LEGACY SURVEY: STACKED IMAGES AND CATALOGS

    SciTech Connect

    Gwyn, Stephen D. J.

    2012-02-15

    This paper describes the image stacks and catalogs of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey produced using the MegaPipe data pipeline at the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre. The Legacy Survey is divided into two parts. The Deep Survey consists of four fields each of 1 deg{sup 2}, with magnitude limits (50% completeness for point sources) of u = 27.5, g = 27.9, r = 27.7, i = 27.4, and z = 26.2. It contains 1.6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} sources. The Wide Survey consists of 150 deg{sup 2} split over four fields, with magnitude limits of u = 26.0, g = 26.5, r = 25.9, i = 25.7, and z = 24.6. It contains 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 7} sources. This paper describes the calibration, image stacking, and catalog generation process. The images and catalogs are available on the web through several interfaces: normal image and text file catalog downloads, a 'Google Sky' interface, an image cutout service, and a catalog database query service.

  5. The role of the U.S. Geological Survey in the lithium industry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vine, J.D.

    1978-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has responsibility in the U.S. Department of the Interior to assess the nation's energy and mineral resources. The evaluation of reserves and resources of a commodity such as lithium should be a continuing process in the light of advancing technology and ever-growing knowledge of its geologic occurrence and geochemical behavior. Although reserves of lithium vary with market demand because of the investment required to find, develop, and appraise an ore body, total resources are a function of the geologic occurrence and geochemical behavior of lithium. By studying known deposits and publishing data on their origin and occurrence, the U.S. Geological Survey can aid in the discovery of new deposits and improve the resource base. Resource data are used both by the government and the private sector. Government funding for research on energy-related technologies such as electric vehicle batteries and fusion power requires assurance that there will be enough lithium available in time for commercialization. Questions of availability for all mineral commodities must be answered by the U.S. Geological Survey so that intelligent decisions can be made. ?? 1978.

  6. Water-resources investigations of the U.S. Geological Survey in Missouri : fiscal year 1980

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kratzer, Wanietia M., (compiler)

    1980-01-01

    Water-resources investigations of the U.S. Geological Survey in Missouri consist of collecting hydrologic data and conducting interpretative investigations. The data and the results of the investigations are published or released by either the U.S. Geoloogical Survey or by cooperating agencies. The report describes the data-collection activities and investigations in Missouri for the 1980 fiscal year and provides an extensive list of water-resources references for the State. (USGS)

  7. Geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, R. K.; Sabins, F. F., Jr.; Rowan, L. C.; Short, N. M.

    1975-01-01

    Papers from private industry reporting applications of remote sensing to oil and gas exploration were presented. Digitally processed LANDSAT images were successfully employed in several geologic interpretations. A growing interest in digital image processing among the geologic user community was shown. The papers covered a wide geographic range and a wide technical and application range. Topics included: (1) oil and gas exploration, by use of radar and multisensor studies as well as by use of LANDSAT imagery or LANDSAT digital data, (2) mineral exploration, by mapping from LANDSAT and Skylab imagery and by LANDSAT digital processing, (3) geothermal energy studies with Skylab imagery, (4) environmental and engineering geology, by use of radar or LANDSAT and Skylab imagery, (5) regional mapping and interpretation, and digital and spectral methods.

  8. Geology of the Eoarchean, > 3.95 Ga, Nulliak supracrustal rocks in the Saglek Block, northern Labrador, Canada: The oldest geological evidence for plate tectonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komiya, Tsuyoshi; Yamamoto, Shinji; Aoki, Shogo; Sawaki, Yusuke; Ishikawa, Akira; Tashiro, Takayuki; Koshida, Keiko; Shimojo, Masanori; Aoki, Kazumasa; Collerson, Kenneth D.

    2015-11-01

    The Earth is a unique planet, which has been highly evolved, diversified and complicated through geologic time, and underwent many key events, including giant impact, magma ocean, core formation, large-scale mantle differentiation and late heavy bombardment, especially in its dawn. But, our knowledge of early Earth is limited due to the lack of the Hadean supracrustal rocks. The supracrustal rocks with the Eoarchean ages provide key evidence for the Earth's early evolution, but few supracrustal rocks have been comprehensively investigated. Therefore, we mapped in seven areas of the Saglek Block, northern Labrador, where ancient supracrustal sequences are interleaved with a diverse assemblage of orthogneisses. Early studies suggested that some of them have the Mesoarchean ages because of the lack of the Mesoarchean Saglek dyke, but we found the Saglek dykes in the areas to recognize the Eoarchean Nulliak supracrustal rocks and Uivak Gneiss in all the areas. Recent reassessment of U-Pb dating and cathodoluminescence observation of zircons from the oldest suites of the Uivak Gneiss showed that the Uivak Gneiss has the Eoarchean age, > 3.95 Ga, and forms the Iqaluk-Uivak Gneiss series. Because our geological survey clearly showed that the Iqaluk-Uivak Gneisses were intruded into the Nulliak supracrustal belts, the Nulliak supracrustal rocks are the oldest supracrustal rock in the world. The supracrustal belts consist of piles of fault-bounded blocks, which are composed of the ultramafic rocks, mafic rocks and sedimentary rocks in ascending order, similar to modern ocean plate stratigraphy (OPS). In addition, small-scale duplex structures are found over the areas. The presence of duplex structure and OPS indicates that the > 3.95 Ga Nulliak supracrustal belts originate from an accretionary complex. The presence of the accretionary complex, ophiolite and granitic continental crust provides the oldest evidence for the plate tectonics on the early Earth.

  9. DATA ACQUISITION AND APPLICATIONS OF SIDE-LOOKING AIRBORNE RADAR IN THE U. S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, John Edwin; Kover, Allan N.

    1985-01-01

    The Side-Looking Airborne Radar (SLAR) program encompasses a multi-discipline effort involving geologists, hydrologists, engineers, geographers, and cartographers of the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS). Since the program began in 1980, more than 520,000 square miles of aerial coverage of SLAR data in the conterminous United States and Alaska have been acquired or contracted for acquisition. The Geological Survey has supported more than 60 research and applications projects addressing the use of this technology in the earth sciences since 1980. These projects have included preparation of lithographic reproductions of SLAR mosaics, research to improve the cartographic uses of SLAR, research for use of SLAR in assessing earth hazards, and studies using SLAR for energy and mineral exploration through improved geologic mapping.

  10. Mapping known and potential mineral occurrences and host rocks in the Bonnifield Mining District using minimal cloud- and snow-cover ASTER data: Chapter E in Recent U.S. Geological Survey studies in the Tintina Gold Province, Alaska, United States, and Yukon, Canada--results of a 5-year project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hubbard, Bernard E.; Dusel-Bacon, Cynthia; Rowan, Lawrence C.; Eppinger, Robert G.

    2007-01-01

    On July 8, 2003, the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) sensor acquired satellite imagery of a 60-kilometer-wide swath covering a portion of the Bonnifield mining district within the southernmost part of the Tintina Gold Province, Alaska, under unusually favorable conditions of minimal cloud and snow cover. Although rocks from more than eight different lithotectonic terranes are exposed within the extended swath of data, we focus on volcanogenic massive sulfides (VMS) and porphyry deposits within the Yukon-Tanana terrane (YTT), the largest Mesozoic accretionary terrane exposed between the Denali fault system to the south of Fairbanks and the Tintina fault system to the north of Fairbanks. Comparison of thermal-infrared region (TIR) decorrelation stretch data to available geologic maps indicates that rocks from the YTT contain a wide range of rock types ranging in composition from mafic metavolcanic rocks to felsic rock types such as metarhyolites, pelitic schists, and quartzites. The nine-band ASTER visible-near-infrared region--short-wave infrared region (VNIR-SWIR) reflectance data and spectral matched-filter processing were used to map hydrothermal alteration patterns associated with VMS and porphyry deposit types. In particular, smectite, kaolinite, opaline silica, jarosite and (or) other ferric iron minerals defined narrow (less than 250-meter diameter) zonal patterns around Red Mountain and other potential VMS targets. Using ASTER we identified some of the known mineral deposits in the region, as well as mineralogically similar targets that may represent potential undiscovered deposits. Some known deposits were not identified and may have been obscured by vegetation or snow cover or were too small to be resolved.

  11. Metrics survey of industry-sponsored clinical trials in Canada and comparator jurisdictions between 2005 and 2010.

    PubMed

    Leclerc, Jean-Marie; Laberge, Normand; Marion, Jean

    2012-11-01

    Industry-sponsored clinical trials play a key role in the development of therapies. This survey suggests that between 2005 and 2010, research-based pharmaceutical firms worldwide initiated fewer trials and recruited fewer subjects annually. In contrast, at the country level, the clinical trial activity of such firms increased in emerging countries and in Japan. Canada's trend in the number of new trials followed that of the global industry, but the trend in new sites and newly recruited subjects fell below the global rate. Informal comparisons point to potential issues for Canada in such areas as site capacity, cost per subject and time to first subject-in. When compared to certain Western European countries and the United States, Canada remained well positioned on a number of metrics. Nonetheless, Canada faces mounting challenges from both traditional locations and emerging countries and may require coordinated efforts to remain a place of choice to conduct trials. PMID:23968618

  12. U.S. Geological Survey Aids Federal Agencies in ObtainingCommercial Satellite and Aerial Imagery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is a leading U.S. Federal civil agency in the implementation of the civil aspects of the Commercial Remote Sensing Space Policy (CRSSP). The USGS is responsible for collecting inter-agency near-term requirements, establishing an operational infrastructure, and supporting the policy and other Federal agencies.

  13. The U.S. Geological Survey Federal-State Cooperative Water- Resources Program: Fiscal Year 1988

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gilbert, Bruce K.; Mann, William B., IV

    1989-01-01

    The Federal-State Cooperative Program is a partnership between the U.S. Geological Survey and State and local agencies. It provides a balanced approach to the study and resolution of water-related problems and to acquiring hydrologic data. The principal program objectives are to: (1) collect, on a systematic basis, data needed for the continuing determination and evaluation of the quantity, quality, and use of the Nation's water resources, and (2) appraise the availability and the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of surface and ground water through analytical and interpretive investigations. During fiscal year 1988, hydrologic data collection, interpretive investigations, and research were conducted by Geological Survey personnel in offices in every State, Puerto Rico, and several territories in cooperation with more than 1,000 local, State, and regional agencies. In fiscal year 1988, Federal funding of almost $60 million was matched by cooperating agencies, who also provided approximately $6 million unmatched for a total program of about $126 million. This amounted to more than 40 percent of the total funds for Geological Survey water-resources activities. This report presents examples of current (1988) investigations. It also lists about 250 water-resources investigations related to agricultural activities that the Geological Survey conducted from 1970 to 1988.

  14. Activities of the Alaska District, Water Resources Division, U.S. Geological Survey, 1990

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Elisabeth F.

    1990-01-01

    Thirteen projects of the U.S. Geological Survey, Water Resource Division active in Alaska in 1990 are described. Each description includes information on period of project, chief, funding sources, location, purpose, current status, and published or planned reports. The compilation also contains a bibliography of reports published by the Alaska District from 1987 through January 1990. (USGS)

  15. Activities of the Alaska District, Water Resources Division, U.S. Geological Survey, 1987

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, E. F., (compiler)

    1987-01-01

    Hydrologic data collection activities by the U.S. Geological Survey in Alaska are described. Seventeen projects were active in 1987. Each description includes information on period of project, project chief, funding sources, location, purpose, current status, and published or planned reports. The compilation also contains a bibliography of reports published by the Alaska District from 1984 through 1986. (USGS)

  16. 1995 U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY GEOGRAPHIC NAMES INFORMATION SYSTEM 2

    EPA Science Inventory

    The gnis2_r_point layer in EPA Spatial Data Library System (ESDLS) provides a point coverage of the geographic names from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) GNIS2. Currently, the gnis2_r_point layer in the EPA New England GIS database contains only selected data for features with ...

  17. Bibliography of glacier studies by the U.S. Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, E.F.

    1996-01-01

    Reports on glaciers written by U.S. Geological Survey members between 1896 and early 1996 are listed. The reports contain information about glacier and had at least one USGS author or was dependent on USGS data or projects. Extensive glacier studies have been done by the USGS in North America, Greenland, Iceland, as well as in Antarctica.

  18. Estimated Use of Water in the United States in 1975. Geological Survey Circular 765.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, C. Richard; Reeves, E. Bodette

    The United States Geological Survey has compiled data on water use in this country every fifth year since 1950. This document is the most recent of this series and presents data on water withdrawn for use in the United States in 1975. In the introduction, recent and present water use studies are discussed along with a description of the…

  19. List of current and planned projects of the trace elements program, U.S. Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vickers, Rollin C., (compiler)

    1951-01-01

    This summary lists the Geological Survey's current and future investigations of uranium and other elements of related interest. The titles of the investigations are grouped under the headings listed in the table of contents. Entries in each category are listed alphabetically, according to author or project leader, and numbered consecutively.

  20. 76 FR 13207 - Announcement of the U.S. Geological Survey Science Strategy Planning Feedback Process

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-10

    ...The U.S. Geological Survey is creating 10-year strategies for each of its Mission Areas: Climate and Land Use Change, Core Science Systems, Ecosystems, Energy and Minerals, Environmental Health, Natural Hazards, and Water. This process involves gathering input from the public on draft strategy documents and questions that will inform the creation of these documents. Feedback can be offered at......

  1. Development of the U.S. Geological Survey Bibliographic System Using GIPSY

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moody, Dwight W.; Kays, Olaf

    1972-01-01

    A brief history of bibliographic activities of the U.S. Geological Survey, including development of a computerized publishing system is given. Also described is the design of the bibliographic search system, application of the Generalized Information Processing System (GIPSY) to storage and retrieval of earth sciences literature, and preliminary…

  2. 43 CFR 3836.13 - What are geological, geochemical, or geophysical surveys?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What are geological, geochemical, or geophysical surveys? 3836.13 Section 3836.13 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) ANNUAL ASSESSMENT WORK REQUIREMENTS FOR MINING...

  3. 43 CFR 3836.13 - What are geological, geochemical, or geophysical surveys?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What are geological, geochemical, or geophysical surveys? 3836.13 Section 3836.13 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) ANNUAL ASSESSMENT WORK REQUIREMENTS FOR MINING...

  4. 43 CFR 3836.13 - What are geological, geochemical, or geophysical surveys?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What are geological, geochemical, or geophysical surveys? 3836.13 Section 3836.13 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) ANNUAL ASSESSMENT WORK REQUIREMENTS FOR MINING...

  5. 43 CFR 3836.13 - What are geological, geochemical, or geophysical surveys?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What are geological, geochemical, or geophysical surveys? 3836.13 Section 3836.13 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) ANNUAL ASSESSMENT WORK REQUIREMENTS FOR MINING...

  6. UNITED STATES STREAMFLOW DATA FROM US GEOLOGICAL SURVEY STREAM-GAGING STATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) stream-gaging program provides streamflow data for a variety of purposes that range from current needs, such as flood forecasting, to future or long-term needs, such as detection of changes in streamflow due to human activities or global warming....

  7. Operation of hydrologic data collection stations by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1987

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Condes de la Torre, Alberto

    1987-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey operates hydrologic data collection stations nationwide which serve the needs of all levels of government, the private sector, and the general public, for water resources information. During fiscal year 1987, surface water discharge was determined at 10,624 stations; stage data on streams, reservoirs, and lakes were recorded at 1,806 stations; and various surface water quality characteristics were determined at 2,901 stations. In addition, groundwater levels were measured at 32,588 stations, and the quality of groundwater was determined at 9,120 stations. Data on sediment were collected daily at 174 stations and on a periodic basis at 878 stations. Information on precipitation quantity was collected at 909 stations, and the quality of precipitation was analyzed at 78 stations. Data collection platforms for satellite telemetry of hydrologic information were used at 2,292 Geological Survey stations. Funding for the hydrologic stations was derived, either solely or from a combination, from three major sources - the Geological Survey 's Federal Program appropriation, the Federal-State Cooperative Program, and reimbursements from other Federal agencies. The number of hydrologic stations operated by the Geological Survey declined from fiscal year 1983 to 1987. The number of surface water discharge stations were reduced by 452 stations; surface water quality stations declined by 925 stations; groundwater level stations declined by 1,051 stations; while groundwater quality stations increased by 1,472 stations. (Author 's abstract)

  8. Research opportunities in interdisciplinary ground-water science in the U.S. Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sanford, W.E.; Caine, J.S.; Wilcox, D.A.; McWreath, H.C.; Nicholas, J.R.

    2006-01-01

    This report is written for the scientifically literate reader but is not limited to those who are involved in ground-water science. The report is intended to encourage U.S. Geological Survey scientists to develop a sense of excitement about ground-water science in the agency, to inform scientists about existing and potential ground-water science opportunities, and to engage scientists and managers in interdisciplinary discussions and collaboration. The report is intended for use by U.S. Geological Survey and Department of the Interior management to formulate long-term ground-water science programs and to continue sustained support of ground-water monitoring and research, some of which may not have an immediate impact. Finally, the report can be used to communicate the U.S. Geological Survey's vision of ground-water science to Congress, partners, other agencies, and the research community at large with the goals of enhancing collaborative opportunities, sharing information, and maintaining dialogue regarding the directions of U.S. Geological Survey ground-water science.

  9. A U.S. Geological Survey marker embedded in the northeast corner ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    A U.S. Geological Survey marker embedded in the northeast corner of concrete abutment. This view also shows the basic abutment and tower footing arrangement. - Potomac Edison Company, Chesapeake & Ohio Canal Bridge, Spanning C & O Canal South of U.S. 11, Williamsport, Washington County, MD

  10. The British Geological Survey's Lexicon of Named Rock Units as Online and Linked Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCormick, T.

    2012-12-01

    The British Geological Survey's Lexicon of Named Rock Units provides freely accessible definitions and supplementary information about geological units of Great Britain, Northern Ireland, and their associated continental shelf. It is an online database that can be searched at www.bgs.ac.uk/Lexicon/. It has existed since 1990 (under different names) but the database and user interface have recently been completely redesigned to improve their semantic capabilities and suitability for describing different styles of geology. The data are also now freely available as linked data from data.bgs.ac.uk/. The Lexicon of Named Rock Units serves two purposes. First, it is a dictionary, defining and constraining the geological units that are referenced in the Survey's data sets, workflows, products and services. These can include printed and digital geological maps at a variety of scales, reports, books and memoirs, and 3- and 4-dimensional geological models. All geological units referenced in any of these must first be present and defined, at least to a basic level of completeness, in the Lexicon database. Only then do they become available for use. The second purpose of the Lexicon is as a repository of knowledge about the geology of the UK and its continental shelf, providing authoritative descriptions written and checked by BGS geoscientists. Geological units are assigned to one of four themes: bedrock, superficial, mass movement and artificial. They are further assigned to one of nine classes: lithostratigraphical, lithodemic intrusive, lithodemic tectono-metamorphic, lithodemic mixed, litho-morpho-genetic, man-made, age-based, composite, and miscellaneous. The combination of theme and class controls the fields that are available to describe each geological unit, so that appropriate fields are offered for each, whether it is a Precambrian tectono-metamorphic complex, a Devonian sandstone formation, or a Devensian river terrace deposit. Information that may be recorded

  11. Frequency, determinants and impact of overcrowding in emergency departments in Canada: a national survey.

    PubMed

    Bond, Kenneth; Ospina, Maria B; Blitz, Sandra; Afilalo, Marc; Campbell, Sam G; Bullard, Michael; Innes, Grant; Holroyd, Brian; Curry, Gil; Schull, Michael; Rowe, Brian H

    2007-01-01

    Several reports have documented the prevalence and severity of emergency department (ED) overcrowding at specific hospitals or cities in Canada; however, no study has examined the issue at a national level. A 54-item, self-administered, postal and web-based questionnaire was distributed to 243 ED directors in Canada to collect data on the frequency, impact and factors associated with ED overcrowding. The survey was completed by 158 (65% response rate) ED directors, 62% of whom reported overcrowding as a major or severe problem during the past year. Directors attributed overcrowding to a variety of issues including a lack of admitting beds (85%), lack of acute care beds (74%) and the increased length of stay of admitted patients in the ED (63%). They perceived ED overcrowding to have a major impact on increasing stress among nurses (82%), ED wait times (79%) and the boarding of admitted patients in the ED while waiting for beds (67%). Overcrowding is not limited to large urban centres; nor is it limited to academic and teaching hospitals. The perspective of ED directors reinforces the need for further examination of effective policies and interventions to reduce ED overcrowding. PMID:18019897

  12. Topographic and hydrographic GIS datasets for the Afghan Geological Survey and U.S. Geological Survey 2013 mineral areas of interest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Casey, Brittany N.; Chirico, Peter G.

    2013-01-01

    Afghanistan is endowed with a vast amount of mineral resources, and it is believed that the current economic state of the country could be greatly improved through investment in the extraction and production of these resources. In 2007, the “Preliminary Non-Fuel Resource Assessment of Afghanistan 2007” was completed by members of the U.S. Geological Survey and Afghan Geological Survey (Peters and others, 2007). The assessment delineated 20 mineralized areas for further study using a geologic-based methodology. In 2011, a follow-on data product, “Summaries and Data Packages of Important Areas for Mineral Investment and Production Opportunities of Nonfuel Minerals in Afghanistan,” was released (Peters and others, 2011). As part of this more recent work, geologic, geohydrologic, and hyperspectral studies were carried out in the areas of interest (AOIs) to assess the location and characteristics of the mineral resources. The 2011 publication included a dataset of 24 identified AOIs containing subareas, a corresponding digital elevation model (DEM), elevation contours, areal extent, and hydrography for each AOI. In 2012, project scientists identified five new AOIs and two subareas in Afghanistan. These new areas are Ahankashan, Kandahar, Parwan, North Bamyan, and South Bamyan. The two identified subareas include Obatu-Shela and Sekhab-ZamtoKalay, both located within the larger Kandahar AOI. In addition, an extended Kandahar AOI is included in the project for water resource modeling purposes. The dataset presented in this publication consists of the areal extent of the five new AOIs, two subareas, and the extended Kandahar AOI, elevation contours at 100-, 50-, and 25-meter intervals, an enhanced DEM, and a hydrographic dataset covering the extent of the new study area. The resulting raster and vector layers are intended for use by government agencies, developmental organizations, and private companies in Afghanistan to assist with mineral assessments, monitoring

  13. Bibliography of Oklahoma hydrology; reports prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey and principal cooperating agencies, 1901-88

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Havens, John S., (compiler)

    1989-01-01

    Reports on the hydrology of Oklahoma have been issued by the U.S. Geological Survey since 1901. This bibliography lists reports on hydrology in Oklahoma prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey and the principal State cooperating agencies, the Oklahoma Geological Survey and the Oklahoma Water Resources Board. Of the nearly 350 reports issued from 1901 through 1988, about 200 have been concerned primarily with groundwater; the remainder have dealt with some aspect of surface water, water quality, or geology. The reports are listed by agency and report type, and are indexed both by author and subject. (USGS)

  14. Implementation of geographic-information-system technology for use in coal geology investigations at the Ohio Department of Natural Resources, Division of Geological Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Axon, A.G.; Crowell, D.L.

    1996-09-01

    Geographic information system technology is being used by the Ohio Division of Geological Survey to link project-specific databases to avoid unnecessary duplication of effort and equipment. Descriptive geologic data from measured sections, drill holes, and geochemical analyses are being computerized in cooperation with the U.S. Geological Survey National Coal Resource Data System. Line and area data, including coal croplines, surface mines, and underground mines, are being digitized into computer-aided mapping systems and transferred to the geographic information system. Computer-generated maps of coal thickness, elevation, and quality also are being integrated into the geographic information system. The Ohio Division of Geological Survey maintains a series of 1:24,000-scale mylar maps showing the outlines of abandoned underground mines. During 1995, these maps were digitized by Ohio Department of Natural Resources, Division of Real Estate and Land Management into a geographic information system. The construction of a database containing geologic and mine information which will be linked to these digitized out- lines is a priority of the Ohio Survey. The Ohio Division of Geological Survey`s Coal Availability cooperative program with the U.S. Geological Survey illustrates the utility of geographic information systems for performing complex analyses of the natural resources in specific areas. Regional databases (nine-quadrangle areas) were created to estimate the coal resources for eight 7.5-minute quadrangles. These databases will be the basis for additional regional coal resource estimations. Stratigraphic data computerized for Coal Availability investigations are also being used for the statewide bedrock geologic mapping program (STATEMAP).

  15. (222)Rn activity in groundwater of the St. Lawrence Lowlands, Quebec, eastern Canada: relation with local geology and health hazard.

    PubMed

    Pinti, Daniele L; Retailleau, Sophie; Barnetche, Diogo; Moreira, Floriane; Moritz, Anja M; Larocque, Marie; Gélinas, Yves; Lefebvre, René; Hélie, Jean-François; Valadez, Arisai

    2014-10-01

    One hundred ninety-eight groundwater wells were sampled to measure the (222)Rn activity in the region between Montreal and Quebec City, eastern Canada. The aim of this study was to relate the spatial distribution of (222)Rn activity to the geology and the hydrogeology of the study area and to estimate the potential health risks associated with (222)Rn in the most populated area of the Province of Quebec. Most of the groundwater samples show low (222)Rn activities with a median value of 8.6 Bq/L. Ninety percent of samples show (222)Rn activity lower than 100 Bq/L, the exposure limit in groundwater recommended by the World Health Organization. A few higher (222)Rn activities (up to 310 Bq/L) have been measured in wells from the Appalachian Mountains and from the magmatic intrusion of Mont-Saint-Hilaire, known for its high level of indoor radon. The spatial distribution of (222)Rn activity seems to be related mainly to lithology differences between U-richer metasediments of the Appalachian Mountains and magmatic intrusions and the carbonaceous silty shales of the St. Lawrence Platform. Radon is slightly enriched in sodium-chlorine waters that evolved at contact with clay-rich formations. (226)Ra, the parent element of (222)Rn could be easily adsorbed on clays, creating a favorable environment for the production and release of (222)Rn into groundwater. The contribution of groundwater radon to indoor radon or by ingestion is minimal except for specific areas near Mont-Saint-Hilaire or in the Appalachian Mountains where this contribution could reach 45% of the total radioactive annual dose. PMID:24973780

  16. Preliminary geology, mineral chemistry and diamond results from the C29/30 Candle Lake volcanic complex, Saskatchewan, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verigeanu, D.; Hetman, C. M.; Jellicoe, B.; Baumgartner, M. C.

    2009-11-01

    The C29/30 kimberlite is one of two diamondiferous kimberlites in the Candle Lake cluster located in east-central Saskatchewan, Canada, approximately 70 km from the Fort á la Corne kimberlite field. The kimberlites are hosted by a Cretaceous sequence of marine mudstone and shale of the Lower Colorado Group, and underlying siltstone and sandstone of the Mannville Group. This sequence overlies Paleozoic carbonates that were deposited over the Proterozoic crystalline basement. Based on the country rock stratigraphy and morphology of the body, C29/30 is inferred to be Cretaceous in age. The elongated kimberlite body has a lateral extent of approximately 2 km with the long axis oriented in a south-east to north-west direction and an estimated surface expression of 75.3 ha. The investigation of 47 drill cores suggests that this body is a single volcanic complex dominated by a single phase of volcaniclastic kimberlite that is characterised by absent to rare phlogopite within the groundmass of preserved juvenile clasts. Minor amounts of at least one other phase of kimberlite containing conspicuous groundmass phlogopite have also been documented. The subsurface shape of C29/30 is complex and is interpreted to result from a combination of explosive volcanic activity that formed two craters from separate feeder vents. The formation of the elongated trough is poorly understood. It may have formed by a fissure style eruption, or erosive processes related to the mass flow of material away from one of the craters or possible the collapse of an eruption column. The C29/30 kimberlite is similar to bodies of the Fort á la Corne kimberlite field with respect to country rock setting, pipe morphology and the dominant textural varieties present. This contribution presents a preliminary geological model of C29/30 based on data obtained from the drilling programmes completed in 2006, 2007 and 2008.

  17. A history of the Water Resources Division, U.S. Geological Survey. Volume VII, 1966-79, integrating the disciplines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Biesecker, James E.; Blakey, James F.; Feltz, Herman R.; George, John R.

    2000-01-01

    This volume is the seventh in the series of reports on the history of the water-resources activities of the U.S. Geological Survey. The first four volumes were written by Robert Follansbee, and each is entitled "A History of the Water Resources Branch of the United States Geological Survey."

  18. Living with inflammatory bowel disease: A Crohn’s and Colitis Canada survey

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Helen M; Grigat, Daniel; Ghosh, Subrata; Kaplan, Gilaad G; Dieleman, Levinus; Wine, Eytan; Fedorak, Richard N; Fernandes, Aida; Panaccione, Remo; Barkema, Herman W

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite improvements in therapies for inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), patient quality of life continues to be significantly impacted. OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of IBD on patients and families with regard to leisure, relationships, mental well-being and financial security, and to evaluate the quality and availability of IBD information. METHODS: An online survey was advertised on the Crohn’s and Colitis Canada website, and at gastroenterology clinics at the University of Alberta Hospital (Edmonton, Alberta) and University of Calgary Hospital (Calgary, Alberta). RESULTS: The survey was completed by 281 IBD patients and 32 family members. Among respondents with IBD, 64% reported a significant or major impact on leisure activities, 52% a significant or major impact on interpersonal relationships, 40% a significant or major impact on financial security, and 28% a significant or major impact on planning to start a family. Patient information needs emphasized understanding disease progression (84%) and extraintestinal symptoms (82%). There was a strong interest in support systems such as health care insurance (70%) and alternative therapies (66%). The most common source of information for patients was their gastroenterologist (70%); however, most (70%) patients preferred to obtain their information from the Crohn’s and Colitis Canada website. CONCLUSIONS: The impact of IBD on interpersonal relationships and leisure activities was significant among IBD patients and their families. Understanding the disease, but also alternative treatment options, was of high interest. Currently, there is a discrepancy between interest in information topics and their availability. Respondents reported a strong desire to obtain information regarding disease progression, especially extraintestinal symptoms. PMID:25803017

  19. Fifty-fourth annual report of the Director of the Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mendenhall, Walter Curran

    1933-01-01

    The appropriations made directly for the work of the Geological Survey for the fiscal year 1933 included 12 items, amounting, to $2,181,000. Of the balance remaining in the 1932 appropriation for topographic surveys, $150,000 was continued available for expenditure during the fiscal year 1933, and the sum of $284,400 was transferred to the Geological Survey under the provisions of section 317 of the legislative appropriation act of June 30, 1932, making a total of $2,615,400 available for expenditure. In addition, $12,424.50 for miscellaneous supplies was allotted from appropriations for the Interior Department.

  20. Seismic monitoring results from the first 6 months of CO2 injection at the Aquistore geological storage site, Saskatchewan, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daley, T. M.; White, D. J.; Stork, A.; Schmitt, D. R.; Worth, K.; Harris, K.; Roberts, B.; Samson, C.; Kendal, M. J.

    2015-12-01

    The Aquistore Project, located in SE Saskatchewan, Canada, is a demonstration project for CO2 storage in a deep saline aquifer. CO2 captured from a nearby coal-fired power plant is being injected into a brine-filled sandstone formation at 3100-3300 m depth. CO2 injection commenced in April, 2015, at initial rates of up to 250 tonnes per day. Seismic monitoring methods have been employed to track the subsurface CO2 plume and to record any injection-induced microseismicity. Active seismic methods utilized include 4D surface seismics using a sparse permanent array, 4D vertical seismic profiles (VSP) with both downhole geophones and a fiber optic distributed acoustic sensor (DAS) system. Pre-injection baseline seismic surveys have established very good repeatability with NRMS values as low as 0.07. 3D finite-difference seismic modelling of fluid flow simulations is used with the repeatability estimates to determine the appropriate timing for the first CO2 monitor surveys. Time-lapse logging is being conducted on a regular basis to provide in situ measurement of the change in seismic velocity associated with changes in CO2 saturation. Continuous passive seismic recording has been ongoing since the summer of 2012 to establish background local seismicity prior to the start of CO2 injection. Passive monitoring is being conducted using two, 2.5 km long, orthogonal linear arrays of surface geophones.with 3-component short-period geophones, 3 broadband surface seismometers, and an array of 3-component short-period geophones in an observation well. No significant injection-related seismicity (Mw > -1) has been detected at the surface during the first 4 months of CO2 injection. On-going analysis of the downhole passive data will provide further information as to the occurrence of lower magnitude microseismicity (Mw of -1 to -3).

  1. Public Perceptions of Child Care in Alberta, Canada: Evidence for Policies and Practice from a Cross-Sectional Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tough, Suzanne; Rikhy, Shivani; Benzies, Karen; Vekved, Monica; Kehler, Heather; Johnston, David W.

    2013-01-01

    Research Findings: This study assessed public perceptions of child care and its providers in a Canadian province where government funding for child care includes subsidies and a voluntary accreditation process. In 2007-2008, 1,443 randomly selected adults in Alberta, Canada, completed a telephone survey. Individuals were eligible to participate if…

  2. Developing Historical Consciousness and a Community of History Practitioners: A Survey of Prospective History Teachers across Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lévesque, Stéphane G.; Zanazanian, Paul

    2015-01-01

    This paper looks at the historical consciousness of prospective history teachers in Canada. Using a bilingual online survey instrument inspired by the pan-Canadian research "Canadians and their Pasts" with volunteer participants (N = 233), the study investigates their background knowledge, their perceptions of the trustworthiness of…

  3. Earth science photographs from the U.S. Geological Survey Library

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGregor, Joseph K.; Abston, Carl C.

    1995-01-01

    This CD-ROM set contains 1,500 scanned photographs from the U.S. Geological Survey Library for use as a photographic glossary of elementary geologic terms. Scholars are encouraged to copy these public domain images into their reports or databases to enhance their presentations. High-quality prints and (or) slides are available upon request from the library. This CD-ROM was produced in accordance with the ISO 9660 standard; however, it is intended for use on DOS-based computer systems only.

  4. Origins and early years of the U.S. Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1979-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey was established on March 3, 1879, in the closing hours of the final session of the 45th Congress. The bill appropriating the money for sundry civil expenses of the Government during fiscal year 1880 was signed by President Rutherford B. Hayes. Included in the bill was the provision for a new agency under the Department of the Interior; it was charged with responsibility for “classification of the public lands, and examination of the geological structure, mineral resources, and products of the national domain.”

  5. US GEOLOGICAL SURVEY'S NATIONAL SYSTEM FOR PROCESSING AND DISTRIBUTION OF NEAR REAL-TIME HYDROLOGICAL DATA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shope, William G., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The US Geological Survey is utilizing a national network of more than 1000 satellite data-collection stations, four satellite-relay direct-readout ground stations, and more than 50 computers linked together in a private telecommunications network to acquire, process, and distribute hydrological data in near real-time. The four Survey offices operating a satellite direct-readout ground station provide near real-time hydrological data to computers located in other Survey offices through the Survey's Distributed Information System. The computerized distribution system permits automated data processing and distribution to be carried out in a timely manner under the control and operation of the Survey office responsible for the data-collection stations and for the dissemination of hydrological information to the water-data users.

  6. Personalised medicine in Canada: a survey of adoption and practice in oncology, cardiology and family medicine

    PubMed Central

    Bonter, Katherine; Currier, Nathan; Pun, Jason; Ashbury, Fredrick D

    2011-01-01

    Introduction In order to provide baseline data on genetic testing as a key element of personalised medicine (PM), Canadian physicians were surveyed to determine roles, perceptions and experiences in this area. The survey measured attitudes, practice, observed benefits and impacts, and barriers to adoption. Methods A self-administered survey was provided to Canadian oncologists, cardiologists and family physicians and responses were obtained online, by mail or by fax. The survey was designed to be exploratory. Data were compared across specialties and geography. Results The overall response rate was 8.3%. Of the respondents, 43%, 30% and 27% were family physicians, cardiologists and oncologists, respectively. A strong majority of respondents agreed that genetic testing and PM can have a positive impact on their practice; however, only 51% agreed that there is sufficient evidence to order such tests. A low percentage of respondents felt that they were sufficiently informed and confident practicing in this area, although many reported that genetic tests they have ordered have benefited their patients. Half of the respondents agreed that genetic tests that would be useful in their practice are not readily available. A lack of practice guidelines, limited provider knowledge and lack of evidence-based clinical information were cited as the main barriers to practice. Differences across provinces were observed for measures relating to access to testing and the state of practice. Differences across specialties were observed for the state of practice, reported benefits and access to testing. Conclusions Canadian physicians recognise the benefits of genetic testing and PM; however, they lack the education, information and support needed to practice effectively in this area. Variability in practice and access to testing across specialties and across Canada was observed. These results support a need for national strategies and resources to facilitate physician knowledge

  7. Maps showing aeromagnetic survey and geologic interpretation of the Chignik and Sutwik Island quadrangles, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Case, J.E.; Cox, D.P.; Detra, D.E.; Detterman, R.L.; Wilson, F.H.

    1981-01-01

    An aeromagnetic survey over part of the Chignik and Sutwik Island quadrangles, on the southern Alaska Peninsula, was flown in 1977 as part of the Alaska mineral resource assessment program (AMRAP). Maps at scales 1:250,000 and 1:63,360 have been released on open-file (U.s. Geological Survey, 1978a, 1978b). This report includes the aeromagnetic map superimposed on the topographic base (sheet 1) and an interpretation map superimposed on the topographic and simplified geologic base (sheet 2). This discussion provides an interpretation of the aeromagnetic data with respect to regional geology, occurrence of ore deposits and prospects, and potential oil and gas resources. The survey was flown along northwest-southeast lines, spaced about 1.6 km apart, at a nominal elevation of about 300 m above the land surface. A proton-precession magnetometer was used for the survey, and the resulting digital data were computer contoured at intervals of 10 and 50 gammas (sheet 1). The International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) of 1965, updated to 1977, was removed from the total field data.

  8. West Virginia Geological Survey's role in siting fluidized bed combustion facilities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, C.J.; King, Hobart M.; Ashton, K.C.; Kirstein, D.S.; McColloch, G.H.

    1989-01-01

    A project is presented which demonstrates the role of geology in planning and siting a fluidized bed combustion facility. Whenever a project includes natural resource utilization, cooperation between geologists and design engineers will provide an input that could and should save costs, similar to the one stated in our initial premise. Regardless of whether cost reductions stem from a better knowledge of fuel and sorbent availabilities, or a better understanding of the local hydrology, susceptibility to mine-subsidence, or other geologic hazards, the geological survey has a vital role in planning. Input to planning could help the fluidized-bed developer and design-engineer solve some economic questions and stretch the financial resources at their disposal.

  9. The U.S. Geological Survey Federal-State cooperative water- resources program; fiscal year 1987

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gilbert, B.K.; Mann, William B., IV

    1988-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey 's Federal-State Cooperative Water Resources Program (50-50 matching of funds) started in Kansas in 1895. During fiscal year (FY) 1987, hydrologic data collection, investigations, and research are being conducted in every state, Puerto Rico, and several territories in cooperation with 940 state, regional and local agencies. Federal funding of $55.3 million was matched by cooperating agencies; cooperators also provided $4.6 million unmatched, for a program total of about $115 million. The Cooperative Program accounted for almost 45% of the FY 1987 obligations of the Geological Survey 's Water Resources Division. The principal areas of emphasis during the year included groundwater contamination, stream quality, water supply and demand, and hydrologic hazards. Information is presented on program functions and priorities. Data collection activities are also described as is work related to water resources contamination. Several examples of current (1987) investigations are provided. (Author 's abstract)

  10. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Western Region: Alaska Coastal and Ocean Science

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holland-Bartels, Leslie

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), a bureau of the Department of the Interior (DOI), is the Nation's largest water, earth, and biological science and mapping agency. The bureau's science strategy 'Facing Tomorrow's Challenges - U.S. Geological Survey Science in the Decade 2007-2017' describes the USGS vision for its science in six integrated areas of societal concern: Understanding Ecosystems and Predicting Ecosystem Change; Climate Variability and Change; Energy and Minerals; Hazards, Risk, and Resilience; Environment and Wildlife in Human Health; and Water Census of the United States. USGS has three Regions that encompass nine geographic Areas. This fact sheet describes examples of USGS science conducted in coastal, nearshore terrestrial, and ocean environments in the Alaska Area.

  11. Fifty-third annual report of the Director of the Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mendenhall, Walter Curran

    1932-01-01

    The appropriations made directly for the work of the Geological Survey for the fiscal year 1932 included 12 items, amounting to $3,141,740. In addition $12,573.23 for miscellaneous supplies was allotted from appropriations for the Interior Department. A detailed statement of the amounts appropriated and expended is given at the end of the report. The balance on July 31 was $206,411.98, of which $150,000 continued available for expenditure in the fiscal year 1933. The total amount of funds made available for disbursement by the Geological Survey, together with State funds directly disbursed for work administered by the Federal officials, was $5,115,087.50.

  12. Fifty-eighth annual report of the Director of the Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mendenhall, Walter Curran

    1937-01-01

    During the fiscal year 1937 the Geological Survey continued its systematic work in investigating, mapping, and reporting on the geology, the mineral and water resources, and the physical features of the United States. The results of this work are basic in all conservational activities, as those who plan and direct the conservation policies toward the wise development and use of the Nation's resources must first have the facts about the quantity, quality, distribution, and availability of those resources and adequate maps with which to pursue and record further studies. Through its technical supervision of prospecting, mining, and producing operations on public and Indian land under permits, leases, and licenses, the Survey was directly engaged in the practical application of conservation policies.

  13. McNutt to Be Nominated to Lead U.S. Geological Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2009-07-01

    U.S. President Barack Obama announced on 9 July his intention to nominate Marcia McNutt as director of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and science advisor to the Secretary of the Interior. McNutt, who served as AGU president from 2000 to 2002, currently is president and chief executive officer of the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute, in Moss Landing, Calif. “Scientific information from the U.S. Geological Survey is crucial to solving the most important problems facing society—finding sufficient supplies of fresh water and clean energy and providing accurate information that allows citizens to prepare intelligently for climate change. I look forward to leading such a respected institution at this critical time,” McNutt said.

  14. The national land use data program of the US Geological Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. R.; Witmer, R. E.

    1975-01-01

    The Land Use Data and Analysis (LUDA) Program which provides a systematic and comprehensive collection and analysis of land use and land cover data on a nationwide basis is described. Maps are compiled at about 1:125,000 scale showing present land use/cover at Level II of a land use/cover classification system developed by the U.S. Geological Survey in conjunction with other Federal and state agencies and other users. For each of the land use/cover maps produced at 1:125,000 scale, overlays are also compiled showing Federal land ownership, river basins and subbasins, counties, and census county subdivisions. The program utilizes the advanced technology of the Special Mapping Center of the U.S. Geological Survey, high altitude NASA photographs, aerial photographs acquired for the USGS Topographic Division's mapping program, and LANDSAT data in complementary ways.

  15. Operation of hydrologic data collection stations by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1983

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Condes de la Torre, Alberto

    1983-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey operated hydrologic data collection stations during 1983 in response to the needs of all levels of Government for hydrologic information. Surface-water discharge was determined at 11,076 stations; stage data on streams, reservoirs, and lakes were recorded at 2,136 stations; and surface-water quality was determined at 4,610 stations. Ground-water levels were measured at 35,621 stations, and the quality of ground water was determined at 7,648 stations nationwide. Information on precipitation quantity was collected at 800 stations, and quality of precipitation was analyzed at 121 stations. Funding support for the hydrologic stations was derived either solely or from a combination of three major sources--the Geological Survey's Federal Program, the Federal-State Cooperative Program, and reimbursements from other Federal agencies.

  16. Mineral surveys by the Geological Survey and the Bureau of Mines of Bureau of Land Management Wilderness Study Areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beikman, Helen M.; Hinkle, Margaret E.; Frieders, Twila; Marcus, Susan M.; Edward, James R.

    1983-01-01

    The Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 1976 instructed the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) to review all public lands under its jurisdiction and to determine their suitability or nonsuitability for wilderness designation. As part of this process, the Geological Survey and the Bureau of Mines conduct mineral surveys of areas for which a preliminary determination of wilderness suitability has been made. The BLM has completed its wilderness inventory phase and has found that 23.2 million acres deserve further study for wilderness consideration. These 23.2 million acres of wilderness study areas include 1 million acres of natural and primitive areas (Instant Study Areas), 5.7 million acres in the California Desert Conservation Area, and 16.5 million acres in other wilderness study areas. Mineral surveys on all areas recommended for wilderness will be completed by 1990.

  17. Identification codes for organizations listed in computerized data systems of the U.S. Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edwards, Melvin D.; Drilleau, Margery O.

    1976-01-01

    This report contains codes for the identification of public and private organizations listed in computerized data systems. These codes are used by the U.S. Geological Survey 's National Water Data Exchange (NAWDEX), National Water Data Storage and Retrieval System (WATSTORE), and National Cartographic Information Center (NCIC). The format structure of the codes is discussed and instructions are given for requesting new codes. (Woodard-USGS)

  18. Identification codes for organizations listed in computerized data systems of the U.S. Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edwards, Melvin D.; Josefson, Beverly M.

    1982-01-01

    This report contains codes for the identification of public and private organizations listed in computerized data systems. These codes are used by the U.S. Geological Survey 's National Water Data Exchange (NAWDEX), National Water Data Storage and Retrieval System (WATSTORE), National Cartographic Information Center (NCIC), Office of Water Data Coordination (OWDC). The format structure of the codes is discussed and instructions are given for requesting new codes. (USGS)

  19. Identification codes for organizations listed in computerized data systems of the U.S. Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edwards, Melvin D.; Myers, Beverly M.

    1979-01-01

    This report contains codes for the identification of public and private organizations listed in computerized data systems. These codes are used by the U.S. Geological Survey 's National Water Data Exchange (NAWDEX), National Water Data Storage and Retrieval System (WATSTORE), National Cartographic Information Center (NCIC), and Office of Water Data Coordination (OWDC). The format structure of the codes is discussed and instructions are given for requesting new codes. (Woodard-USGS)

  20. Identification codes for organizations listed in computerized data systems of the U.S. Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blackwell, C.D.

    1988-01-01

    Codes for the unique identification of public and private organizations listed in computerized data systems are presented. These codes are used by the U.S. Geological Survey 's National Water Data Exchange (NAWDEX), National Water Data Storage and Retrieval System (WATSTORE), National Cartographic Information Center (NCIC), and Office of Water Data Coordination (OWDC). The format structure of the codes is discussed and instructions are given for requesting new books. (Author 's abstract)

  1. Identification codes for organizations listed in computerized data systems of the U.S. Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edwards, Melvin D.; Drilleau, Margery O.

    1978-01-01

    This report contains codes for the identification of public and private organizations listed in computerized data systems. These codes are used by the U.S. Geological Survey 's National Water Data Exchange (NAWDEX), National Water Data Storage and Retrieval System (WATSTORE), National Cartographic Information Center (NCIC), and Office of Water Data Coordination (OWDC). The format structure of the codes is discussed and instructions are given for requesting new codes. (Woodard-USGS)

  2. Identification codes for organizations listed in computerized data systems of the U.S. Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edwards, Melvin D.; Myers, Beverly M.

    1981-01-01

    This report contains codes for the identification of public and private organizations listed in computerized data systems. These codes are used by the U.S. Geological Survey 's National Water Data Exchange (NAWDEX), National Water Data Storage and Retrieval System (WATSTORE), National Cartographic Information Center (NCIC), and Office of Water Data Coordination (OWDC). The format structure of the codes is discussed and instructions are given for requesting new codes. (USGS)

  3. White House Proposes 4% Increase to U.S. Geological Survey Budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2014-04-01

    Although funding for the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) pales compared with that for NASA, the U.S. National Science Foundation, and other U.S. federal science agencies, the overall percent increase for USGS for fiscal year (FY) 2015 would be bigger than for those other agencies if Congress goes along with the budget that the White House proposed on 4 March.

  4. Compilation of field methods used in geochemical prospecting by the U.S. Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lakin, Hubert William; Ward, Frederick Norville; Almond, Hy

    1952-01-01

    The field methods described in this report are those currently used in geochemical prospecting by the U. S. Geological Survey. Some have been published, others are being processed for publication, while others are still being investigated. The purpose in compiling these methods is to make them readily available in convenient form. The methods have not been thoroughly tested and none is wholly satisfactory. Research is being continued.

  5. Past, present, and future of water data delivery from the U.S. Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hirsch, Robert M.; Fisher, Gary T.

    2014-01-01

    We present an overview of national water databases managed by the U.S. Geological Survey, including surface-water, groundwater, water-quality, and water-use data. These are readily accessible to users through web interfaces and data services. Multiple perspectives of data are provided, including search and retrieval of real-time data and historical data, on-demand current conditions and alert services, data compilations, spatial representations, analytical products, and availability of data across multiple agencies.

  6. An index of geophysical well logging in Virginia by the U.S. Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mulheren, M. Patrick; Larson, J.D.; Hopkins, Herbert T.

    1982-01-01

    Geophysical logs have been obtained in more than 170 wells in Virginia by the U.S. Geological Survey since 1968. These logs include natural gamma, electric, caliper, temperature, fluid conductivity, and fluid velocity. Most of the logs are for wells in the Coastal Plain Province of eastern Virginia. Geophysical logs aid in the interpretation of properties of earth materials, including the capacity to store and transmit water in the immediate vicinity of the well bore.

  7. Hot dry rock and the U.S. geological survey: a question of priorities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sass, John H.

    1996-01-01

    The enactment of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 saw the assignment of definite responsibilities relating to hot dry rock (HDR) to the US Geological Survey (USGS). This mandate provided some explicit guidelines and individual tasks in areas in which the USGS already had close ties to the Department of Energy and a number of its national laboratories. This paper discusses various tasks in terms of priorities being conducted by USGS as response to the Act.

  8. Water-resources reports prepared by or in cooperation with the U.S. Geological Survey, Kansas, 1886-1983

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Combs, L.J.

    1984-01-01

    Water-resources data and the results of hydrologic investigations in Kansas are published or released by the U.S. Geological Survey, by cooperating State or Federal agencies, or by technical or scientific journals. This report lists more than 800 water-resources reports prepared by or in cooperation with the U.S. Geological Survey in Kansas for 1886 through 1983. The reports are listed by author, publication series, year of publication, and subject. The first water-resources investigations by the U.S. Geological Survey in Kansas was completed by A.C. Peale in 1886. The first cooperative program with a State agency was initiated 9 years later in 1895 and included the first stream-gaging stations operated by the Survey in western Kansas. The U.S. Geological Survey continues to investigate the occurrence, quantity, quality, distribution, and movement of surface and ground waters within the State. (USGS)

  9. Forty-sixth annual report of the Director of the Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, George Otis

    1925-01-01

    SIR: The appropriations made directly for the work of the Geological Survey for the fiscal year 1925 included 10 items, amounting to $1,735,423. In addition $110,000, to be disbursed under the direction of the Public Printer, was appropriated for printing the reports of the Survey, and allotments of $10,000 for miscellaneous printing and binding and of $4,944.75 for miscellaneous supplies were made to the Survey from appropriations for the Interior Department. A detailed statement of the amounts appropriated and expended is given at the end of this report. The balance shown is $15,175.31. Cooperation with the States and other public agencies continued as in other years. The value of the mapping and investigative work of the Survey and the necessity of expediting the completion of this physical inventory of the. country's resources is now so widely recognized that 37 States as well as many counties and municipalities shared with the Federal Government in meeting the cost. The total amount thus contributed was $739, 537. 94. Funds aggregating $231,208.90 were placed to the credit of the Geological Survey for services rendered to other Government bureaus and offices. Balances at the end of the year amounted to about $15,000, and the total expenditure, measuring the amount of work accomplished during the year, was $2,690,994.53.

  10. Cooperative activities of the U.S. Geological Survey with Historically Black Colleges and Universities, fiscal years 1983-90

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hall, A. E., (Edited By); Scott, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    The U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, has been involved in numerous cooperative activities with Historically Black Colleges and Universities. Assistance agreements, which include both grants and cooperative agreements, have fostered many educational research and development activities. These activities have included site visits, employment opportunities, curriculum development, seminars, and research projects. The activities are consistent with the Geological Survey's mission of conducting earth-science research and dissemination of the results. The cooperative have benefitted the Historically Black Colleges and Universities, their students, and the Geological Survey.

  11. U.S. Geological Survey national computer technology meeting; program and abstracts, New Orleans, Louisiana, April 10-15, 1994

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Balthrop, B. H., (compiler); Baker, E.G.

    1994-01-01

    This report contains some of the abstracts of papers that were presented at the National Computer Technology Meeting that was held in April 1994. This meeting was sponsored by the Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey, and was attended by more than 200 technical and managerial personnel representing all the Divisions of the U.S. Geological Survey. Computer-related information from all Divisions of the U.S. Geological Survey are discussed in this compilation of abstracts. Some of the topics addressed are data transfer, data-base management, hydrologic applications, national water information systems, and geographic information systems applications and techniques.

  12. White-nose syndrome in bats: U.S. Geological Survey updates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rogall, Gail Moede; Verant, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) is a devastating disease that has killed millions of hibernating bats since it first appeared in New York in 2007 and has spread at an alarming rate from the northeastern to the central United States and Canada. The disease is named for the white fungus Geomyces destructans that infects the skin of the muzzle, ears, and wings of hibernating bats. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Wildlife Health Center (NWHC), the USGS Fort Collins Science Center, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and other partners continue to play a primary role in WNS research. Studies conducted at the NWHC led to the discovery (Blehert and others, 2009), characterization, and naming (Gargas and others, 2009) of the cold-loving fungus G. destructans and to the development of standardized criteria for diagnosing the disease (Meteyer and others, 2009). Additionally, scientists at the NWHC have pioneered laboratory techniques for studying the effects of the fungus on hibernating bats (Lorch and others, 2011). To determine if bats are affected by white-nose syndrome, scientists look for a characteristic microscopic pattern of skin erosion caused by G. destructans (Meteyer and others, 2009). Field signs of WNS can include visible white fungal growth on the bat's muzzle, wings, or both, but these signs alone are not a reliable disease indicator - laboratory examination and testing are required for disease confirmation. Infected bats also arouse from hibernation more frequently than uninfected bats (Warnecke and others, 2012) and often display abnormal behaviors in their hibernation sites, such as congregating at or near cave openings and daytime flights during winter. These abnormal behaviors may contribute to the bat's accelerated consumption of stored fat reserves, causing emaciation, a characteristic documented in some of the bats that die with WNS. During hibernation, bats likely have lowered immunity (Bouma and others, 2010), which may facilitate the ability

  13. Developing a geoscience knowledge framework for a national geological survey organisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, Andrew S.; Hatton, Bill; Reitsma, Femke; Lawrie, Ken I. G.

    2009-04-01

    Geological survey organisations (GSOs) are established by most nations to provide a geoscience knowledge base for effective decision-making on mitigating the impacts of natural hazards and global change, and on sustainable management of natural resources. The value of the knowledge base as a national asset is continually enhanced by the exchange of knowledge between GSOs as data and information providers and the stakeholder community as knowledge 'users and exploiters'. Geological maps and associated narrative texts typically form the core of national geoscience knowledge bases, but have some inherent limitations as methods of capturing and articulating knowledge. Much knowledge about the three-dimensional (3D) spatial interpretation and its derivation and uncertainty, and the wider contextual value of the knowledge, remains intangible in the minds of the mapping geologist in implicit and tacit form. To realise the value of these knowledge assets, the British Geological Survey (BGS) has established a workflow-based cyber-infrastructure to enhance its knowledge management and exchange capability. Future geoscience surveys in the BGS will contribute to a national, 3D digital knowledge base on UK geology, with the associated implicit and tacit information captured as metadata, qualitative assessments of uncertainty, and documented workflows and best practice. Knowledge-based decision-making at all levels of society requires both the accessibility and reliability of knowledge to be enhanced in the grid-based world. Establishment of collaborative cyber-infrastructures and ontologies for geoscience knowledge management and exchange will ensure that GSOs, as knowledge-based organisations, can make their contribution to this wider goal.

  14. FAINT TIDAL FEATURES IN GALAXIES WITHIN THE CANADA-FRANCE-HAWAII TELESCOPE LEGACY SURVEY WIDE FIELDS

    SciTech Connect

    Atkinson, Adam M.; Abraham, Roberto G.; Ferguson, Annette M. N.

    2013-03-01

    We present an analysis of the detectability of faint tidal features in galaxies from the wide-field component of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey. Our sample consists of 1781 luminous (M{sub r{sup '}}<-19.3 mag) galaxies in the magnitude range 15.5 mag < r' < 17 mag and in the redshift range 0.04 < z < 0.2. Although we have classified tidal features according to their morphology (e.g., streams, shells, and tails), we do not attempt to interpret them in terms of their physical origin (e.g., major versus minor merger debris). Instead, we provide a catalog that is intended to provide raw material for future investigations which will probe the nature of low surface brightness substructure around galaxies. We find that around 12% of the galaxies in our sample show clear tidal features at the highest confidence level. This fraction rises to about 18% if we include systems with convincing, albeit weaker tidal features, and to 26% if we include systems with more marginal features that may or may not be tidal in origin. These proportions are a strong function of rest-frame color and of stellar mass. Linear features, shells, and fans are much more likely to occur in massive galaxies with stellar masses >10{sup 10.5} M {sub Sun }, and red galaxies are twice as likely to show tidal features than are blue galaxies.

  15. Faint Tidal Features in Galaxies within the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey Wide Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkinson, Adam M.; Abraham, Roberto G.; Ferguson, Annette M. N.

    2013-03-01

    We present an analysis of the detectability of faint tidal features in galaxies from the wide-field component of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey. Our sample consists of 1781 luminous (M_{r^\\prime }<-19.3 mag) galaxies in the magnitude range 15.5 mag < r' < 17 mag and in the redshift range 0.04 < z < 0.2. Although we have classified tidal features according to their morphology (e.g., streams, shells, and tails), we do not attempt to interpret them in terms of their physical origin (e.g., major versus minor merger debris). Instead, we provide a catalog that is intended to provide raw material for future investigations which will probe the nature of low surface brightness substructure around galaxies. We find that around 12% of the galaxies in our sample show clear tidal features at the highest confidence level. This fraction rises to about 18% if we include systems with convincing, albeit weaker tidal features, and to 26% if we include systems with more marginal features that may or may not be tidal in origin. These proportions are a strong function of rest-frame color and of stellar mass. Linear features, shells, and fans are much more likely to occur in massive galaxies with stellar masses >1010.5 M ⊙, and red galaxies are twice as likely to show tidal features than are blue galaxies.

  16. The Canada-France High-z Quasar Survey: 1.2 mm observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omont, A.; Willott, C. J.; Beelen, A.; Bergeron, J.; Orellana, G.; Delorme, P.

    2013-04-01

    We report 250 GHz (1.2 mm) observations of a sample of 20 quasars at redshifts 5.8 < z < 6.5 from the Canada-France High-z Quasar Survey (CFHQS), using the Max-Planck-Millimeter-Bolometer (MAMBO) array at the 30-metre telescope of the Institut de Radioastronomie Millmétrique (IRAM). An rms sensitivity of ≲0.6 mJy was achieved for 65% of the sample, and of ≲1.0 mJy for 90%. Only one quasar, CFHQS J142952+544717, was robustly detected with S250 GHz = 3.46 ± 0.52 mJy. This indicates that one of the most powerful known starbursts at z ~ 6 is associated with this radio-loud quasar. On average, the other CFHQS quasars, which have a mean optical magnitude fainter than the previously studied samples of z ~ 6 quasars of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), have a mean 1.2 mm flux density ⟨ S250 GHz ⟩ = 0.41 ± 0.14 mJy; this average detection with a signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio of 2.9 is hardly meaningful. It would correspond to ⟨ LFIR ⟩ ≈ 0.94 ± 0.32 × 1012 L⊙, and an average star formation rate of a few 100 M⊙/yr, depending on the stellar initial mass function (IMF) and a possible contribution of an active galactic nucleus (AGN) to ⟨ LFIR ⟩. This is consistent with previous findings of Wang et al. on the far-infrared emission of z ~ 6 quasars and extends their results toward optically fainter sources.

  17. Fortieth annual report of the Director of the United States Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, George Otis

    1919-01-01

    The fortieth annual report of the United States Geological Survey is an appropriate place in which to compare the present scope of the work with that of the work done during the first year of this organization. The growth of the Survey is suggested by a comparison of the appropriations for 1918-19, which comprise items amounting to $1,437,745, with the total appropriation of $106,000 for the first year, 1879-80. During the 40 years the personnel has been increased from 39 to 967. The corresponding growth in public functions of the organization, which is one of the oldest of the Federal scientific bureaus, can be inferred from the detailed report of activities which makes up the greater part of this volume. The past year has been the most notable in the Survey's history, as it marked the completion of the period of its largest national contribution, and the later half of the year was largely a time of readjustment of program. It seems opportune, therefore, that the special topics discussed in the pages immediately following should be forward-looking and suggestive of the larger usefulness planned for the Geological Survey in the future.

  18. U.S. Geological Survey activities related to American Indians and Alaska Natives: fiscal years 2009 and 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fordham, Monique; Montour, Maria R.

    2015-01-01

    Although this report uses the term “resources,” the U.S. Geological Survey, through its interdisciplinary research, acknowledges the interconnectedness of the Earth and all the life forms that live upon it.

  19. Fifty-ninth annual report of the Director of the Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mendenhall, Walter Curran

    1938-01-01

    Basically important in the general program of conservation and development were the results of the Geological Survey's work during the fiscal year 1938. Investigations of the Nation's mineral and water supplies were conducted with all possible vigor and dispatch, thousands of square miles were surveyed for topographic maps, and technical supervision was given to prospecting, mining, and producing operations on public and Indian lands. This work was accomplished through the use of the regularly appropriated funds, the co-operative funds from States, counties, and municipalities, the funds transferred from other departments of the Government for types of work within the Survey's field, and the emergency funds derived chiefly from the Public Works Administration and devoted largely to mapping of various types and to studies of floods. The aggregate expenditures amounted to $5,248,000, which was 265,000 less than the amount expended during the preceding year.

  20. Access routes to the United States Geological Survey's National Center, Reston, Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1977-01-01

    The National Center: The U.S. Geological Survey, established in 1879 as a bureau in the Department of the Interior, is one of the Federal Government's major earth science research and fact-finding agencies. By 1960, the continued growth of the Survey's natural resources and environmental programs and activities led to the agency's headquarters personnel being housed in more than 30 different buildings scattered throughout the Washington, D.C. metropolitan area. In 1962, Congress approved the construction of a National Center to consolidate the overall Survey's headquarters effort. A site in Reston's industrial/educational complex was selected and on July 15, 1971, ground was broken for the John Wesley Powell Federal Building.

  1. State Geological Survey Contributions to the National Geothermal Data System- Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Allison, M. Lee; Richard, Stephen M.

    2015-03-13

    The State Geological Survey Contributions to the National Geothermal Data System project is built on the work of the project managed by Boise State University to design and build the National Geothermal Data System, by deploying it nationwide and populating it with data principally from State Geological Surveys through collaboration with the Association of American State Geologists (AASG). This project subsequently incorporated the results of the design-build and other DOE-funded projects in support of the NGDS. The NGDS (www.geothermaldata.org) provides free open access to millions of data records, images, maps, and reports, sharing relevant geoscience, production, and land use data in 30+ categories to propel geothermal development and production in the U.S. NGDS currently serves information gathered from hundreds of the U.S. Department of Energy sponsored development and research projects and geologic data feeds from 60+ data providers throughout all 50 states. These data are relevant to geothermal energy exploration and development, but also have broad applicability in other areas including natural resources (e.g., energy, minerals, water), natural hazards, and land use and management.

  2. Bibliography of Oklahoma hydrology; reports prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey and principal cooperating agencies, 1901-93

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Havens, J. S., (compiler)

    1993-01-01

    This bibliography lists reports on hydrology in Oklahoma prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey and the principal State cooperating agencies, the Oklahoma Geological Survey and the Oklahoma Water Resources Board. Included are citations of about 550 reports, abstracts, and journal articles issued from 1901 through July 1993. The reports are listed by agency and report type, and are indexed by author, subject, and USGS report number.

  3. Summary of water-resources activities of the U.S. Geological Survey in Colorado: fiscal year 1984

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1984-01-01

    Water-resources investigations of the U.S. Geological Survey in Colorado consist of collecting water-resources data and conducting interpretive hydrologic investigations. The water-resources data and the results of the investigations are published or released by either the U.S. Geological Survey or by cooperating agencies. This report describes the water- resources investigations in Colorado for the 1984 fiscal year (October 1, 1983, to September 30, 1984).

  4. Programs and activities of the Missouri District, Water Resources Division, U.S. Geological Survey, fiscal year 1979

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kratzer, Wanietia M., (compiler)

    1979-01-01

    Water-resources investigations of the U.S. Geological Survey in Missouri consist of collecting hydrologic data and conducting interpretive investigations. The data and the results of the investigations are published or released by either the U.S. Geological Survey or by cooperating agencies. This report describes the data-collection activities and investigations in Missouri for the 1979 fiscal year and provides an extensive list of water-resources references for the State. (Woodard-USGS)

  5. The U.S. Geological Survey Geologic Collections Management System (GCMS)—A master catalog and collections management plan for U.S. Geological Survey geologic samples and sample collections

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geologic Materials Repository Working Group

    2015-01-01

    The general consideration for implementation of the GCMS is that all active USGS geologic sample repositories will form the core of GCMS and that participating science centers will develop procedures based on proposed GCMS methodologies. The GCMS is a collective resource for the entire USGS community and the users who discover the geologic materials kept in these repositories and seek to access them.

  6. Transboundary study of the Milk River aquifer (Canada, USA): geological, conceptual and numerical models for the sound management of the regional groundwater resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pétré, Marie-Amélie; Rivera, Alfonso; Lefebvre, René

    2016-04-01

    The Milk River transboundary aquifer straddles southern Alberta (Canada) and northern Montana (United States), a semi-arid and water-short region. The extensive use of this regional sandstone aquifer over the 20th century has led to a major drop in water levels locally, and concerns about the durability of the resources have been raised since the mid-1950. Even though the Milk River Aquifer (MRA) has been studied for decades, most of the previous studies were limited by the international border, preventing a sound understanding of the aquifer dynamics. Yet, a complete portrait of the aquifer is required for proper management of this shared resource. The transboundary study of the MRA aims to overcome transboundary limitations by providing a comprehensive characterization of the groundwater resource at the aquifer scale, following a three-stage approach: 1) The development of a 3D unified geological model of the MRA (50,000 km2). The stratigraphic framework on both sides of the border was harmonized and various sources of geological data were unified to build the transboundary geological model. The delineation of the aquifer and the geometry and thicknesses of the geological units were defined continuously across the border. 2) Elaboration of a conceptual hydrogeological model by linking hydrogeological and geochemical data with the 3D unified geological model. This stage is based on a thorough literature review and focused complementary field work on both sides of the border. The conceptual model includes the determination of the groundwater flow pattern, the spatial distribution of hydraulic properties, a groundwater budget and the definition of the groundwater types. Isotopes (3H, 14C, 36Cl) were used to delineate the recharge area as well as the active and low-flow areas. 3) The building of a 3D numerical groundwater flow model of the MRA (26,000 km2). This model is a transposition of the geological and hydrogeological conceptual models. A pre

  7. Promoting cessation resources through cigarette package warning labels: a longitudinal survey with adult smokers in Canada, Australia and Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Thrasher, James F; Osman, Amira; Moodie, Crawford; Hammond, David; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Cummings, K Michael; Borland, Ron; Yong, Hua-Hie; Hardin, James

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Health warning labels (HWLs) on tobacco packaging can be used to provide smoking cessation information, but the impact of this information is not well understood. Methods Online consumer panels of adult smokers from Canada, Australia and Mexico were surveyed in September 2012, January 2013 and May 2013; replenishment was used to maintain sample sizes of 1000 participants in each country at each wave. Country-stratified logistic Generalised Estimating Equation (GEE) models were estimated to assess correlates of citing HWLs as a source of information on quitlines and cessation websites. GEE models also regressed having called the quitline, and having visited a cessation website, on awareness of these resources because of HWLs. Results At baseline, citing HWLs as a source of information about quitlines was highest in Canada, followed by Australia and Mexico (33%, 19% and 16%, respectively). Significant increases over time were only evident in Australia and Mexico. In all countries, citing HWLs as a source of quitline information was significantly associated with self-report of having called a quitline. At baseline, citing HWLs as a source of information about cessation websites was higher in Canada than in Australia (14% and 6%, respectively; Mexico was excluded because HWLs do not include website information), but no significant changes over time were found for either country. Citing HWLs as a source of information about cessation websites was significantly associated with having visited a website in both Canada and Australia. Conclusions HWLs are an important source of cessation information. PMID:25052860

  8. Food consumption patterns in the Waterloo Region, Ontario, Canada: a cross-sectional telephone survey

    PubMed Central

    Nesbitt, Andrea; Majowicz, Shannon; Finley, Rita; Pollari, Frank; Pintar, Katarina; Marshall, Barbara; Cook, Angela; Sargeant, Jan; Wilson, Jeff; Ribble, Carl; Knowles, Lewinda

    2008-01-01

    Background The demographics and lifestyles of Canadians are changing, thereby influencing food choices and food preparation in the home. Although different dietary practices are associated with increased risk of foodborne illness, our ability to evaluate food consumption trends and assess risks associated with foodborne illness is limited by lack of data on current eating habits and consumer food safety practices. The objective of this study was to describe, for the first time, the food consumption patterns in a Canadian-based population from a food safety perspective, in order to establish baseline data on actual food intake of individuals. Method A cross-sectional telephone survey of 2,332 randomly selected residents of Waterloo Region, Ontario, Canada (C-EnterNet pilot site) was conducted between November 2005 and March 2006. Food intake was assessed using a 7-day dietary recall method. Results Certain food items were consumed more than others among the same food groups, and consumption of many food items varied by gender and age. Specific foods considered high-risk for the transmission of certain enteric pathogens were significantly more likely to be consumed by males (i.e. unpasteurized juice, bean sprouts, and undercooked meat) and elderly individuals (i.e. undercooked eggs). The majority of households prepared and consumed most meals at home, allocating an average of 44 minutes to prepare a meal. Conclusion Baseline data on actual food intake is useful to public health professionals and food safety risk assessors for developing communication messages to consumers and in foodborne outbreak investigations. PMID:18950509

  9. Participation in Performance-Evaluation Studies by U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glodt, Stephen R.; Pirkey, Kimberly D.

    1998-01-01

    Performance-evaluation studies provide customers of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory (NWQL) with data needed to evaluate performance and to compare of select laboratories for analytical work. The NWQL participates in national and international performance-evaluation (PE) studies that consist of samples of water, sediment, and aquatic biological materials for the analysis of inorganic constituents, organic compounds, and radionuclides. This Fact Sheet provides a summary of PE study results from January 1993 through April 1997. It should be of particular interest to USGS customers and potential customers of the NWQL, water-quality specialists, cooperators, and agencies of the Federal Government.

  10. U.S. Geological Survey Global Seismographic Network - Five-Year Plan 2006-2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leith, William S.; Gee, Lind S.; Hutt, Charles R.

    2009-01-01

    The Global Seismographic Network provides data for earthquake alerting, tsunami warning, nuclear treaty verification, and Earth science research. The system consists of nearly 150 permanent digital stations, distributed across the globe, connected by a modern telecommunications network. It serves as a multi-use scientific facility and societal resource for monitoring, research, and education, by providing nearly uniform, worldwide monitoring of the Earth. The network was developed and is operated through a partnership among the National Science Foundation (http://www.nsf.gov), the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (http://www.iris.edu/hq/programs/gsn), and the U.S. Geological Survey (http://earthquake.usgs.gov/gsn).

  11. U.S. Geological Survey research on surrogate measurements for suspended sediment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gray, John R.; Melis, Theodore S.; Patiño, Eduardo; Larsen, Matthew C.; Topping, David J.; Rasmussen, Patrick P.; Figueroa-Alamo, Carlos

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is evaluating potentially useful surrogate instruments and methods for inferring the physical characteristics of suspended sediments. Instruments operating on bulk acoustic, bulk and digital optic, laser, and pressure-differential technologies are being tested in riverine and laboratory settings for their usefulness to Federal agencies toward providing quantifiably reliable information on bed-material and bed-topography characteristics, and on concentrations, size distributions and transport rates of sediments in suspension and as bedload. The efficacy of four suspended-sediment surrogate technologies has been demonstrated to varying degrees of success in Kansas, Florida, Arizona, and Puerto Rico.

  12. U.S. Geological Survey's Alert Notification System for Volcanic Activity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gardner, Cynthia A.; Guffanti, Marianne C.

    2006-01-01

    The United States and its territories have about 170 volcanoes that have been active during the past 10,000 years, and most could erupt again in the future. In the past 500 years, 80 U.S. volcanoes have erupted one or more times. About 50 of these recently active volcanoes are monitored, although not all to the same degree. Through its five volcano observatories, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) issues information and warnings to the public about volcanic activity. For clarity of warnings during volcanic crises, the USGS has now standardized the alert-notification system used at its observatories.

  13. Access routes to the U.S. Geological Survey's EROS Data Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1976-01-01

    The EROS Data Center is a part of the Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Program of the Department of the Interior, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey. It is the national center for the processing anddissemination of spacecraft and aircraft acquired photographic imagery and electronic data of the Earth's resources. The center also trains and assists users in the application of such data. The EROS Data Center provides access to Landsat data, aerial photography acquired by the U.S. Department of the Interior, and photography and other remotely sensed data acquired by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) from research aircraft and from Skylab, Apollo, and Gemini spacecraft.

  14. Contaminants and drinking-water sources in 2001; recent findings of the U. S. Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patterson, G.G.; Focazio, M.J.

    2000-01-01

    As the Nation's principal earth-science agency, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) studies numerous issues related to contamination of drinking-water sources. The work includes monitoring to determine the spatial and temporal distribution of contaminants; research to determine sources, transport, transformations, and fate of contaminants, and assessments of vulnerability. Much of the work is conducted in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and other Federal, State, Tribal, and local governments, to help provide a scientific basis for resource management and regulation. Examples of recent results are presented for two broad categories of drinking-water projects: occurrence studies, and source-water assessments.

  15. Pilot study for U.S. Geological Survey Standard Reference Water Samples for pesticides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedman, L.C.; Fishman, M. J.; Boyle, D.K.

    1984-01-01

    The U. S. Geological Survey has been preparing and maintaining a library of standard reference water samples for inorganic constituents for 19 years. Recently, a pilot study was conducted to see if the reference-sample program could be expanded to include pesticides and other organic materials. Two samples containing organochlorine and organophosphorus insecticides, and chlorophenoxy acid herbicides were distributed to a number of laboratories in the United States. One of the samples also contained polychlorinated biphenyls. Interlaboratory data obtained from these round robin studies are presented with intralaboratory information on long-term stability.

  16. Multispectral techniques for general geological surveys evaluation of a four-band photographic system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crowder, D., F.

    1969-01-01

    A general geological survey at 1:62,500 scale of the well exposed rocks of the White Mountains and the adjacent volcanic desert plateau is reported. The tuffs, granites, sedimentary rocks and metavolcanic rocks in this arid region are varicolored and conventional black and white aerial photographs have been a useful mapping aid. A large number of true color and false color aerial photographs and multispectral viewer screen images of the study area are evaluated in order to consider what imagery is the most useful for distinguishing rock types. Photographs of true color film are judged the most useful for recognizing geographic locations.

  17. Activities of the US Geological Survey in Applications of Remote Sensing in the Chesapeake Bay Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wray, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    The application of remote sensing in the Chesapeake Bay region has been a central concern of three project activities of the U.S. Geological Survey: two are developmental, and one is operational. The two developmental activities were experiments in land-use and land-cover inventory and change detection using remotely sensed data from aircraft and from the LANDSAT and Skylab satellites. One of these is CARETS (Central Atlantic Regional Ecological Test Site). The other developmental task is the Census Cities Experiment in Urban Change Detection. The present major concern is an operational land-use and land-cover data-analysis program, including a supporting geographical information system.

  18. Geochemical work of the Geochemistry and Petrology Branch U.S. Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ingerson, E.

    1954-01-01

    The current geochemical work of the Geochemistry and Petrology Branch of the U.S. Geological Survey is outlined under the headings of geochemical compilations, laboratory projects, and field-laboratory projects. Some thirty-seven active projects are described. Six others are mentioned which are planned for the near future. The importance and value of cooperative projects and the "team approach" are emphasized. The hope is expressed that more such projects can be undertaken; also, that summaries of geochemical work under way elsewhere will be published soon for the advancement and better coordination of geochemical research. ?? 1954.

  19. U. S. Geological Survey begins seismic ground response experiments in Washington State

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tarr, A.C.; King, K.W.

    1987-01-01

    The men were Denver-based U.S Geological Survey (USGS) geophysicists working on the Urban Hazards Field Investigations project. On the previous day they had recorded two events on their seismographs-a distant nuclear explosion in Nevada and a blast at amine near Centralia, Washington. On another day, they used seismic refraction equipment to locate the depth of bedrock and seismic velocity to it at several locations in West Seattle and in the Seward Park-Brighton district of southeast Seattle. 

  20. National water-quality assessment: Future directions of the U.S. Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cohen, Philip; Alley, William M.; Wilber, William G.

    1988-01-01

    Throughout U.S. history, the Nation has made major investments in assessing natural resources, such as soils, minerals, and hydrocarbons. The maintenance and the improvement of water quality has been one of the major areas of public investment and government regulation. One of the contributions the U.S. Geological Survey proposes to make is to provide a strong, high quality National Water-Quality Assessment Program to underpin and unify the Nation's water-quality activities. Such an assessment program will satisfy a decisive share of the attainable, national scale, water quality information objectives.

  1. Former U.S. Geological Survey Director McNutt Discusses Highlights and Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-02-01

    Marcia McNutt, who served as director of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and science advisor to the secretary of the Department of the Interior (DOI) since November 2009, left office on 15 February 2013, a few days after the successful launch of the Landsat 8 Earth imaging satellite and shortly before potential automatic and across-the-board federal budget cuts, known as "sequestration," were due to be implemented. McNutt said that sequestration, which currently is scheduled for 1 March, "could be devastating" for USGS.

  2. Implementation of unmanned aircraft systems by the U.S. Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cress, J.J.; Sloan, J.L.; Hutt, M.E.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Project Office is leading the implementation of UAS technology in anticipation of transforming the research methods and management techniques employed across the Department of the Interior. UAS technology is being made available to monitor environmental conditions, analyse the impacts of climate change, respond to natural hazards, understand landscape change rates and consequences, conduct wildlife inventories and support related land management missions. USGS is teaming with the Department of the Interior Aviation Management Directorate (AMD) to lead the safe and cost-effective adoption of UAS technology by the Department of the Interior Agencies and USGS scientists.

  3. Methods for Adjusting U.S. Geological Survey Rural Regression Peak Discharges in an Urban Setting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moglen, Glenn E.; Shivers, Dorianne E.

    2006-01-01

    A study was conducted of 78 U.S. Geological Survey gaged streams that have been subjected to varying degrees of urbanization over the last three decades. Flood-frequency analysis coupled with nonlinear regression techniques were used to generate a set of equations for converting peak discharge estimates determined from rural regression equations to a set of peak discharge estimates that represent known urbanization. Specifically, urban regression equations for the 2-, 5-, 10-, 25-, 50-, 100-, and 500-year return periods were calibrated as a function of the corresponding rural peak discharge and the percentage of impervious area in a watershed. The results of this study indicate that two sets of equations, one set based on imperviousness and one set based on population density, performed well. Both sets of equations are dependent on rural peak discharges, a measure of development (average percentage of imperviousness or average population density), and a measure of homogeneity of development within a watershed. Average imperviousness was readily determined by using geographic information system methods and commonly available land-cover data. Similarly, average population density was easily determined from census data. Thus, a key advantage to the equations developed in this study is that they do not require field measurements of watershed characteristics as did the U.S. Geological Survey urban equations developed in an earlier investigation. During this study, the U.S. Geological Survey PeakFQ program was used as an integral tool in the calibration of all equations. The scarcity of historical land-use data, however, made exclusive use of flow records necessary for the 30-year period from 1970 to 2000. Such relatively short-duration streamflow time series required a nonstandard treatment of the historical data function of the PeakFQ program in comparison to published guidelines. Thus, the approach used during this investigation does not fully comply with the

  4. U.S. Geological Survey archived data recovery in Texas, 2008-11

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wehmeyer, Loren L.; Reece, Brian D.

    2011-01-01

    The 2008–11 data rescue and recovery efforts by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Texas Water Science Center resulted in an efficient workflow process, database, and Web user interface for scientists and citizens to access archived environmental information with practical applications. Much of this information is unique and has never been readily available to the public. The methods developed and lessons learned during this effort are now being applied to facilitate recovering archived information requested by USGS scientists, cooperators, and the general public.

  5. Activities of the U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Division in North Carolina, 1986

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Turner, J. F., (compiler); Deckard, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    Water resources programs conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in the state of North Carolina during 1985 and proposed programs for 1986 are described. This is the first in a series of biennial progress reports on Survey activities in the state. Activities such as gathering, interpreting and publishing hydrologic data and scientific information in support of state and local water resources planning, management, and regulatory programs are presented. The water resources programs described are funded through cooperative agreements with state and local agencies and through special agreements with other federal agencies. Cooperative programs are reviewed annually to insure that state, local and national priorities are being met. Groundwater withdrawals are estimated to have produced water level declines of 150 ft and more for large areas of the northeast and central Coastal Plain. Future demands for water quality and quantity are discussed.

  6. A Survey of the Utility of Satellite Magnetometer Data for Application to Solid-earth Geophysical and Geological Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A survey of potential users of low altitude satellite magnetic measurements for solid-earth and geological studies was conducted. The principal objectives of this survey were to: document the utility and application of the data and resultant products obtained from such a satellite mission, and establish a users committee for the proposed low altitude vector magnetometer satellite.

  7. Geological, geochemical, and geophysical survey of the geothermal resources at Hot Springs Bay Valley, Akutan Island, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Motyka, R.J.; Wescott, E.M.; Turner, D.L.; Swanson, S.E.; Romick, J.D.; Moorman, M.A.; Poreda, R.J.; Witte, W.; Petzinger, B.; Allely, R.D.

    1985-01-01

    An extensive survey was conducted of the geothermal resource potential of Hot Springs Bay Valley on Akutan Island. A topographic base map was constructed, geologic mapping, geophysical and geochemical surveys were conducted, and the thermal waters and fumarolic gases were analyzed for major and minor element species and stable isotope composition. (ACR)

  8. Lessons learned from the U.S. Geological Survey abandoned mine lands initiative: 1997-2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kimball, Briant A.; Church, Stanley E.; Besser, John M.

    2006-01-01

    Growth of the United States has been facilitated, in part, by hard-rock mining in the Rocky Mountains. Abandoned and inactive mines cause many significant environmental concerns in hundreds of watersheds. Those who have responsibility to address these environmental concerns must have a basic level of scientific information about mining and mine wastes in a watershed prior to initiating remediation activities. To demonstrate what information is needed and how to obtain that information, the U.S. Geological Survey implemented the Abandoned Mine Lands (AML) Initiative from 1997 to 2002 with demonstration studies in the Boulder River watershed in Montana and the Animas River watershed in Colorado. The AML Initiative included collection and analysis of geologic, hydrologic, geochemical, geophysical, and biological data. The synergy of this interdisciplinary analysis produced a perspective of the environmental concerns that could not have come from a single discipline. Two examples of these perspectives include (1) the combination of hydrological tracer techniques, structural geology, and geophysics help to understand the spatial distribution of loading to the streams in a way that cannot be evaluated by monitoring at a catchment outlet, and (2) the combination of toxicology and hydrology combine to illustrate that seasonal variability of toxicity conditions occurs. Lessons have been learned by listening to and collaborating with land-management agencies to understand their needs and by applying interdisciplinary methods to answer their questions.

  9. Bibliography of Regional Aquifer-System Analysis Program of the US Geological Survey, 1978-96

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sun, Ren Jen; Weeks, John B.; Grubb, Hayes F.

    1997-01-01

    The Regional Aquifer-System Analysis (RASA) Program of the U.S. Geological Survey was initiated in 1978 and was completed in 1995. The purpose of this program was to define the regional geohydrology and establish a framework of background information on geology, hydrology, and geochemistry of the Nation's important aquifer systems. This information is critically needed to develop an understanding of the Nation's major ground-water flow systems and to support better management of ground-water resources. Twenty-five of the Nation's major aquifer systems were studied under this program. Starting in 1988, the program devoted part of its resources to compilation of a National Ground Water Atlas that presets a comprehensive summary of the Nation's major ground-water resources. The atlas, which is designed in a graphical format supported by descriptive text, serves as a basic reference for the location, geography, geology, and hydrologic characteristics of the major aquifers in the Nation. This bibliography lists 1,105 reports that result from various studies of the program. The list of reports for each study follows a brief description of that study.

  10. Operation of hydrologic data collection stations by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1985

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Condes de la Torre, Alberto

    1985-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) operated hydrologic data collection stations during fiscal yr 1985 in response to the needs of all levels of Government for hydrologic information. Surface water discharge was determined at 11,076 stations; stage data on streams, reservoirs, and lakes were recorded at 2,141 stations; and surface water quality was determined at 4,166 stations. Groundwater levels were measured at 39,301 stations, and the quality of groundwater was determined at 9,263 stations nationwide. Data on sediment were collected daily at 212 stations and on a periodic basis at 1,027 stations. Information on precipitation quantity was collected at 921 stations, and the quality of precipitation was analyzed at 108 stations. Data collection platforms for satellite telemetry of hydrologic information were used at 1,520 USGS stations. Funding support for the hydrologic stations was derived either solely or from a combination of three major sources--the Geological Survey 's Federal Program appropriation, the Federal-State Cooperative Program, and reimbursements from other Federal agencies. (Author 's abstract)

  11. Resources for Teaching About Evolution from the U.S. Geological Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, L. C.

    2001-12-01

    As a scientific research agency, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is in an ideal position to provide scientific information and resources to educators. The USGS is not a curriculum developer, nor an expert in pedagogy, yet the USGS does have a wealth of scientific information on subjects such as fossils, geologic time, biological resources and plate tectonics that naturally come in to play in the teaching of evolution. Among USGS resources are the general interest pamphlets Geologic Time, Dinosaurs: Facts And Fiction, Our Changing Continent, and Fossils Rocks, and Time, and its accompanying poster, Fossils Through Time. In addition to printed versions, the pamphlets are available at no cost on the Internet at http://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/. The popular booklet, This Dynamic Earth: The Story of Plate Tectonics, available at http://pubs.usgs.gov/publications/text/dynamic.html, touches on evolution-related subjects such as Alfred Wegener's use of fossils to develop his theory of continental drift, "polar" dinosaur fossils found in Australia, marine fossils in the rocks of the Himalayas, and the use of fossil ages to determine rates of plate motions. Paleontological research at the USGS is highlighted on the Internet at http://geology.er.usgs.gov/paleo/. The web site includes links to technical publications, profiles of scientists, a geologic time scale, a glossary, information on important fossil groups, and a list of non-USGS references on fossils: all very useful to educators. A wealth of biological information and data can be found in the National Biological Information Infrastructure (NBII), a multi-agency collaborative program led by the USGS. In addition to data on the Nation's biological resources, the NBII web site http://www.nbii.gov/ includes a section on systematics and scientific names (helpful for illustrating the evolutionary relationships among living organisms), and links to non-USGS curriculum materials. A fact sheet, Unveiling the NBII as a Teaching

  12. Earth history at the century mark of the U.S. Geological Survey*

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, George Gaylord

    1979-01-01

    Earth history involves all aspects of geological and biological evolution, especially paleontology and stratigraphy. Early paleontological exploration of the western United States by and before the U.S. Geological Survey featured the dramatic discoveries and rivalries of the great vertebrate paleontologists Leidy, Cope, Marsh, and Osborn. Invertebrate paleontology and paleobotany in the U.S. Geological Survey blossomed with emphasis on practical missions. The most illuminating and useful earth history, nevertheless, emerges where there is a high degree of interaction with academic scholars. Despite a good knowledge of its broad features, the drama of earth history remains obscure in detail. Whereas it speaks conclusively for the reality of organic evolution, it is less conclusive about mechanisms and many important transitions. Current investigations, however, especially in pre-Phanerozoic, mammalian, and human paleontology, promise improved insights. New techniques in collecting, sample preparation, and research are revealing previously unknown kinds of fossils and exquisite details of preservation. Plate tectonic theory provides a new framework for historical geography and biogeography. Emerging techniques in geochronology—matching paleopolarity sequences, for example—promise to resolve old problems of the synchroneity or heterochroneity of different biotal provinces. As it splits into subfields, the teaching and practice of paleontology expand to cover all of them. The fossils themselves, however, remain the basic objective evidence. All hypotheses about them must answer to this court of appeal. But nature rarely responds in an either-or way. The most probable hypotheses are those that have repeatedly confronted objective reality and survived all opportunity for disproof. PMID:16592705

  13. Quaternary geologic map of the Hudson River 4 degree x 6 degree quadrangle, United States and Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    State and province compilations by Fullerton, David S.; Sevon, William D.; Muller, Ernest H.; Judson, Sheldon; Black, Robert F.; Wagner, Phillip W.; Hartshorn, Joseph H.; Chapman, William F.; Cowan, William D.; edited and integrated by Fullerton, David S.

    1992-01-01

    The Quaternary Geologic Map of the Hudson River 4? x 6? Quadrangle was mapped as part of the Quaternary Geologic Atlas of the United States. The atlas was begun as an effort to depict the areal distribution of surficial geologic deposits and other materials that accumulated or formed during the past 2+ million years, the period that includes all activities of the human species. These materials are at the surface of the earth. They make up the 'ground' on which we walk, the 'dirt' in which we dig foundations, and the 'soil' in which we grow crops. Most of our human activity is related in one way or another to these surface materials that are referred to collectively by many geologists as regolith, the mantle of fragmental and generally unconsolidated material that overlies the bedrock foundation of the continent. The maps were compiled at 1:1,000,000 scale.

  14. Quaternary geologic map of the Lake Superior 4 degrees x 6 degrees quadrangle, United States and Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richmond, Gerald M., (Edited By); Fullerton, David S.; state compilations by Farrand, William R.; Mickelson, D.M.; Cowan, W.R.; Goebel, J.E.; edited and integrated by Richmond, Gerald Martin

    1984-01-01

    The Quaternary Geologic Map of the Lake Superior 4? x 6? Quadrangle was mapped as part of the Quaternary Geologic Atlas of the United States. The atlas was begun as an effort to depict the areal distribution of surficial geologic deposits and other materials that accumulated or formed during the past 2+ million years, the period that includes all activities of the human species. These materials are at the surface of the earth. They make up the 'ground' on which we walk, the 'dirt' in which we dig foundations, and the 'soil' in which we grow crops. Most of our human activity is related in one way or another to these surface materials that are referred to collectively by many geologists as regolith, the mantle of fragmental and generally unconsolidated material that overlies the bedrock foundation of the continent. The maps were compiled at 1:1,000,000 scale.

  15. Quaternary geologic map of the Lake Erie 4 degrees x 6 degrees quadrangle, United States and Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fullerton, David S.; Richmond, Gerald M.; state compilations by Fullerton, David S.; Cowan, W.R.; Sevon, W.D.; Goldthwait, R.P.; Farrand, W.R.; Muller, E.H.; Behling, R.E.; Stravers, J.A.; edited and integrated by Fullerton, David S.; Richmond, Gerald Martin

    1991-01-01

    The Quaternary Geologic Map of the Lake Erie 4? x 6? Quadrangle was mapped as part of the Quaternary Geologic Atlas of the United States. The atlas was begun as an effort to depict the areal distribution of surficial geologic deposits and other materials that accumulated or formed during the past 2+ million years, the period that includes all activities of the human species. These materials are at the surface of the earth. They make up the 'ground' on which we walk, the 'dirt' in which we dig foundations, and the 'soil' in which we grow crops. Most of our human activity is related in one way or another to these surface materials that are referred to collectively by many geologists as regolith, the mantle of fragmental and generally unconsolidated material that overlies the bedrock foundation of the continent. The maps were compiled at 1:1,000,000 scale.

  16. Suggestions to authors of papers submitted for publication by the United States Geological Survey with directions to typists

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, George McLane; Lane, Bernard H.

    1935-01-01

    The present edition, like the others, is intended primarily for Geological Survey authors or prospective authors: it is not the manual of wider scope that Mr. Wood had planned, and it contains none of his new material. If authors outside the Survey shall continue to find the suggestions useful, that will be a byproduct that testifies to the quality of the Survey's standards, which were established early in its history.

  17. SIX MORE QUASARS AT REDSHIFT 6 DISCOVERED BY THE CANADA-FRANCE HIGH-z QUASAR SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Willott, Chris J.; Crampton, David; Hutchings, John B.; Schade, David; Delorme, Philippe; Delfosse, Xavier; Forveille, Thierry; Reyle, Celine; Albert, Loic; Bergeron, Jacqueline; Omont, Alain; McLure, Ross J.

    2009-03-15

    We present imaging and spectroscopic observations for six quasars at z {>=} 5.9 discovered by the Canada-France High-z Quasar Survey (CFHQS). The CFHQS contains subsurveys with a range of flux and area combinations to sample a wide range of quasar luminosities at z {approx} 6. The new quasars have luminosities 10-75 times lower than the most luminous Sloan Digital Sky Survey quasars at this redshift. The least luminous quasar, CFHQS J0216-0455 at z = 6.01, has absolute magnitude M {sub 1450} = -22.21, well below the likely break in the luminosity function. This quasar is not detected in a deep XMM-Newton survey showing that optical selection is still a very efficient tool for finding high-redshift quasars.

  18. Multidisciplinary approach (geology, geomorphology, geomechanics, geomatics) for the characterization of the Blais Creek DsGSD (Monashee Mountains, BC, Canada)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moretti, Danilo; Giardino, Marco; Stead, Doug; Clague, John; Gibson, Dan; Ghirotti, Monica; Perotti, Luigi

    2013-04-01

    Field investigations, including detailed geological and geomorphological mapping have been coupled with stratigraphic and structural studies of the Blais Creek Deep-seated Gravitational Slope Deformations (DsGSD), Monashee Mountains, British Columbia (BC). To reconstruct the DsGSD evolutionary stages and to evaluate its controlling factors, a complex methodology has been applied, integrating orthophotos, stereo models and 3D models of the DsGSD with field and literature data concerning tectonic and glacial history of the Seymour Valley. General geomechanical properties of the deforming rock mass has been then evaluated for using in numerical models of the failure mechanism at Blais Creek and to define a broad geomechanical characterization of different portions of the DsGSD. The combination between the aerial and terrestrial photogrammetry was appropriate in terms of the quality of the information obtained more than the quantitative information. Several Ground Control Points (GCPs) and Tie Points (TPs) were selected from the original DEM received by the BC Government. The use of a multitemporal aerial triangulation gave the possibility to minimize the error relative to every single block of images. Couples of oriented photos were used to create stereoscopic models. Multitemporal variations of the Blais Creek slope were observed and compared to the actual situation of the slope. The use of terrestrial photogrammetry through Adamtech software confirmed some of the qualitative data obtained from aerial interpretation and from field survey. The limited use of terrestrial photogrammetry was due to the impossibility of orienting the 3D terrestrial models. Anyway these models were also useful to confirm one of the possible mechanisms used to describe the evolution of Blais Creek. Geomechanical analysis was performed through field work and laboratory tests to characterize the entire slope and to produce some of the values useful for a possible numerical analysis of Blais

  19. Information and informatics in a geological survey - the good, the bad and the ugly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, I.

    2008-12-01

    It is apparent that the most successful geological surveys (as measured by the only true Key Performance Indicator - their effectiveness in serving their societies) have recognised that, while their core business is making maps and models and doing scientific research to underpin that, the commodity they actually deal in is data and information and knowledge. They know that in a digital world the better they organise the data and information and knowledge, the more successful they will be. In our future world, where e-science will surely dominate, some are already sub-titling themselves as information or knowledge exchange organisations. There seems an unarguable correlation between surveys which organise their information well and those that run their projects well, their agility in responding to government agendas or national emergencies, and flexibility in delivering products their diverse users want. Look deeper and you can see the pivotal role of best practice information management and the tangible benefits a responsible approach to acquiring, storing and delivering information brings. But even in these (most successful) surveys the people leading information management will tell you that it was a gargantuan battle to get the resources to achieve this success and that, even with the downstream fruits of the investment in professional information management and informatics now obvious, it is a continuing struggle to maintain a decent level of funding for these tasks. It is not hard to see why; the struggle is innately one-sided; geoscientists are born and/or trained to be curious, to be independent and to innovate. If the choice is between more research and survey, or a professional approach to information/informatics and the adjudicators are geoscientists, it is not difficult to pick the winner. So what does lie behind a successful approach to information in a geological survey organisation? First, recognise that poor information management cannot just be

  20. Expanding the lens of HIV services provision in Canada: results of a national survey of HIV health professionals.

    PubMed

    Worthington, Catherine; O'Brien, Kelly; Myers, Ted; Nixon, Stephanie; Cockerill, Rhonda

    2009-11-01

    Those living with HIV may experience a range of disabilities, including body impairments, activity limitations, and social participation restrictions. The aim of this study was to examine HIV services provision in Canada by exploring practices, referrals, and service delivery challenges from the perspective of HIV health professionals (including nurses, physicians, social workers, pharmacists, psychologists, and dieticians), and to explore differences in referrals and perceived service delivery challenges by professional group, jurisdiction, community size, and practice in a Northern region. We conducted a nationwide mail survey with the population of selected HIV health professionals in Canada using the Dillman tailored design survey method. Of the 731 deliverable mailings, we received 462 (63%) responses, with 36% of eligible respondents completing the survey (n=214). The large majority (90%) of HIV professionals were located in metropolitan or urban communities and worked predominantly in hospital in-patient (42%), out-patient (50%), and HIV specialty clinic (46%) settings in one of the three provinces (Ontario, Quebec, and British Columbia) with the highest HIV prevalence. HIV health professionals referred primarily, and at relatively high levels, to AIDS service organizations (79%) and social workers (84%) to address participation restrictions and social issues; a lower percentage referred to rehabilitation professionals and other service providers to address impairments, activity limitations, or participation restrictions. Of respondents, 74% perceived barriers to care specific to HIV. Our results suggest that there is little difference in referral patterns by profession, jurisdiction, community size, or northern region of practice. There is a need for increased information and education of HIV health professionals that may refer to rehabilitation and other health services. In addition, new approaches are needed to coordinate multisectoral care and enhance

  1. Hydrologic and geologic aspects of waste management and disposal; a bibliography of publications by U.S. Geological Survey authors, 1950-81

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Handman, Elinor H.

    1983-01-01

    References to more than 550 reports, articles, and maps are listed alphabetically by author and are indexed by subject. The subject index includes geographic-area terms. Citations from 69 series are included; series are listed separately. The publications listed report the results of U.S. Geological Survey research and field projects throughout the Nation concerning earth-science aspects of waste management and disposal. They include organic, inorganic, and radioactive wastes and related topics such as mathematical models of solute transport. Most of the references are to (1) Geological Survey report series such as Water-Supply Papers, Professional Papers, Bulletins, Circulars, Water-Resources Investigations, and Open-File Reports, (2) technical journals of professional organizations, or (3) reports by other Federal and State agencies.

  2. Geophysical Survey in Iquique and Alto Hospicio, northern Chile Cities: Tectonic and Geologic Implications.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Pérez, T.; Yanez, G. A.; Cembrano, J. M.; Marquardt, C.; Gomila, R.; Santibanez, I.; Maringue, J.

    2015-12-01

    The crustal deformation nature during the Cenozoic in northern Chile forearc (Coastal Cordillera; CC) is complex due to the several tectonics process involved, such as plate convergence, a continental orocline (Arica bend) and great degree of coupling between Nazca and South America plates. Such deformation could be regionally explained by an EW-extension generally accommodated by trench parallel faults system (TPFS). Also between ca. 19°-22° S, a small but significant NS-shortening produce folds and faults scarps striking orthogonal to plate boundary denominated trench-orthogonal faults system (TOFS). The main goal of this study is to understand the recent deformation history of the rocks units making up this part of the CC and the structural controls exerted on them by this fault systems. To achieve this, geophysical surveys have been conducted in Iquique and Alto Hospicio cities, both located in northern Chile. The results obtained by Gravity and Electromagnetics Transient (TEM) surveys are consistent with the nature and geometry of geological units previously identified in the zone. Sedimentary and intrusive rocks shows high values of density and resistivity, whereas volcanic rocks are associated with high values of density but low values of resistivity. This difference could be explained by water hosted by the fractured volcanic unit. Moreover, the sedimentary units are related to low values of density and resistivity. A first-order feature shown by the gravity anomaly is the existence of a NS sedimentary basin filled with gravels. However, this basin presents several discrete depocentres coinciding with EW faults. This could be interpreted as Quaternary deformation of the CC. TEM data shows changes in resistivity of the subsurface suggesting different relative levels for the same lithological units. These variations can be explained by normal or inverse movements of NS and EW faults that cut and displace all the units. In conclusion, results obtained from

  3. A summary of water-resources activities of the U.S. Geological Survey in Iowa, fiscal year 1992

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1992-01-01

    Water-resources activities of the U.S. Geological Survey in Iowa consist of collecting hydrologic data and conducting interpretive studies. Hydrologic investigations in Iowa are made through three basic types of projects: (1) hydrologic data-collection programs; (2) local or areal studies; and (3) statewide or regional investigations. These projects are funded through cooperative joint-funding agreements with Federal, State, and local agencies and direct Federal funds. The data and the results of the interpretive studies are published or released by either the U.S. Geological Survey or by cooperating agencies. This report describes: (1) the hydrologic data-collection programs; (2) the local or areal hydrologic investigations; and (3) statewide or regional studies conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in Iowa during fiscal year 1992 and provides a list of selected water-resources references for Iowa.

  4. A summary of water-resources activities of the U.S. Geological Survey in Iowa; fiscal year 1990

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1990-01-01

    Water resources activities of the U.S. Geological Survey in Iowa consist of collecting hydrologic data and conducting interpretive studies. Hydrologic investigations in Iowa are made through three basic types of projects: (1) hydrologic data-collection programs; (2) local or areal hydrologic studies; and (3) statewide or regional investigations. These projects are funded through cooperative joint-funding agreements with Federal, State, and local agencies and direct Federal funds. The data and the results of the interpretive studies are published or released by either the U.S. Geological Survey or by cooperating agencies. This report describes: (1) the hydrologic data-collection programs; (2) the local or areal hydrologic investigations; and (3) statewide or regional studies conducted by the U.S Geological Survey in Iowa during fiscal year 1990 and provides a list of selected water-resources references for Iowa.

  5. Microearthquake studies in Egypt carried out by the geological survey of Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boulos, Fouad K.; Morgan, Paul; Toppozada, Tousson R.

    1987-07-01

    Extensive microearthquake studies have been conducted in Egypt as a joint project between scientists from the Egyptian Geological Survey and Mining Authority (EGSMA) and U.S. scientists. At this stage, a great part of the data has been analyzed and two intensively active areas have been located: one in the Abu Dabbab area of the Eastern Desert, the second at the mouth of the Gulf of Suez near Gubal Island (Daggett et al., 1980). Both sites have been reported to be the epicenters of large earthquakes in 1955 and 1969, respectively. A few scattered earthquakes have also been located in the northern part of the Red Sea, some of which lie along its median axis (Daggett et al., 1986) adding to evidence for the medial opening of the northern Red Sea. After the occurrence of an earthquake (M = 5.5) in the Aswan region on 14 November 1981, continuous recording of the many aftershocks was carried out by EGSMA for about seven months from December 1981 to July 1982, when the temporary network was replaced by a network of telemetered seismographs installed and operated by Helwan Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics in cooperation with scientists from Lamont and Doherty Geological Observatory (LDGO). The majority of epicenters are concentrated in the vicinity of G. Marawa about 65 km upstream of Aswan Dam, along the E-W Kalabsha fault. The observed focal mechanism is consistent with a right-lateral strike-slip motion on the Kalabsha fault. Analysis of Aswan microearthquakes has been done by EGSMA in cooperation with scientists from California Division of Mines and Geology (CDMG).

  6. Virus Survey in Strawberry Production Fields in the United States and Canada

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In an effort to determine the incidence of viruses in strawberry production fields in the United States and Canada, approximately 1500 samples were collected and either brought back or shipped to the USDA-ARS laboratory in Corvallis, Oregon between 2002 and 2007. RNA was extracted from leaf tissue ...

  7. Mental Health Services for Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities in Canada: Findings from a National Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunsky, Y.; Garcin, N.; Morin, D.; Cobigo, V.; Bradley, E.

    2007-01-01

    Background: People with intellectual disabilities are known to have a high prevalence of mental health problems but few studies have considered how such mental health problems are addressed in Canada. The purpose of the present study was to document both the range of mental health services available to individuals with intellectual disabilities…

  8. Anti-Austerity Adult Education in Canada: A Survey of a Nascent Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGray, Robert

    2015-01-01

    As the realities of austerity agendas exert pressure on adult education around the globe, this paper attempts to map the developing, albeit small, field of anti-austerity adult education in Canada. In doing so, I attempt to trace the connections between anti-austerity education and existing fields of adult education. I argue that the cases we see…

  9. Virus Survey in Strawberry Production Fields in the United States and Canada

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In an effort to determine the distribution of strawberry viruses in the United States and Canada, approximately 1500 samples were collected and either brought back or shipped to the USDA-ARS laboratory in Corvallis between 2002 and 2007. RNA was extracted from leaf tissue and archived at -80C for s...

  10. Survey of Distance Learning Provision in Continuing Health Professional Education in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curran, Vernon; Kirby, Fran; Fleet, Lisa

    2003-01-01

    In Canada, the trend is towards greater use of distance learning technologies in the provision of continuing professional education in the health professions. Lack of access to professional development is a common deterrent to practice in rural and remote areas. Distance learning technologies have an important role to play in addressing the…

  11. School Psychology in Canada: A Survey of Roles and Functions, Challenges and Aspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Jason J.; Hindes, Yvonne L.; Saklofske, Donald H.

    2009-01-01

    School psychology in Canada has evolved in recent years from being comprised mainly of "testers" to being regarded as an important partner in promoting the psychological and educational needs of children and supporting the mandates of our educational systems. As well, school psychology is now recognized as an area of specialization within…

  12. The national coal-resources data system of the U.S. geological survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carter, M.D.

    1976-01-01

    The National Coal Resources Data System (NCRDS) was designed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to meet the increasing demands for rapid retrieval of information on coal location, quantity, quality, and accessibility. An interactive conversational query system devised by the USGS retrieves information from the data bank through a standard computer terminal. The system is being developed in two phases. Phase I, which currently is available on a limited basis, contains published areal resource and chemical data. The primary objective of this phase is to retrieve, calculate, and tabulate coal-resource data by area on a local, regional, or national scale. Factors available for retrieval include: state, county, quadrangle, township, coal field, coal bed, formation, geologic age, source and reliability of data, and coal-bed rank, thickness, overburden, and tonnage, or any combinations of variables. In addition, the chemical data items include individual values for proximate and ultimate analyses, BTU value, and several other physical and chemical tests. Information will be validated and deleted or updated as needed. Phase II is being developed to store, retrieve, and manipulate basic point source coal data (e.g., field observations, drill-hole logs), including geodetic location; bed thickness; depth of burial; moisture; ash; sulfur; major-, minor-, and trace-element content; heat value; and characteristics of overburden, roof rocks, and floor rocks. The computer system may be used to generate interactively structure-contour or isoline maps of the physical and chemical characteristics of a coal bed or to calculate coal resources. ?? 1976.

  13. Recent developments in uranium exploration using the U.S. geological survey's mobile helium detector

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reimer, G.M.; Denton, E.H.; Friedman, I.; Otton, J.K.

    1979-01-01

    A mobile mass spectrometer to measure He concentrations has been developed by the U.S. Geological Survey. This instrument has been tested in areas of known uranium deposits, and He anomalies have been found in both soil gas and water. A gas sample is collected in a hypodermic syringe, injected into the spectrometer, and analyzed for He. Over 100 analyses a day can be performed with a sensitivity of 10 parts per billion (ppb). One detailed study conducted in Weld County, Colorado, shows that values for He in soil gas can be contoured to outline an anomalous area and that the anomaly is displaced from the deposit in the direction of groundwater flow. Other studies include the Schwartzwalder uranium mine, Jefferson County, Colorado, where He anomalies may be related to geologic structure; near Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico, where the location of He anomalies are related to groundwater movement; and tests for diurnal effects showing only slight variations probably related to soil-moisture content. ?? 1979.

  14. Regional Aquifer-System Analysis Program of the US Geological Survey; bibliography, 1978-86

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weeks, J.B.; Sun, Ren Jen

    1987-01-01

    The Regional Aquifer-System Analysis Program of the U.S. Geological Survey was initiated in 1978. The purpose of this program is to define the regional geohydrology and establish a framework of background information on geology, hydrology, and geochemistry of the Nation 's important aquifer systems. This information is needed to develop an understanding of the Nation 's major groundwater flow systems and to support better groundwater resources management. As of 1986, investigations of 28 regional aquifer systems were planned, investigations of 9 regional aquifer systems were completed, and 11 regional aquifer systems were being studied. This report is a bibliography of reports completed under the Regional Aquifer-System Analysis Program from 1978 through 1986. The reports resulting from each regional aquifer-system study are listed after an introduction to the study. During 1978-86, 488 reports were completed under the Regional Aquifer-System Analysis Program, and 168 reports which were partially funded by the Regional Aquifer-System Analysis Program were completed under the National Research Program. (Author 's abstract)

  15. The U.S. Geological Survey mapping and cartographic database activities, 2006-2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Craun, Kari J.; Donnelly, John P.; Allord, Gregory J.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began systematic topographic mapping of the United States in the 1880s, beginning with scales of 1:250,000 and 1:125,000 in support of geological mapping. Responding to the need for higher resolution and more detail, the 1:62,500-scale, 15-minute, topographic map series was begun in the beginning of the 20th century. Finally, in the 1950s the USGS adopted the 1:24,000-scale, 7.5-minute topographic map series to portray even more detail, completing the coverage of the conterminous 48 states of the United States with this series in 1992. In 2001, the USGS developed the vision and concept of The National Map, a topographic database for the 21st century and the source for a new generation of topographic maps (http://nationalmap.gov/). In 2008, the initial production of those maps began with a 1:24,000-scale digital product. In a separate, but related project, the USGS began scanning the existing inventory of historical topographic maps at all scales to accompany the new topographic maps. The USGS also had developed a digital database of The National Atlas of the United States. The digital version of Atlas is now Web-available and supports a mapping engine for small scale maps of the United States and North America. These three efforts define topographic mapping activities of the USGS during the last few years and are discussed below.

  16. CRIB; the mineral resources data bank of the U.S. Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Calkins, James Alfred; Kays, Olaf; Keefer, Eleanor K.

    1973-01-01

    The recently established Computerized Resources Information Bank (CRIB) of the U.S. Geological Survey is expected to play an increasingly important role in the study of United States' mineral resources. CRIB provides a rapid means for organizing and summarizing information on mineral resources and for displaying the results. CRIB consists of a set of variable-length records containing the basic information needed to characterize one or more mineral commodities, a mineral deposit, or several related deposits. The information consists of text, numeric data, and codes. Some topics covered are: name, location, commodity information, geology, production, reserves, potential resources, and references. The data are processed by the GIPSY program, which performs all the processing tasks needed to build, operate, and maintain the CRIB file. The sophisticated retrieval program allows the user to make highly selective searches of the files for words, parts of words, phrases, numeric data, word ranges, numeric ranges, and others, and to interrelate variables by logic statements to any degree of refinement desired. Three print options are available, or the retrieved data can be passed to another program for further processing.

  17. U.S. Geological Survey Science for the Wyoming Landscape Conservation Initiative-2009 Annual Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowen, Z.H.; Aldridge, C.L.; Anderson, P.J.; Assal, T.J.; Biewick, L.R.H.; Blecker, S.W.; Bristol, S.; Carr, N.B.; Chalfoun, A.D.; Chong, G.W.; Diffendorfer, J.E.; Fedy, B.C.; Garman, S.L.; Germaine, S.; Grauch, R.I.; Holloway, J.; Homer, C.; Kauffman, M.J.; Keinath, D.; Latysh, N.; Manier, D.; McDougal, R.R.; Melcher, C.P.; Miller, K.A.; Montag, J.; Nutt, C.J.; Potter, C.J.; Sawyer, H.; Schell, S.; Shafer, S.L.; Smith, D.B.; Stillings, L.L.; Tuttle, M.; Wilson, A.B.

    2010-01-01

    This is the second report produced by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for the Wyoming Landscape Conservation Initiative (WLCI) to detail annual work activities. The first report described work activities for 2007 and 2008; this report covers work activities conducted in 2009. Important differences between the two reports are that (1) this report does not lump all the Effectiveness Monitoring activities together as last year's report did, which will allow WLCI partners and other readers to fully appreciate the scope and accomplishments of those activities, and (2) this report does not include a comprehensive appendix of the background details for each work activity. In 2009, there were 29 ongoing or completed activities, and there were 5 new work activities conducted under the 5 original major multi-disciplinary science and technical assistance activities: (1) Baseline Synthesis; (2) Targeted Monitoring and Research; (3) Data and Information Management; (4) Integration and Coordination; and (5) Decisionmaking and Evaluation. New work included (1) developing a soil-quality index, (2) developing methods for assessing levels of and relationships between mercury and soil organic matter, and (3) ascertaining element source, mobility, and fate. Additionally, (4) remotely sensed imagery was used to assess vegetation as an indicator of soil condition and geology, and (5) an Integrated Assessment (IA) was initiated to synthesize what has been learned about WLCI systems to date, and to develop associated decision tools, maps, and a comprehensive report.

  18. Illinois State Geological Survey Evaluation of CO2 Capture Options from Ethanol Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Finley

    2006-09-30

    The Illinois State Geological Survey and the Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium are conducting CO{sub 2} sequestration and enhanced oil recovery testing at six different sites in the Illinois Basin. The capital and operating costs for equipment to capture and liquefy CO{sub 2} from ethanol plants in the Illinois area were evaluated so that ethanol plants could be considered as an alternate source for CO{sub 2} in the event that successful enhanced oil recovery tests create the need for additional sources of CO{sub 2} in the area. Estimated equipment and operating costs needed to capture and liquefy 68 metric tonnes/day (75 tons/day) and 272 tonnes/day (300 tons/day) of CO{sub 2} for truck delivery from an ethanol plant are provided. Estimated costs are provided for food/beverage grade CO{sub 2} and also for less purified CO{sub 2} suitable for enhanced oil recovery or sequestration. The report includes preliminary plant and equipment designs and estimates major capital and operating costs for each of the recovery options. Availability of used equipment was assessed.

  19. U.S. Geological Survey Standard Reference Sample Project: Performance Evaluation of Analytical Laboratories

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Long, H. Keith; Daddow, Richard L.; Farrar, Jerry W.

    1998-01-01

    Since 1962, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has operated the Standard Reference Sample Project to evaluate the performance of USGS, cooperator, and contractor analytical laboratories that analyze chemical constituents of environmental samples. The laboratories are evaluated by using performance evaluation samples, called Standard Reference Samples (SRSs). SRSs are submitted to laboratories semi-annually for round-robin laboratory performance comparison purposes. Currently, approximately 100 laboratories are evaluated for their analytical performance on six SRSs for inorganic and nutrient constituents. As part of the SRS Project, a surplus of homogeneous, stable SRSs is maintained for purchase by USGS offices and participating laboratories for use in continuing quality-assurance and quality-control activities. Statistical evaluation of the laboratories results provides information to compare the analytical performance of the laboratories and to determine possible analytical deficiences and problems. SRS results also provide information on the bias and variability of different analytical methods used in the SRS analyses.

  20. The US Geological Survey's National Mapping Division programs, products, and services that can support wetlands mapping

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baxter, F.S.

    1990-01-01

    The US Geological Survey (USGS) programs can play an important role in support of President Bush's policy of no net loss of wetlands. A principal goal of USGS is to provide cartographic information that contributes to the wise management of the Nation's natural resources. This information consists of maps, cartographic data bases (graphic and digital), remotely sensed imagery, and information services. These products are used by Federal, State, and local governments, the private sector, and individual citizens in making decisions on the existence and use of land and water resources. I discuss the programs, products, and information services of the National Mapping Division, the tools available to determine where wetlands exist, and the capability of periodic measurement of wetlands to help in assessing compliance with the concept of no net loss of wetlands. -from Author

  1. Stream-Network navigation in the U.S. geological survey streamStats web application

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ries, K.G.; Steeves, P.A.; Guthrie, J.D.; Rea, A.H.; Stewart, D.W.

    2009-01-01

    StreamStats is a U.S. Geological Survey Webbased geographic information systems application developed as a tool for water-resources planning and management, engineering design, and other applications. The primary functionality of StreamStats allows users to obtain drainage-basin boundaries, basin characteristics, and streamflow statistics for gaged and ungaged sites. Recently, tools that allow stream-network navigation were added to StreamStats. These tools allow users to select any point along a stream and locate activities upstream and downstream from the selected point, such as streamgaging stations, dams, and point-source discharges, and obtain information about such activities. Users also can obtain stream-reach addresses and estimates of streamflow statistics for the selected points.

  2. Stream-network navigation in the U.S. Geological Survey StreamStats Web Application

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ries, Kernell G., III; Steeves, Peter A.; Guthrie, John D.; Rea, Alan H.; Stewart, David W.

    2009-01-01

    StreamStats is a U.S. Geological Survey Webbased geographic information systems application developed as a tool for water-resources planning and management, engineering design, and other applications. The primary functionality of StreamStats allows users to obtain drainage-basin boundaries, basin characteristics, and streamflow statistics for gaged and ungaged sites. Recently, tools that allow stream-network navigation were added to StreamStats. These tools allow users to select any point along a stream and locate activities upstream and downstream from the selected point, such as streamgaging stations, dams, and point-source discharges, and obtain information about such activities. Users also can obtain stream-reach addresses and estimates of streamflow statistics for the selected points.

  3. Status of ground-water modeling in the U.S. Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Appel, Charles A.; Bredehoeft, J.D.

    1976-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is active in the development and use of models for the analysis of various types of ground-water problems. Types of problems for which models have been, or are being, developed include: (1) ground-water flow in saturated or partially unsaturated materials, (2) land subsidence resulting from ground-water extraction, (3) flow in coupled ground water-stream systems, (4) coupling of rainfall-runoff basin models with soil moisture accounting and aquifer flow models, (5) interaction of economic and hydrologic considerations, (6) predicting the transport of contaminants in an aquifer, and (7) estimating the effects of proposed development schemes for geothermal systems. The status of modeling activity for various models is reported as being in a developmental, verification, operational, or continued improvement phase. Recently published references that provide useful details on the characteristics of the models are identified. (Woodard-USGS)

  4. Landsat Image Map Production Methods at the U. S. Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kidwell, R.D.; Binnie, D.R.; Martin, S.

    1987-01-01

    To maintain consistently high quality in satellite image map production, the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) has developed standard procedures for the photographic and digital production of Landsat image mosaics, and for lithographic printing of multispectral imagery. This paper gives a brief review of the photographic, digital, and lithographic procedures currently in use for producing image maps from Landsat data. It is shown that consistency in the printing of image maps is achieved by standardizing the materials and procedures that affect the image detail and color balance of the final product. Densitometric standards are established by printing control targets using the pressplates, inks, pre-press proofs, and paper to be used for printing.

  5. Water-quality sampling by the U.S. Geological Survey-Standard protocols and procedures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilde, Franceska D.

    2010-01-01

    Thumbnail of and link to report PDF (1.0 MB) The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) develops the sampling procedures and collects the data necessary for the accurate assessment and wise management of our Nation's surface-water and groundwater resources. Federal and State agencies, water-resource regulators and managers, and many organizations and interested parties in the public and private sectors depend on the reliability, timeliness, and integrity of the data we collect and the scientific soundness and impartiality of our data assessments and analysis. The standard data-collection methods uniformly used by USGS water-quality personnel are peer reviewed, kept up-to-date, and published in the National Field Manual for the Collection of Water-Quality Data (http://pubs.water.usgs.gov/twri9A/).

  6. Description of the U.S. Geological Survey Geo Data Portal data integration framework

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blodgett, David L.; Booth, Nathaniel L.; Kunicki, Thomas C.; Walker, Jordan I.; Lucido, Jessica M.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has developed an open-standard data integration framework for working efficiently and effectively with large collections of climate and other geoscience data. A web interface accesses catalog datasets to find data services. Data resources can then be rendered for mapping and dataset metadata are derived directly from these web services. Algorithm configuration and information needed to retrieve data for processing are passed to a server where all large-volume data access and manipulation takes place. The data integration strategy described here was implemented by leveraging existing free and open source software. Details of the software used are omitted; rather, emphasis is placed on how open-standard web services and data encodings can be used in an architecture that integrates common geographic and atmospheric data.

  7. U.S. Geological Survey Budget Cuts Funds for Minerals, Hazards, and Water Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2008-02-01

    The Bush administration's proposed US$968.5 million budget for the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for fiscal year (FY) 2009 is a $38 million decrease from the FY 2008 enacted level. The proposed budget also includes some increases for high-priority programs. Funding includes an $8.2 million net increase for a water census that would be the first U.S.-wide assessment of water availability and human and environmental water use and an increase of $7 million to support the U.S. Department of Interior's Ocean and Coastal Frontiers Initiative, which will acquire key ocean health data while also providing objective scientific data to evaluate U.N. Law of the Sea claims made by other nations.

  8. Proposed Budget for U.S. Geological Survey: A Mixed Bag of Increases and Cuts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2011-03-01

    Under the Obama administration's proposed fiscal year (FY) 2012 budget, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) would receive $1.1 billion, a scant $6.1 million more than the 2010 enacted budget. Within the agency, which is part of the Department of the Interior (DOI), some key initiatives slated for new or increased funding include the National Land Imaging Program, the USGS portion of the America's Great Outdoors Initiative, and DOI Climate Science Centers. However, the request also includes $89.1 million in program reductions and the elimination of some programs. With Congress currently considering a budget continuing resolution to fund the federal government through the end of the current fiscal year, 2011, USGS faces possible additional cuts.

  9. The United States Geological Survey: A vision for the 21st century

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1993-01-01

    Leadership in Earth science for sustained global health, welfare, and prosperity. We envision a U.S. Geological Survey that is a global leader in relevant, innovative, and interdisciplinary Earth science. We shall conduct collaborative, impartial, multi-scale scientific investigations into the Earth's systems and conditions through a spectrum of basic to applied research on the environment, hazards, resources, and information management, all in support of present and future societal needs. We envision an organization that serves the public by sharing Earthscience data and information and by promoting its dissemination, understanding, and application. We shall be a flexible organization that values its employees and works in concert with them for attainment of both institutional and individual goals.

  10. West Virginia geological and economic survey's coal sourcing program: helping consumers find the right coal

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, C.J.; McColloch, G.H. Jr.; Hohn, M.E.; Ashton, K.C.; King, H.M.

    1986-08-01

    West Virginia's 62 minable coal seams exhibit diverse quality, providing the coal user with a choice of grades to meet specifications for various applications. The West Virginia Geological and Economic Survey maintains a growing computer data base of quality information on these coals. They used the data base to develop computer-generated regional coal quality maps (scale, 1:500,000). Geostatistical analysis of coal quality data using semi-varigrams and kriging helps us determine whether sufficient geographic control is available for mapping. The data base has been used to search for samples meeting specifications provided by potential customers for West Virginia coal. These specifications are either analytical parameters in the data base or parameters that can be calculated from the data base. The result is a listing of samples, with areas and seams that meet the specifications. Target-point maps can be computer-generated, showing the locations of samples meeting specifications.

  11. Proposed U.S. Geological Survey Budget Would Provide "Significant" Increase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-04-01

    The White House's proposed budget for the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for fiscal year (FY) 2014, which the administration submitted to Congress on 10 April, would provide the agency with 1.17 billion, an increase of 98.02 million, 9.17% more than the FY 2012 enacted budget of $1.07 billion (see Table 1). The proposed budget is a "significant" increase and "makes a statement about the USGS's relevance in the federal research community," USGS acting director Suzette Kimball said at the agency's briefing. Because Congress approved the FY 2013 budget just a few weeks prior to the release of the Obama administration's proposal, the FY 2014 budget is compared with the FY 2012 enacted budget here.

  12. U.S. Geological Survey budget would increase but includes targeted cuts to some key programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-03-01

    The Obama administration's proposed budget for the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for fiscal year (FY) 2013 is 1.1 billion, 34.5 million (3.2%) above the Agency's 2012 enacted level. The budget includes 73.2 million in targeted increases but also has 49.5 million in proposed reductions, including cuts to some water and minerals programs and other areas. Funding for the budget was prioritized to maintain programs that are legislatively mandated, that are important for protecting lives and human property, and that are among the Obama administration's key emphases. These include research and development, which the administration believes will help end the economic recession, USGS director Marcia McNutt said at a 14 February briefing.

  13. Energy and Minerals Science at the U.S. Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ferrero, Richard C.; Kolak, Jonathan J.; Bills, Donald J.; Bowen, Zachary H.; Cordier, Daniel J.; Gallegos, Tanya J.; Hein, James R.; Kelley, Karen D.; Nelson, Philip H.; Nuccio, Vito F.; Schmidt, Jeanine M.; Seal, Robert R., II

    2013-01-01

    The economy, national security, and standard of living of the United States depend on adequate and reliable supplies of energy and mineral resources. Based on population and consumption trends, the Nation’s and World’s use of energy and minerals is expected to grow, driving the demand for scientific understanding of resource formation, location, and availability. The importance of environmental stewardship and human health in sustainable growth emphasizes the need for a broader understanding of energy and mineral resources. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is a world leader in conducting research needed to address these challenges and to provide a scientific foundation for policy and decisionmaking with respect to resource use, sustainability, environmental protection, and an adaptive resource management approach.

  14. Sudbury project (University of Muenster-Ontario Geological Survey): Petrology, chemistry, and origin of breccia formations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoeffler, D.; Deutsch, A.; Avermann, M.; Brockmeyer, P.; Lakomy, R.; Mueller-Mohr, V.

    1992-01-01

    Within the Sudbury Project of the University of Muenster and the Ontario Geological Survey special emphasis was put on the breccia formations exposed at the Sudbury structure (SS) because of their crucial role for the impact hypothesis. They were mapped and sampled in selected areas of the north, east, and south ranges of the SS. The relative stratigraphic positions of these units are summarized. Selected samples were analyzed by optical microscopy, SEM, microprobe, XRF and INAA, Rb-Sr and SM-Nd-isotope geochemistry, and carbon isotope analysis. The results of petrographic and chemical analysis for those stratigraphic units that were considered the main structural elements of a large impact basin are summarized.

  15. Availability of Earth observations data from the U.S. Geological Survey's EROS data center

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holm, Thomas M.; Draeger, William C.; Risty, Ronald R.

    1993-01-01

    For decades federal and state agencies have been collecting regional, continental, and global Earth observations data acquired by satellites, aircraft, and other information-gathering systems. These data include photographic and digital remotely sensed images of the Earth's surface, as well as earth science, cartographic, and geographic data. Since 1973, the U.S. Geological Survey's Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center (EDC) in Sioux Falls, South Dakota, has been a data management, production, dissemination, and research center for these data. Currently, the Data Center holds over 10 million satellite images and aerial photographs, in photographic and digital formats. Users are able to place inquiries and orders for these holdings via a nationwide computer network. In addition to cataloging the data stored in its archives, the Data Center provides users with rapid access to information on many data collections held by other facilities.

  16. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Western Region Kasatochi Volcano Coastal and Ocean Science

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeGange, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    Alaska is noteworthy as a region of frequent seismic and volcanic activity. The region contains 52 historically active volcanoes, 14 of which have had at least one major eruptive event since 1990. Despite the high frequency of volcanic activity in Alaska, comprehensive studies of how ecosystems respond to volcanic eruptions are non-existent. On August 7, 2008, Kasatochi Volcano, in the central Aleutian Islands, erupted catastrophically, covering the island with ash and hot pyroclastic flow material. Kasatochi Island was an annual monitoring site of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge (AMNWR); therefore, features of the terrestrial and nearshore ecosystems of the island were well known. In 2009, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), AMNWR, and University of Alaska Fairbanks began long-term studies to better understand the effects of the eruption and the role of volcanism in structuring ecosystems in the Aleutian Islands, a volcano-dominated region with high natural resource values.

  17. A statistical summary of data from the U.S. Geological Survey's national water quality networks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, R.A.; Alexander, R.B.

    1983-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey Operates two nationwide networks to monitor water quality, the National Hydrologic Bench-Mark Network and the National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN). The Bench-Mark network is composed of 51 stations in small drainage basins which are as close as possible to their natural state, with no human influence and little likelihood of future development. Stations in the NASQAN program are located to monitor flow from accounting units (subregional drainage basins) which collectively encompass the entire land surface of the nation. Data collected at both networks include streamflow, concentrations of major inorganic constituents, nutrients, and trace metals. The goals of the two water quality sampling programs include the determination of mean constituent concentrations and transport rates as well as the analysis of long-term trends in those variables. This report presents a station-by-station statistical summary of data from the two networks for the period 1974 through 1981. (Author 's abstract)

  18. U.S. Geological Survey Activities Related to American Indians and Alaska Natives - Fiscal Year 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marcus, Susan M.

    2008-01-01

    In the late 1800s, John Wesley Powell, the second director of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), followed his interest in the tribes of the Great Basin and Colorado Plateau and studied their cultures, languages, and surroundings. From that early time, the USGS has recognized the importance of Native knowledge and living in harmony with nature as complements to the USGS mission to better understand the Earth. Combining traditional ecological knowledge with empirical studies allows the USGS and Native American governments, organizations, and people to increase their mutual understanding and respect for this land. The USGS is the earth and natural science bureau within the U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI). The USGS does not have regulatory or land management responsibilities.

  19. A user interface for the Kansas Geological Survey slug test model.

    PubMed

    Esling, Steven P; Keller, John E

    2009-01-01

    The Kansas Geological Survey (KGS) developed a semianalytical solution for slug tests that incorporates the effects of partial penetration, anisotropy, and the presence of variable conductivity well skins. The solution can simulate either confined or unconfined conditions. The original model, written in FORTRAN, has a text-based interface with rigid input requirements and limited output options. We re-created the main routine for the KGS model as a Visual Basic macro that runs in most versions of Microsoft Excel and built a simple-to-use Excel spreadsheet interface that automatically displays the graphical results of the test. A comparison of the output from the original FORTRAN code to that of the new Excel spreadsheet version for three cases produced identical results. PMID:19583592

  20. U.S. Geological Survey ArcMap Sediment Classification tool

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Malley, John

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) ArcMap Sediment Classification tool is a custom toolbar that extends the Environmental Systems Research Institute, Inc. (ESRI) ArcGIS 9.2 Desktop application to aid in the analysis of seabed sediment classification. The tool uses as input either a point data layer with field attributes containing percentage of gravel, sand, silt, and clay or four raster data layers representing a percentage of sediment (0-100%) for the various sediment grain size analysis: sand, gravel, silt and clay. This tool is designed to analyze the percent of sediment at a given location and classify the sediments according to either the Folk (1954, 1974) or Shepard (1954) as modified by Schlee(1973) classification schemes. The sediment analysis tool is based upon the USGS SEDCLASS program (Poppe, et al. 2004).

  1. U.S. Geological Survey National Computer Technology Meeting; Program and abstracts, May 7-11, 1990

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Balthrop, B. H., (compiler); Baker, E.G.

    1990-01-01

    Computer-related information from all Divisions of the U.S. Geological Survey are discussed in this compilation of abstracts. Some of the topics addressed are system administration; distributed information systems and data bases, both current (1990) and proposed; hydrologic applications; national water information systems; geographic information systems applications and techniques. The report contains some of the abstracts that were presented at the National Computer Technology Meeting that was held in May 1990. The meeting was sponsored by the Water Resources Division and was attended by more than 200 technical and managerial personnel representing all the Divisions of the U.S. Geological Survey. (USGS)

  2. Fold-Related Fractures and Postfolding Fracturing, Rock Mass Condition Analyses and Geological Modelling in Turtle Mountain (Alberta Canada).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humair, Florian; Epard, Jean-Luc; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Pedrazzini, Andrea; Froese, Corey

    2010-05-01

    Turtle Mountain is located in the Foothills in southwest Alberta and is formed by highly fractured Paleozoic carbonates rocks and Mesozoic clastic rocks. This area is mainly affected by two major geological structures that are the Turtle Mountain anticline and the Turtle Mountain thrust. This site has become famous after a 30 M m3 rock avalanche of massive limestone and dolostone affecting the eastern mountainside of Turtle Mountain on April 1903. This resulted in more than 70 casualties and buried part of the Frank village. A detailed analysis of predisposing factors leading to failure has been performed using a structural and rock mass condition field analysis (geological and geotechnical mapping, rock mass classification, Schmidt hammer). In addition remote sensing analyses have been provided (High Resolution Digital Elevation Model, Coltop 3D software). The local variations of discontinuity sets and rock mass conditions has been estimated in order to separate the study zone into homogenous structural domains and to correlate them with unstable areas (volumes and failure mechanisms). The aim of this study is to build a theoretical model that shows the relationship between the anticline geometry and the fracturating density. It should be able to determine the origin and the chronology of the discontinuity sets in relation to the tectonic phases (mainly the folding one). A 3D geological model based on several geological profiles performed perpendicular to the Turtle Mountain anticline is necessary to make a detailed analysis. The preliminary results indicate the role of discontinuity sets in the failure mechanisms of the mountain. Moreover if some sets only appear in one limb of the anticline, some others are present in both limbs indicating their posteriority compared with the first ones. Furthermore, a relation between the distance to the fold axis and the quality of the rock mass (Geological Strength Index) has been statistically pointed out, illustrating the

  3. Limitations Influencing Interventional Radiology in Canada: Results of a National Survey by the Canadian Interventional Radiology Association (CIRA)

    SciTech Connect

    O'Brien, Jeremy; Baerlocher, Mark Otto Asch, Murray R.; Hayeems, Eran; Kachura, John R.; Collingwood, Peter

    2007-09-15

    Purpose. To describe the current state and limitations to interventional radiology (IR) in Canada through a large, national survey of Canadian interventional radiologists. Methods. An anonymous online survey was offered to members of the Canadian Interventional Radiology Association (CIRA). Only staff radiologists were invited to participate. Results. Seventy-five (75) responses were received from a total of 247, giving a response rate of 30%. Respondents were split approximately equally between academic centers (47%) and community practice (53%), and the majority of interventional radiologists worked in hospitals with either 200-500 (49%) or 500-1,000 (39%) beds. Procedures listed by respondents as most commonly performed in their practice included PICC line insertion (83%), angiography and stenting (65%), and percutaneous biopsy (37%). Procedures listed as not currently performed but which interventional radiologists believed would benefit their patient population included radiofrequency ablation (36%), carotid stenting (34%), and aortic stenting (21%); the majority of respondents noted that a lack of support from referring services was the main reason for not performing these procedures (56%). Impediments to increasing scope and volume of practice in Canadian IR were most commonly related to room or equipment shortage (35%), radiologist shortage (33%), and a lack of funding or administrative support (28%). Conclusion. Interventional radiology in Canada is limited by a number of factors including funding, manpower, and referral support. A concerted effort should be undertaken by individual interventional radiologists and IR organizations to increase training capacity, funding, remuneration, and public exposure to IR in order to help advance the subspecialty.

  4. New U.S. Geological Survey Method for the Assessment of Reserve Growth

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klett, Timothy R.; Attanasi, E.D.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Freeman, P.A.; Gautier, Donald L.; Le, Phuong A.; Ryder, Robert T.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Verma, Mahendra K.

    2011-01-01

    Reserve growth is defined as the estimated increases in quantities of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids that have the potential to be added to remaining reserves in discovered accumulations through extension, revision, improved recovery efficiency, and additions of new pools or reservoirs. A new U.S. Geological Survey method was developed to assess the reserve-growth potential of technically recoverable crude oil and natural gas to be added to reserves under proven technology currently in practice within the trend or play, or which reasonably can be extrapolated from geologically similar trends or plays. This method currently is in use to assess potential additions to reserves in discovered fields of the United States. The new approach involves (1) individual analysis of selected large accumulations that contribute most to reserve growth, and (2) conventional statistical modeling of reserve growth in remaining accumulations. This report will focus on the individual accumulation analysis. In the past, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated reserve growth by statistical methods using historical recoverable-quantity data. Those statistical methods were based on growth rates averaged by the number of years since accumulation discovery. Accumulations in mature petroleum provinces with volumetrically significant reserve growth, however, bias statistical models of the data; therefore, accumulations with significant reserve growth are best analyzed separately from those with less significant reserve growth. Large (greater than 500 million barrels) and older (with respect to year of discovery) oil accumulations increase in size at greater rates late in their development history in contrast to more recently discovered accumulations that achieve most growth early in their development history. Such differences greatly affect the statistical methods commonly used to forecast reserve growth. The individual accumulation-analysis method involves estimating the in

  5. Study finds Devonian gas resources of western Canada attractive target

    SciTech Connect

    Reinson, G.E.; Lee, P.J. )

    1993-09-13

    This report summarizes results of a recently completed study on the conventional natural gas resources estimated to be contained in Devonian strata of the Western Canada sedimentary basin. This study is the first in a series dealing with conventional gas resources of the basin south of 62[degree] N. Lat. Estimates of regional resource potential have been prepared periodically by the Geological Survey of Canada, using systematic geological basin analysis and statistical resource evaluation methods. The major play groups in the western Canada gas project are Devonian, Permo-Carboniferous, Triassic, Deformed Belt, Lower Cretaceous Mannville group, Middle Cretaceous Colorado group, and Upper Cretaceous-Tertiary. The Devonian assessment was undertaken first because of the existing comprehensive geological data base and because there is an upside potential for finding significant reserves in relatively large economic pools. The paper describes the assessment procedures andanalyzes mature plays and conceptual plays of gas.

  6. Rules for the preparation of manuscript and illustrations designed for publication by the United States Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hampson, Thomas

    1888-01-01

    In the annual report of the Director of the U. S. Geological Survey for 1885-'86, pages 40 and 41, you set forth the functions of the chief of the editorial division as follows: "To secure clear and accurate statement in the material sent to press, careful proof-reading, and uniformity in the details of book-making, as well as to assist the Director in exercising a general supervision over the publications of the Survey."

  7. Public perceptions of climate change as a human health risk: surveys of the United States, Canada and Malta.

    PubMed

    Akerlof, Karen; Debono, Roberto; Berry, Peter; Leiserowitz, Anthony; Roser-Renouf, Connie; Clarke, Kaila-Lea; Rogaeva, Anastasia; Nisbet, Matthew C; Weathers, Melinda R; Maibach, Edward W

    2010-06-01

    We used data from nationally representative surveys conducted in the United States, Canada and Malta between 2008 and 2009 to answer three questions: Does the public believe that climate change poses human health risks, and if so, are they seen as current or future risks? Whose health does the public think will be harmed? In what specific ways does the public believe climate change will harm human health? When asked directly about the potential impacts of climate change on health and well-being, a majority of people in all three nations said that it poses significant risks; moreover, about one third of Americans, one half of Canadians, and two-thirds of Maltese said that people are already being harmed. About a third or more of people in the United States and Canada saw themselves (United States, 32%; Canada, 67%), their family (United States, 35%; Canada, 46%), and people in their community (United States, 39%; Canada, 76%) as being vulnerable to at least moderate harm from climate change. About one third of Maltese (31%) said they were most concerned about the risk to themselves and their families. Many Canadians said that the elderly (45%) and children (33%) are at heightened risk of harm, while Americans were more likely to see people in developing countries as being at risk than people in their own nation. When prompted, large numbers of Canadians and Maltese said that climate change can cause respiratory problems (78-91%), heat-related problems (75-84%), cancer (61-90%), and infectious diseases (49-62%). Canadians also named sunburn (79%) and injuries from extreme weather events (73%), and Maltese cited allergies (84%). However, climate change appears to lack salience as a health issue in all three countries: relatively few people answered open-ended questions in a manner that indicated clear top-of-mind associations between climate change and human health risks. We recommend mounting public health communication initiatives that increase the salience of the

  8. Public Perceptions of Climate Change as a Human Health Risk: Surveys of the United States, Canada and Malta

    PubMed Central

    Akerlof, Karen; DeBono, Roberto; Berry, Peter; Leiserowitz, Anthony; Roser-Renouf, Connie; Clarke, Kaila-Lea; Rogaeva, Anastasia; Nisbet, Matthew C.; Weathers, Melinda R.; Maibach, Edward W.

    2010-01-01

    We used data from nationally representative surveys conducted in the United States, Canada and Malta between 2008 and 2009 to answer three questions: Does the public believe that climate change poses human health risks, and if so, are they seen as current or future risks? Whose health does the public think will be harmed? In what specific ways does the public believe climate change will harm human health? When asked directly about the potential impacts of climate change on health and well-being, a majority of people in all three nations said that it poses significant risks; moreover, about one third of Americans, one half of Canadians, and two-thirds of Maltese said that people are already being harmed. About a third or more of people in the United States and Canada saw themselves (United States, 32%; Canada, 67%), their family (United States, 35%; Canada, 46%), and people in their community (United States, 39%; Canada, 76%) as being vulnerable to at least moderate harm from climate change. About one third of Maltese (31%) said they were most concerned about the risk to themselves and their families. Many Canadians said that the elderly (45%) and children (33%) are at heightened risk of harm, while Americans were more likely to see people in developing countries as being at risk than people in their own nation. When prompted, large numbers of Canadians and Maltese said that climate change can cause respiratory problems (78–91%), heat-related problems (75–84%), cancer (61–90%), and infectious diseases (49–62%). Canadians also named sunburn (79%) and injuries from extreme weather events (73%), and Maltese cited allergies (84%). However, climate change appears to lack salience as a health issue in all three countries: relatively few people answered open-ended questions in a manner that indicated clear top-of-mind associations between climate change and human health risks. We recommend mounting public health communication initiatives that increase the salience

  9. Eighth Annual Report of the United States Geological Survey to the Secretary of the Interior, 1886-1887: Part 1

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powell, J.W.

    1889-01-01

    The Geological Survey was organized, with Mr. Clarence King as Director, in March, 1879. In March, 1881, Mr. King resigned and the present Director was appointed. From its organization to the present time the Survey has steadily grown as Congress has enlarged its functions and increased its appropriations. During this time the scientific organization has gradually developed to the condition set forth in the last annual report. It seems advisable now to describe fully the business organization and methods of the Survey, which has heretofore been done only in part. Under the act of July 7, 1884, a joint commission was created to consider the organization of certain scientific bureaus. In the volume of testimony prepared by that commission the business operations of the Geological Survey were in part set forth; but this partial presentation was unsystematic, the facts recorded being elicited in irregular order by interrogatories arising in the course of a long investigation. It is designed here to make a more thorough exposition oi the subject. The business system of the Geological Survey is subordinate to the scientific organization and its character is dependent thereon. The development of the divisions of the Survey whose function is the transaction of business has therefore followed the development of the purely scientific divisions, and overy modification of plan for the scientific work may carry with it some modification of the business organization.

  10. U.S. Geological Survey probabilistic methodology for oil and gas resource appraisal of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crovelli, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    Probabilistic methodology used by the U.S. Geological Survey is described for estimating the quantity of undiscovered recoverable conventional resources of oil and gas in the United States. A judgmental probability distribution of the "quantity of resource" and its properties is determined for a geologic province or basin. From this distribution, point and interval estimates of the quantity of undiscovered resource are obtained. Distributions and their properties are established for each of the following resources: (1) oil and nonassociated gas from estimates of the probability of the resource being present and the conditional probability distribution of the quantity of resource given that the resource is present, (2) associated-dissolved gas from its corresponding oil distribution, (3) total gas, (4) oil and total gas in two or more provinces. Computer graphics routines are illustrated with examples from the U.S. Geological Survey Circular 860. ?? 1984 Plenum Publishing Corporation.

  11. Geology of the Gahcho Kué kimberlite pipes, NWT, Canada: root to diatreme magmatic transition zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hetman, C. M.; Scott Smith, B. H.; Paul, J. L.; Winter, F.

    2004-09-01

    The Cambrian Gahcho Kué kimberlite cluster includes four main pipes that have been emplaced into the Archaean basement granitoids of the Slave Craton. Each of the steep-sided pipes were formed by the intrusion of several distinct phases of kimberlite in which the textures vary from hypabyssal kimberlite (HK) to diatreme-facies tuffisitic kimberlite breccia (TKB). The TKB displays many diagnostic features including abundant unaltered country rock xenoliths, pelletal lapilli, serpentinised olivines and a matrix composed of microlitic phlogopite and serpentine without carbonate. The HK contains common fresh olivine set in a groundmass composed of monticellite, phlogopite, perovskite, serpentine and carbonate. A number of separate phases of kimberlite display a magmatic textural gradation from TKB to HK, which is characterised by a decrease in the proportion of pelletal lapilli and country rock xenoliths and an increase in groundmass crystallinity, proportion of fresh olivine and the degree of xenolith digestion. The pipe shapes and infills of the Gahcho Kué kimberlites are similar to those of the classic South African pipes, particularly those of the Kimberley area. Similar intrusive magmatic emplacement processes are proposed in which the diatreme-zone results from the degassing, after breakthrough, of the intruding magma column. The transition zones represent 'frozen' degassing fronts. The style of emplacement of the Gahcho Kué kimberlites is very different from that of many other pipes in Canada such as at Lac de Gras, Fort à la Corne or Attawapiskat.

  12. A summary of water-resources activities of the U.S. Geological Survey in Iowa, fiscal year 1994

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buchmiller, R.C.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes: (1) the organization of the Iowa District; (2) the hydrologic data-collection programs; and (3) the local, statewide, regional, or national hydrologic investigations conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in Iowa during fiscal year 1994. The report also lists reports published or released by the Iowa District since 1984.

  13. U.S. Geological Survey quality-assurance plan for surface-water activities in Kansas, 2015

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Painter, Collin C.; Loving, Brian L.

    2015-01-01

    This Surface Water Quality-Assurance Plan documents the standards, policies, and procedures used by the Kansas Water Science Center (KSWSC) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for activities related to the collection, processing, storage, analysis, and publication of surface-water data.

  14. A history of the Water Resources Division, U.S. Geological Survey: vol. VIII 1979-94

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blakey, James F.; Biesecker, James E.; Feltz, Herman R.; Kantrowitz, Irwin H.; Yong, Loren E.; and others

    2005-01-01

    The mission of the Water Resources Division (WAD) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is to provide the hydrologic information and understanding needed for the optimum use and management of the Nation·s water resources for the overall benefit of the people of the United States.

  15. Supporting data for the U.S. Geological Survey 2012 world assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    World Conventional Resources Assessment Team, USGS

    2013-01-01

    This report provides information pertaining to the 2012 U.S. Geological Survey assessment of undiscovered, technically recoverable conventional oil and gas resources of the world, exclusive of the United States. Some of the results were previously published, mostly in USGS fact sheet series.

  16. A quality-assurance plan for district ground-water activities of the U.S. Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brunett, J.O.; Barber, N.L.; Burns, A.W.; Fogelman, R.P.; Gillies, D.C.; Lidwin, R.A.; Mack, Thomas J.

    1997-01-01

    As the Nation's principal earth-science information agency, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is depended upon to collect data of the highest quality. This document provides the framework for collecting, analyzing and reporting ground-water data that are quality assured and quality controlled.

  17. Water-resources investigations in Tennessee; programs and activities of the U.S. Geological Survey, 1995-96

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Balthrop, B.H.; Carney, K.A.

    1997-01-01

    The report contains summaries of projects and activities in the Tennessee District of the U.S. Geological Survey, U.S. Department of the Interior,from 1995-96. Each summary includes the location, the objective of the project, the progress of the study to date, and the names of the cooperators and the project chiefs.

  18. U.S. Geological Survey Field Leach Test for Assessing Water Reactivity and Leaching Potential of Mine Wastes, Soils, and Other Geologic and Environmental Materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hageman, Philip L.

    2007-01-01

    The U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) has developed a fast (5-minute), effective, simple, and cost-effective leach test that can be used to simulate the reactions that occur when materials are leached by water. The USGS Field Leach Test has been used to predict, assess, and characterize the geochemical interactions between water and a broad variety of geologic and environmental matrices. Examples of some of the samples leached include metal mine wastes, various types of dusts, biosolids (processed sewage sludge), flood and wetland sediments, volcanic ash, forest-fire burned soils, and many other diverse matrices. The Field Leach Test has been an integral part of these investigations and has demonstrated its value as a geochemical characterization tool. It has enabled investigators to identify which constituents are water reactive, soluble, mobilized, and made bioaccessible because of leaching by water, and to understand potential impacts of these interactions on the surrounding environment.

  19. Are clinicians being prepared to care for abused women? A survey of health professional education in Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Wathen, C Nadine; Tanaka, Masako; Catallo, Cristina; Lebner, Adrianne C; Friedman, M Kinneret; Hanson, Mark D; Freeman, Clare; Jack, Susan M; Jamieson, Ellen; MacMillan, Harriet L

    2009-01-01

    Background The current project undertook a province-wide survey and environmental scan of educational opportunities available to future health care providers on the topic of intimate partner violence (IPV) against women. Methods A team of experts identified university and college programs in Ontario, Canada as potential providers of IPV education to students in health care professions at the undergraduate and post-graduate levels. A telephone survey with contacts representing these programs was conducted between October 2005 and March 2006. The survey asked whether IPV-specific education was provided to learners, and if so, how and by whom. Results In total, 222 eligible programs in dentistry, medicine, nursing and other allied health professions were surveyed, and 95% (212/222) of programs responded. Of these, 57% reported offering some form of IPV-specific education, with undergraduate nursing (83%) and allied health (82%) programs having the highest rates. Fewer than half of undergraduate medical (43%) and dentistry (46%) programs offered IPV content. Postgraduate programs ranged from no IPV content provision (dentistry) to 41% offering content (nursing). Conclusion Significant variability exists across program areas regarding the methods for IPV education, its delivery and evaluation. The results of this project highlight that expectations for an active and consistent response by health care professionals to women experiencing the effects of violence may not match the realities of professional preparation. PMID:19575776

  20. Science strategy for Core Science Systems in the U.S. Geological Survey, 2013-2023

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bristol, R. Sky; Euliss, Ned H.; Booth, Nathaniel L.; Burkardt, Nina; Diffendorfer, Jay E.; Gesch, Dean B.; McCallum, Brian E.; Miller, David M.; Morman, Suzette A.; Poore, Barbara S.; Signell, Richard P.; Viger, Roland J.

    2012-01-01

    Core Science Systems is a new mission of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) that grew out of the 2007 Science Strategy, "Facing Tomorrow's Challenges: U.S. Geological Survey Science in the Decade 2007-2017." This report describes the vision for this USGS mission and outlines a strategy for Core Science Systems to facilitate integrated characterization and understanding of the complex earth system. The vision and suggested actions are bold and far-reaching, describing a conceptual model and framework to enhance the ability of USGS to bring its core strengths to bear on pressing societal problems through data integration and scientific synthesis across the breadth of science. The context of this report is inspired by a direction set forth in the 2007 Science Strategy. Specifically, ecosystem-based approaches provide the underpinnings for essentially all science themes that define the USGS. Every point on earth falls within a specific ecosystem where data, other information assets, and the expertise of USGS and its many partners can be employed to quantitatively understand how that ecosystem functions and how it responds to natural and anthropogenic disturbances. Every benefit society obtains from the planet - food, water, raw materials to build infrastructure, homes and automobiles, fuel to heat homes and cities, and many others, are derived from or effect ecosystems. The vision for Core Science Systems builds on core strengths of the USGS in characterizing and understanding complex earth and biological systems through research, modeling, mapping, and the production of high quality data on the nation's natural resource infrastructure. Together, these research activities provide a foundation for ecosystem-based approaches through geologic mapping, topographic mapping, and biodiversity mapping. The vision describes a framework founded on these core mapping strengths that makes it easier for USGS scientists to discover critical information, share and publish results, and

  1. Geophysical Survey and Detailed Geologic Mapping of an Eroded Stratovolcano's Central Intrusive Complex, Summer Coon, Co.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harp, A.

    2015-12-01

    Eroded volcanoes expose plumbing systems that provide important information on intrusive geometries, magma propagation directions, and the effects of host rock types and heterogeneities. Summer Coon Volcano, CO, is an Oligocene stratovolcano where erosion has removed much of the original edifice, revealing the intrusive stocks of the central intrusive complex (CIC). Surrounding the CIC are hundreds of radial dikes ranging from basaltic to rhyolitic in composition. Published geologic maps indicate most radial dikes do not connect to the intrusive stocks, supporting published theories that most did not emanate from the central intrusions. However, much of the area surrounding the CIC is covered by alluvium, suggesting that the lack of connection might be an artifact of exposure. We completed a ground magnetic survey and detailed geological mapping to determine if the dikes continue beneath the alluvium and into the intrusive stocks. Linear magnetic anomalies indicate four NW-SE trending rhyodacite dikes continue beneath the alluvium for up to 250 m, and mapping indicates that at least two of the rhyodacite dikes do extend into the CIC. Shorter linear anomalies are attributed to seven NW-SE trending basaltic dikes ~100-500-m-long which are sparsely exposed in the alluvium. Mapping shows that three rhyodacite dikes extend into the CIC and to within 200 m of their possible source, an 800-m-wide granodiorite stock. Additionally, three rhyolitic dikes extend to within several meters of a 200×500-m-wide tuff breccia zone of similar composition, likely their source. In summary, magnetic data and detailed mapping indicate that radial dikes do extend into the central intrusive complex in contrast to some model predictions.

  2. THE CANADA-FRANCE ECLIPTIC PLANE SURVEY-L3 DATA RELEASE: THE ORBITAL STRUCTURE OF THE KUIPER BELT

    SciTech Connect

    Kavelaars, J. J.; Jones, R. L.; Murray, I.; Gladman, B. J.; Petit, J.-M.; Van Laerhoven, C.; Parker, Joel Wm.; Bieryla, A.; Nicholson, P.; Margot, J. L.; Rousselot, P.; Mousis, O.; Scholl, H.; Marsden, B.; Benavidez, P.; Campo Bagatin, A.; Doressoundiram, A.; Veillet, C.

    2009-06-15

    We report the orbital distribution of the trans-Neptunian comets discovered during the first discovery year of the Canada-France Ecliptic Plane Survey (CFEPS). CFEPS is a Kuiper Belt object survey based on observations acquired by the Very Wide component of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey (LS-VW). The first year's detections consist of 73 Kuiper Belt objects, 55 of which have now been tracked for three years or more, providing precise orbits. Although this sample size is small compared to the world-wide inventory, because we have an absolutely calibrated and extremely well-characterized survey (with known pointing history) we are able to de-bias our observed population and make unbiased statements about the intrinsic orbital distribution of the Kuiper Belt. By applying the (publically available) CFEPS Survey Simulator to models of the true orbital distribution and comparing the resulting simulated detections to the actual detections made by the survey, we are able to rule out several hypothesized Kuiper Belt object orbit distributions. We find that the main classical belt's so-called 'cold' component is confined in semimajor axis (a) and eccentricity (e) compared to the more extended 'hot' component; the cold component is confined to lower e and does not stretch all the way out to the 2:1 resonance but rather depletes quickly beyond a = 45 AU. For the cold main classical belt population we find a robust population estimate of N(H{sub g} < 10) = 50 {+-} 5 x 10{sup 3} and find that the hot component of the main classical belt represents {approx}60% of the total population. The inner classical belt (sunward of the 3:2 mean-motion resonance) has a population of roughly 2000 trans-Neptunian objects with absolute magnitudes H{sub g} < 10, and may not share the inclination distribution of the main classical belt. We also find that the plutino population lacks a cold low-inclination component, and so, the population is somewhat larger than recent estimates

  3. Development of Argon Isotope Reference Standards for the U.S. Geological Survey

    PubMed Central

    Miiller, Archie P.

    2006-01-01

    The comparison of physical ages of geological materials measured by laboratories engaged in geochronological studies has been limited by the accuracy of mineral standards or monitors for which reported ages have differed by as much as 2 %. In order to address this problem, the U.S. Geological Survey is planning to calibrate the conventional 40Ar/40K age of a new preparation of an international hornblende standard labeled MMhb-2. The 40K concentration in MMhb-2 has already been determined by the Analytical Chemistry Division at NIST with an uncertainty of 0.2 %. The 40Ar concentration will be measured by the USGS using the argon isotope reference standards that were recently developed by NIST and are described in this paper. The isotope standards were constructed in the form of pipette/reservoir systems and calibrated by gas expansion techniques to deliver small high-precision aliquots of high-purity argon. Two of the pipette systems will deliver aliquots of 38Ar having initial molar quantities of 1.567 × 10−10 moles and 2.313 × 10−10 moles with expanded (k = 2) uncertainties of 0.058 % and 0.054 %, respectively. Three other pipette systems will deliver aliquots (nominally 4 × 10−10 moles) of 40Ar:36Ar artificial mixtures with similar accuracy and with molar ratios of 0.9974 ± 0.06 %, 29.69 ± 0.06 %, and 285.7 ± 0.08 % (k = 2). These isotope reference standards will enable the USGS to measure the 40Ar concentration in MMhb-2 with an expanded uncertainty of ≈ 0.1 %. In the process of these measurements, the USGS will re-determine the isotopic composition of atmospheric Ar and calculate a new value for its atomic weight. Upon completion of the USGS calibrations, the MMhb-2 mineral standard will be certified by NIST for its K and Ar concentrations and distributed as a Standard Reference Material (SRM). The new SRM and the NIST-calibrated transportable pipette systems have the potential for dramatically improving the accuracy of interlaboratory

  4. Geologic survey in the south-central region of Mato Grosso

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Balieiro, M. G.

    1983-01-01

    The field observations made in the Cuiaba Project area are described. Many geologic cross-sections were done in which the stratigraphic units and the geologic structures defined in the literature and observed in the LANDSAT MSS imagery were recognized.

  5. Archive of U.S. Geological Survey selected single-beam bathymetry datasets, 1969-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schreppel, Heather A.; Degnan, Carolyn H.; Dadisman, Shawn V.; Metzger, Dan R.

    2013-01-01

    New national programs, as well as natural and man-made disasters, have raised awareness about the need to find new and improved ways to share information about the coastal and marine environment with a wide-ranging public audience. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Coastal and Marine Geology Program (CMGP) has begun a large-scale effort to incorporate the program's published, digital geophysical data into a single point of access known as the Coastal and Marine Geoscience Data System (CMGDS) (http://cmgds.marine.usgs.gov/). To aid in data discovery, work is also being done to import CMGP data into highly visible data and information resources, such as the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) and two widely used Earth-science tools, GeoMapApp (GMA) (http://www.geomapapp.org) and Virtual Ocean (VO) (http://www.virtualocean.org/). This task of the CMGP Integrated Data Management System project will help support information exchange with partners, regional planning groups, and the public, as well as facilitate integrated spatial-data analysis. Sharing USGS-CMGP geophysical data via CMGDS, NGDC, GMA, and VO will aid data discovery and enable the data to support new purposes beyond those for which the data were originally intended. In order to make data available to NGDC, and from there into GMA and VO, the data must be reformatted into a standard exchange format and published. In 1977, a group of geophysical data managers from the public and private sectors developed the MGD77 format as the standard exchange format for geophysical data. In 2010, a tab-delimited version of the format was added as MGD77T (Hittelman and others, 1977). The MGD77T geophysical data format can include bathymetry, magnetics, gravity, and seismic navigation data. It is used for the transmission of data between marine institutions, data centers, and can be used by various software programs as an exchange format. A header (documentation

  6. The side-looking airborne radar program of the US Geological Survey ( Appalachian Mountains).

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Southworth, C.S.

    1984-01-01

    SLAR images are being analysed by the USGS to support mapping of geologic structures in the folded and thrust-faulted Appalachian Mountains, geological hazard appraisal, and monitoring of foliage cover for use in geological research. Four examples of SLAR imagery acquired during the 1982 flight program are illustrated and discussed.-R.House

  7. Bibliography of Water-Resources Investigations reports published by the U.S. Geological Survey from 1971 through 1982

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edmonds, Sharon A.

    1989-01-01

    This report contains a cross-referenced listing of 971 Water-Resources Investigations reports (WRIR's) published by the U.S. Geological Survey from 1971 through 1982. The reports are listed by WRIR number. Most requests for WRIR 's generally are by WRIR number; however, the Survey 's annual catalog, ' Publications of the U.S. Geological Survey (year), ' indexes WRIR 's under the National Technical Information Service number, with the WRIR appearing only at the end of the citation within the index. Additionally, a few WRIR 's have been listed in the index without any reference to their WRIR number; and some WRIR 's appeared only in the discontinued Water Resources Investigations folder series. This report lists WRIR 's in sequential order to assist the readership in locating a particular publication. (USGS)

  8. Early aerial photography and contributions to Digital Earth - The case of the 1921 Halifax air survey mission in Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werle, D.

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents research into the military and civilian history, technological development, and practical outcomes of aerial photography in Canada immediately after the First World War. The collections of early aerial photography in Canada and elsewhere, as well as the institutional and practical circumstances and arrangements of their creation, represent an important part of remote sensing heritage. It is argued that the digital rendition of the air photos and their representation in mosaic form can make valuable contributions to Digital Earth historic inquiries and mapping exercises today. An episode of one of the first urban surveys, carried out over Halifax, Nova Scotia, in 1921, is highlighted and an air photo mosaic and interpretation key is presented. Using the almost one hundred year old air photos and a digitally re-assembled mosaic of a substantial portion of that collection as a guide, a variety of features unique to the post-war urban landscape of the Halifax peninsula are analysed, illustrated, and compared with records of past and current land use. The pan-chromatic air photo ensemble at a nominal scale of 1:5,000 is placed into the historical context with contemporary thematic maps, recent air photos, and modern satellite imagery. Further research opportunities and applications concerning early Canadian aerial photography are outlined.

  9. Geology and physiography of the continental margin north of Alaska and implications for the origin of the Canada Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grantz, Arthur; Eittreim, Stephen L.; Whitney, O.T.

    1979-01-01

    The continental margin north of Alaska is of Atlantic type. It began to form probably in Early Jurassic time but possibly in middle Early Cretaceous time, when the oceanic Canada Basin of the Arctic Ocean is thought to have opened by rifting about a pole of rotation near the Mackenzie Delta. Offsets of the rift along two fracture zones are thought to have divided the Alaskan margin into three sectors of contrasting structure and stratigraphy. In the Barter Island sector on the east and the Chukchi sector on the west the rift was closer to the present northern Alaska mainland than in the Barrow sector, which lies between them. In the Barter Island and Chukchi sectors the continental shelf is underlain by prisms of clastic sedimentary rocks that are inferred to include thick sections of Jurassic and Neocomian (lower Lower Cretaceous) strata of southern provenance. In the intervening Barrow sector the shelf is underlain by relatively thin sections of Jurassic and Neocomian strata derived from northern sources that now lie beneath the outer continental shelf. The rifted continental margin is overlain by a prograded prism of Albian (upper Lower Cretaceous) to Tertiary clastic sedimentary rocks that comprises the continental terrace of the western Beaufort and northern Chukchi Seas. On the south the prism is bounded by Barrow arch, which is a hingeline between the northward-tilted basement surface beneath the continental shelf of the western Beaufort Sea and the southward-tilted Arctic Platform of northern Alaska. The Arctic platform is overlain by shelf clastic and carbonate strata of Mississippian to Cretaceous age, and by Jurassic and Cretaceous clastic strata of the Colville foredeep. Both the Arctic platform and Colville foredeep sequences extend from northern Alaska beneath the northern Chukchi Sea. At Herald fault zone in the central Chukchi Sea they are overthrust by more strongly deformed Cretaceous to Paleozoic sedimentary rocks of Herald arch, which trends

  10. An Early Pennsylvanian threshold for the influence of vegetation on fluvial landscapes, based on the geological record of Atlantic Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibling, Martin; Ielpi, Alessandro; Bashforth, Arden; Davies, Neil

    2015-04-01

    Vegetation profoundly influences modern fluvial systems, depending on plant life-history strategies, tolerance to disturbance, and habitat drainage. However, direct evidence for these dynamic relationships is cryptic and has commonly been overlooked in ancient deposits. We report evidence for profound interactions between channels, in situ and transported vegetation in Lower Pennsylvanian formations of Atlantic Canada (~310 Ma), attributed to braided, meandering and fixed-channel (anastomosing) systems. Plant groups include lycopsids that preferred stable wetland settings, disturbance-tolerant calamitaleans, and deeply rooted cordaitaleans (early gymnosperms) that originated in the late Mississippian and colonised both wetland and dryland settings. For the meandering and anastomosing channel deposits, upright vegetation was observed within channel-based bedforms and bars and on channel margins. Lycopsids and calamitalean groves colonized the channel bed and bank-attached bars during periods of reduced flow, nucleating bar growth after flow resumed. Upright lycopsids and cordaitaleans are common along channel cutbanks and are locally tilted towards the channel, implying involvement in bank stabilization. Rhizoconcretions that formed around deep cordaitalean roots may have aided bank reinforcement. Tetrapod and arthropod trackways in the channel deposits indicate a close linkage between riparian and aquatic ecosystems. In the braided systems, sediments that contain abundant cordaitalean logs constitute nearly 20% of channel deposits, and the logs form channel-base lags, fill channels up to 6 m deep, and form nuclei for shallow sandbars. Log accumulations overlain by shale lenses imply a contribution to channel avulsion. Rooted channel-sandstones containing upright trees are interpreted as vegetated islands in an island-braided system. Anastomosing systems are abundant in these Lower Pennsylvanian formations but rare in older strata, and the multi-channel island

  11. The elevated risk for violence against cohabiting women: a comparison of three nationally representative surveys of Canada.

    PubMed

    Brownridge, Douglas A

    2008-07-01

    This study examined cohabiting women's elevated risk for male partner violence. It was predicted that an increased rate of cohabitation would be accompanied by a reduction in the bias toward selection into cohabitation and that this would result in greater similarity between characteristics of cohabiting and marital relationships as well as in their respective rates of violence. The results were generally consistent with this prediction. Cohabitation increased in Canada between 1993 and 2004, which appeared to have been reflected in some reduction in differences in selection and relationship variables as well as in lower rates of violence for cohabiting relative to married women. Nevertheless, persons who cohabited remained a select group and several relationship differences persisted. These selection and relationship differences accounted for the persistence of cohabiting women's elevated odds of violence in each survey. Results suggested that rates of violence in cohabiting and marital unions should eventually converge. PMID:18559868

  12. Constraining f (R ) Gravity Theory Using Weak Lensing Peak Statistics from the Canada-France-Hawii-Telescope Lensing Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiangkun; Li, Baojiu; Zhao, Gong-Bo; Chiu, Mu-Chen; Fang, Wei; Pan, Chuzhong; Wang, Qiao; Du, Wei; Yuan, Shuo; Fu, Liping; Fan, Zuhui

    2016-07-01

    In this Letter, we report the observational constraints on the Hu-Sawicki f (R ) theory derived from weak lensing peak abundances, which are closely related to the mass function of massive halos. In comparison with studies using optical or x-ray clusters of galaxies, weak lensing peak analyses have the advantages of not relying on mass-baryonic observable calibrations. With observations from the Canada-France-Hawaii-Telescope Lensing Survey, our peak analyses give rise to a tight constraint on the model parameter |fR 0| for n =1 . The 95% C.L. is log10|fR 0|<-4.82 given WMAP9 priors on (Ωm , As ). With Planck15 priors, the corresponding result is log10|fR 0|<-5.16 .

  13. Constraining f(R) Gravity Theory Using Weak Lensing Peak Statistics from the Canada-France-Hawaii-Telescope Lensing Survey.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiangkun; Li, Baojiu; Zhao, Gong-Bo; Chiu, Mu-Chen; Fang, Wei; Pan, Chuzhong; Wang, Qiao; Du, Wei; Yuan, Shuo; Fu, Liping; Fan, Zuhui

    2016-07-29

    In this Letter, we report the observational constraints on the Hu-Sawicki f(R) theory derived from weak lensing peak abundances, which are closely related to the mass function of massive halos. In comparison with studies using optical or x-ray clusters of galaxies, weak lensing peak analyses have the advantages of not relying on mass-baryonic observable calibrations. With observations from the Canada-France-Hawaii-Telescope Lensing Survey, our peak analyses give rise to a tight constraint on the model parameter |f_{R0}| for n=1. The 95% C.L. is log_{10}|f_{R0}|<-4.82 given WMAP9 priors on (Ω_{m}, A_{s}). With Planck15 priors, the corresponding result is log_{10}|f_{R0}|<-5.16. PMID:27517761

  14. THE DISTRIBUTION OF FAINT SATELLITES AROUND CENTRAL GALAXIES IN THE CANADA-FRANCE-HAWAII TELESCOPE LEGACY SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, C. Y.; Jing, Y. P.; Li, Cheng

    2012-11-20

    We investigate the radial number density profile and the abundance distribution of faint satellites around central galaxies in the low-redshift universe using the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) Legacy Survey. We consider three samples of central galaxies with magnitudes of M {sub r} = -21, -22, and -23 selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey group catalog of Yang et al. The satellite distribution around these central galaxies is obtained by cross-correlating these galaxies with the photometric catalog of the CFHT Legacy Survey. The projected radial number density of the satellites obeys a power-law form with the best-fit logarithmic slope of -1.05, independent of both the central galaxy luminosity and the satellite luminosity. The projected cross-correlation function between central and satellite galaxies exhibits a non-monotonic trend with satellite luminosity. It is most pronounced for central galaxies with M {sub r} = -21, where the decreasing trend of clustering amplitude with satellite luminosity is reversed when satellites are fainter than central galaxies by more than 2 mag. A comparison with the satellite luminosity functions in the Milky Way (MW) and M31 shows that the MW/M31 system has about twice as many satellites as around a typical central galaxy of similar luminosity. The implications for theoretical models are briefly discussed.

  15. Assessing health care in Canada's North: what can we learn from national and regional surveys?

    PubMed Central

    Young, T. Kue; Ng, Carmina; Chatwood, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Background Health surveys are a rich source of information on a variety of health issues, including health care. Objectives This article compares various national and regional surveys in terms of their geographical coverage with respect to the Canadian North, especially their Aboriginal population, and the comparability of the survey contents relating to health care. Methods Three surveys were selected as providing some information on health care, with separate estimates for the North and its Aboriginal populations. They are the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS), Aboriginal Peoples Survey (APS) and the First Nations Regional Health Survey (RHS). Results Different surveys focus on different categories of Aboriginal people, and no single survey has covered all categories of Aboriginal people in the North consistently. RHS is targeted at the on-reserve First Nations population only. APS and CCHS sample the off-reserve First Nations population as well as Métis and Inuit. To achieve adequate sample size for North–South comparisons and comparisons among Aboriginal groups within the North, several cycles of the biennial/annual CCHS can be merged, producing a large data set with consistent coverage of topics using comparable questions. The content areas of the 3 surveys can be broadly categorized as health status, health determinants and health care. Substantial variation exists across surveys in the domains covered. There are also changes over time in terms of definitions, questions and even basic concepts. The available health care content of the 3 surveys focus on access to different types of health services, contact with different categories of health professionals, unmet health needs and the use of preventive services. Many important dimensions of health care are not covered. Not all these basic indicators are available for the North or its Aboriginal populations. Conclusions A comprehensive survey of health care in the North with sufficient sample size to

  16. Aquifer descriptions from the U.S. Geological Survey Regional Aquifer-System Analysis Program, 1978-1993

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davidson, Claire B.; Doherty, Helen

    1994-01-01

    The Regional Aquifer-System Analysis Program of the U.S. Geological Survey began in 1978. The overall purpose of this program is to define the geologic, hydrologic, and geochemical framework of the Nation's most important aquifers and aquifer systems. This report summarizes the aquifer or aquifer system name, geographic area, rock units, equivalent names, lithology, thickness, hydrologic characteristics, water quality, water use, and references for 157 aquifers in 23 areas of the United States. A .zip file containing the aquifer data and data search programs (in compressed ASCII format) is included in the report.

  17. Modernization and multiscale databases at the U.S. geological survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morrison, J.L.

    1992-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has begun a digital cartographic modernization program. Keys to that program are the creation of a multiscale database, a feature-based file structure that is derived from a spatial data model, and a series of "templates" or rules that specify the relationships between instances of entities in reality and features in the database. The database will initially hold data collected from the USGS standard map products at scales of 1:24,000, 1:100,000, and 1:2,000,000. The spatial data model is called the digital line graph-enhanced model, and the comprehensive rule set consists of collection rules, product generation rules, and conflict resolution rules. This modernization program will affect the USGS mapmaking process because both digital and graphic products will be created from the database. In addition, non-USGS map users will have more flexibility in uses of the databases. These remarks are those of the session discussant made in response to the six papers and the keynote address given in the session. ?? 1992.

  18. Microbiological monitoring for the US Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Francy, Donna S.; Myers, Donna N.; Helsel, Dennis R.

    2000-01-01

    Data to characterize the microbiological quality of the Nation?s fresh, marine, and estuarine waters are usually collected for local purposes, most often to judge compliance with standards for protection of public health in swimmable or drinkable waters. Methods and procedures vary with the objectives and practices of the parties collecting data and are continuously being developed or modified. Therefore, it is difficult to provide a nationally consistent picture of the microbial quality of the Nation?s waters. Study objectives and guidelines for a national microbiological monitoring program are outlined in this report, using the framework of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program. A national program is designed to provide long-term data on the presence of microbiological pathogens and indicators in ground water and surface water to support effective water policy and management. Three major groups of waterborne pathogens affect the public health acceptability of waters in the United States?bacteria, protozoa, and viruses. Microbiological monitoring in NAWQA would be designed to assess the occurrence, distribution, and trends of pathogenic organisms and indicators in surface waters and ground waters; relate the patterns discerned to factors that help explain them; and improve our understanding of the processes that control microbiological water quality.

  19. Summary of the U. S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Assessment Program

    SciTech Connect

    Hirsh, R.M.; Alley, W.M.; Wilber, W.G.

    1988-01-01

    Beginning in 1986, the Congress appropriated funds for the US Geological Survey to test and refine concepts for a National Water Quality Assessment Program. At present, the program is in a pilot phase with field studies occurring in seven areas around the Nation. In 1990, a committee of the National Academy of Sciences will complete an evaluation of the design and potential utility of the program. A decision about moving to full-scale implementation will be made upon completion of the evaluation. The program is intended to address a wide range of national water quality issues that include chemical contamination, acidification, eutrophication, salinity, sedimentation, and sanitary quality. The goals of the program are to: (1) provide nationally consistent descriptions of current water quality conditions for a large part of the Nation's water resources; (2) define long-term trends in water quality; and (3) identify and describe the relations of both current conditions and trends in water quality to natural and human factors. This information will be provided to water managers, policy makers, and the public to provide an improved scientific basis for evaluating the effectiveness of water quality management programs and for predicting the likely effects of contemplated changes in land- and water-management practices.

  20. Evaluation of stream chemistry trends in US Geological Survey reference watersheds, 1970-2010.

    PubMed

    Mast, M Alisa

    2013-11-01

    The Hydrologic Benchmark Network (HBN) is a long-term monitoring program established by the US Geological Survey in the 1960s to track changes in the streamflow and stream chemistry in undeveloped watersheds across the USA. Trends in stream chemistry were tested at 15 HBN stations over two periods (1970-2010 and 1990-2010) using the parametric Load Estimator (LOADEST) model and the nonparametric seasonal Kendall test. Trends in annual streamflow and precipitation chemistry also were tested to help identify likely drivers of changes in stream chemistry. At stations in the northeastern USA, there were significant declines in stream sulfate, which were consistent with declines in sulfate deposition resulting from the reductions in SO₂ emissions mandated under the Clean Air Act Amendments. Sulfate declines in stream water were smaller than declines in deposition suggesting sulfate may be accumulating in watershed soils and thereby delaying the stream response to improvements in deposition. Trends in stream chemistry at stations in other part of the country generally were attributed to climate variability or land disturbance. Despite declines in sulfate deposition, increasing stream sulfate was observed at several stations and appeared to be linked to periods of drought or declining streamflow. Falling water tables might have enhanced oxidation of organic matter in wetlands or pyrite in mineralized bedrock thereby increasing sulfate export in surface water. Increasing sulfate and nitrate at a station in the western USA were attributed to release of soluble salts and nutrients from soils following a large wildfire in the watershed. PMID:23715732

  1. Cost effectiveness of the US Geological Survey stream-gaging program in Alabama

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jeffcoat, H.H.

    1987-01-01

    A study of the cost effectiveness of the stream gaging program in Alabama identified data uses and funding sources for 72 surface water stations (including dam stations, slope stations, and continuous-velocity stations) operated by the U.S. Geological Survey in Alabama with a budget of $393,600. Of these , 58 gaging stations were used in all phases of the analysis at a funding level of $328,380. For the current policy of operation of the 58-station program, the average standard error of estimation of instantaneous discharge is 29.3%. This overall level of accuracy can be maintained with a budget of $319,800 by optimizing routes and implementing some policy changes. The maximum budget considered in the analysis was $361,200, which gave an average standard error of estimation of 20.6%. The minimum budget considered was $299,360, with an average standard error of estimation of 36.5%. The study indicates that a major source of error in the stream gaging records is lost or missing data that are the result of streamside equipment failure. If perfect equipment were available, the standard error in estimating instantaneous discharge under the current program and budget could be reduced to 18.6%. This can also be interpreted to mean that the streamflow data records have a standard error of this magnitude during times when the equipment is operating properly. (Author 's abstract)

  2. Cost effectiveness of the US Geological Survey's stream-gaging program in New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolcott, S.W.; Gannon, W.B.; Johnston, W.H.

    1986-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey conducted a 5-year nationwide analysis to define and document the most cost effective means of obtaining streamflow data. This report describes the stream gaging network in New York and documents the cost effectiveness of its operation; it also identifies data uses and funding sources for the 174 continuous-record stream gages currently operated (1983). Those gages as well as 189 crest-stage, stage-only, and groundwater gages are operated with a budget of $1.068 million. One gaging station was identified as having insufficient reason for continuous operation and was converted to a crest-stage gage. Current operation of the 363-station program requires a budget of $1.068 million/yr. The average standard error of estimation of continuous streamflow data is 13.4%. Results indicate that this degree of accuracy could be maintained with a budget of approximately $1.006 million if the gaging resources were redistributed among the gages. The average standard error for 174 stations was calculated for five hypothetical budgets. A minimum budget of $970,000 would be needed to operated the 363-gage program; a budget less than this does not permit proper servicing and maintenance of the gages and recorders. Under the restrictions of a minimum budget, the average standard error would be 16.0%. The maximum budget analyzed was $1.2 million, which would decrease the average standard error to 9.4%. (Author 's abstract)

  3. McNutt Outlines Priorities for the U.S. Geological Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2010-01-01

    For Marcia McNutt, the new director of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and science advisor to the secretary of the interior, the clock is ticking. “Everyone feels that we have perhaps 3 years in which a very ambitious agenda needs to be accomplished,” McNutt told Eos in a recent exclusive interview. “We want to make sure by the end of [U.S. President Obama's] first term we have got significant accomplishments on issues such as climate change, environment, and energy, and other things that are important to the president.” “Everything is on a fast track to move quickly,” she said. “Everything had to be done yesterday, if not last week.” While the political process often requires immediate scientific information, the scientific process can take a bit longer, McNutt said, noting that it is fortunate research at the USGS has persisted in many areas.

  4. Analytical methods of the U.S. Geological Survey's New York District Water-Analysis Laboratory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lawrence, Gregory B.; Lincoln, Tricia A.; Horan-Ross, Debra A.; Olson, Mark L.; Waldron, Laura A.

    1995-01-01

    The New York District of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in Troy, N.Y., operates a water-analysis laboratory for USGS watershed-research projects in the Northeast that require analyses of precipitation and of dilute surface water and soil water for major ions; it also provides analyses of certain chemical constituents in soils and soil gas samples. This report presents the methods for chemical analyses of water samples, soil-water samples, and soil-gas samples collected in wateshed-research projects. The introduction describes the general materials and technicques for eachmethod and explains the USGS quality-assurance program and data-management procedures; it also explains the use of cross reference to the three most commonly used methods manuals for analysis of dilute waters. The body of the report describes the analytical procedures for (1) solution analysis, (2) soil analysis, and (3) soil-gas analysis. The methods are presented in alphabetical order by constituent. The method for each constituent is preceded by (1) reference codes for pertinent sections of the three manuals mentioned above, (2) a list of the method's applications, and (3) a summary of the procedure. The methods section for each constitutent contains the following categories: instrumentation and equipment, sample preservation and storage, reagents and standards, analytical procedures, quality control, maintenance, interferences, safety considerations, and references. Sufficient information is presented for each method to allow the resulting data to be appropriately used in environmental samples.

  5. Data file: the 1976 Atlantic Margin Coring (AMCOR) Project of the U.S. Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poppe, Lawrence J.

    1981-01-01

    In 1976, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted the Atlantic Margin Coring Project (AMCOR) to obtain information on stratigraphy, hydrology and water chemistry, mineral resources other than petroleum hydrocarbons, and geotechnical engineering properties at sites widely distributed along the Continental Shelf and Slope of the Eastern United States (Hathaway and others, 1976, 1979). This program's primary purpose was to investigate a broad variety of sediment properties, many of which had not been previously studied in this region. Previous studies of sediments recovered by core drilling in this region were usually limited to one or two aspects of the sediment properties (Hathaway and others, 1979, table 2). The AMCOR program was limited by two factors: water depth and penetration depth. Because the ship selected for the program, the Glomar Conception, lacked dynamic positioning capability, its anchoring capacity determined the maximum water depth in which drilling could take place. Although it was equipped to anchor in water 450 m deep and did so successfully at one site, we attmepted no drilling in water depths greater than 300 m. Strong Gulf Stream currents at the one attempted deep (443 m) site frustrated attempts to "spud in" to begin the hole.

  6. U.S. Geological Survey federal-state cooperative water-resources program, fiscal year 1995

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lew, Melvin; Dodds, Betty

    1996-01-01

    The Federal-State Cooperative Program is a major U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) activity for the collection, analysis, and reporting of information on the quantity, quality, and use of the Nation's water resources. The fundamental characteristic of the program is that most of the work is undertaken by the USGS through joint-funding agreements, with State, regional, and local agencies providing at least one-half the funds. The main objectives of the program are (1) to collect, on a systematic basis, data needed for the continuing determi- nation and evaluation of the quantity, quality, and use of the Nation's water resources; and (2) to appraise the availability and the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of surface and ground water through data analysis and interpretive water-resources investigations and research. During fiscal year (FY) 1995, Cooperative Program activities were underway in offices in every State, Puerto Rico, and several territories in concert with about 1,100 cooperating agencies. In FY 1995, Federal funding of $62.1 million as matched by cooperating agencies, which also provided more than $28.2 million unmatched for a total program of about $152 million. This amounted to nearly 38 percent of the total funds for the USGS's water-resources activities. This report presents examples of FY 1995 investigations, as well as information on hydrologic data collection and water-use activities.

  7. Data from selected U.S. Geological Survey National Stream Water Quality Monitoring Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, Richard B.; Slack, James R.; Ludtke, Amy S.; Fitzgerald, Kathleen K.; Schertz, Terry L.

    1998-09-01

    A nationally consistent and well-documented collection of water quality and quantity data compiled during the past 30 years for streams and rivers in the United States is now available on CD-ROM and accessible over the World Wide Web. The data include measurements from two U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) national networks for 122 physical, chemical, and biological properties of water collected at 680 monitoring stations from 1962 to 1995, quality assurance information that describes the sample collection agencies, laboratories, analytical methods, and estimates of laboratory measurement error (bias and variance), and information on selected cultural and natural characteristics of the station watersheds. The data are easily accessed via user-supplied software including Web browser, spreadsheet, and word processor, or may be queried and printed according to user-specified criteria using the supplied retrieval software on CD-ROM. The water quality data serve a variety of scientific uses including research and educational applications related to trend detection, flux estimation, investigations of the effects of the natural environment and cultural sources on water quality, and the development of statistical methods for designing efficient monitoring networks and interpreting water resources data.

  8. Streamstats: U.S. Geological Survey Web Application for Streamflow Statistics for Connecticut

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ahearn, Elizabeth A.; Ries, Kernell G., III; Steeves, Peter A.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction An important mission of the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) is to provide information on streamflow in the Nation's rivers. Streamflow statistics are used by water managers, engineers, scientists, and others to protect people and property during floods and droughts, and to manage land, water, and biological resources. Common uses for streamflow statistics include dam, bridge, and culvert design; water-supply planning and management; water-use appropriations and permitting; wastewater and industrial discharge permitting; hydropower-facility design and regulation; and flood-plain mapping for establishing flood-insurance rates and land-use zones. In an effort to improve access to published streamflow statistics, and to make the process of computing streamflow statistics for ungaged stream sites easier, more accurate, and more consistent, the USGS and the Environmental Systems Research Institute, Inc. (ESRI) developed StreamStats (Ries and others, 2004). StreamStats is a Geographic Information System (GIS)-based Web application for serving previously published streamflow statistics and basin characteristics for USGS data-collection stations, and computing streamflow statistics and basin characteristics for ungaged stream sites. The USGS, in cooperation with the Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection and the Connecticut Department of Transportation, has implemented StreamStats for Connecticut.

  9. Summary of U.S. Geological Survey and City of Albuquerque hydrologic investigations program

    SciTech Connect

    McAda, D.

    1995-12-31

    The US Geological Survey and Albuquerque have been cooperating in data collection programs and interpretive studies since 1982. The paper presents summaries on recently completed and ongoing projects, detailing the objectives, principal investigator, period of the project, and reports released or reports in progress on each study. Project names are: Ground-water-level monitoring network in the Albuquerque Basin; Water budget of the Rio Grande flood plain in the Albuquerque area; Modeling of groundwater flow in the Albuquerque Basin; Continuation of ground water flow modeling in the Albuquerque Basin; Evaluation of methods to quantify the hydrologic relations between the Rio Grande and the Santa Fe Group aquifer system, near Albuquerque; Aquifer compaction and land subsidence in the Albuquerque, NM area; Aquifer test at the Griegos Well Field, Albuquerque, NM; Quality of urban stormwater runoff; Rio Grande water quality; Determining accurate concentrations and loads of trace elements and other selected chemical constituents in the Rio Grande, Albuquerque, NM; Digital geophysical-log data base; and Water quality data for the Albuquerque Basin.

  10. Integrating quality assurance in project work plans of the U.S. Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shampine, W.J.; Pope, L.M.; Koterba, M.T.

    1992-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's objectives for including quality assurance procedures in a project work plan are to ensure that the quality of the data collected is defined and is appropriate for the objectives of the investigation. The data- quality information can be used in the interpre- tation of the data. A project work plan that includes quality assessment provides definable benefits such as clarity of expectations, a method for obtaining a set of data that is expected and has been proven valid, a documentation trail, products that are produced on time and that meet project objectives, and a decrease in work that is lost or redone. Project chiefs must prepare and can publish the work plan for scientific investigations. An expanded outline of a framework that can be used to prepare a project work plan that includes quality assurance is described in this report and contains the following topics: data-quality objectives; project organization and responsibilities; data collection; data processing; project reviews; data analysis; remedial actions; project progress reports and quality assurance reports to management.

  11. The oilspill risk analysis model of the U. S. Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, R.A.; Slack, J.R.; Wyant, T.; Lanfear, K.J.

    1980-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has developed an oilspill risk analysis model to aid in estimating the environmental hazards of developing oil resources in Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) lease areas. The large, computerized model analyzes the probability of spill occurrence, as well as the likely paths or trajectories of spills in relation to the locations of recreational and biological resources which may be vulnerable. The analytical methodology can easily incorporate estimates of weathering rates , slick dispersion, and possible mitigating effects of cleanup. The probability of spill occurrence is estimated from information on the anticipated level of oil production and method and route of transport. Spill movement is modeled in Monte Carlo fashion with a sample of 500 spills per season, each transported by monthly surface current vectors and wind velocities sampled from 3-hour wind transition matrices. Transition matrices are based on historic wind records grouped in 41 wind velocity classes, and are constructed seasonally for up to six wind stations. Locations and monthly vulnerabilities of up to 31 categories of environmental resources are digitized within an 800,000 square kilometer study area. Model output includes tables of conditional impact probabilities (that is, the probability of hitting a target, given that a spill has occurred), as well as probability distributions for oilspills occurring and contacting environmental resources within preselected vulnerability time horizons. (USGS)

  12. The oilspill risk analysis model of the U. S. Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, R.A.; Slack, J.R.; Wyant, Timothy; Lanfear, K.J.

    1982-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has developed an oilspill risk analysis model to aid in estimating the environmental hazards of developing oil resources in Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) lease areas. The large, computerized model analyzes the probability of spill occurrence, as well as the likely paths or trajectories of spills in relation to the locations of recreational and biological resources which may be vulnerable. The analytical methodology can easily incorporate estimates of weathering rates , slick dispersion, and possible mitigating effects of cleanup. The probability of spill occurrence is estimated from information on the anticipated level of oil production and method of route of transport. Spill movement is modeled in Monte Carlo fashion with a sample of 500 spills per season, each transported by monthly surface current vectors and wind velocities sampled from 3-hour wind transition matrices. Transition matrices are based on historic wind records grouped in 41 wind velocity classes, and are constructed seasonally for up to six wind stations. Locations and monthly vulnerabilities of up to 31 categories of environmental resources are digitized within an 800,000 square kilometer study area. Model output includes tables of conditional impact probabilities (that is, the probability of hitting a target, given that a spill has occured), as well as probability distributions for oilspills occurring and contacting environmental resources within preselected vulnerability time horizons. (USGS)

  13. U.S. Geological Survey Mentoring Program - Paired for a Powerful Science Future

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, K.F.; Clarke, S.D.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) prides itself in its excellence in science. The resource bank of skills and knowledge that is contained within the current employees of the USGS is what makes our science excellent. With an aging workforce, we must ensure that the knowledge and skills represented by those years of experience are passed to new employees. To ensure that this bank of knowledge and experience is not lost and thereby sustain the excellence of our science, the Mentoring Program focuses on intentional mentoring, the deliberate transfer of skills and knowledge. Skills transfer from more experienced employees to those who are less experienced is critical. By placing an emphasis on intentional mentoring, we help to meet the scientific and technical needs of the employees by offering a cost-effective way to gain knowledge and skills necessary to maintain excellence in science. By encouraging and fostering a mentoring atmosphere within the USGS, we are investing in the future of our organization. With improved technical skills, increased job effectiveness, and resulting satisfaction, USGS employees will not only be more invested and engaged, they will also be able to work smarter, thus benefiting from the experience of their mentor.

  14. Landslide modeling and forecasting—recent progress by the u.s. geological survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baum, Rex L.; Kean, Jason W.

    2015-01-01

    Landslide studies by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) are focused on two main objectives: scientific understanding and forecasting. The first objective is to gain better understanding of the physical processes involved in landslide initiation and movement. This objective is largely in support of the second objective, to develop predictive capabilities to answer the main hazard questions. Answers to the following six questions are needed to characterize the hazard from landslides: (1) Where will landslides occur? (2) What kind(s) of landslides will occur? (3) When will landslides occur? (4) How big will the landslides be? (5) How fast will the landslides travel? (6) How far will the landslides go? Although these questions are sometimes recast in different terms, such as frequency or recurrence rather than timing (when), the questions or their variants address the spatial, physical, and temporal aspects of landslide hazards. Efforts to develop modeling and forecasting capabilities by the USGS are primarily focused on specific landslide types that pose a high degree of hazard and show relatively high potential for predictability.

  15. Assessing Gaps in the U.S. Geological Survey Streamgage Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiang, Julie; Archfield, Stacey; Stewart, David; Eng, Ken

    2015-04-01

    Streamgages are widely used for a variety of purposes ranging from operational support of water management facilities to flood monitoring to scientific analysis of streamflow and ecological processes. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) operates the largest streamgage network in the U.S., with nearly 8,000 gages currently in operation. This study assesses the spatial and temporal extent of the network, with particular attention to the adequacy of the network for estimating streamflows and streamflow statistics at ungaged locations. There are clear regional differences in the availability of streamgage information and in the transferability of that information to ungaged locations. In particular, arid and semi-arid regions tend to have the poorest network coverage, and the high interannual variability in streamflow in these regions leads to large uncertainty in streamflow statistics calculated at gaged locations using short records. USGS streamgages are also particularly sparse in Alaska and Hawaii. At ungaged locations, information can be transferred from nearby streamgages if there is sufficient similarity between the gaged watersheds and the ungaged watersheds of interest. The correlation between streamflow records at existing streamgages was used to assess the likely transferability of streamflow information. The highest correlations were found in mountainous areas of the U.S., while the lowest correlations were found in the central U.S. and coastal areas of the southeastern U.S.

  16. Preliminary summary of the 1976 Atlantic Margin Coring Project of the U.S. Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hathaway, John Cummins; Schlee, J.J.; Poag, C.W.; Valentine, P.C.; Weed, E.G.A.; Bothner, Michael H.; Kohout, F.A.; Manheim, F. T.; Schloam, R.; Miller, R.E.; Schultz, D.M.

    1976-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey Atlantic Margin Coring Project, 1976, a 60-day expedition to obtain core samples by drilling beneath the floor of the Continental Shelf and Slope of the eastern United States, was carried out in July, August, and September 1976 aboard D/V GLOMAR CONCEPTION. The coring penetrated as much as 310 meters below the sea floor at 19 sites along the continental margin from Georgia to Georges Bank off New England in water depths ranging from 20 to 300 meters; 1,020 meters of material were recovered in 380 cores, ranging in age from Late Cretaceous to Holocene. One of the major findings was the discovery of relatively fresh water (salinities less than 3 parts per thousand) extending beneath the Continental Shelf as much as 60 nautical miles seaward from the New Jersey coast. Water of about 1 part per thousand salinity was found beneath the shelf more than 7 nautical miles off Ocean City, Maryland and Barnegat Inlet, New Jersey. Analyses for light hydrocarbons in the cores show the highest concentrations (as much as 412,000 ppm) at sites in water depth greater than 200 meters (the shelf-slope break), principally in Pleistocene sediments, although methane concentrations greater than 400,000 ppm also were found in Miocene sediments at one site near the shelf edge. (Woodard-USGS)

  17. Web services in the U.S. geological survey streamstats web application

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guthrie, J.D.; Dartiguenave, C.; Ries, Kernell G., III

    2009-01-01

    StreamStats is a U.S. Geological Survey Web-based GIS application developed as a tool for waterresources planning and management, engineering design, and other applications. StreamStats' primary functionality allows users to obtain drainage-basin boundaries, basin characteristics, and streamflow statistics for gaged and ungaged sites. Recently, Web services have been developed that provide the capability to remote users and applications to access comprehensive GIS tools that are available in StreamStats, including delineating drainage-basin boundaries, computing basin characteristics, estimating streamflow statistics for user-selected locations, and determining point features that coincide with a National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) reach address. For the state of Kentucky, a web service also has been developed that provides users the ability to estimate daily time series of drainage-basin average values of daily precipitation and temperature. The use of web services allows the user to take full advantage of the datasets and processes behind the Stream Stats application without having to develop and maintain them. ?? 2009 IEEE.

  18. Applications of the U.S. Geological survey's global land cover product

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reed, B.

    1997-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in partnership with several international agencies and universities, has produced a global land cover characteristics database. The land cover data were created using multitemporal analysis of advanced very high resolution radiometer satellite images in conjunction with other existing geographic data. A translation table permits the conversion of the land cover classes into several conventional land cover schemes that are used by ecosystem modelers, climate modelers, land management agencies, and other user groups. The alternative classification schemes include Global Ecosystems, the Biosphere Atmosphere Transfer Scheme, the Simple Biosphere, the USGS Anderson Level 2, and the International Geosphere Biosphere Programme. The distribution system for these data is through the World Wide Web ( the web site address is: http://edcwww.cr.usgs.gov/landdaac/glcc/glcc.html) or by magnetic media upon special request. The availability of the data over the World Wide Web, in conjunction with the flexible database structure, allows easy data access to a wide range of users. The web site contains a user registration form that allows analysis of the diverse applications of large-area land cover data. Currently, applications are divided among mapping (20 percent), conservation (30 percent), and modeling (35 percent).

  19. Estimating bridge scour in New York from historical U.S. geological survey streamflow measurements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Butch, Gerard K.

    1993-01-01

    Historical streamflow measurements by the U.S. Geological Survey an bridge-inspection reports by the New York State Department of Transportation are being used to estimate scour at 31 bridges in New York State. Streamflow measurements that were made before, during, or after high flows are used to estimate scour and to define hydraulic properties associated with floods. Clear-water scour is common at most sites; local scour holes that formed during high flows did not refill after subsequent high flows. The 31 streambeds are armored by gravel; median particle size ranges form 22 to 68 millimeters. Streambed elevations measured after a high flow are assumed to represent the elevations during peak flow. Measurements at several bridges indicate scour by multiple high flows, severe floods, and debris. Three high flows at State Route 23 over the Otselic River in Cortland County produced 6.1 feet of local scour and partly exposed concrete pilings below the footing. Although the recurrence interval of each flow was less than 10 years, a 30-degree angle between the flow and the pier increased the tendency of the streambed to scour. State Route 427 over the Chemung River in Chemung County survived the 1972 flood ( recurrence interval greater than 100 years) because pilings supported the undermined piers. The maximum local scour during the 1972 flood was estimated to be 5.4 feet. A local-scour hole, 2.4 feet deep before the flood, was deepened to 7.8 feet.

  20. Sudbury project (University of Muenster-Ontario Geological Survey): Summary of results - an updated impact model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Avermann, M.; Bischoff, L.; Brockmeyer, P.; Buhl, D.; Deutsch, A.; Dressler, B. O.; Lakomy, R.; Mueller-Mohr, V.; Stoeffler, D.

    1992-01-01

    In 1984 the Ontario Geological Survey initiated a research project on the Sudbury structure (SS) in cooperation with the University of Muenster. The project included field mapping (1984-1989) and petrographic, chemical, and isotope analyses of the major stratigraphic units of the SS. Four diploma theses and four doctoral theses were performed during the project (1984-1992). Specific results of the various investigations are reported. Selected areas of the SS were mapped and sampled: Footwall rocks; Footwall breccia and parts of the sublayer and lower section of the Sudbury Igneous Complex (SIC); Onaping Formation and the upper section of the SIC; and Sudbury breccia and adjacent Footwall rocks along extended profiles up to 55 km from the SIC. All these stratigraphic units of the SS were studied in substantial detail by previous workers. The most important characteristic of the previous research is that it was based either on a volcanic model or on a mixed volcanic-impact model for the origin of the SS. The present project was clearly directed toward a test of the impact origin of the SS without invoking an endogenic component. In general, our results confirm the most widely accepted stratigraphic division of the SS. However, our interpretation of some of the major stratigraphic units is different from most views expressed. The stratigraphy of the SS and its new interpretation is given as a basis for discussion.

  1. A method for mapping corn using the US Geological Survey 1992 National Land Cover Dataset

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maxwell, S.K.; Nuckols, J.R.; Ward, M.H.

    2006-01-01

    Long-term exposure to elevated nitrate levels in community drinking water supplies has been associated with an elevated risk of several cancers including non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, colon cancer, and bladder cancer. To estimate human exposure to nitrate, specific crop type information is needed as fertilizer application rates vary widely by crop type. Corn requires the highest application of nitrogen fertilizer of crops grown in the Midwest US. We developed a method to refine the US Geological Survey National Land Cover Dataset (NLCD) (including map and original Landsat images) to distinguish corn from other crops. Overall average agreement between the resulting corn and other row crops class and ground reference data was 0.79 kappa coefficient with individual Landsat images ranging from 0.46 to 0.93 kappa. The highest accuracies occurred in Regions where corn was the single dominant crop (greater than 80.0%) and the crop vegetation conditions at the time of image acquisition were optimum for separation of corn from all other crops. Factors that resulted in lower accuracies included the accuracy of the NLCD map, accuracy of corn areal estimates, crop mixture, crop condition at the time of Landsat overpass, and Landsat scene anomalies. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Price current-meter standard rating development by the U.S. geological survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hubbard, E.F.; Schwarz, G.E.; Thibodeaux, K.G.; Turcios, L.M.

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has developed new standard rating tables for use with Price type AA and pygmy current meters, which are employed to measure streamflow velocity. Current-meter calibration data, consisting of the rates of rotation of meters at several different constant water velocities, have shown that the original rating tables are no longer representative of the average responsiveness of newly purchased meters or meters in the field. The new rating tables are based on linear regression equations that are weighted to reflect the population mix of current meters in the field and weighted inversely to the variability of the data at each calibration velocity. For calibration velocities of 0.3 m/s and faster, at which most streamflow measurements are made, the new AA-rating predicts the true velocities within 1.5% and the new pygmy-meter rating within 2.0% for more than 95% of the meters. At calibration velocities, the new AA-meter rating is up to 1.4% different from the original rating, and the new pygmy-meter rating is up to 1.6% different.

  3. U.S. Geological Survey community for data integration: data upload, registry, and access tool

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fort Collins Science Center Web Applications Team

    2012-01-01

    As a leading science and information agency and in fulfillment of its mission to provide reliable scientific information to describe and understand the Earth, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) ensures that all scientific data are effectively hosted, adequately described, and appropriately accessible to scientists, collaborators, and the general public. To succeed in this task, the USGS established the Community for Data Integration (CDI) to address data and information management issues affecting the proficiency of earth science research. Through the CDI, the USGS is providing data and metadata management tools, cyber infrastructure, collaboration tools, and training in support of scientists and technology specialists throughout the project life cycle. One of the significant tools recently created to contribute to this mission is the Uploader tool. This tool allows scientists with limited data management resources to address many of the key aspects of the data life cycle: the ability to protect, preserve, publish and share data. By implementing this application inside ScienceBase, scientists also can take advantage of other collaboration capabilities provided by the ScienceBase platform.

  4. Operation of U.S. Geological Survey unmanned digital magnetic observatories

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, L.R.

    1990-01-01

    The precision and continuity of data recorded by unmanned digital magnetic observatories depend on the type of data acquisition equipment used and operating procedures employed. Three generations of observatory systems used by the U.S. Geological Survey are described. A table listing the frequency of component failures in the current observatory system has been compiled for a 54-month period of operation. The cause of component failure was generally mechanical or due to lightning. The average percentage data loss per month for 13 observatories operating a combined total of 637 months was 9%. Frequency distributions of data loss intervals show the highest frequency of occurrence to be intervals of less than 1 h. Installation of the third generation system will begin in 1988. The configuration of the third generation observatory system will eliminate most of the mechanical problems, and its components should be less susceptible to lightning. A quasi-absolute coil-proton system will be added to obtain baseline control for component variation data twice daily. Observatory data, diagnostics, and magnetic activity indices will be collected at 12-min intervals via satellite at Golden, Colorado. An improvement in the quality and continuity of data obtained with the new system is expected. ?? 1990.

  5. The U.S. Geological Survey cartographic and geographic information science research activities 2006-2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Usery, E. Lynn

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) produces geospatial databases and topographic maps for the United States of America. A part of that mission includes conducting research in geographic information science (GIScience) and cartography to support mapping and improve the design, quality, delivery, and use of geospatial data and topographic maps. The Center of Excellence for Geospatial Information Science (CEGIS) was established by the USGS in January 2006 as a part of the National Geospatial Program Office. CEGIS (http://cegis.usgs.gov) evolved from a team of cartographic researchers at the Mid-Continent Mapping Center. The team became known as the Cartographic Research group and was supported by the Cooperative Topographic Mapping, Geographic Analysis and Monitoring, and Land Remote Sensing programs of the Geography Discipline of the USGS from 1999-2005. In 2006, the Cartographic Research group and its projects (http://carto-research.er.usgs.gov/) became the core of CEGIS staff and research. In 2006, CEGIS research became focused on The National Map (http://nationalmap.gov).

  6. U.S. Geological Survey Energy and Minerals science strategy: a resource lifecycle approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ferrero, Richard C.; Kolak, Jonathan J.; Bills, Donald J.; Bowen, Zachary H.; Cordier, Daniel J.; Gallegos, Tanya J.; Hein, James R.; Kelley, Karen D.; Nelson, Philip H.; Nuccio, Vito F.; Schmidt, Jeanine M.; Seal, Robert R., II

    2013-01-01

    The economy, national security, and standard of living of the United States depend heavily on adequate and reliable supplies of energy and mineral resources. Based on population and consumption trends, the Nation’s use of energy and minerals can be expected to grow, driving the demand for ever broader scientific understanding of resource formation, location, and availability. In addition, the increasing importance of environmental stewardship, human health, and sustainable growth places further emphasis on energy and mineral resources research and understanding. Collectively, these trends in resource demand and the interconnectedness among resources will lead to new challenges and, in turn, require cutting- edge science for the next generation of societal decisions. The long and continuing history of U.S. Geological Survey contributions to energy and mineral resources science provide a solid foundation of core capabilities upon which new research directions can grow. This science strategy provides a framework for the coming decade that capitalizes on the growth of core capabilities and leverages their application toward new or emerging challenges in energy and mineral resources research, as reflected in five interrelated goals.

  7. Improvement of analytical capabilities of neutron activation analysis laboratory at the Colombian Geological Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parrado, G.; Cañón, Y.; Peña, M.; Sierra, O.; Porras, A.; Alonso, D.; Herrera, D. C.; Orozco, J.

    2016-07-01

    The Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) laboratory at the Colombian Geological Survey has developed a technique for multi-elemental analysis of soil and plant matrices, based on Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) using the comparator method. In order to evaluate the analytical capabilities of the technique, the laboratory has been participating in inter-comparison tests organized by Wepal (Wageningen Evaluating Programs for Analytical Laboratories). In this work, the experimental procedure and results for the multi-elemental analysis of four soil and four plant samples during participation in the first round on 2015 of Wepal proficiency test are presented. Only elements with radioactive isotopes with medium and long half-lives have been evaluated, 15 elements for soils (As, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, La, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Th, U and Zn) and 7 elements for plants (Br, Co, Cr, Fe, K, Na and Zn). The performance assessment by Wepal based on Z-score distributions showed that most results obtained |Z-scores| ≤ 3.

  8. A summary of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hirsch, R.M.; Alley, W.M.; Wilber, W.G.

    1988-01-01

    Beginning in 1986, the Congress appropriated funds for the U.S. Geological Survey to test and refine concepts for a National Water Quality Assessment Program. At present, the program is in a pilot phase with field studies occurring in seven areas around the Nation. In 1990, a committee of the National Academy of Sciences will complete an evaluation of the design and potential utility of the program. A decision about moving to full-scale implementation will be made upon completion of this evaluation. The program is intended to address a wide range of national water quality issues that include chemical contamination, acidification, eutrophication, salinity, sedimentation, and sanitary quality. The goals of the program are to: (1) provide nationally consistent descriptions of current water quality conditions for a large part of the Nation 's water resources; (2) define long-term trends (or lack of trends) in water quality; and (3) identify and describe the relations of both current conditions and trends in water quality to natural and human factors. This information will be provided to water managers, policy makers, and the public to provide an improved scientific basis for evaluating the effectiveness of water quality management programs and for predicting the likely effects of contemplated changes in land- and water-management practices. (USGS)

  9. An evaluation of the U.S. Geological Survey World Petroleum Assessment 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klett, T.R.; Gautier, D.L.; Ahlbrandt, T.S.

    2005-01-01

    This study compares the additions to conventional crude oil and natural gas reserves as reported from January 1996 to December 2003 with the estimated undiscovered and reserve-growth volumes assessed in the U.S. Geological Survey World Petroleum Assessment 2000, which used data current through 1995. Approximately 28% of the estimated additions to oil reserves by reserve growth and approximately 11% of the estimated undiscovered oil volumes were realized in the 8 yr since the assessment (27% of the time frame for the assessment). Slightly more than half of the estimated additions to gas reserves by reserve growth and approximately 10% of the estimated undiscovered gas volumes were realized. Between 1995 and 2003, growth of oil reserves in previously discovered fields exceeded new-field discoveries as a source of global additions to reserves of conventional oil by a ratio of 3:1. The greatest amount of reserve growth for crude oil occurred in the Middle East and North Africa, whereas the greatest contribution from new-field discoveries occurred in sub-Saharan Africa. The greatest amount of reserve growth for natural gas occurred in the Middle East and North Africa, whereas the greatest contribution from new-field discoveries occurred in the Asia Pacific region. On an energy-equivalent basis, volumes of new gas-field discoveries exceeded new oil-field discoveries. Copyright ?? 2005. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists. All rights reserved.

  10. Neutron-activation analysis of several US Geological Survey and National Bureau of Standards reference materials

    SciTech Connect

    Daly, A.T.

    1981-01-01

    In this work, several US Geological Survey (U.S.G.S.) and National Bureau of Standards (N.B.S.) reference samples have been analyzed in an effort to improve the quality of elemental concentration data available on these materials, so they can be used in a program of verification of factor analysis source resolution procedures. The analyses of these samples were performed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The samples analyzed were: U.S.G.S. Green River Shale, N.B.S. 45b Homogeneous River Sediment, U.S.G.S. Analyzed Peridotite N.B.S. 1579 Powdered Lead-based Paint, U.S.G.S. Hawaian Basalt U.S.G.S. Marine Mud, U.S.G.S. Analyzed Cody Shale U.S.G.S. Glass Mountain Rhyolite, N.B.S. Argillaceous Limestone No. 1, and a sample of Spex ultrapure graphite. Neutron activation analysis was employed because of the high sensitivity that can be attained in determining elemental concentrations. Although INAA is a relatively simple method and the reproducibility of the data is good, the method shows some inaccuracies. The basic theory and technique are reviewed in an attempt to show where problems can arise and how they can be dealt with.

  11. Performance Audit of the U.S. Geological Survey, Energy Resource Program Inorganic Geochemistry Laboratory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Luppens, James A.; Janke, Louis G.; McCord, Jamey D.; Bullock, John H.; Brazeau, Lisa; Affronter, Ronald H.

    2007-01-01

    A performance audit of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Energy Resource Program (ERP) Inorganic Geochemistry Laboratory (IGL) was conducted between August, 2003 and October, 2005. The goals were to ensure that a high level of analytical performance was maintained and identify any areas that could be enhanced. The audit was subdivided into three phases. Phase 1 was a preliminary assessment of current performance based on recent performance on CANSPEX samples. IGL performance was also compared to laboratories world-wide with similar scope. Phase 2 consisted of the implementation of the recommended changes made in Phase 1. Phase 3 of the audit consisted of a reassessment effort to evaluate the effectiveness of the recommendations made in the Phase 1 and an on-site audit of the laboratory facilities. Phases 1 and 3 required summary reports that are included in Appendices A and B of this report. The audit found that the IGL was one of the top two laboratories compared for trace element analyses. Several recommendations to enhance performance on major and minor elemental parameters were made and implemented. Demonstrated performance improvements as a result of the recommended changes were documented. Several initiatives to sustain the performance improvements gained from the audit have been implemented.

  12. Urban infrastructure and water management—Science capabilities of the U.S. Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fisher, Shawn C.; Fanelli, Rosemary M.; Selbig, William R.

    2016-01-01

    Managing the urban-water cycle has increasingly become a challenge for water-resources planners and regulators faced with the problem of providing clean drinking water to urban residents. Sanitary and combined sanitary and storm sewer networks convey wastewater to centralized treatment plants. Impervious surfaces, which include roads, parking lots, and buildings, increase stormwater runoff and the efficiency by which runoff is conveyed to nearby stream channels; therefore, impervious surfaces increase the risk of urban flooding and alteration of natural ecosystems. These challenges will increase with the expansion of urban centers and the probable effects of climate change on precipitation patterns. Understanding the urban-water cycle is critical to effectively manage water resources and to protect people, infrastructure, and urban-stream ecosystems. As a leader in water-supply, wastewater, and stormwater assessments, the U.S. Geological Survey has the expertise and resources needed to monitor, model, and interpret data related to the urban-water cycle and thereby enable water-resources managers to make informed decisions.

  13. A survey of brucellosis and tuberculosis in bison in and around Wood Buffalo National Park, Canada.

    PubMed

    Tessaro, S V; Forbes, L B; Turcotte, C

    1990-03-01

    Examinations of complete or partial remains of 72 bison found dead in and around Wood Buffalo National Park, Canada, revealed evidence of brucellosis in 18 (25%) and tuberculosis in 15 (21%), with a combined prevalence of 42%. Urease-positive and ureasenegative strains of Brucella abortus biovar 1, and strains of biovar 2, were isolated from tissues of bison, including synovium and exudate from severe arthritic lesions. Mycobacterium bovis was isolated from a range of granulomatous lesions that were similar to those reported in tuberculous cattle. Diseased bison had a broad geographical distribution, and were found outside the park on at least three natural corridors. The diseases have a deleterious effect on this population of bison, and pose a health risk to other bison herds, livestock, and native hunters in the region. PMID:17423532

  14. A survey of brucellosis and tuberculosis in bison in and around Wood Buffalo National Park, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Tessaro, Stacy V.; Forbes, Lorry B.; Turcotte, Claude

    1990-01-01

    Examinations of complete or partial remains of 72 bison found dead in and around Wood Buffalo National Park, Canada, revealed evidence of brucellosis in 18 (25%) and tuberculosis in 15 (21%), with a combined prevalence of 42%. Urease-positive and ureasenegative strains of Brucella abortus biovar 1, and strains of biovar 2, were isolated from tissues of bison, including synovium and exudate from severe arthritic lesions. Mycobacterium bovis was isolated from a range of granulomatous lesions that were similar to those reported in tuberculous cattle. Diseased bison had a broad geographical distribution, and were found outside the park on at least three natural corridors. The diseases have a deleterious effect on this population of bison, and pose a health risk to other bison herds, livestock, and native hunters in the region. ImagesFigure 3.Figure 4. PMID:17423532

  15. Opportunities and Needs for Mobile-Computing Technology to Support U.S. Geological Survey Fieldwork

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, Nathan J.; Halsing, David L.

    2006-01-01

    To assess the opportunities and needs for mobile-computing technology at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), we conducted an internal, Internet-based survey of bureau scientists whose research includes fieldwork. In summer 2005, 144 survey participants answered 65 questions about fieldwork activities and conditions, technology to support field research, and postfieldwork data processing and analysis. Results suggest that some types of mobile-computing technology are already commonplace, such as digital cameras and Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers, whereas others are not, such as personal digital assistants (PDAs) and tablet-based personal computers (tablet PCs). The potential for PDA use in the USGS is high: 97 percent of respondents record field observations (primarily environmental conditions and water-quality data), and 87 percent take field samples (primarily water-quality data, water samples, and sediment/soil samples). The potential for tablet PC use in the USGS is also high: 59 percent of respondents map environmental features in the field, primarily by sketching in field notebooks, on aerial photographs, or on topographic-map sheets. Results also suggest that efficient mobile-computing-technology solutions could benefit many USGS scientists because most respondents spend at least 1 week per year in the field, conduct field sessions that are least 1 week in duration, have field crews of one to three people, and typically travel on foot about 1 mi from their field vehicles. By allowing researchers to enter data directly into digital databases while in the field, mobile-computing technology could also minimize postfieldwork data processing: 93 percent of respondents enter collected field data into their office computers, and more than 50 percent spend at least 1 week per year on postfieldwork data processing. Reducing postfieldwork data processing could free up additional time for researchers and result in cost savings for the bureau. Generally

  16. Art Education Programs in Higher Education. A Survey of Art in Teacher Preparation Programs in the United State, Puerto Rico, and Canada (1986-87).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newby, Marilyn P.; Carli, Nanette M.

    Conducted through the joint auspices of the National Art Education Association and Illinois State University College of Fine Arts, this national survey gathered data through a mail questionnaire of more than 1,000 higher education institutions located in the United States, Puerto Rico, and Canada. The institutions included two-year and four-year…

  17. Employer-Sponsored Training in Canada: Synthesis of the Literature Using Data from the Workplace and Employee Survey. Learning Research Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dostie, Benoit; Montmarquette, Claude

    2007-01-01

    This report presents a review of studies and articles on employer-sponsored training in Canada. The authors reviewed documentation that used data from the Workplace and Employee Survey (WES) and offer a synthesis of the current state of knowledge. The report looks alternately at issues pertaining to determinants of training from the employer and…

  18. Geological and seismological survey for new design-basis earthquake ground motion of Kashiwazaki-Kariwa NPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takao, M.; Mizutani, H.

    2009-05-01

    At about 10:13 on July 16, 2007, a strong earthquake named 'Niigata-ken Chuetsu-oki Earthquake' of Mj6.8 on Japan Meteorological Agencyfs scale occurred offshore Niigata prefecture in Japan. However, all of the nuclear reactors at Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Station (KKNPS) in Niigata prefecture operated by Tokyo Electric Power Company shut down safely. In other words, automatic safety function composed of shutdown, cooling and containment worked as designed immediately after the earthquake. During the earthquake, the peak acceleration of the ground motion exceeded the design-basis ground motion (DBGM), but the force due to the earthquake applied to safety-significant facilities was about the same as or less than the design basis taken into account as static seismic force. In order to assess anew the safety of nuclear power plants, we have evaluated a new DBGM after conducting geomorphological, geological, geophysical, seismological survey and analyses. [Geomorphological, Geological and Geophysical survey] In the land area, aerial photograph interpretation was performed at least within the 30km radius to extract geographies that could possibly be tectonic reliefs as a geomorphological survey. After that, geological reconnaissance was conducted to confirm whether the extracted landforms are tectonic reliefs or not. Especially we carefully investigated Nagaoka Plain Western Boundary Fault Zone (NPWBFZ), which consists of Kakuda-Yahiko fault, Kihinomiya fault and Katakai fault, because NPWBFZ is the one of the active faults which have potential of Mj8 class in Japan. In addition to the geological survey, seismic reflection prospecting of approximate 120km in total length was completed to evaluate the geological structure of the faults and to assess the consecutiveness of the component faults of NPWBFZ. As a result of geomorphological, geological and geophysical surveys, we evaluated that the three component faults of NPWBFZ are independent to each other from the

  19. U.S. Geological Survey Science for the Wyoming Landscape Conservation Initiative - 2008 Annual Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowen, Zachary H.; Aldridge, Cameron L.; Anderson, Patrick J.; Assal, Timothy J.; Baer, Lori Anne; Bristol, R. Sky; Carr, Natasha B.; Chong, Geneva W.; Diffendorfer, Jay E.; Fedy, Bradley C.; Garman, Steven L.; Germaine, Stephen; Grauch, Richard I.; Homer, Collin G.; Manier, Daniel J.; Kauffman, Matthew J.; Latysh, Natalie; Melcher, Cynthia P.; Miller, Kirk A.; Montag, Jessica; Nutt, Constance J.; Potter, Christopher; Sawyer, Hall; Smith, David B.; Sweat, Michael J.; Wilson, Anna B.

    2009-01-01

    The Wyoming Landscape Conservation Initiative (WLCI) was launched in 2007 in response to concerns about threats to the State's world class wildlife resources, especially the threat posed by rapidly increasing energy development in southwest Wyoming. The overriding purpose of the WLCI is to assess and enhance aquatic and terrestrial habitats at a landscape scale, while facilitating responsible energy and other types of development. The WLCI includes partners from Federal, State, and local agencies, with participation from public and private entities, industry, and landowners. As a principal WLCI partner, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) provides multidisciplinary scientific and technical support to inform decisionmaking in the WLCI. To address WLCI management needs, USGS has designed and implemented five integrated work activities: (1) Baseline Synthesis, (2) Targeted Monitoring and Research, (3) Integration and Coordination, (4) Data and Information Management, and (5) Decisionmaking and Evaluation. Ongoing information management of data and products acquired or generated through the integrated work activities will ensure that crucial scientific information is available to partners and stakeholders in a readily accessible and useable format for decisionmaking and evaluation. Significant progress towards WLCI goals has been achieved in many Science and Technical Assistance tasks of the work activities. Available data were identified, acquired, compiled, and integrated into a comprehensive database for use by WLCI partners and to support USGS science activities. A Web-based platform for sharing these data and products has been developed and is already in use. Numerous map products have been completed and made available to WLCI partners, and other products are in progress. Initial conceptual, habitat, and climate change models have been developed or refined. Monitoring designs for terrestrial and aquatic indicators have been completed, pilot data have been collected

  20. Accuracy assessment of the U.S. Geological Survey National Elevation Dataset, and comparison with other large-area elevation datasets: SRTM and ASTER

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gesch, Dean B.; Oimoen, Michael J.; Evans, Gayla A.

    2014-01-01

    The National Elevation Dataset (NED) is the primary elevation data product produced and distributed by the U.S. Geological Survey. The NED provides seamless raster elevation data of the conterminous United States, Alaska, Hawaii, U.S. island territories, Mexico, and Canada. The NED is derived from diverse source datasets that are processed to a specification with consistent resolutions, coordinate system, elevation units, and horizontal and vertical datums. The NED serves as the elevation layer of The National Map, and it provides basic elevation information for earth science studies and mapping applications in the United States and most of North America. An important part of supporting scientific and operational use of the NED is provision of thorough dataset documentation including data quality and accuracy metrics. The focus of this report is on the vertical accuracy of the NED and on comparison of the NED with other similar large-area elevation datasets, namely data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER).

  1. The Sea-Floor Mapping Facility at the U.S. Geological Survey Woods Hole Field Center, Woods Hole, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Deusser, Rebecca E.; Schwab, William C.; Denny, Jane F.

    2002-01-01

    Researchers of the sea-floor mapping facility at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Woods Hole Field Center in Woods Hole, Mass., use state-of-the-art technology to produce accurate geologic maps of the sea floor. In addition to basic bathymetry and morphology, sea-floor maps may contain information about the distribution of sand resources, patterns of coastal erosion, pathways of pollutant transport, and geologic controls on marine biological habitats. The maps may also show areas of human impacts, such as disturbance by bottom fishing and pollution caused by offshore waste disposal. The maps provide a framework for scientific research and provide critical information to decisionmakers who oversee resources in the coastal ocean.

  2. Sudbury project (University of Muenster-Ontario Geological Survey): Field studies 1984-1989 - summary of results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bischoff, L.; Dressler, B. O.; Avermann, M. E.; Brockmeyer, P.; Lakomy, R.; Mueller-Mohr, V.

    1992-01-01

    In cooperation between the Ontario Geological Survey and the Institute of Geology and Institute of Planetology, geological, petrological, and geochemical studies were carried out on impact-related phenomena of the Sudbury structure during the last decade. The main results of the field studies are briefly reviewed. Footwall rocks, sublayer, and lower sections of the Sudbury Igneous Complex (SIC) were mainly mapped and sampled in the northern (Levack Township) and western (Trillabelle and Sultana Properties) parts of the north range. Within these mapping areas Sudbury Breccias (SB) and Footwall Breccias (FB) were studied; SB were also investigated along extended profiles beyond the north and south ranges up to 55 km from the SIC. The Onaping Formation (OF) and the upper section of the SIC were studied both in the north range (Morgan and Dowling Townships) and in the southern east range (Capreol and McLennan Townships).

  3. Insights into the Structure and Surface Geology of Isla Socorro, Mexico, from Airborne Magnetic and Gamma-Ray Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paoletti, V.; Gruber, S.; Varley, N.; D'Antonio, M.; Supper, R.; Motschka, K.

    2016-05-01

    The island of Socorro is located in the eastern Pacific Ocean, 650 km off the coast of Mexico. It is a rare example of an oceanic volcanic island whose above sea level volume is made up mostly of peralkaline trachytes and rhyolites, with subordinate mafic rocks. Subaerial volcanism started several hundred thousand years ago and continues until recent times. We present an investigation of surface and subsurface geology of the island, based on the first detailed extensive geophysical survey on the island. Acquired airborne magnetic and gamma-ray data were compared to existing geological information and supplemented with field investigations and satellite imagery. Magnetic data show a wide minimum in the central part of the island, possibly connected to a high-temperature zone in the deeper central portion of the volcano, likely to be due to a still hot magma body. The data also depict two parallel edges possibly suggesting the existence of a nested caldera. Analysis on upward continued magnetic data by recent imaging techniques highlighted two deep sources located around 5 km b.s.l., interpreted as feeding structures that are now filled with crystalline rocks. Gamma-ray data have been interpreted through integration with the geological survey results. Several previously known volcanic deposits have been identified based on radioelement distribution, and others have been redefined based on field evidence. A new succession of volcanic members is proposed, to be verified through more detailed geological mapping, geochemical analyses of rock samples and radiometric dating.

  4. Suggestions to authors of papers submitted for publication by the United States Geological Survey with directions to typewriters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, George McLane

    1909-01-01

    The first pamphlet containing suggestions to authors for the preparation of manuscript intended for publication by the Geological Survey was published in January, 1888.  This pamphlet was revised and reprinted in 1892.  In 1904 the Survey published suggestions for the preparation of geologic folios, and in 1906 suggestions for the preparation of reports on mining districts.  All matter of present value that was included in these publications, with much additional material, has been incorporated in the pamphlet here presented.  It is hoped that these suggestions will be of general service in improving the form of manuscripts submitted and, by diminishing the work of the editorial revision and correction, in expediting their publication.

  5. Suggestions to authors of papers submitted for publication by the United States Geological Survey with directions to typewriter operators

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, George McLane

    1913-01-01

    The first pamphlet containing suggestions to authors for the preparation of manuscript intended for publication by the Geological Survey was published in January, 1888.  This pamphlet was revised and reprinted in 1892.  In 1904 the Survey published suggestions for the preparation of geologic folios, and in 1906 suggestions for the preparation of reports on mining districts.  All matter of present value that was included in these publications, with much additional material, has been incorporated in the pamphlet here presented.  The first edition of this pamphlet was published in 1909.  The edition now published contains some new material and discusses in greater detail several suggestions that were made in the first edition.  In the compilation of both editions valuable aid has been rendered by Mr. Bernard H. Lane, assistant editor.

  6. Results of the U.S. Geological Survey's Analytical Evaluation Program for Standard Reference Samples Distributed in March 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farrar, Jerry W.; Copen, Ashley M.

    2000-01-01

    This report presents the results of the U.S. Geological Survey's analytical evaluation program for six standard reference samples -- T-161 (trace constituents), M-154 (major constituents), N-65 (nutrient constituents), N-66 nutrient constituents), P-34 (low ionic strength constituents), and Hg-30 (mercury) -- that were distributed in March 2000 to 144 laboratories enrolled in the U.S. Geological Survey sponsored interlaboratory testing program. Analytical data that were received from 132 of the laboratories were evaluated with respect to overall laboratory performance and relative laboratory performance for each analyte in the six reference samples. Results of these evaluations are presented in tabular form. Also presented are tables and graphs summarizing the analytical data provided by each laboratory for each analyte in the six standard reference samples. The most probable value for each analyte was determined using nonparametric statistics.

  7. Results of the U. S. Geological Survey's analytical evaluation program for standard reference samples distributed in October 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Connor, B.F.; Currier, J.P.; Woodworth, M.T.

    2001-01-01

    This report presents the results of the U.S. Geological Survey's analytical evaluation program for six standard reference samples -- T-163 (trace constituents), M-156 (major constituents), N-67 (nutrient constituents), N-68 (nutrient constituents), P-35 (low ionic strength constituents), and Hg-31 (mercury) -- that were distributed in October 2000 to 126 laboratories enrolled in the U.S. Geological Survey sponsored interlaboratory testing program. Analytical data that were received from 122 of the laboratories were evaluated with respect to overall laboratory performance and relative laboratory performance for each analyte in the six reference samples. Results of these evaluations are presented in tabular form. Also presented are tables and graphs summarizing the analytical data provided by each laboratory for each analyte in the six standard reference samples. The most probable value for each analyte was determined using nonparametric statistics.

  8. Results of the U. S. Geological Survey's analytical evaluation program for standard reference samples distributed in April 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodworth, M.T.; Connor, B.F.

    2001-01-01

    This report presents the results of the U.S. Geological Survey's analytical evaluation program for six standard reference samples -- T-165 (trace constituents), M-158 (major constituents), N-69 (nutrient constituents), N-70 (nutrient constituents), P-36 (low ionic-strength constituents), and Hg-32 (mercury) -- that were distributed in April 2001 to laboratories enrolled in the U.S. Geological Survey sponsored interlaboratory testing program. Analytical data received from 73 laboratories were evaluated with respect to overall laboratory performance and relative laboratory performance for each analyte in the six reference samples. Results of these evaluations are presented in tabular form. Also presented are tables and graphs summarizing the analytical data provided by each laboratory for each analyte in the six standard reference samples. The most probable value for each analyte was determined using nonparametric statistics.

  9. Results of the U.S. Geological Survey's Analytical Evaluation Program for standard reference samples distributed in March 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farrar, Jerry W.; Chleboun, Kimberly M.

    1999-01-01

    This report presents the results of the U.S. Geological Survey's analytical evaluation program for 8 standard reference samples -- T-157 (trace constituents), M-150 (major constituents), N-61 (nutrient constituents), N-62 (nutrient constituents), P-32 (low ionic strength constituents), GWT-5 (ground-water trace constituents), GWM- 4 (ground-water major constituents),and Hg-28 (mercury) -- that were distributed in March 1999 to 120 laboratories enrolled in the U.S. Geological Survey sponsored interlaboratory testing program. Analytical data that were received from 111 of the laboratories were evaluated with respect to overall laboratory performance and relative laboratory performance for each analyte in the seven reference samples. Results of these evaluations are presented in tabular form. Also presented are tables and graphs summarizing the analytical data provided by each laboratory for each analyte in the 8 standard reference samples. The most probable value for each analyte was determined using nonparametric statistics.

  10. Results of the U.S. Geological Survey's analytical evaluation program for standard reference samples distributed in September 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodworth, Mark T.; Connor, Brooke F.

    2003-01-01

    This report presents the results of the U.S. Geological Survey's analytical evaluation program for six standard reference samples -- T-171 (trace constituents), M-164 (major constituents), N-75 (nutrient constituents), N-76 (nutrient constituents), P-39 (low ionic-strength constituents), and Hg-35 (mercury) -- that were distributed in September 2002 to laboratories enrolled in the U.S. Geological Survey sponsored interlaboratory testing program. Analytical data received from 102 laboratories were evaluated with respect to overall laboratory performance and relative laboratory performance for each analyte in the six reference samples. Results of these evaluations are presented in tabular form. Also presented are tables and graphs summarizing the analytical data provided by each laboratory for each analyte in the six standard reference samples. The most probable value for each analyte was determined using nonparametric statistics.

  11. Results of the U.S. Geological Survey's analytical evaluation program for standard reference samples distributed in March 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodworth, Mark T.; Connor, Brooke F.

    2003-01-01

    This report presents the results of the U.S. Geological Survey's analytical evaluation program for six standard reference samples -- T-173 (trace constituents), M-166 (major constituents), N-77 (nutrient constituents), N-78 (nutrient constituents), P-40 (low ionic-strength constituents), and Hg-36 (mercury) -- that were distributed in March 2003 to laboratories enrolled in the U.S. Geological Survey sponsored interlaboratory testing program. Analytical data received from 110 laboratories were evaluated with respect to overall laboratory performance and relative laboratory performance for each analyte in the six reference samples. Results of these evaluations are presented in tabular form. Also presented are tables and graphs summarizing the analytical data provided by each laboratory for each analyte in the six standard reference samples. The most probable value for each analyte was determined using nonparametric statistics.

  12. Results of the U.S. Geological Survey's analytical evaluation program for standard reference samples distributed in September 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodworth, Mark T.; Connor, Brooke F.

    2002-01-01

    This report presents the results of the U.S. Geological Survey's analytical evaluation program for six standard reference samples -- T-167 (trace constituents), M-160 (major constituents), N-71 (nutrient constituents), N-72 (nutrient constituents), P-37 (low ionic-strength constituents), and Hg-33 (mercury) -- that were distributed in September 2001 to laboratories enrolled in the U.S. Geological Survey sponsored interlaboratory testing program. Analytical data received from 98 laboratories were evaluated with respect to overall laboratory performance and relative laboratory performance for each analyte in the six reference samples. Results of these evaluations are presented in tabular form. Also presented are tables and graphs summarizing the analytical data provided by each laboratory for each analyte in the six standard reference samples. The most probable value for each analyte was determined using nonparametric statistics.

  13. Results of the U.S. Geological Survey's analytical evaluation program for standard reference samples distributed in October 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farrar, T.W.

    2000-01-01

    This report presents the results of the U.S. Geological Survey's analytical evaluation program for six standard reference samples -- T-159 (trace constituents), M-152 (major constituents), N-63 (nutrient constituents), N-64 (nutrient constituents), P-33 (low ionic strength constituents), and Hg-29 (mercury) -- that were distributed in October 1999 to 149 laboratories enrolled in the U.S. Geological Survey sponsored interlaboratory testing program. Analytical data that were received from 131 of the laboratories were evaluated with respect to overall laboratory performance and relative laboratory performance for each analyte in the six reference samples. Results of these evaluations are presented in tabular form. Also presented are tables and graphs summarizing the analytical data provided by each laboratory for each analyte in the six standard reference samples. The most probable value for each analyte was determined using nonparametric statistics.

  14. Results of the U. S. Geological Survey's Analytical Evaluation Program for Standard Reference Samples Distributed in March 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodworth, M.T.; Conner, B.F.

    2002-01-01

    This report presents the results of the U.S. Geological Survey's analytical evaluation program for six standard reference samples -- T- 169 (trace constituents), M- 162 (major constituents), N-73 (nutrient constituents), N-74 (nutrient constituents), P-38 (low ionic-strength constituents), and Hg-34 (mercury) -- that were distributed in March 2002 to laboratories enrolled in the U.S. Geological Survey sponsored intedaboratory testing program. Analytical data received from 93 laboratories were evaluated with respect to overall laboratory performance and relative laboratory performance for each analyte in the six reference samples. Results of these evaluations are presented in tabular form. Also presented are tables and graphs summarizing the analytical data provided by each laboratory for each analyte in the six standard reference samples. The most probable value for each analyte was determined using nonparametric statistics.

  15. Quality-Assurance Plan for Water-Quality Activities of the U.S. Geological Survey in Miami, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lietz, A. C., (compiler)

    2003-01-01

    In accordance with guidelines set forth by the Office of Water Quality in the Water Resources Discipline of the U.S. Geological Survey, a quality-assurance plan has been created for use by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in Miami to conduct water-quality activities. This quality-assurance plan documents the standards, policies, and procedures used by the Miami USGS for activities related to the collection, processing, storage, analysis, and publication of water-quality data. The policies and procedures that are documented in this quality-assurance plan for water-quality activities are meant to complement the Miami USGS quality-assurance plans for surface-water and ground-water activities.

  16. Bibliography of selected water-resources publications by the U.S. Geological Survey for North Carolina, 1886-1995

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winner, M.D., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    More than 660 selected publications, written by scientists, engineers, and technicians of the U.S. Geological Survey during the period 1886-1995, compose the bulk of information about North Carolina?s water resources. The bibliography includes interpretive reports on water resources, ground water, surface water, water quality, and public-water supply and water use, as well as data reports on the same subjects. The interpretive reports are organized by geographic areas of the State. These areas include statewide, physiographic province, major river basin, and county. The data reports are listed by water-resource topic, and the introduction to each topic provides historical notes for data-collection and publication activities. Summary tables list Water-Supply Paper numbers for reports containing ground-water, surface-water, and water-quality data by calendar year or water year. A concluding section discusses the availability of U.S. Geological Survey publications.

  17. U.S. Geological Survey DLG-3 and Bureau of the Census TIGER data. Development and GIS applications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Batten, Lawrence G.

    1990-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has been actively developing digital cartographic and geographic data and standards since the early 1970's. One product is Digital Line Graph data, which offer a consistently accurate source of base category geographic information. The Bureau of the Census has combined their Dual Independent Map Encoding data with the Geological Survey's 1:100,000-scale Digital Line Graph data to prepare for the 1990 decennial census. The resulting Topologically Integrated Geographic Encoding and Referencing data offer a wealth of information. A major area of research using these data is in transportation analysis. The attributes associated with Digital Line Graphs can be used to determine the average travel times along each segment. Geographic information system functions can then be used to optimize routes through the network and to generate street name lists. Additional aspects of the subject are discussed.

  18. U.S. Geological Survey urban-stormwater data base for 22 metropolitan areas throughout the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Driver, N.E.

    1985-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has been collecting urban rainfall, runoff, and water-quality data nationally for several decades. These data have been stored in many data bases and locations. A collective urban-stormwater data base has now been assembled on magnetic tape and contains data from the U.S. Geological Survey 's urban-stormwater program, that includes data from the Nationwide Urban Runoff Program. Stations having simultaneous rainfall, runoff, and water-quality data were selected for the data base. Rigorous quality-assurance procedures were followed to ensure that the data were of good quality. The resultant data base contains information for 723 storms from 99 stations in 22 metropolitan areas throughout the United States. Data for five or more storms are available for about two-thirds of the stations. This data base is available to the public in standardized format on magnetic tape. This publication explains the content and format of the tape. (USGS)

  19. A drug use survey among clients of harm reduction sites across British Columbia, Canada, 2012

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In British Columbia (BC), understanding of high-risk drug use trends is largely based on survey and cohort study data from two major cities, which may not be representative of persons who use drugs in other regions. Harm reduction stakeholders, representing each of the five geographic health regions in BC, identified a need for data on drug use to inform local and regional harm reduction activities across the province. The aims of this project were to (1) develop a drug use survey that could be feasibly administered at harm reduction (HR) sites across all health regions and (2) assess the data for differences in reported drug use frequencies by region. Methods A pilot survey focusing on current drug use was developed with stakeholders and administered among clients at 28 HR supply distribution sites across the province by existing staff and peers. Data were collated and analysed using univariate and bivariate descriptive statistics to assess differences in reported drug use frequencies by geography. A post-survey evaluation was conducted to assess acceptability and feasibility of the survey process for participating sites. Results Crack cocaine, heroin, and morphine were the most frequently reported drugs with notable regional differences. Polysubstance use was common among respondents (70%) with one region having 81% polysubstance use. Respondents surveyed in or near their region's major centre were more likely to report having used crack cocaine (p < 0.0001) and heroin (p < 0.0001) in the past week as compared to those residing >50 km from the major centre. Participants accessing services >50 km from the regional centre were more likely to have used morphine (p < 0.0001). There was no difference in powder cocaine use by client/site proximity to the regional centre. Participating sites found the survey process acceptable, feasible to administer annually, and useful for responding to client needs. Conclusions The survey was a feasible way

  20. Health-based screening levels to evaluate U.S. Geological Survey ground water quality data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Toccalino, P.L.; Norman, J.E.

    2006-01-01

    Federal and state drinking-water standards and guidelines do not exist for many contaminants analyzed by the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program, limiting the ability to evaluate the potential human-health relevance of water-quality findings. Health-based screening levels (HBSLs) were developed collaboratively to supplement existing drinking-water standards and guidelines as part of a six-year, multi-agency pilot study. The pilot study focused on ground water samples collected prior to treatment or blending in areas of New Jersey where groundwater is the principal source of drinking water. This article describes how HBSLs were developed and demonstrates the use of HBSLs as a tool for evaluating water-quality data in a human-health context. HBSLs were calculated using standard U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) methodologies and toxicity information. New HBSLs were calculated for 12 of 32 contaminants without existing USEPA drinking-water standards or guidelines, increasing the number of unregulated contaminants (those without maximum contaminant levels (MCLs)) with human-health benchmarks. Concentrations of 70 of the 78 detected contaminants with human-health benchmarks were less than MCLs or HBSLs, including all 12 contaminants with new HBSLs, suggesting that most contaminant concentrations were not of potential human-health concern. HBSLs were applied to a state-scale groundwater data set in this study, but HBSLs also may be applied to regional and national evaluations of water-quality data. HBSLs fulfill a critical need for federal, state, and local agencies, water utilities, and others who seek tools for evaluating the occurrence of contaminants without drinking-water standards or guidelines. ?? 2006 Society for Risk Analysis.

  1. US Geological Survey research on the environmental fate of uranium mining and milling wastes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landa, E.R.; Gray, J.R.

    1995-01-01

    Studies by the US Geological Survey (USGS) of uranium mill tailings (UMT) have focused on characterizing the forms in which radionuclides are retained and identifying factors influencing the release of radionuclides to air and water. Selective extraction studies and studies of radionuclide sorption by and leaching from components of UMT showed alkaline earth sulfate and hydrous ferric oxides to be important hosts of radium-226 (226Ra) in UMT. Extrapolating from studies of barite dissolution in anerobic lake sediments, the leaching of 226Ra from UMT by sulfate-reducing bacteria was investigated; a marked increase in 226Ra release to aqueous solution as compared to sterile controls was demonstrated. A similar action of iron(III)-reducing bacteria was later shown. Ion exchangers such as clay minerals can also promote the dissolution of host-phase minerals and thereby influence the fate of radionuclides such as 226Ra. Radon release studies examined particle size and ore composition as variables. Aggregation of UMT particles was shown to mask the higher emanating fraction of finer particles. Studies of various ores and ore components showed that UMT cannot be assumed to have the same radon-release characteristics as their precursor ores, nor can 226Ra retained by various substrates be assumed to emanate the same fraction of radon. Over the last decade, USGS research directed at offsite mobility of radionuclides from uranium mining and milling processes has focused on six areas: the Midnite Mine in Washington; Ralston Creek and Reservoir, Colorado; sites near Canon City, Colorado; the Monument Valley District of Arizona and Utah; the Cameron District of Arizona; and the Puerco River basin of Arizona and New Mexico.

  2. U.S. Geological Survey Science Strategy for the Wyoming Landscape Conservation Initiative

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowen, Zachary H.; Aldridge, Cameron L.; Anderson, Patrick J.; Chong, Geneva W.; Drummond, Mark A.; Homer, Collin G.; Johnson, Ronald C.; Kauffman, Matthew J.; Knick, Steven T.; Kosovich, John J.; Miller, Kirk A.; Owens, Tom; Shafer, Sarah L.; Sweat, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    Southwest Wyoming's wildlife and habitat resources are increasingly affected by energy and urban/exurban development, climate change, and other key drivers of ecosystem change. To ensure that southwest Wyoming's wildlife populations and habitats persist in the face of development and other changes, a consortium of public resource-management agencies proposed the Wyoming Landscape Conservation Initiative (WLCI), the overall goal of which is to implement conservation actions. As the principal agency charged with conducting WLCI science, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has developed a Science Strategy for the WLCI. Workshops were held for all interested parties to identify and refine the most pressing management needs for achieving WLCI goals. Research approaches for addressing those needs include developing conceptual models for understanding ecosystem function, identifying key drivers of change affecting WLCI ecosystems, and conducting scientific monitoring and experimental studies to better understand ecosystems processes, cumulative effects of change, and effectiveness of habitat treatments. The management needs drive an iterative, three-phase framework developed for structuring and growing WLCI science efforts: Phase I entails synthesizing existing information to assess current conditions, determining what is already known about WLCI ecosystems, and providing a foundation for future work; Phase II entails conducting targeted research and monitoring to address gaps in data and knowledge during Phase I; and Phase III entails integrating new knowledge into WLCI activities and coordinating WLCI partners and collaborators. Throughout all three phases, information is managed and made accessible to interested parties and used to guide and improve management and conservation actions, future habitat treatments, best management practices, and other conservation activities.

  3. Optimal mapping of terrestrial gamma dose rates using geological parent material and aerogeophysical survey data.

    PubMed

    Rawlins, B G; Scheib, C; Tyler, A N; Beamish, D

    2012-12-01

    Regulatory authorities need ways to estimate natural terrestrial gamma radiation dose rates (nGy h⁻¹) across the landscape accurately, to assess its potential deleterious health effects. The primary method for estimating outdoor dose rate is to use an in situ detector supported 1 m above the ground, but such measurements are costly and cannot capture the landscape-scale variation in dose rates which are associated with changes in soil and parent material mineralogy. We investigate the potential for improving estimates of terrestrial gamma dose rates across Northern Ireland (13,542 km²) using measurements from 168 sites and two sources of ancillary data: (i) a map based on a simplified classification of soil parent material, and (ii) dose estimates from a national-scale, airborne radiometric survey. We used the linear mixed modelling framework in which the two ancillary variables were included in separate models as fixed effects, plus a correlation structure which captures the spatially correlated variance component. We used a cross-validation procedure to determine the magnitude of the prediction errors for the different models. We removed a random subset of 10 terrestrial measurements and formed the model from the remainder (n = 158), and then used the model to predict values at the other 10 sites. We repeated this procedure 50 times. The measurements of terrestrial dose vary between 1 and 103 (nGy h⁻¹). The median absolute model prediction errors (nGy h⁻¹) for the three models declined in the following order: no ancillary data (10.8) > simple geological classification (8.3) > airborne radiometric dose (5.4) as a single fixed effect. Estimates of airborne radiometric gamma dose rate can significantly improve the spatial prediction of terrestrial dose rate. PMID:23147566

  4. Neutronic and thermal hydraulic analysis of the Geological Survey TRIGA Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shugart, Nicolas

    The United States Geological Survey TRIGA Reactor (GSTR) is a 1 MW reactor located in Lakewood, Colorado. In support of the GSTR's relicensing efforts, this project developed and validated a Monte Carlo N-Particle Version 5 (MCNP5) model of the GSTR reactor. The model provided estimates of the excess reactivity, power distribution and the fuel temperature, water temperature, void, and power reactivity coefficients for the current and limiting core. The MCNP5 model predicts a limiting core excess reactivity of 6.48 with a peak rod power of 22.2 kW. The fuel and void reactivity coefficients for the limiting core are strongly negative, and the core water reactivity coefficient is slightly positive, consistent with other TRIGA analyses. The average fuel temperature reactivity coefficient of the full power limiting core is -0.0135 /K while the average core void coefficient is -0.069 /K from 0-20 % void. The core water temperature reactivity coefficient is +0.012 /K. Following the neutronics analysis, the project developed RELAP5 and PARET-ANL models of the GSTR hot-rod fuel channel under steady state and transient conditions. The GSTR limiting core, determined as part of this analysis, provides a worst case operating scenario for the reactor. During steady state operations, the hot rod of the limiting core has a peak fuel temperature of 829 K and a minimum departure from nucleate boiling ratio of 2.16. After a $3.00 pulse reactivity insertion the fuel reaches a peak temperature is 1070 K. Examining the model results several seconds after a pulse reveals flow instabilities that result from weaknesses in the current two-channel model.

  5. Mercury in U.S. coal—Priorities for new U.S. Geological Survey studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kolker, Allan

    2016-01-01

    In 2011, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) introduced emissions standards, known as Mercury and Air Toxics Standards (MATS), for a range of toxic constituents from coal-fired utility power stations and other combustion sources. This report presents the findings of an expert panel convened in September 2014 to assess the role of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in new coal investigations that would be useful to stakeholders under MATS. Panel input is provided as summaries of responses to a questionnaire distributed to participants. The panel suggests that the USGS continue its work on trace elements in coal and include more information about delivered coals and boiler feed coals, in comparison to previous USGS compilations that emphasized sampling representative of coals in the ground. To be useful under multipollutant regulatory standards, investigation of a range of constituents in addition to mercury would be necessary. These include other toxic metals proposed for regulation, such as arsenic, nickel, cadmium, and chromium, as well as the halogens chlorine and fluorine, which upon emission form harmful acid gases. Halogen determinations are also important because they influence mercury speciation in flue gas, which allows the effectiveness of mercury controls to be assessed and predicted. The panel suggests that the Illinois Basin and the Powder River Basin should have the highest priority for new coal quality investigations in the near term by the USGS, on the basis of current economic conditions and overall economic importance, respectively. As a starting point for new investigations, brief summaries of the distribution of mercury in each coal basin, and their potential for further investigation, are presented.

  6. MODFLOW-2000, The U.S. Geological Survey Modular Ground-Water Model -- GMG Linear Equation Solver Package Documentation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, John D.; Naff, Richard L.

    2004-01-01

    A geometric multigrid solver (GMG), based in the preconditioned conjugate gradient algorithm, has been developed for solving systems of equations resulting from applying the cell-centered finite difference algorithm to flow in porous media. This solver has been adapted to the U.S. Geological Survey ground-water flow model MODFLOW-2000. The documentation herein is a description of the solver and the adaptation to MODFLOW-2000.

  7. Results and Interpretations of U.S. Geological Survey Data Collected In and Around the Tuba City Open Dump, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Raymond H.; Otton, James K.; Horton, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    This Open-File Report was originally an Administrative Report presentation to the Bureau of Indian Affairs based on U.S. Geological Survey data that has been collected and presented in four previous reports (Open-File Reports 2009-1020, 2008-1380, and 2008-1374, and an Administrative Report on geophysical data). This presentation was given at a technical meeting requested by the BIA on March 3 and 4, 2009, in Phoenix, Arizona. The idea for this meeting was for all the technical people working on issues related to the Tuba City Open Dump site to come together and share their data collection procedures, results, interpretations, and working hypotheses. The meeting goal was to have a clear record of each party's interpretations and a summary of additional data that would be needed to solve differences of opinion. The intention of this presentation is not to provide an exhaustive summary of U.S. Geological Survey efforts at the Tuba City Open Dump site given in the four previously published Open-File Reports listed above, since these reports have already been made available. This presentation briefly summarizes the data collected for those reports and provides results, interpretations, and working hypotheses relating to the data available in these reports. The major questions about the Tuba City Open Dump addressed by the U.S. Geological Survey are (1) what are the sources for uranium and other constituents found in the ground water in and around the Tuba City Open Dump, (2) what is the current distribution of ground water contaminants away from the Tuba City Open Dump (can plume limits be delineated), and (3) what controls the mobility of uranium and other constituents in and around the Tuba City Open Dump? Data collection, results, and interpretations by the U.S. Geological Survey that address these questions are presented herein.

  8. Selected reports of the U.S. Geological Survey on Water Resources in Mississippi, 1990-96

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moss, Carol P.

    1996-01-01

    Results of water-resources data-collection programs and interpretive hydrologic studies conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) are published in reports and are made available to universities, State and local agencies, other Federal agencies, and the public. The following is a list of selected USGS reports on water resources in Mississippi published since 1990 and categorized according to the major emphasis of the report; these reports are available for inspection at the Mississippi District Office in Pearl, Mississippi.

  9. Paratuberculosis on small ruminant dairy farms in Ontario, Canada: A survey of management practices.

    PubMed

    Bauman, Cathy A; Jones-Bitton, Andria; Menzies, Paula; Jansen, Jocelyn; Kelton, David

    2016-05-01

    A cross-sectional study was undertaken (October 2010 to August 2011) to determine the risk factors for dairy goat herds and dairy sheep flocks testing positive for paratuberculosis (PTB) in Ontario, Canada. A questionnaire was administered to 50 producers during a farm visit in which concurrently, 20 randomly selected, lactating animals over the age of 2 years underwent sampling for paratuberculosis testing. Only 1 of 50 farms (2.0%) was closed to animal movement, whereas 96.6% of dairy goat farms and 94.1% of sheep farms purchased livestock from other producers. Only 10.3% of dairy goat, and no dairy sheep farms used artificial insemination. Manure was spread on grazing pastures by 65.5% and 70.6% of dairy goat and dairy sheep farms, respectively. Because of the high true-prevalence of paratuberculosis infection detected, no risk factor analysis could be performed. This study demonstrates that biosecurity practices conducive to transmission of PTB are highly prevalent in Ontario small ruminant dairy farms. PMID:27152042

  10. A Regional Guide to Iowa Landforms. Iowa Geological Survey Educational Series 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prior, Jean Cutler

    Presented is a non-technical account of the geological appearance and history of the state of Iowa. Included are Iowa's landscape features, geologic events, and processes that shaped the landscape. Maps and numerous illustrations picture the events and landforms described. Each of the state's seven principal landform regions is discussed in…

  11. Waterborne and on-land electrical surveys to suggest the geological evolution of a glacial lake in NW Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colombero, Chiara; Comina, Cesare; Gianotti, Franco; Sambuelli, Luigi

    2014-06-01

    Geophysical surveys on and around the Candia Lake, located NE of Turin (NW Italy), in the internal depression of the Ivrea Morainic Amphitheater (IMA) right frontal sector, are reported in this paper. The surveys were intended to obtain a geophysical characterization of the lakebed, to investigate the interconnection paths between surface water and groundwater and to be used as a first general survey for suggesting the geological processes which lead to the actual morphology. An extensive waterborne continuous vertical electrical sounding (CVES) survey consisting of 15 profiles, with a total length of about 19 km of acquisition, was carried out on the lake surface. The processing of the acquired profiles with a laterally constrained inversion (LCI) approach lead to the reconstruction of the lakebed sediment distribution, down to 10 m depth. Self potential (SP) data recorded on the lake surface have also been analyzed. Moreover, to verify the areal distribution of the deposits, three electrical resistivity tomographies (ERTs) were carried out on land near the northern and southern shores of the lake. The combination of the geophysical survey results with hydrogeological information and geological observations and interpretations allowed the characterization of the submerged deposits, the probable identification of the main areas of groundwater recharge and the preliminary reconstruction of the lake genesis.

  12. Fold-related-fracturing at the Livingstone River anticline (AB; Canada) by coupling field surveying and numerical modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humair, Florian; Epard, Jean-Luc; Bauville, Arthur; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Pana, Dinu; Kaus, Boris; Schmalholz, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    The interpretation of fold-related joints and faults is of primary importance in terms of fluids prospection (e.g. water, oil, gas, C02) since anticlines are potential structural trap while fracturing can strongly influence the storage capacity as well as the migration pathways. Located at the front of the Foothills of the Rocky Mountains in Alberta (Canada), the Livingstone Range (LRA) is analogous to hydrocarbon reservoir that occur elsewhere in the Foothills (Cooley et al., 2011). The Livingstone Range fold system is related to the development of the Livingstone thrust that cuts around 1000m up-section from a regional decollement in the Palliser Formation (Devonian) to another in the Fernie Formation (Jurassic). Our study focuses on the detailed structural investigation of the Livingstone River anticline (northern part of the LRA). It aims at characterizing the anticline geometry as well as the fracturing pattern (orientation, mode, infilling, spacing, trace length, density, and cross-cutting relationships) in order to propose a kinematic interpretation of the fold-related fracturing genesis. The study area is investigated at different scales by combining field surveys with remote sensing (HR-Digital Elevation Model, Ground-based LiDAR, Gigapixel photography) and thin-sections analyses. In a second step we performed finite difference 3D numerical simulations in order to compute the evolution of local principal stress orientation during folding. We compared the fracture (or plastic bands) distribution in the field with 1) a dynamic numerical model of detachment folding; and 2) an instantaneous numerical model based on the final fold geometry. Cooley, M.A., Price, R.A., Dixon, J.M., Kyser, T.K. 2011. Along-strike variations and internal details of chevron-style flexural slip thrust-propagation folds within the southern Livingstone Range anticlinorium, a paleo-hydrocarbon reservoir in southern Alberta Foothills, Canada. AAPG bulletin, 95 (11), 1821-1849.

  13. Proceedings of a U.S. Geological Survey pressure-sensor Workshop, Denver, Colorado, July 28-31, 1992

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilbourn, Sammy L.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted a Pressure Sensor Workshop, oriented toward the measurement of stage in surface waters, in Denver, Colorado, July 28-31, 1992. Twenty attendees from the U.S. Geological Survey and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration gave presentations concerning their experiences with the use of pressure sensors in hydrologic investigations. This report is a compilation of the abstracts of the presentations made at the workshop. Workshop participants concluded that each of the sensors evaluated by the U.S. Geological Survey has strengths and weaknesses. Personnel contemplating the use of pressure sensors discussed at this workshop should contact workshop attendees and consult with them about their experiences with those sensors. The attendees preferred to use stilling wells with float-operated water-level sensors as the primary means for monitoring water levels. However, pressure sensor systems were favored as replacements for mercury manometers and as alternatives to stilling wells at sites where stilling wells are not practical or cost effective.

  14. First seismic survey of Lake Saint-Jean (Québec, Canada): sedimentary record of the last deglaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nutz, Alexis; Schuster, Mathieu; Ghienne, Jean-François; Raphaël, Certain; Nicolas, Robin; Claude, Roquin; Frédéric, Bouchette; Cousineau Pierre, A.

    2015-04-01

    The general post-glacial evolution of the Lake Saint-Jean region (Canada/Québec) was, until now, only known from onshore studies (outcrops and geomorphology). Because this lake corresponds to sediment depocentre since the area is ice free (latest Pleistocene and the entire Holocene), a comprehensive sedimentary archive could be expected from this area. As a consequence, the offshore archives of Lake Saint-Jean leave a basic, but crucial, question: can the transition from glacial to post-glacial periods be deciphered? The stratigraphy of the last deglacial sequence is investigated in Lake Saint-Jean (Québec, Canada) from 300 km of echo-sounder 2D seismic profiles. The sedimentary archive of this basin is documented from the Late Pleistocene Laurentidian ice-front recession to the present-day situation. Ten seismic units have been identified that reflect spatio-temporal variations in depositional processes characterizing different periods of the Lake Saint-Jean basin evolution. During the postglacial marine flooding, a high deposition rate of mud settling, from proglacial glacimarine and then prodeltaic plumes in the Laflamme Gulf, produced an extensive, up to 50 m thick mud sheet draping the isostatically depressed marine basin floor. Subsequently, closing of the water body due to glacio-isostatic rebound that occurred at 8.5 cal. ka BP and ice-sheet retreat outside the Saint-Jean catchment at 7.5 cal. ka BP drastically modify the hydrodynamics and sedimentation. Hyperpycnal flows appeared because fresh lake water replaced dense marine water. River sediments were transferred towards the deeper part of the lake into river-related confined lobes. The water body is also marked by the onset of a wind-driven internal circulation associating wave-related hydrodynamics and bottom currents with sedimentary features including shoreface deposits, sediment drifts, a sedimentary shelf and important erosional surfaces. The Lake Saint-Jean reveals important diversity and

  15. THE CANADA-FRANCE HIGH-z QUASAR SURVEY: NINE NEW QUASARS AND THE LUMINOSITY FUNCTION AT REDSHIFT 6

    SciTech Connect

    Willott, Chris J.; Crampton, David; Hutchings, John B.; Schade, David; Delorme, Philippe; Reyle, Celine; Albert, Loic; Bergeron, Jacqueline; Omont, Alain; Delfosse, Xavier; Forveille, Thierry; McLure, Ross J.

    2010-03-15

    We present discovery imaging and spectroscopy for nine new z {approx} 6 quasars found in the Canada-France High-z Quasar Survey (CFHQS) bringing the total number of CFHQS quasars to 19. By combining the CFHQS with the more luminous Sloan Digital Sky Survey sample, we are able to derive the quasar luminosity function from a sample of 40 quasars at redshifts 5.74 < z < 6.42. Our binned luminosity function shows a slightly lower normalization and flatter slope than found in previous work. The binned data also suggest a break in the luminosity function at M {sub 1450} {approx} -25. A double power-law maximum likelihood fit to the data is consistent with the binned results. The luminosity function is strongly constrained (1{sigma} uncertainty <0.1 dex) over the range -27.5 < M {sub 1450} < -24.7. The best-fit parameters are {phi}(M*{sub 1450}) = 1.14 x 10{sup -8} Mpc{sup -3} mag{sup -1}, break magnitude M*{sub 1450} = -25.13, and bright end slope {beta} = -2.81. However, the covariance between {beta} and M*{sub 1450} prevents strong constraints being placed on either parameter. For a break magnitude in the range -26 < M*{sub 1450} < -24, we find -3.8 < {beta} < -2.3 at 95% confidence. We calculate the z = 6 quasar intergalactic ionizing flux and show it is between 20 and 100 times lower than that necessary for reionization. Finally, we use the luminosity function to predict how many higher redshift quasars may be discovered in future near-IR imaging surveys.

  16. A microbiological survey of selected Alberta-grown fresh produce from farmers' markets in Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Bohaychuk, V M; Bradbury, R W; Dimock, R; Fehr, M; Gensler, G E; King, R K; Rieve, R; Romero Barrios, P

    2009-02-01

    Previously there was no available information on the levels of indicator bacteria and the prevalence of pathogens in fresh produce grown in Alberta, Canada. Baseline information on the occurrence and levels of Escherichia coli and the prevalence of foodborne pathogens in selected produce items available to consumers from farmers' and public markets in two large urban centers and surrounding areas in Alberta was obtained. A total of 10 large markets with between 1 and 12 produce vendors and 26 small markets with between 1 and 6 produce vendors were sampled from 21 June to 7 October 2007. Lettuce (128 samples), spinach (59 samples), tomatoes (120 samples), carrots (206 samples), green onions (129 samples), and strawberries (31 samples) were analyzed for E. coli, Salmonella, E. coli O157:H7, and Campylobacter spp. Lettuce, spinach, green onion, and strawberry samples were also tested for the presence of Cryptosporidium spp. Information on whether produce was grown using organic or conventional practices was obtained from the produce vendors. E. coli was isolated from 8.2% of the samples that included lettuce, spinach, carrots, and green onions. The bacterial counts ranged from <0.48 to >3.04 Log most probable number per g. E. coli was not isolated from tomatoes or strawberries. The percentage of positive samples ranged from 4.4% for carrots to 27.1% for spinach. Salmonella, E. coli O157:H7, and Campylobacter spp. were not isolated from any of the samples. Cryptosporidium was identified by PCR in one sample of spinach (0.6% of the samples). PMID:19350990

  17. Survey of bottled drinking water sold in Canada. Part 2. Selected volatile organic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Page, B.D.; Conacher, H.B.S.; Salminen, J.

    1993-01-01

    Selected volatile organic compound (VOC) contaminants were determined in 182 samples of retail bottled waters purchased in Canada. Samples included spring water (86) packaged in containers of polyethylene or in smaller containers of transparent plastic or glass, mineral water (61) packaged only in transparent plastic or glass, and miscellaneous bottled waters (35). Analyses were performed by 3 laboratories, each using headspace sampling and capillary gas chromatography with either mass spectrometric (1 laboratory) or flame ionization detection with mass spectrometric confirmation, if required (2 laboratories). Benzene, the contaminant of primary interest, was detected in only 1 of the 182 samples at 2 {mu}g/kg. Other VOC contaminants detected (number of positive samples, average, and range of positives in {mu}g/kg) included toluene (20, 6.92, 0.5-63), cyclohexane (23, 39.2, 3-108), chloroform (12, 25.8, 3.7-70), and dichloromethane (4, 59, 22-97). Cyclohexane was found in the plastic and as a migrant from the plastic in 20 samples of spring water, but it was found in only 1 of 61 mineral water samples analyzed at only 3 {mu}g/kg/. Chloroform was found almost exclusively in samples that could have been obtained from public water supplies. It was not found in mineral water samples, but it was found in 1 spring water sample at 3.7 {mu}g/kg. The source of the toluene contamination was not known. Other VOCs detected include ethanol and limonene, associated with added flavoring; pentane, as a migrant from a foamed polystyrene cap liner; and 1,1,2,2-tetra-chloroethylene in a sample of demineralized water. 10 refs., 6 tabs.

  18. Surveys of rice sold in Canada for aflatoxins, ochratoxin A and fumonisins

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, J.; Pantazopoulos, P.; Tam, J.; Cavlovic, P.; Kwong, K.; Turcotte, A.-M.; Lau, B.P.-Y.; Scott, P.M.

    2011-01-01

    Approximately 200 samples of rice (including white, brown, red, black, basmati and jasmine, as well as wild rice) from several different countries, including the United States, Canada, Pakistan, India and Thailand, were analysed for aflatoxins, ochratoxin A (OTA) and fumonisins by separate liquid Chromatographic methods in two different years. The mean concentrations for aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) were 0.19 and 0.17 ng g−1 with respective positive incidences of 56% and 43% (≥ the limit of detection (LOD) of 0.002 ng g−1). Twenty-three samples analysed in the second year also contained aflatoxin B2 (AFB2) at levels ≥LOD of 0.002 ng g−1 The five most contaminated samples in each year contained 1.44–7.14 ng AFB1 g−1 (year 1) and 1.45–3.48 ng AFB1 g−1 (year 2); they were mostly basmati rice from India and Pakistan and black and red rice from Thailand. The average concentrations of ochratoxin A (OTA) were 0.05 and 0.005 ng g−1 in year 1 and year 2, respectively; incidences of samples containing ≥LOD of 0.05 ng g−1 were 43% and 1%, respectively, in the 2 years. All positive OTA results were confirmed by LC-MS/MS. For fumonisins, concentrations of fumonisin B1 (FB1) averaged 4.5 ng g−1 in 15 positive samples (≥0.7 ng g−1) from year 1 (n = 99); fumonisin B2 (FB2) and fumonisin B3 (FB3) were also present (≥1 ng g−1). In the second year there was only one positive sample (14 ng g−1 FB1) out of 100 analysed. All positive FB1 results were confirmed by LC-MS/MS. PMID:21623501

  19. Economic gas resources remain in western Canada Triassic plays

    SciTech Connect

    Dallaire, S.M.; Waghmare, R.R.; Roux, L.; Conn, R.F. )

    1994-12-12

    This article reviews the estimates of economic potential of the undiscovered natural gas resources estimated to exist in the Triassic System of the interior plains region of the Western Canada sedimentary basin. This work was recently released as Part 2 of Geological Survey of Canada (GSC) Bulletin 483. It is the second in a series of multidisciplinary studies reviewing the petroleum geology, discovered and undiscovered gas resources, and economic potential of natural gas in the Western Canada basin. Economic potential measures the portion of the undiscovered resource which can be expected to provide economic investment opportunities over the long term. By taking costs and other economic constraints into account, a more realistic estimate of the resources of commercial interest to industry is provided. Estimates of economic potential are also relevant in supply/demand forecasting, in the resource management mandates of governments and regulatory bodies, and in the strategic planning of transportation systems.

  20. Airborne Geophysical Surveys Illuminate the Geologic and Hydrothermal Framework of the Pilgrim Springs Geothermal Area, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McPhee, D. K.; Glen, J. M.; Bedrosian, P. A.

    2012-12-01

    An airborne magnetic and frequency-domain electromagnetic (EM) survey of the Pilgrim Springs geothermal area, located on the Seward Peninsula in west-central Alaska, delineates key structures controlling hydrothermal fluid flow. Hot springs, nearby thawed regions, and high lake temperatures are indicative of high heat flow in the region that is thought to be related to recent volcanism. By providing a region-wide geologic and geophysical framework, this work will provide informed decisions regarding drill-site planning and further our understanding of geothermal systems in active extensional basins. Helicopter magnetic and EM data were acquired using a Fugro RESOLVE system equipped with a high sensitivity cesium magnetometer and a multi-coil, multi-frequency EM system sensitive to the frequency range of 400-140,000 Hz. The survey was flown ~40 m above ground along flight lines spaced 0.2-0.4 km apart. Various derivative and filtering methods, including maximum horizontal gradient of the pseudogravity transformation of the magnetic data, are used to locate faults, contacts, and structural domains. A dominant northwest trending anomaly pattern characterizes the northeastern portion of the survey area between Pilgrim Springs and Hen and Chickens Mountain and may reflect basement structures. The area south of the springs, however, is dominantly characterized by east-west trending, range-front-parallel anomalies likely caused by late Cenozoic structures associated with the north-south extension that formed the basin. Regionally, the springs are characterized by a magnetic high punctuated by several east-west trending magnetic lows, the most prominent occurring directly over the springs. The lows may result from demagnetization of magnetic material along range-front parallel features that dissect the basin. We inverted in-phase and quadrature EM data along each profile using the laterally-constrained inversion of Auken et al. (2005). Data were inverted for 20-layer

  1. Geoscientific Vocabularies and Linked Data at The British Geological Survey - progress and pragmatism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCormick, T.; Heaven, R.

    2013-12-01

    The British Geological Survey makes extensive use of controlled vocabularies to promote standardisation and interoperability between its databases and other digital information systems. Many of our vocabularies are published and searchable at http://www.bgs.ac.uk/data/vocabularies/home.html/. There is a movement to ';open up' government data in both the US and UK. In the UK this is promoted by data.gov.uk. Some view linked data as the best way to share and connect disparate data, information and knowledge, in order to develop a ';Web of Data'. Linked data facilitate connections between data sets, and lower the barriers to accessing data that must otherwise be discovered and exploited using other methods. Recently there has been a rapid increase in the rate of publication of linked data, this increase currently being estimated at 300% per year. In the past 2 years we have undertaken a pilot study to publish some of our authoritative vocabularies as linked data. This study has focussed primarily on publishing BGS' 1:625 000 scale geologic map data for the UK, supported by development of linked data sets for: Earth materials - based on the BGS Rock Classification Scheme; lithostratigraphy - based on the BGS Lexicon of Named Rock Units; and geochronology - based on the International Commission on Stratigraphy. The BGS linked data sets are published at data.bgs.ac.uk. We have learned a number of lessons about the potential and limitations of linked data and associated technologies. We do not envisage SPARQL endpoints being the primary route for public access to linked data because the user would require technical knowledge of the data structure, and because it can be a security threat. Rather, SPARQL may lie behind a user-friendly API. Federated SPARQL queries that can interrogate distributed data sources are in reality too slow, and in practise the data sets would likely be combined in a single store. The data sets in our pilot study are all reasonably static and we

  2. Planetary GIS at the U.S. Geological Survey Astrogeology Science Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hare, T. M.; Skinner, J. A.; Fortezzo, C. M.; Gaddis, L. R.

    2015-06-01

    For the past 51 years, the USGS Astrogeology Science Center has been a resource for planetary geoscience, cartography, and remote sensing. In more recent years, we have supported GIS for planetary data integration, geologic mapping and analysis.

  3. Evaluating integration of inland bathymetry in the U.S. Geological Survey 3D Elevation Program, 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller-Corbett, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    Inland bathymetry survey collections, survey data types, features, sources, availability, and the effort required to integrate inland bathymetric data into the U.S. Geological Survey 3D Elevation Program are assessed to help determine the feasibility of integrating three-dimensional water feature elevation data into The National Map. Available data from wading, acoustic, light detection and ranging, and combined technique surveys are provided by the U.S. Geological Survey, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, and other sources. Inland bathymetric data accessed through Web-hosted resources or contacts provide useful baseline parameters for evaluating survey types and techniques used for collection and processing, and serve as a basis for comparing survey methods and the quality of results. Historically, boat-mounted acoustic surveys have provided most inland bathymetry data. Light detection and ranging techniques that are beneficial in areas hard to reach by boat, that can collect dense data in shallow water to provide comprehensive coverage, and that can be cost effective for surveying large areas with good water clarity are becoming more common; however, optimal conditions and techniques for collecting and processing light detection and ranging inland bathymetry surveys are not yet well defined.Assessment of site condition parameters important for understanding inland bathymetry survey issues and results, and an evaluation of existing inland bathymetry survey coverage are proposed as steps to develop criteria for implementing a useful and successful inland bathymetry survey plan in the 3D Elevation Program. These survey parameters would also serve as input for an inland bathymetry survey data baseline. Integration and interpolation techniques are important factors to consider in developing a robust plan; however, available survey data are usually in a triangulated irregular network format or other format compatible with

  4. U.S. Geological Survey science for the Wyoming Landscape Conservation Initiative: 2011 annual report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowen, Zachary H.; Aldridge, Cameron L.; Anderson, Patrick J.; Assal, Timothy J.; Biewick, Laura R.H.; Blecker, Steven W.; Boughton, Gregory K.; Carr, Natasha B.; Chalfoun, Anna D.; Chong, Geneva W.; Clark, Melanie L.; Diffendorfer, Jay E.; Fedy, Bradley C.; Foster, Katharine; Garman, Steven L.; Germaine, Stephanie; Hethcoat, Matthew G.; Holloway, JoAnn; Homer, Collin G.; Kauffman, Matthew J.; Keinath, Douglas; Latysh, Natalie; Manier, Daniel J.; McDougal, Robert R.; Melcher, Cynthia P.; Miller, Kirk A.; Montag, Jessica; Olexa, Edward M.; Potter, Christopher J.; Schell, Spencer; Shafer, Sarah L.; Smith, David B.; Stillings, Lisa L.; Sweat, Michael J.; Tuttle, Michele L.W.; Wilson, Anna B.

    2013-01-01

    This is the fourth report produced by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for the Wyoming Landscape Conservation Initiative (WLCI) to detail annual work activities. In FY2011, there were 37 ongoing, completed, or new projects conducted under the five major multi-disciplinary science and technical-assistance activities: (1) Baseline Synthesis, (2) Targeted Monitoring and Research, (3) Data and Information Management, (4) Integration and Coordination, and (5) Decisionmaking and Evaluation. The four new work activities were (1) development of the Western Energy Citation Clearinghouse, a Web-based energy-resource database of references for literature and on-line resources focused on energy development and its effects on natural resources; (2) a study to support the Sublette County Conservation District in ascertaining potential water-quality impacts to the New Fork River from energy development in the Pinedale Anticline Project Area; (3) a study to test the efficacy of blending high-frequency temporal data provided by Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensors and high-resolution Landsat data for providing the fine-resolution data required to evaluate habitat responses to management activities at the landscape level; and (4) a study to examine the seasonal water chemistry of Muddy Creek, including documenting salinity patterns and providing a baseline for assessing potential effects of energy and other development on water quality in the Muddy Creek watershed. Two work activities were completed in FY2011: (1) the assessment of rancher perceptions of energy development in Southwest Wyoming and (2) mapping aspen stands and conifer encroachment using classification and regression tree (CART) analysis for effectiveness monitoring. The USGS continued to compile data, develop geospatial products, and upgrade Web-based products in support of both individual and overall WLCI efforts, including (1) ranking and prioritizing proposed conservation projects, (2

  5. Creation of next generation U.S. Geological Survey topographic maps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Craun, Kari J.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is 2 years into a 3-year cycle to create new digital topographic map products for the conterminous United States from data acquired and maintained as part of The National Map databases. These products are in the traditional, USGS topographic quadrangle, 7.5-minute (latitude and longitude) cell format. The 3-year cycle was conceived to follow the acquisition of National Aerial Imagery Program (NAIP) orthorectified imagery, a key layer in the new product. In fiscal year (FY) 2009 (ending September 30, 2009), the first year of the 3-year cycle, the USGS produced 13,200 products. These initial products of the “Digital MapBeta” series had limited feature content, including only the NAIP image, some roads, geographic names, and grid and collar information. The products were created in layered georegistered Portable Document Format (PDF) files, allowing users with freely available Adobe® Reader® software to view, print, and perform simple Geographic Information System-like functions. In FY 2010 (ending September 30, 2010), the USGS produced 20,380 products. These products of the “US Topo” series added hydrography (surface water features), contours, and some boundaries. In FY 2011 (ending September 30, 2011), the USGS will complete the initial coverage with US Topo products and will add additional feature content to the maps. The design, development, and production associated with the US Topo products provide management and technical challenges for the USGS and its public and private sector partners. One challenge is the acquisition and maintenance of nationally consistent base map data from multiple sources. Another is the use of these data to create a consistent, current series of cartographic products that can be used by the broad spectrum of traditional topographic map users. Although the USGS and its partners have overcome many of these challenges, many, such as establishing and funding a sustainable base data

  6. Landscape Change Priorities at the U.S.Geological Survey, 2005-2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMahon, G.; Loveland, T. R.

    2004-12-01

    In February 2004 the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) convened a Science Planning Team with a charge to create a succinct strategy to define, organize, manage, and expand the scientific activities of the Geography Discipline over the next 10 years (2005-2015). Over the ensuing months the Team has held listening sessions in five cities, meeting with 150 scientists and science managers from inside and outside the USGS to gain understanding of the strategic science issues and opportunities for the Geography Discipline. In a draft of the science plan the Science Planning Team has identified 10 priority science goals in three areas of societal interest: landscape change, the societal impacts of landscape change, especially related to hazards, environment, and natural resources, and the development, management, and access to geospatial information. Landscape change is a primary focus of the strategy and includes goals to (1) describe and understand the status of the nation's land surface and how is it changing; (2) describe and understand the local, regional, national, and global drivers of change; (3) predict the likely landscape changes over the next 20-50 years; and (4) describe and understand the consequences of landscape change on human and environmental systems. The critical steps identified to realize these goals are: development of a land use history of North America; development of periodic assessments of land cover responses associated with regional to global drivers, including economic globalization; development of a local to regional-scale land cover forecasting capability; and assessment of biodiversity and habitat consequences associated with landscape changes at the boundaries between human settlements and less developed areas. In most cases successful outcomes associated with these actions will require collaboration with scientists from the USGS, other government agencies, universities, and non-governmental organizations. As part of the implementation of the

  7. The U.S. Geological Survey Earthquake Hazards Program Website: Summary of Recent and Ongoing Developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wald, L. A.; Zirbes, M.; Robert, S.; Wald, D.; Presgrace, B.; Earle, P.; Schwarz, S.; Haefner, S.; Haller, K.; Rhea, S.

    2003-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earthquake Hazards Program (EHP) website (http://earthquake.usgs.gov/) focuses on 1) earthquake reporting for informed decisions after an earthquake, 2) hazards information for informed decisions and planning before an earthquake, and 3) the basics of earthquake science to help the users of the information understand what is presented. The majority of website visitors are looking for information about current earthquakes in the U.S. and around the world, and the second most visited portion of the website are the education-related pages. People are eager for information, and they are most interested in "what's in my backyard?" Recent and future web developments are aimed at answering this question, making the information more relevant to users, and enabling users to more quickly and easily find the information they are looking for. Recent and/or current web developments include the new enhanced Recent Global Earthquakes and U.S. Earthquakes webpages, the Earthquake in the News system, the Rapid Accurate Tectonic Summaries (RATS), online Significant Earthquake Summary Posters (ESP's), and the U.S. Quaternary Fault & Fold Database, the details of which are covered individually in greater detail in this or other sessions. Future planned developments include a consistent look across all EHP webpages, an integrated one-stop-shopping earthquake notification (EQMail) subscription webpage, new navigation tabs, and a backend database allowing the user to search for earthquake information across all the various EHP websites (on different webservers) based on a topic or region. Another goal is to eventually allow a user to input their address (Zip Code?) and in return receive all the relevant EHP information (and links to more detailed information) such as closest fault, the last significant nearby earthquake, a local seismicity map, and a local hazard map, for example. This would essentially be a dynamic report based on the entered location

  8. U.S. Geological Survey Emerging Applications of Unmanned Aircraft Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutt, M. E.

    2012-12-01

    In anticipation of transforming the research methods and resource management techniques employed across the Department of the Interior, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Project Office is conducting missions using small UAS- sUAS platforms (<20 lbs.). The USGS is dedicated to expanding the use of sUAS technology in support of scientific, resource and land management missions. UAS technology is currently being used by USGS and our partners to monitor environmental conditions, analyze the impacts of climate change, respond to natural hazards, understand landscape change rates and consequences, conduct wildlife inventories and support related land management and law enforcement missions. Our ultimate goal is to support informed decision making by creating the opportunity, via UAS technology, to gain access to an increased level of persistent monitoring of earth surface processes (forest health conditions, wildfires, earthquake zones, invasive species, etc.) in areas that have been logistically difficult, cost prohibitive or technically impossible to obtain consistent, reliable, timely information. USGS is teaming with the Department of the Interior Aviation Management Directorate to ensure the safe and cost effective adoption of UAS technology. While the USGS is concentrating on operating sUAS, the immense value of increased flight time and more robust sensor capabilities available on larger platforms cannot be ignored. We are partnering with several groups including the Department of Homeland Security, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Department of Defense, and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration for access to data collected from their fleet of high altitude, long endurance (HALE) UAS. The HALE systems include state of the art sensors including Electro-Optical, Thermal Infrared and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR). The data being collected by High Altitude, Long Endurance (HALE) systems is can be routinely

  9. The U.S. Geological Survey coal assessment of the Gulf Coastal region, a progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Warwick, P.D.; Aubourg, C.E.; Crowley, S.S.

    1998-12-31

    The US Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting a comprehensive assessment of the major coal regions of the country. This program, known as the National Coal Resource Assessment (NCRA), is focused on five major coal-bearing regions in the country: the Appalachian basin, Illinois basin, Northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains, Colorado Plateau, and the Gulf Coast region. In this program, the authors are characterizing the quantity and quality of coals that are expected to be mined during the next 30 years. As part of this effort, they are conducting an evaluation of the stratigraphic setting, resource potential, and the quality of the lignites in five coal-producing areas within the Gulf Coast region. The results of these efforts will be a series of digital Geographic Information System (GIS) maps, text, and tables that will be published in a CD-ROM format. These products, along with a national summary CD-ROM, are expected to be completed by 1999. The assessment of the Gulf Coast region is focused primarily on four areas that are currently producing coal as shown in a figure. These areas are the: (1) Sabine area, which includes parts of northwest Louisiana and northeast Texas; (2) northeast Texas; (3) central Texas; and (4) south Texas. In addition, a fifth area in Mississippi has been evaluated because a new surface mine has been proposed for that area. The Gulf Coast coal region produces about 57 million short tons of coal annually from the states of Louisiana and Texas from Wilcox Group coals. The primary intervals of study for this project are the Wilcox Group (Paleocene-Eocene) and selected coal-producing intervals (such as the Eocene Jackson and Claiborne Groups, and Cretaceous Olmos Formation in south Texas) that are producing or have potential for producing coal in the near future. The objectives of this project are to provide high-quality, organized information and interpretations on the location, quality, and quantity of the coal to be mined in the Gulf

  10. Worldwide estimates of deep natural gas resources based on the U.S. Geological Survey World Petroleum Assessment 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dyman, T.S.; Crovelli, R.A.; Bartberger, C.E.; Takahashi, K.I.

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey recently assessed undiscovered conventional gas and oil resources in eight regions of the world outside the U.S. The resources assessed were those estimated to have the potential to be added to reserves within the next thirty years. This study is a worldwide analysis of the estimated volumes and distribution of deep (>4.5 km or about 15,000 ft), undiscovered conventional natural gas resources based on this assessment. Two hundred forty-six assessment units in 128 priority geologic provinces, 96 countries, and two jointly held areas were assessed using a probabilistic Total Petroleum System approach. Priority geologic provinces were selected from a ranking of 937 provinces worldwide. The U.S. Geological Survey World Petroleum Assessment Team did not assess undiscovered petroleum resources in the U.S. For this report, mean estimated volumes of deep conventional undiscovered gas resources in the U.S. are taken from estimates of 101 deep plays (out of a total of 550 conventional plays in the U.S.) from the U.S. Geological Survey's 1995 National Assessment of Oil and Gas Resources. A probabilistic method was designed to subdivide gas resources into depth slices using a median-based triangular probability distribution as a model for drilling depth to estimate the percentages of estimated gas resources below various depths. For both the World Petroleum Assessment 2000 and the 1995 National Assessment of Oil and Gas Resources, minimum, median, and maximum depths were assigned to each assessment unit and play; these depths were used in our analysis. Two-hundred seventy-four deep assessment units and plays in 124 petroleum provinces were identified for the U.S. and the world. These assessment units and plays contain a mean undiscovered conventional gas resource of 844 trillion cubic ft (Tcf) occuring at depths below 4.5 km. The deep undiscovered conventional gas resource (844 Tcf) is about 17% of the total world gas resource (4,928 Tcf) based on

  11. Resident research associateships, postdoctoral research awards 1989: opportunities for research at the U.S. Geological Survey, U.S. Department of the Interior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey; U.S. National Research Council

    1989-01-01

    The scientists of the U.S. Geological Survey are engaged in a wide range of geologic, geophysical, geochemical, hydrologic, and cartographic programs, including the application of computer science to them. These programs offer exciting possibilities for scientific achievement and professional growth to young scientists through participation as Research Associates.

  12. Changes in distribution of Canada geese nesting in Arkansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krementz, David G.; Ronke, M. Eliese

    2015-01-01

    The reintroduced Canada goose (Branta canadensis) population in Arkansas has grown in range and abundance in recent decades. We determined the geographic range of Arkansas resident Canada geese from 2004 to 2012 using volume contour maps from citizen science observations using eBird, a citizen science website, and hunter recovery locations from the U.S. Geological Survey Bird Banding Laboratory. Resulting maps indicate an increase in Canada goose encounters toward northwestern and southwestern Arkansas from the original relocations in the Arkansas River valley. We examined movement of Canada geese banded and recovered in Arkansas by determining the distance and angle of movement between initial and final encounter locations; 25% moved east, and 17% went west. The average distance moved from banding to recovery was 50 km (SE = 1 km). Recoveries of Canada geese banded in Arkansas were greatest in the Mississippi Flyway (58% of all geese) followed by the Central Flyway (37%) with some representation in both the Atlantic (4%) and Pacific flyways (0.9%). Movement from Arkansas to other states and Canada was influenced by goose age and sex. Older individuals traveled longer distances than younger ones, and females traveled longer distances than males. Our findings suggest that recently established Canada geese in Arkansas have slowly expanded within the state to the northwest and southwest with the expansion to the east being important now. Movement of Arkansas resident Canada geese on molt-migration can contribute to management issues in other states and provinces.

  13. Assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources of the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin, Canada, 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Higley, Debra

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey recently completed a geoscience-based assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of provinces within the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin. The Western Canada Sedimentary Basin primarily comprises the (1) Alberta Basin Province of Alberta, eastern British Columbia, and the southwestern Northwest Territories; (2) the Williston Basin Province of Saskatchewan, southeastern Alberta, and southern Manitoba; and (3) the Rocky Mountain Deformed Belt Province of western Alberta and eastern British Columbia. This report is part of the U.S. Geological Survey World Petroleum Resources Project assessment of priority geologic provinces of the world. The assessment was based on geoscience elements that define a total petroleum system (TPS) and associated assessment unit(s). These elements include petroleum source rocks (geochemical properties and petroleum generation, migration, and accumulation), reservoir description (reservoir presence, type, and quality), and petroleum traps (trap and seal types, and timing of trap and seal formation relative to petroleum migration). Using this framework, the Elk Point-Woodbend Composite TPS, Exshaw-Fernie-Mannville Composite TPS, and Middle through Upper Cretaceous Composite TPS were defined, and four conventional assessment units within the total petroleum systems were quantitatively assessed for undiscovered resources in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin.

  14. Climate variation and its effects on our land and water : Part B, Current research by the Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, George I., (Edited By)

    1978-01-01

    To better coordinate information being generated by the U.S. Geological Survey, a workshop was convened near Denver, Colo., on December 7-9, 1976, to exchange ideas about research that is oriented toward climate, climate variation, and the effects of climate on the Nation 's land and water resources. This is the first circular of a three-part report resulting from that workshop. Hydrologic records provide information to the earth scientist about the responses of ground water, surface water, and glaciers to climatic change; geologic sequences provide evidence of earth-surface water, and glaciers to climatic change; geologic sequences provide evidence of earth-surface responses to climatic change; biological records yield information about the effects of climatic change on the Earth 's biota; archeological records tell us where and how man was able to live under changing climatic conditions; and historical records allow the specific effects of short-term changes in climate to be accurately documented. The interrelation between present and past geologic environments, various methods of study , and the span of time over which the results can be applied are shown in a table. (Woodard-USGS)

  15. The Handling of Hazard Data on a National Scale: A Case Study from the British Geological Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Royse, Katherine R.

    2011-11-01

    This paper reviews how hazard data and geological map data have been combined by the British Geological Survey (BGS) to produce a set of GIS-based national-scale hazard susceptibility maps for the UK. This work has been carried out over the last 9 years and as such reflects the combined outputs of a large number of researchers at BGS. The paper details the inception of these datasets from the development of the seamless digital geological map in 2001 through to the deterministic 2D hazard models produced today. These datasets currently include landslides, shrink-swell, soluble rocks, compressible and collapsible deposits, groundwater flooding, geological indicators of flooding, radon potential and potentially harmful elements in soil. These models have been created using a combination of expert knowledge (from both within BGS and from outside bodies such as the Health Protection Agency), national databases (which contain data collected over the past 175 years), multi-criteria analysis within geographical information systems and a flexible rule-based approach for each individual geohazard. By using GIS in this way, it has been possible to model the distribution and degree of geohazards across the whole of Britain.

  16. Microbialite Morphologies and Distributions-Geoacoustic Survey with an AUV of Pavilion Lake, British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutsche, J. R.; Trembanis, A. C.

    2010-12-01

    With advances in lake bottom mapping it has been observed that modern microbialites, much like the ancient stromatolites, thrive in freshwater lake environments. Previously collected data shows that a diverse community of living stromatolites are present within Pavilion Lake (Laval et al., 2000, Lim et al., 2009). An additional comprehensive data set was collected in June-July 2010. By building on the previous dataset it is possible to compare two high-resolution geoacoustic datasets. Using Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) as exploration platforms to conduct surveys of the lake bottom, very high-resolution sonar data has been collected. The data collected in June-July 2010 is composed of 125 km of AUV trackline. This length of trackline allowed for survey coverage of nearly the entire lake bottom. The Gavia AUV used for this survey collected bathymetry data collocated with backscatter information. The data has been processed and gridded to 1m, with specific high value areas gridded to a finer 0.5m. The bathymetric data was compiled to create a base map of the floor of Pavilion Lake. Backscatter data was also collected and processed using the same 1m grid resolution. After the backscatter data was processed, it was draped over the bathymetry map of Pavilion Lake. The tools offered within the Fledermaus software package allow for the bathymetry data to be analyzed with respect to slope and rugosity. By analyzing this dense phase measuring bathymetric sonar of the lake bottom, with respect to slope and rugosity, it is possible to map the morphological trends of the stromatolites. Additionally, the ability to compare two datasets allows for erosional changes in the lake bottom to be identified. The bathymetry data allows for the quantitative analysis of bed forms within Pavilion Lake, allowing for a better understanding of microbialite morphologies. The backscatter data is increasingly important to the Pavilion Lake project because of the location and general

  17. 163 years of refinement: the British Geological Survey sample registration scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howe, M. P.

    2011-12-01

    The British Geological Survey manages the largest UK geoscience samples collection, including: - 15,000 onshore boreholes, including over 250 km of drillcore - Vibrocores, gravity cores and grab samples from over 32,000 UK marine sample stations. 640 boreholes - Over 3 million UK fossils, including a "type and stratigraphic" reference collection of 250,000 fossils, 30,000 of which are "type, figured or cited" - Comprehensive microfossil collection, including many borehole samples - 290km of drillcore and 4.5 million cuttings samples from over 8000 UK continental shelf hydrocarbon wells - Over one million mineralogical and petrological samples, including 200,00 thin sections The current registration scheme was introduced in 1848 and is similar to that used by Charles Darwin on the Beagle. Every Survey collector or geologist has been issue with a unique prefix code of one or more letters and these were handwritten on preprinted numbers, arranged in books of 1 - 5,000 and 5,001 to 10,000. Similar labels are now computer printed. Other prefix codes are used for corporate collections, such as borehole samples, thin sections, microfossils, macrofossil sections, museum reference fossils, display quality rock samples and fossil casts. Such numbers infer significant immediate information to the curator, without the need to consult detailed registers. The registration numbers have been recorded in a series of over 1,000 registers, complete with metadata including sample ID, locality, horizon, collector and date. Citations are added as appropriate. Parent-child relationships are noted when re-registering subsubsamples. For example, a borehole sample BDA1001 could have been subsampled for a petrological thin section and off-cut (E14159), a fossil thin section (PF365), micropalynological slides (MPA273), one of which included a new holotype (MPK111), and a figured macrofossil (GSE1314). All main corporate collection now have publically-available online databases, such as Palaeo

  18. Bibliography of reports by members of the U.S. Geological Survey on the water resources of Alaska: 1870 through 1976

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Feulner, Alvin John; Reed, Katherine M.

    1977-01-01

    This bibliography lists publications prepared by members of the U.S. Geological Survey and published either by the Survey or by the other agencies and organizations between 1870 and the end of December 1976. The titles included are those whose primary topic is hydrology, water resources, or other aspects of water in Alaska. Related subjects, such as geology, included in many of these reports. (Woodard-USGS)

  19. Appraisal of the accuracy of U.S. Geological Survey ore reserve estimates for uranium-vanadium deposits on the Colorado Plateau

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bush, Alfred Lerner; Stager, Harold Keith

    1954-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has made estimates of the reserves of uranium and vanadium in the carnotite deposits explored by Geological Survey drilling on the Colorado Plateau. This report presents an appraisal of the accuracy of the reserve estimates for deposits in the Uravan mineral belt, the causes of inaccuracy, and the significance of the estimates in terms of the total known reserves of the region.

  20. A Web-Based Survey of Residents' Views on Advocating with Patients for a Healthy Built Environment in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Cruickshank, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To determine family medicine residents' perceived knowledge and attitudes towards the built environment and their responsibility for health advocacy and to identify their perceived educational needs and barriers to patient education and advocacy. Methods. A web-based survey was conducted in Canada with University of Toronto family medicine residents. Data were analyzed descriptively. Results. 93% agreed or strongly agreed that built environment significantly impacts health. 64% thought educating patients on built environment is effective disease prevention; 52% considered this a role of family physicians. 78% reported that advocacy for built environment is effective disease prevention; 56% perceived this to be the family physician's role. 59% reported being knowledgeable to discuss how a patient's environment may affect his/her health; 35% reported being knowledgeable to participate in community discussions on built environment. 78% thought education would help with integration into practice. Inadequate time (92%), knowledge (73%), and remuneration (54%) were barriers. Conclusions. While residents perceived value in education and advocacy as disease prevention strategies and acknowledged the importance of a healthy built environment, they did not consider advocacy towards this the family physician's role. Barrier reduction and medical education may contribute to improved advocacy, ultimately improving physical activity levels and patient health outcomes. PMID:25436150

  1. The U.S. geological survey rass-statpac system for management and statistical reduction of geochemical data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    VanTrump, G., Jr.; Miesch, A.T.

    1977-01-01

    RASS is an acronym for Rock Analysis Storage System and STATPAC, for Statistical Package. The RASS and STATPAC computer programs are integrated into the RASS-STATPAC system for the management and statistical reduction of geochemical data. The system, in its present form, has been in use for more than 9 yr by scores of U.S. Geological Survey geologists, geochemists, and other scientists engaged in a broad range of geologic and geochemical investigations. The principal advantage of the system is the flexibility afforded the user both in data searches and retrievals and in the manner of statistical treatment of data. The statistical programs provide for most types of statistical reduction normally used in geochemistry and petrology, but also contain bridges to other program systems for statistical processing and automatic plotting. ?? 1977.

  2. Proposed program for and present status of the Geological Survey's investigation of domestic resources of radioactive raw materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bulter, A.P., Jr.; Killeen, P.L.; Page, G.B.; Rubey, W.W.

    1983-01-01

    This interim report is designed to show the present status of the Geological Survey's information and the parts of a comprehensive program necessary to improve our information about the raw material resources of uranium and thorium. Rarely in geologic work has it been necessary. to determine so completely a nation's resources of useful minerals in so brief a span of time. Ordinarily, information on mineral resources Is accumulated during a long period of years. However, uranium and thorium were suddenly thrust from a position of subsidiary economic interest into one of great strategic importance. Information concerning their occurrence must, therefore, be obtained as rapidly as reliable methods of investigation will permit. Accordingly the program must be at once comprehensive and carried out over an area more extensive than is usual in the search for and appraisal of most other mineral resources.

  3. U.S. Geological Survey resource assessment of selected Tertiary coal zones in Wyoming, Montana and North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, D.J.; Ellis, M.S.

    2003-01-01

    In 1999, 1 Gt (1.1 billion st) of coal was produced in the United States. Of this total, 37% was produced in Wyoming, Montana and North Dakota. Coals of Tertiary age from these states typically have low ash contents. Most of these coals have sulfur contents that are in compliance with Clean Air Act standards and most have low concentrations of the trace elements that are of environmental concern. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Coal Resource Assessment for these states includes geologic, stratigraphic, palynologic and geochemical studies and resource calculations for major Tertiary coal zones in the Powder River, Williston, Greater Green River, Hanna and Carbon Basins. Calculated resources are 595 Gt (655 billion st). Results of the study are available in a USGS Professional Paper and a USGS Open-File Report, both in CD-ROM format.

  4. Water-resources activities in Utah by the U.S. Geological Survey, October 1, 1992, to September 30, 1993

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hardy, Ellen E., (compiler); Dragos, Stefanie L.

    1995-01-01

    This report contains summaries of the progress of water-resources studies in Utah by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Water Resources Division, Utah District, from October 1, 1992, to September 30, 1993. The program in Utah during this period consisted of 21 projects; a discussion of each project is presented in the main body of the report. The USGS was established by an act of Congress on March 3, 1879, to provide a permanent Federal agency to conduct the systematic and scientific classifi- cation of the public lands, and examination of the geologic structure, mineral resources, and products of national domain. An integral part of that original mission includes publishing and dissemi- nating the earth-science information needed to understand, to plan the use of, and to manage the Nation's energy, land, mineral, and water resources.

  5. Quaternary geology and geomorphology of the Dinosaur Provincial Park area and surrounding plains, Alberta, Canada: the identification of former glacial lobes, drainage diversions and meltwater flood tracks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, David J. A.

    2000-06-01

    The Quaternary geology and geomorphology of the lower Red Deer River drainage basin, centred on the Dinosaur Provincial Park badlands, provides information on pre-Late Wisconsinan drainage patterns and the dynamics of former lobes of the Laurentide Ice Sheet in western Canada. Patterns of deglaciation, proglacial lake evolution and spillway incision are also reconstructed based upon the distribution of surface materials and glacial/glaciofluvial landforms. The Empress Group fluvial and glaciolacustrine sediments, which could be as young as 27 ka BP, infill the precursor Red Deer River and its tributaries and document the initial advance of glacier ice into southern Alberta. Glaciotectonic disturbance of older sediments and bedrock, the production of deformation tills and the construction of a megafluting complex and cupola hills record the advances of a glacier lobe centred over the study area. Stratified inter- and intra-till beds record pulses of subglacial meltwater between phases of subsole deformation. The thickening of tills towards the margin of the lobe represents a till wedge, an expected product of sediment advection by glaciers moving over deformable beds. The eastern margin of the glacier lobe is demarcated by the interlobate Suffield hummocky moraine belt which contains overprinted thrust ridges, which record diachronous oscillations of neighbouring lobes within the ice sheet. Proglacial and glaciofluvial sediments were deposited in the area in association with proglacial Lake Bassano/Patricia, which drained eastwards when the Suffield moraine was dissected by spillways. Changes in the size of glacial lake Bassano/Patricia are clearly documented by a sequence of spillway incisions which culminated in the erosion of scabland topography and the initiation of a new course for the Red Deer River, a 15 km southward diversion of the main channel. In distinct contrast to the documented incision histories of other small rivers in Alberta, One Tree Creek and

  6. Financial strain, social capital, and perceived health during economic recession: a longitudinal survey in rural Canada.

    PubMed

    Frank, Christine; Davis, Christopher G; Elgar, Frank J

    2014-01-01

    Although the health consequences of financial strain are well documented, less is understood about the health-protective role of social capital. Social capital refers to a sense of community embeddedness, which is in part reflected by group membership, civic participation, and perceptions of trust, cohesion, and engagement. We investigated whether perceptions of social capital moderate the relation between financial strain and health, both mental and physical. This longitudinal study surveyed adults in two communities in rural Ontario where significant job losses recently occurred. Data were collected on financial strain, social capital, perceived stress, symptoms of anxiety and depression, and physical health on three occasions over 18 months (N's = 355, 317, and 300). As expected, financial strain positively related to perceived stress, poor physical health and symptoms of anxiety and depression, whereas social capital related to less stress, better physical health, and fewer symptoms of anxiety and depression. Effects of financial strain on perceived stress and depressive symptoms were moderated by social capital such that financial strain related more closely to perceived stress and depressive symptoms when social capital was lower. The findings underscore the health-protective role of community associations among adults during difficult economic times. PMID:24251877

  7. Institutional care for long-term mechanical ventilation in Canada: A national survey

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Louise; McKim, Douglas; Katz, Sherri; Leasa, David; Nonoyama, Mika; Pedersen, Cheryl; Avendano, Monica; Goldstein, Roger

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: No national Canadian data define resource requirements and care delivery for ventilator-assisted individuals (VAIs) requiring long-term institutional care. Such data will assist in planning health care services to this population. OBJECTIVE: To describe institutional and patient characteristics, prevalence, equipment used, care elements and admission barriers for VAIs requiring long-term institutional care. METHODS: Centres were identified from a national inventory and snowball referrals. The survey weblink was provided from December 2012 to April 2013. Weekly reminders were sent for six weeks. RESULTS: The response rate was 84% (54 of 64), with 44 adult and 10 pediatric centres providing data for 428 VAIs (301 invasive ventilation; 127 noninvasive ventilation [NIV]), equivalent to 1.3 VAIs per 100,000 population. An additional 106 VAIs were on wait lists in 18 centres. More VAIs with progressive neuromuscular disease received invasive ventilation than NIV (P<0.001); more VAIs with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (P<0.001), obesity hypoventilation syndrome (P<0.001) and central hypoventilation syndrome (P=0.02) required NIV. All centres used positive pressure ventilators, 21% diaphragmatic pacing, 15% negative pressure and 13% phrenic nerve stimulation. Most centres used lung volume recruitment (55%), manually (71%) and mechanically assisted cough (55%). Lack of beds and provincial funding were common admission barriers. CONCLUSIONS: Variable models and care practices exist for institutionalized care of Canadian VAIs. Patient prevalence was 1.3 per 100,000 Canadians. PMID:25184510

  8. In situ gamma ray survey for geological mapping of Kmetasomatized metavolcanics at Bükkszentkereszt, Bükk Mts, Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Németh, Norbert; Pethõ, Gábor; Zajzon, Norbert

    2015-09-01

    The Middle-Upper Triassic Bagolyhegy Metarhyolite Formation of the Bükk Mts. (Hungary) hosts silicified bodies with high potassic feldspar content formed by Kmetasomatism. The rocks underwent a multistage deformation history including syn- and postmetamorphic folding and faulting. As the outcrop area is covered by soil and debris with some exposed silicified cliffs only, and potassium content is a characteristic feature of the metasomatized rocks, geological mapping was supported by a spectral gamma ray survey with a scintillation detector of NaI(Tl) crystal. A thunderstorm felling the beech forest made the soil horizon B also accessible in several pits, providing the opportunity to make measurements on the weathered debris instead of the topsoil (horizon A). Measurements in different arrangements were designed to test the effects of measuring time, measuring geometry and soil horizon. Our results show that concentration values obtained on the debris with a 2 min measuring time can be compared with those measured on exposed rock surfaces, producing a more reliable geological map than measurements on the topsoil with randomly variable K depletion. Pit geometry effects can be eliminated by the K/(eU+eTh) ratio. This results in a more realistic K distribution map if neither U nor Th enrichments are present. The survey successfully delineated the unexposed outcrop of K-enriched rocks on the survey area.

  9. W. Canada's Devonian resource significant even at low gas prices

    SciTech Connect

    Waghmare, R.R.; Dallaire, S.M.; Conn, R.F. )

    1993-11-29

    This article summarizes Part 2 of Geological Survey of Canada Bulletin 452, entitled Devonian Gas Resources of the Western Canada sedimentary basin (WCSB). It provides supply curves and summary estimates of economic potential of the undiscovered natural gas resources estimated to exist in the Devonian system of the WCSB. The methodology constructed to estimate the economic potential is also described, along with major assumptions with regard to engineering inputs and economic parameters. The report concludes that, in the long-term, significant economically recoverable resources remain to be discovered in the Devonian system.

  10. A review and evaluation of alternatives for updating U.S. Geological Survey land use and land cover maps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milazzo, Valerie A.

    1980-01-01

    Since 1974, the U.S. Geological Survey has been engaged in a nationwide program of baseline mapping of land use and land cover and associated data at a scale of 1:250,000. As l:100,000-scale bases have become available, they have been used for mapping certain areas and for special applications. These two scales are appropriate for mapping land use and land cover data on a nationwide basis within a practical time frame, and with an acceptable degree of standardization, accuracy, and level of detail. An essential requisite to better use of the land is current information on land use and land cover conditions and on the rates and trends of changes with time. Thus, plans are underway to update these maps and data. The major considerations in planning a nationwide program for updating U.S. Geological Survey land use and land cover maps are as follows: (1) How often should maps be updated? (2) What remotely sensed source materials should be used for detecting and compiling changes in land use and land cover? (3) What base maps should be used for presenting data on land use and land cover changes? (4) What maps or portions of a map should be updated? (5) What methods should be used for identifying and mapping changes? (6) What procedures should be followed for updating maps and what formats should be used? These factors must be considered in developing a map update program that portrays an appropriate level of information, relates to and builds upon the existing U.S. Geological Survey land use and land cover digital and statistical data base, is timely, cost-effective and standardized, and meets the varying needs of land use and land cover data users.

  11. THE CANADA-FRANCE ECLIPTIC PLANE SURVEY-FULL DATA RELEASE: THE ORBITAL STRUCTURE OF THE KUIPER BELT

    SciTech Connect

    Petit, J.-M.; Rousselot, P.; Mousis, O.; Kavelaars, J. J.; Gladman, B. J.; Jones, R. L.; Van Laerhoven, C.; Parker, J. Wm.; Bieryla, A.; Nicholson, P.; Mars, G.; Marsden, B.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Taylor, M.; Bernabeu, G.; Benavidez, P.; Campo Bagatin, A.

    2011-10-15

    We report the orbital distribution of the trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs) discovered during the Canada-France Ecliptic Plane Survey (CFEPS), whose discovery phase ran from early 2003 until early 2007. The follow-up observations started just after the first discoveries and extended until late 2009. We obtained characterized observations of 321 deg{sup 2} of sky to depths in the range g {approx} 23.5-24.4 AB mag. We provide a database of 169 TNOs with high-precision dynamical classification and known discovery efficiency. Using this database, we find that the classical belt is a complex region with sub-structures that go beyond the usual splitting of inner (interior to 3:2 mean-motion resonance [MMR]), main (between 3:2 and 2:1 MMR), and outer (exterior to 2:1 MMR). The main classical belt (a = 40-47 AU) needs to be modeled with at least three components: the 'hot' component with a wide inclination distribution and two 'cold' components (stirred and kernel) with much narrower inclination distributions. The hot component must have a significantly shallower absolute magnitude (H{sub g} ) distribution than the other two components. With 95% confidence, there are 8000{sup +1800}{sub -1600} objects in the main belt with H{sub g} {<=} 8.0, of which 50% are from the hot component, 40% from the stirred component, and 10% from the kernel; the hot component's fraction drops rapidly with increasing H{sub g} . Because of this, the apparent population fractions depend on the depth and ecliptic latitude of a trans-Neptunian survey. The stirred and kernel components are limited to only a portion of the main belt, while we find that the hot component is consistent with a smooth extension throughout the inner, main, and outer regions of the classical belt; in fact, the inner and outer belts are consistent with containing only hot-component objects. The H{sub g} {<=} 8.0 TNO population estimates are 400 for the inner belt and 10,000 for the outer belt to within a factor of two (95

  12. U.S. Geological Survey Science for the Wyoming Landscape Conservation Initiative-2010 Annual Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edit Bowen, Zachary H.; Aldridge, Cameron L.; Anderson, Patrick J.; Assal, Timothy J.; Biewick, Laura R.H.; Blecker, Steven W.; Boughton, Gregory K.; Bristol, R. Sky; Carr, Natasha B.; Chalfoun, Anna D.; Chong, Geneva W.; Clark, Melanie L.; Diffendorfer, Jay E.; Fedy, Bradley C.; Foster, Katharine; Garman, Steven L.; Germaine, Stephen; Holloway, JoAnn; Homer, Collin G.; Kauffman, Matthew J.; Keinath, Douglas; Latysh, Natalie; Manier, Daniel J.; McDougal, Robert R.; Melcher, Cynthia P.; Miller, Kirk A.; Montag, Jessica; Potter, Christopher J.; Schell, Spencer; Shafer, Sarah L.; Smith, David B.; Stillings, Lisa L.; Tuttle, Michele L.W.; Wilson, Anna B.

    2011-01-01

    This is the third report produced by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for the Wyoming Landscape Conservation Initiative (WLCI) to detail annual work activities. The first report described activities for 2007 and 2008, and the second report covered work activities for FY09. This third report covers work activities conducted in FY2010, and it continues the 2009 approach of reporting on all the individual activities to help give WLCI partners and other readers the full scope of what has been accomplished. New in this year's report is an additional section for each work activity that outlines the work planned for the following fiscal year. In FY2010, there were 35 ongoing/expanded, completed, or new projects conducted under the five major multi-disciplinary science and technical-assistance activities: (1) Baseline Synthesis; (2) Targeted Monitoring and Research; (3) Data and Information Management; (4) Integration and Coordination; and (5) Decisionmaking and Evaluation. The three new work activities were to (1) compile existing water data for the entire WLCI region and (2) develop regional curves (statistical models) for relating bankfull-channel geometry and discharge to drainages in the WLCI region, both of which will help guide long-term monitoring of water resources; and (3) initiate a groundwater-monitoring network to evaluate potential effects of energy-development activities on groundwater quality where groundwater is an important source of public/private water supplies. Results of the FY2009 work to develop methods for assessing soil organic matter and mercury indicated that selenium and arsenic levels may be elevated in the Muddy Creek Basin; thus, the focus of that activity was shifted in FY2010 to evaluate biogeochemical cycling of elements in the basin. In FY2010, two ongoing activities were expanded with the addition of more sampling plots: (a) the study of how greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) use vegetation-treatment areas (sites added to

  13. U.S. Geological Survey Ecosystems science strategy: advancing discovery and application through collaboration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Byron K.; Wingard, G. Lynn; Brewer, Gary; Cloern, James E.; Gelfenbaum, Guy; Jacobson, Robert B.; Kershner, Jeffrey L.; McGuire, Anthony David; Nichols, James D.; Shapiro, Carl D.; van Riper, Charles, III; White, Robin P.

    2013-01-01

    Ecosystem science is critical to making informed decisions about natural resources that can sustain our Nation’s economic and environmental well-being. Resource managers and policymakers are faced with countless decisions each year at local, regional, and national levels on issues as diverse as renewable and nonrenewable energy development, agriculture, forestry, water supply, and resource allocations at the urbanrural interface. The urgency for sound decisionmaking is increasing dramatically as the world is being transformed at an unprecedented pace and in uncertain directions. Environmental changes are associated with natural hazards, greenhouse gas emissions, and increasing demands for water, land, food, energy, mineral, and living resources. At risk is the Nation’s environmental capital, the goods and services provided by resilient ecosystems that are vital to the health and wellbeing of human societies. Ecosystem science—the study of systems of organisms interacting with their environment and the consequences of natural and human-induced change on these systems—is necessary to inform decisionmakers as they develop policies to adapt to these changes. This Ecosystems Science Strategy is built on a framework that includes basic and applied science. It highlights the critical roles that U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists and partners can play in building scientific understanding and providing timely information to decisionmakers. The strategy underscores the connection between scientific discoveries and the application of new knowledge, and it integrates ecosystem science and decisionmaking, producing new scientific outcomes to assist resource managers and providing public benefits. We envision the USGS as a leader in integrating scientific information into decisionmaking processes that affect the Nation’s natural resources and human well-being. The USGS is uniquely positioned to play a pivotal role in ecosystem science. With its wide range of

  14. U.S. Geological Survey Activities Related to American Indians and Alaska Natives: Fiscal Year 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marcus, Susan M.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction This report describes the activities that the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted with American Indian and Alaska Native governments, educational institutions, and individuals during Federal fiscal year (FY) 2005. Most of these USGS activities were collaborations with Tribes, Tribal organizations, or professional societies. Others were conducted cooperatively with the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) or other Federal entities. The USGS is the earth and natural science bureau within the U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI). The USGS does not have regulatory or land management responsibilities. As described in this report, there are many USGS activities that are directly relevant to American Indians, Alaska Natives, and to Native lands. A USGS website, dedicated to making USGS more accessible to American Indians, Alaska Natives, their governments, and institutions, is available at www.usgs.gov/indian. This website includes information on how to contact USGS American Indian/Alaska Native Liaisons, training opportunities, and links to other information resources. This report and previous editions are also available through the website. The USGS realizes that Native knowledge and cultural traditions of living in harmony with nature result in unique Native perspectives that enrich USGS studies. USGS seeks to increase the sensitivity and openness of its scientists to the breadth of Native knowledge, expanding the information on which their research is based. USGS scientific studies include data collection, mapping, natural resource modeling, and research projects. These projects typically last 2 or 3 years, although some are parts of longer-term activities. Some projects are funded cooperatively, with USGS funds matched or supplemented by individual Tribal governments, or by the BIA. These projects may also receive funding from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), the Indian Health Service (part of the Department of Health and Human Services

  15. A history of the Water Resources Branch, U.S. Geological Survey; Volume I, from predecessor surveys to June 30, 1919

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Follansbee, R.

    1994-01-01

    This volume is the first in a series of chronological summaries of the activities and achievements of the Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey. First published in 1939 through private subscription by interested personnel, Volume I is now available as a public document. The manuscripts of the following three volumes that cover the years 1919-47, all by the author of this volume, were reproduced by the Division in the 1950's for internal use only. Their publication for public use remains one of the Division's goals.

  16. U.S. Geological Survey and Afghanistan Ministry of Mines and Industry cooperative assessment of Afghanistan's undiscovered oil and gas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wandrey, Craig J.; Ulmishek, Gregory; Agena, Warren; Klett, Timothy R.; Afghanistan Oil and Gas Research Assessment Team

    2006-01-01

    Results of the U.S. Geological Survey and Afghanistan Ministry of Mines and Industry cooperative assessment of undiscovered petroleum resources of northern Afghanistan were first released through this presentation on March 14, 2006, at the Afghan Embassy in Washington, D.C. On March 15 the results were presented in Kabul, Afghanistan. The purpose of the assessment and release of the results is to provide energy data required to implement the rebuilding and development of Afghanistan's energy infrastructure. This presentation includes a summary of the goals, process, methodology, results, and accomplishments of the assessment. It provides context for Fact Sheet 2006-3031, a summary of assessment results provided in the presentations.

  17. Land-cover change research at the U.S. Geological Survey-assessing our nation's dynamic land surface

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Tamara S.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed an unprecedented, 27-year assessment of land-use and land-cover change for the conterminous United States. For the period 1973 to 2000, scientists generated estimates of change in major types of land use and land cover, such as development, mining, agriculture, forest, grasslands, and wetlands. To help provide the insight that our Nation will need to make land-use decisions in coming decades, the historical trends data is now being used by the USGS to help model potential future land use/land cover under different scenarios, including climate, environmental, economic, population, public policy, and technological change.

  18. Guidelines for preparing a quality assurance plan for district offices of the U.S. Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schroder, L.J.; Shampine, W.J.

    1992-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has a policy that requires each District office to prepare a Quality Assurance Plan. This plan is a combination of a District's management principles and quality assurance processes. The guidelines presented in this report provide a framework or expanded outline that a District can use to prepare a plan. Parti- cular emphasis is given to a District's: (1) quality assurance policies; (2) organization and staff responsibilities; and (3) program and project planning. The guidelines address the 'how', 'what', and 'who' questions that need to be answered when a District Quality Assurance Plan is prepared.

  19. Water-resources activities in Utah by the U.S. Geological Survey, October 1, 1991, to September 30, 1992

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hardy, E.E.; Gates, J.S.

    1993-01-01

    A summary of water-resources studies in Utah from October 1, 1991, to September 30, 1992, has been released by the U.S. Geological Survey. The report details progress for 20 studies. These studies were done in cooperation with other Federal, State, County, or local agencies. The 20 projects include 5 involved mainly with collection of data, 2 with the hydrology of and groundwater quality in Utah's energy-resource areas, 5 with surface water and surface-water quality, 3 with groundwater in unconsolidated sediments, 3 with groundwater quality or the protection of groundwater quality, and 2 with ground- and surface-water relations.

  20. Cartography at the U.S. Geological Survey: the National Mapping Division's cartographic programs, products, design, and technology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ogrosky, Charles E.; Gwynn, William; Jannace, Richard

    1989-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is the prime source of many kinds of topographic and special-purpose maps of the United States and its outlying areas. It is also a prime source of digital map data. One main goal of the USGS is to provide large-scale topographic map coverage of the entire United States. Most of the Nation is already covered. We expect that initial coverage will be completed by 1991. For many purposes, many public agencies, private organizations, and individuals need reliable cartographic and geographic knowledge about our Nation. To serve such needs, all USGS maps are compiled to exacting standards of accuracy and content.