Science.gov

Sample records for canada geological survey

  1. Geological Survey research 1976

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1976-01-01

    This U.S. Geological Survey activities report includes a summary of recent (1976 fiscal year) scientific and economic results accompanied by a list of geologic and hydrologic investigations in progress and a report on the status of topographic mapping. The summary of results includes: (1) Mineral resources, Water resources, (2) Engineering geology and hydrology, (3) Regional geology, (4) Principles and processes, (5) Laboratory and field methods, (6) Topographic surveys and mapping, (7) Management of resources on public lands, (8) Land information and analysis, and (9) Investigations in other countries. Also included are lists of cooperating agencies and Geological Survey offices. (Woodard-USGS)

  2. Geological Survey research 1978

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1978-01-01

    This U.S. Geological Survey activities report includes a summary of 1978 fiscal year scientific and economic results accompanied by a list of geologic and hydrologic investigations in progress and a report on the status of topographic mapping. The summary of results includes: (1) Mineral and water resources, (2) Engineering geology and hydrology, (3) Regional geology, (4) Principles and processes, (5) Laboratory and field methods, (6) Topographic surveys and mapping, (7) Management of resources on public lands, (8) Land information and analysis, and (9) Investigations in other countries. Also included are lists of cooperating agencies and Geological Survey offices. (Woodard-USGS)

  3. Geological Survey research 1981

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1982-01-01

    This U.S. Geological Survey activities report includes a summary of 1981 fiscal year scientific and economic results accompanied by a list of geologic, hydrologic, and cartographic investigations in progress. The summary of results includes: (1) Mineral, (2) Water resources, (3) Engineering geology and hydrology, (4) Regional geology, (5) Principles and processes, (6) Laboratory and field methods, (7) Topographic surveys and mapping, (8) Management of resources on public lands, (9) Land information and analysis, and (10) Investigations in other countries. Also included are lists of investigations in progress. (USGS)

  4. Geological Survey research, 1975

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1975-01-01

    'Geological Survey Research 1975 ' is the 16th annual synopsis of the results of U.S. Geological Survey investigations. These studies are largely directed toward the development of knowledge that will assist the Nation to use and conserve the land and its physical resources wisely. They are wide ranging in scope and deal with almost every facet of solid-earth science and fact finding. Many of the studies are continuations of investigations that have been in progress for several years. But others reflect the increased attention being given to problems that have assumed greater importance in recent years--problems relating to mineral fuels and mineral resources, water quality, environmental impact of mineral resources, land-use analysis, earthquake hazards reduction, subsidence, and the applications of LANDSAT data, to cite a few examples. (Woodard-USGS)

  5. 77 FR 19032 - Geological Survey

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-29

    ... Geological Survey Announcement of National Geospatial Advisory Committee Meeting AGENCY: U.S. Geological Survey, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The National Geospatial Advisory Committee (NGAC... advance. Please register by contacting Arista Maher at the U.S. Geological Survey (703-648-6283,...

  6. Chapter B in Geological Survey research 1966

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1966-01-01

    This collection of 43 short papers is the first published chapter of 'Geological Survey Research 1966.' The papers report on scientific and economic results of current work by members of the Conservation, Geologic, Topographic, and Water Resources Divisions of the U.S. Geological Survey. Chapter A, to be published later in the year, will present a summary of significant results of work done during fiscal year 1966, together with lists of investigations in progress, reports published, cooperating agencies, and Geological Survey offices. 'Geological Survey Research 1966' is the seventh volume of the annual series Geological Survey Research. The six volumes already published are listed below, with their series designations. Geological Survey Research 1960-Prof. Paper 400 Geological Survey Research 1961-Prof. Paper 424 Geological Survey Research 1962-Prof. Paper 450 Geological Survey Research 1963-Prof. Paper 475 Geological Survey Research 1964-Prof. Paper 501 Geological Survey Research 1965-Prof. Paper 525

  7. Recent U.S. Geological Survey Studies in the Tintina Gold Province, Alaska, United States, and Yukon, Canada-Results of a 5-Year Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gough, Larry P.; Day, Warren C.

    2010-01-01

    This report presents summary papers of work conducted between 2002 and 2007 under a 5-year project effort funded by the U.S. Geological Survey Mineral Resources Program, formerly entitled 'Tintina Metallogenic Province: Integrated Studies on Geologic Framework, Mineral Resources, and Environmental Signatures.' As the project progressed, the informal title changed from 'Tintina Metallogenic Province' project to 'Tintina Gold Province' project, the latter being more closely aligned with the terminology used by the mineral industry. As Goldfarb and others explain in the first chapter of this report, the Tintina Gold Province is a convenient term used by the mineral exploration community for a 'region of very varied geology, gold deposit types, and resource potential'. The Tintina Gold Province encompasses roughly 150,000 square kilometers, bounded by the Kaltag-Tintina fault system on the north and the Farewell-Denali fault system on the south. It extends westward in a broad arc, some 200 km wide, from northernmost British Columbia, through the Yukon, through southeastern and central Alaska, to southwestern Alaska. The climate is subarctic and, in Alaska, includes major physiographic delineations and ecoregions such as the Yukon-Tanana Upland, Tanana-Kuskokwim Lowlands, Yukon River Lowlands, and the Kuskokwim Mountains. Although the Tintina Gold Province is historically important for some of the very first placer and lode gold discoveries in northern North America, it has recently seen resurgence in mineral exploration, development, and mining activity. This resurgence is due to both new discoveries (for example, Pogo and Donlin Creek) and to the application of modern extraction methods to previously known, but economically restrictive, low-grade, bulk-tonnage gold resources (for example, Fort Knox, Clear Creek, and Scheelite Dome). In addition, the Tintina Gold Province hosts numerous other mineral deposit types, possessing both high and low sulfide content, which are not currently in development.

  8. OECD Economic Surveys: Canada 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2012

    2012-01-01

    Canada weathered the global economic crisis well, mainly reflecting sustained growth in domestic pending, and the economy is continuing to grow despite the persistence of international turbulence, most recently stemming from the euro zone sovereign debt crisis. In Canada's case, several factors are acting in its favour. Federal fiscal plans are

  9. OECD Economic Surveys: Canada 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2012

    2012-01-01

    Canada weathered the global economic crisis well, mainly reflecting sustained growth in domestic pending, and the economy is continuing to grow despite the persistence of international turbulence, most recently stemming from the euro zone sovereign debt crisis. In Canada's case, several factors are acting in its favour. Federal fiscal plans are…

  10. United States Geological Survey yearbook

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    This yearbook of the U.S. Geological Survey describes results of a number of USGS research efforts in such diverse areas as studying the quality of the nation's surface-and ground-water resources, assessing the nation's oil and gas resources, and applying cartographic and remote sensing techniques to aid legislators, policymakers, and the public in solving land-and resources-management problems. Specific issues discussed in this yearbook include erosion of Louisiana's coastal barrier islands, transport of pollutants in sediment in the Mississippi River, primary mapping economic analysis, and probabilities of large earthquakes in California.

  11. Chapter 41: Geology and petroleum potential of the West Greenland-East Canada Province

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, C.J.

    2011-01-01

    The US Geological Survey (USGS) assessed the potential for undiscovered oil and gas resources of the West Greenland-East Canada Province as part of the USGS Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal programme. The province lies in the offshore area between western Greenland and eastern Canada and includes Baffin Bay, Davis Strait, Lancaster Sound and Nares Strait west of and including part of Kane Basin. A series of major tectonic events led to the formation of several distinct structural domains that are the geological basis for defining five assessment units (AU) in the province, all of which are within the Mesozoic-Cenozoic Composite Petroleum System. Potential petroleum source rocks include strata of Ordovician, Lower and Upper Cretaceous, and Palaeogene ages. The five AUs defined for this study - the Eurekan Structures AU, NW Greenland Rifted Margin AU, NE Canada Rifted Margin AU, Baffin Bay Basin AU and the Greater Ungava Fault Zone AU - encompass the entire province and were assessed for undiscovered technically recoverable resources. The mean volumes of undiscovered resources for the West Greenland-East Canada Province are 10.7 ?? 109 barrels of oil, 75 ?? 1012 cubic feet of gas, and 1.7 ?? 109 barrels of natural gas liquids. For the part of the province that is north of the Arctic Circle, the estimated mean volumes of these undiscovered resources are 7.3 ?? 109 barrels of oil, 52 ?? 1012 cubic feet of natural gas, and 1.1 ?? 109 barrels of natural gas liquids. ?? 2011 The Geological Society of London.

  12. Mineral Resources, Geological Structure and Landform Surveys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Short, M. N.

    1973-01-01

    Significant results are presented of ERTS-1 investigations of landform surveys, mineral resources, and geological structures. The report covers four areas: (1) mapping investigations; (2) dynamic surface processes and landforms; (3) structural elements; and (4) mineral deposits.

  13. Geological Survey research 1971, Chapter D

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1971-01-01

    Chapter A, to be published later in the year, will present a summary of significant results of work done in fiscal year 197, together with lists of investigations in progress, reports published, cooperating agencies, and Geological Survey offices.

  14. Results of magnetic HGI and radiometric surveys in W. Canada

    SciTech Connect

    LeSchack, L.A.

    1997-05-19

    This article presents four case histories in which ground-based magnetic horizontal gradient intensity (HGI) and radiometric surveys were used in Western Canada for cost-effective geochemical exploration for hydrocarbons. The authors has developed these two surface exploration techniques from published studies and adapted them for use on the prairies the past 7 years. These surveys are used in conjunction with the usual geologic and seismic studies for: (1) evaluating prospects and land; (2) verifying seismic anomalies and inexpensively locating areas for conducting expensive 3D seismic surveys. Occasionally, as in two of the case histories discussed, these surveys were used successfully as stand-alone exploration methods where seismic exploration is not effective. The HGI and radiometric surveys measure, by geophysical methods, those effects associated with geochemical alterations due to vertical microseepage of hydrocarbons. The total cost, including permitting, data acquisition, data processing, and interpretation of the combination HGI and radiometric surveys is about 15% the total cost of a 3D seismic survey. Because of this, the author finds them an attractive and rapid survey adjunct to traditional exploration. They substantially reduce finding costs and significantly raise the probability of financial success.

  15. Matching magnetic trends and patterns across the Tintina fault, Alaska and Canada--evidence for offset of about 490 kilometers: Chapter C in Recent U.S. Geological Survey studies in the Tintina Gold Province, Alaska, United States, and Yukon, Canada--results of a 5-year project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saltus, Richard W.

    2007-01-01

    Magnetic anomaly patterns on opposite sides of the mapped Tintina fault in eastern Alaska and western Canada show an apparent offset of about 490 kilometers (km), probably of Eocene age. This estimate is compared with previous geologically based estimates of 400 to 430 km and paleomagnetically based estimates of more than 1,100 km. The apparent geophysical alignments have geologic implications that deserve further study.

  16. Geological Survey Research 1966, Chapter A

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1966-01-01

    'Geological Survey Research 1966' is the seventh annual review of the econamic and scientific work of the U.S. Geological Survey. As in previous years the purpose of the volume is to make available promptly to the public the highlights of Survey investigations. This year the volume consists of 4 chapters (A through D) of Professional Paper 550. Chapter A contains a summary of significant results, and the remaining chapters are made up of collections of short technical papers. Many of the results summarized in chapter A are discussed in greater detail in the short papers or in reports listed in 'Publications in Fiscal Year 1966,' beginning on page A265. The tables of contents for chapters B through D are listed on pages A259-A264. Numerous Federal, State, county, and municipal agencies listed on pages A211-A215 cooperated financially with the Geological Survey during fiscal 1966 and have contributed significantly to the results reported here. They are identified where appropriate in the short technical papers that have appeared in Geological Survey Research and in papers published cooperatively, but generally are not identified in the brief statements in chapter A. Many individuals on the staff of the Geological Survey have contributed to 'Geological Survey Research 1966.' Reference is made to only a few. Frank W. Trainer, Water Resources Division, was responsible for organizing and assembling chapter A and for critical review of papers in chapters B-D, assisted by Louis Pavlides, Geologic Division. Marston S. Chase, Publications Division, was in charge of production aspects of the series, assisted by Jesse R. Upperco in technical editing, and William H. Elliott and James R. Hamilton in planning and preparing illustrations. The volume for next year, 'Geological Survey Research 1967,' will be published as chapters af Professional Paper 5715. Previous volumes are listed below, with their series designations. Gealagical Survey Research 1960-Prof. Paper 400 Gealagical Survey Research 1961-Prof. Paper 424 Gealagical Survey Research 1962-Prof. Paper 450 Gealagical Survey Research 1963-Prof. Paper 475 Gealagical Survey Research 1964-Prof. Paper 501 Gealagical Survey Research 1965-Prof. Paper 525

  17. Crustal-scale geological and thermal models of the Beaufort-Mackenzie Basin, Arctic Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sippel, Judith; Scheck-Wenderoth, Magdalena; Krger, Karsten; Lewerenz, Bjrn

    2010-05-01

    The Beaufort-Mackenzie Basin is a petroliferous province in northwest Arctic Canada and one of the best-known segments of the Arctic Ocean margin due to decades of exploration. Our study is part of the programme MOM (Methane On the Move), which aims to quantify the methane contribution from natural petroleum systems to the atmosphere over geological times. Models reflecting the potential of a sedimentary basin to release methane require well-assessed boundary conditions such as the crustal structure and large-scale temperature variation. We focus on the crustal-scale thermal field of the Beaufort-Mackenzie Basin. This Basin has formed on a post-rift, continental margin which, during the Late Cretaceous and Tertiary, developed into the foreland of the North American Cordilleran foldbelt providing space for the accumulation of up to 16 km of foreland deposits. We present a 3D geological model which integrates the present topography, depth maps of Upper Cretaceous and Tertiary horizons (Kroeger et al., 2008, 2009), tops of formations derived from interpreted 2D reflection seismic lines and 284 boreholes (released by the National Energy Board of Canada), and the sequence stratigraphic framework established by previous studies (e.g. Dixon et al., 1996). To determine the position and geometry of the crust-mantle boundary, an isostatic calculation (Airs model) is applied to the geological model. We present different crustal-scale models combining isostatic modelling, published deep reflection and refraction seismic lines (e.g. Stephenson et al., 1994; O'Leary et al., 1995), and calculations of the 3D conductive thermal field. References: Dixon, J., 1996. Geological Atlas of the Beaufort-Mackenzie Area, Geological Survey of Canada Miscellaneous Report, 59, Ottawa, 173 pp. Kroeger, K.F., Ondrak, R., di Primio, R. and Horsfield, B., 2008. A three-dimensional insight into the Mackenzie Basin (Canada): Implications for the thermal history and hydrocarbon generation potential of Tertiary deltaic sequences, AAPG Bulletin, 92(2): 225-247. Kroeger, K.F., di Primio, R. and Horsfield, B., (2009). Hydrocarbon flow modeling in complex structures (Mackenzie Basin, Canada), AAPG Bulletin, 93(9): 1-25. O'Leary, D.M., Ellis, R.M., Stephenson, R.A., Lane, L.S. and Zelt, C.A., 1995. Crustal structure of the northern Yukon and Mackenzie Delta, northwestern Canada, Journal of Geophysical Research 100(B7): 9905-9920. Stephenson, R.A., Coflin, K.C., Lane, L.S. and Dietrich, J.R., 1994. Crustal structure and tectonics of the southeastern Beaufort Sea continental margin, Tectonics, 13(2): 389-400.

  18. US Geological Survey customers speak out

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gillespie, S.; Snyder, G.

    1995-01-01

    Provides results of a customer survey carried out in 1994 by the US Geological Survey. Uses of cartographic products are classified, as are application areas, accuracy satisfaction, media, Digital Line Graph requirements in update, and frequency of product use. USGS responses and plans for the future are noted. -M.Blakemore

  19. Geologic Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the West Greenland-East Canada Province

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, Christopher J.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently assessed the potential for undiscovered oil and gas resources of the West Greenland-East Canada Province as part of the USGS Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal program. The province lies in the offshore area between western Greenland and eastern Canada and includes Baffin Bay, Davis Strait, Lancaster Sound, and Nares Strait west of and including part of Kane Basin. A series of major tectonic events led to the formation of several distinct structural domains that are the geologic basis for defining five assessment units (AU) in the province, all of which are within the Mesozoic-Cenozoic Composite Total Petroleum System (TPS). Potential petroleum source rocks within the TPS include strata of Ordovician, Early and Late Cretaceous, and Paleogene ages. The five AUs defined for this study-the Eurekan Structures AU, Northwest Greenland Rifted Margin AU, Northeast Canada Rifted Margin AU, Baffin Bay Basin AU, and the Greater Ungava Fault Zone AU-encompass the entire province and were assessed for undiscovered, technically recoverable resources.

  20. Chapter D in Geological Survey research 1964

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1964-01-01

    This collection of 43 short papers is the last of the chapters of Geological Survey Research 1964. The papers report on scientific and economic results of current work by members of the Geologic, Conservation, Water Resources, and Topographic Divisions of the U.S. Geological Survey. Some of the papers present results of completed parts of continuing investigations; others announce new discoveries or preliminary results of investigations that will be discussed in greater detail in reports to be published in the future. Still others are. scientific notes of limited scope, and short papers on techniques and instrumentation. Chapter A of this series presents a summary of results of work done during the present fiscal year.

  1. US GEOLOGICAL SURVEY WELL WATERLEVEL DATA, NC

    EPA Science Inventory

    USGS well waterlevel data for NC wells, as provided by North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources (NC-DENR). The zipped file contains 2 FoxPro databases:
    usgs.dbf - This database contains the well construction information for the US Geological Survey's moni...

  2. Canada First: The 2009 Survey of International Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphries, Jennifer, Ed.; Knight-Grofe, Janine, Ed.; Klabunde, Niels, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    The Canadian Bureau for International Education (CBIE) regularly evaluates the experience of international students in Canada through a benchmarking survey. Canada First 2009 represents the fourth time CBIE has conducted this research. Previous editions appeared in 1988, 1999 and 2004. This year's survey used a revised questionnaire similar…

  3. U.S. Geological Survey Geologic Carbon Sequestration Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warwick, P. D.; Blondes, M. S.; Brennan, S.; Corum, M.; Merrill, M. D.

    2012-12-01

    The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 authorized the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to conduct a national assessment of potential geological storage resources for carbon dioxide (CO2) in consultation with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and State geological surveys. To conduct the assessment, the USGS developed a probability-based assessment methodology that was extensively reviewed by experts from industry, government and university organizations (Brennan et al., 2010, http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2010/1127). The methodology is intended to be used at regional to sub-basinal scales and it identifies storage assessment units (SAUs) that are based on two depth categories below the surface (1) 3,000 to 13,000 ft (914 to 3,962 m), and (2) 13,000 ft (3,962 m) and greater. In the first category, the 3,000 ft (914 m) minimum depth of the storage reservoir ensures that CO2 is in a supercritical state to minimize the storage volume. The depth of 13,000 ft (3,962 m) represents maximum depths that are accessible with average injection pressures. The second category represents areas where a reservoir formation has potential storage at depths below 13,000 ft (3,962 m), although they are not accessible with average injection pressures; these are assessed as a separate SAU. SAUs are restricted to formation intervals that contain saline waters (total dissolved solids greater than 10,000 parts per million) to prevent contamination of protected ground water. Carbon dioxide sequestration capacity is estimated for buoyant and residual storage traps within the basins. For buoyant traps, CO2 is held in place in porous formations by top and lateral seals. For residual traps, CO2 is contained in porous formations as individual droplets held within pores by capillary forces. Preliminary geologic models have been developed to estimate CO2 storage capacity in approximately 40 major sedimentary basins within the United States. More than 200 SAUs have been identified within these basins. The results of the assessment are estimates of the technically accessible storage resources based on present-day geological and engineering technology related to CO2 injection into geologic formations; therefore the assessment is not of total in-place resources. Summary geologic descriptions of the evaluated basins and SAUs will be prepared, along with the national assessment results. During the coming year, these results will be released as USGS publications available from http://energy.usgs.gov. In support of these assessment activities, CO2 sequestration related research science is being conducted by members of the project. Results of our research will contribute to current and future CO2 storage assessments conducted by the USGS and other organizations. Research topics include: (a) geochemistry of CO2 interactions with subsurface environments; (b) subsurface petrophysical rock properties in relation to CO2 injection; (c) enhanced oil recovery and the potential for CO2 storage; (d) storage of CO2 in unconventional reservoirs (coal, shale, and basalt); (e) statistical aggregation of assessment results; and (f) potential risks of induced seismicity.

  4. Canada's Deep Geological Repository For Used Nuclear Fuel -The Geoscientific Site Evaluation Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirschorn, S.; Ben Belfadhel, M.; Blyth, A.; DesRoches, A. J.; McKelvie, J. R. M.; Parmenter, A.; Sanchez-Rico Castejon, M.; Urrutia-Bustos, A.; Vorauer, A.

    2014-12-01

    The Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO) is responsible for implementing Adaptive Phased Management, the approach selected by the Government of Canada for long-term management of used nuclear fuel generated by Canadian nuclear reactors. In May 2010, the NWMO published and initiated a nine-step site selection process to find an informed and willing community to host a deep geological repository for Canada's used nuclear fuel. The site selection process is designed to address a broad range of technical and social, economic and cultural factors. The suitability of candidate areas will be assessed in a stepwise manner over a period of many years and include three main steps: Initial Screenings; Preliminary Assessments; and Detailed Site Characterizations. The Preliminary Assessment is conducted in two phases. NWMO has completed Phase 1 preliminary assessments for the first eight communities that entered into this step. While the Phase 1 desktop geoscientific assessments showed that each of the eight communities contains general areas that have the potential to satisfy the geoscientific safety requirements for hosting a deep geological repository, the assessment identified varying degrees of geoscientific complexity and uncertainty between communities, reflecting their different geological settings and structural histories. Phase 2 activities will include a sequence of high-resolution airborne geophysical surveys and focused geological field mapping to ground-truth lithology and structural features, followed by limited deep borehole drilling and testing. These activities will further evaluate the site's ability to meet the safety functions that a site would need to ultimately satisfy in order to be considered suitable. This paper provides an update on the site evaluation process and describes the approach, methods and criteria that are being used to conduct the geoscientific Preliminary Assessments.

  5. Quaternary geologic map of the Winnipeg 4 degrees x 6 degrees quadrangle, United States and Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fullerton, D. S., (compiler); Ringrose, S.M.; Clayton, Lee; Schreiner, B.T.; Goebel, J.E.

    2000-01-01

    The Quaternary Geologic Map of the Winnipeg 4? ? 6? Quadrangle, United States and Canada, is a component of the U.S. Geological Survey Quaternary Geologic Atlas of the United States map series (Miscellaneous Investigations Series I-1420), an effort to produce 4? ? 6? Quaternary geologic maps, at 1:1 million scale, of the entire conterminous United States and adjacent Canada. The map and the accompanying text and supplemental illustrations provide a regional overview of the areal distributions and characteristics of surficial deposits and materials of Quaternary age (~1.8 Ma to present) in parts of North Dakota, Minnesota, Manitoba, and Saskatchewan. The map is not a map of soils as soils are recognized in agriculture. Rather, it is a map of soils as recognized in engineering geology, or of substrata or parent materials in which agricultural soils are formed. The map units are distinguished chiefly on the basis of (1)genesis (processes of origin) or environments of deposition: for example, sediments deposited primarily by glacial ice (glacial deposits or till), sediments deposited in lakes (lacustrine deposits), or sediments deposited by wind (eolian deposits); (2) age: for example, how long ago the deposits accumulated; (3) texture (grain size)of the deposits or materials; (4) composition (particle lithology) of the deposits or materials; (5) thickness; and (6) other physical, chemical, and engineering properties. Supplemental illustrations show (1) temporal correlation of the map units, (2) the areal relationships of late Wisconsin glacial ice lobes and sublobes, (3) temporal and spatial correlation of late Wisconsin glacial phases, readvance limits, and ice margin stillstands, (4) temporal and stratigraphic correlation of surface and subsurface glacial deposits in the Winnipeg quadrangle and in adjacent 4? ? 6? quadrangles, and (5) responsibility for state and province compilations. The database provides information related to geologic hazards (for example, materials that are characterized by expansive clay minerals; landslide deposits or landslide-prone deposits), natural resources (for example, sources of aggregate, peat, and clay; potential shallow sources of groundwater), and areas of environmental concern (for example, areas that are potentially suitable for specific ecosystem habitats; areas of potential soil and groundwater contamination). All of these aspects of the database relate directly to land use, management, and policy. The map, text, and accompanying illustrations provide a database of regional scope related to geologic history, climatic changes, the stratigraphic and chronologic frameworks of surface and subsurface deposits and materials of Quaternary age, and other problems and concerns.

  6. New York State Geological Survey crystalline rock project. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-03-01

    Presented is a preliminary geologic map of the West-Central Adirondack Region, based on mapping by members of the New York State Geological Survey and participants from several universities during the 1984 field season. The area mapped comprises portions of the West Canada Lakes, Old Forge, McKeever, Number Four, Big Moose and Raquette Lake 15 minute quadrangles. The geology of the area is dominated by two major groups of hornblende-granulite facies rocks: (a) a supracrustal sequence locally showing internal stratigraphy, including quartzofeldspathic leucogneiss, kinzigite, marble, calcsilicate granulite and amphibolite, and (b) granitic and charnockitic gneisses of both plutonic and supracrustal origin, which are widespread and often occur as elliptical domes and lenses, as well as being interstratified with the metasedimentary sequence. Clear intrusive relationships are few. In addition to these rocks, minor intrusions of meta-anorthosite and metagabbro are locally present. At least three phases of folding are present. The first is expressed by regional foliation development. The second generation is tight to isoclinal and overturned with axial trends ranging from east to northeast. The third generation is open folds with north to northwest axial trends. Good correlation exists between photogeology, aeromagnetics, and field observations.

  7. U.S. Geological Survey Information Sources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2001-01-01

    As the Nation's largest water, earth, and biological science and civilian mapping agency, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) works in cooperation with more than 2,000 organizations across the country to provide reliable, impartial scientific information to resource managers, planners, and other customers. This information is gathered in every State by USGS scientists to minimize the loss of life and property from natural disasters, to contribute to the conservation and the sound economic and physical development of the Nation's natural resources, and to enhance the quality of life by monitoring water, biological, energy, and mineral resources

  8. U.S. Geological Survey Information Sources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2000-01-01

    As the nation's largest water, earth and biological science and civilian mapping agency, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) works in cooperation with more than 2000 organizations across the country to provide reliable, impartial, scientific information to resource managers, planners, and other customers. This information is gathered in every state by USGS scientists to minimize the loss of life and property from natural disasters, to contribute to the conservation and the sound economic and physical development of the nation's natural resources, and to enhance the quality of life by monitoring water, biological, energy and mineral resources.

  9. The United States Geological Survey in Alaska; accomplishments during 1983

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartsch-Winkler, S., (Edited By); Reed, K.M.

    1985-01-01

    This circular contains short reports about many of the geologic studies carried out in Alaska by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating agencies during 1983. The topics cover a wide range in scientific and economic interest.

  10. The British Geological Survey seismic monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ottemoller, L.; Baptie, B.; Luckett, R.

    2009-04-01

    The British Geological Survey (BGS) monitors the seismicity in and around the British Isles. The seismic network was started in the seventies and built up over the years to 146 short-period stations. An upgrade of this network started a few years ago and will result in a modern network with broadband seismometers, high dynamic range digitizers and real-time communication (Internet, ADSL, satellite). In total the network will comprise about 50 stations, with only few short-period stations remaining. Equipment is used from both Guralp and Nanometrics, and their respective software for data acquisition is used to bring the data to the centre in near real-time. The automated data processing is done through Earthworm. Event data are analysed using SEISAN. Continuous data are kept for all broadband stations and checked for quality and completeness. Real-time data is also exchanged with neighbouring networks. The data is used for routine monitoring, but also research. The main research objectives are to understand distribution of seismicity and relating earthquakes to tectonics, develop velocity and attenuation models and study the seismic hazard and earthquake effects.

  11. A survey of sheep diseases in Canada.

    PubMed Central

    Dohoo, I R; Curtis, R A; Finley, G G

    1985-01-01

    A mail survey of disease occurrence in Canadian sheep flocks was conducted. The survey, which covered the period from September 1982 to August 1983, utilized flocks on the Record of Performance (ROP) sheep program and relatively complete data were available from 116 flocks. Data about lambing rates, incidence of a variety of lamb and ewe diseases and reasons for culling were obtained. At the same time a retrospective evaluation of records of diagnoses of sheep diseases recorded at diagnostic laboratories across the country was performed. Data from the years 1978 to 1982 were obtained and summarized. A lambing percentage of 153% (1.53 lambs live born per ewe lambing) was observed and an additional 0.05 lambs were stillborn. The major identified causes of mortality amongst lambs were starvation, pneumonia, scours and accidents. Pasteurella spp. were the etiological agents most commonly associated with pneumonia in lambs and Escherichia coli had the same predominant position with regards to nonparasitic scours. A large discrepancy existed between the proportional mortality rates for internal parasites and coccidiosis as determined from the farm survey data compared to diagnostic laboratory data. This suggests that clinical parasitism may not be adequately recognized at the farm level. Abortions in ewes occurred in approximately half the flocks, but generally at a low level and no severe abortion storms occurred. Pneumonia was the most commonly identified cause of mortality in ewes and although Pasteurella spp. appear to be the most important etiological agents, regional differences were apparent.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3840053

  12. Four interacting aspects of a geological survey knowledge system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loudon, T. V.

    2009-04-01

    The developing cyberinfrastructure affects the knowledge system by which geological surveys collect, represent and communicate their knowledge, and thereby influences their view of the geology. Consequences for four interacting aspects of the overall system (infrastructure, business models, geological framework and surveying methods) are outlined. Although each reflects a different area of expertise, all aspects must work together to support an incipient change of emphasis in survey workfrom publishing maps and supporting documents, to contributing to a whole-Earth knowledge system that responds flexibly to user needs.

  13. Mineral resources, geological structures, and landform surveys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Short, N. M.

    1974-01-01

    Since March 1973 there has been a shift in ERTS results in geology from the initial show-and-tell stage to a period in which scientific studies predominated, and now to an emphasis on effective applications having economic benefits and clearcut relevance to national needs. Many years will be spent on geological tasks resulting from ERTS alone; reconnaissance mapping in inaccessible regions, map revisions, regional or synoptic analysis of crustal fractures, assessment of dynamic surficial processes, systematic search for mineral wealth, use of sophisticated enhancement techniques, recognition of potential geologic hazards, and many more applications that still need to be defined.

  14. A Geospatial Information Grid Framework for Geological Survey

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Liang; Xue, Lei; Li, Chaoling; Lv, Xia; Chen, Zhanlong; Guo, Mingqiang; Xie, Zhong

    2015-01-01

    The use of digital information in geological fields is becoming very important. Thus, informatization in geological surveys should not stagnate as a result of the level of data accumulation. The integration and sharing of distributed, multi-source, heterogeneous geological information is an open problem in geological domains. Applications and services use geological spatial data with many features, including being cross-region and cross-domain and requiring real-time updating. As a result of these features, desktop and web-based geographic information systems (GISs) experience difficulties in meeting the demand for geological spatial information. To facilitate the real-time sharing of data and services in distributed environments, a GIS platform that is open, integrative, reconfigurable, reusable and elastic would represent an indispensable tool. The purpose of this paper is to develop a geological cloud-computing platform for integrating and sharing geological information based on a cloud architecture. Thus, the geological cloud-computing platform defines geological ontology semantics; designs a standard geological information framework and a standard resource integration model; builds a peer-to-peer node management mechanism; achieves the description, organization, discovery, computing and integration of the distributed resources; and provides the distributed spatial meta service, the spatial information catalog service, the multi-mode geological data service and the spatial data interoperation service. The geological survey information cloud-computing platform has been implemented, and based on the platform, some geological data services and geological processing services were developed. Furthermore, an iron mine resource forecast and an evaluation service is introduced in this paper. PMID:26710255

  15. A Geospatial Information Grid Framework for Geological Survey.

    PubMed

    Wu, Liang; Xue, Lei; Li, Chaoling; Lv, Xia; Chen, Zhanlong; Guo, Mingqiang; Xie, Zhong

    2015-01-01

    The use of digital information in geological fields is becoming very important. Thus, informatization in geological surveys should not stagnate as a result of the level of data accumulation. The integration and sharing of distributed, multi-source, heterogeneous geological information is an open problem in geological domains. Applications and services use geological spatial data with many features, including being cross-region and cross-domain and requiring real-time updating. As a result of these features, desktop and web-based geographic information systems (GISs) experience difficulties in meeting the demand for geological spatial information. To facilitate the real-time sharing of data and services in distributed environments, a GIS platform that is open, integrative, reconfigurable, reusable and elastic would represent an indispensable tool. The purpose of this paper is to develop a geological cloud-computing platform for integrating and sharing geological information based on a cloud architecture. Thus, the geological cloud-computing platform defines geological ontology semantics; designs a standard geological information framework and a standard resource integration model; builds a peer-to-peer node management mechanism; achieves the description, organization, discovery, computing and integration of the distributed resources; and provides the distributed spatial meta service, the spatial information catalog service, the multi-mode geological data service and the spatial data interoperation service. The geological survey information cloud-computing platform has been implemented, and based on the platform, some geological data services and geological processing services were developed. Furthermore, an iron mine resource forecast and an evaluation service is introduced in this paper. PMID:26710255

  16. Geologic studies in Alaska by the U.S. Geological Survey, 1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kelley, Karen D., (Edited By); Gough, Larry P.

    2000-01-01

    This annual compilation of geologically related papers, all dealing with studies in Alaska, contains 16 reports divided among four topics: geologic framework, environment and climate, resources, and bibliographies. These topics reflect the scope and objectives of some currently active U.S. Geological Survey programs and projects from all parts of the State of Alaska. Studies include results from the natural, chemical, and physical Earth sciences and are of interest to academia, government, industry, and the general public.

  17. U.S. Geological Survey technology transfer opportunity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1996-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is interested in entering into a partnership with private industry for commercialization of the Spatial Data Transfer Standard (SDTS)-Common Software Platform (CSP) software.

  18. Stability Zone of Natural Gas Hydrates in a Permafrost-Bearing Region of the Beaufort-Mackenzie Basin: Study of a Feasible Energy Source (Geological Survey of Canada Contribution No.1999275)

    SciTech Connect

    Majorowicz, J. A. Hannigan, P. K.

    2000-03-15

    Analysis of geological and geophysical data from 150 wells in the Beaufort-Mackenzie region(study area between 68 deg. 30'-70 deg. 00'N and 131 deg. -39 deg. W) led to reinterpretation of the depth of methane hydrate stability and construction of the first contour maps displaying thickness of hydrate stability zones as well as hydrate stability zone thicknesses below permafrost. Calculations were based on construction of temperature-depth profiles incorporating regional heat-flow values, temperature at the base of ice-bearing permafrost, and models relating thermal conductivity with depth. Data analysis indicates the presence and extent of the methane hydrate stability zone is related mainly to the history of permafrost development and less so by the relatively small regional variations of temperature gradients. Analysis of well logs and other indicators in conjunction with knowledge of the hydrate stability zone allows reevaluation of the location of possible gas hydrate occurrences. Log analysis indicates that in the onshore and shallow sea area of the Beaufort-Mackenzie Basin, methane hydrate occurs in 27 wells. Fifteen of these locations coincides with underlying conventional hydrocarbon occurrences. Previous analyses place some of the hydrate occurrences at greater depths than proposed for the methane hydrate stability zone described in this study. Interpretation of geological cross sections reveals that hydrates are related mainly to sandy deltaic and delta-plain deposits in Iperk, Kugmallit, and Reindeer sequences although additional hydrate picks have been inferred in other sequences, such as Richards. Overlying permafrost may act as seal for hydrate accumulations; however, the thickness of permafrost and its related hydrate stability zone fluctuated during geological time. It is interpreted that only in the last tens of thousand of years (i.e., Sangamonian to Holocene), conditions for hydrates changed from nonstable to stable. During Early and Late Wisconsinan and Holocene time, conditions were favorable for generation and trapping of hydrates. However, previously during Sangamonian time,less favorable conditions existed for hydrate stability. Gas release from hydrates may have occurred during times when hydrate stability was non existent because of permafrost melting episodes. It is interpreted that entrapment of gas in hydrate molecular structures is related to the existence of conventional structural traps as well as less permeable sediments such as the Mackenzie Bay Formation, which act as seal.

  19. United States Geological Survey Yearbook, fiscal year 1986

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1986-01-01

    This volume of the U.S. Geological Survey Yearbook is special, the first we have ever dedicated to an individual. While we were preparing that repost, Vincent E. McKelvey, eminent scientist and former Director of the Geological Survey died. Because of his deep devotion not only to his science but also to the agency and to the public that he served, we dedicate the 1986 Yearbook to Vince's memory.

  20. Volcanic and geologic database projects of the Geological Survey of Japan (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takarada, S.; Nakano, S.; Hoshizumi, H.; Itoh, J.; Urai, M.; Nishiki, K.

    2009-12-01

    Geological Survey of Japan (GSJ) is presently implementing the GEO-DB project, which aims to integrate all kinds of geological information in GSJ. GSJ published more than 50 CD-ROM series and established more than 20 databases at the Research Information Database (RIO-DB) of the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST). Presently, four volcanic databases are open to the public: (1) Quaternary volcano database (RIO-DB), (2) Active volcano database (RIO-DB), and (3) ASTER satellite image database of major volcanoes. The Quaternary volcano database contains information such as volcanic type, history, age and pictures of more than 300 Quaternary volcanoes in Japan. More detailed volcanic information will be added to the database in the near future. The active volcano database contains information of active volcanoes in Japan such as the catalog of eruptive events during the last 10,000 years and geological maps of active volcanoes. The ASTER satellite image database provides sequential ASTER satellite image datasets of major volcanoes in the world. Collaboration between Quaternary and active volcano databases and the VOGRIPA project is the next important activity at the Geological Survey of Japan. The Geological Survey of Japan introduced the Integrated Geological Map Database (GeoMapDB) in 2006. The GeoMapDB is based on a WebGIS technology, which makes it possible to browse, overlay and search geological maps online. The database contains geological maps with scales ranging from 1:2 million to 1:25,000. Links to aforementioned volcanic database and active fault database in RIO-DB are also available. OneGeology is an international initiative of the geological surveys of the world and a flagship project of the International Year of Planet Earth. It aims to create dynamic geological map of the world available at the world wide web. Geological Surveys from 109 countries of the world are participating in this project. The Geological Survey of Japan, AIST is promoting OneGeology in Asia. The OneGeology portal was officially launched in 2008. Volcanic hazard maps are available for most major active volcanoes in Japan. A web-based GIS system combining various types of information with real time numerical simulations are very important for the next generation of volcanic hazard maps. Volcanic gravity flow simulations using the energy cone model were developed on GEO Grid system in AIST. An interactive user interface is available on the GEO Grid website. The pyroclastic flow simulation is open to all scientists and local government officials at http://geoapp.geogrid.org/gridsphere.

  1. Publications of the U.S. Geological Survey Branch of Atlantic Marine Geology: Calendar Year 1991

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mons-Wengler, Margaret C.; Oldale, Robert N.

    1992-01-01

    This [summary of] U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 92-585 contains a listing of publications authored or co-authored by members of the Branch of Atlantic Marine Geology during 1991. Results of Branch investigations are distributed in a variety of ways, including maps, journal articles, abstracts and U.S.G.S. publications. Copies of U.S.G.S. Open File Reports may generally be obtained from the author. Book publications can be obtained from U.S. Geological Survey, Books and Reports Sales, Federal Center, Box 25425, Denver, CO 80225. Copies of U.S.G.S. Maps may be obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey, Map Sales, Federal Center, Box 25286, Denver, CO 80225

  2. United States Geological Survey Yearbook, fiscal year 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    The 1987 US Geological Survey yearbook describes the results of a number of Survey research efforts in such diverse areas as assessing the Nation's strategic and critical mineral resources studying the quality of the Nation's surface- and ground-water resources, and applying cartographic and remote sensing techniques to aid legislators, policy makers, and the public in solving land- and resource-management problems.

  3. Curiosity rover surveys Martian atmosphere and geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2012-11-01

    Three months after its dramatic landing on the surface of Mars, NASA's Mars Science Laboratory (MSL), known as Curiosity, is beginning to produce a variety of initial results, scientists reported at the Geological Society of America meeting in Charlotte, N. C., on 5 November. Curiosity landed on 6 August 2012 in Gale Crater, an impact crater 155 kilometers in diameter. During the next 2 years, the mission will characterize the geologic setting and search for signs of past habitable conditions. Curiosity project scientist John Grotzinger of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) noted that Curiosity's instruments have begun sampling the Martian atmosphere. On 2 November, NASA announced that the mission's first atmospheric measurements had not detected any clear evidence of methane in the Martian atmosphere.

  4. Landscape geochemistry near mineralized areas of eastern Alaska: Chapter H in Recent U.S. Geological Survey studies in the Tintina Gold Province, Alaska, United States, and Yukon, Canada--results of a 5-year project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Bronwen; Gough, Larry P.; Wanty, Richard B.; Crock, James G.; Lee, Gregory K.; Day, Warren C.; Vohden, Jim

    2007-01-01

    The Pogo lode gold deposit was discovered in eastern Alaska in the early 1990s and provided the opportunity to study elemental distribution and mobility in the natural environment prior to mine development. Studying mineralized systems prior to mining allows us to compare the natural biogeochemical signature in mineralized versus nonmineralized areas. The resultant data and interpretation also provide a baseline for evaluating what, if any, changes in elemental distribution result from development. This report investigates the chemistry of stream water, streambed sediment, and soil in the context of regional bedrock geology. The major-ion chemistry of the waters reflects a rock-dominated aqueous system, and the waters are classified as Ca2+ and Mg2+ - HCO3- to Ca2+ and Mg2+ - SO4-2 waters. Creeks draining the gneissic lithologies tend to be more sulfate dominated than those draining the intrusive units. Sulfate also dominated creeks draining mineralized areas; however, the underlying paragneiss unit could be contributing substantially to the sulfate concentration, and the sulfate concentration in these creeks may reflect a complex baltholith-paragneiss boundary rather than mineralization. Arsenic concentrations in bed sediments were elevated in mineralized areas relative to nonmineralized areas. Elevated concentrations of nickel, chromium, iron, manganese, and cobalt appear to reflect the presence of ultramafic rocks in the drainage. In general, aqueous metal concentrations were below the State of Alaska’s Aquatic Life Criteria and Drinking Water Standards, with the exception of arsenic in stream water, which ranged in concentration from less than 1 to 14 micrograms per liter (μg/L) and exceeded the drinking water standard at one site. The arsenic and antimony concentration in the A, B, and C soil horizons ranged from 3 to 410 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg), 6.1 to 440 mg/kg, and 2 to 300 mg/kg, respectively, for arsenic and 0.4 to 24 mg/kg, 0.6 to 25 mg/kg, and 0.2 to 16 mg/kg, respectively, for antimony. The arsenic and antimony concentrations in stream waters correlate well with the concentrations in soils. However, significantly less arsenic and antimony was extracted from C horizon soils in water leaching experiments, indicating that the arsenic and antimony in the C horizon is present in a less available form than in the A or B horizons. Arsenic and antimony uptake by grayleaf willow (Salix glauca L.) appears minimal, with arsenic concentrations ranging from less than 0.01 to 0.14 mg/kg and antimony concentrations ranging from less than 0.003 to 0.23 mg/kg in willow leaves. In general, the highest concentrations of both arsenic and antimony in water and soils were found near mineralized areas. Elevated arsenic concentrations were also found in bed sediments from mineralized areas. In these sample matrices, the presence of arsenic and (or) antimony was a good indicator of contact with mineralized rock units.

  5. Geology and quaternary environments of the first preglacial palaeolithic sites found in Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chlachula, Ji?

    A pebble-tool industry, including two chronologically different stone artifact assemblages reminiscent of the Eurasian Palaeolithic, has been recorded in Late Pleistocene sections at two locations in the Bow River valley, southwestern Alberta. Authenticity and provenance of the deeply buried archaeological record is evidenced by culture-diagnostic percussion-flaked artifacts incorporated in preglacial fluvial gravels and overlying glacial diamictons and by identical textural patterns on stone tools found in and eroded from the exposures. Geological context suggests a fluctuating braided river setting during the earlier occupation. Discarded ( lower series) quartzite and hard carbonate rock artifacts, subglacially entrained into the Cordilleran Bow Valley till, document distortion of the earlier site (Silver Springs) by a valley glacier emerging from the Rocky Mountain ice-lobe. Following the valley deglaciation, a later occupation episode is manifested by a formally analogous flaked lithic assemblage excavated in situ on top of the till at a nearby site (Varsity Estates). This more recent occupation surface was subsequently buried under 24 m of glaciolacustrine sediments after submergence of the river valley by a proglacial lake (Glacial Lake Calgary) dammed by the Laurentide ice advance into the eastern Calgary area, implying a minimum early Late Wisconsinan age (ca. >21,000 BP) for the lithic industry. The presence of the later ( upper series) artifact assemblage and the associated palynological data do not support the view that envisages an extremely cold, inhospitable glacial environment on the eastern slopes of the Canadian Rocky Mountains throughout the Late Wisconsinan. Their stratigraphic position also indicates temporal asynchroneity between Cordilleran and Laurentide ice during the last glacial maximum in the Bow River valley, the area of presumed coalescence of the two ice-masses. Although a more rapid response of the western mountain glacier to climatic change is evident, the apparent absence of pedogenic alteration of the till surface and the fresh appearance of the excavated stone artifacts suggest that a short time span separated the two glacial events. The archaeological record provides evidence of an earlier Palaeo-American peopling of western interior Canada long before the emergence of the Final Pleistocene Palaeoindian cultures, characterized by elaborate bifacial stone projectile-point flaking technologies traditionally regarded as the earliest cultural manifestations in North America. Silver Springs is the first early site on the continent found below glacial deposits. Realization that other American Palaeolithic sites, potentially of considerable antiquity, should be recognized in similar geological settings, and introduction of adequate geoarchaeological site-survey techniques, have crucial relevance for elucidation of the earliest New World prehistory.

  6. The United States Geological Survey in Alaska; organization and status of programs in 1976

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cobb, Edward Huntington, (Edited By)

    1976-01-01

    This report of the activities of the U.S. Geological Survey in Alaska is organized in four parts (1) services and responsibilities of the U.S. Geological Survey; (2) organization of the U.S. Geological Survey; 13) current U.S. Geological Survey activities; and (4) cooperative projects with Federal, State, and local agencies.

  7. Geological Survey data as a support for EPOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tulstrup, Jrgen; Robida, Francois; Harrison, Matthew; Bogaard, Paul; Pedersen, Mikael

    2015-04-01

    The National Geological Surveys of Europe have through many years collaborated on making their large possessions of geological data available for researchers, the general public and decision makers at all levels. Numerous projects have been carried out with the aim of harmonizing data across national boundaries and making data interoperable by delivering them according to international standards like those defined by INSPIRE, OGC, CGI and others. In 2012 - 2014 an EU co-funded study was carried out with the title of EGDI-Scope. The study showed how an integrated European Geological Data Infrastructure (EGDI) can be established so that all sorts of geological data form the Geological Surveys can be accessed in a common way by the relevant stakeholders. The establishment of such an EGDI is a cornerstone of the strategy of the organization of the Geological Surveys of Europe, EuroGeoSurveys, and the organization has decided to start implementing the infrastructure and establishing an organization which will ensure that this will be sustained. One of the most obvious user groups for the geological information is EPOS, the European Plate Observing System, which will be implemented in the coming years. The EPOS implementation project therefore contains a specific workpackage to establish the connection between the Geological Survey data and the rest of EPOS. A Thematic Core Service (TCS) for geological data and modeling will be built for making the data available for the Integrated Core Services of EPOS. The TCS will deal with borehole data, digital geological maps, geophysical data like seismics and borehole logs, archived physical geological material like samples and cores, geochemical and other analyses of rocks, soil and minerals as well as with 3D and 4D geological models of the subsurface. Great emphasis will be put on making the system sustainable and with easy access and the idea is also to further develop and promote the international standards for data exchange. This will provide future virtual research environments with means to facilitate the use of existing information for future applications. In addition, workflows will be established that allow the integration of other existing and new data and applications. Processing and the use of simulation and visualization tools will subsequently support the integrated analysis and characterization of complex subsurface structures and their inherent dynamic processes. This will in turn aid in the overall understanding of complex multi-scale geo-scientific questions. This TCS will work alongside other EPOS TCSs to create an efficient and comprehensive multidisciplinary research platform for the Earth Sciences in Europe.

  8. Quaternary Geologic Map of the Lake of the Woods 4 Degrees x 6 Degrees Quadrangle, United States and Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sado, Edward V., (compiler); Fullerton, David S.; Goebel, Joseph E.; Ringrose, Susan M.; Edited and Integrated by Fullerton, David S.

    1995-01-01

    The Quaternary Geologic Map of the Lake of the Woods 4 deg x 6 deg Quadrangle, United States and Canada, was mapped as part of the U.S. Geological Survey Quaternary Geologic Atlas of the United States map series (Miscellaneous Investigations Series I-1420, NM-15). The atlas was begun as an effort to depict the areal distribution of surficial geologic deposits and other materials that accumulated or formed during the past 2+ million years, the period that includes all activities of the human species. These materials are at the surface of the earth. They make up the 'ground' on which we walk, the 'dirt' in which we dig foundations, and the 'soil' in which we grow crops. Most of our human activity is related in one way or another to these surface materials that are referred to collectively by many geologists as regolith, the mantle of fragmental and generally unconsolidated material that overlies the bedrock foundation of the continent. The maps were compiled at 1:1,000,000 scale. This map is a product of collaboration of the Ontario Geological Survey, the Minnesota Geological Survey, the Manitoba Department of Energy and Mines, and the U.S. Geological Survey, and is designed for both scientific and practical purposes. It was prepared in two stages. First, separate maps and map explanations were prepared by the compilers. Second, the maps were combined, integrated, and supplemented by the editor. Map unit symbols were revised to a uniform system of classification and the map unit descriptions were prepared by the editor from information received from the compilers and from additional sources listed under Sources of Information. Diagrams accompanying the map were prepared by the editor. For scientific purposes, the map differentiates Quaternary surficial deposits on the basis of lithology or composition, texture or particle size, structure, genesis, stratigraphic relationships, engineering geologic properties, and relative age, as shown on the correlation diagram and indicated in the description of map units. Deposits of some constructional landforms, such as kame moraine deposits, are distinguished as map units. Deposits of erosional landforms, such as outwash terraces, are not distinguished, although glaciofluvial, ice-contact, and lacustrine deposits that are mapped may be terraced. As a Quaternary geologic map, it serves as a base from which a variety of maps relating Quaternary geologic history can be derived. For practical purposes, the map is a surficial materials map. Materials are distinguished on the basis of lithology or composition, texture or particle size, and other physical, chemical, and engineering characteristics. It is not a map of soils that are recognized and classified in pedology or agronomy. Rather, it is a generalized map of soils as recognized in engineering geology, or of substrata or parent materials in which pedologic or agronomic soils are formed. As a materials map, it serves as a base from which a variety of maps for use in planning engineering, land-use, or land-management projects can be derived.

  9. Investigating Atmospheric Mercury with the U.S. Geological Survey Mobile Mercury Laboratory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kolker, Allan

    2007-01-01

    Atmospheric mercury is thought to be an important source of mercury present in fish, resulting in numerous local, statewide, tribal, and province-wide fish consumption advisories in the United States and Canada (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2007a). To understand how mercury occurs in the atmosphere and its potential to be transferred from the atmosphere to the biosphere, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been investigating sources and forms of atmospheric mercury, especially in locations where the amount of mercury deposited from precipitation is above average.

  10. Stigma in Canada: Results From a Rapid Response Survey

    PubMed Central

    Stuart, Heather; Patten, Scott B; Koller, Michelle; Modgill, Geeta; Liinamaa, Tiina

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Our paper presents findings from the first population survey of stigma in Canada using a new measure of stigma. Empirical objectives are to provide a descriptive profile of Canadian’s expectations that people will devalue and discriminate against someone with depression, and to explore the relation between experiences of being stigmatized in the year prior to the survey among people having been treated for a mental illness with a selected number of sociodemographic and mental health–related variables. Method: Data were collected by Statistics Canada using a rapid response format on a representative sample of Canadians (n = 10 389) during May and June of 2010. Public expectations of stigma and personal experiences of stigma in the subgroup receiving treatment for a mental illness were measured. Results: Over one-half of the sample endorsed 1 or more of the devaluation discrimination items, indicating that they believed Canadians would stigmatize someone with depression. The item most frequently endorsed concerned employers not considering an application from someone who has had depression. Over one-third of people who had received treatment in the year prior to the survey reported discrimination in 1 or more life domains. Experiences of discrimination were strongly associated with perceptions that Canadians would devalue someone with depression, younger age (12 to 15 years), and self-reported poor general mental health. Conclusions: The Mental Health Experiences Module reflects an important partnership between 2 national organizations that will help Canada fulfill its monitoring obligations under the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and provide a legacy to researchers and policy-makers who are interested in monitoring changes in stigma over time. PMID:25565699

  11. 3-DIMENSIONAL Geological Mapping and Modeling Activities at the Geological Survey of Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarna, A.; Bang-Kittilsen, A.; Haase, C.; Henderson, I. H. C.; Hgaas, F.; Iversen, S.; Seither, A.

    2015-10-01

    Geology and all geological structures are three-dimensional in space. Geology can be easily shown as four-dimensional when time is considered. Therefore GIS, databases, and 3D visualization software are common tools used by geoscientists to view, analyse, create models, interpret and communicate geological data. The NGU (Geological Survey of Norway) is the national institution for the study of bedrock, mineral resources, surficial deposits and groundwater and marine geology. The interest in 3D mapping and modelling has been reflected by the increase of number of groups and researches dealing with 3D in geology within NGU. This paper highlights 3D geological modelling techniques and the usage of these tools in bedrock, geophysics, urban and groundwater studies at NGU, same as visualisation of 3D online. The examples show use of a wide range of data, methods, software and an increased focus on interpretation and communication of geology in 3D. The goal is to gradually expand the geospatial data infrastructure to include 3D data at the same level as 2D.

  12. Mineral resources, geological structure, and landform surveys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Short, N. M.

    1974-01-01

    Diagnostic ERTS imagery has been used to pinpoint surface conditions associated with known mining districts. These include enhancements which depict hitherto unrecognized surface alteration and allow analysis of ore-controlling fractures distribution in a regional context. ERTS has likewise provided observational data containing previously unrecognized surface anomalies in large oil-producing basins which correlate closely with known oil fields. These observational data offer promise of providing new and powerful techniques for oil exploration, especially if further work using more sophisticated enhancement-processing proves capable of emphasizing the anomalies. ERTS is showing a better-than-anticipated potential for producing accurate small-scale (large-area) geologic maps, often containing details that were previously not recorded on similar regional maps. The maps produced from ERTS imagery can be prepared more effectively than previously possible, mainly because of the synoptic, multispectral, and repetitive character of ERTS data. ERTS has also provided extensive information on possible geologic hazards. Many new fractures have been identified in several regions of the Pacific Coast seismic belt that have histories of recent earthquakes. This has obvious implications for engineering projects such as dams, aqueducts, and transportation routes. In the mid-continent area, ERTS data have been used to predict zones of rooffall danger in a working coal mine from newly discovered lineations (probably fractures) used as indicators of hazards.

  13. United States Geological Survey yearbook, fiscal year 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The fiscal year 1980 Yearbook summarizes the activities of the US Geological Survey in response to its scientific and regulatory missions and its responsibility for exploration of the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska. The main sections of this Yearbook are: (1) the year in review - a brief overview of the significant events of the Geological Survey during fiscal year 1980; (2) perspectives - essays focusing on specific events (rather than scientific topics) and programs involving multi-division participation; (3) missions, organization, and budget - a description of the Geological Survey's major duties and assignments and of the organizational structure that supports its missions; (4) division chapters - a description on the significant accomplishments (rather than a comprehensive program by program discussion) of each of the eight operating divisions and offices; and (5) appendices - provide supplementary information regarding key personnel, cooperators, and selected summary budgetary tables and an index.

  14. The new camera calibration system at the US Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Light, D.L.

    1992-01-01

    Modern computerized photogrammetric instruments are capable of utilizing both radial and decentering camera calibration parameters which can increase plotting accuracy over that of older analog instrumentation technology from previous decades. Also, recent design improvements in aerial cameras have minimized distortions and increased the resolving power of camera systems, which should improve the performance of the overall photogrammetric process. In concert with these improvements, the Geological Survey has adopted the rigorous mathematical model for camera calibration developed by Duane Brown. An explanation of the Geological Survey's calibration facility and the additional calibration parameters now being provided in the USGS calibration certificate are reviewed. -Author

  15. New activities at the U.S. Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKelvey, Vincent E.

    1974-01-01

    As the Nation's principal source of information about the configuration of the land surface, the composition and structure of the rocks at and beneath the surface, the distribution and character of its energy, mineral, and water resources, and the nature of natural geologic processes, the U. S. Geological Survey focuses its work on some of the Nation's most critical problems. As the Survey tackles new problems with new techniques, it is fully aware of the resource needs and environmental pressures of an expanding economy and growing population.

  16. Records and history of the United States Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, Clifford M.

    2000-01-01

    This publication contains two presentations in Portable Document Format (PDF). The first is Renee M. Jaussaud's inventory of the documents accessioned by the end of 1997 into Record Group 57 (Geological Survey) at the National Archives and Records Administration's (NARA) Archives II facility in College Park, Md., but not the materials in NARA's regional archives. The second is Mary C. Rabbitt's 'The United States Geological Survey 1879-1989,' which appeared in 1989 as USGS Circular 1050. Additionally, USGS Circular 1050 is also presented in Hyper Text Markup Language (HTML) format.

  17. A Survey of Geologic Resources. Chapter 11

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edmonson, Jennifer; Rickman, Doug

    2012-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the resources available from the Moon itself: regolith, geologically concentrated materials, and lunar physical features that will enable habitation and generation of power on the surface. This chapter briefly covers the formation of the Moon and thus the formation of the crust of the Moon, as well as the evolution of the regolith. The characteristics of the regolith are provided in some detail, including its mineralogy and lithology. The location of high concentrations of specific minerals or rocks is noted. Other ideal locations for in situ resource utilization technology and lunar habitation are presented. This chapter is intended to be a brief review of current knowledge, and to serve as a foundational source for further study. Each concept presented here has a wealth of literature associated with it; the reader is therefore directed to that literature with each discussion. With great interest in possible manned lunar landings and continued study of the Moon by multiple satellites, the available information changes regularly.

  18. Geologic mapping of Kentucky; a history and evaluation of the Kentucky Geological Survey--U.S. Geological Survey Mapping Program, 1960-1978

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cressman, Earle Rupert; Noger, Martin C.

    1981-01-01

    In 1960, the U.S. Geological Survey and the Kentucky Geological Survey began a program to map the State geologically at a scale of 1:24,000 and to publish the maps as 707 U.S. Geological Survey Geologic Quadrangle Maps. Fieldwork was completed by the spring of 1977, and all maps were published by December 1978. Geologic mapping of the State was proposed by the Kentucky Society of Professional Engineers in 1959. Wallace W. Hagan, Director and State Geologist of the Kentucky Geological Survey, and Preston McGrain, Assistant State Geologist, promoted support for the proposal among organizations such as Chambers of Commerce, industrial associations, professional societies, and among members of the State government. It was also arranged for the U.S. Geological Survey to supply mapping personnel and to publish the maps; the cost would be shared equally by the two organizations. Members of the U.S. Geological Survey assigned to the program were organized as the Branch of Kentucky Geology. Branch headquarters, including an editorial staff, was at Lexington, Ky., but actual mapping was conducted from 18 field offices distributed throughout the State. The Publications Division of the U.S. Geological Survey established a cartographic office at Lexington to prepare the maps for publication. About 260 people, including more than 200 professionals, were assigned to the Branch of Kentucky Geology by the U.S. Geological Survey at one time or another. The most geologists assigned any one year was 61. To complete the mapping and ancillary studies, 661 professional man-years were required, compared with an original estimate of 600 man-years. A wide variety of field methods were used, but most geologists relied on the surveying altimeter to obtain elevations. Surface data were supplemented by drill-hole records, and several dozen shallow diamond-drill holes were drilled to aid the mapping. Geologists generally scribed their own maps, with a consequent saving of publication costs. Paleontologists and stratigraphers of the U.S. Geological Survey cooperated closely with the program. Paleontologic studies were concentrated in the Ordovician of central Kentucky, the Pennsylvanian of eastern and western Kentucky, and the Mesozoic and Cenozoic of westernmost Kentucky. In addition to financial support, the Kentucky Geological Survey provided economic data, stratigraphic support, and drillhole records to the field offices. Geologists of the State Survey made subsurface structural interpretations, constructed bedrock topography maps, and mapped several quadrangles. Some of the problems encountered were the inadequacy of much of the existing stratigraphic nomenclature, the uneven quality of some of the mapping, and the effects of relative isolation on the professional development of some of the geologists. The program cost a total of $20,927,500. In terms of 1960 dollars, it cost $16,035,000; this compares with an original estimate of $12,000,000. Although it is difficult to place a monetary value on the geologic mapping, the program has contributed to newly discovered mineral wealth, jobs, and money saved by government and industry. The maps are used widely in the exploration for coal, oil and gas, fluorspar, limestone, and clay. The maps are also used in planning highways and locations of dams, in evaluating foundation and excavation conditions, in preparing environmental impact statements, and in land-use planning.

  19. United States Geological Survey Yearbook, Fiscal Year 1980

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1981-01-01

    It is not very often that a single event is so overwhelming that it changes public perceptions of natural hazards for generations. Perhaps for the U.S. Geological Survey, the explosive volcanic activity of Mount St. Helens began such a change. After 101 years of careful science of the Earth's past and meticulous observations and assessments of the present, predictive earth science was in full public view. However vague and faint the glimpse of the future made possible by earth science, it was enough. Warnings were issued, thousands of lives were saved, and the age of real-time geology began. The Survey's basic mission has not changed, but the power of our analytical tools has increased by several orders of magnitude. The Survey's efforts to understand Earth processes and hydrologic principles continued with the collection, during fiscal year 1980, of valuable new data on the geologic origin and framework, seismicity, and mineral and energy resources of the United States. The Survey is also responsible for classification of the leasable minerals on Federal lands and the regulation of mineral exploration and development activities on Federal and Indian lands. As the principal earth science fact-gathering agency, the Survey provides information for sound decisionmaking by government and private industry. Industry uses the Survey's information in exploring for energy and minerals and improving their efforts to make development of energy and minerals compatible with environmental protection standards. Government uses the Survey's information in conducting leasing operations on public lands, in regulating the safe design and siting of nuclear plants, and in establishing guidelines for determining and locating areas that are subject to geologic hazards such as landslides, earthquakes, and volcanic eruptions. The Yearbook reports a broad range of the Survey's accomplishments during the past fiscal year and provides an overview of future directions. Many of the topics covered will continue to be important natural resource and earth science issues of the 1980's.

  20. United States Geological Survey Yearbook, Fiscal Year 1978

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1979-01-01

    Fiscal year 1978 saw the U.S. Geological Survey continuing to perform its basic historical missions of collecting, analyzing, and disseminating information about the Earth, its processes, and its water and mineral resources. Classifying Federal lands and supervising lessee mineral extraction operations on those lands were also major Survey concerns during the year. In addition, substantial progress was made in the exploration and assessment of the petroleum potential of the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska, a recently assigned mission. These basic missions found expression in a wide range of program activities and interests as diverse as the sands of Mars and the volcanoes of Hawaii. Programs included assessment of numerous potential energy and mineral resources, study of earthquakes and other geologic hazards, appraisal of the magnitude and quality of the Nation's water resources, and supervision of lease operations on Federal lands. The Survey also was involved in developing data on land use and producing topographic, geologic, and hydrologic maps for public and private use. In cooperation with other Federal agencies, the Survey participated in studies under the U.S. Climate Program and continued its analysis of data received from the two Viking landers on the surface of Mars. On April 3, 1978, Dr. H. William Menard became the 10th Director of the U.S. Geological Survey. Dr. Menard, who, until his appointment, was Professor of Geology at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, San Diego, Calif., brings to the Director's post the experience gained in a long and successful career as a marine geologist and oceanographer. He succeeds Dr. Vincent E. McKelvey, who continues with the Survey as a senior research scientist.

  1. Canada-France Redshift Survey - X. The quasar sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schade, David; Crampton, David; Hammer, F.; Le Fevre, O.; Lilly, S. J.

    1996-01-01

    Six objects with broad emission lines and redshifts from 0.48 to 2.07 were discovered among 736 extragalactic objects in the Canada-France Redshift Survey (CFRS). Although the luminosities of half of the objects are such that they are in the Seyfert regime (M_B<~-23), all would be designated as quasars in traditional surveys. Since the only selection criterion was that 17.5<=I_AB<=22.5, or approximately B<23 (assuming a continuum power-law slope alpha=-0.5), these quasars represent an unbiased, flux-limited sample. Although uncertain, the implied surface density, 200^-120-80 deg^-2, is the highest yet measured, and is in good agreement with extrapolations from other faint surveys and the evolving luminosity function models of Boyle. The distributions of the continuum properties, emission-line strengths, etc. of the quasars do not differ significantly from those of quasars selected by other means, and therefore they would have been detected in most traditional surveys. Three of the quasars may be associated with clusters or large structures of galaxies at z<~1.

  2. LAND USE LAND COVER (LULC) - US GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Mapping Program, a component of the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS), produces and distributes land use and land cover maps and digitized data for the conterminous U.S. and Hawaii. Land use refers to the human activities that are directly related to the land. The int...

  3. Canada's Deep Geological Repository for Used Nuclear Fuel - Geo-scientific Site Evaluation Process - 13117

    SciTech Connect

    Blyth, Alec; Ben Belfadhel, Mahrez; Hirschorn, Sarah; Hamilton, Duncan; McKelvie, Jennifer

    2013-07-01

    The Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO) is responsible for implementing Adaptive Phased Management (APM), the approach selected by the Government of Canada for long-term management of used nuclear fuel generated by Canadian nuclear reactors. The ultimate objective of APM is the centralized containment and isolation of Canada's used nuclear fuel in a Deep Geological Repository in a suitable rock formation at a depth of approximately 500 meters (m) (1,640 feet [ft]). In May 2010, the NWMO published a nine-step site selection process that serves as the road map to decision-making on the location for the deep geological repository. The safety and appropriateness of any potential site will be assessed against a number of factors, both technical and social in nature. The selected site will be one that can be demonstrated to be able to safely contain and isolate used nuclear fuel, protecting humans and the environment over the very long term. The geo-scientific suitability of potential candidate sites will be assessed in a stepwise manner following a progressive and thorough site evaluation process that addresses a series of geo-scientific factors revolving around five safety functions. The geo-scientific site evaluation process includes: Initial Screenings; Preliminary Assessments; and Detailed Site Evaluations. As of November 2012, 22 communities have entered the site selection process (three in northern Saskatchewan and 18 in northwestern and southwestern Ontario). (authors)

  4. Implementation of softcopy photogrammetric workstations at the US Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Skalet, C.D.; Lee, G.Y.G.; Ladner, L. J.

    1992-01-01

    The US Geological Survey has provided the Nation with primary quadrangle maps and map products for the last 50 years. The Survey recently completed initial coverage of the conterminous United States and Hawaii at 1:24 000 scale. In Alaska, complete coverage exists at 1:63 360 scale. Effort is underway to build a National Digital Cartographic Data Base (NDCDB) composed of the digital representation of these and other map series. In addition the Survey plans to meet the demand for more current and complete data through the development and promotion of spatial data standards in cooperation with other Federal, State, local and private organizations. -from Authors

  5. A survey of population-based drug databases in Canada.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, E; Blatman, B; Einarson, T R

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify the population-based drug databases in Canada and to determine their comprehensiveness and accessibility for performing pharmacoepidemiologic and outcomes research. DESIGN: Survey (four-part mailed questionnaire). SETTING: Public and private third-party drug plans across Canada. PARTICIPANTS: All provincial and territorial drug plan or pharmacare managers as well as selected private plan managers including health benefit consultants, group insurers and claims adjudicators/pharmacy benefit managers (CA/PBMs). OUTCOME MEASURES: Patient, drug and pharmacy information; potential for electronic linkages to other provincial databases (e.g., physician, hospital, vital statistics); accessibility of information; population profile. RESULTS: Of the 32 recipients of the questionnaire 29 (91%) responded and 18 (56%) completed the survey. Most databases were reported to contain patient information (e.g., patient identification number, age, sex and medication history) and prescription drug information (e.g., drug identification number, strength, quantity and cost). Six provinces and one territory reported the capability to link to other databases (e.g., hospital and physician databases). One CA/PBM reported some links to selected long-term disability data. All of the government databases except those in British Columbia and the Yukon Territory allowed use of the data for research purposes. Manitoba and Saskatchewan included all residents of the province in their database; the others included selected groups (e.g., residents 65 years of age or older, people on social assistance or people covered by private group insurance). CONCLUSION: A number of public and private population-based databases are available for use in pharmacoepidemiologic and outcomes research. PMID:8653645

  6. Directions of the US Geological Survey Landslide Hazards Reduction Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wieczorek, G.F.

    1993-01-01

    The US Geological Survey (USGS) Landslide Hazards Reduction Program includes studies of landslide process and prediction, landslide susceptibility and risk mapping, landslide recurrence and slope evolution, and research application and technology transfer. Studies of landslide processes have been recently conducted in Virginia, Utah, California, Alaska, and Hawaii, Landslide susceptibility maps provide a very important tool for landslide hazard reduction. The effects of engineering-geologic characteristics of rocks, seismic activity, short and long-term climatic change on landslide recurrence are under study. Detailed measurement of movement and deformation has begun on some active landslides. -from Author

  7. Geological constraints on the emplacement of the Snap Lake kimberlite dyke, NW Territories, Arctic Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gernon, T. M.; Sparks, S. J.; Field, M.; Ogilvie-Harris, R. C.

    2009-05-01

    The Snap Lake kimberlite dyke, Northwest Territories, Canada, is a complex segmented ore-body. Detailed geological mapping was undertaken with a view of improving the productivity and efficiency of the mining operation. The relationship between the igneous geology of the kimberlite and complex structural features (e.g. ramps and steps) were investigated, to improve predictability of the dyke geometry. Geological mapping and analysis have established that the dyke is a multi-phase intrusion with four different magmatic lithofacies. In particular, olivine-rich and olivine-poor varieties of hypabyssal kimberlite have been identified. Key observations are that olivine-rich (phlogopite-poor) lithofacies has a strong tendency to be located where the dyke is thickest and that there is a good correlation between dyke thickness, olivine crystal size and crystal content. Accordingly the olivine-poor (phlogopite-rich) lithofacies tends to be most abundant where the dyke is thinnest. Empirical observations based on diamond size distributions recorded in three sets of closely spaced bulk samples, suggest that the diamond distributions might be controlled by the proportion of olivine-rich kimberlite in the sample. These relationships potentially have major economic implications for exploration and mining at other diamondiferous intrusions. Complex structural features are associated with changes in dyke thickness, and therefore parameters such as crystal and lithic size and content may allow better prediction of dyke complexity at a mining scale.

  8. The US Geological Survey's national coal resource assessment: The results

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruppert, L.F.; Kirschbaum, M.A.; Warwick, P.D.; Flores, R.M.; Affolter, R.H.; Hatch, J.R.

    2002-01-01

    The US Geological Survey and the State geological surveys of many coal-bearing States recently completed a new assessment of the top producing coal beds and coal zones in five major producing coal regions the Appalachian Basin, Gulf Coast, Illinois Basin, Colorado Plateau, and Northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains. The assessments, which focused on both coal quality and quantity, utilized geographic information system technology and large databases. Over 1,600,000 million short tons of coal remain in over 60 coal beds and coal zones that were assessed. Given current economic, environmental, and technological restrictions, the majority of US coal production will occur in that portion of the assessed coal resource that is lowest in sulfur content. These resources are concentrated in parts of the central Appalachian Basin, Colorado Plateau, and the Northern Rocky Mountains. ?? Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. U.S. Geological Survey World Wide Web Information

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) invites you to explore an earth science virtual library of digital information, publications, and data. The USGS World Wide Web sites offer an array of information that reflects scientific research and monitoring programs conducted in the areas of natural hazards, environmental resources, and cartog-raphy. This list provides gateways to access a cross section of the digital information on the USGS World Wide Web sites.

  10. U.S. Geological Survey World Wide Web Information

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) invites you to explore an earth science virtual library of digital information, publications, and data. The USGS Internet World Wide Web sites offer an array of information that reflects scientific research and monitoring programs conducted in the areas of natural hazards, environmental resources, and cartography. This list provides gateways to access a cross section of the digital information on the USGS World Wide Web sites.

  11. U.S. Geological Survey World Wide Web information

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1997-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) invites you to explore an earth science virtual library of digital information, publications, and data. The USGS Internet World Wide Web sites offer an array of information that reflects scientific research and monitoring programs conducted in the areas of natural hazards, environmental resources, and cartography. This list provides gateways to access a cross section of the digital information on the USGS World Wide Web sites.

  12. U.S. Geological Survey World Wide Web Information

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) invites you to explore an earth science virtual library of digital information, publications, and data. The USGS World Wide Web sites offer an array of information that reflects scientific research and monitoring programs conducted in the areas of natural hazards, environmental resources, and cartography. This list provides gateways to access a cross section of the digital information on the USGS World Wide Web sites.

  13. U.S. Geological Survey Business Partner Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1999-01-01

    The Business Partner Program is composed of a network of private sector organizations that distribute U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) products. By engaging the private sector, State and local government, and academic and nonprofit organizations in product dissemination, the USGS expects to increase the availability of its products to end users, locate customer service closer to the user, and provide cost savings to the Federal Government.

  14. Michael Tuomey's 1848 geological survey of South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nystrom, P.G., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    One hundred and fifty years ago, Michael Tuomey completed his 'Report on the Geology of South Carolina,' the result of four years of arduous labor. The report is the first detailed and comprehensive geological description of the entire state, and it includes a geological map that shows the distribution of Coastal Plain and Piedmont-Blue Ridge units. In the sesquicentennial of Tuomey's survey, it is fitting that we recognize his important early contribution to the geology of South Carolina and the southeast. Tuomey's report is a 293-page volume with a 48-page appendix and an index. Although he gave a complete depiction of Coastal Plain geology and delineated Cretaceous, Lower Eocene, Eocene, Miocene, Post-Pliocene, and alluvial units on his map, the emphasis herein is on his mapping of the Piedmont and Blue Ridge. The metamorphic units he delineated are clay slate, mica slate, talcose slate, hornblende slate, gneiss, and lime rock. Gneiss is the most extensive unit on the map. His map shows many elements of the geologic framework we recognize today. The distribution of his clay slate unit corresponds closely with the Carolina slate and Bel Air belts as we know them now. The gneiss between the two clay slate areas matches the Kiokee belt. Areas of mica slate approximate the northern part of the Kings Mountain belt and the Chauga belt. He also recognized that his talcose slate unit was associated with gold deposits. Granitic and basaltic intrusive rocks are also delineated on the map. It shows the Newberry, Columbia, and Liberty Hill granites we recognize today. Basaltic intrusives outlined include the Bush River of western Newberry County, Dutchmans Creek, Big Wateree Creek, and Ogden gabbros. He described the regional extent of diabase dikes as occuring from Virginia to Alabama, noted their preferred direction and diagrammed their near-vertical orientation. He also referred to the distinctive soil and topography that develops on the large gabbros. Michael Tuomey's report is truly a benchmark publication, for sixty years passed before the next statewide survey was done. Upon completing the report, he left South Carolina to become director of the Alabama Geological Survey.

  15. 77 FR 34062 - Announcement of the U.S. Geological Survey Science Strategy Planning Feedback Process

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-08

    ....S. Geological Survey Announcement of the U.S. Geological Survey Science Strategy Planning Feedback Process AGENCY: U.S. Geological Survey, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Feedback Process. ] SUMMARY: The U.S.... This process involves gathering input from the public on draft strategy documents. Feedback can...

  16. 76 FR 13207 - Announcement of the U.S. Geological Survey Science Strategy Planning Feedback Process

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-10

    ....S. Geological Survey Announcement of the U.S. Geological Survey Science Strategy Planning Feedback Process AGENCY: U.S. Geological Survey, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Feedback Process SUMMARY: The U.S... will inform the creation of these documents. Feedback can be offered at...

  17. 77 FR 43110 - Announcement of the U.S. Geological Survey Science Strategy Planning Feedback Process

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-23

    ....S. Geological Survey Announcement of the U.S. Geological Survey Science Strategy Planning Feedback Process AGENCY: U.S. Geological Survey, Interior. ACTION: Notice of feedback process. SUMMARY: The U.S.... This process involves gathering input from the public on draft strategy documents. Feedback can...

  18. Chapter 50: Geology and tectonic development of the Amerasia and Canada Basins, Arctic Ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grantz, A.; Hart, P.E.; Childers, V.A.

    2011-01-01

    Amerasia Basin is the product of two phases of counterclockwise rotational opening about a pole in the lower Mackenzie Valley of NW Canada. Phase 1 opening brought ocean-continent transition crust (serpentinized peridotite?) to near the seafloor of the proto-Amerasia Basin, created detachment on the Eskimo Lakes Fault Zone of the Canadian Arctic margin and thinned the continental crust between the fault zone and the proto-Amerasia Basin to the west, beginning about 195 Ma and ending prior to perhaps about 160 Ma. The symmetry of the proto-Amerasia Basin was disrupted by clockwise rotation of the Chukchi Microcontinent into the basin from an original position along the Eurasia margin about a pole near 72??N, 165 Wabout 145.5-140 Ma. Phase 2 opening enlarged the proto-Amerasia Basin by intrusion of mid-ocean ridge basalt along its axis between about 131 and 127.5 Ma. Following intrusion of the Phase 2 crust an oceanic volcanic plateau, the Alpha-Mendeleev Ridge LIP (large igneous province), was extruded over the northern Amerasia Basin from about 127 to 89-75 Ma. Emplacement of the LIP halved the area of the Amerasia Basin, and the area lying south of the LIP became the Canada Basin. ?? 2011 The Geological Society of London.

  19. The United States Geological Survey: 1879-1989

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rabbitt, Mary C.

    1989-01-01

    The United States Geological Survey was established on March 3, 1879, just a few hours before the mandatory close of the final session of the 45th Congress, when President Rutherford B. Hayes signed the bill appropriating money for sundry civil expenses of the Federal Government for the fiscal year beginning July 1, 1879. The sundry civil expenses bill included a brief section establishing a new agency, the United States Geological Survey, placing it in the Department of the Interior, and charging it with a unique combination of responsibilities: 'classification of the public lands, and examination of the geological structure, mineral resources, and products of the national domain.' The legislation stemmed from a report of the National Academy of Sciences, which in June 1878 had been asked by Congress to provide a plan for surveying the Territories of the United States that would secure the best possible results at the least possible cost. Its roots, however, went far back into the Nation's history. The first duty enjoined upon the Geological Survey by the Congress, the classification of the public lands, originated in the Land Ordinance of 1785. The original public lands were the lands west of the Allegheny Mountains claimed by some of the colonies, which became a source of contention in writing the Articles of Confederation until 1781 when the States agreed to cede their western lands to Congress. The extent of the public lands was enormously increased by the Louisiana Purchase in 1803 and later territorial acquisitions. At the beginning of Confederation, the decision was made not to hold the public lands as a capital asset, but to dispose of them for revenue and to encourage settlement. The Land Ordinance of 1785 provided the method of surveying and a plan for disposal of the lands, but also reserved 'one-third part of all gold, silver, lead, and copper mines to be sold or otherwise disposed of, as Congress shall thereafter direct,' thus implicitly requiring classification of the lands into mineral and nonmineral. Mapping of the public lands was begun under the direction of the Surveyor-General, but no special provision was made for classification of the public lands, and it thus became the responsibility of the surveyor. There was,of course, no thought in 1785 or for many years thereafter of employing geologists to make the classification of the mineral lands, for geology was then only in its infancy.

  20. A brief history of the U.S. Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey; Rabbitt, Mary C.

    1975-01-01

    Established by an Act of Congress in 1879 and charged with responsibility for "classification of the public lands, and examination of the geological structure, mineral resources, and products of the national domain," the U. S. Department of the Interior's Geological Survey has been the Nation's principal source of information about its physical resources the configuration and character of the land surface, the composition and structure of the underlying rocks, and the quality, extent, and distribution of water and mineral resources. Although primarily a research and fact-finding agency, it has responsibility also for the classification of Federal mineral lands and waterpower sites, and since 1926 it has been responsible for the supervision of oil and mining operations authorized under leases on Federal land. From the outset, the Survey has been concerned with critical land and resource problems. Often referred to as the Mother of Bureaus, many of its activities led to the formation of new organizations where a management or developmental function evolved. These included the Reclamation Service (1902), the Bureau of Mines (1910), the Federal Power Commission (1920), and the Grazing Service (1934, since combined with other functions as the Bureau of Land Management). Mrs. Rabbitt's summary of the Survey's history in the following pages brings out well the development of these diverse activities and the Survey's past contributions to national needs related to land and resources.

  1. The internal geology and emplacement history of the Renard 2 kimberlite, Superior Province, Quebec, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzgerald, C. E.; Hetman, C. M.; Lepine, I.; Skelton, D. S.; McCandless, T. E.

    2009-11-01

    The Renard 2 kimberlite is located in the Otish Mountains region of Quebec, Canada and is one of the largest pipes in the Renard cluster. The cluster consists of nine kimberlite bodies and was discovered in 2001 by Ashton Mining of Canada Inc. and its joint venture partner SOQUEM Inc. Renard 2 was emplaced into Archean meta-greywacke derived migmatite, gneiss and granite of the Opinaca Subprovince of the eastern Superior Province at approximately 640.5 2.8 Ma. An undetermined amount of erosion has occurred since emplacement with the present surface expression of the pipe estimated to be 0.75 ha. This kimberlite is interpreted as a steep-sided diatreme with minor irregularities in the external shape. The dominant infill is a massive volcaniclastic kimberlite (MVK) that is classified as tuffisitic kimberlite breccia (TKB) and is characterized by a high proportion of granitoid country rock xenoliths. A second dominant infill is a texturally complex, less diluted coherent kimberlite (CK) characterized locally by a transitional textures between CK and TKB. Surrounding the diatreme is a significant zone of variable width comprised of extensively brecciated country rock (+/-kimberlite) and referred to as marginal breccia. In addition to the two main rock types infilling the pipe, a number of hypabyssal kimberlite (HK) dykes and irregular shaped intrusions occur throughout the body, along the pipe contacts, within the marginal breccia and in the surrounding country rock. Geological features displayed by Renard 2 are similar to those described from Class 1 kimberlites of the Kimberley area of South Africa, the Gahcho Ku cluster of Canada and the Pimenta Bueno kimberlite field of Brazil. The economic evaluation of Renard 2 is in progress and to date has included extensive diamond and reverse circulation drilling as well as the collection of an underground bulk sample. Results from material sampled from Renard 2, including a 2449 tonne bulk sample, suggest Renard 2 has an estimated diamond content of 83 cpht (carats per hundred tonnes). A three dimension geology model of the pipe has been developed following the investigation of drill cores, subsurface mapping and petrography combined with diamond studies and geophysics. The model produced is being used to guide and direct the evaluation of the kimberlite and unravel the emplacement history of the pipe.

  2. The U.S. Geological Survey's TRIGA® reactor

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeBey, Timothy M.; Roy, Brycen R.; Brady, Sally R.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) operates a low-enriched uranium-fueled, pool-type reactor located at the Federal Center in Denver, Colorado. The mission of the Geological Survey TRIGA® Reactor (GSTR) is to support USGS science by providing information on geologic, plant, and animal specimens to advance methods and techniques unique to nuclear reactors. The reactor facility is supported by programs across the USGS and is organizationally under the Associate Director for Energy and Minerals, and Environmental Health. The GSTR is the only facility in the United States capable of performing automated delayed neutron analyses for detecting fissile and fissionable isotopes. Samples from around the world are submitted to the USGS for analysis using the reactor facility. Qualitative and quantitative elemental analyses, spatial elemental analyses, and geochronology are performed. Few research reactor facilities in the United States are equipped to handle the large number of samples processed at the GSTR. Historically, more than 450,000 sample irradiations have been performed at the USGS facility. Providing impartial scientific information to resource managers, planners, and other interested parties throughout the world is an integral part of the research effort of the USGS.

  3. U. S. Geological Survey investigation of Mississippi Embayment area

    SciTech Connect

    Glick, E.E.

    1983-09-01

    Prior to about 1974, most of the work in the Mississippi embayment area by members of the U.S. Geological Survey was motivated by interest in the embayment's paleontologic aspects, stratigraphy, and economic resources, especially ground water. However, an excellent description of the effects of the New Madrid earthquake series was published on the centennial of that 1811-1812 seismicity. During World War II, combined efforts of the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Bureau of Mines produced a wealth of information about the Little Rock pluton and the process of laterizing exposed nepheline syenite to form bauxite. That project, in a search for additional intrusive bodies at shallow depth, sponsored a reconnaissance aeromagnetic survey along the embayment edge from Little Rock, Arkansas, to Cairo, Illinois. Magnetic anomalies that were identified then are now known to be related to the series of buried plutons aligned along the northwestern margin of the upper Mississippi embayment graben. Later investigations assessed the geochemistry of the more mafic parts of the Little Rock pluton. In 1974, U.S. Geological survey effort, along with that of other federal agencies, state agencies, and academic institutions, was directed toward finding the cause of ongoing seismicity in the upper embayment and toward assessing the related potential effects on persons and property. The purpose of this poster display is to summarize the more significant findings in this area related to (a) the rock sequence, lower crust to surface; (b) the major structural features, including a rift system; (c) the current state of stress; and (d) the present-day seismicity.

  4. Aufeis accumulations in stream bottoms in arctic and subarctic environments as a possible indicator of geologic structure: Chapter F in Recent U.S. Geological Survey studies in the Tintina Gold Province, Alaska, United States, and Yukon, Canada--results of a 5-year project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wanty, Richard B.; Wang, Bronwen; Vohden, Jim; Day, Warren C.; Gough, Larry P.

    2007-01-01

    The thickest (>3 meters) and most extensive aufeis (100’s of meters to kilometers along valleys) coincided with locations of laterally extensive (>5 kilometers) mapped high-angle brittle fault zones, suggesting that the fault zones are hydraulically conductive. Additional evidence of water flow is provided by observed changes in stream-water chemistry in reaches in which aufeis forms, despite a lack of surface tributaries. Minor or no aufeis was observed in many other drainage valleys where no laterally extensive structures have been mapped, implying that aufeis formation results from more than a topographic effect or discharge from bank storage. Thus, the presence of thick, laterally extensive aufeis in highgradient streams may be a useful aid to geologic structural mapping in arctic and subarctic climates.

  5. The OECD 2012 Economic Survey of Canada and the Relationship between Higher Education and Productivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skolnik, Michael L.

    2012-01-01

    The report entitled, "OECD Economic Surveys: Canada 2012," offers an exceptionally rigorous, in-depth, well-informed and well-documented review of policy and performance of Canada's economy and postsecondary system. The report is divided into three parts. The first part contains an overview of the Canadian economy, a summary of the rest of the

  6. United States Geological Survey Yearbook, Fiscal Year 1979

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1980-01-01

    In March 1979, the U.S. Geological Survey celebrated its 100th year of service to the Nation and 10 decades of stewardship of the land and its resources. During this year, as in the previous 99, the Survey discharged its national trust by collecting, analyzing, and disseminating earth science information and by continuing its somewhat more recent responsibilities of supervising the development of energy and mineral resources on Federal lands. The basic mission of the Survey has changed over the years, and the scope of its activities and the power of analytic tools have also increased by several orders of magnitude from the early surveys of then "remote" western areas of the United States to surveying and mapping the mountains of the Moon and the polar caps of Mars and from the use of surveyor's transits, picks, the travelling chemistry kits to interpretation of Earth imagery. These representative advances illustrate important and continuing trends for at no previous time have our earth resources been so precious or our consciousness of their finiteness so acute. The Yearbook reports a broad range of the Survey's accomplishments during the past fiscal year and offers an overview of its future. Many of the topics touched on below will continue to be important resource issues in the coming decade.

  7. Digital Field Mapping with the British Geological Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leslie, Graham; Smith, Nichola; Jordan, Colm

    2014-05-01

    The BGS•SIGMA project was initiated in 2001 in response to a major stakeholder review of onshore mapping within the British Geological Survey (BGS). That review proposed a significant change for BGS with the recommendation that digital methods should be implemented for field mapping and data compilation. The BGS•SIGMA project (System for Integrated Geoscience MApping) is an integrated workflow for geoscientific surveying and visualisation using digital methods for geological data visualisation, recording and interpretation, in both 2D and 3D. The project has defined and documented an underpinning framework of best practice for survey and information management, best practice that has then informed the design brief and specification for a toolkit to support this new methodology. The project has now delivered BGS•SIGMA2012. BGS•SIGMA2012 is a integrated toolkit which enables assembly and interrogation/visualisation of existing geological information; capture of, and integration with, new data and geological interpretations; and delivery of 3D digital products and services. From its early days as a system which used PocketGIS run on Husky Fex21 hardware, to the present day system which runs on ruggedized tablet PCs with integrated GPS units, the system has evolved into a complete digital mapping and compilation system. BGS•SIGMA2012 uses a highly customised version of ESRI's ArcGIS 10 and 10.1 with a fully relational Access 2007/2010 geodatabase. BGS•SIGMA2012 is the third external release of our award-winning digital field mapping toolkit. The first free external release of the award-winning digital field mapping toolkit was in 2009, with the third version (BGS-SIGMAmobile2012 v1.01) released on our website (http://www.bgs.ac.uk/research/sigma/home.html) in 2013. The BGS•SIGMAmobile toolkit formed the major part of the first two releases but this new version integrates the BGS•SIGMAdesktop functionality that BGS routinely uses to transform our field data into corporate standard geological models and derivative map outputs. BGS•SIGMA2012 is the default toolkit within BGS for bedrock and superficial geological mapping and other data acquisition projects across the UK, both onshore and offshore. It is used in mapping projects in Africa, the Middle East and the USA, and has been taken to Japan as part of the Tohoku tsunami damage assessment project. It is also successfully being used worldwide by other geological surveys e.g. Norway and Tanzania; by universities including Leicester, Keele and Kyoto, and by organisations such as Vale Mining in Brazil and the Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology. It is used globally, with over 2000 licenses downloaded worldwide to date and in use on all seven continents. Development of the system is still ongoing as a result of both user feedback and the changing face of technology. Investigations into the development of a BGS•SIGMA smartphone app are currently taking place alongside system developments such as a new and more streamlined data entry system.

  8. What are parasitologists doing in the United States Geological Survey?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cole, R.A.

    2002-01-01

    The United States Geological Survey (USGS) was formed in 1879 as the nation's primary natural science and information agency. The mission of the agency is to provide scientific information to a??describe and understand the Earth; minimize loss of life and property from natural disasters; manage water, biological, energy, and mineral resources; and enhance and protect our quality of life.a?? Prior to 1996, the USGS comprised 3 divisions or disciplines: geology, mapping, and water. Historically, the agency was most noted for cartographic products that were used widely by both government and private sector. With the inclusion of the National Biological Service into the USGS in 1996 as the Biological Resource Discipline (BRD), a living resources dimension was added to the earth sciences character of the USGS. With the addition of BRD, the bureau is able now to contribute both the physical and biological sciences to address the nation's resource management problems.

  9. Geophysical and Geologic Training of the Afghan Geological Survey, May, 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mooney, W. D.; Bohannon, R.; Abraham, J.; Medlin, J.

    2008-12-01

    Afghanistan lies within the Alpine-Himalayan orogeny, and consists of four primary tectonic units: (1) the North Afghan Platform, part of the greater Kazakhstan craton that includes Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan; (2) the mountainous Hindu Kush-Pamirs in the northeast; (3) the transpressional plate boundary at the Chaman fault near the border with Pakistan; and (4) the southern accreted terranes located south of the east-west oriented Herat fault. The diverse geology of Afghanistan affords the country abundant natural resources, as well as many natural hazards. In order to assist in the identification of these resources and to map hazardous faults, a multi-agency consortium including the Afghan Ministry of Mines and Industry, the USGS and the US Navel Research Lab conducted a detailed airborne geophysical survey of the western half of Afghanistan during 2007. Over 110,000 km of data were collected, including aeromagnetic, gravity, hyperspectral imagery, synthetic aperture radar and photogrammetric data. These data provide remarkable images of the surficial and sub-surface structure of the country. Armed with these new, high quality data, USGS trainers conducted an in-depth training course at the offices of the Afghan Geological Survey (AGS) during May, 2008. Eighty staff members of the AGS attended the four-day course which covered the following topics: (1) the geology and tectonics of Afghanistan; (2) a synthesis of modern plate tectonic processes; (3) use of geophysical and geological data to identify natural resources and hazardous faults. Particular emphasis was placed on oil and gas, mineral, coal and water resources. Earthquake and landslide hazards in Afghanistan were also discussed in detail. The building of scientific and technical capabilities at the AGS is a high priority because the development of their natural resources will have a positive impact on economic growth in Afghanistan. Future courses will benefit from hands-on training in methods of geophysical data interpretation.

  10. Celebrating 125 years of the U.S. Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gohn, Kathleen K.

    2004-01-01

    In the 125 years since its creation, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has provided the science information needed to make vital decisions and safeguard society. In this anniversary year, we celebrate the mission that has guided us, the people and traditions that have shaped us, and the science and technology that will lead us into the future. Through a wealth of long-term data and research, we have served the needs of society, the Earth, and its environment. This Circular captures a few of our past achievements, current research efforts, and hopes and challenges for the future.

  11. Appraising U.S. Geological Survey science records

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Faundeen, John L.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center has legislative charters to preserve and make accessible land remote sensing records important to the United States. This essay explains the appraisal process developed by EROS to ensure the science records it holds and those offered to it align with those charters. The justifications behind the questions employed to weed and to complement the EROS archive are explained along with the literature reviewed supporting their inclusion. Appraisal results are listed by individual collection and include the recommendations accepted by EROS management. Reprinted by permission of the publisher.

  12. Energy Resources Program of the U.S. Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weedman, Suzanne

    2001-01-01

    Our Nation faces the simultaneous challenges of increasing demand for energy, declining domestic production from existing oil and gas fields, and increasing expectations for environmental protection. The Energy Information Administration (2000) forecasts that worldwide energy consumption will increase 32 percent between 1999 and 2020 because of growth of the world economy. Forecasts indicate that in the same time period, U.S. natural gas consumption will increase 62 percent, petroleum consumption will increase 33 percent, and coal consumption will increase 22 percent. The U.S. Geological Survey provides the objective scientific information our society needs for sound decisions regarding land management, environmental quality, and economic, energy, and strategic policy.

  13. US Geological Survey publications on western tight gas reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Krupa, M.P.; Spencer, C.W.

    1989-02-01

    This bibliography includes reports published from 1977 through August 1988. In 1977 the US Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the US Department of Energy's, (DOE), Western Gas Sands Research program, initiated a geological program to identify and characterize natural gas resources in low-permeability (tight) reservoirs in the Rocky Mountain region. These reservoirs are present at depths of less than 2,000 ft (610 m) to greater than 20,000 ft (6,100 m). Only published reports readily available to the public are included in this report. Where appropriate, USGS researchers have incorporated administrative report information into later published studies. These studies cover a broad range of research from basic research on gas origin and migration to applied studies of production potential of reservoirs in individual wells. The early research included construction of regional well-log cross sections. These sections provide a basic stratigraphic framework for individual areas and basins. Most of these sections include drill-stem test and other well-test data so that the gas-bearing reservoirs can be seen in vertical and areal dimensions. For the convenience of the reader, the publications listed in this report have been indexed by general categories of (1) authors, (2) states, (3) geologic basins, (4) cross sections, (5) maps (6) studies of gas origin and migration, (7) reservoir or mineralogic studies, and (8) other reports of a regional or specific topical nature.

  14. Topographic and hydrographic GIS dataset for the Afghanistan Geological Survey and U.S. Geological Survey 2010 Minerals Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chirico, P.G.; Moran, T.W.

    2011-01-01

    This dataset contains a collection of 24 folders, each representing a specific U.S. Geological Survey area of interest (AOI; fig. 1), as well as datasets for AOI subsets. Each folder includes the extent, contours, Digital Elevation Model (DEM), and hydrography of the corresponding AOI, which are organized into feature vector and raster datasets. The dataset comprises a geographic information system (GIS), which is available upon request from the USGS Afghanistan programs Web site (http://afghanistan.cr.usgs.gov/minerals.php), and the maps of the 24 areas of interest of the USGS AOIs.

  15. Delivery mechanisms of 3D geological models - a perspective from the British Geological Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terrington, Ricky; Myers, Antony; Wood, Ben; Arora, Baneet

    2013-04-01

    The past decade has seen the British Geological Survey (BGS) construct over one hundred 3D geological models using software such as GOCAD®, GSI3D, EarthVision and Petrel across the United Kingdom and overseas. These models have been produced for different purposes and at different scales and resolutions in the shallow and deep subsurface. Alongside the construction of these models, the BGS and its collaborators have developed several options for disseminating these 3D geological models to external partners and the public. Initially, the standard formats for disseminating these 3D geological models by the BGS comprised of 2D images of cross-sections, GIS raster data and specialised visualisation software such as the LithoFrame Viewer. The LithoFrame Viewer is a thick-client software that allows the user to explore the 3D geometries of the geological units using a 3D interface, and generate synthetic cross-sections and boreholes on the fly. Despite the increased functionality of the LithoFrame Viewer over the other formats, the most popular data formats distributed remained 2D images of cross-sections, CAD based formats (e.g. DWG and DXF) and GIS raster data of surfaces and thicknesses, as these were the types of data that the external partners were most used too. Since 2009 software for delivering 3D geological models has advanced and types of data available have increased. Feature Manipulation Engine (FME) has been used to increase the number of outputs from 3D geological models. These include: • 3D PDFs (Adobe Acrobat) • KMZ/KML (GoogleEarth) • 3D shapefiles (ESRI) Alongside these later outputs, the BGS has developed other software such as GroundhogTM and Geovisionary (in collaboration with Virtalis). Groundhog is fully a web based application that allows the user to generate synthetic cross-sections, boreholes and horizontal slices from 3D geological models on the fly. Geovisionary provides some of the most advanced visualisation of 3D geological models in the world with its ability to stream high resolution national and world scale datasets seamlessly. All of these tools have some technological and visualisation limitations and not one delivery mechanism is suitable for all. The idea from the BGS when it comes to model delivery mechanisms is to offer as many different 3D data formats and delivery options as possible to cover all user requirements. Most importantly, it is about giving the user what they want and engaging with them to encourage the use of the advanced functionality of some of this software so that a deeper understanding about the subsurface is gained. Sometimes this solution might be a high-tech solution via mobile devices, but at other times a print-out of a contour plot might be what is required. In the end it is the consumer that has to be satisfied with the product they are receiving.

  16. National Geothermal Data System: State Geological Survey Contributions to Date

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patten, K.; Allison, M. L.; Richard, S. M.; Clark, R.; Love, D.; Coleman, C.; Caudill, C.; Matti, J.; Musil, L.; Day, J.; Chen, G.

    2012-12-01

    In collaboration with the Association of American State Geologists the Arizona Geological Survey is leading the effort to bring legacy geothermal data to the U.S. Department of Energy's National Geothermal Data System (NGDS). NGDS is a national, sustainable, distributed, interoperable network of data and service (application) providers entering its final stages of development. Once completed the geothermal industry, the public, and policy makers will have access to consistent and reliable data, which in turn, reduces the amount of staff time devoted to finding, retrieving, integrating, and verifying information. With easier access to information, the high cost and risk of geothermal power projects (especially exploration drilling) is reduced. This presentation focuses on the scientific and data integration methodology as well as State Geological Survey contributions to date. The NGDS is built using the U.S. Geoscience Information Network (USGIN) data integration framework to promote interoperability across the Earth sciences community and with other emerging data integration and networking efforts. Core to the USGIN concept is that of data provenance; by allowing data providers to maintain and house their data. After concluding the second year of the project, we have nearly 800 datasets representing over 2 million data points from the state geological surveys. A new AASG specific search catalog based on popular internet search formats enables end users to more easily find and identify geothermal resources in a specific region. Sixteen states, including a consortium of Great Basin states, have initiated new field data collection for submission to the NGDS. The new field data includes data from at least 21 newly drilled thermal gradient holes in previously unexplored areas. Most of the datasets provided to the NGDS are being portrayed as Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Web Map Services (WMS) and Web Feature Services (WFS), meaning that the data is compatible with a variety of visualization software. Web services are ideal for the NGDS data for a number of reasons including that they preserve data ownership in that they are read only and new services can be deployed to meet new requirements without modifying existing applications.

  17. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration hydrographic survey data used in a U.S. Geological Survey regional geologic framework study along the Delmarva Peninsula

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pendleton, Elizabeth A.; Brothers, Laura L.; Thieler, E. Robert; Danforth, William W.; Parker, Castle E.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey obtained raw Reson multibeam data files from Science Applications International Corporation and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration for 20 hydrographic surveys and extracted backscatter data using the Fledermaus Geocoder Toolbox from Quality Positioning Service. The backscatter mosaics produced by the U.S. Geological Survey for the inner continental shelf of the Delmarva Peninsula using National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration data increased regional geophysical surveying efficiency, collaboration among government agencies, and the area over which geologic data can be interpreted by the U.S. Geological Survey. This report describes the methods by which the backscatter data were extracted and processed and includes backscatter mosaics and interpolated bathymetric surfaces.

  18. A Survey of Graduate Programs in Adult Education in the United States and Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingham, Roy J.; Qazilbash, Hussain

    Graduate programs in adult education at 24 universities in the United States and Canada are surveyed here. An overall review of program content (mainly surveys of the field, program development in adult education, adult learning, and general administration) is followed by unique features and specialties of several programs; information on…

  19. Survey of Research Resources in Colleges of Veterinary Medicine in the United States and Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, John M.

    1979-01-01

    A survey of research resources in 24 veterinary colleges in the US and Canada reports information on university-wide research facilities, college-wide research facilities, personnel, and instrumentation resources. Corporate research resource management was compared with university research resource management. The survey form is outlined.…

  20. 3D geological property modelling at TNO - Geological Survey of the Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maljers, Denise; Schokker, Jeroen; Stafleu, Jan; Gunnink, Jan L.

    2013-04-01

    The Geological Survey of the Netherlands (GSN) defines digital geological models as predictions of both geometry and properties of the subsurface. In contrast to singular observations in boreholes and the projected information of traditional maps, models provide continuous representations of the subsurface built with all geological expertise available. The GSN systematically produces 3D models of the upper 500 m of the Netherlands. To date, we build and maintain two different types of nation-wide models: (1) layer-based models in which the subsurface is represented as a series of tops and bases of geological or hydrogeological units, and (2) voxel models in which the subsurface is subdivided in a regular grid of voxels. The models are quantitative and user-oriented, i.e. they are applicable for non-geologists in their own area of expertise. They are also stochastic in nature, which implies that model uncertainty can be quantified. GeoTOP is the latest generation of Dutch subsurface models at TNO - Geological Survey of the Netherlands. GeoTOP schematises the shallow subsurface in millions of voxels of 100 by 100 by 0.5 m up to a depth of 30-50 m, which is the main zone of current subsurface activity. The model provides estimates of lithostratigraphy and lithology (including grain-size classes), as well as physical and chemical parameters, such as hydraulic conductivity and chemical element concentrations. Modelling is performed per province using all available digital borehole descriptions, components of the layer-based DGM model and a context of geological maps created during the last few decades (e.g. 1:50,000 map sheets and channel belt mapping). An important component of the GeoTOP model workflow is that all digital borehole descriptions are stratigraphically interpreted using automated procedures. These procedures deliver a set of uniformly and consistently interpreted boreholes that are used in the subsequent modelling stages. GeoTOP provides a base for answering subsurface-related questions about, amongst others, groundwater management and infrastructural issues. Current applications include: • Modelling groundwater flow, using the architecture and sediment composition of glacially deformed sediments to assign hydraulic parameters. • Modelling solute transport, using the distribution of lithology and sand grain-size classes to assign hydraulic parameters. • Forecasting long-term (up to 200 y) land subsidence in the western part of the country, using the distribution of soft sediments (peat and clay) to model subsidence rates. • Constructing risk maps for surface water-groundwater interaction in a river-deepening project, based on the architecture and sediment composition of fluvial channel belts. Our models are disseminated free-of-charge through the DINO web portal (www.dinoloket.nl) in a number of ways, including in an on-line map viewer with the option to create vertical cross-sections through the models, and as a series of downloadable GIS products. In co-operation with INSIGHT Geologische Softwaresysteme GmbH, the freely downloadable Subsurface Viewer was recently added to the portal, allowing users to download and visualise the layer-based models as well as GeoTOP on their desktop computers.

  1. Tectonic map of Liberia based on geophysical and geological surveys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Behrendt, John Charles; Wotorson, Cletus S.

    1972-01-01

    Interpretation of the results of aeromagnetic, total-gamma radioactivity, and gravity surveys combined with geologic data for Western Liberia from White and Leo (1969) and other geologic information allows the construction of a tectonic map of Liberia. The map approximately delineates the boundaries between the Liberian (ca. 2700 m.y.) province in the northwestern two-thirds of the country, the Eburnean (ca. 2000 m.y.) province in the south-eastern one-third, and the Pan-African (ca. 550 m.y.) province in the coastal area of the northwestern two-thirds of the country. Rock follation and tectonic structural features trend northeastward in the Liberian province, east-northeastward to north-northeastward in the Eburnean province, and northwestward in the Pan-African age province. Linear residual magnetic anomailes 20-80 km wide and 200-600 gammas in amplitude and following the northeast structural trend typical of the Liberian age province cross the entire country and extend into Sierra Leone and Ivory Coast.

  2. Geotherm: the U.S. geological survey geothermal information system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bliss, J.D.; Rapport, A.

    1983-01-01

    GEOTHERM is a comprehensive system of public databases and software used to store, locate, and evaluate information on the geology, geochemistry, and hydrology of geothermal systems. Three main databases address the general characteristics of geothermal wells and fields, and the chemical properties of geothermal fluids; the last database is currently the most active. System tasks are divided into four areas: (1) data acquisition and entry, involving data entry via word processors and magnetic tape; (2) quality assurance, including the criteria and standards handbook and front-end data-screening programs; (3) operation, involving database backups and information extraction; and (4) user assistance, preparation of such items as application programs, and a quarterly newsletter. The principal task of GEOTHERM is to provide information and research support for the conduct of national geothermal-resource assessments. The principal users of GEOTHERM are those involved with the Geothermal Research Program of the U.S. Geological Survey. Information in the system is available to the public on request. ?? 1983.

  3. The U.S. Geological Survey Drinking Water Initiative

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1997-01-01

    Safe drinking-water supplies are critical to maintaining and preserving public health. Although the Nation's drinking water is generally safe, natural and introduced contaminants in water supplies throughout the country have adversely affected human health. This new U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) initiative will provide information on the vulnerability of water supplies to be used by water-supply and regulatory agencies who must balance water-supply protection with the wise use of public funds. Using the results of the initiative, they will be better able to focus on the supplies most at risk and the variability of contaminants of most concern, and so address the mandates of the Safe Drinking Water Act. With its store of geologic, hydrologic, and land use and land cover data and its network of information in every State, the USGS can help to identify potential sources of contamination, delineate source areas, determine the vulnerability of waters to potential contamination, and evaluate strategies being used to protect source waters in light of the scientific information available. Many recent and ongoing studies by the USGS concern drinking-water issues. This fact sheet highlights four particular studies begun under the Drinking Water Initiative.

  4. Recent U.S. Geological Survey applications of Lidar

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Queija, Vivian R.; Stoker, Jason M.; Kosovich, John J.

    2005-01-01

    As lidar (light detection and ranging) technology matures, more applications are being explored by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists throughout the Nation, both in collaboration with other Federal agencies and alone in support of USGS natural-hazards research (Crane et al., 2004). As the technology continues to improve and evolve, USGS scientists are finding new and unique methods to use and represent high-resolution lidar data, and new ways to make these data and derived information publicly available. Different lidar sensors and configurations have offered opportunities to use high-resolution elevation data for a variety of projects across all disciplines of the USGS. The following examples are just a few of the diverse projects in the USGS where lidar data is being used.

  5. Reaeration equations derived from U.S. geological survey database

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Melching, C.S.; Flores, H.E.

    1999-01-01

    Accurate estimation of the reaeration-rate coefficient (K2) is extremely important for waste-load allocation. Currently, available K2 estimation equations generally yield poor estimates when applied to stream conditions different from those for which the equations were derived because they were derived from small databases composed of potentially highly inaccurate measurements. A large data set of K2 measurements made with tracer-gas methods was compiled from U.S. Geological Survey studies. This compilation included 493 reaches on 166 streams in 23 states. Careful screening to detect and eliminate erroneous measurements reduced the date set to 371 measurements. These measurements were divided into four subgroups on the basis of flow regime (channel control or pool and riffle) and stream scale (discharge greater than or less than 0.556 m3/s). Multiple linear regression in logarithms was applied to relate K2 to 12 stream hydraulic and water-quality characteristics. The resulting best-estimation equations had the form of semiempirical equations that included the rate of energy dissipation and discharge or depth and width as variables. For equation verification, a data set of K2 measurements made with tracer-gas procedures by other agencies was compiled from the literature. This compilation included 127 reaches on at least 24 streams in at least seven states. The standard error of estimate obtained when applying the developed equations to the U.S. Geological Survey data set ranged from 44 to 61%, whereas the standard error of estimate was 78% when applied to the verification data set.Accurate estimation of the reaeration-rate coefficient (K2) is extremely important for waste-load allocation. Currently, available K2 estimation equations generally yield poor estimates when applied to stream conditions different from those for which the equations were derived because they were derived from small databases composed of potentially highly inaccurate measurements. A large data set of K2 measurements made with tracer-gas methods was compiled from U.S. Geological Survey studies. This compilation included 493 reaches on 166 streams in 23 states. Careful screening to detect and eliminate erroneous measurements reduced the data set to 371 measurements. These measurements were divided into four subgroups on the basis of flow regime (channel control or pool and riffle) and stream scale (discharge greater than or less than 0.556 m3/s). Multiple linear regression in logarithms was applied to relate K2 to 12 stream hydraulic and water-quality characteristics. The resulting best-estimation equations had the form of semiempirical equations that included the rate of energy dissipation and discharge or depth and width as variables. For equation verification, a data set of K2 measurements made with tracer-gas procedures by other agencies was compiled from the literature. This compilation included 127 reaches on at least 24 streams in at least seven states. The standard error of estimate obtained when applying the developed equations to the U.S. Geological Survey data set ranged from 44 to 61%, whereas the standard error of estimate was 78% when applied to the verification data set.

  6. The United States Geological Survey Science Data Lifecycle Model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Faundeen, John L.; Burley, Thomas E.; Carlino, Jennifer A.; Govoni, David L.; Henkel, Heather S.; Holl, Sally L.; Hutchison, Vivian B.; Martn, Elizabeth; Montgomery, Ellyn T.; Ladino, Cassandra; Tessler, Steven; Zolly, Lisa S.

    2014-01-01

    U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) data represent corporate assets with potential value beyond any immediate research use, and therefore need to be accounted for and properly managed throughout their lifecycle. Recognizing these motives, a USGS team developed a Science Data Lifecycle Model (SDLM) as a high-level view of datafrom conception through preservation and sharingto illustrate how data management activities relate to project workflows, and to assist with understanding the expectations of proper data management. In applying the Model to research activities, USGS scientists can ensure that data products will be well-described, preserved, accessible, and fit for re-use. The Model also serves as a structure to help the USGS evaluate and improve policies and practices for managing scientific data, and to identify areas in which new tools and standards are needed.

  7. The United States Geological Survey in Alaska; organization and status of programs in 1977

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blean, Kathleen M., (Edited By)

    1977-01-01

    United States Geological Survey projects in Alaska include a wide range of topics of economic and scientific interest. Studies in 1976 include economic geology, regional geology, stratigraphy, environmental geology, engineering geology, hydrology, and marine geology. Discussions of the findings or, in some instances, narratives of the course of the investigations are grouped in eight subdivisions corresponding to the six major onshore geographic regions, the offshore projects, and projects that are statewide in scope. Locations of the study areas are shown. In addition, many reports and maps covering various aspects of the geology and mineral and water resources of the State were published. These publications are listed. (Woodard-USGS)

  8. U.S. Geological Survey heavy metals program progress report 1968 - Field studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1969-01-01

    The Heavy Metals program of the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Bureau of Mines began in mid-1966 and thus at the end of calendar year 1968 was halfway through its third year. This progress report summarizes field studies carried out under the Geological Survey's part of the program during 1968. Topical studies for 1968 are summarized in U.S. Geological Survey Circular 622. Background of the program and results during 1966 and 1967 were reported in U.S. Geological Survey Circular 560 and will not be further discussed herein.

  9. U.S. Geological Survey energy and minerals science strategy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ferrero, Richard C.; Kolak, Jonathan J.; Bills, Donald J.; Bowen, Zachary H.; Cordier, Daniel J.; Gallegos, Tanya J.; Hein, James R.; Kelley, Karen D.; Nelson, Philip H.; Nuccio, Vito F.; Schmidt, Jeanine M.; Seal, Robert R., II

    2012-01-01

    The economy, national security, and standard of living of the United States depend heavily on adequate and reliable supplies of energy and mineral resources. Based on current population and consumption trends, the Nation's use of energy and minerals can be expected to grow, driving the demand for ever broader scientific understanding of resource formation, location, and availability. In addition, the increasing importance of environmental stewardship, human health, and sustainable growth place further emphasis on energy and mineral resources research and understanding. Collectively, these trends in resource demand and the interconnectedness among resources will lead to new challenges and, in turn, require cutting-edge science for the next generation of societal decisions. The contributions of the U.S. Geological Survey to energy and minerals research are well established. Based on five interrelated goals, this plan establishes a comprehensive science strategy. It provides a structure that identifies the most critical aspects of energy and mineral resources for the coming decade. * Goal 1. - Understand fundamental Earth processes that form energy and mineral resources. * Goal 2. - Understand the environmental behavior of energy and mineral resources and their waste products. * Goal 3. - Provide inventories and assessments of energy and mineral resources. * Goal 4. - Understand the effects of energy and mineral development on natural resources. * Goal 5. - Understand the availability and reliability of energy and mineral resource supplies. Within each goal, multiple, scalable actions are identified. The level of specificity and complexity of these actions varies, consistent with the reality that even a modest refocus can yield large payoffs in the near term whereas more ambitious plans may take years to reach fruition. As such, prioritization of actions is largely dependent on policy direction, available resources, and the sequencing of prerequisite steps that will lead up to the most visionary directions. The science strategy stresses early planning and places an emphasis on interdisciplinary collaboration and leveraging of expertise across the U.S. Geological Survey.

  10. Virus Survey in Strawberry in the United States and Canada

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In an effort to determine the distribution of strawberry viruses in the United States and Canada, approximately 1500 samples were collected and either brought back or shipped to the USDA-ARS laboratory in Corvallis between 2002 and 2007. RNA was extracted from leaf tissue and archived at -80C for s...

  11. Strawberry Virus Survey in the United States and Canada

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In an effort to determine the distribution of strawberry viruses in the United States and Canada, approximately 1500 samples were collected and either brought back or shipped to the USDA-ARS laboratory in Corvallis between 2002 and 2007. RNA was extracted from leaf tissue and archived at -80C for s...

  12. Three-dimensional geological modelling workflow for fractured hydrocarbon reservoirs in the Grosmont Basin, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noh, Y. H.; Seo, H. K.; Um, J. G.; Choi, Y. S.; Park, M. H.

    2012-04-01

    Carbonate rock masses of the Grosmont Formation is one of the important hydrocarbon resorviors in Alberta, Canada. The carbonate rock masses have been experienced various stages of digenesis, and produced structurally strong heterogenic reservoir. The characteristics of reservoir are affected by hydraulic and mechanical properties of intact rocks as well as by fractures such as joint, fault, fractured zone, and bedding plane. This study is focused on characteristics of fracture distribution in the carbonate rock masses of UG3 unit of the Grosmont Formation. Nonconfidential cores of UG3 unit from total of nine boreholes were logged in Calgary at the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board Core Research Centre to collect and characterize the fractures in the rock domain of interest. The first part of the study deals with the development of a three-dimensional hydrocarbon reservoir visualization model for a section of the Grosmont Formation based on lineament analysis as well as well-log data. The results of the homogeneity tests performed on fracture data obtained from core logging to identify structural homogeneity of the study area are discussed in the second part of the study. The third part of the study is focused on the results obtained for three-dimensional fracture network model for the statistically homogeneous regions considered of the UG3 unit based on stochastic approach using the logged fractures at the study area. Finally, the workflow for three-dimensional geological model of fractured hydrocarbon reservoirs is suggested including appropriate discussions and conclusions. Acknowledgements. This work was supported by the 2011 Energy Efficiency and Resources Program of the Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning (KETEP) grant.

  13. 1-D/3-D geologic model of the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Higley, D.K.; Henry, M.; Roberts, L.N.R.; Steinshouer, D.W.

    2005-01-01

    The 3-D geologic model of the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin comprises 18 stacked intervals from the base of the Devonian Woodbend Group and age equivalent formations to ground surface; it includes an estimated thickness of eroded sediments based on 1-D burial history reconstructions for 33 wells across the study area. Each interval for the construction of the 3-D model was chosen on the basis of whether it is primarily composed of petroleum system elements of reservoir, hydrocarbon source, seal, overburden, or underburden strata, as well as the quality and areal distribution of well and other data. Preliminary results of the modeling support the following interpretations. Long-distance migration of hydrocarbons east of the Rocky Mountains is indicated by oil and gas accumulations in areas within which source rocks are thermally immature for oil and (or) gas. Petroleum systems in the basin are segmented by the northeast-trending Sweetgrass Arch; hydrocarbons west of the arch were from source rocks lying near or beneath the Rocky Mountains, whereas oil and gas east of the arch were sourced from the Williston Basin. Hydrocarbon generation and migration are primarily due to increased burial associated with the Laramide Orogeny. Hydrocarbon sources and migration were also influenced by the Lower Cretaceous sub-Mannville unconformity. In the Peace River Arch area of northern Alberta, Jurassic and older formations exhibit high-angle truncations against the unconformity. Potential Paleozoic though Mesozoic hydrocarbon source rocks are in contact with overlying Mannville Group reservoir facies. In contrast, in Saskatchewan and southern Alberta the contacts are parallel to sub-parallel, with the result that hydrocarbon source rocks are separated from the Mannville Group by seal-forming strata within the Jurassic. Vertical and lateral movement of hydrocarbons along the faults in the Rocky Mountains deformed belt probably also resulted in mixing of oil and gas from numerous source rocks in Alberta.

  14. United States Geological Survey Yearbook, Fiscal Year 1977

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1978-01-01

    Fiscal 1977 marked the 98th year the U.S. Geological Survey has endeavored in the unceasing task of providing information about the Earth and its physical resources, and regulating the activities of lessees engaged in extracting petroleum and other minerals from the public domain. The past year also marked the beginning of a third and challenging mission, drawing upon the Survey's scientific talents, to explore and assess the petroleum potential of a vast 37,000 square miles expanse of Alaska's North Slope known as the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska. The first two missions require detailed and continuing investigations of the location, character, and extent of the Nation's land, water, mineral, and energy resources; a continuing National Topographic Mapping Program; the classification of Federal lands for mineral and waterpower potential; and a continuing program of technical review, safety inspection and royalty auditing of the operations of private parties engaged in mineral development on Federal lands to assure standards of safety, environmental protection, resource conservation, and a fair market return to the public for the development of their resources.

  15. 30 CFR Appendix to Part 553 - List of U.S. Geological Survey Topographic Maps

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false List of U.S. Geological Survey Topographic Maps Appendix to Part 553 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL SPILL FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY FOR OFFSHORE FACILITIES Pt. 553, App. Appendix to Part 553—List of U.S. Geological Survey...

  16. Activities and services of the U.S. Geological Survey, Denver area, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1969-01-01

    This booklet is a summary of the activities and services of the United States Geological Survey, written for people who have visited or plan to visit one or more of its offices in the Denver area as well as to provide general information about the Geological Survey and its work. Sources of additional information are listed on pages 42-43.

  17. The United States Geological Survey in Alaska; organization and status of programs in 1978

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Kathleen M.

    1978-01-01

    United States Geological Survey projects in Alaska study a wide range of topics of economic and scientific interest. Work done in 1977 includes contributions to economic geology, regional geology, stratigraphy, engineering geology, hydrology, and marine geology. Many maps and reports covering various aspects of the geology and mineral and water resources of the State were published. In addition, the published 1:1,000,000-scale map of the State has been revised in two areas. A bibliography containing 263 reports on Alaska published in 1977 is included. (Woodard-USGS)

  18. Analysis of the U.S. geological survey streamgaging network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, A.G.

    1987-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results from the first 3 years of a 5-year cost-effectiveness study of the U.S. Geological Survey streamgaging network. The objective of the study is to define and document the most cost-effective means of furnishing streamflow information. In the first step of this study, data uses were identified for 3,493 continuous-record stations currently being operated in 32 States. In the second step, evaluation of alternative methods of providing streamflow information, flow-routing models, and regression models were developed for estimating daily flows at 251 stations of the 3,493 stations analyzed. In the third step of the analysis, relationships were developed between the accuracy of the streamflow records and the operating budget. The weighted standard error for all stations, with current operating procedures, was 19.9 percent. By altering field activities, as determined by the analyses, this could be reduced to 17.8 percent. The existing streamgaging networks in four Districts were further analyzed to determine the impacts that satellite telemetry would have on the cost effectiveness. Satellite telemetry was not found to be cost effective on the basis of hydrologic data collection alone, given present cost of equipment and operation.This paper summarizes the results from the first 3 years of a 5-year cost-effectiveness study of the U. S. Geological Survey streamgaging network. The objective of the study is to define and document the most cost-effective means of furnishing streamflow information. In the first step of this study, data uses were identified for 3,493 continuous-record stations currently being operated in 32 States. In the second step, evaluation of alternative methods of providing streamflow information, flow-routing models, and regression models were developed for estimating daily flows at 251 stations of the 3, 493 stations analyzed. In the third step of the analysis, relationships were developed between the accuracy of the streamflow records and the operating budget. The weighted standard error for all stations, with current operating procedures, was 19. 9 percent. By altering field activities, as determined by the analyses, this could be reduced to 17. 8 percent. Additional study results are discussed.

  19. Survey of bottled drinking water available in Manitoba, Canada.

    PubMed

    Pip, E

    2000-09-01

    Forty domestic and imported brands of bottled water were purchased in Manitoba, Canada and examined for total dissolved solids (TDS), chloride, sulfate, nitrate-nitrogen, cadmium, lead, copper, and radioactivity. The samples showed great variation in quality, and some exceeded the Canadian Water Quality Guidelines for drinking water for TDS, chloride, and lead. Carbonation, ozonation, and type of packaging were not associated with differences in metal levels, although carbonated samples tended to show higher TDS values. A number of deficiencies were found with respect to product labeling. PMID:11017891

  20. Geomorphology in North American Geology Departments, 1971

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Sidney E.; Malcolm, Marshall D.

    1972-01-01

    Presents results of a 1970-71 survey of 350 geomorphologists and geology departments to determine what sort of geomorphology is being taught in the colleges and universities of the United States and Canada. (PR)

  1. ANALYSIS OF THE U. S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY STREAMGAGING NETWORK.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, Arthur G.

    1986-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results from the first 3 years of a 5-year cost-effectiveness study of the U. S. Geological Survey streamgaging network. The objective of the study is to define and document the most cost-effective means of furnishing streamflow information. In the first step of this study, data uses were identified for 3,493 continuous-record stations currently being operated in 32 States. In the second step, evaluation of alternative methods of providing streamflow information, flow-routing models, and regression models were developed for estimating daily flows at 251 stations of the 3,493 stations analyzed. In the third step of the analysis, relationships were developed between the accuracy of the streamflow records and the operating budget. The existing streamgaging networks in four Districts were further analyzed to determine the impacts that satellite telemetry would have on the cost effectiveness. Satellite telemetry was not found to be cost effective on the basis of hydrologic-data collection alone, given present cost of equipment and operation.

  2. The U.S. Geological Survey land remote sensing program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saunders, T.; Feuquay, J.; Kelmelis, J.A.

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has been a provider of remotely sensed information for decades. As the availability and use of satellite data has grown, USGS has placed increasing emphasis on expanding the knowledge about the science of remote sensing and on making remotely sensed data more accessible. USGS encourages widespread availability and distribution of these data and through its programs, encourages and enables a variety of research activities and the development of useful applications of the data. The science of remote sensing has great potential for assisting in the monitoring and assessment of the impacts of natural disasters, management and analysis of environmental, biological, energy, and mineral investigations, and supporting informed public policy decisions. By establishing the Land Remote Sensing Program (LRS) as a major unit of the USGS Geography Program, USGS has taken the next step to further increase support for the accessibility, understanding, and use of remotely sensed data. This article describes the LRS Program, its mission and objectives, and how the program has been structured to accomplish its goals.

  3. Geographic analysis and monitoring at the United States Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Findley, J.

    2003-01-01

    The Geographic Analysis and Monitoring (GAM) Program of the U.S. Geological Survey assesses the Nation's land surface at a variety of spatial and temporal scales to understand the rates, causes, and consequences of natural and human-induced processes and their interactions that affect the landscape over time. The program plays an important role in developing National Map tools and application. The GAM is a science and synthesis program that not only assesses the rates of changes to the Earth's land surface, but also provides reports on the status and trends of the Nation's land resources on a periodic basis, produces a land-use and land- cover database for the periodically updated map and data set-the Geographic Face of the Nation, and conducts research leading to improved understanding and knowledge about geographic processes. Scientific investigations provide comprehensive information needed to understand the environmental, resource, and economic consequences of landscape change. These analyses responds to the needs of resource managers and offers the American public baseline information to help them understand the dynamic nature of our national landscape and to anticipate the opportunities and consequences of our actions.

  4. U.S. Geological Survey Rewarding Environment Culture Study, 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nash, Janis C.; Paradise-Tornow, Carol A.; Gray, Vicki K.; Griffin-Bemis, Sarah P.; Agnew, Pamela R.; Bouchet, Nicole M.

    2010-01-01

    In its 2001 review of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the National Research Council (NRC, p. 126) cautioned that ?high-quality personnel are essential for developing high-quality science information? and urged the USGS to ?devote substantial efforts to recruiting and retaining excellent staff.? Recognizing the importance of the NRC recommendation, the USGS has committed time and resources to create a rewarding work environment with the goal of achieving the following valued outcomes: ? USGS science vitality ? Customer satisfaction with USGS products and services ? Employee perceptions of the USGS as a rewarding place to work ? Heightened employee morale and commitment ? The ability to recruit and retain employees with critical skills To determine whether this investment of time and resources was proving to be successful, the USGS Human Resources Office conducted a Rewarding Environment Culture Study to answer the following four questions. ? Question 1: Does a rewarding work environment lead to the valued outcomes (identified above) that the USGS is seeking? ? Question 2: Which management, supervisory, and leadership behaviors contribute most to creating a rewarding work environment and to achieving the valued outcomes that the USGS is seeking? ? Question 3: Do USGS employees perceive that the USGS is a rewarding place to work? ? Question 4: What actions can and should be taken to enhance the USGS work environment? To begin the study, a conceptual model of a rewarding USGS environment was developed to test assumptions about a rewarding work environment. The Rewarding Environment model identifies the key components that are thought to contribute to a rewarding work environment and the valued outcomes that are thought to result from having a rewarding work environment. The 2002 Organizational Assessment Survey (OAS) was used as the primary data source for the study because it provided the most readily available data. Additional survey data were included as they became available The dividends of creating a rewarding work environment can be great. As the results of the USGS Rewarding Environment Culture Study of 2002 indicate, creating a rewarding work environment is an investment that can have an important impact on the outcomes that the USGS values?the vitality of our science, the satisfaction of our customers, and the morale, commitment, and performance of our employees.

  5. Serological Survey for Aujeszky's Disease in Native Sows of Canada

    PubMed Central

    Dulac, G. C.; Binns, M.

    1979-01-01

    A serological survey was initiated to uncover subclinical foci of infection with pseudorabies virus. A total of 2819 serum samples, collected from sows during February to November 1977, were found negative for antibodies to pseudorabies virus. PMID:230892

  6. A Survey of Psychiatric Units in General Hospitals in Canada

    PubMed Central

    McKerracher, D. G.; Smith, Colin M.

    1964-01-01

    The Canadian Psychiatric Association recently recommended that all general hospitals over 200 beds should have psychiatric in-patient units. Questionnaires were sent to the administrators of the 52 existing general hospital psychiatric units in Canada. Most administrators expressed approval of these units, although some noted the existence of problems. Statistics are given on the staffing of the units. Although the number of beds was small, these facilities accounted for a very large number of admissions. Most had active teaching programs. The advantages of implementing the C.P.A. recommendation are many. General hospital psychiatric units should be encouraged to undertake comprehensive psychiatry, that is, to accept all types of psychiatric patients, and to retain responsibility for long-term care. PMID:14166462

  7. A Survey of Graduate Programs in Adult Education in the United States and Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingham, Roy J.; And Others

    Second in a series, this survey was designed to provide information about some aspects of graduate study in adult education in the United States and Canada. It differs from the first, dated July, 1968, in that only data likely to change appreciably in one year were included. Some of the major changes between the last and present reports are:…

  8. The Canada-France Imaging Survey: Evolution of Galaxies and Clusters of Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pell, R.

    2015-12-01

    In this paper we discuss the interest of the wide-field CFIS (Canada-France Imaging Survey) regarding extragalactic/cosmology science, focusing on the evolution of galaxies and clusters of galaxies. A deep photometric survey such as CFIS in the Northern hemisphere is presently missing for the needs of different ongoing projects based on photometric redshifts, such as EUCLID or eROSITA.

  9. Geologic map of the Sherbrooke-Lewiston area, Maine, New Hampshire, and Vermont, United States, and Quebec, Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moench, R.H.; Boone, G.M.; Bothner, W.A.; Boudette, E.L.; Hatch, N.L., Jr.; Hussey, A. M., III; Marvinney, R.G.

    1995-01-01

    This map is part of a folio of maps of the Lewiston I o x 2 quadrangle, Maine, New Hampshire, and Vermont, and part of the Sherbrooke I o x 2 quadrangle, Maine, New Hampshire, and Vermont, United States, and Quebec, Canada, prepared under the Conterminous United States Mineral Assessment Program (CUSMAP). Adjacent areas in Quebec are shown, in order to illustrate the geologic continuity between northwestern Maine and northern Vermont and New Hampshire. Other results of the project are contained in reports by Nowlan and others (1990a,b,c; stream sediment geochemistry), and Cox (1990; potential tin resources related to the White Mountain Plutonic-Volcanic Suite), Bothner and others (in press; complete Bouguer gravity and aeromagnetic maps), Moench and Boudette (in press, geologic synthesis and mineral occurrence map), and Moench (in press; metallic mineral resources).

  10. Coast Salish and U.S. Geological Survey 2009 Tribal Journey water quality project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Akin, Sarah K.; Grossman, Eric E.

    2010-01-01

    The Salish Sea, contained within the United States and British Columbia, Canada, is the homeland of the Coast Salish Peoples and contains a diverse array of marine resources unique to this area that have sustained Coast Salish cultures and traditions for millennia. In July 2009, the Coast Salish People and U.S. Geological Survey conducted a second water quality study of the Salish Sea to examine spatial and temporal variability of environmental conditions of these surface waters as part of the annual Tribal Journey. Six canoes of approximately 100 towed multi parameter water-quality sondes as the Salish People traveled their ancestral waters during the middle of summer. Sea surface temperature, salinity, pH, dissolved oxygen, and turbidity were measured simultaneously at ten-second intervals, and more than 54,000 data points spanning 1,300 kilometers of the Salish Sea were collected. The project also synthesized Coast Salish ecological knowledge and culture with scientific monitoring to better understand and predict the response of coastal habitats and marine resources. Comparisons with data collected in 2008 reveal significantly higher mean surface-water temperatures in most subbasins in 2009 linked to record air temperatures that affected the Pacific Northwest in July 2009. Through large-scale spatial measurements collected each summer, the project helps to identify patterns in summer water quality, areas of water-quality impairment, and trends occurring through time.

  11. Proposed U.S. Geological Survey standard for digital orthophotos

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hooper, David; Caruso, Vincent

    1991-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has added the new category of digital orthophotos to the National Digital Cartographic Data Base. This differentially rectified digital image product enables users to take advantage of the properties of current photoimagery as a source of geographic information. The product and accompanying standard were implemented in spring 1991. The digital orthophotos will be quadrangle based and cast on the Universal Transverse Mercator projection and will extend beyond the 3.75-minute or 7.5-minute quadrangle area at least 300 meters to form a rectangle. The overedge may be used for mosaicking with adjacent digital orthophotos. To provide maximum information content and utility to the user, metadata (header) records exist at the beginning of the digital orthophoto file. Header information includes the photographic source type, date, instrumentation used to create the digital orthophoto, and information relating to the DEM that was used in the rectification process. Additional header information is included on transformation constants from the 1927 and 1983 North American Datums to the orthophoto internal file coordinates to enable the user to register overlays on either datum. The quadrangle corners in both datums are also imprinted on the image. Flexibility has been built into the digital orthophoto format for future enhancements, such as the provision to include the corresponding digital elevation model elevations used to rectify the orthophoto. The digital orthophoto conforms to National Map Accuracy Standards and provides valuable mapping data that can be used as a tool for timely revision of standard map products, for land use and land cover studies, and as a digital layer in a geographic information system.

  12. U.S. Geological Survey Fundamental Science Practices

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fundamental Science Practices Advisory Committee

    2011-01-01

    The USGS has a long and proud tradition of objective, unbiased science in service to the Nation. A reputation for impartiality and excellence is one of our most important assets. To help preserve this vital asset, in 2004 the Executive Leadership Team (ELT) of the USGS was charged by the Director to develop a set of fundamental science practices, philosophical premises, and operational principles as the foundation for all USGS research and monitoring activities. In a concept document, 'Fundamental Science Practices of the U.S. Geological Survey', the ELT proposed 'a set of fundamental principles to underlie USGS science practices.' The document noted that protecting the reputation of USGS science for quality and objectivity requires the following key elements: - Clearly articulated, Bureau-wide fundamental science practices. - A shared understanding at all levels of the organization that the health and future of the USGS depend on following these practices. - The investment of budget, time, and people to ensure that the USGS reputation and high-quality standards are maintained. The USGS Fundamental Science Practices (FSP) encompass all elements of research investigations, including data collection, experimentation, analysis, writing results, peer review, management review, and Bureau approval and publication of information products. The focus of FSP is on how science is carried out and how products are produced and disseminated. FSP is not designed to address the question of what work the USGS should do; that is addressed in USGS science planning handbooks and other documents. Building from longstanding existing USGS policies and the ELT concept document, in May 2006, FSP policies were developed with input from all parts of the organization and were subsequently incorporated into the Bureau's Survey Manual. In developing an implementation plan for FSP policy, the intent was to recognize and incorporate the best of USGS current practices to obtain the optimum overall program for our science. In January 2009, the USGS moved to full implementation of FSP. The FSP Advisory Committee (FSPAC) was formed to serve as the Bureau's working and standing committee to ensure the objectivity and quality of the Bureau's science information products and to provide support for the full implementation of FSP.

  13. A Survey of Educational Acceleration Practices in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanevsky, Lannie

    2011-01-01

    A nationwide survey of Canadian school districts was undertaken to determine the extent to which 18 forms of acceleration were permitted and practiced. Of the high enrollment provinces, BC school districts' participation rates were highest in the most types of acceleration. A surprising number of districts did not allow some forms of acceleration.

  14. Seismicity surveys with ocean bottom seismographs off Western Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Hyndman, R.D.; Rogers, G.C.

    1981-05-10

    Three arrays of ocean bottom seismographs have been deployed to study the seismicity at the northern end of the Juan de Fuca ridge system off western Canada. Nearly 100 events were located with estimated accuracies generally better than +- 10 km, all lying on or near the en echelon ridge-transform fault plate boundaries as defined in this area by the magnetic anomalies, the seafloor morphology and by other geophysical data. The depths of 12 events were determined to lie between 2 and 6 km below the top of the crust. The seismograms exhibit clear P and S wave arrivals along with phases that involve P to S and sometimes S to P conversion probably at the base of the sediments beneath the instruments. The event magnitudes have been estimated from signal duration using four calibration events that were well recorded by a land station. The magnitude estimates permit the determination of rough magnitude-frequency of occurrence relations over the magnitude range of 1 to 3 that are in surprisingly good agreement with the recurrence relations for the area at larger magnitudes from 75 years of land station data. The mean P wave velocity in the uppermost mantle from the earthquake data recorded by the sea floor arrays is 7.6 km s/sup -1/ and the mean V/sub p//V/sub s/ ratio is 1.71 or a Poisson's ratio of 0.24.

  15. Survey of dry pasta for ochratoxin A in Canada.

    PubMed

    Ng, Winnie; Mankotia, Mohan; Pantazopoulos, Peter; Neil, Robert J; Scott, Peter M; Lau, Ben P-Y

    2009-04-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) was determined in 274 samples of dry pasta sold across Canada in 2004 to 2006. Ground sample was extracted with acetonitrile-water (6:4 [vol/vol]), filtered, diluted with phosphate-buffered saline, and cleaned with an immunoaffinity column. Analysis was by reversed-phase liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection, and in the second year by liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry as well. For 2004 and 2005, the limit of quantitation was approximately 0.5 ng of OTA per g (signal-to-noise ratio of 10:1). In 2006, the limit of quantitation was estimated to be 0.2 ng of OTA per g. Incidence of contamination above 0.5 ng of OTA per g was 21, 18, and 66% in the years 2004, 2005, and 2006, respectively, reflecting the contamination variability of durum wheat crops and showing the importance of multiyear surveillance. Mean levels of OTA found in these 3 years were, respectively, 0.30, 0.28, and 0.76 ng/g, and maximum levels were, respectively, 1.8, 1.4, and 3.3 ng/g. PMID:19435245

  16. Survey of bisphenol A in bottled water products in Canada.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xu-Liang; Corriveau, Jeannette

    2008-01-01

    A method based on isotope dilution headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to assess levels of bisphenol A (BPA) in 56 samples of bottled water products sold in Canada. Levels of BPA in samples of all 51 non-polycarbonate (PC) bottled water products were lower than the method detection limit (0.50 g l(-1)). Levels of BPA in most bottled water products in PC carboys were low, ranging from <0.50 to 1.4 g l(-1) with an average of 0.75 g l(-1). However, BPA was detected at levels of 8.8 and 6.5 g l(-1) in two bottles of the bottled water products in PC carboys from the same product analysed over a 5-week period, likely due to accidental or careless exposure of the products to heat (e.g. under the sun) during storage and/or transportation for extended periods of time. PMID:24784814

  17. Geology

    SciTech Connect

    Reidel, Stephen P.

    2008-01-17

    This chapter summarizes the geology of the single-shell tank (SST) farms in the context of the region’s geologic history. This chapter is based on the information in the geology data package for the SST waste management areas and SST RFI Appendix E, which builds upon previous reports on the tank farm geology and Integrated Disposal Facility geology with information available after those reports were published.

  18. U.S. Geological Survey spatial data access

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Faundeen, John L.; Kanengieter, Ronald L.; Buswell, Michael D.

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has done a progress review on improving access to its spatial data holdings over the Web. The USGS EROS Data Center has created three major Web-based interfaces to deliver spatial data to the general public; they are Earth Explorer, the Seamless Data Distribution System (SDDS), and the USGS Web Mapping Portal. Lessons were learned in developing these systems, and various resources were needed for their implementation. The USGS serves as a fact-finding agency in the U.S. Government that collects, monitors, analyzes, and provides scientific information about natural resource conditions and issues. To carry out its mission, the USGS has created and managed spatial data since its inception. Originally relying on paper maps, the USGS now uses advanced technology to produce digital representations of the Earth’s features. The spatial products of the USGS include both source and derivative data. Derivative datasets include Digital Orthophoto Quadrangles (DOQ), Digital Elevation Models, Digital Line Graphs, land-cover Digital Raster Graphics, and the seamless National Elevation Dataset. These products, created with automated processes, use aerial photographs, satellite images, or other cartographic information such as scanned paper maps as source data. With Earth Explorer, users can search multiple inventories through metadata queries and can browse satellite and DOQ imagery. They can place orders and make payment through secure credit card transactions. Some USGS spatial data can be accessed with SDDS. The SDDS uses an ArcIMS map service interface to identify the user’s areas of interest and determine the output format; it allows the user to either download the actual spatial data directly for small areas or place orders for larger areas to be delivered on media. The USGS Web Mapping Portal provides views of national and international datasets through an ArcIMS map service interface. In addition, the map portal posts news about new map services available from the USGS, many simultaneously published on the Environmental Systems Research Institute Geography Network. These three information systems use new software tools and expanded hardware to meet the requirements of the users. The systems are designed to handle the required workload and are relatively easy to enhance and maintain. The software tools give users a high level of functionality and help the system conform to industry standards. The hardware and software architecture is designed to handle the large amounts of spatial data and Internet traffic required by the information systems. Last, customer support was needed to answer questions, monitor e-mail, and report customer problems.

  19. Beowulf Distributed Processing and the United States Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maddox, Brian G.

    2002-01-01

    Introduction In recent years, the United States Geological Survey's (USGS) National Mapping Discipline (NMD) has expanded its scientific and research activities. Work is being conducted in areas such as emergency response research, scientific visualization, urban prediction, and other simulation activities. Custom-produced digital data have become essential for these types of activities. High-resolution, remotely sensed datasets are also seeing increased use. Unfortunately, the NMD is also finding that it lacks the resources required to perform some of these activities. Many of these projects require large amounts of computer processing resources. Complex urban-prediction simulations, for example, involve large amounts of processor-intensive calculations on large amounts of input data. This project was undertaken to learn and understand the concepts of distributed processing. Experience was needed in developing these types of applications. The idea was that this type of technology could significantly aid the needs of the NMD scientific and research programs. Porting a numerically intensive application currently being used by an NMD science program to run in a distributed fashion would demonstrate the usefulness of this technology. There are several benefits that this type of technology can bring to the USGS's research programs. Projects can be performed that were previously impossible due to a lack of computing resources. Other projects can be performed on a larger scale than previously possible. For example, distributed processing can enable urban dynamics research to perform simulations on larger areas without making huge sacrifices in resolution. The processing can also be done in a more reasonable amount of time than with traditional single-threaded methods (a scaled version of Chester County, Pennsylvania, took about fifty days to finish its first calibration phase with a single-threaded program). This paper has several goals regarding distributed processing technology. It will describe the benefits of the technology. Real data about a distributed application will be presented as an example of the benefits that this technology can bring to USGS scientific programs. Finally, some of the issues with distributed processing that relate to USGS work will be discussed.

  20. U.S. Geological Survey Near Real-Time Dst Index

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gannon, J.L.; Love, J.J.; Friberg, P.A.; Stewart, D.C.; Lisowski, S.W.

    2011-01-01

    The operational version of the United States Geological Survey one-minute Dst index (a global geomagnetic disturbance-intensity index for scientific studies and definition of space-weather effects) uses either four- or three-station input (including Honolulu, Hawaii; San Juan, Puerto Rico; Hermanus, South Africa; and Kakioka, Japan; or Honolulu, San Juan and Guam) and a method based on the U.S. Geological Survey definitive Dst index, in which Dst is more rigorously calculated. The method uses a combination of time-domain techniques and frequency-space filtering to produce the disturbance time series at an individual observatory. The operational output is compared to the U.S. Geological Survey one-minute Dst index (definitive version) and to the Kyoto (Japan) Final Dst to show that the U.S. Geological Survey operational output matches both definitive indices well.

  1. Integrated analysis of remote sensing products from basic geological surveys. [Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dasilvafagundesfilho, E. (Principal Investigator)

    1984-01-01

    Recent advances in remote sensing led to the development of several techniques to obtain image information. These techniques as effective tools in geological maping are analyzed. A strategy for optimizing the images in basic geological surveying is presented. It embraces as integrated analysis of spatial, spectral, and temporal data through photoptic (color additive viewer) and computer processing at different scales, allowing large areas survey in a fast, precise, and low cost manner.

  2. Use of growth charts in Canada: A National Canadian Paediatric Surveillance Program survey

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Sarah; Cummings, Elizabeth; Chanoine, Jean-Pierre; Metzger, Daniel; Palmert, Mark; Sharma, Aul; Rodd, Celia

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In 2010, the WHO Growth Charts for Canada were recommended for use in Canada, while the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (Georgia, USA) charts remained in active use. OBJECTIVE: To assess the availability, utilization of and satisfaction with growth charts in clinical practice in Canada. METHODS: In October 2012, a one-time survey was sent through the Canadian Paediatric Surveillance Program (CPSP) to 2544 paediatricians and 280 family physicians with a stated interest in paediatrics. RESULTS: The response rate was 24% (63% general paediatricians, 36% subspecialists, 1% family physicians). Of these respondents, 68% preferred the WHO charts for infants and 49% for children and youth. Regarding the WHO charts, 49.7% of respondents reported concerns with their inability to assess weight for children >10 years of age, and many believed that there were too few percentile lines between the third and 97th percentiles for infant (24%) and for child and youth measures (19%). The addition of extreme percentiles (0.1 and 99.9), shading on charts and lack of availability with electronic medical record providers were other concerns mentioned by 10% to 13% of respondents. CONCLUSION: There is support for the use of the WHO data for monitoring the growth of Canadian children. Concerns regarding the design of the charts were raised. These survey results lend support to the redesign of the WHO Growth Charts for Canada, as was recently completed in 2014. PMID:26038634

  3. The use of U.S. Geological Survey CD-ROM-based petroleum assessments in undergraduate geology laboratories

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eves, R.L.; Davis, L.E.; Dyman, T.S.; Takahashi, K.I.

    2002-01-01

    Domestic oil production is declining and United States reliance on imported oil is increasing. America will be faced with difficult decisions that address the strategic, economic, and political consequences of its energy resources shortage. The geologically literate under-graduate student needs to be aware of current and future United States energy issues. The U.S. Geological Survey periodically provides energy assessment data via digitally-formatted CD-ROM publications. These publications are free to the public, and are well suited for use in undergraduate geology curricula. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 1995 National Assessment of United States Oil and Gas Resources (Digital Data Series or DDS-30) (Gautier and others, 1996) is an excellent resource for introducing students to the strategies of hydrocarbon exploration and for developing skills in problem-solving and evaluating real data. This paper introduces the reader to DDS-30, summarizes the essential terminology and methodology of hydrocarbon assessment, and offers examples of exercises or questions that might be used in the introductory classroom. The USGS contact point for obtaining DDS-30 and other digital assessment volumes is also provided. Completing the sample exercises in this report requires a copy of DDS-30.

  4. Quaternary geologic map of the Sudbury 4 degree by 6 degree quadrangle, United States and Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fullerton, David S.; Sado, Edward V., (compiler); Baker, C.L.; Farrand, William R.

    2004-01-01

    The Quaternary Geologic Map of the Sudbury 4 degrees x 6 degrees Quadrangle was mapped as part of the Quaternary Geologic Atlas of the United States. The atlas was begun as an effort to depict the areal distribution of surficial geologic deposits and other materials that accumulated or formed during the past 2+ million years, the period that includes all activities of the human species. These materials are at the surface of the earth. They make up the 'ground' on which we walk, the 'dirt' in which we dig foundations, and the 'soil' in which we grow crops. Most of our human activity is related in one way or another to these surface materials that are referred to collectively by many geologists as regolith, the mantle of fragmental and generally unconsolidated material that overlies the bedrock foundation of the continent. The maps were compiled at 1:1,000,000 scale.

  5. Quaternary geologic map of the Boston 4 degrees x 6 degrees quadrangle, United States and Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    State compilations by Hartshorn, Joseph H.; Thompson, W.B.; Chapman, W.F.; Black, R.F.; Richmond, Gerald Martin; Grant, D.R.; Fullerton, David S.; edited and integrated by Richmond, Gerald Martin

    1991-01-01

    The Quaternary Geologic Map of the Boston 4 deg x 6 deg Quadrangle was mapped as part of the Quaternary Geologic Atlas of the United States. The atlas was begun as an effort to depict the areal distribution of surficial geologic deposits and other materials that accumulated or formed during the past 2+ million years, the period that includes all activities of the human species. These materials are at the surface of the earth. They make up the 'ground' on which we walk, the 'dirt' in which we dig foundations, and the 'soil' in which we grow crops. Most of our human activity is related in one way or another to these surface materials that are referred to collectively by many geologists as regolith, the mantle of fragmental and generally unconsolidated material that overlies the bedrock foundation of the continent. The maps were compiled at 1:1,000,000 scale.

  6. Quaternary geologic map of the Ottawa 4 degrees x 6 degrees quadrangle, United States and Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fullerton, David S.; Gadd, N. R., (compiler); Veillette, J.J.; Wagner, P.W.; Chapman, W.F.

    1993-01-01

    The Quaternary Geologic Map of the Ottawa 4 degree x 6 degree Quadrangle was mapped as part of the Quaternary Geologic Atlas of the United States. The atlas was begun as an effort to depict the areal distribution of surficial geologic deposits and other materials that accumulated or formed during the past 2+ million years, the period that includes all activities of the human species. These materials are at the surface of the earth. They make up the 'ground' on which we walk, the 'dirt' in which we dig foundations, and the 'soil' in which we grow crops. Most of our human activity is related in one way or another to these surface materials that are referred to collectively by many geologists as regolith, the mantle of fragmental and generally unconsolidated material that overlies the bedrock foundation of the continent. The maps were compiled at 1:1,000,000 scale.

  7. Quaternary geologic map of the Quebec 4 degrees x 6 degrees quadrangle, United States and Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    State compilations by Borns, H. W., Jr.; Gadd, N.R.; LaSalle, Pierre; Martineau, Ghismond; Chauvin, Luc; Fulton, R.J.; Chapman, W.F.; Wagner, W.P.; Grant, D.R.; edited and integrated by Richmond, Gerald Martin; Fullerton, David S.

    1987-01-01

    The Quaternary Geologic Map of the Quebec 4? x 6? Quadrangle was mapped as part of the Quaternary Geologic Atlas of the United States. The atlas was begun as an effort to depict the areal distribution of surficial geologic deposits and other materials that accumulated or formed during the past 2+ million years, the period that includes all activities of the human species. These materials are at the surface of the Earth. They make up the 'ground' on which we walk, the 'dirt' in which we dig foundations, and the 'soil' in which we grow crops. Most of our human activity is related in one way or another to these surface materials that are referred to collectively by many geologists as regolith, the mantle of fragmental and generally unconsolidated material that overlies the bedrock foundation of the continent. The maps were compiled at 1:1,000,000 scale.

  8. An agro-geological survey and evaluation information system based on GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Haifeng; Li, Hua; Yi, Wu

    2011-02-01

    At present, China is carried out the agro-geological survey and evaluation, and build integrated information platform is an important part. Considering the actual requirements, an agro-geological survey and evaluation information system based on GIS (ASEGIS) is discussed in this paper. Firstly, the system architecture with three tiers based on client/server and browser/server mixed mode is designed; then, the system core functions which included database construction and management, agro-geological & eco-geochemical evaluation, agro-geological & eco-geochemical forecast and early-warning, and web information distribution are elaborated; lastly, the system application in Pearl River Delta area is described. On the whole, the ASEGIS based on GIS technologies had been proved to be effective, especially in mass & heterogeneous spatial and non-spatial data management, agro-geological spatial evaluations and forecast models establishment, and web information sharing.

  9. Issues of geologically-focused situational awareness in robotic planetary missions: Lessons from an analogue mission at Mistastin Lake impact structure, Labrador, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonenko, I.; Osinski, G. R.; Battler, M.; Beauchamp, M.; Cupelli, L.; Chanou, A.; Francis, R.; Mader, M. M.; Marion, C.; McCullough, E.; Pickersgill, A. E.; Preston, L. J.; Shankar, B.; Unrau, T.; Veillette, D.

    2013-07-01

    Remote robotic data provides different information than that obtained from immersion in the field. This significantly affects the geological situational awareness experienced by members of a mission control science team. In order to optimize science return from planetary robotic missions, these limitations must be understood and their effects mitigated to fully leverage the field experience of scientists at mission control.Results from a 13-day analogue deployment at the Mistastin Lake impact structure in Labrador, Canada suggest that scale, relief, geological detail, and time are intertwined issues that impact the mission control science team's effectiveness in interpreting the geology of an area. These issues are evaluated and several mitigation options are suggested. Scale was found to be difficult to interpret without the reference of known objects, even when numerical scale data were available. For this reason, embedding intuitive scale-indicating features into image data is recommended. Since relief is not conveyed in 2D images, both 3D data and observations from multiple angles are required. Furthermore, the 3D data must be observed in animation or as anaglyphs, since without such assistance much of the relief information in 3D data is not communicated. Geological detail may also be missed due to the time required to collect, analyze, and request data.We also suggest that these issues can be addressed, in part, by an improved understanding of the operational time costs and benefits of scientific data collection. Robotic activities operate on inherently slow time-scales. This fact needs to be embraced and accommodated. Instead of focusing too quickly on the details of a target of interest, thereby potentially minimizing science return, time should be allocated at first to more broad data collection at that target, including preliminary surveys, multiple observations from various vantage points, and progressively smaller scale of focus. This operational model more closely follows techniques employed by field geologists and is fundamental to the geologic interpretation of an area. Even so, an operational time cost/benefit analyses should be carefully considered in each situation, to determine when such comprehensive data collection would maximize the science return.Finally, it should be recognized that analogue deployments cannot faithfully model the time scales of robotic planetary missions. Analogue missions are limited by the difficulty and expense of fieldwork. Thus, analogue deployments should focus on smaller aspects of robotic missions and test components in a modular way (e.g., dropping communications constraints, limiting mission scope, focusing on a specific problem, spreading the mission over several field seasons, etc.).

  10. Mapping surficial geology and assessment of permafrost conditions under the Iqaluit airport, Nunavut, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathon-Dufour, V.; Allard, M.; Leblanc, A.; L'Hrault, E.; Oldenborger, G. A.; Sladen, W. E.

    2012-12-01

    Formerly, characterization of permafrost conditions was minimal before the construction of infrastructures. It was assumed that the permafrost would forever remain a solid substrate. Before global warming, transportation infrastructures were not designed, especially in terms of materials and dimensions, to withstand without damage an increased input of heat in the soil. Iqaluit airport, the hub of the eastern Canadian Arctic, is currently affected by thawing permafrost. In fact, the runway, taxiways and apron are affected by differential settlements resulting from the presence of localized ice-rich soils. This study uses a GIS approach that makes up for the absence of appropriate characterization before the construction of the airport during WWII and in the 1950s. Mapping of surficial geology, hydrography and landforms indicative of the presence of ground ice (e.g. tundra polygons) was produced by interpreting aerial photographs dating back from the initial phases of construction (1948) and photographs taken at intervals since then, to the most recent high-resolution satellite images. Subsequent map analysis shows that the original terrain conditions prevailing before the construction of the airport have a significant impact on the current stability of the infrastructure. Data integration allowed us to summarize the main problems affecting the Iqaluit airport which are: 1) Differential settlements associated with pre-construction drainage network 2) Cracking due to thermal contraction, 3) Linear depressions associated with ice wedge degradation and 4) Sink holes. Most of the sectors affected by differential settlements and instabilities are perfectly coincident with the original streams and lakes network that has been filled to increase the size of the runway, taxiways and the apron. In addition, the runway is affected by intense frost cracking. Similarities with nearby natural terrain suggest that the network pattern of the cracks follows pre-existing ice wedges in the natural terrain. Analysis of ground penetrating radar profiles indeed shows parabolic reflectors typical of ice wedges under the larger runway cracks. Temperature data acquired with five thermistor cables in the runway, in a taxiway, in the apron and in nearby natural terrain shows that the thickness of the active layer varies between 90 centimeters for sectors covered with vegetation and more than 2 meters below paved surfaces which means that the thaw depth has now reached down into the original natural terrain under the infrastructure, thus causing settlements due to melting ice wedges. Sink holes are mostly localised on the edges of the northern part of the runway. Processes responsible for these holes possibly are seepage of water into the base course and the subgrade, melting of bodies of ice or soil compaction problems. This established context of permafrost is now used for planning a detailed investigation program in preparation for the restoration of the airport and its adaptation to climate change. The program will include drilling, more geophysical surveys, thermal monitoring and numerical simulations.

  11. The Geologic Story of Canyonlands National Park. Geological Survey Bulletin 1327.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohman, S. W.

    In 1964, Canyonlands was established as the 32nd U.S. national park, covering 400 square miles at the junction of the Green and Colorado Rivers in Utah. This booklet gives the early history of the area, a summary of the geologic history of the park, and a description of the high mesas, benchlands, and canyons. There are 81 illustrations including

  12. Framework for a U.S. Geological Survey Hydrologic Climate-Response Program in Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hodgkins, Glenn A.; Lent, Robert M.; Dudley, Robert W.; Schalk, Charles W.

    2009-01-01

    It is important to monitor hydrologic systems in the United States that could change dramatically over the short term as a result of climate change. Many ecological effects of climate change can be understood only if hydrologic data networks are in place. Because of its humid, temperate climate and its substantial annual snowpack, Maine's seasonal water cycle is sensitive to air temperature changes (Hodgkins and others, 2003). Monitoring of relevant hydrologic data would provide important baseline information against which future climate change can be measured. A series of recent investigations by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has documented changes in several components of the water cycle, including earlier snowmelt runoff in Maine during the last 30 to 40 years (Hodgkins and others, 2003), earlier lake- and river-ice breakups (Hodgkins and others, 2002; Hodgkins and others, 2005), and a denser and thinner late-winter snowpack (Hodgkins and Dudley, 2006). Snowmelt runoff timing was measured as the date, each year, by which half of the total winter-spring streamflow passed a streamflow-gaging station. Historical snowmelt runoff timing for the Piscataquis River in central Maine is shown in figure 1 as an example. Results of climate projections input to hydrologic models indicate that hydrologic trends, such as earlier spring snowmelt runoff, are expected to continue into the future (Hayhoe and others, 2007). These trends could affect species at the southern edge of their range in Maine, such as Atlantic salmon and Canada lynx, and may also affect availability of water for human use. This fact sheet describes the framework of a hydrologic climate-response program that would improve understanding of the effects of future climate change in Maine.

  13. NASA Earth Resources Survey Symposium. Volume 1-B: Geology, Information Systems and Services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A symposium was conducted on the practical applications of earth resources survey technology including utilization and results of data from programs involving LANDSAT, the Skylab earth resources experiment package, and aircraft. Topics discussed include geological structure, landform surveys, energy and extractive resources, and information systems and services.

  14. Chapter 50 Geology and tectonic development of the Amerasia and Canada Basins, Arctic Ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grantz, Arthur; Hart, Patrick E.; Childers, Vicki A

    2011-01-01

    Amerasia Basin is the product of two phases of counterclockwise rotational opening about a pole in the lower Mackenzie Valley of NW Canada. Phase 1 opening brought ocean–continent transition crust (serpentinized peridotite?) to near the seafloor of the proto-Amerasia Basin, created detachment on the Eskimo Lakes Fault Zone of the Canadian Arctic margin and thinned the continental crust between the fault zone and the proto-Amerasia Basin to the west, beginning about 195 Ma and ending prior to perhaps about 160 Ma. The symmetry of the proto-Amerasia Basin was disrupted by clockwise rotation of the Chukchi Microcontinent into the basin from an original position along the Eurasia margin about a pole near 72°N, 165 W about 145.5–140 Ma. Phase 2 opening enlarged the proto-Amerasia Basin by intrusion of mid-ocean ridge basalt along its axis between about 131 and 127.5 Ma. Following intrusion of the Phase 2 crust an oceanic volcanic plateau, the Alpha–Mendeleev Ridge LIP (large igneous province), was extruded over the northern Amerasia Basin from about 127 to 89–75 Ma. Emplacement of the LIP halved the area of the Amerasia Basin, and the area lying south of the LIP became the Canada Basin.

  15. Quaternary Geologic Map of the Regina 4 Degrees x 6 Degrees Quadrangle, United States and Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fullerton, David S.; Christiansen, Earl A.; Schreiner, Bryan T.; Colton, Roger B.; Clayton, Lee; Bush, Charles A.

    2007-01-01

    For scientific purposes, the map differentiates Quaternary surficial deposits and materials on the basis of clast lithology or composition, matrix texture or particle size, structure, genesis, stratigraphic relations, engineering geologic properties, and relative age, as shown on the correlation diagram and indicated in the 'Description of Map Units'. Deposits of some constructional landforms, such as end moraines, are distinguished as map units. Deposits of erosional landforms, such as outwash terraces, are not distinguished, although glaciofluvial, ice-contact, fluvial, and lacustrine deposits that are mapped may be terraced. Differentiation of sequences of fluvial and glaciofluvial deposits at this scale is not possible. For practical purposes, the map is a surficial materials map. Materials are distinguished on the basis of lithology or composition, texture or particle size, and other physical, chemical, and engineering characteristics. It is not a map of soils that are recognized and classified in pedology or agronomy. Rather, it is a generalized map of soils as recognized in engineering geology, or of substrata or parent materials in which pedologic or agronomic soils are formed. As a materials map, it serves as a base from which a variety of maps for use in planning engineering, land-use planning, or land-management projects can be derived and from which a variety of maps relating to earth surface processes and Quaternary geologic history can be derived.

  16. Uncertainty in mapped geological boundaries held by a national geological survey:eliciting the geologists' tacit error model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lark, R. M.; Lawley, R. S.; Barron, A. J. M.; Aldiss, D. T.; Ambrose, K.; Cooper, A. H.; Lee, J. R.; Waters, C. N.

    2015-06-01

    It is generally accepted that geological line work, such as mapped boundaries, are uncertain for various reasons. It is difficult to quantify this uncertainty directly, because the investigation of error in a boundary at a single location may be costly and time consuming, and many such observations are needed to estimate an uncertainty model with confidence. However, it is recognized across many disciplines that experts generally have a tacit model of the uncertainty of information that they produce (interpretations, diagnoses, etc.) and formal methods exist to extract this model in usable form by elicitation. In this paper we report a trial in which uncertainty models for geological boundaries mapped by geologists of the British Geological Survey (BGS) in six geological scenarios were elicited from a group of five experienced BGS geologists. In five cases a consensus distribution was obtained, which reflected both the initial individually elicited distribution and a structured process of group discussion in which individuals revised their opinions. In a sixth case a consensus was not reached. This concerned a boundary between superficial deposits where the geometry of the contact is hard to visualize. The trial showed that the geologists' tacit model of uncertainty in mapped boundaries reflects factors in addition to the cartographic error usually treated by buffering line work or in written guidance on its application. It suggests that further application of elicitation, to scenarios at an appropriate level of generalization, could be useful to provide working error models for the application and interpretation of line work.

  17. Geological and meteorological controls on icing (aufeis) dynamics (1985 to 2014) in subarctic Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morse, P. D.; Wolfe, S. A.

    2015-09-01

    Icings are widespread yet poorly understood winter hydrological phenomena that develop over the winter by freezing successive overflows of groundwater to the surface. Groundwater hydrology in arctic regions is constrained by geological setting and permafrost extent, and overflows are possibly driven by cold winters, winter warming intervals, high antecedent autumn rainfall, and low early winter snowfall. Consequently, icings are spatially recurrent but not necessarily annually nor to the same extent. We test the significance of identified meteorological forcing variables against a long-term data set of icing dynamics and distribution we developed for the Great Slave region around Yellowknife, Northwest Territories. Climate is regionally consistent, but variable geology and permafrost create hydrological conditions representative of much of the subarctic. We mapped 5500 icings in the study area (21,887 km2) with a semiautomated approach utilizing late spring Landsat archival images (1985 to 2014). Individual icing size, ranging 3 orders of magnitude (1.8 10-3 km2 to 4.1 km2), is related to return frequency. Infrequent ice (25% return frequency) accounts for 94% of the total icing area (86 km2). Winter warming intervals (?5C; typically over 1-3 days) and autumn rainfall (September and October) explain 28% of icing density interannual variation overall. Interannual icing variation and significant meteorological forcing variables differ among ecoregions where varied geological settings and permafrost conditions influence the hydrological regime. Future icings may develop less frequently due to decreasing winter warming intervals, but increasing autumn rainfall may increase icing density where Canadian Shield leads to strong threshold-mediated runoff generation processes.

  18. Survey of nine surface mines in North America. [Nine different mines in USA and Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, L.G.; Brackett, R.D.; Floyd, F.D.

    1981-01-01

    This report presents the information gathered by three mining engineers in a 1980 survey of nine surface mines in the United States and Canada. The mines visited included seven coal mines, one copper mine, and one tar sands mine selected as representative of present state of the art in open pit, strip, and terrace pit mining. The purpose of the survey was to investigate mining methods, equipment requirements, operating costs, reclamation procedures and costs, and other aspects of current surface mining practices in order to acquire basic data for a study comparing conventional and terrace pit mining methods, particularly in deeper overburdens. The survey was conducted as part of a project under DOE Contract No. DE-AC01-79ET10023 titled The Development of Optimal Terrace Pit Coal Mining Systems.

  19. Canada's health promotion survey as a milestone in public health research.

    PubMed

    Rootman, Irving; Warren, Reg; Catlin, Gary

    2010-01-01

    This commentary describes the contribution of the 1985 Canadian National Health Promotion Survey to the development of public health research and policy-making in Canada and argues that on the basis of that contribution, it should be considered to be a public health research milestone. In terms of research, among its contributions which subsequently have been adopted in other survey studies were: going beyond risk factors to operationalize concepts implicit in the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion; empowering users to participate in knowledge translation, sharing and transfer; ensuring sufficient sample sizes for each jurisdiction to be able to confidently generalize to its population; establishing a model as well as questions for subsequent health surveys; encouraging widespread use of data through making them available early; and developing and using an explicit social marketing strategy to reach target audiences, including the general public. With regard to policy-making, among its contributions which have been adopted were: using survey data to develop and enhance healthy public policy initiatives; encouraging researchers to work with policy-makers in developing policies; using survey data to contribute to the evaluation of public health initiatives; engaging policy-makers in the development of surveys; and encouraging the use of survey data for advocacy. PMID:21370775

  20. Geological, Geochemical, and Geophysical Studies by the U.S. Geological Survey in Big Bend National Park, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gray, J. E., (Edited By); Page, W.R.

    2008-01-01

    Big Bend National Park (BBNP), Tex., covers 801,163 acres (3,242 km2) and was established in 1944 through a transfer of land from the State of Texas to the United States. The park is located along a 118-mile (190-km) stretch of the Rio Grande at the United States-Mexico border. The park is in the Chihuahuan Desert, an ecosystem with high mountain ranges and basin environments containing a wide variety of native plants and animals, including more than 1,200 species of plants, more than 450 species of birds, 56 species of reptiles, and 75 species of mammals. In addition, the geology of BBNP, which varies widely from high mountains to broad open lowland basins, also enhances the beauty of the park. For example, the park contains the Chisos Mountains, which are dominantly composed of thick outcrops of Tertiary extrusive and intrusive igneous rocks that reach an altitude of 7,832 ft (2,387 m) and are considered the southernmost mountain range in the United States. Geologic features in BBNP provide opportunities to study the formation of mineral deposits and their environmental effects; the origin and formation of sedimentary and igneous rocks; Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic fossils; and surface and ground water resources. Mineral deposits in and around BBNP contain commodities such as mercury (Hg), uranium (U), and fluorine (F), but of these, the only significant mining has been for Hg. Because of the biological and geological diversity of BBNP, more than 350,000 tourists visit the park each year. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been investigating a number of broad and diverse geologic, geochemical, and geophysical topics in BBNP to provide fundamental information needed by the National Park Service (NPS) to address resource management goals in this park. Scientists from the USGS Mineral Resources and National Cooperative Geologic Mapping Programs have been working cooperatively with the NPS and several universities on several research studies within BBNP. Because the last geologic map of the entire BBNP was published in the 1960s, one of the primary goals of the USGS is to provide a new geologic map of BBNP at a scale 1:100,000; this work is ongoing among the USGS, NPS, the Texas Bureau of Economic Geology, and university scientists. This USGS Circular summarizes eight studies funded and primarily carried out by the USGS, but it is not intended to be a comprehensive reference of work conducted in BBNP. This Circular describes topical research of the recently completed interdisciplinary USGS project, which has provided information leading to a more complete understanding of the following topics in BBNP: *Tectonic and geologic history (Chapters 1, 2, and 3), *Age and formation processes of a skarn mineral deposit (Chapter 4), *Geoenvironmental effects of abandoned mercury mines (Chapter 5), *Age, source, and geochemistry of surface and subsurface water resources (Chapter 6), *Isotopic tracing of food sources of bears (Chapter 7), and *Geophysical characteristics of surface and subsurface geology (Chapter 8). Additional information and the geochemical and geophysical data of the USGS studies in BBNP are available on line at http://minerals.cr.usgs.gov/projects/big_bend/index.html.

  1. The Business of Urban Animals Survey: The facts and statistics on companion animals in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Perrin, Terri

    2009-01-01

    At the first Banff Summit for Urban Animal Strategies (BSUAS) in 2006, delegates clearly indicated that a lack of reliable Canadian statistics hampers municipal leaders and legislators in their efforts to develop urban animal strategies that create and sustain a healthy community for pets and people. To gain a better understanding of the situation, BSUAS municipal delegates and other industry stakeholders partnered with Ipsos Reid, one of the worlds leading polling firms, to conduct a national survey on the Business of Urban Animals. The results of the survey, summarized in this article, were presented at the BSUAS meeting in October 2008. In addition, each participating community will receive a comprehensive written analysis, as well as a customized report. The online survey was conducted from September 22 to October 1, 2008. There were 7208 participants, including 3973 pet and 3235 non-pet owners from the Ipsos-Reids proprietary Canadian online panel. The national results were weighted to reflect the true population distribution across Canada and the panel was balanced on all major demographics to mirror Statistics Canada census information. The margin for error for the national results is 1/? 1.15%. PMID:19337613

  2. 37 NEW T-TYPE BROWN DWARFS IN THE CANADA-FRANCE BROWN DWARFS SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Albert, Loic; Artigau, Etienne; Delorme, Philippe; Reyle, Celine; Forveille, Thierry; Delfosse, Xavier

    2011-06-15

    The Canada-France Brown Dwarfs Survey is an i'- and z'-band survey realized with MegaCam at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope that covers a surface area of 780 deg{sup 2}. Image analysis is now completed while J-band follow-up campaigns are {approx}90% done. The survey identified about 70 T dwarf candidates, of which 43 now have near-infrared spectra obtained with NIRI and GNIRS at Gemini and ISAAC at the Very Large Telescope. Six of these were previously published and we present here the 37 new discoveries, all T dwarfs. They range from T0 to T8.5 with four being of type T7 or later. Both newly identified T8 dwarfs are possibly high log (g) massive brown dwarfs of thin disk age. One T4.5 dwarf shows signs of sub-metallicity. We present proper motions and near-infrared photometry, and discuss about the most peculiar/interesting objects in some details.

  3. Boundary|Time|Surface: Art and Geology Meet in Gros Morne National Park, NL, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lancaster, Sydney; Waldron, John

    2015-04-01

    Environmental Art works range in scope from major permanent interventions in the landscape to less intrusive, more ephemeral site-specific installations constructed of materials from the local environment. Despite this range of intervention, however, these works all share in a tradition of art making that situates the artwork in direct response to the surrounding landscape. Andy Goldsworthy and Richard Long, for example, both favour methods that combine elements of both sculpture and performance in the creation of non-permanent interventions in the landscape, and both rely upon photographic, text-based, or video documentation as the only lasting indication of the works' existence. Similarly, Earth Scientists are responsible for interventions in the landscape, both physical and conceptual. For example, in Earth science, the periods of the geologic timescale - Cambrian, Ordovician, Silurian, etc. - were established by 19th century pioneers of geology at a time when they were believed to represent natural chapters in Earth history. Since the mid-20th century, stratigraphers have attempted to resolve ambiguities in the original definitions by defining stratotypes: sections of continuously deposited strata where a single horizon is chosen as a boundary. One such international stratotype, marking the Cambrian-Ordovician boundary, is defined at Green Point in Gros Morne National Park, Newfoundland. Boundary|Time|Surface was an ephemeral sculptural installation work constructed in June 2014. The main installation work was a fence of 52 vertical driftwood poles, 2-3 m tall, positioned precisely along the boundary stratotype horizon at Green Point in Newfoundland. The fence extended across a 150 m wave-cut platform from sea cliffs to the low-water mark, separating Ordovician from Cambrian strata. The installation was constructed by hand (with volunteer assistance) on June 22, as the wave-cut platform was exposed by the falling tide. During the remainder of the tidal cycle, and the following days, we allowed the fence to be dismantled by wave action and the incoming flood tide. The cycle of construction and destruction was documented in video and with time-lapse still photography. This project provided an opportunity for viewers to contemplate the brevity of human experience relative to the enormity of time, and the fragile and arbitrary nature of human-defined boundaries of all types. Future exhibitions of the documentation of this work are envisaged, which will provide opportunities for the public to interact with still and video images of the work directly, both as aesthetic objects and as sources of information regarding the geological and socio-political history of the site.

  4. Quaternary Geologic Map of the Lake Nipigon 4 Degrees x 6 Degrees Quadrangle, United States and Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sado, Edward V., (compiler); Fullerton, David S.; Farrand, William R.; Edited and Integrated by Fullerton, David S.

    1994-01-01

    The Quaternary Geologic Map of the Lake Nipigon 4 degree x 6 degree Quadrangle was mapped as part of the Quaternary Geologic Atlas of the United States. The atlas was begun as an effort to depict the areal distribution of surficial geologic deposits and other materials that accumulated or formed during the past 2+ million years, the period that includes all activities of the human species. These materials are at the surface of the earth. They make up the 'ground' on which we walk, the 'dirt' in which we dig foundations, and the 'soil' in which we grow crops. Most of our human activity is related in one way or another to these surface materials that are referred to collectively by many geologists as regolith, the mantle of fragmental and generally unconsolidated material that overlies the bedrock foundation of the continent. The maps were compiled at 1:1,000,000 scale. This map is a product of collaboration of the Ontario Geological Survey, the University of Michigan, and the U.S. Geological Survey, and is designed for both scientific and practical purposes. It was prepared in two stages. First, separate maps and map explanations were prepared by the compilers. Second, the maps were combined, integrated, and supplemented by the editor. Map unit symbols were revised to a uniform system of classification and the map unit descriptions were prepared by the editor from information received from the compilers and from additional sources listed under Sources of Information. Diagrams accompanying the map were prepared by the editor. For scientific purposes, the map differentiates Quaternary surficial deposits on the basis of lithology or composition, texture or particle size, structure, genesis, stratigraphic relationships, engineering geologic properties, and relative age, as shown on the correlation diagram and indicated in the map unit descriptions. Deposits of some constructional landforms, such as kame moraine deposits, are distinguished as map units. Deposits of erosional landforms, such as outwash terraces, are not distinguished, although glaciofluvial, ice-contact, and lacustrine deposits that are mapped may be terraced. As a Quaternary geologic map it serves as a base from which a variety of maps relating Quaternary geologic history can be derived. For practical purposes, the map is a surficial materials map. Materials are distinguished on the basis of lithology or composition, texture or particle size, and other physical, chemical, and engineering characteristics. It is not a map of soils that are recognized and classified in pedology or agronomy. Rather, it is a generalized map of soils as recognized in engineering geology, or of substrata or parent materials in which pedologic or agronomic soils are formed. As a materials map it serves as a base from which a variety of maps for use in planning engineering, land use, or land management projects can be derived.

  5. Simulation models in petroleum geology: Applications to abnormally pressured basins in Indonesia and Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Maubeuge, F.

    1992-01-01

    Interpolation algorithms have been developed in order to visualize the evolution of the dynamic parameters in fluid-flow/compaction models (one and two dimensional), created by the Basin Analysis Group at USC. One of the major features of these graphics codes is the treatment of instantaneous faults, whether vertical or slant, in the two dimensional code. Both one dimensional and two dimensional fluid-flow/compaction codes have been applied in the study of two abnormally pressured basins: (1) a 5 million year old basin in Indonesia, which developed in a deltaic environment, and currently has an overpressured profile in strongly undercompacted shaly layers. Furthermore, the basin is controlled by a major growth fault system, whose behavior through time is examined and highlighted, according to the pressure data available, and (2) the Elmworth field, which is part of the Deep Basin in Western Canada, characterized by fluid pressure lower than hydrostatic in some of the Lower Cretaceous sandy formations. The two dimensional model (GEOPETII) succeeded in trapping gas in the deepest part of the basin, as appears to be the case in Elmworth thus simulating an unconventional hydrocarbon trap, which, in turn, is the cause of subnormal pressure occurrences.

  6. Storage and retrieval of ground-water data at the U.S. Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mercer, Maria W.; Morgan, Charles O.

    1982-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey maintains a computerized Ground-Water Site-Inventory (GWSI) file that contains information about wells and springs at sites from all States of the United States. This file contains data collected by U.S. Geological Survey personnel and personnel of cooperating State, local and Federal agencies. The file is easily accessible to members or users of the National Water Data Exchange. Since the establishment of the GWSI file in 1974, the data base has grown 19% per year and contains information on about 770,000 sites as of February 1981. (USGS)

  7. Support by the U.S. Geological Survey for adjudications, compacts, and treaties

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Condes de la Torre, Alberto

    1982-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey supports interstate compacts, treaties, and court decrees by providing hydrologic data and analysis needed in their administration and by providing Federal representation on compact commissions. As part of this program, in fiscal year 1982 the Geological Survey operated 171 streamflow stations, 3 sediment stations, and 13 water-quality stations, and conducted ground-water studies at a cost of $1,014,000. Funding for Federal representation to i0 interstate compacts is presently budgeted at $56,000.

  8. Survey of public perceptions of prion disease risks in Canada: what does the public care about?

    PubMed

    Lemyre, L; Gibson, S; Markon, M P L; Lee, J E C; Brazeau, I; Carroll, A; Boutette, P; Krewski, D

    2009-01-01

    A national public survey on public perceptions of prion disease risk in Canada was conducted from October to December 2007. The survey aimed at documenting the public's perceptions of prion diseases, within the broader context of food safety, in establishing parameters of risk acceptability. It also documented the public's perceptions of prion diseases in delineating social values and ethics that can guide Canada's future policies on prion disease risk management. In addition, the survey served to establish baseline data against which to monitor the evolution of the public's views on and understanding of this important risk issue. In total, 1517 Canadians were randomly selected to be representative of the adult population by region, age, and gender, as per the 2001 Census. This study presents descriptive findings from the survey regarding perceived risk, perceived control, uncertainty, sources of information, trust and knowledge, and beliefs pertaining to bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). The survey data reveal that Canadians do not perceive mad cow disease as a salient risk but consider it more of an economic, political, social, and foreign trade issue than a public health one. Canadians are somewhat prepared to pay a premium to have a safer food supply, but not to the same extent that they desire extra measures pertaining to BSE risk management. In the context of increasing accountability in risk management decisions about food safety and population health issues, it is important to understand the way Canadians perceive such matters and identify their information needs and the factors that influence the acceptability of risks and of risk management policies. PMID:19697248

  9. U. S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY'S NATIONAL REAL-TIME HYDROLOGIC INFORMATION SYSTEM USING GOES SATELLITE TECHNOLOGY.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shope, William G., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The U. S. Geological Survey maintains the basic hydrologic data collection system for the United States. The Survey is upgrading the collection system with electronic communications technologies that acquire, telemeter, process, and disseminate hydrologic data in near real-time. These technologies include satellite communications via the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite, Data Collection Platforms in operation at over 1400 Survey gaging stations, Direct-Readout Ground Stations at nine Survey District Offices and a network of powerful minicomputers that allows data to be processed and disseminate quickly.

  10. The Black Mountain tectonic zone--a reactivated northeast-trending crustal shear zone in the Yukon-Tanana Upland of east-central Alaska: Chapter D in Recent U.S. Geological Survey studies in the Tintina Gold Province, Alaska, United States, and Yukon, Canada--results of a 5-year project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Neill, J. Michael; Day, Warren C.; Alienikoff, John N.; Saltus, Richard W.

    2007-01-01

    The Black Mountain tectonic zone in the YukonTanana terrane of east-central Alaska is a belt of diverse northeast-trending geologic features that can been traced across Black Mountain in the southeast corner of the Big Delta 1°×3° degree quadrangle. Geologic mapping in the larger scale B1 quadrangle of the Big Delta quadrangle, in which Black Mountain is the principal physiographic feature, has revealed a continuous zone of normal and left-lateral strikeslip high-angle faults and shear zones, some of which have late Tertiary to Quaternary displacement histories. The tectonic zone includes complexly intruded wall rocks and intermingled apophyses of the contiguous mid-Cretaceous Goodpaster and Mount Harper granodioritic plutons, mafic to intermediate composite dike swarms, precious metal mineralization, early Tertiary volcanic activity and Quaternary fault scarps. These structures define a zone as much as 6 to 13 kilometers (km) wide and more than 40 km long that can be traced diagonally across the B1 quadrangle into the adjacent Eagle 1°×3° quadrangle to the east. Recurrent activity along the tectonic zone, from at least mid-Cretaceous to Quaternary, suggests the presence of a buried, fundamental tectonic feature beneath the zone that has influenced the tectonic development of this part of the Yukon-Tanana terrane. The tectonic zone, centered on Black Mountain, lies directly above a profound northeast-trending aeromagnetic anomaly between the Denali and Tintina fault systems. The anomaly separates moderate to strongly magnetic terrane on the northwest from a huge, weakly magnetic terrane on the southeast. The tectonic zone is parallel to the similarly oriented left-lateral, strike-slip Shaw Creek fault zone 85 km to the west.

  11. The geology and emplacement history of the Pigeon kimberlite, EKATI Diamond Mine, Northwest Territories, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, Barbara; Hetman, Casey; Nowicki, Tom; Baumgartner, Mike; Harrison, Sara

    2009-11-01

    The Pigeon kimberlite is located approximately 6 km to the northwest of the Koala cluster of the EKATI Diamond Mine, and is presently one of ten kimberlite occurrences in the EKATI resource development plan. It was emplaced along a regional lithological contact between syn-Yellowknife Supergroup granitoid rocks and Yellowknife Supergroup metasedimentary rocks that were covered by a now eroded veneer of poorly consolidated muddy sediments. Detailed age dating has not been undertaken, however the emplacement age is inferred from sedimentary xenoliths present within the pipe to range between 45-75 Ma. Pigeon is a small kimberlite body, estimated to be approximately 3.5 ha at surface, consisting of a steep-sided pipe that can be separated into four main geological domains that are characterized by contrasting textures, different diamond characteristics and unique mineral abundance and compositional signatures. The uppermost portion of the body consists of mud-rich resedimented volcaniclastic kimberlite that was formed by the deposition of extra crater deposits by debris flow type processes into an open diatreme. Texturally complex kimberlite is present within the lower portion of the kimberlite and includes rocks that display a range of features consistent with coherent (magmatic) and less common volcaniclastic (fragmental) rocks. This texturally complex zone is interpreted to represent a clastogenic deposit formed by a low energy eruption within an open diatreme.

  12. The role of the U.S. Geological Survey in the lithium industry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vine, J.D.

    1978-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has responsibility in the U.S. Department of the Interior to assess the nation's energy and mineral resources. The evaluation of reserves and resources of a commodity such as lithium should be a continuing process in the light of advancing technology and ever-growing knowledge of its geologic occurrence and geochemical behavior. Although reserves of lithium vary with market demand because of the investment required to find, develop, and appraise an ore body, total resources are a function of the geologic occurrence and geochemical behavior of lithium. By studying known deposits and publishing data on their origin and occurrence, the U.S. Geological Survey can aid in the discovery of new deposits and improve the resource base. Resource data are used both by the government and the private sector. Government funding for research on energy-related technologies such as electric vehicle batteries and fusion power requires assurance that there will be enough lithium available in time for commercialization. Questions of availability for all mineral commodities must be answered by the U.S. Geological Survey so that intelligent decisions can be made. ?? 1978.

  13. The Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Optical PDCS Survey (COP). I. The Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adami, C.; Holden, B. P.; Castander, F. J.; Nichol, R. C.; Mazure, A.; Ulmer, M. P.; Postman, M.; Lubin, L. M.

    2000-07-01

    This paper presents the COP (CFHT optical PDCS; CFHT: Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope, PDCS: Palomar Distant Cluster Survey) survey data. We describe our photometric and spectroscopic observations with the multiobject spectrograph (MOS) at the CFHT. A comparison of the photometry from the PDCS catalogs and from the new images we have obtained at the CFHT shows that the different magnitude systems can be cross-calibrated. After identification between the PDCS catalogs and our new images, we built catalogs with redshift, coordinates, and VPDCS, IPDCS, and RCOP magnitudes. We have classified the galaxies along the lines of sight into field and structure galaxies using a gap technique from Katgert et al. In total we have observed 18 significant structures along the 10 lines of sight.

  14. What the Polls Do Show: Toward Enhanced Survey Readings of Religion in Canada.

    PubMed

    Bibby, Reginald W; Grenville, Andrew

    2016-02-01

    Over the past two decades or so, survey research findings on religious activities and beliefs have been confusing, with the results of researchers and private pollsters frequently differing from those of Statistics Canada. In this research note, the authors use four national omnibus surveys conducted in 2012 to explore the extent to which such differences are due to measurement variations. Finding few noteworthy differences, they proceed to focus on the samples being used, and draw on illustrative data from 2012 and 2015 to argue that the differences in findings may in large part be due to differences in samples. The resolution of sampling problems, they acknowledge, is extremely difficult, but nonetheless is a goal that has to be pursued. PMID:26890449

  15. Bayesian galaxy shape measurement for weak lensing surveys - III. Application to the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Lensing Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, L.; Heymans, C.; Kitching, T. D.; van Waerbeke, L.; Erben, T.; Hildebrandt, H.; Hoekstra, H.; Mellier, Y.; Rowe, B. T. P.; Coupon, J.; Dietrich, J. P.; Fu, L.; Harnois-Déraps, J.; Hudson, M. J.; Kilbinger, M.; Kuijken, K.; Schrabback, T.; Semboloni, E.; Vafaei, S.; Velander, M.

    2013-03-01

    A likelihood-based method for measuring weak gravitational lensing shear in deep galaxy surveys is described and applied to the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) Lensing Survey (CFHTLenS). CFHTLenS comprises 154 deg2 of multi-colour optical data from the CFHT Legacy Survey, with lensing measurements being made in the i' band to a depth i'AB < 24.7, for galaxies with signal-to-noise ratio νSN ≳ 10. The method is based on the lensfit algorithm described in earlier papers, but here we describe a full analysis pipeline that takes into account the properties of real surveys. The method creates pixel-based models of the varying point spread function (PSF) in individual image exposures. It fits PSF-convolved two-component (disc plus bulge) models to measure the ellipticity of each galaxy, with Bayesian marginalization over model nuisance parameters of galaxy position, size, brightness and bulge fraction. The method allows optimal joint measurement of multiple, dithered image exposures, taking into account imaging distortion and the alignment of the multiple measurements. We discuss the effects of noise bias on the likelihood distribution of galaxy ellipticity. Two sets of image simulations that mirror the observed properties of CFHTLenS have been created to establish the method's accuracy and to derive an empirical correction for the effects of noise bias.

  16. Sci—Thur PM: Imaging — 06: Canada's National Computed Tomography (CT) Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Wardlaw, GM; Martel, N; Blackler, W; Asselin, J-F

    2014-08-15

    The value of computed tomography (CT) in medical imaging is reflected in its' increased use and availability since the early 1990's; however, given CT's relatively larger exposures (vs. planar x-ray) greater care must be taken to ensure that CT procedures are optimised in terms of providing the smallest dose possible while maintaining sufficient diagnostic image quality. The development of CT Diagnostic Reference Levels (DRLs) supports this process. DRLs have been suggested/supported by international/national bodies since the early 1990's and widely adopted elsewhere, but not on a national basis in Canada. Essentially, CT DRLs provide guidance on what is considered good practice for common CT exams, but require a representative sample of CT examination data to make any recommendations. Canada's National CT Survey project, in collaboration with provincial/territorial authorities, has collected a large national sample of CT practice data for 7 common examinations (with associated clinical indications) of both adult and pediatric patients. Following completion of data entry into a common database, a survey summary report and recommendations will be made on CT DRLs from this data. It is hoped that these can then be used by local regions to promote CT practice optimisation and support any dose reduction initiatives.

  17. U. S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY'S SIDE-LOOKING AIRBORNE RADAR PROGRAM: THE ALASKAN CONNECTION.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kover, Allan N.; Jones, John Edwin; Gawarecki, Stephen J.

    1986-01-01

    The U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) has become a major source of side-looking airborne radar (SLAR) data as a result of a Congressional mandate in 1980 to 'begin the use of side-looking airborne radar for topographic and geologic mapping, and geological resource surveys in promising areas, particularly Alaska. ' In 1982, SLAR images were acquired, with a northwest look direction of almost 13,000 km**2 of the Aleutian Islands. Although acquisitions in succeeding years concentrated on selected areas of interest in the conterminous United States, Alaskan radar data will again be collect in fiscal year 1986. Mosaics have already been prepared for more than 20 percent of the conterminous United States and 10 percent of Alaska. Although mosaics are a convenient form of compiling radar images to provide a synoptic view, the individual radar strips, especially film transparencies, have considerably more detail and are used for most serious studies.

  18. DATA ACQUISITION AND APPLICATIONS OF SIDE-LOOKING AIRBORNE RADAR IN THE U. S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, John Edwin; Kover, Allan N.

    1985-01-01

    The Side-Looking Airborne Radar (SLAR) program encompasses a multi-discipline effort involving geologists, hydrologists, engineers, geographers, and cartographers of the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS). Since the program began in 1980, more than 520,000 square miles of aerial coverage of SLAR data in the conterminous United States and Alaska have been acquired or contracted for acquisition. The Geological Survey has supported more than 60 research and applications projects addressing the use of this technology in the earth sciences since 1980. These projects have included preparation of lithographic reproductions of SLAR mosaics, research to improve the cartographic uses of SLAR, research for use of SLAR in assessing earth hazards, and studies using SLAR for energy and mineral exploration through improved geologic mapping.

  19. Magnetic HGI, radiometric surveys prove cost-effective in W. Canada

    SciTech Connect

    LeSchack, L.A.

    1997-05-26

    The Rumsey Leduc reef (Late Devonian) in Central Alberta is an after-the-fact case history that illustrates the congruence of horizontal gradient intensity and seismic anomalies. The Rumsey reef is situated on the Feen-Big Valley Shoal near Stettler, Alberta. The geology of that shoal was described by Andrichuk. Andrichuk observed that at least 30 m of secondary dolomites indicative of subsequent Leduc reef formation can be seen underlying the Erskine, Stettler, Fenn, and Big Valley Leduc reef fields on the shoal. They further suggested that because this dolomitic trend extends about 7 miles southwest of Big Valley field, that area to the southwest may well contain productive reef buildups as yet undiscovered (in 1958). The Rumsey reef, discovered in that are in 1982, is the most significant new productive Leduc build-up discovered on the shoal since 1958. Subsequent to the Rumsey discovery, Gulf conducted a 3D seismic survey to determine the full extent of the reef. In 1994 Gulf participated in a joint project with the author to share and make public the 3D survey in exchange for the author`s HGI and DRAD survey of the same area. Gulf provided the 3D survey only after the author presented his survey results. The paper discusses results from these surveys as well as survey costs.

  20. CFHTLenS: the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Lensing Survey - imaging data and catalogue products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erben, T.; Hildebrandt, H.; Miller, L.; van Waerbeke, L.; Heymans, C.; Hoekstra, H.; Kitching, T. D.; Mellier, Y.; Benjamin, J.; Blake, C.; Bonnett, C.; Cordes, O.; Coupon, J.; Fu, L.; Gavazzi, R.; Gillis, B.; Grocutt, E.; Gwyn, S. D. J.; Holhjem, K.; Hudson, M. J.; Kilbinger, M.; Kuijken, K.; Milkeraitis, M.; Rowe, B. T. P.; Schrabback, T.; Semboloni, E.; Simon, P.; Smit, M.; Toader, O.; Vafaei, S.; van Uitert, E.; Velander, M.

    2013-08-01

    We present data products from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Lensing Survey (CFHTLenS). CFHTLenS is based on the Wide component of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey (CFHTLS). It encompasses 154 deg2 of deep, optical, high-quality, sub-arcsecond imaging data in the five optical filters u*g'r'i'z'. The scientific aims of the CFHTLenS team are weak gravitational lensing studies supported by photometric redshift estimates for the galaxies. This paper presents our data processing of the complete CFHTLenS data set. We were able to obtain a data set with very good image quality and high-quality astrometric and photometric calibration. Our external astrometric accuracy is between 60 and 70 mas with respect to Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data, and the internal alignment in all filters is around 30 mas. Our average photometric calibration shows a dispersion of the order of 0.01-0.03 mag for g'r'i'z' and about 0.04 mag for u* with respect to SDSS sources down to iSDSS ? 21. We demonstrate in accompanying papers that our data meet necessary requirements to fully exploit the survey for weak gravitational lensing analyses in connection with photometric redshift studies. In the spirit of the CFHTLS, all our data products are released to the astronomical community via the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre at http://www.cadc-ccda.hia-iha.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/community/CFHTLens/query.html. We give a description and how-to manuals of the public products which include image pixel data, source catalogues with photometric redshift estimates and all relevant quantities to perform weak lensing studies.

  1. Surface-water, ground-water, and sediment geochemistry of epizonal and shear-hosted mineral deposits in the Tintina Gold Province--arsenic and antimony distribution and mobility: Chapter G in Recent U.S. Geological Survey studies in the Tintina Gold Province, Alaska, United States, and Yukon, Canada--results of a 5-year project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mueller, Seth H.; Goldfarb, Richard J.; Verplanck, Philip L.; Trainor, Thomas P.; Sanzolone, Richard F.; Adams, Monique

    2007-01-01

    Epigenetic mineral deposits in the Tintina Gold Province are generally characterized by high concentrations of arsenic and antimony in their mineral assemblage. A total of 347 samples (ground water, surface water, and stream sediment) were collected to investigate the distribution and mobility of arsenic and antimony in the environment near known mineral deposits. Samples were collected from east to west at Keno Hill and Brewery Creek, Yukon, Canada; and Cleary Hill, True North, Scrafford Mine, Fairbanks, Ryan Lode, Stampede Creek, Slate Creek, and Donlin Creek, all in Alaska. Surface- and ground-water samples are all slightly acidic to near-neutral in pH (5-8), have a wide range in specific conductance (surface water 17-2,980 microsiemens per centimeter and ground water 170-2,940 microsiemens per centimeter), and show elevated dissolved arsenic and antimony concentrations (arsenic in surface water is less than 1 to 380 micrograms per liter and in ground water is less than 1 micrograms per liter to 1.5 milligrams per liter; antimony in surface water is less than 2 to 660 micrograms per liter and in ground water is less than 2 to 60 micrograms per liter). Stream sediments downstream from these deposits have high concentrations of arsenic and antimony (arsenic median is 1,670 parts per million, maximum is 10,000 parts per million; antimony median is 192 parts per million, maximum is 7,200 parts per million). The mobility of arsenic and antimony is controlled by the local redox environment, with arsenic being less mobile in oxidized surface waters relative to antimony, and arsenic more mobile in reduced ground water. These factors suggest that both antimony and arsenic may be useful pathfinder elements in water and sediment for targeting similar style deposits elsewhere in the Tintina Gold Province.

  2. A U.S. Geological Survey marker embedded in the northeast corner ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    A U.S. Geological Survey marker embedded in the northeast corner of concrete abutment. This view also shows the basic abutment and tower footing arrangement. - Potomac Edison Company, Chesapeake & Ohio Canal Bridge, Spanning C & O Canal South of U.S. 11, Williamsport, Washington County, MD

  3. U.S. Geological Survey Federal-State Program (water quality)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buchanan, T.J.; Gilbert, B.K.

    1982-01-01

    The program is a partnership between the Geological Survey and State and local agencies for the collection of the hydrologic information needed for the continuing determination and evaluation of the quantity, quality, and use of the nation's water resources. A number of typical examples of projects within the program are presented. -from ASCE Publications Abstracts

  4. Estimated Use of Water in the United States in 1975. Geological Survey Circular 765.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, C. Richard; Reeves, E. Bodette

    The United States Geological Survey has compiled data on water use in this country every fifth year since 1950. This document is the most recent of this series and presents data on water withdrawn for use in the United States in 1975. In the introduction, recent and present water use studies are discussed along with a description of the…

  5. Activities of the Alaska District, Water Resources Division, U.S. Geological Survey, 1990

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Elisabeth F.

    1990-01-01

    Thirteen projects of the U.S. Geological Survey, Water Resource Division active in Alaska in 1990 are described. Each description includes information on period of project, chief, funding sources, location, purpose, current status, and published or planned reports. The compilation also contains a bibliography of reports published by the Alaska District from 1987 through January 1990. (USGS)

  6. Activities of the Alaska District, Water Resources Division, U.S. Geological Survey, 1987

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, E. F., (compiler)

    1987-01-01

    Hydrologic data collection activities by the U.S. Geological Survey in Alaska are described. Seventeen projects were active in 1987. Each description includes information on period of project, project chief, funding sources, location, purpose, current status, and published or planned reports. The compilation also contains a bibliography of reports published by the Alaska District from 1984 through 1986. (USGS)

  7. Research opportunities in interdisciplinary ground-water science in the U.S. Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sanford, W.E.; Caine, J.S.; Wilcox, D.A.; McWreath, H.C.; Nicholas, J.R.

    2006-01-01

    This report is written for the scientifically literate reader but is not limited to those who are involved in ground-water science. The report is intended to encourage U.S. Geological Survey scientists to develop a sense of excitement about ground-water science in the agency, to inform scientists about existing and potential ground-water science opportunities, and to engage scientists and managers in interdisciplinary discussions and collaboration. The report is intended for use by U.S. Geological Survey and Department of the Interior management to formulate long-term ground-water science programs and to continue sustained support of ground-water monitoring and research, some of which may not have an immediate impact. Finally, the report can be used to communicate the U.S. Geological Survey's vision of ground-water science to Congress, partners, other agencies, and the research community at large with the goals of enhancing collaborative opportunities, sharing information, and maintaining dialogue regarding the directions of U.S. Geological Survey ground-water science.

  8. 43 CFR 3836.13 - What are geological, geochemical, or geophysical surveys?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What are geological, geochemical, or geophysical surveys? 3836.13 Section 3836.13 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) ANNUAL ASSESSMENT WORK REQUIREMENTS FOR MINING...

  9. Operation of hydrologic data collection stations by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1987

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Condes de la Torre, Alberto

    1987-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey operates hydrologic data collection stations nationwide which serve the needs of all levels of government, the private sector, and the general public, for water resources information. During fiscal year 1987, surface water discharge was determined at 10,624 stations; stage data on streams, reservoirs, and lakes were recorded at 1,806 stations; and various surface water quality characteristics were determined at 2,901 stations. In addition, groundwater levels were measured at 32,588 stations, and the quality of groundwater was determined at 9,120 stations. Data on sediment were collected daily at 174 stations and on a periodic basis at 878 stations. Information on precipitation quantity was collected at 909 stations, and the quality of precipitation was analyzed at 78 stations. Data collection platforms for satellite telemetry of hydrologic information were used at 2,292 Geological Survey stations. Funding for the hydrologic stations was derived, either solely or from a combination, from three major sources - the Geological Survey 's Federal Program appropriation, the Federal-State Cooperative Program, and reimbursements from other Federal agencies. The number of hydrologic stations operated by the Geological Survey declined from fiscal year 1983 to 1987. The number of surface water discharge stations were reduced by 452 stations; surface water quality stations declined by 925 stations; groundwater level stations declined by 1,051 stations; while groundwater quality stations increased by 1,472 stations. (Author 's abstract)

  10. 43 CFR 3836.13 - What are geological, geochemical, or geophysical surveys?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What are geological, geochemical, or geophysical surveys? 3836.13 Section 3836.13 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) ANNUAL ASSESSMENT WORK REQUIREMENTS FOR MINING...

  11. 43 CFR 3836.13 - What are geological, geochemical, or geophysical surveys?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What are geological, geochemical, or geophysical surveys? 3836.13 Section 3836.13 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) ANNUAL ASSESSMENT WORK REQUIREMENTS FOR MINING...

  12. 43 CFR 3836.13 - What are geological, geochemical, or geophysical surveys?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What are geological, geochemical, or geophysical surveys? 3836.13 Section 3836.13 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) ANNUAL ASSESSMENT WORK REQUIREMENTS FOR MINING...

  13. WATSTORE: National Water Data Storage and Retrieval System of the U. S. Geological Survey; user's guide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hutchison, Norman E.

    1975-01-01

    with an IBM 370/155 computer. WATSTORE is now (1975) available to other Federal agencies and selected cooperators of the Geological Survey who acquire and(or) use water data. The WATSTORE User's Guide describes the systeb and how it operates.

  14. 30 CFR Appendix to Part 253 - List of U.S. Geological Survey Topographic Maps

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false List of U.S. Geological Survey Topographic Maps Appendix to Part 253 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL SPILL FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY FOR OFFSHORE FACILITIES Pt. 253, App. Appendix to Part 253—List of...

  15. The U.S. Geological Survey Federal-State Cooperative Water- Resources Program: Fiscal Year 1988

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gilbert, Bruce K.; Mann, William B., IV

    1989-01-01

    The Federal-State Cooperative Program is a partnership between the U.S. Geological Survey and State and local agencies. It provides a balanced approach to the study and resolution of water-related problems and to acquiring hydrologic data. The principal program objectives are to: (1) collect, on a systematic basis, data needed for the continuing determination and evaluation of the quantity, quality, and use of the Nation's water resources, and (2) appraise the availability and the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of surface and ground water through analytical and interpretive investigations. During fiscal year 1988, hydrologic data collection, interpretive investigations, and research were conducted by Geological Survey personnel in offices in every State, Puerto Rico, and several territories in cooperation with more than 1,000 local, State, and regional agencies. In fiscal year 1988, Federal funding of almost $60 million was matched by cooperating agencies, who also provided approximately $6 million unmatched for a total program of about $126 million. This amounted to more than 40 percent of the total funds for Geological Survey water-resources activities. This report presents examples of current (1988) investigations. It also lists about 250 water-resources investigations related to agricultural activities that the Geological Survey conducted from 1970 to 1988.

  16. U.S. Geological Survey Aids Federal Agencies in ObtainingCommercial Satellite and Aerial Imagery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is a leading U.S. Federal civil agency in the implementation of the civil aspects of the Commercial Remote Sensing Space Policy (CRSSP). The USGS is responsible for collecting inter-agency near-term requirements, establishing an operational infrastructure, and supporting the policy and other Federal agencies.

  17. Bibliography of glacier studies by the U.S. Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, E.F.

    1996-01-01

    Reports on glaciers written by U.S. Geological Survey members between 1896 and early 1996 are listed. The reports contain information about glacier and had at least one USGS author or was dependent on USGS data or projects. Extensive glacier studies have been done by the USGS in North America, Greenland, Iceland, as well as in Antarctica.

  18. The British Geological Survey's Lexicon of Named Rock Units as Online and Linked Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCormick, T.

    2012-12-01

    The British Geological Survey's Lexicon of Named Rock Units provides freely accessible definitions and supplementary information about geological units of Great Britain, Northern Ireland, and their associated continental shelf. It is an online database that can be searched at www.bgs.ac.uk/Lexicon/. It has existed since 1990 (under different names) but the database and user interface have recently been completely redesigned to improve their semantic capabilities and suitability for describing different styles of geology. The data are also now freely available as linked data from data.bgs.ac.uk/. The Lexicon of Named Rock Units serves two purposes. First, it is a dictionary, defining and constraining the geological units that are referenced in the Survey's data sets, workflows, products and services. These can include printed and digital geological maps at a variety of scales, reports, books and memoirs, and 3- and 4-dimensional geological models. All geological units referenced in any of these must first be present and defined, at least to a basic level of completeness, in the Lexicon database. Only then do they become available for use. The second purpose of the Lexicon is as a repository of knowledge about the geology of the UK and its continental shelf, providing authoritative descriptions written and checked by BGS geoscientists. Geological units are assigned to one of four themes: bedrock, superficial, mass movement and artificial. They are further assigned to one of nine classes: lithostratigraphical, lithodemic intrusive, lithodemic tectono-metamorphic, lithodemic mixed, litho-morpho-genetic, man-made, age-based, composite, and miscellaneous. The combination of theme and class controls the fields that are available to describe each geological unit, so that appropriate fields are offered for each, whether it is a Precambrian tectono-metamorphic complex, a Devonian sandstone formation, or a Devensian river terrace deposit. Information that may be recorded about each unit includes its rank, parentage, previous and alternative names and usage, geochronological age, lithology, environment of deposition / mode of origin, thickness, boundaries, type and reference localities and sections, geographical distribution, associated landforms, and literature references. BGS geoscientists use a web-based 'sandbox' system to write and revise definitions. The Lexicon currently stores information on approximately 13,400 geological units that BGS considers to be 'current', with cross references to some 6,000 other names that are considered to be obsolete or alternative names. The entries span the entire preserved geological history of the UK from Archaean to Recent, onshore and offshore.

  19. Topographic and hydrographic GIS datasets for the Afghan Geological Survey and U.S. Geological Survey 2013 mineral areas of interest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Casey, Brittany N.; Chirico, Peter G.

    2013-01-01

    Afghanistan is endowed with a vast amount of mineral resources, and it is believed that the current economic state of the country could be greatly improved through investment in the extraction and production of these resources. In 2007, the Preliminary Non-Fuel Resource Assessment of Afghanistan 2007 was completed by members of the U.S. Geological Survey and Afghan Geological Survey (Peters and others, 2007). The assessment delineated 20 mineralized areas for further study using a geologic-based methodology. In 2011, a follow-on data product, Summaries and Data Packages of Important Areas for Mineral Investment and Production Opportunities of Nonfuel Minerals in Afghanistan, was released (Peters and others, 2011). As part of this more recent work, geologic, geohydrologic, and hyperspectral studies were carried out in the areas of interest (AOIs) to assess the location and characteristics of the mineral resources. The 2011 publication included a dataset of 24 identified AOIs containing subareas, a corresponding digital elevation model (DEM), elevation contours, areal extent, and hydrography for each AOI. In 2012, project scientists identified five new AOIs and two subareas in Afghanistan. These new areas are Ahankashan, Kandahar, Parwan, North Bamyan, and South Bamyan. The two identified subareas include Obatu-Shela and Sekhab-ZamtoKalay, both located within the larger Kandahar AOI. In addition, an extended Kandahar AOI is included in the project for water resource modeling purposes. The dataset presented in this publication consists of the areal extent of the five new AOIs, two subareas, and the extended Kandahar AOI, elevation contours at 100-, 50-, and 25-meter intervals, an enhanced DEM, and a hydrographic dataset covering the extent of the new study area. The resulting raster and vector layers are intended for use by government agencies, developmental organizations, and private companies in Afghanistan to assist with mineral assessments, monitoring, management, and investment.

  20. Application of reservoir geology of enhanced oil recovery from upper Devonian Nisku Reefs, Alberta, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Watts, N.R. ); Coppold, M.P. , Calgary, Alberta ); Douglas, J.L. )

    1994-01-01

    The Upper Devonian West Pembina reef trend of west-central Alberta contains recoverable reserves of over 79 x 10[sup 6] m[sup 3] (500 million bbl) of oil and 1.4 x 10[sup 10] m[sup 3] (500 billion ft[sup 3]) of gas within approximately 50 pinnacle reefs in the Nisku Formation. Although the oil is saturated with gas at original reservoir pressure, primary depletion would soon lower the reservoir pressure below the bubble point, decreasing recovery. Thus, pressure maintenance is applied early in the producing life of the pools through waterflood or miscible flood schemes. Selection of the appropriate enhanced recovery scheme depends upon the internal flow-unit geometry of the reefs. The Bigoray Nisku C pool and the Pembina Nisku L pool form end members of the reservoir spectrum. They can be used as flow-unit models in the geological input for reservoir simulation studies. The Bigoray Nisku C pool is dominantly limestone. The primary textures, well perserved in this reef, provide the key to interpreting the relict textures in fully dolomitized reefs. Due to the presence of horizontal permeability barriers associated with the limestone lithology, the pool is developed with a waterflood displacement scheme. Ultimate recovery is estimated to be on the order of 0.55 x 10[sup 6] m[sup 3] (3.5 million bbl) or 46% or original oil in place (OOIP). The Pembina Nisku L pool is a completely dolomitized reef. In contrast to the Bigoray Nisku C pool, the complete dolomitization reduces the number of generic reservoir flow units observed in the L pool reef from six to three. Due to the excellent reservoir quality and absence of horizontal permeability barriers, it is being exploited by a vertical miscible flood. The Nisku L pool is one of the largest pinnacle reefs discovered in the Nisku reef fairway and contains an estimated 5 x 10[sup 6] m[sup 3] (31 million bbl) OOIP. Ultimate recovery is estimated to be approximately 4.1 x 10[sup 6] m[sup 3] (25.8 million bbl) or 82% of OOIP.

  1. Bibliography of Oklahoma hydrology; reports prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey and principal cooperating agencies, 1901-88

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Havens, John S., (compiler)

    1989-01-01

    Reports on the hydrology of Oklahoma have been issued by the U.S. Geological Survey since 1901. This bibliography lists reports on hydrology in Oklahoma prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey and the principal State cooperating agencies, the Oklahoma Geological Survey and the Oklahoma Water Resources Board. Of the nearly 350 reports issued from 1901 through 1988, about 200 have been concerned primarily with groundwater; the remainder have dealt with some aspect of surface water, water quality, or geology. The reports are listed by agency and report type, and are indexed both by author and subject. (USGS)

  2. A history of the Water Resources Division, U.S. Geological Survey. Volume VII, 1966-79, integrating the disciplines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Biesecker, James E.; Blakey, James F.; Feltz, Herman R.; George, John R.

    2000-01-01

    This volume is the seventh in the series of reports on the history of the water-resources activities of the U.S. Geological Survey. The first four volumes were written by Robert Follansbee, and each is entitled "A History of the Water Resources Branch of the United States Geological Survey."

  3. Geology of the Eoarchean, > 3.95 Ga, Nulliak supracrustal rocks in the Saglek Block, northern Labrador, Canada: The oldest geological evidence for plate tectonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komiya, Tsuyoshi; Yamamoto, Shinji; Aoki, Shogo; Sawaki, Yusuke; Ishikawa, Akira; Tashiro, Takayuki; Koshida, Keiko; Shimojo, Masanori; Aoki, Kazumasa; Collerson, Kenneth D.

    2015-11-01

    The Earth is a unique planet, which has been highly evolved, diversified and complicated through geologic time, and underwent many key events, including giant impact, magma ocean, core formation, large-scale mantle differentiation and late heavy bombardment, especially in its dawn. But, our knowledge of early Earth is limited due to the lack of the Hadean supracrustal rocks. The supracrustal rocks with the Eoarchean ages provide key evidence for the Earth's early evolution, but few supracrustal rocks have been comprehensively investigated. Therefore, we mapped in seven areas of the Saglek Block, northern Labrador, where ancient supracrustal sequences are interleaved with a diverse assemblage of orthogneisses. Early studies suggested that some of them have the Mesoarchean ages because of the lack of the Mesoarchean Saglek dyke, but we found the Saglek dykes in the areas to recognize the Eoarchean Nulliak supracrustal rocks and Uivak Gneiss in all the areas. Recent reassessment of U-Pb dating and cathodoluminescence observation of zircons from the oldest suites of the Uivak Gneiss showed that the Uivak Gneiss has the Eoarchean age, > 3.95 Ga, and forms the Iqaluk-Uivak Gneiss series. Because our geological survey clearly showed that the Iqaluk-Uivak Gneisses were intruded into the Nulliak supracrustal belts, the Nulliak supracrustal rocks are the oldest supracrustal rock in the world. The supracrustal belts consist of piles of fault-bounded blocks, which are composed of the ultramafic rocks, mafic rocks and sedimentary rocks in ascending order, similar to modern ocean plate stratigraphy (OPS). In addition, small-scale duplex structures are found over the areas. The presence of duplex structure and OPS indicates that the > 3.95 Ga Nulliak supracrustal belts originate from an accretionary complex. The presence of the accretionary complex, ophiolite and granitic continental crust provides the oldest evidence for the plate tectonics on the early Earth.

  4. Mapping known and potential mineral occurrences and host rocks in the Bonnifield Mining District using minimal cloud- and snow-cover ASTER data: Chapter E in Recent U.S. Geological Survey studies in the Tintina Gold Province, Alaska, United States, and Yukon, Canada--results of a 5-year project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hubbard, Bernard E.; Dusel-Bacon, Cynthia; Rowan, Lawrence C.; Eppinger, Robert G.

    2007-01-01

    On July 8, 2003, the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) sensor acquired satellite imagery of a 60-kilometer-wide swath covering a portion of the Bonnifield mining district within the southernmost part of the Tintina Gold Province, Alaska, under unusually favorable conditions of minimal cloud and snow cover. Although rocks from more than eight different lithotectonic terranes are exposed within the extended swath of data, we focus on volcanogenic massive sulfides (VMS) and porphyry deposits within the Yukon-Tanana terrane (YTT), the largest Mesozoic accretionary terrane exposed between the Denali fault system to the south of Fairbanks and the Tintina fault system to the north of Fairbanks. Comparison of thermal-infrared region (TIR) decorrelation stretch data to available geologic maps indicates that rocks from the YTT contain a wide range of rock types ranging in composition from mafic metavolcanic rocks to felsic rock types such as metarhyolites, pelitic schists, and quartzites. The nine-band ASTER visible-near-infrared region--short-wave infrared region (VNIR-SWIR) reflectance data and spectral matched-filter processing were used to map hydrothermal alteration patterns associated with VMS and porphyry deposit types. In particular, smectite, kaolinite, opaline silica, jarosite and (or) other ferric iron minerals defined narrow (less than 250-meter diameter) zonal patterns around Red Mountain and other potential VMS targets. Using ASTER we identified some of the known mineral deposits in the region, as well as mineralogically similar targets that may represent potential undiscovered deposits. Some known deposits were not identified and may have been obscured by vegetation or snow cover or were too small to be resolved.

  5. Survey of Provision for Academic Staff Development (United Kingdom and Canada). Survey III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Univ., Winnipeg.

    A survey was conducted in 1979-80 to determine which Canadian universities are involved in the provision of teaching services for academic staff (assistance of various forms in such matters as instructional skills, evaluation techniques, courses and curriculum planning). Information is presented on the nature of the assistance being provided, the

  6. THE CANADA-FRANCE-HAWAII TELESCOPE LEGACY SURVEY: STACKED IMAGES AND CATALOGS

    SciTech Connect

    Gwyn, Stephen D. J.

    2012-02-15

    This paper describes the image stacks and catalogs of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey produced using the MegaPipe data pipeline at the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre. The Legacy Survey is divided into two parts. The Deep Survey consists of four fields each of 1 deg{sup 2}, with magnitude limits (50% completeness for point sources) of u = 27.5, g = 27.9, r = 27.7, i = 27.4, and z = 26.2. It contains 1.6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} sources. The Wide Survey consists of 150 deg{sup 2} split over four fields, with magnitude limits of u = 26.0, g = 26.5, r = 25.9, i = 25.7, and z = 24.6. It contains 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 7} sources. This paper describes the calibration, image stacking, and catalog generation process. The images and catalogs are available on the web through several interfaces: normal image and text file catalog downloads, a 'Google Sky' interface, an image cutout service, and a catalog database query service.

  7. The Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey: Stacked Images and Catalogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwyn, Stephen D. J.

    2012-02-01

    This paper describes the image stacks and catalogs of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey produced using the MegaPipe data pipeline at the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre. The Legacy Survey is divided into two parts. The Deep Survey consists of four fields each of 1 deg2, with magnitude limits (50% completeness for point sources) of u = 27.5, g = 27.9, r = 27.7, i = 27.4, and z = 26.2. It contains 1.6 × 106 sources. The Wide Survey consists of 150 deg2 split over four fields, with magnitude limits of u = 26.0, g = 26.5, r = 25.9, i = 25.7, and z = 24.6. It contains 3 × 107 sources. This paper describes the calibration, image stacking, and catalog generation process. The images and catalogs are available on the web through several interfaces: normal image and text file catalog downloads, a "Google Sky" interface, an image cutout service, and a catalog database query service.

  8. Management of primary rectal cancer by surgeons in Atlantic Canada: results of a regional survey

    PubMed Central

    Chuah, Teong Kuan; Lee, Tracy; Wirtzfeld, Debrah; Pollett, William

    2010-01-01

    Background We sought to determine the current practice patterns of general surgeons in Atlantic Canada in the management of primary rectal cancer in relation to surgeon-specific variables. Methods We sent mail-out surveys to all practising general surgeons (n =183) in Atlantic Canada to determine screening preferences, preoperative assessment, the use of neoadjuvant and adjuvant therapy, surgical therapy for rectal cancer and surgeon demographics. We analyzed the responses using ?2 tests. Results The response rate was 98 (54%) after 2 mail-outs; there were 82 (49%) eligible responses. Surgeons in practice for 21 years or more were more likely than those with fewer than 21 years of practice to order preoperative ultrasonography of the liver and were less likely to order preoperative computed tomography. Endorectal ultrasonography was ordered routinely by 23% of surgeons, whereas 71% of surgeons would order it if time and resources were available. Surgeons who were not certified by the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada were significantly more likely than those who were certified to use neoadjuvant therapy in all patients with rectal cancer (43% v. 12%; p = 0.031). Surgeons who performed more than 10 rectal cancer surgeries per year were significantly more likely than those who performed 10 or fewer surgeries per year to use neoadjuvant treatment for T3 tumours (94% v. 61%; p = 0.007). Surgeons with medical or radiation oncology services in their communities were significantly more likely than those without such services to recommend neoadjuvant treatment in T3 rectal tumours and rectal tumours with pathologic lymph nodes. Conclusion We found significant variation in the management of rectal cancer depending on surgeon-specific variables. The implications of these differences on the outcomes of patients with rectal cancer are unknown. PMID:21092432

  9. Earth science photographs from the U.S. Geological Survey Library

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGregor, Joseph K.; Abston, Carl C.

    1995-01-01

    This CD-ROM set contains 1,500 scanned photographs from the U.S. Geological Survey Library for use as a photographic glossary of elementary geologic terms. Scholars are encouraged to copy these public domain images into their reports or databases to enhance their presentations. High-quality prints and (or) slides are available upon request from the library. This CD-ROM was produced in accordance with the ISO 9660 standard; however, it is intended for use on DOS-based computer systems only.

  10. Metrics Survey of Industry-Sponsored Clinical Trials in Canada and Comparator Jurisdictions between 2005 and 2010

    PubMed Central

    Leclerc, Jean-Marie; Laberge, Normand; Marion, Jean

    2012-01-01

    Industry-sponsored clinical trials play a key role in the development of therapies. This survey suggests that between 2005 and 2010, research-based pharmaceutical firms worldwide initiated fewer trials and recruited fewer subjects annually. In contrast, at the country level, the clinical trial activity of such firms increased in emerging countries and in Japan. Canada's trend in the number of new trials followed that of the global industry, but the trend in new sites and newly recruited subjects fell below the global rate. Informal comparisons point to potential issues for Canada in such areas as site capacity, cost per subject and time to first subject-in. When compared to certain Western European countries and the United States, Canada remained well positioned on a number of metrics. Nonetheless, Canada faces mounting challenges from both traditional locations and emerging countries and may require coordinated efforts to remain a place of choice to conduct trials. PMID:23968618

  11. US GEOLOGICAL SURVEY'S NATIONAL SYSTEM FOR PROCESSING AND DISTRIBUTION OF NEAR REAL-TIME HYDROLOGICAL DATA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shope, William G., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The US Geological Survey is utilizing a national network of more than 1000 satellite data-collection stations, four satellite-relay direct-readout ground stations, and more than 50 computers linked together in a private telecommunications network to acquire, process, and distribute hydrological data in near real-time. The four Survey offices operating a satellite direct-readout ground station provide near real-time hydrological data to computers located in other Survey offices through the Survey's Distributed Information System. The computerized distribution system permits automated data processing and distribution to be carried out in a timely manner under the control and operation of the Survey office responsible for the data-collection stations and for the dissemination of hydrological information to the water-data users.

  12. Preliminary geology, mineral chemistry and diamond results from the C29/30 Candle Lake volcanic complex, Saskatchewan, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verigeanu, D.; Hetman, C. M.; Jellicoe, B.; Baumgartner, M. C.

    2009-11-01

    The C29/30 kimberlite is one of two diamondiferous kimberlites in the Candle Lake cluster located in east-central Saskatchewan, Canada, approximately 70 km from the Fort la Corne kimberlite field. The kimberlites are hosted by a Cretaceous sequence of marine mudstone and shale of the Lower Colorado Group, and underlying siltstone and sandstone of the Mannville Group. This sequence overlies Paleozoic carbonates that were deposited over the Proterozoic crystalline basement. Based on the country rock stratigraphy and morphology of the body, C29/30 is inferred to be Cretaceous in age. The elongated kimberlite body has a lateral extent of approximately 2 km with the long axis oriented in a south-east to north-west direction and an estimated surface expression of 75.3 ha. The investigation of 47 drill cores suggests that this body is a single volcanic complex dominated by a single phase of volcaniclastic kimberlite that is characterised by absent to rare phlogopite within the groundmass of preserved juvenile clasts. Minor amounts of at least one other phase of kimberlite containing conspicuous groundmass phlogopite have also been documented. The subsurface shape of C29/30 is complex and is interpreted to result from a combination of explosive volcanic activity that formed two craters from separate feeder vents. The formation of the elongated trough is poorly understood. It may have formed by a fissure style eruption, or erosive processes related to the mass flow of material away from one of the craters or possible the collapse of an eruption column. The C29/30 kimberlite is similar to bodies of the Fort la Corne kimberlite field with respect to country rock setting, pipe morphology and the dominant textural varieties present. This contribution presents a preliminary geological model of C29/30 based on data obtained from the drilling programmes completed in 2006, 2007 and 2008.

  13. (222)Rn activity in groundwater of the St. Lawrence Lowlands, Quebec, eastern Canada: relation with local geology and health hazard.

    PubMed

    Pinti, Daniele L; Retailleau, Sophie; Barnetche, Diogo; Moreira, Floriane; Moritz, Anja M; Larocque, Marie; Glinas, Yves; Lefebvre, Ren; Hlie, Jean-Franois; Valadez, Arisai

    2014-10-01

    One hundred ninety-eight groundwater wells were sampled to measure the (222)Rn activity in the region between Montreal and Quebec City, eastern Canada. The aim of this study was to relate the spatial distribution of (222)Rn activity to the geology and the hydrogeology of the study area and to estimate the potential health risks associated with (222)Rn in the most populated area of the Province of Quebec. Most of the groundwater samples show low (222)Rn activities with a median value of 8.6 Bq/L. Ninety percent of samples show (222)Rn activity lower than 100 Bq/L, the exposure limit in groundwater recommended by the World Health Organization. A few higher (222)Rn activities (up to 310 Bq/L) have been measured in wells from the Appalachian Mountains and from the magmatic intrusion of Mont-Saint-Hilaire, known for its high level of indoor radon. The spatial distribution of (222)Rn activity seems to be related mainly to lithology differences between U-richer metasediments of the Appalachian Mountains and magmatic intrusions and the carbonaceous silty shales of the St. Lawrence Platform. Radon is slightly enriched in sodium-chlorine waters that evolved at contact with clay-rich formations. (226)Ra, the parent element of (222)Rn could be easily adsorbed on clays, creating a favorable environment for the production and release of (222)Rn into groundwater. The contribution of groundwater radon to indoor radon or by ingestion is minimal except for specific areas near Mont-Saint-Hilaire or in the Appalachian Mountains where this contribution could reach 45% of the total radioactive annual dose. PMID:24973780

  14. Maps showing aeromagnetic survey and geologic interpretation of the Chignik and Sutwik Island quadrangles, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Case, J.E.; Cox, D.P.; Detra, D.E.; Detterman, R.L.; Wilson, F.H.

    1981-01-01

    An aeromagnetic survey over part of the Chignik and Sutwik Island quadrangles, on the southern Alaska Peninsula, was flown in 1977 as part of the Alaska mineral resource assessment program (AMRAP). Maps at scales 1:250,000 and 1:63,360 have been released on open-file (U.s. Geological Survey, 1978a, 1978b). This report includes the aeromagnetic map superimposed on the topographic base (sheet 1) and an interpretation map superimposed on the topographic and simplified geologic base (sheet 2). This discussion provides an interpretation of the aeromagnetic data with respect to regional geology, occurrence of ore deposits and prospects, and potential oil and gas resources. The survey was flown along northwest-southeast lines, spaced about 1.6 km apart, at a nominal elevation of about 300 m above the land surface. A proton-precession magnetometer was used for the survey, and the resulting digital data were computer contoured at intervals of 10 and 50 gammas (sheet 1). The International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) of 1965, updated to 1977, was removed from the total field data.

  15. West Virginia Geological Survey's role in siting fluidized bed combustion facilities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, C.J.; King, Hobart M.; Ashton, K.C.; Kirstein, D.S.; McColloch, G.H.

    1989-01-01

    A project is presented which demonstrates the role of geology in planning and siting a fluidized bed combustion facility. Whenever a project includes natural resource utilization, cooperation between geologists and design engineers will provide an input that could and should save costs, similar to the one stated in our initial premise. Regardless of whether cost reductions stem from a better knowledge of fuel and sorbent availabilities, or a better understanding of the local hydrology, susceptibility to mine-subsidence, or other geologic hazards, the geological survey has a vital role in planning. Input to planning could help the fluidized-bed developer and design-engineer solve some economic questions and stretch the financial resources at their disposal.

  16. Residents' exposure to aboriginal health issues. Survey of family medicine programs in Canada.

    PubMed Central

    Redwood-Campbell, L.; MacDonald, W. A.; Moore, K.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether Canadian family medicine residency programs currently have objectives, staff, and clinical experiences for adequately exposing residents to aboriginal health issues. DESIGN: A one-page questionnaire was developed to survey the details of teaching about and exposure to aboriginal health issues. SETTING: Family medicine programs in Canada. PARTICIPANTS: All Canadian family medicine program directors in the 18 programs (16 at universities and two satellite programs) were surveyed between October 1997 and March 1998. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Whether programs had teaching objectives for exposing residents to aboriginal health issues, whether they had resource people available, what elective and core experiences in aboriginal health were offered, and what types of experiences were available. RESULTS: Response rate was 100%. No programs had formal, written curriculum objectives for residency training in aboriginal health issues, although some were considering them. Some programs, however, had objectives for specific weekend or day sessions. No programs had a strategy for encouraging enrollment of residents of aboriginal origin. Eleven programs had at least one resource person with experience in aboriginal health issues, and 12 had access to community-based aboriginal groups. Core experiences were all weekend seminars or retreats. Elective experiences in aboriginal health were available in 16 programs, and 11 programs were active on reserves. CONCLUSIONS: Many Canadian family medicine programs give residents some exposure to aboriginal health issues, but most need more expertise and direction on these issues. Some programs have unique approaches to teaching aboriginal health care that could be shared. Formalized objectives derived in collaboration with other family medicine programs and aboriginal groups could substantially improve the quality of education in aboriginal health care in Canada. PMID:10065306

  17. Living with inflammatory bowel disease: A Crohn’s and Colitis Canada survey

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Helen M; Grigat, Daniel; Ghosh, Subrata; Kaplan, Gilaad G; Dieleman, Levinus; Wine, Eytan; Fedorak, Richard N; Fernandes, Aida; Panaccione, Remo; Barkema, Herman W

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite improvements in therapies for inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), patient quality of life continues to be significantly impacted. OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of IBD on patients and families with regard to leisure, relationships, mental well-being and financial security, and to evaluate the quality and availability of IBD information. METHODS: An online survey was advertised on the Crohn’s and Colitis Canada website, and at gastroenterology clinics at the University of Alberta Hospital (Edmonton, Alberta) and University of Calgary Hospital (Calgary, Alberta). RESULTS: The survey was completed by 281 IBD patients and 32 family members. Among respondents with IBD, 64% reported a significant or major impact on leisure activities, 52% a significant or major impact on interpersonal relationships, 40% a significant or major impact on financial security, and 28% a significant or major impact on planning to start a family. Patient information needs emphasized understanding disease progression (84%) and extraintestinal symptoms (82%). There was a strong interest in support systems such as health care insurance (70%) and alternative therapies (66%). The most common source of information for patients was their gastroenterologist (70%); however, most (70%) patients preferred to obtain their information from the Crohn’s and Colitis Canada website. CONCLUSIONS: The impact of IBD on interpersonal relationships and leisure activities was significant among IBD patients and their families. Understanding the disease, but also alternative treatment options, was of high interest. Currently, there is a discrepancy between interest in information topics and their availability. Respondents reported a strong desire to obtain information regarding disease progression, especially extraintestinal symptoms. PMID:25803017

  18. U.S. Geological Survey Science Support Strategy for Biscayne National Park and Surrounding Areas in Southeastern Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolfert-Lohmann, Melinda A.; Langevin, Christian D.; Jones, Sonya A.; Reich, Chris D.; Wingard, Georgina L.; Kuffner, Ilsa B.; Cunningham, Kevin J.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey conducts a wide range of research in and around the Biscayne National Park region of southern Florida. This research encompasses the biologic, ecologic, meteorologic, geologic, and hydrologic components of the system, including water-quality analyses, ground-water modeling, hydrogeologic-data collection, ecologic-habitat evaluations, wetlands characterizations, biogeochemistry of ecosystems, and paleo-ecologic analyses. Relevant information is provided herein for researchers and managers interested in the Biscayne Bay area and about current U.S. Geological Survey efforts that address important resource protection and management issues. Specifically, managers and scientists are provided with information on current and recently completed U.S. Geological Survey projects and a sample listing of potential U.S. Geological Survey research projects addressing relevant issues that face the study area.

  19. Re-evaluation and extension of the scope of elements in US Geological Survey Standard Reference Water Samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peart, D.B.; Antweiler, R.C.; Taylor, H.E.; Roth, D.A.; Brinton, T.I.

    1998-01-01

    More than 100 US Geological Survey (USGS) Standard Reference Water Samples (SRWSs) were analyzed for numerous trace constituents, including Al, As, B, Ba, Be, Bi, Br, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, I, Fe, Pb, Li, Mn, Mo, Ni, Rb, Sb, Se, Sr, Te, Tl, U, V, Zn and major elements (Ca, Mg, Na, SiO2, SO4, Cl) by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. In addition, 15 USGS SRWSs and National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) standard reference material (SRM) 1641b were analyzed for mercury using cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry. Also USGS SRWS Hg-7 was analyzed using isotope dilution-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The results were compared with the reported certified values of the following standard reference materials: NIST SRM 1643a, 1643b, 1643c and 1643d and National Research Council of Canada Riverine Water Reference Materials for Trace Metals SLRS-1, SLRS-2 and SLRS-3. New concentration values for trace and major elements in the SRWSs, traceable to the certified standards, are reported. Additional concentration values are reported for elements that were neither previously published for the SRWSs nor traceable to the certified reference materials. Robust statistical procedures were used that were insensitive to outliers. These data can be used for quality assurance/quality control purposes in analytical laboratories.

  20. Resolution versus speckle relative to geologic interpretability of spaceborne radar images - A survey of user preference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, J. P.

    1982-01-01

    A survey conducted to evaluate user preference for resolution versus speckle relative to the geologic interpretability of spaceborne radar images is discussed. Thirteen different resolution/looks combinations are simulated from Seasat synthetic-aperture radar data of each of three test sites. The SAR images were distributed with questionnaires for analysis to 85 earth scientists. The relative discriminability of geologic targets at each test site for each simulation of resolution and speckle on the images is determined on the basis of a survey of the evaluations. A large majority of the analysts respond that for most targets a two-look image at the highest simulated resolution is best. For a constant data rate, a higher resolution is more important for target discrimination than a higher number of looks. It is noted that sand dunes require more looks than other geologic targets. At all resolutions, multiple-look images are preferred over the corresponding single-look image. In general, the number of multiple looks that is optimal for discriminating geologic targets is inversely related to the simulated resolution.

  1. Public Perceptions of Child Care in Alberta, Canada: Evidence for Policies and Practice from a Cross-Sectional Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tough, Suzanne; Rikhy, Shivani; Benzies, Karen; Vekved, Monica; Kehler, Heather; Johnston, David W.

    2013-01-01

    Research Findings: This study assessed public perceptions of child care and its providers in a Canadian province where government funding for child care includes subsidies and a voluntary accreditation process. In 2007-2008, 1,443 randomly selected adults in Alberta, Canada, completed a telephone survey. Individuals were eligible to participate if

  2. Practices and attitudes of surgeons toward the prevention of surgical site infections: a provincial survey in Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Davis, Philip J B; Spady, Donald; de Gara, Chris; Forgie, Sarah E D

    2008-12-01

    We surveyed 589 surgeons in Alberta, Canada, about the prevention of surgical site infections and compared their practices to the recommendations of evidence-based guidelines. Of the 247 (42%) who responded, most (156 [63%]) were not in compliance with guideline recommendations for preoperative bathing, hair removal, antimicrobial prophylaxis, or intraoperative skin preparation (although 91 [37%] state they are following guidelines). PMID:18991507

  3. Public Perceptions of Child Care in Alberta, Canada: Evidence for Policies and Practice from a Cross-Sectional Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tough, Suzanne; Rikhy, Shivani; Benzies, Karen; Vekved, Monica; Kehler, Heather; Johnston, David W.

    2013-01-01

    Research Findings: This study assessed public perceptions of child care and its providers in a Canadian province where government funding for child care includes subsidies and a voluntary accreditation process. In 2007-2008, 1,443 randomly selected adults in Alberta, Canada, completed a telephone survey. Individuals were eligible to participate if…

  4. Water-data program of the U.S. Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gilbert, Bruce K.; Buchanan, Thomas J.

    1982-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is the principal Federal agency responsible for the collection of hydrologic data needed for the planning, development, use, and management of the Nation 's water resources. These data are the foundation necessary for conducting analytical and interpretive appraisals describing the occurrence and availability of surface and ground waters, and their physical, chemical, and biological characteristics. The data are likewise required for basic and problem-oriented research in hydraulics, hydrology, and related fields. Hydrologic data collection by the Geological Survey began in 1894. Current operations include about 17,000 stations for collection of river, lake, and reservoir data; about 27,000 wells for collection of ground-water data; and almost 17,000 stations for collection of water-quality information. These activities are described as well as the means by which the data are made available, and how the program is coordinated with other agencies. (USGS)

  5. Documentation of the U.S. Geological Survey Stress and Sediment Mobility Database

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dalyander, P. Soupy; Butman, Bradford; Sherwood, Christopher R.; Signell, Richard P.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey Sea Floor Stress and Sediment Mobility Database contains estimates of bottom stress and sediment mobility for the U.S. continental shelf. This U.S. Geological Survey database provides information that is needed to characterize sea floor ecosystems and evaluate areas for human use. The estimates contained in the database are designed to spatially and seasonally resolve the general characteristics of bottom stress over the U.S. continental shelf and to estimate sea floor mobility by comparing critical stress thresholds based on observed sediment texture data to the modeled stress. This report describes the methods used to make the bottom stress and mobility estimates, statistics used to characterize stress and mobility, data validation procedures, and the metadata for each dataset and provides information on how to access the database online.

  6. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Western Region: Alaska Coastal and Ocean Science

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holland-Bartels, Leslie

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), a bureau of the Department of the Interior (DOI), is the Nation's largest water, earth, and biological science and mapping agency. The bureau's science strategy 'Facing Tomorrow's Challenges - U.S. Geological Survey Science in the Decade 2007-2017' describes the USGS vision for its science in six integrated areas of societal concern: Understanding Ecosystems and Predicting Ecosystem Change; Climate Variability and Change; Energy and Minerals; Hazards, Risk, and Resilience; Environment and Wildlife in Human Health; and Water Census of the United States. USGS has three Regions that encompass nine geographic Areas. This fact sheet describes examples of USGS science conducted in coastal, nearshore terrestrial, and ocean environments in the Alaska Area.

  7. Operation of hydrologic data collection stations by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1983

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Condes de la Torre, Alberto

    1983-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey operated hydrologic data collection stations during 1983 in response to the needs of all levels of Government for hydrologic information. Surface-water discharge was determined at 11,076 stations; stage data on streams, reservoirs, and lakes were recorded at 2,136 stations; and surface-water quality was determined at 4,610 stations. Ground-water levels were measured at 35,621 stations, and the quality of ground water was determined at 7,648 stations nationwide. Information on precipitation quantity was collected at 800 stations, and quality of precipitation was analyzed at 121 stations. Funding support for the hydrologic stations was derived either solely or from a combination of three major sources--the Geological Survey's Federal Program, the Federal-State Cooperative Program, and reimbursements from other Federal agencies.

  8. Strategic plan for the U.S. Geological Survey 1996 to 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1996-01-01

    During the past two decades profound changes have swept across the scientific, social, and political landscape in which the U.S. Geological Survey (the USGS) functions and to which it is inextricably linked. Core values that were institutionally forged and universally embraced in the past have been vigorously challenged and even vigorously assaulted. Political, economic, and societal forces that coalesced in 1995 threatened the very existence of the U.S. Geological Survey an organization that we long believed to be vital and important to the well-being of the American people and to the advancement of the earth sciences. The near abolishment of the USGS was averted largely by our customers. It was their understanding of the value of our work and their demand that we continue to provide our products and services that ensured our near-term survival.

  9. The U.S. Geological Survey Federal-State cooperative water- resources program; fiscal year 1987

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gilbert, B.K.; Mann, William B., IV

    1988-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey 's Federal-State Cooperative Water Resources Program (50-50 matching of funds) started in Kansas in 1895. During fiscal year (FY) 1987, hydrologic data collection, investigations, and research are being conducted in every state, Puerto Rico, and several territories in cooperation with 940 state, regional and local agencies. Federal funding of $55.3 million was matched by cooperating agencies; cooperators also provided $4.6 million unmatched, for a program total of about $115 million. The Cooperative Program accounted for almost 45% of the FY 1987 obligations of the Geological Survey 's Water Resources Division. The principal areas of emphasis during the year included groundwater contamination, stream quality, water supply and demand, and hydrologic hazards. Information is presented on program functions and priorities. Data collection activities are also described as is work related to water resources contamination. Several examples of current (1987) investigations are provided. (Author 's abstract)

  10. McNutt to Be Nominated to Lead U.S. Geological Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2009-07-01

    U.S. President Barack Obama announced on 9 July his intention to nominate Marcia McNutt as director of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and science advisor to the Secretary of the Interior. McNutt, who served as AGU president from 2000 to 2002, currently is president and chief executive officer of the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute, in Moss Landing, Calif. Scientific information from the U.S. Geological Survey is crucial to solving the most important problems facing societyfinding sufficient supplies of fresh water and clean energy and providing accurate information that allows citizens to prepare intelligently for climate change. I look forward to leading such a respected institution at this critical time, McNutt said.

  11. Mineral surveys by the Geological Survey and the Bureau of Mines of Bureau of Land Management Wilderness Study Areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beikman, Helen M.; Hinkle, Margaret E.; Frieders, Twila; Marcus, Susan M.; Edward, James R.

    1983-01-01

    The Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 1976 instructed the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) to review all public lands under its jurisdiction and to determine their suitability or nonsuitability for wilderness designation. As part of this process, the Geological Survey and the Bureau of Mines conduct mineral surveys of areas for which a preliminary determination of wilderness suitability has been made. The BLM has completed its wilderness inventory phase and has found that 23.2 million acres deserve further study for wilderness consideration. These 23.2 million acres of wilderness study areas include 1 million acres of natural and primitive areas (Instant Study Areas), 5.7 million acres in the California Desert Conservation Area, and 16.5 million acres in other wilderness study areas. Mineral surveys on all areas recommended for wilderness will be completed by 1990.

  12. Hot dry rock and the U.S. geological survey: a question of priorities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sass, John H.

    1996-01-01

    The enactment of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 saw the assignment of definite responsibilities relating to hot dry rock (HDR) to the US Geological Survey (USGS). This mandate provided some explicit guidelines and individual tasks in areas in which the USGS already had close ties to the Department of Energy and a number of its national laboratories. This paper discusses various tasks in terms of priorities being conducted by USGS as response to the Act.

  13. Past, present, and future of water data delivery from the U.S. Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hirsch, Robert M.; Fisher, Gary T.

    2014-01-01

    We present an overview of national water databases managed by the U.S. Geological Survey, including surface-water, groundwater, water-quality, and water-use data. These are readily accessible to users through web interfaces and data services. Multiple perspectives of data are provided, including search and retrieval of real-time data and historical data, on-demand current conditions and alert services, data compilations, spatial representations, analytical products, and availability of data across multiple agencies.

  14. An index of geophysical well logging in Virginia by the U.S. Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mulheren, M. Patrick; Larson, J.D.; Hopkins, Herbert T.

    1982-01-01

    Geophysical logs have been obtained in more than 170 wells in Virginia by the U.S. Geological Survey since 1968. These logs include natural gamma, electric, caliper, temperature, fluid conductivity, and fluid velocity. Most of the logs are for wells in the Coastal Plain Province of eastern Virginia. Geophysical logs aid in the interpretation of properties of earth materials, including the capacity to store and transmit water in the immediate vicinity of the well bore.

  15. U.S. Geological Survey Menlo Park campus; self-guided tour

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Colvard, Elizabeth M.; Tongue, Mara G.; Gordon, Leslie C.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), established by an act of Congress in 1879, is the Nation's largest natural science and civilian mapping agency. The USGS works in cooperation with more than 2,000 organizations across the country to provide reliable, impartial scientific information. This information is used to minimize the loss of life and property from natural disasters, safeguard the Nation's natural resources, and enhance quality of life through careful monitoring of water, biological, energy, and mineral resources.

  16. Identification codes for organizations listed in computerized data systems of the U.S. Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edwards, Melvin D.; Myers, Beverly M.

    1981-01-01

    This report contains codes for the identification of public and private organizations listed in computerized data systems. These codes are used by the U.S. Geological Survey 's National Water Data Exchange (NAWDEX), National Water Data Storage and Retrieval System (WATSTORE), National Cartographic Information Center (NCIC), and Office of Water Data Coordination (OWDC). The format structure of the codes is discussed and instructions are given for requesting new codes. (USGS)

  17. Identification codes for organizations listed in computerized data systems of the U.S. Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edwards, Melvin D.; Drilleau, Margery O.

    1978-01-01

    This report contains codes for the identification of public and private organizations listed in computerized data systems. These codes are used by the U.S. Geological Survey 's National Water Data Exchange (NAWDEX), National Water Data Storage and Retrieval System (WATSTORE), National Cartographic Information Center (NCIC), and Office of Water Data Coordination (OWDC). The format structure of the codes is discussed and instructions are given for requesting new codes. (Woodard-USGS)

  18. Identification codes for organizations listed in computerized data systems of the U.S. Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edwards, Melvin D.; Myers, Beverly M.

    1979-01-01

    This report contains codes for the identification of public and private organizations listed in computerized data systems. These codes are used by the U.S. Geological Survey 's National Water Data Exchange (NAWDEX), National Water Data Storage and Retrieval System (WATSTORE), National Cartographic Information Center (NCIC), and Office of Water Data Coordination (OWDC). The format structure of the codes is discussed and instructions are given for requesting new codes. (Woodard-USGS)

  19. Identification codes for organizations listed in computerized data systems of the U.S. Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edwards, Melvin D.; Drilleau, Margery O.

    1976-01-01

    This report contains codes for the identification of public and private organizations listed in computerized data systems. These codes are used by the U.S. Geological Survey 's National Water Data Exchange (NAWDEX), National Water Data Storage and Retrieval System (WATSTORE), and National Cartographic Information Center (NCIC). The format structure of the codes is discussed and instructions are given for requesting new codes. (Woodard-USGS)

  20. Identification codes for organizations listed in computerized data systems of the U.S. Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edwards, Melvin D.; Josefson, Beverly M.

    1982-01-01

    This report contains codes for the identification of public and private organizations listed in computerized data systems. These codes are used by the U.S. Geological Survey 's National Water Data Exchange (NAWDEX), National Water Data Storage and Retrieval System (WATSTORE), National Cartographic Information Center (NCIC), Office of Water Data Coordination (OWDC). The format structure of the codes is discussed and instructions are given for requesting new codes. (USGS)

  1. Identification codes for organizations listed in computerized data systems of the U.S. Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blackwell, C.D.

    1988-01-01

    Codes for the unique identification of public and private organizations listed in computerized data systems are presented. These codes are used by the U.S. Geological Survey 's National Water Data Exchange (NAWDEX), National Water Data Storage and Retrieval System (WATSTORE), National Cartographic Information Center (NCIC), and Office of Water Data Coordination (OWDC). The format structure of the codes is discussed and instructions are given for requesting new books. (Author 's abstract)

  2. White House Proposes 4% Increase to U.S. Geological Survey Budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2014-04-01

    Although funding for the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) pales compared with that for NASA, the U.S. National Science Foundation, and other U.S. federal science agencies, the overall percent increase for USGS for fiscal year (FY) 2015 would be bigger than for those other agencies if Congress goes along with the budget that the White House proposed on 4 March.

  3. Introduction to the U.S. Geological Survey's EROS Data Center Sioux Falls, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Braconnier, L.A.; Wiepking, P.J.

    1980-01-01

    The EROS Data Center is a part of the Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Office of the Department of the Interior and is managed by the U.S. Geological Survey. It is the national clearinghouse for the processing and dissemination of spacecraft- and aircraft-acquired images and photographs and electronic data on the Earth's resources. The Center also trains and assists users in the application of such data.

  4. Compilation of field methods used in geochemical prospecting by the U.S. Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lakin, Hubert William; Ward, Frederick Norville; Almond, Hy

    1952-01-01

    The field methods described in this report are those currently used in geochemical prospecting by the U. S. Geological Survey. Some have been published, others are being processed for publication, while others are still being investigated. The purpose in compiling these methods is to make them readily available in convenient form. The methods have not been thoroughly tested and none is wholly satisfactory. Research is being continued.

  5. Water-resources reports prepared by or in cooperation with the U.S. Geological Survey, Kansas, 1886-1983

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Combs, L.J.

    1984-01-01

    Water-resources data and the results of hydrologic investigations in Kansas are published or released by the U.S. Geological Survey, by cooperating State or Federal agencies, or by technical or scientific journals. This report lists more than 800 water-resources reports prepared by or in cooperation with the U.S. Geological Survey in Kansas for 1886 through 1983. The reports are listed by author, publication series, year of publication, and subject. The first water-resources investigations by the U.S. Geological Survey in Kansas was completed by A.C. Peale in 1886. The first cooperative program with a State agency was initiated 9 years later in 1895 and included the first stream-gaging stations operated by the Survey in western Kansas. The U.S. Geological Survey continues to investigate the occurrence, quantity, quality, distribution, and movement of surface and ground waters within the State. (USGS)

  6. Cooperative activities of the U.S. Geological Survey with Historically Black Colleges and Universities, fiscal years 1983-90

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hall, A. E., (Edited By); Scott, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    The U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, has been involved in numerous cooperative activities with Historically Black Colleges and Universities. Assistance agreements, which include both grants and cooperative agreements, have fostered many educational research and development activities. These activities have included site visits, employment opportunities, curriculum development, seminars, and research projects. The activities are consistent with the Geological Survey's mission of conducting earth-science research and dissemination of the results. The cooperative have benefitted the Historically Black Colleges and Universities, their students, and the Geological Survey.

  7. U.S. Geological Survey national computer technology meeting; program and abstracts, New Orleans, Louisiana, April 10-15, 1994

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Balthrop, B. H., (compiler); Baker, E.G.

    1994-01-01

    This report contains some of the abstracts of papers that were presented at the National Computer Technology Meeting that was held in April 1994. This meeting was sponsored by the Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey, and was attended by more than 200 technical and managerial personnel representing all the Divisions of the U.S. Geological Survey. Computer-related information from all Divisions of the U.S. Geological Survey are discussed in this compilation of abstracts. Some of the topics addressed are data transfer, data-base management, hydrologic applications, national water information systems, and geographic information systems applications and techniques.

  8. Weak lensing mass map and peak statistics in Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Stripe 82 survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shan, Huan Yuan; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Comparat, Johan; Jullo, Eric; Charbonnier, Alde; Erben, Thomas; Makler, Martin; Moraes, Bruno; Van Waerbeke, Ludovic; Courbin, Frdric; Meylan, Georges; Tao, Charling; Taylor, James E.

    2014-08-01

    We present a weak lensing mass map covering 124 deg2 of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Stripe 82 Survey (CS82). We study the statistics of rare peaks in the map, including peak abundance, the peak-peak correlation functions and the tangential-shear profiles around peaks. We find that the abundance of peaks detected in CS82 is consistent with predictions from a ? cold dark matter cosmological model, once noise effects are properly included. The correlation functions of peaks with different signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) are well described by power laws, and there is a clear cross-correlation between the Sloan Digital Sky Survey III/Constant Mass galaxies and high SNR peaks. The tangential-shear profiles around peaks increase with peak SNR. We fit analytical models to the tangential-shear profiles, including a projected singular isothermal sphere (SIS) model and a projected Navarro, Frenk & White (NFW) model, plus a two-halo term. For the high SNR peaks, the SIS model is rejected at 3?. The NFW model plus a two-halo term gives more acceptable fits to the data. Some peaks match the positions of optically detected clusters, while others are relatively dark. Comparing dark and matched peaks, we find a difference in lensing signal of a factor of 2, suggesting that about half of the dark peaks are false detections.

  9. The Landscape of Predoctoral Endodontic Education in the United States and Canada: Results of a Survey.

    PubMed

    Woodmansey, Karl; Beck, Lynn G; Rodriguez, Tobias E

    2015-08-01

    Few recent surveys have examined the contemporary landscape of predoctoral endodontic education in the United States and Canada, but anecdotal reports suggest that current dental students have difficulty obtaining adequate clinical endodontic experiences. The aims of this study were to quantify the clinical endodontic experiences of current U.S. and Canadian dental students, to explore the issues surrounding their clinical endodontic competence, and to ask more broadly if current graduating dentists are competent to perform endodontic procedures. In August 2014, a hyperlink to a web-based survey with 27 questions was emailed to the 67 predoctoral endodontic directors of U.S. and Canadian dental schools using a list provided by the American Association of Endodontists. Out of these 67 possible participants, 40 responded, for a response rate of 60%. The findings were varied. The average 2014 graduate completed 5.9 ( 2.4) root canal treatments on live patients, and 69% of the respondents voiced concern regarding a shortage of patient experiences. A majority (59%) of the respondents reported thinking that the supply of endodontic patients has decreased and that students have an inadequate supply of endodontic patients. This study found that a clear majority of predoctoral endodontics directors perceived a shortage of patient experiences for their students although, in reality, the number of completed clinical cases appeared to be unchanged since 1975. In addition, 36% of the respondents reported feeling that their 2014 graduates were not competent to perform molar endodontic treatment in their practices. PMID:26246530

  10. Employment prospects and trends for gastroenterology trainees in Canada: A nationwide survey

    PubMed Central

    Razik, Roshan; Cino, Maria; Nguyen, Geoffrey C

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many gastroenterology (GI) trainees face a variety of barriers to stable employment and are finding it increasingly difficult to secure employment in their chosen field. OBJECTIVE: To elucidate factors that contribute to the burden of unemployment and underemployment, and to examine solutions that may remedy this growing problem in the field of GI. METHODS: A nationwide survey of current, incoming and recently graduated individuals of GI training programs in Canada was conducted. Trainees in pediatric GI programs and those enrolled in sub-specialty programs within GI were also included. RESULTS: The response rate was 62%, with 93% of respondents enrolled in an adult GI training program. Many (73%) respondents planned to pursue further subspecialty training and the majority (53%) reported concerns regarding job security after graduation as contributory factors. Only 35% of respondents were confident that they would secure employment within six months of completing their training. Regarding barriers to employment, the most cited perceived reasons were lack of funding (both from hospitals and provincial governments) and senior physicians who continue to practice beyond retirement years. Sixty-nine per cent perceived a greater need for career guidance and 49% believed there were too many GI trainees relative to the current job market in their area. Most residents had a contingency plan if they remained unemployed >18 months, which often included moving to another province or to the United States. CONCLUSION: GI trainees throughout Canada reported substantial concerns about securing employment, citing national retirement trends and lack of funding as primary barriers to employment. Although these issues are not easily modifiable, certain problems should be targeted including optimizing training quotas, tailoring career guidance to the needs of the population, and emphasizing credentialing and quality control in endoscopy. PMID:24199210

  11. White-nose syndrome in bats: U.S. Geological Survey updates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rogall, Gail Moede; Verant, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) is a devastating disease that has killed millions of hibernating bats since it first appeared in New York in 2007 and has spread at an alarming rate from the northeastern to the central United States and Canada. The disease is named for the white fungus Geomyces destructans that infects the skin of the muzzle, ears, and wings of hibernating bats. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Wildlife Health Center (NWHC), the USGS Fort Collins Science Center, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and other partners continue to play a primary role in WNS research. Studies conducted at the NWHC led to the discovery (Blehert and others, 2009), characterization, and naming (Gargas and others, 2009) of the cold-loving fungus G. destructans and to the development of standardized criteria for diagnosing the disease (Meteyer and others, 2009). Additionally, scientists at the NWHC have pioneered laboratory techniques for studying the effects of the fungus on hibernating bats (Lorch and others, 2011). To determine if bats are affected by white-nose syndrome, scientists look for a characteristic microscopic pattern of skin erosion caused by G. destructans (Meteyer and others, 2009). Field signs of WNS can include visible white fungal growth on the bat's muzzle, wings, or both, but these signs alone are not a reliable disease indicator - laboratory examination and testing are required for disease confirmation. Infected bats also arouse from hibernation more frequently than uninfected bats (Warnecke and others, 2012) and often display abnormal behaviors in their hibernation sites, such as congregating at or near cave openings and daytime flights during winter. These abnormal behaviors may contribute to the bat's accelerated consumption of stored fat reserves, causing emaciation, a characteristic documented in some of the bats that die with WNS. During hibernation, bats likely have lowered immunity (Bouma and others, 2010), which may facilitate the ability of G. destructans to colonize and damage large areas of wing membrane (fig. 2). A current hypothesis suggests that erosion or ulceration of wing membrane caused by the fungus has the potential to alter the physiology of hibernating bats, resulting in fatal disruption of hydration, electrolyte balance, circulation, and thermoregulation (Cryan and others, 2010). Current estimates of bat population declines in the northeastern United States since the emergence of WNS are over 80 percent (Turner and others, 2011). This sudden and widespread mortality associated with WNS is unprecedented in hibernating bats, among which large-scale disease outbreaks have not been previously documented. It is unlikely that species of bats affected by WNS will recover quickly because most are long-lived and have only a single pup per year. Consequently, repopulation after widespread mortality of breeding adults will be a slow process. Worldwide, bats play essential roles as pollinators, seed dispersers, and as primary consumers of insects. The true ecological consequences of the recent large-scale reductions in populations of hibernating bats are not yet known. However, farmers might feel the impact. A recent economic analysis indicated that insect control services (ecosystem services) provided by bats to U.S. agriculture is valued between 4 to 50 billion dollars nationwide per year (Boyles and others, 2011). The number of North American bats estimated to have died from WNS thus far had the capacity to consume up to 8,000 tons of insects per year (Boyles and others, 2011). The area of North America affected by WNS continues to expand. Within the last 2 years, the disease has been confirmed in several Central States, including Alabama, Indiana, Kentucky, Ohio, Tennessee, and Missouri. High mortality of bats has not yet been reported at these locations, and it remains to be seen if WNS will develop and manifest in other States with the same severity as that in the Northeast.

  12. Developing a geoscience knowledge framework for a national geological survey organisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, Andrew S.; Hatton, Bill; Reitsma, Femke; Lawrie, Ken I. G.

    2009-04-01

    Geological survey organisations (GSOs) are established by most nations to provide a geoscience knowledge base for effective decision-making on mitigating the impacts of natural hazards and global change, and on sustainable management of natural resources. The value of the knowledge base as a national asset is continually enhanced by the exchange of knowledge between GSOs as data and information providers and the stakeholder community as knowledge 'users and exploiters'. Geological maps and associated narrative texts typically form the core of national geoscience knowledge bases, but have some inherent limitations as methods of capturing and articulating knowledge. Much knowledge about the three-dimensional (3D) spatial interpretation and its derivation and uncertainty, and the wider contextual value of the knowledge, remains intangible in the minds of the mapping geologist in implicit and tacit form. To realise the value of these knowledge assets, the British Geological Survey (BGS) has established a workflow-based cyber-infrastructure to enhance its knowledge management and exchange capability. Future geoscience surveys in the BGS will contribute to a national, 3D digital knowledge base on UK geology, with the associated implicit and tacit information captured as metadata, qualitative assessments of uncertainty, and documented workflows and best practice. Knowledge-based decision-making at all levels of society requires both the accessibility and reliability of knowledge to be enhanced in the grid-based world. Establishment of collaborative cyber-infrastructures and ontologies for geoscience knowledge management and exchange will ensure that GSOs, as knowledge-based organisations, can make their contribution to this wider goal.

  13. USArray - Seismic Reconnaissance in Northwest Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, M.; Spiers, K.; Murray, M. S.

    2014-12-01

    This poster describes the results of reconnaissance carried out by the Arctic Institute of North America in summer 2014 in collaboration with USArray and IRIS for deployment of the USArray in northern British Columbia and Yukon Territory, Canada. USArray is a 15-year program to place a dense network of permanent and portable seismographs across the continental United States and parts of Canada. The seismographs record local, regional, and distant (teleseismic) earthquakes. The array records seismic waves that propagate through finer and finer slices of the earth enabling scientists to link structures inherited from earlier stages of continental formation to known and potential geologic hazards (e.g., earthquakes, volcanoes, landslides) (www.usarray.org). USArray deployment in Canada will complement existing Canadian seismic network(s). This project will be particularly significant in the St. Elias region of southwest Yukon, northwest British Columbia, and southeast Alaska as this one of the most seismically active areas and tectonically complex areas in Canada . The deployment will complement ongoing geological mapping carried out by both Yukon Geological Survey, the Geological Survey of Canada and several universities. This reconnaissance work is part of a growing portfolio of research conducted by the Arctic Institute of North America, University of Calgary designed to meet needs for information and enable synthesis and transfer of knowledge for problem solving and decision-making in the north.

  14. First seismic survey of Lake Saint-Jean (Qubec, Canada): sedimentary record of the last deglaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nutz, Alexis; Schuster, Mathieu; Ghienne, Jean-Franois; Raphal, Certain; Nicolas, Robin; Claude, Roquin; Frdric, Bouchette; Cousineau Pierre, A.

    2015-04-01

    The general post-glacial evolution of the Lake Saint-Jean region (Canada/Qubec) was, until now, only known from onshore studies (outcrops and geomorphology). Because this lake corresponds to sediment depocentre since the area is ice free (latest Pleistocene and the entire Holocene), a comprehensive sedimentary archive could be expected from this area. As a consequence, the offshore archives of Lake Saint-Jean leave a basic, but crucial, question: can the transition from glacial to post-glacial periods be deciphered? The stratigraphy of the last deglacial sequence is investigated in Lake Saint-Jean (Qubec, Canada) from 300 km of echo-sounder 2D seismic profiles. The sedimentary archive of this basin is documented from the Late Pleistocene Laurentidian ice-front recession to the present-day situation. Ten seismic units have been identified that reflect spatio-temporal variations in depositional processes characterizing different periods of the Lake Saint-Jean basin evolution. During the postglacial marine flooding, a high deposition rate of mud settling, from proglacial glacimarine and then prodeltaic plumes in the Laflamme Gulf, produced an extensive, up to 50 m thick mud sheet draping the isostatically depressed marine basin floor. Subsequently, closing of the water body due to glacio-isostatic rebound that occurred at 8.5 cal. ka BP and ice-sheet retreat outside the Saint-Jean catchment at 7.5 cal. ka BP drastically modify the hydrodynamics and sedimentation. Hyperpycnal flows appeared because fresh lake water replaced dense marine water. River sediments were transferred towards the deeper part of the lake into river-related confined lobes. The water body is also marked by the onset of a wind-driven internal circulation associating wave-related hydrodynamics and bottom currents with sedimentary features including shoreface deposits, sediment drifts, a sedimentary shelf and important erosional surfaces. The Lake Saint-Jean reveals important diversity and complexity. It is notably worth noting that the transition from glacial to post-glacial periods is well marked by an abrupt change in depositional dynamics. In addition, this work highlights an original lacustrine sedimentary system which is not straightforward notably because of the importance of erosion, by-pass and intermittent deposition over most of the lakefloor. As it deals with both glacial environments and lake systems, this works is of interest for all those concerned by the geological record of both the transition from glacial to post-glacial periods and the lacustrine environments.

  15. Selected literature on water-resources investigations in New Jersey by the U.S. Geological Survey, through 1986

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schaefer, F. L., (compiler)

    1987-01-01

    Because of the importance and complexity of the water resources of New Jersey today, there is a need for a current bibliography to serve as a basis for future water resources studies. This report lists about 400 book reports, map reports, and articles that deal with the water resources of New Jersey published through 1986. The publications are grouped under three major headings: (1) publications of the U.S. Geological Survey, (2) publications of State agencies prepared by or in cooperation with the U.S. Geological Survey, and (3) other publications, such as technical journals prepared by or co-authored by U.S. Geological Survey personnel. Most of the publications are available for inspection at the West Trenton office of the U.S. Geologic Survey and at large public and university libraries. Ordering information is given for those publications that are for sale. (USGS)

  16. Climate variation and its effects on our land and water : Part C, Geological Survey climate plan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Howard, Keith A.; Smith, George I.

    1978-01-01

    To better coordinate information being generated by the U.S. Geological Survey, a workshop was convened near Denver, Colo., on December 7-9, 1976, to exchange ideas about research that is oriented toward climate, climate variation, and the effects of climate on the Nation 's land and water resources. This is the first circular of a three-part report resulting from that workshop. Hydrologic records provide information to the earth scientist about the responses of ground water, surface water, and glaciers to climatic change; geologic sequences provide evidence of earth-surface water, and glaciers to climatic change; geologic sequences provide evidence of earth-surface responses to climatic change; biological records yield information about the effects of climatic change on the Earth 's biota; archeological records tell us where and how man was able to live under changing climatic conditions; and historical records allow the specific effects of short-term changes in climate to be accurately documented. The interrelation between present and past geologic environments, various methods of study , and the span of time over which the results can be applied are shown in a table. (Woodard-USGS)

  17. Access routes to the United States Geological Survey's National Center, Reston, Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1977-01-01

    The National Center: The U.S. Geological Survey, established in 1879 as a bureau in the Department of the Interior, is one of the Federal Government's major earth science research and fact-finding agencies. By 1960, the continued growth of the Survey's natural resources and environmental programs and activities led to the agency's headquarters personnel being housed in more than 30 different buildings scattered throughout the Washington, D.C. metropolitan area. In 1962, Congress approved the construction of a National Center to consolidate the overall Survey's headquarters effort. A site in Reston's industrial/educational complex was selected and on July 15, 1971, ground was broken for the John Wesley Powell Federal Building.

  18. State Geological Survey Contributions to the National Geothermal Data System- Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Allison, M. Lee; Richard, Stephen M.

    2015-03-13

    The State Geological Survey Contributions to the National Geothermal Data System project is built on the work of the project managed by Boise State University to design and build the National Geothermal Data System, by deploying it nationwide and populating it with data principally from State Geological Surveys through collaboration with the Association of American State Geologists (AASG). This project subsequently incorporated the results of the design-build and other DOE-funded projects in support of the NGDS. The NGDS (www.geothermaldata.org) provides free open access to millions of data records, images, maps, and reports, sharing relevant geoscience, production, and land use data in 30+ categories to propel geothermal development and production in the U.S. NGDS currently serves information gathered from hundreds of the U.S. Department of Energy sponsored development and research projects and geologic data feeds from 60+ data providers throughout all 50 states. These data are relevant to geothermal energy exploration and development, but also have broad applicability in other areas including natural resources (e.g., energy, minerals, water), natural hazards, and land use and management.

  19. Programs and activities of the Missouri District, Water Resources Division, U.S. Geological Survey, fiscal year 1979

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kratzer, Wanietia M., (compiler)

    1979-01-01

    Water-resources investigations of the U.S. Geological Survey in Missouri consist of collecting hydrologic data and conducting interpretive investigations. The data and the results of the investigations are published or released by either the U.S. Geological Survey or by cooperating agencies. This report describes the data-collection activities and investigations in Missouri for the 1979 fiscal year and provides an extensive list of water-resources references for the State. (Woodard-USGS)

  20. Bibliography of U.S. Geological Survey reports on the water resources of Florida, 1886-1995

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garcia, Carmen A.; Hoy, N.D.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has released a listing of its reports on water resources in Florida for the period 1886-1995. Most of the reports contained in the listing were prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with numerous public agencies in Florida. The compilation has a full bibliographic list of reports arranged alphabetically by senior author. In addition, the reports are indexed by geographic areas and by special topics.

  1. Bibliography of U.S. Geological Survey reports on the water resources of Florida, 1886-1986

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Claiborne, Maude; Embry, T.L.; Hoy, N.D.; Weldon, D.H.; Wilson, T.D.

    1987-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has released a listing of its report on water resources in Florida for the period 1886-1984. Most of the reports contained in the listing were prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with numerous public agencies in Florida. The compilation has a full bibliographic list of reports arranged alphabetically by senior author. In addition, the reports are indexed by geographic areas and by subject. (USGS)

  2. Bibliography of Oklahoma hydrology; reports prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey and principal cooperating agencies, 1901-93

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Havens, J. S., (compiler)

    1993-01-01

    This bibliography lists reports on hydrology in Oklahoma prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey and the principal State cooperating agencies, the Oklahoma Geological Survey and the Oklahoma Water Resources Board. Included are citations of about 550 reports, abstracts, and journal articles issued from 1901 through July 1993. The reports are listed by agency and report type, and are indexed by author, subject, and USGS report number.

  3. The U.S. Geological Survey Geologic Collections Management System (GCMS)A master catalog and collections management plan for U.S. Geological Survey geologic samples and sample collections

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geologic Materials Repository Working Group

    2015-01-01

    The general consideration for implementation of the GCMS is that all active USGS geologic sample repositories will form the core of GCMS and that participating science centers will develop procedures based on proposed GCMS methodologies. The GCMS is a collective resource for the entire USGS community and the users who discover the geologic materials kept in these repositories and seek to access them.

  4. Cooperative ground-water investigations in Massachusetts by the United States Geological Survey, 1938-50

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brashears, M.L., Jr.

    1950-01-01

    The United States Geological Survey in cooperation with the Massachusetts Department of Public Works in 1938 began an investigation of the ground-water conditions in Massachusetts. This work is part of a larger cooperative program that includes surface-water investigations, geologic studies, and topographic mapping. The purpose of the ground-water studies is to obtain detailed information concerning the occurrence and availability of ground water throughout the State. The information is used by the Highway Division of the Department of Public Works in connection with design, construction, and maintenance of highways. These studies also provided a basis for the more effective utilization of the ground-water resources of the State. They indicate where additional developments can be made safely or where present use may be excessive. Reports covering the ground-water studies are listed in the appendix.

  5. Combination of geological data and radon survey results for radon mapping.

    PubMed

    Zhukovsky, Michael; Yarmoshenko, Ilia; Kiselev, Sergey

    2012-10-01

    The typical method of radon mapping usually used in most countries is the presenting of average radon concentrations in dwellings for districts or regions. Sometimes the maps of radon concentrations in the soil or maps of percentage above the reference level also demonstrated. Such approach not always can be used for identification of the regions with high probability of radon exposure above the reference levels where the population density is low. The combination of archive geological data and the results of representative radon survey allow estimating the typical parameters of radon concentration distribution for selected categories of buildings (multi-storey or rural type houses) situated in geological zones with the different radon potential. In this case it is possible to give grounds for the necessary level of radon protection measures in the new buildings constructed in this region. The use of such approach in Ural region of Russia is demonstrated. PMID:22466302

  6. The interoperability skill of the Geographic Portal of the ISPRA - Geological Survey of Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pia Congi, Maria; Campo, Valentina; Cipolloni, Carlo; Delogu, Daniela; Ventura, Renato; Battaglini, Loredana

    2010-05-01

    The Geographic Portal of Geological Survey of Italy (ISPRA) available at http://serviziogeologico.apat.it/Portal was planning according to standard criteria of the INSPIRE directive. ArcIMS services and at the same time WMS and WFS services had been realized to satisfy the different clients. For each database and web-services the metadata had been wrote in agreement with the ISO 19115. The management architecture of the portal allow it to encode the clients input and output requests both in ArcXML and in GML language. The web-applications and web-services had been realized for each database owner of Land Protection and Georesources Department concerning the geological map at the scale 1:50.000 (CARG Project) and 1:100.000, the IFFI landslide inventory, the boreholes due Law 464/84, the large-scale geological map and all the raster format maps. The portal thus far published is at the experimental stage but through the development of a new graphical interface achieves the final version. The WMS and WFS services including metadata will be re-designed. The validity of the methodology and the applied standards allow to look ahead to the growing developments. In addition to this it must be borne in mind that the capacity of the new geological standard language (GeoSciML), which is already incorporated in the web-services deployed, will be allow a better display and query of the geological data according to the interoperability. The characteristics of the geological data demand for the cartographic mapping specific libraries of symbols not yet available in a WMS service. This is an other aspect regards the standards of the geological informations. Therefore at the moment were carried out: - a library of geological symbols to be used for printing, with a sketch of system colors and a library for displaying data on video, which almost completely solves the problems of the coverage point and area data (also directed) but that still introduces problems for the linear data (solutions: ArcIMS services from Arcmap projects or a specific SLD implementation for WMS services); - an update of "Guidelines for the supply of geological data" in a short time will be published; - the Geological Survey of Italy is officially involved in the IUGS-CGI working group for the processing and experimentation on the new GeoSciML language with the WMS/WFS services. The availability of geographic informations occurs through the metadata that can be distributed online so that search engines can find them through specialized research. The collected metadata in catalogs are structured in a standard (ISO 19135). The catalogs are a ‘common' interface to locate, view and query data and metadata services, web services and other resources. Then, while working in a growing sector of the environmental knowledgement the focus is to collect the participation of other subjects that contribute to the enrichment of the informative content available, so as to be able to arrive to a real portal of national interest especially in case of disaster management.

  7. Times and locations of explosions; U.S. Geological Survey 1962 field season

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roller, John C.

    1962-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey detonated 86 large charges of chemical explosives in the western United States from 6 June to 9 August 1962, in a study of crustal structure in the western United States. This Technical Letter consists of two tables containing information about these explosions. Table I gives a brief geographical description of the shotpoints, and Table II gives the date, time, location, charge size, surface elevation, and some general information about the shots. In the Remarks column (Table II), the configuration and depth of most of the charges are given. This part of the table is not complete, as some of this information has not yet been compiled. Three types of explosives were used in the program. These were: Nitramon WW, a carbo-nitrate blasting agent; Composition B, a mixture of RDX and TNT; and Tovex-Gel, a non-nitroglycerin blasting slurry. The loading, firing, and surveying was done by United ElectroDynamics, Inc., of Pasadena, California. The timing was done by the U.S. Geological Survey.

  8. Cosmological constraints from weak lensing peak statistics with Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Stripe 82 Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiangkun; Pan, Chuzhong; Li, Ran; Shan, Huanyuan; Wang, Qiao; Fu, Liping; Fan, Zuhui; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Leauthaud, Alexie; Van Waerbeke, Ludovic; Makler, Martin; Moraes, Bruno; Erben, Thomas; Charbonnier, Alde

    2015-07-01

    We derived constraints on cosmological parameters using weak lensing peak statistics measured on the 130 deg2 of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Stripe 82 Survey. This analysis demonstrates the feasibility of using peak statistics in cosmological studies. For our measurements, we considered peaks with signal-to-noise ratio in the range of ? = [3, 6]. For a flat ? cold dark matter model with only (?m, ?8) as free parameters, we constrained the parameters of the following relation ?8 = ?8(?m/0.27)? to be ?8 = 0.82 0.03 and ? = 0.43 0.02. The ? value found is considerably smaller than the one measured in two-point and three-point cosmic shear correlation analyses, showing a significant complement of peak statistics to standard weak lensing cosmological studies. The derived constraints on (?m, ?8) are fully consistent with the ones from either WMAP9 or Planck. From the weak lensing peak abundances alone, we obtained marginalized mean values of ? _m=0.38^{+0.27}_{-0.24} and ?8 = 0.81 0.26. Finally, we also explored the potential of using weak lensing peak statistics to constrain the mass-concentration relation of dark matter haloes simultaneously with cosmological parameters.

  9. FAINT TIDAL FEATURES IN GALAXIES WITHIN THE CANADA-FRANCE-HAWAII TELESCOPE LEGACY SURVEY WIDE FIELDS

    SciTech Connect

    Atkinson, Adam M.; Abraham, Roberto G.; Ferguson, Annette M. N.

    2013-03-01

    We present an analysis of the detectability of faint tidal features in galaxies from the wide-field component of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey. Our sample consists of 1781 luminous (M{sub r{sup '}}<-19.3 mag) galaxies in the magnitude range 15.5 mag < r' < 17 mag and in the redshift range 0.04 < z < 0.2. Although we have classified tidal features according to their morphology (e.g., streams, shells, and tails), we do not attempt to interpret them in terms of their physical origin (e.g., major versus minor merger debris). Instead, we provide a catalog that is intended to provide raw material for future investigations which will probe the nature of low surface brightness substructure around galaxies. We find that around 12% of the galaxies in our sample show clear tidal features at the highest confidence level. This fraction rises to about 18% if we include systems with convincing, albeit weaker tidal features, and to 26% if we include systems with more marginal features that may or may not be tidal in origin. These proportions are a strong function of rest-frame color and of stellar mass. Linear features, shells, and fans are much more likely to occur in massive galaxies with stellar masses >10{sup 10.5} M {sub Sun }, and red galaxies are twice as likely to show tidal features than are blue galaxies.

  10. The Canada-France Deep Fields Survey. III. Photometric Redshift Distribution to IAB = 24

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brodwin, M.; Lilly, S. J.; Porciani, C.; McCracken, H. J.; Le Fvre, O.; Foucaud, S.; Crampton, D.; Mellier, Y.

    2006-01-01

    We compute accurate redshift distributions to IAB=24 and RAB=24.5 using photometric redshifts estimated from six-band UBVRIZ photometry in the Canada-France Deep Fields Photometric Redshift Survey (CFDF-PRS). Our photometric redshift algorithm is calibrated using hundreds of CFRS spectroscopic redshifts in the same fields. The dispersion in redshift is ?/(1+z)<~0.04 to the CFRS depth of IAB=22.5, rising to ?/(1+z)<~0.06 at our nominal magnitude and redshift limits of IAB=24 and z<=1.3, respectively. We describe a new method to compute N(z) that incorporates the full redshift likelihood functions in a Bayesian iterative analysis, and we demonstrate in extensive Monte Carlo simulations that it is superior to distributions calculated using simple maximum likelihood redshifts. The field-to-field differences in the redshift distributions, while not unexpected theoretically, are substantial even on 30' scales. We provide IAB and RAB redshift distributions, median redshifts, and parameterized fits of our results in various magnitude ranges, accounting for both random and systematic errors in the analysis.

  11. U.S. Geological Survey's Alert Notification System for Volcanic Activity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gardner, Cynthia A.; Guffanti, Marianne C.

    2006-01-01

    The United States and its territories have about 170 volcanoes that have been active during the past 10,000 years, and most could erupt again in the future. In the past 500 years, 80 U.S. volcanoes have erupted one or more times. About 50 of these recently active volcanoes are monitored, although not all to the same degree. Through its five volcano observatories, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) issues information and warnings to the public about volcanic activity. For clarity of warnings during volcanic crises, the USGS has now standardized the alert-notification system used at its observatories.

  12. U.S. Geological Survey Groundwater Modeling Software: Making Sense of a Complex Natural Resource

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Provost, Alden M.; Reilly, Thomas E.; Harbaugh, Arlen W.; Pollock, David W.

    2009-01-01

    Computer models of groundwater systems simulate the flow of groundwater, including water levels, and the transport of chemical constituents and thermal energy. Groundwater models afford hydrologists a framework on which to organize their knowledge and understanding of groundwater systems, and they provide insights water-resources managers need to plan effectively for future water demands. Building on decades of experience, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) continues to lead in the development and application of computer software that allows groundwater models to address scientific and management questions of increasing complexity.

  13. U.S. Geological Survey archived data recovery in Texas, 2008-11

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wehmeyer, Loren L.; Reece, Brian D.

    2011-01-01

    The 200811 data rescue and recovery efforts by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Texas Water Science Center resulted in an efficient workflow process, database, and Web user interface for scientists and citizens to access archived environmental information with practical applications. Much of this information is unique and has never been readily available to the public. The methods developed and lessons learned during this effort are now being applied to facilitate recovering archived information requested by USGS scientists, cooperators, and the general public.

  14. The stream-gaging program of the U.S. Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wahl, Kenneth L.; Thomas, Wilbert O.; Hirsch, Robert M.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey stream-gaging program provides streamflow data for a variety of purposes. The uses of streamflow data are described, and the growth of the stream-gaging program is related to legislation and the need to manage the Nation's water resources more effectively. A brief description is provided of the data-collection processes, computation of streamflow records, dissemination of data, and the nationwide evaluations of the stream-gaging program. Finally, the challenges for maintaining a viable stream-gaging program are described.

  15. Contaminants and drinking-water sources in 2001; recent findings of the U. S. Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patterson, G.G.; Focazio, M.J.

    2000-01-01

    As the Nation's principal earth-science agency, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) studies numerous issues related to contamination of drinking-water sources. The work includes monitoring to determine the spatial and temporal distribution of contaminants; research to determine sources, transport, transformations, and fate of contaminants, and assessments of vulnerability. Much of the work is conducted in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and other Federal, State, Tribal, and local governments, to help provide a scientific basis for resource management and regulation. Examples of recent results are presented for two broad categories of drinking-water projects: occurrence studies, and source-water assessments.

  16. Multispectral techniques for general geological surveys evaluation of a four-band photographic system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crowder, D., F.

    1969-01-01

    A general geological survey at 1:62,500 scale of the well exposed rocks of the White Mountains and the adjacent volcanic desert plateau is reported. The tuffs, granites, sedimentary rocks and metavolcanic rocks in this arid region are varicolored and conventional black and white aerial photographs have been a useful mapping aid. A large number of true color and false color aerial photographs and multispectral viewer screen images of the study area are evaluated in order to consider what imagery is the most useful for distinguishing rock types. Photographs of true color film are judged the most useful for recognizing geographic locations.

  17. Geochemical work of the Geochemistry and Petrology Branch U.S. Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ingerson, E.

    1954-01-01

    The current geochemical work of the Geochemistry and Petrology Branch of the U.S. Geological Survey is outlined under the headings of geochemical compilations, laboratory projects, and field-laboratory projects. Some thirty-seven active projects are described. Six others are mentioned which are planned for the near future. The importance and value of cooperative projects and the "team approach" are emphasized. The hope is expressed that more such projects can be undertaken; also, that summaries of geochemical work under way elsewhere will be published soon for the advancement and better coordination of geochemical research. ?? 1954.

  18. Implementation of unmanned aircraft systems by the U.S. Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cress, J.J.; Sloan, J.L.; Hutt, M.E.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Project Office is leading the implementation of UAS technology in anticipation of transforming the research methods and management techniques employed across the Department of the Interior. UAS technology is being made available to monitor environmental conditions, analyse the impacts of climate change, respond to natural hazards, understand landscape change rates and consequences, conduct wildlife inventories and support related land management missions. USGS is teaming with the Department of the Interior Aviation Management Directorate (AMD) to lead the safe and cost-effective adoption of UAS technology by the Department of the Interior Agencies and USGS scientists.

  19. Access routes to the U.S. Geological Survey's EROS Data Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1976-01-01

    The EROS Data Center is a part of the Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Program of the Department of the Interior, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey. It is the national center for the processing anddissemination of spacecraft and aircraft acquired photographic imagery and electronic data of the Earth's resources. The center also trains and assists users in the application of such data. The EROS Data Center provides access to Landsat data, aerial photography acquired by the U.S. Department of the Interior, and photography and other remotely sensed data acquired by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) from research aircraft and from Skylab, Apollo, and Gemini spacecraft.

  20. U.S. Geological Survey research on surrogate measurements for suspended sediment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gray, John R.; Melis, Theodore S.; Patio, Eduardo; Larsen, Matthew C.; Topping, David J.; Rasmussen, Patrick P.; Figueroa-Alamo, Carlos

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is evaluating potentially useful surrogate instruments and methods for inferring the physical characteristics of suspended sediments. Instruments operating on bulk acoustic, bulk and digital optic, laser, and pressure-differential technologies are being tested in riverine and laboratory settings for their usefulness to Federal agencies toward providing quantifiably reliable information on bed-material and bed-topography characteristics, and on concentrations, size distributions and transport rates of sediments in suspension and as bedload. The efficacy of four suspended-sediment surrogate technologies has been demonstrated to varying degrees of success in Kansas, Florida, Arizona, and Puerto Rico.

  1. U.S. Geological Survey toxic Waste-Groundwater Contamination Program, fiscal year 1985

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ragone, S.E.

    1986-01-01

    In fiscal year 1982, the U S Geological Survey began an interdisciplinary research thrust entitled Toxic Waste-Groundwater Contamination Program The objective of the thrust was to provide earth sciences information necessary to evaluate and mitigate existing groundwater contamination problems resulting from the planned or inadvertant disposal of wastes and from certain land-use practices, and to improve future waste disposal and land-use practices The program supports process-oriented and interdisciplinary field research, and regional groundwater quality studies This article provides an overview of the current (Fiscal Year 1985) activities of the Toxic Waste Program ?? 1986 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  2. In Canada: Possible changes in geophysics programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunlop, David J.

    The Earth Physics Branch of the Canadian Department of Energy, Mines, and Resources (formerly the Dominion Observatory) has been the primary government agency for geophysics in Canada since the turn of the century. It has operated the national observatories for seismology and geomagnetism and has established and maintained national networks, surveys, and standards in gravity, geodynamics, and geothermics. A reassessment of the role of federal government agencies now underway by the current Conservative administration in Canada is examining the question of whether the Earth Physics Branch should be combined with the Geological Survey of Canada in one agency that would carry the issue is expected within the next few out all federal geoscience activities. The opinion that such a merger would adversely affect the future of solid earth geophysics in Canada has been expressed by the Canadian Geophysical Union in a letter to the Minister of Energy, Mines, and Resources. Resolution of the issue is expected within the next few months.

  3. Activities of the U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Division in North Carolina, 1986

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Turner, J. F., (compiler); Deckard, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    Water resources programs conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in the state of North Carolina during 1985 and proposed programs for 1986 are described. This is the first in a series of biennial progress reports on Survey activities in the state. Activities such as gathering, interpreting and publishing hydrologic data and scientific information in support of state and local water resources planning, management, and regulatory programs are presented. The water resources programs described are funded through cooperative agreements with state and local agencies and through special agreements with other federal agencies. Cooperative programs are reviewed annually to insure that state, local and national priorities are being met. Groundwater withdrawals are estimated to have produced water level declines of 150 ft and more for large areas of the northeast and central Coastal Plain. Future demands for water quality and quantity are discussed.

  4. IYPE in Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, J.; Nowlan, G.

    2009-12-01

    The Canadian National Committee picked five of the ten IYPE themes for emphasis in Canada - Water, Hazards, Energy, Resources and Environment. They are summarized in the acronym WHERE - WHERE on Earth, WHERE in Canada. Our committee raised funds from industry, with some generous support from The Geological Survey of Canada. Funds were used for publishing “Four Billion Years and Counting”, a book on Canadian geology designed for the general public. It will be useful to educators who can download many of the illustrations and images for classroom support. Recognizing the looming shortage of Geoscientists, we designed a new careers website to help attract young people to the Earth sciences. It can be seen on our website, www.EarthsciencesCanada.com. The website will be updated regularly. The WHERE Challenge was a national contest for children aged 10 to 14. They were asked to select an object, often something from their household, identify at least one non-renewable resource used to make the object, and submit an entry describing the object, the resources within it, and WHERE they came from. We received entries from more than 1000 students Some of the winning entries are posted on our website. We developed a partnership with Parks Canada called Egoists, which is a series of pamphlets on iconic views within the parks explaining the Earth science behind the views. We also supported the celebration of the 100th anniversary of the discovery of the Burgess Shale by providing funding for the publication of a field guide. At the end of the year all programs will transfer to the Canadian Federation of Earth Sciences. The WHERE Challenge will be repeated in 2010. It, plus our book and careers website will continue our outreach activities.

  5. Lessons learned from the U.S. Geological Survey abandoned mine lands initiative: 1997-2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kimball, Briant A.; Church, Stanley E.; Besser, John M.

    2006-01-01

    Growth of the United States has been facilitated, in part, by hard-rock mining in the Rocky Mountains. Abandoned and inactive mines cause many significant environmental concerns in hundreds of watersheds. Those who have responsibility to address these environmental concerns must have a basic level of scientific information about mining and mine wastes in a watershed prior to initiating remediation activities. To demonstrate what information is needed and how to obtain that information, the U.S. Geological Survey implemented the Abandoned Mine Lands (AML) Initiative from 1997 to 2002 with demonstration studies in the Boulder River watershed in Montana and the Animas River watershed in Colorado. The AML Initiative included collection and analysis of geologic, hydrologic, geochemical, geophysical, and biological data. The synergy of this interdisciplinary analysis produced a perspective of the environmental concerns that could not have come from a single discipline. Two examples of these perspectives include (1) the combination of hydrological tracer techniques, structural geology, and geophysics help to understand the spatial distribution of loading to the streams in a way that cannot be evaluated by monitoring at a catchment outlet, and (2) the combination of toxicology and hydrology combine to illustrate that seasonal variability of toxicity conditions occurs. Lessons have been learned by listening to and collaborating with land-management agencies to understand their needs and by applying interdisciplinary methods to answer their questions.

  6. Bibliography of Regional Aquifer-System Analysis Program of the US Geological Survey, 1978-96

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sun, Ren Jen; Weeks, John B.; Grubb, Hayes F.

    1997-01-01

    The Regional Aquifer-System Analysis (RASA) Program of the U.S. Geological Survey was initiated in 1978 and was completed in 1995. The purpose of this program was to define the regional geohydrology and establish a framework of background information on geology, hydrology, and geochemistry of the Nation's important aquifer systems. This information is critically needed to develop an understanding of the Nation's major ground-water flow systems and to support better management of ground-water resources. Twenty-five of the Nation's major aquifer systems were studied under this program. Starting in 1988, the program devoted part of its resources to compilation of a National Ground Water Atlas that presets a comprehensive summary of the Nation's major ground-water resources. The atlas, which is designed in a graphical format supported by descriptive text, serves as a basic reference for the location, geography, geology, and hydrologic characteristics of the major aquifers in the Nation. This bibliography lists 1,105 reports that result from various studies of the program. The list of reports for each study follows a brief description of that study.

  7. Geological, geochemical, and geophysical survey of the geothermal resources at Hot Springs Bay Valley, Akutan Island, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Motyka, R.J.; Wescott, E.M.; Turner, D.L.; Swanson, S.E.; Romick, J.D.; Moorman, M.A.; Poreda, R.J.; Witte, W.; Petzinger, B.; Allely, R.D.

    1985-01-01

    An extensive survey was conducted of the geothermal resource potential of Hot Springs Bay Valley on Akutan Island. A topographic base map was constructed, geologic mapping, geophysical and geochemical surveys were conducted, and the thermal waters and fumarolic gases were analyzed for major and minor element species and stable isotope composition. (ACR)

  8. U.S. Geological Survey`s coal-bed gas project

    SciTech Connect

    Nuccio, V.F.; Kirschbaum, M.; Fassett, J.; Rice, D.

    1995-12-31

    The USGS has recently completed an assessment of oil and gas resources for the US. Because it is a potentially important energy resource, coal-bed gas was included in the assessment. As an outgrowth of the national assessment, three areas have been identified for additional research to increase understanding of the geologic and environmental aspects of coal-bed gas development: the San Juan Basin, the Appalachian Basin, and the Wasatch Plateau/Book Cliffs. San Juan Basin research will concentrate on (1) determining the cause of overpressuring in the coal-bed methane high-production fairway, (2) determining coal-bed methane potential outside of this fairway, (3) determining the cause, origin, and magnitude of methane seepage in natural settings and in strip-mine areas, and (4) determining the source and migration pathways of gas into aquifers, ponds, and streams in the northern part of the basin. In the Appalachian Basin, research will focus on (1) evaluating controls of occurrence and recoverability of coal-bed gas in important coalbeds, (2) predicting quality and quantity of produced waters and options for disposal, and (3) characterizing methane emissions from underground coal mining; their composition, volume, and potential as a valuable, clean energy resource. In the Wasatch Plateau and Book Cliffs near Price, Utah, significant gas shows from coals of the Ferron Sandstone make this one of the hottest new coal-bed gas plays in the US. Studies will include (1) determining the cleat network in relation to coal type, coalbed thickness, and the regional fracture history, and (2) measurement and comparison of soil gas emissions prior to, and during coal-bed gas production.

  9. Operation of hydrologic data collection stations by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1985

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Condes de la Torre, Alberto

    1985-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) operated hydrologic data collection stations during fiscal yr 1985 in response to the needs of all levels of Government for hydrologic information. Surface water discharge was determined at 11,076 stations; stage data on streams, reservoirs, and lakes were recorded at 2,141 stations; and surface water quality was determined at 4,166 stations. Groundwater levels were measured at 39,301 stations, and the quality of groundwater was determined at 9,263 stations nationwide. Data on sediment were collected daily at 212 stations and on a periodic basis at 1,027 stations. Information on precipitation quantity was collected at 921 stations, and the quality of precipitation was analyzed at 108 stations. Data collection platforms for satellite telemetry of hydrologic information were used at 1,520 USGS stations. Funding support for the hydrologic stations was derived either solely or from a combination of three major sources--the Geological Survey 's Federal Program appropriation, the Federal-State Cooperative Program, and reimbursements from other Federal agencies. (Author 's abstract)

  10. User's guide for U.S. Geological Survey rainfall-runoff models; revised 1977

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carrigan, Philip Hadley, Jr.; Bower, David E.; Dempster, G.R.

    1977-01-01

    Modified versions of the rainfall-runoff model described by Dawdy, Lichty, and Bergmann (1972) (see W72-11754) are used in the U.S. Geological Survey as a means of synthesizing flood discharges for small drainage areas. Synthesized flood discharges derived through use of long-term (60-70 year) rainfall and evaporation data, provide a more representative time base than do short-term (5-15 year) discharge records obtained by conventional stream gaging techniques. The rainfall, discharge, and evaporation data for use with rainfall-runoff models are stored in the Unit and Daily Values Files. Any of these data which were collected during the current or immediately preceding water year are stored on direct access, online disk files. Older data are stored in sequential files on magnetic tapes. Both the disks and tapes contain short-term data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey for calibration of models and long-term data for use in synthesis of long-term flood records. Information in this report provides guidelines for the assembly, storage, and retrieval of data needed to use these models, and also provides description and documentation of computer programs for model calibration and flood-record synthesis. (See also W74-11234) (Woodard-USGS)

  11. Investigations and research in Nevada by the Water Resources Division, U.S. Geological Survey, 1982

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Katzer, Terry; Moosburner, Otto; Nichols, W.D.

    1984-01-01

    The Water Resources Division, U.S. Geological Survey, is charged with (1) maintaining a hydrologic network in Nevada that provides information on the status of the State 's water resources and (2) engaging in technical water-resources investigations that have a high degree of transferability. To meet these broad objectives, 26 projects were active during fiscal year 1982, in cooperation with 36 Federal, State, and local agencies. Total funds were $3,319,455, of which State and local cooperative funding amounted to $741,500 and Federal funding (comprised of Geological Survey Federal and cooperative program plus funds from six other Federal agencies) amounted to $2,577,955 for the fiscal year. Projects other than continuing programs for collection of hydrologic data included the following topics of study: geothermal resources, areal ground-water resources and ground-water modeling, waste disposal , paleohydrology, acid mine drainage, the unsaturated zone, stream and reservoir sedimentation, river-quality modeling, flood hazards, and remote sensing in hydrology. In total, 26 reports and symposium abstracts were published or in press during fiscal year 1982. (USGS)

  12. Resources for Teaching About Evolution from the U.S. Geological Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, L. C.

    2001-12-01

    As a scientific research agency, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is in an ideal position to provide scientific information and resources to educators. The USGS is not a curriculum developer, nor an expert in pedagogy, yet the USGS does have a wealth of scientific information on subjects such as fossils, geologic time, biological resources and plate tectonics that naturally come in to play in the teaching of evolution. Among USGS resources are the general interest pamphlets Geologic Time, Dinosaurs: Facts And Fiction, Our Changing Continent, and Fossils Rocks, and Time, and its accompanying poster, Fossils Through Time. In addition to printed versions, the pamphlets are available at no cost on the Internet at http://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/. The popular booklet, This Dynamic Earth: The Story of Plate Tectonics, available at http://pubs.usgs.gov/publications/text/dynamic.html, touches on evolution-related subjects such as Alfred Wegener's use of fossils to develop his theory of continental drift, "polar" dinosaur fossils found in Australia, marine fossils in the rocks of the Himalayas, and the use of fossil ages to determine rates of plate motions. Paleontological research at the USGS is highlighted on the Internet at http://geology.er.usgs.gov/paleo/. The web site includes links to technical publications, profiles of scientists, a geologic time scale, a glossary, information on important fossil groups, and a list of non-USGS references on fossils: all very useful to educators. A wealth of biological information and data can be found in the National Biological Information Infrastructure (NBII), a multi-agency collaborative program led by the USGS. In addition to data on the Nation's biological resources, the NBII web site http://www.nbii.gov/ includes a section on systematics and scientific names (helpful for illustrating the evolutionary relationships among living organisms), and links to non-USGS curriculum materials. A fact sheet, Unveiling the NBII as a Teaching Resource, is available at http://www.nbii.gov/about/pubs/factsheet/pdf/education.pdf. Evolution is a key theme in the scope of many USGS research activities. From the evolution of living organisms, to the evolution of geological materials and landforms, the USGS is a rich source of current, accurate, and relevant scientific information for teachers in today's classroom.

  13. Earth history at the century mark of the U.S. Geological Survey*

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, George Gaylord

    1979-01-01

    Earth history involves all aspects of geological and biological evolution, especially paleontology and stratigraphy. Early paleontological exploration of the western United States by and before the U.S. Geological Survey featured the dramatic discoveries and rivalries of the great vertebrate paleontologists Leidy, Cope, Marsh, and Osborn. Invertebrate paleontology and paleobotany in the U.S. Geological Survey blossomed with emphasis on practical missions. The most illuminating and useful earth history, nevertheless, emerges where there is a high degree of interaction with academic scholars. Despite a good knowledge of its broad features, the drama of earth history remains obscure in detail. Whereas it speaks conclusively for the reality of organic evolution, it is less conclusive about mechanisms and many important transitions. Current investigations, however, especially in pre-Phanerozoic, mammalian, and human paleontology, promise improved insights. New techniques in collecting, sample preparation, and research are revealing previously unknown kinds of fossils and exquisite details of preservation. Plate tectonic theory provides a new framework for historical geography and biogeography. Emerging techniques in geochronologymatching paleopolarity sequences, for examplepromise to resolve old problems of the synchroneity or heterochroneity of different biotal provinces. As it splits into subfields, the teaching and practice of paleontology expand to cover all of them. The fossils themselves, however, remain the basic objective evidence. All hypotheses about them must answer to this court of appeal. But nature rarely responds in an either-or way. The most probable hypotheses are those that have repeatedly confronted objective reality and survived all opportunity for disproof. PMID:16592705

  14. Food consumption patterns in the Waterloo Region, Ontario, Canada: a cross-sectional telephone survey

    PubMed Central

    Nesbitt, Andrea; Majowicz, Shannon; Finley, Rita; Pollari, Frank; Pintar, Katarina; Marshall, Barbara; Cook, Angela; Sargeant, Jan; Wilson, Jeff; Ribble, Carl; Knowles, Lewinda

    2008-01-01

    Background The demographics and lifestyles of Canadians are changing, thereby influencing food choices and food preparation in the home. Although different dietary practices are associated with increased risk of foodborne illness, our ability to evaluate food consumption trends and assess risks associated with foodborne illness is limited by lack of data on current eating habits and consumer food safety practices. The objective of this study was to describe, for the first time, the food consumption patterns in a Canadian-based population from a food safety perspective, in order to establish baseline data on actual food intake of individuals. Method A cross-sectional telephone survey of 2,332 randomly selected residents of Waterloo Region, Ontario, Canada (C-EnterNet pilot site) was conducted between November 2005 and March 2006. Food intake was assessed using a 7-day dietary recall method. Results Certain food items were consumed more than others among the same food groups, and consumption of many food items varied by gender and age. Specific foods considered high-risk for the transmission of certain enteric pathogens were significantly more likely to be consumed by males (i.e. unpasteurized juice, bean sprouts, and undercooked meat) and elderly individuals (i.e. undercooked eggs). The majority of households prepared and consumed most meals at home, allocating an average of 44 minutes to prepare a meal. Conclusion Baseline data on actual food intake is useful to public health professionals and food safety risk assessors for developing communication messages to consumers and in foodborne outbreak investigations. PMID:18950509

  15. Promoting cessation resources through cigarette package warning labels: a longitudinal survey with adult smokers in Canada, Australia and Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Thrasher, James F; Osman, Amira; Moodie, Crawford; Hammond, David; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Cummings, K Michael; Borland, Ron; Yong, Hua-Hie; Hardin, James

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Health warning labels (HWLs) on tobacco packaging can be used to provide smoking cessation information, but the impact of this information is not well understood. Methods Online consumer panels of adult smokers from Canada, Australia and Mexico were surveyed in September 2012, January 2013 and May 2013; replenishment was used to maintain sample sizes of 1000 participants in each country at each wave. Country-stratified logistic Generalised Estimating Equation (GEE) models were estimated to assess correlates of citing HWLs as a source of information on quitlines and cessation websites. GEE models also regressed having called the quitline, and having visited a cessation website, on awareness of these resources because of HWLs. Results At baseline, citing HWLs as a source of information about quitlines was highest in Canada, followed by Australia and Mexico (33%, 19% and 16%, respectively). Significant increases over time were only evident in Australia and Mexico. In all countries, citing HWLs as a source of quitline information was significantly associated with self-report of having called a quitline. At baseline, citing HWLs as a source of information about cessation websites was higher in Canada than in Australia (14% and 6%, respectively; Mexico was excluded because HWLs do not include website information), but no significant changes over time were found for either country. Citing HWLs as a source of information about cessation websites was significantly associated with having visited a website in both Canada and Australia. Conclusions HWLs are an important source of cessation information. PMID:25052860

  16. Suggestions to authors of papers submitted for publication by the United States Geological Survey with directions to typists

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, George McLane; Lane, Bernard H.

    1935-01-01

    The present edition, like the others, is intended primarily for Geological Survey authors or prospective authors: it is not the manual of wider scope that Mr. Wood had planned, and it contains none of his new material. If authors outside the Survey shall continue to find the suggestions useful, that will be a byproduct that testifies to the quality of the Survey's standards, which were established early in its history.

  17. Information and informatics in a geological survey - the good, the bad and the ugly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, I.

    2008-12-01

    It is apparent that the most successful geological surveys (as measured by the only true Key Performance Indicator - their effectiveness in serving their societies) have recognised that, while their core business is making maps and models and doing scientific research to underpin that, the commodity they actually deal in is data and information and knowledge. They know that in a digital world the better they organise the data and information and knowledge, the more successful they will be. In our future world, where e-science will surely dominate, some are already sub-titling themselves as information or knowledge exchange organisations. There seems an unarguable correlation between surveys which organise their information well and those that run their projects well, their agility in responding to government agendas or national emergencies, and flexibility in delivering products their diverse users want. Look deeper and you can see the pivotal role of best practice information management and the tangible benefits a responsible approach to acquiring, storing and delivering information brings. But even in these (most successful) surveys the people leading information management will tell you that it was a gargantuan battle to get the resources to achieve this success and that, even with the downstream fruits of the investment in professional information management and informatics now obvious, it is a continuing struggle to maintain a decent level of funding for these tasks. It is not hard to see why; the struggle is innately one-sided; geoscientists are born and/or trained to be curious, to be independent and to innovate. If the choice is between more research and survey, or a professional approach to information/informatics and the adjudicators are geoscientists, it is not difficult to pick the winner. So what does lie behind a successful approach to information in a geological survey organisation? First, recognise that poor information management cannot just be cured by investing in hardware and software; it is the geoscience data content (its availability, quality and consistency) that is in greater need of investment. Second, to achieve the full synergies and benefits information management and informatics must be planned into all domains of the Survey and all project phases - acquisition, processing, analysis, dissemination and storage. Adequate investment in front office applications and services to communicate and deliver geoscience to all our stakeholders (eg virtualisation and visualisation) is essential. Without it back office work, however, worthy, is of limited value. Finally, the widely accepted truth is that the real challenge in introducing professional information management and informatics is not technical or scientific, but cultural and managerial. Unless you can sensitively and positively change the work patterns and culture of Survey geoscientists a sustainable outcome will remain beyond reach. Of course to change the work pattern and culture of the geoscientists you must first ensure that the most senior management of the organisation embrace the change wholeheartedly; now there's a challenge! Using examples and experience from the evolution on information management and informatics in the British Geological Survey over the last decade this presentation will explore the issues above.

  18. Hydrologic and geologic aspects of waste management and disposal; a bibliography of publications by U.S. Geological Survey authors, 1950-81

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Handman, Elinor H.

    1983-01-01

    References to more than 550 reports, articles, and maps are listed alphabetically by author and are indexed by subject. The subject index includes geographic-area terms. Citations from 69 series are included; series are listed separately. The publications listed report the results of U.S. Geological Survey research and field projects throughout the Nation concerning earth-science aspects of waste management and disposal. They include organic, inorganic, and radioactive wastes and related topics such as mathematical models of solute transport. Most of the references are to (1) Geological Survey report series such as Water-Supply Papers, Professional Papers, Bulletins, Circulars, Water-Resources Investigations, and Open-File Reports, (2) technical journals of professional organizations, or (3) reports by other Federal and State agencies.

  19. Quaternary geologic map of the Hudson River 4 degree x 6 degree quadrangle, United States and Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    State and province compilations by Fullerton, David S.; Sevon, William D.; Muller, Ernest H.; Judson, Sheldon; Black, Robert F.; Wagner, Phillip W.; Hartshorn, Joseph H.; Chapman, William F.; Cowan, William D.; edited and integrated by Fullerton, David S.

    1992-01-01

    The Quaternary Geologic Map of the Hudson River 4? x 6? Quadrangle was mapped as part of the Quaternary Geologic Atlas of the United States. The atlas was begun as an effort to depict the areal distribution of surficial geologic deposits and other materials that accumulated or formed during the past 2+ million years, the period that includes all activities of the human species. These materials are at the surface of the earth. They make up the 'ground' on which we walk, the 'dirt' in which we dig foundations, and the 'soil' in which we grow crops. Most of our human activity is related in one way or another to these surface materials that are referred to collectively by many geologists as regolith, the mantle of fragmental and generally unconsolidated material that overlies the bedrock foundation of the continent. The maps were compiled at 1:1,000,000 scale.

  20. Quaternary geologic map of the Lake Superior 4 degrees x 6 degrees quadrangle, United States and Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richmond, Gerald M., (Edited By); Fullerton, David S.; state compilations by Farrand, William R.; Mickelson, D.M.; Cowan, W.R.; Goebel, J.E.; edited and integrated by Richmond, Gerald Martin

    1984-01-01

    The Quaternary Geologic Map of the Lake Superior 4? x 6? Quadrangle was mapped as part of the Quaternary Geologic Atlas of the United States. The atlas was begun as an effort to depict the areal distribution of surficial geologic deposits and other materials that accumulated or formed during the past 2+ million years, the period that includes all activities of the human species. These materials are at the surface of the earth. They make up the 'ground' on which we walk, the 'dirt' in which we dig foundations, and the 'soil' in which we grow crops. Most of our human activity is related in one way or another to these surface materials that are referred to collectively by many geologists as regolith, the mantle of fragmental and generally unconsolidated material that overlies the bedrock foundation of the continent. The maps were compiled at 1:1,000,000 scale.

  1. Quaternary geologic map of the Lake Erie 4 degrees x 6 degrees quadrangle, United States and Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fullerton, David S.; Richmond, Gerald M.; state compilations by Fullerton, David S.; Cowan, W.R.; Sevon, W.D.; Goldthwait, R.P.; Farrand, W.R.; Muller, E.H.; Behling, R.E.; Stravers, J.A.; edited and integrated by Fullerton, David S.; Richmond, Gerald Martin

    1991-01-01

    The Quaternary Geologic Map of the Lake Erie 4? x 6? Quadrangle was mapped as part of the Quaternary Geologic Atlas of the United States. The atlas was begun as an effort to depict the areal distribution of surficial geologic deposits and other materials that accumulated or formed during the past 2+ million years, the period that includes all activities of the human species. These materials are at the surface of the earth. They make up the 'ground' on which we walk, the 'dirt' in which we dig foundations, and the 'soil' in which we grow crops. Most of our human activity is related in one way or another to these surface materials that are referred to collectively by many geologists as regolith, the mantle of fragmental and generally unconsolidated material that overlies the bedrock foundation of the continent. The maps were compiled at 1:1,000,000 scale.

  2. A summary of water-resources activities of the U.S. Geological Survey in Iowa, fiscal year 1992

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1992-01-01

    Water-resources activities of the U.S. Geological Survey in Iowa consist of collecting hydrologic data and conducting interpretive studies. Hydrologic investigations in Iowa are made through three basic types of projects: (1) hydrologic data-collection programs; (2) local or areal studies; and (3) statewide or regional investigations. These projects are funded through cooperative joint-funding agreements with Federal, State, and local agencies and direct Federal funds. The data and the results of the interpretive studies are published or released by either the U.S. Geological Survey or by cooperating agencies. This report describes: (1) the hydrologic data-collection programs; (2) the local or areal hydrologic investigations; and (3) statewide or regional studies conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in Iowa during fiscal year 1992 and provides a list of selected water-resources references for Iowa.

  3. A summary of water-resources activities of the U.S. Geological Survey in Iowa; fiscal year 1990

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1990-01-01

    Water resources activities of the U.S. Geological Survey in Iowa consist of collecting hydrologic data and conducting interpretive studies. Hydrologic investigations in Iowa are made through three basic types of projects: (1) hydrologic data-collection programs; (2) local or areal hydrologic studies; and (3) statewide or regional investigations. These projects are funded through cooperative joint-funding agreements with Federal, State, and local agencies and direct Federal funds. The data and the results of the interpretive studies are published or released by either the U.S. Geological Survey or by cooperating agencies. This report describes: (1) the hydrologic data-collection programs; (2) the local or areal hydrologic investigations; and (3) statewide or regional studies conducted by the U.S Geological Survey in Iowa during fiscal year 1990 and provides a list of selected water-resources references for Iowa.

  4. Multidisciplinary approach (geology, geomorphology, geomechanics, geomatics) for the characterization of the Blais Creek DsGSD (Monashee Mountains, BC, Canada)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moretti, Danilo; Giardino, Marco; Stead, Doug; Clague, John; Gibson, Dan; Ghirotti, Monica; Perotti, Luigi

    2013-04-01

    Field investigations, including detailed geological and geomorphological mapping have been coupled with stratigraphic and structural studies of the Blais Creek Deep-seated Gravitational Slope Deformations (DsGSD), Monashee Mountains, British Columbia (BC). To reconstruct the DsGSD evolutionary stages and to evaluate its controlling factors, a complex methodology has been applied, integrating orthophotos, stereo models and 3D models of the DsGSD with field and literature data concerning tectonic and glacial history of the Seymour Valley. General geomechanical properties of the deforming rock mass has been then evaluated for using in numerical models of the failure mechanism at Blais Creek and to define a broad geomechanical characterization of different portions of the DsGSD. The combination between the aerial and terrestrial photogrammetry was appropriate in terms of the quality of the information obtained more than the quantitative information. Several Ground Control Points (GCPs) and Tie Points (TPs) were selected from the original DEM received by the BC Government. The use of a multitemporal aerial triangulation gave the possibility to minimize the error relative to every single block of images. Couples of oriented photos were used to create stereoscopic models. Multitemporal variations of the Blais Creek slope were observed and compared to the actual situation of the slope. The use of terrestrial photogrammetry through Adamtech software confirmed some of the qualitative data obtained from aerial interpretation and from field survey. The limited use of terrestrial photogrammetry was due to the impossibility of orienting the 3D terrestrial models. Anyway these models were also useful to confirm one of the possible mechanisms used to describe the evolution of Blais Creek. Geomechanical analysis was performed through field work and laboratory tests to characterize the entire slope and to produce some of the values useful for a possible numerical analysis of Blais Creek. It showed interesting differences in geomechanical properties between the calc-silicate and quartzite/gneiss. The kinematic analysis showed very the different instability areas along the slope, even if variations in landforms and rock masses volume weren't widespread along Blais Creek slope during the time span covered by aerial photographs (1973-2007). Indeed, the multitemporal analysis outlined very active instability along the large upper trench and the lateral active slopes of Blais Creek. Even without significant level of risks in the area, considering the remote area involved in this instability, some relevant hazards could occur, related to the possible collapse of SE side of Blais Creek DsGSD. Regarding the long term evolution of the DsGSD, the extensive network of linear features at Blais Creek is of a large deforming rock mass. Movement probably began with the retreat of valley glaciers during deglaciation when the oversteepened valley sides were debuttressed. By these evidences it is possible to theorize that the post-glacial retreat of the rock face and removal of the ice buttress from both the Seymour and the Blais Creeek Valleys lowered the factor of stability of the mass as a whole, allowing a deep-seated shear surface to develop gradually over time by progressive creep.

  5. SIX MORE QUASARS AT REDSHIFT 6 DISCOVERED BY THE CANADA-FRANCE HIGH-z QUASAR SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Willott, Chris J.; Crampton, David; Hutchings, John B.; Schade, David; Delorme, Philippe; Delfosse, Xavier; Forveille, Thierry; Reyle, Celine; Albert, Loic; Bergeron, Jacqueline; Omont, Alain; McLure, Ross J.

    2009-03-15

    We present imaging and spectroscopic observations for six quasars at z {>=} 5.9 discovered by the Canada-France High-z Quasar Survey (CFHQS). The CFHQS contains subsurveys with a range of flux and area combinations to sample a wide range of quasar luminosities at z {approx} 6. The new quasars have luminosities 10-75 times lower than the most luminous Sloan Digital Sky Survey quasars at this redshift. The least luminous quasar, CFHQS J0216-0455 at z = 6.01, has absolute magnitude M {sub 1450} = -22.21, well below the likely break in the luminosity function. This quasar is not detected in a deep XMM-Newton survey showing that optical selection is still a very efficient tool for finding high-redshift quasars.

  6. Illinois State Geological Survey Evaluation of CO2 Capture Options from Ethanol Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Finley

    2006-09-30

    The Illinois State Geological Survey and the Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium are conducting CO{sub 2} sequestration and enhanced oil recovery testing at six different sites in the Illinois Basin. The capital and operating costs for equipment to capture and liquefy CO{sub 2} from ethanol plants in the Illinois area were evaluated so that ethanol plants could be considered as an alternate source for CO{sub 2} in the event that successful enhanced oil recovery tests create the need for additional sources of CO{sub 2} in the area. Estimated equipment and operating costs needed to capture and liquefy 68 metric tonnes/day (75 tons/day) and 272 tonnes/day (300 tons/day) of CO{sub 2} for truck delivery from an ethanol plant are provided. Estimated costs are provided for food/beverage grade CO{sub 2} and also for less purified CO{sub 2} suitable for enhanced oil recovery or sequestration. The report includes preliminary plant and equipment designs and estimates major capital and operating costs for each of the recovery options. Availability of used equipment was assessed.

  7. U.S. Geological Survey Assessment of Undiscovered Petroleum Resources of the Hamra Basin, Libya, 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2007-01-01

    The Hamra Basin Province encompasses approximately 244,100 square kilometers (94,250 square miles) and is entirely within Libya. One composite total petroleum system (TPS) was defined for this assessment; it extends from Libya westward into adjacent parts of Algeria and southern Tunisia. The Hamra Basin part of the TPS was subdivided into four assessment units for the purpose of resource assessment. The assessment units cover only 172,390 square kilometers of the Hamra Basin Province; the remaining area has little potential for undiscovered petroleum resources because of the absence of petroleum source rocks. Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean volumes of 784 million barrels of crude oil, 4,748 billion cubic feet of natural gas, and 381 million barrels of natural gas liquids in the Hamra Basin of northwestern Libya. Most of the undiscovered crude oil and natural gas are interpreted to be in deeper parts of the Hamra Basin.

  8. Recent developments in uranium exploration using the U.S. geological survey's mobile helium detector

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reimer, G.M.; Denton, E.H.; Friedman, I.; Otton, J.K.

    1979-01-01

    A mobile mass spectrometer to measure He concentrations has been developed by the U.S. Geological Survey. This instrument has been tested in areas of known uranium deposits, and He anomalies have been found in both soil gas and water. A gas sample is collected in a hypodermic syringe, injected into the spectrometer, and analyzed for He. Over 100 analyses a day can be performed with a sensitivity of 10 parts per billion (ppb). One detailed study conducted in Weld County, Colorado, shows that values for He in soil gas can be contoured to outline an anomalous area and that the anomaly is displaced from the deposit in the direction of groundwater flow. Other studies include the Schwartzwalder uranium mine, Jefferson County, Colorado, where He anomalies may be related to geologic structure; near Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico, where the location of He anomalies are related to groundwater movement; and tests for diurnal effects showing only slight variations probably related to soil-moisture content. ?? 1979.

  9. U.S. Geological Survey Science for the Wyoming Landscape Conservation Initiative-2009 Annual Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowen, Z.H.; Aldridge, C.L.; Anderson, P.J.; Assal, T.J.; Biewick, L.R.H.; Blecker, S.W.; Bristol, S.; Carr, N.B.; Chalfoun, A.D.; Chong, G.W.; Diffendorfer, J.E.; Fedy, B.C.; Garman, S.L.; Germaine, S.; Grauch, R.I.; Holloway, J.; Homer, C.; Kauffman, M.J.; Keinath, D.; Latysh, N.; Manier, D.; McDougal, R.R.; Melcher, C.P.; Miller, K.A.; Montag, J.; Nutt, C.J.; Potter, C.J.; Sawyer, H.; Schell, S.; Shafer, S.L.; Smith, D.B.; Stillings, L.L.; Tuttle, M.; Wilson, A.B.

    2010-01-01

    This is the second report produced by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for the Wyoming Landscape Conservation Initiative (WLCI) to detail annual work activities. The first report described work activities for 2007 and 2008; this report covers work activities conducted in 2009. Important differences between the two reports are that (1) this report does not lump all the Effectiveness Monitoring activities together as last year's report did, which will allow WLCI partners and other readers to fully appreciate the scope and accomplishments of those activities, and (2) this report does not include a comprehensive appendix of the background details for each work activity. In 2009, there were 29 ongoing or completed activities, and there were 5 new work activities conducted under the 5 original major multi-disciplinary science and technical assistance activities: (1) Baseline Synthesis; (2) Targeted Monitoring and Research; (3) Data and Information Management; (4) Integration and Coordination; and (5) Decisionmaking and Evaluation. New work included (1) developing a soil-quality index, (2) developing methods for assessing levels of and relationships between mercury and soil organic matter, and (3) ascertaining element source, mobility, and fate. Additionally, (4) remotely sensed imagery was used to assess vegetation as an indicator of soil condition and geology, and (5) an Integrated Assessment (IA) was initiated to synthesize what has been learned about WLCI systems to date, and to develop associated decision tools, maps, and a comprehensive report.

  10. CRIB; the mineral resources data bank of the U.S. Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Calkins, James Alfred; Kays, Olaf; Keefer, Eleanor K.

    1973-01-01

    The recently established Computerized Resources Information Bank (CRIB) of the U.S. Geological Survey is expected to play an increasingly important role in the study of United States' mineral resources. CRIB provides a rapid means for organizing and summarizing information on mineral resources and for displaying the results. CRIB consists of a set of variable-length records containing the basic information needed to characterize one or more mineral commodities, a mineral deposit, or several related deposits. The information consists of text, numeric data, and codes. Some topics covered are: name, location, commodity information, geology, production, reserves, potential resources, and references. The data are processed by the GIPSY program, which performs all the processing tasks needed to build, operate, and maintain the CRIB file. The sophisticated retrieval program allows the user to make highly selective searches of the files for words, parts of words, phrases, numeric data, word ranges, numeric ranges, and others, and to interrelate variables by logic statements to any degree of refinement desired. Three print options are available, or the retrieved data can be passed to another program for further processing.

  11. The U.S. Geological Survey mapping and cartographic database activities, 2006-2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Craun, Kari J.; Donnelly, John P.; Allord, Gregory J.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began systematic topographic mapping of the United States in the 1880s, beginning with scales of 1:250,000 and 1:125,000 in support of geological mapping. Responding to the need for higher resolution and more detail, the 1:62,500-scale, 15-minute, topographic map series was begun in the beginning of the 20th century. Finally, in the 1950s the USGS adopted the 1:24,000-scale, 7.5-minute topographic map series to portray even more detail, completing the coverage of the conterminous 48 states of the United States with this series in 1992. In 2001, the USGS developed the vision and concept of The National Map, a topographic database for the 21st century and the source for a new generation of topographic maps (http://nationalmap.gov/). In 2008, the initial production of those maps began with a 1:24,000-scale digital product. In a separate, but related project, the USGS began scanning the existing inventory of historical topographic maps at all scales to accompany the new topographic maps. The USGS also had developed a digital database of The National Atlas of the United States. The digital version of Atlas is now Web-available and supports a mapping engine for small scale maps of the United States and North America. These three efforts define topographic mapping activities of the USGS during the last few years and are discussed below.

  12. U.S. Geological Survey programs and investigations related to soil and water conservation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Osterkamp, W.R.; Gray, J.R.

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has a rich tradition of collecting hydrologic data, especially for fluxes of water and suspended sediment, that provide a foundation for studies of soil and water conservation. Applied and basic research has included investigations of the effects of land use on rangelands, croplands, and forests; hazards mapping; derivation of flood and drought frequency, and other statistics related to streamflow and reservoir storage; development and application of models of rainfall-runoff relations, chemical quality, and sediment movement; and studies of the interactive processes of overland and channel flow with vegetation. Networks of streamgaging stations and (or) sampling sites within numerous drainage basins are yielding information that extends databases and enhances the ability to use those data for interpretive studies.

  13. Geology of the Byrd Glacier Discontinuity (Ross Orogen): New survey data from the Britannia Range, Antarctica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carosi, R.; Giacomini, F.; Talarico, F.; Stump, E.

    2007-01-01

    Field activities in the Britannia Range (Transantarctic Mountains, Antarctica) highlighted new geological features around the so-called Byrd Glacier discontinuity. Recent field surveys revealed the occurrence of significant amounts of medium- to high-grade metamorphic rocks, intruded by abundant coarse-grained porphyritic granitoids. Most of the granitoids are deformed, with foliation parallel to the regional foliation in the metamorphics. Two main episodes of deformation are observed. Tight to isoclinal folds and penetrative axial plane foliation are related to the D1 phase, open folds to the D2. The main foliation (D1) trends nearly E-W in agreement with the trend in the southern portion of the Byrd Glacier. In most outcrops, granitic dykes are folded and stretched by the D2 deformation, which shows similar characteristics with the D2 deformation south of the Byrd Glacier. This suggests the occurrence in the Ross orogen of an orogen-normal structure south and north of the Byrd Glacier.

  14. U.S. Geological Survey World Petroleum Assessment 2000: Description and Results

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    USGS World Energy Assessment Team

    2000-01-01

    The set of 4 CD-ROM discs, documents the U.S. Geological Survey World Petroleum Assessment 2000 and includes estimates of the quantities of conventional oil, gas, and natural gas liquids outside the United States that have the potential to be added to reserves in the next 30 years (1995 to 2025). Two components, undiscovered resources and reserve growth, are estimated. One hundred and forty nine total petroleum systems and two hundred and forty six assessment units (subdivisions of total petroleum systems) were assessed. The supporting maps, data, text and tables produced by the World Energy Assessment Team during this five-year project (1995-2000) are included in the set.

  15. Proposed U.S. Geological Survey Budget Would Provide "Significant" Increase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-04-01

    The White House's proposed budget for the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for fiscal year (FY) 2014, which the administration submitted to Congress on 10 April, would provide the agency with 1.17 billion, an increase of 98.02 million, 9.17% more than the FY 2012 enacted budget of $1.07 billion (see Table 1). The proposed budget is a "significant" increase and "makes a statement about the USGS's relevance in the federal research community," USGS acting director Suzette Kimball said at the agency's briefing. Because Congress approved the FY 2013 budget just a few weeks prior to the release of the Obama administration's proposal, the FY 2014 budget is compared with the FY 2012 enacted budget here.

  16. Landsat Image Map Production Methods at the U. S. Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kidwell, R.D.; Binnie, D.R.; Martin, S.

    1987-01-01

    To maintain consistently high quality in satellite image map production, the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) has developed standard procedures for the photographic and digital production of Landsat image mosaics, and for lithographic printing of multispectral imagery. This paper gives a brief review of the photographic, digital, and lithographic procedures currently in use for producing image maps from Landsat data. It is shown that consistency in the printing of image maps is achieved by standardizing the materials and procedures that affect the image detail and color balance of the final product. Densitometric standards are established by printing control targets using the pressplates, inks, pre-press proofs, and paper to be used for printing.

  17. Proposed Budget for U.S. Geological Survey: A Mixed Bag of Increases and Cuts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2011-03-01

    Under the Obama administration's proposed fiscal year (FY) 2012 budget, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) would receive $1.1 billion, a scant $6.1 million more than the 2010 enacted budget. Within the agency, which is part of the Department of the Interior (DOI), some key initiatives slated for new or increased funding include the National Land Imaging Program, the USGS portion of the America's Great Outdoors Initiative, and DOI Climate Science Centers. However, the request also includes $89.1 million in program reductions and the elimination of some programs. With Congress currently considering a budget continuing resolution to fund the federal government through the end of the current fiscal year, 2011, USGS faces possible additional cuts.

  18. U.S. Geological Survey budget would increase but includes targeted cuts to some key programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-03-01

    The Obama administration's proposed budget for the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for fiscal year (FY) 2013 is 1.1 billion, 34.5 million (3.2%) above the Agency's 2012 enacted level. The budget includes 73.2 million in targeted increases but also has 49.5 million in proposed reductions, including cuts to some water and minerals programs and other areas. Funding for the budget was prioritized to maintain programs that are legislatively mandated, that are important for protecting lives and human property, and that are among the Obama administration's key emphases. These include research and development, which the administration believes will help end the economic recession, USGS director Marcia McNutt said at a 14 February briefing.

  19. U.S. Geological Survey Standard Reference Sample Project: Performance Evaluation of Analytical Laboratories

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Long, H. Keith; Daddow, Richard L.; Farrar, Jerry W.

    1998-01-01

    Since 1962, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has operated the Standard Reference Sample Project to evaluate the performance of USGS, cooperator, and contractor analytical laboratories that analyze chemical constituents of environmental samples. The laboratories are evaluated by using performance evaluation samples, called Standard Reference Samples (SRSs). SRSs are submitted to laboratories semi-annually for round-robin laboratory performance comparison purposes. Currently, approximately 100 laboratories are evaluated for their analytical performance on six SRSs for inorganic and nutrient constituents. As part of the SRS Project, a surplus of homogeneous, stable SRSs is maintained for purchase by USGS offices and participating laboratories for use in continuing quality-assurance and quality-control activities. Statistical evaluation of the laboratories results provides information to compare the analytical performance of the laboratories and to determine possible analytical deficiences and problems. SRS results also provide information on the bias and variability of different analytical methods used in the SRS analyses.

  20. Availability of Earth observations data from the U.S. Geological Survey's EROS data center

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holm, Thomas M.; Draeger, William C.; Risty, Ronald R.

    1993-01-01

    For decades federal and state agencies have been collecting regional, continental, and global Earth observations data acquired by satellites, aircraft, and other information-gathering systems. These data include photographic and digital remotely sensed images of the Earth's surface, as well as earth science, cartographic, and geographic data. Since 1973, the U.S. Geological Survey's Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center (EDC) in Sioux Falls, South Dakota, has been a data management, production, dissemination, and research center for these data. Currently, the Data Center holds over 10 million satellite images and aerial photographs, in photographic and digital formats. Users are able to place inquiries and orders for these holdings via a nationwide computer network. In addition to cataloging the data stored in its archives, the Data Center provides users with rapid access to information on many data collections held by other facilities.

  1. Sudbury project (University of Muenster-Ontario Geological Survey): Petrology, chemistry, and origin of breccia formations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoeffler, D.; Deutsch, A.; Avermann, M.; Brockmeyer, P.; Lakomy, R.; Mueller-Mohr, V.

    1992-01-01

    Within the Sudbury Project of the University of Muenster and the Ontario Geological Survey special emphasis was put on the breccia formations exposed at the Sudbury structure (SS) because of their crucial role for the impact hypothesis. They were mapped and sampled in selected areas of the north, east, and south ranges of the SS. The relative stratigraphic positions of these units are summarized. Selected samples were analyzed by optical microscopy, SEM, microprobe, XRF and INAA, Rb-Sr and SM-Nd-isotope geochemistry, and carbon isotope analysis. The results of petrographic and chemical analysis for those stratigraphic units that were considered the main structural elements of a large impact basin are summarized.

  2. U.S. Geological Survey Methodology Development for Ecological Carbon Assessment and Monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhu, Zhi-Liang; Stackpoole, S.M.

    2009-01-01

    Ecological carbon sequestration refers to transfer and storage of atmospheric carbon in vegetation, soils, and aquatic environments to help offset the net increase from carbon emissions. Understanding capacities, associated opportunities, and risks of vegetated ecosystems to sequester carbon provides science information to support formulation of policies governing climate change mitigation, adaptation, and land-management strategies. Section 712 of the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007 mandates the Department of the Interior to develop a methodology and assess the capacity of our nation's ecosystems for ecological carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas (GHG) flux mitigation. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) LandCarbon Project is responding to the Department of Interior's request to develop a methodology that meets specific EISA requirements.

  3. Energy and Minerals Science at the U.S. Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ferrero, Richard C.; Kolak, Jonathan J.; Bills, Donald J.; Bowen, Zachary H.; Cordier, Daniel J.; Gallegos, Tanya J.; Hein, James R.; Kelley, Karen D.; Nelson, Philip H.; Nuccio, Vito F.; Schmidt, Jeanine M.; Seal, Robert R., II

    2013-01-01

    The economy, national security, and standard of living of the United States depend on adequate and reliable supplies of energy and mineral resources. Based on population and consumption trends, the Nation’s and World’s use of energy and minerals is expected to grow, driving the demand for scientific understanding of resource formation, location, and availability. The importance of environmental stewardship and human health in sustainable growth emphasizes the need for a broader understanding of energy and mineral resources. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is a world leader in conducting research needed to address these challenges and to provide a scientific foundation for policy and decisionmaking with respect to resource use, sustainability, environmental protection, and an adaptive resource management approach.

  4. U.S. Geological Survey assessment of reserve growth outside of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klett, Timothy R.; Cook, Troy A.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Le, Phuong A.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey estimated volumes of technically recoverable, conventional petroleum resources resulting from reserve growth for discovered fields outside the United States that have reported in-place oil and gas volumes of 500 million barrels of oil equivalent or greater. The mean volumes of reserve growth were estimated at 665 billion barrels of crude oil; 1,429 trillion cubic feet of natural gas; and 16 billion barrels of natural gas liquids. These volumes constitute a significant portion of the world’s oil and gas resources and represent the potential future growth of current global reserves over time based on better assessment methodology, new technologies, and greater understanding of reservoirs.

  5. The US Geological Survey's National Mapping Division programs, products, and services that can support wetlands mapping

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baxter, F.S.

    1990-01-01

    The US Geological Survey (USGS) programs can play an important role in support of President Bush's policy of no net loss of wetlands. A principal goal of USGS is to provide cartographic information that contributes to the wise management of the Nation's natural resources. This information consists of maps, cartographic data bases (graphic and digital), remotely sensed imagery, and information services. These products are used by Federal, State, and local governments, the private sector, and individual citizens in making decisions on the existence and use of land and water resources. I discuss the programs, products, and information services of the National Mapping Division, the tools available to determine where wetlands exist, and the capability of periodic measurement of wetlands to help in assessing compliance with the concept of no net loss of wetlands. -from Author

  6. Installation and service manual for the U.S. Geological Survey manometers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Craig, James D.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of this manual is to describe the installation, operation, and maintenance of the bubble-gage manometers currently (1982) used by the U.S. Geological Survey. Other applications of these devices, such as the long manometer and differential manometer, are discussed, and accessories available for them are described. The bubble gage (water-stage manometer with gas-purge system) described in the Installation and Service Manual, October 1962, has been extensively modified and developed into the STACOM (stabilized and temperature compensated) device. This chapter is the manual for the STACOM unit and an update of the manual for the screw-type bubble gage. A parts list is included for both units.

  7. Strategic plan for science-U.S. Geological Survey, Ohio Water Science Center, 2010-15

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2010-01-01

    This Science Plan identifies specific scientific and technical programmatic issues of current importance to Ohio and the Nation. An examination of those issues yielded a set of five major focus areas with associated science goals and strategies that the Ohio Water Science Center will emphasize in its program during 2010-15. A primary goal of the Science Plan is to establish a relevant multidisciplinary scientific and technical program that generates high-quality products that meet or exceed the expectations of our partners while supporting the goals and initiatives of the U.S. Geological Survey. The Science Plan will be used to set the direction of new and existing programs and will influence future training and hiring decisions by the Ohio Water Science Center.

  8. Description of the U.S. Geological Survey Geo Data Portal data integration framework

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blodgett, David L.; Booth, Nathaniel L.; Kunicki, Thomas C.; Walker, Jordan I.; Lucido, Jessica M.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has developed an open-standard data integration framework for working efficiently and effectively with large collections of climate and other geoscience data. A web interface accesses catalog datasets to find data services. Data resources can then be rendered for mapping and dataset metadata are derived directly from these web services. Algorithm configuration and information needed to retrieve data for processing are passed to a server where all large-volume data access and manipulation takes place. The data integration strategy described here was implemented by leveraging existing free and open source software. Details of the software used are omitted; rather, emphasis is placed on how open-standard web services and data encodings can be used in an architecture that integrates common geographic and atmospheric data.

  9. Summary of U.S. Geological Survey on-line instantaneous fluvial sediment and ancillary data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Turcios, Lisa M.; Gray, John R.; Ledford, Annette L.

    2000-01-01

    Instantaneous fluvial sediment data, in addition to other instantaneous water-quality and ancillary data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), are available on-line through the National Water Information System World Wide Web (NWISWeb) water-quality data base at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/nwis/qwdata. The NWISWeb water-quality data base was populated and is periodically refreshed from electronic files maintained by individual USGS District offices across the United States and Puerto Rico. It represents the single largest repository of USGS electronic instantaneous-value suspended-sediment, bedload, and bed-material data. These Web pages provide a summary of fluvial-sediment data by State, and by USGS station number retrieved from the then-under-construction NWISWeb data base on January 13, 2000. The meta data can be accessed by following the links at the bottom of this Web page.

  10. A statistical summary of data from the U.S. Geological Survey's national water quality networks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, R.A.; Alexander, R.B.

    1983-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey Operates two nationwide networks to monitor water quality, the National Hydrologic Bench-Mark Network and the National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN). The Bench-Mark network is composed of 51 stations in small drainage basins which are as close as possible to their natural state, with no human influence and little likelihood of future development. Stations in the NASQAN program are located to monitor flow from accounting units (subregional drainage basins) which collectively encompass the entire land surface of the nation. Data collected at both networks include streamflow, concentrations of major inorganic constituents, nutrients, and trace metals. The goals of the two water quality sampling programs include the determination of mean constituent concentrations and transport rates as well as the analysis of long-term trends in those variables. This report presents a station-by-station statistical summary of data from the two networks for the period 1974 through 1981. (Author 's abstract)

  11. The United States Geological Survey: A vision for the 21st century

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1993-01-01

    Leadership in Earth science for sustained global health, welfare, and prosperity. We envision a U.S. Geological Survey that is a global leader in relevant, innovative, and interdisciplinary Earth science. We shall conduct collaborative, impartial, multi-scale scientific investigations into the Earth's systems and conditions through a spectrum of basic to applied research on the environment, hazards, resources, and information management, all in support of present and future societal needs. We envision an organization that serves the public by sharing Earthscience data and information and by promoting its dissemination, understanding, and application. We shall be a flexible organization that values its employees and works in concert with them for attainment of both institutional and individual goals.

  12. Stream-network navigation in the U.S. Geological Survey StreamStats Web Application

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ries, Kernell G., III; Steeves, Peter A.; Guthrie, John D.; Rea, Alan H.; Stewart, David W.

    2009-01-01

    StreamStats is a U.S. Geological Survey Webbased geographic information systems application developed as a tool for water-resources planning and management, engineering design, and other applications. The primary functionality of StreamStats allows users to obtain drainage-basin boundaries, basin characteristics, and streamflow statistics for gaged and ungaged sites. Recently, tools that allow stream-network navigation were added to StreamStats. These tools allow users to select any point along a stream and locate activities upstream and downstream from the selected point, such as streamgaging stations, dams, and point-source discharges, and obtain information about such activities. Users also can obtain stream-reach addresses and estimates of streamflow statistics for the selected points.

  13. Stream-Network navigation in the U.S. geological survey streamStats web application

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ries, K.G.; Steeves, P.A.; Guthrie, J.D.; Rea, A.H.; Stewart, D.W.

    2009-01-01

    StreamStats is a U.S. Geological Survey Webbased geographic information systems application developed as a tool for water-resources planning and management, engineering design, and other applications. The primary functionality of StreamStats allows users to obtain drainage-basin boundaries, basin characteristics, and streamflow statistics for gaged and ungaged sites. Recently, tools that allow stream-network navigation were added to StreamStats. These tools allow users to select any point along a stream and locate activities upstream and downstream from the selected point, such as streamgaging stations, dams, and point-source discharges, and obtain information about such activities. Users also can obtain stream-reach addresses and estimates of streamflow statistics for the selected points.

  14. U.S. Geological Survey National Computer Technology Meeting; Program and abstracts, May 7-11, 1990

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Balthrop, B. H., (compiler); Baker, E.G.

    1990-01-01

    Computer-related information from all Divisions of the U.S. Geological Survey are discussed in this compilation of abstracts. Some of the topics addressed are system administration; distributed information systems and data bases, both current (1990) and proposed; hydrologic applications; national water information systems; geographic information systems applications and techniques. The report contains some of the abstracts that were presented at the National Computer Technology Meeting that was held in May 1990. The meeting was sponsored by the Water Resources Division and was attended by more than 200 technical and managerial personnel representing all the Divisions of the U.S. Geological Survey. (USGS)

  15. Suggestions to authors of papers submitted for publication by the United States Geological Survey with directions to typewriters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, George McLane

    1909-01-01

    The first pamphlet containing suggestions to authors for the preparation of manuscript intended for publication by the Geological Survey was published in January, 1888. This pamphlet was revised and reprinted in 1892. In 1904 the Survey published suggestions for the preparation of geologic folios, and in 1906 suggestions for the preparation of reports on mining districts. All matter of present value that was included in these publications, with much additional material, has been incorporated in the pamphlet here presented. It is hoped that these suggestions will be of general service in improving the form of manuscripts submitted and, by diminishing the work of the editorial revision and correction, in expediting their publication.

  16. An evaluation of the ERTS data collection system as a potential operational tool. [automatic hydrologic data collection and processing system for geological surveys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paulson, R. W.

    1974-01-01

    The Earth Resources Technology Satellite Data Collection System has been shown to be, from the users vantage point, a reliable and simple system for collecting data from U.S. Geological Survey operational field instrumentation. It is technically feasible to expand the ERTS system into an operational polar-orbiting data collection system to gather data from the Geological Survey's Hydrologic Data Network. This could permit more efficient internal management of the Network, and could enable the Geological Survey to make data available to cooperating agencies in near-real time. The Geological Survey is conducting an analysis of the costs and benefits of satellite data-relay systems.

  17. A national survey on the patterns of treatment of inflammatory bowel disease in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Hilsden, Robert J; Verhoef, Marja J; Best, Allan; Pocobelli, Gaia

    2003-01-01

    Background There is a general lack of information on the care of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in a broad, geographically diverse, non-clinic population. The purposes of this study were (1) to compare a sample drawn from the membership of a national Crohn's and Colitis Foundation to published clinic-based and population-based IBD samples, (2) to describe current patterns of health care use, and (3) to determine if unexpected variations exist in how and by whom IBD is treated. Methods Mailed survey of 4453 members of the Crohn's and Colitis Foundation of Canada. The questionnaire, in members stated language of preference, included items on demographic and disease characteristics, general health behaviors and current and past IBD treatment. Each member received an initial and one reminder mailing. Results Questionnaires were returned by 1787, 913, and 128 people with Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis and indeterminate colitis, respectively. At least one operation had been performed on 1159 Crohn's disease patients, with risk increasing with duration of disease. Regional variation in surgical rates in ulcerative colitis patients was identified. 6-Mercaptopurine/Azathioprine was used by 24% of patients with Crohn's disease and 12% of patients with ulcerative colitis (95% CI for the difference: 8.9% 15%). In patients with Crohn's disease, use was not associated with gender, income or region of residence but was associated with age and markers of disease activity. Infliximab was used by 112 respondents (4%), the majority of whom had Crohn's disease. Variations in infliximab use based on region of residence and income were not seen. Sixty-eight percent of respondents indicated that they depended most on a gastroenterologist for their IBD care. There was significant regional variation in this. However, satisfaction with primary physician did not depend on physician type (for example, gastroenterologist versus general practitioner). Conclusion This study achieved the goal of obtaining a large, geographically diverse sample that is more representative of the general IBD population than a clinic sample would have been. We could find no evidence of significant regional variation in medical treatments due to gender, region of residence or income level. Differences were noted between different age groups, which deserves further attention. PMID:12791168

  18. Health Care Workers' Knowledge, Perceptions, and Behaviors Regarding Antineoplastic Drugs: Survey From British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Hon, Chun-Yip; Teschke, Kay; Shen, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Although nurses are knowledgeable regarding the risk of exposure to antineoplastic drugs, they often do not adhere with safe work practices. However, the knowledge, perceptions, and behavior of other health care job categories at risk of exposure has yet to be determined. This study aimed to survey a range of health care workers from British Columbia, Canada about their knowledge, perceptions, and behaviors regarding antineoplastic drugs. A self-administered questionnaire was sent to participants querying the degree of contact with antineoplastics, knowledge of risks associated with antineoplastics, perceptions of personal risk, previous training with respect to antineoplastics, and safe work practices. Subjects were recruited from health care facilities in and around Vancouver. Fisher's exact tests were performed to ascertain whether there were differences in responses between job categories. We received responses from 120 participants representing seven different job categories. Pharmacists, pharmacy technicians, and nurses were more knowledgeable regarding risks than other job categories examined (statistically significant difference). Although 80% of respondents were not afraid of working with or near antineoplastics, there were concerns about the suitability of current control measures and practices employed by co-workers. Only half of respondents felt confident that they could handle all situations where there was a potential for exposure. Only one of the perception questions, self-perceived risk of exposure to antineoplastic drugs, differed significantly between job categories. Not all respondents always wore gloves when directly handling antineoplastic drugs. Further, hand hygiene was not regularly practiced after glove usage or after being in an area where antineoplastic drugs are handled. The majority of responses to questions related to safe work practices differed significantly between job categories. Our results suggest that knowledge regarding risks associated with antineoplastic drugs can be improved, especially among job categories that are not tasked with drug preparation or drug administration. There is also a gap between knowledge and compliance with glove usage and hand hygiene.Training is also recommended to improve health care workers' perceptions of the risks associated with antineoplastic drugs. PMID:25897641

  19. Convergence and divergence: differences in disability prevalence estimates in the United States and Canada based on four health survey instruments.

    PubMed

    Altman, Barbara M; Gulley, Stephen P

    2009-08-01

    An analysis of data from the Joint Canada/United States Survey of Health (JCUSH), allows us to compare prevalence estimates that result from four different question sets designed to assess disability from a group of respondents residing in either Canada or the United States. Depending upon the question set used and the coding applied to the responses, age-standardized prevalence estimates varied widely in both countries. In the U.S. noninstitutionalized adult population, disability prevalence estimates ranged from as low as 15.3% to as high as 36.4%, while in Canada the estimates ranged from 13.4% to 37.3%. Concordance and discordance in identification as disabled among these question sets were also examined. In both countries, less than 20% of those identified as disabled by any question set were identified as disabled on all four question sets when using conservative response coding to define disability. Concordance in answers to these questions was also found to be associated with older age, single marital status, low education and low income in both countries. Discordance between question set pairs was similar across both countries whether among measures based on the same domains of disability or different domains of disability. The theory, methods and future of disability measurement in health surveys are discussed in light of these findings. We conclude that understanding and interpreting national prevalence estimates requires more thoughtful attention to the purposes for which data are being collected, the specific definition and operationalizations of disability for those purposes, the methodology used in the data collection and analysis process and the areas of both commonality and difference in the populations identified by each question set. In terms of cross-cultural comparisons, the use of a common set of questions and answer categories and similar survey methodologies provides much more robust results. PMID:19573970

  20. New U.S. Geological Survey Method for the Assessment of Reserve Growth

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klett, Timothy R.; Attanasi, E.D.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Freeman, P.A.; Gautier, Donald L.; Le, Phuong A.; Ryder, Robert T.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Verma, Mahendra K.

    2011-01-01

    Reserve growth is defined as the estimated increases in quantities of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids that have the potential to be added to remaining reserves in discovered accumulations through extension, revision, improved recovery efficiency, and additions of new pools or reservoirs. A new U.S. Geological Survey method was developed to assess the reserve-growth potential of technically recoverable crude oil and natural gas to be added to reserves under proven technology currently in practice within the trend or play, or which reasonably can be extrapolated from geologically similar trends or plays. This method currently is in use to assess potential additions to reserves in discovered fields of the United States. The new approach involves (1) individual analysis of selected large accumulations that contribute most to reserve growth, and (2) conventional statistical modeling of reserve growth in remaining accumulations. This report will focus on the individual accumulation analysis. In the past, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated reserve growth by statistical methods using historical recoverable-quantity data. Those statistical methods were based on growth rates averaged by the number of years since accumulation discovery. Accumulations in mature petroleum provinces with volumetrically significant reserve growth, however, bias statistical models of the data; therefore, accumulations with significant reserve growth are best analyzed separately from those with less significant reserve growth. Large (greater than 500 million barrels) and older (with respect to year of discovery) oil accumulations increase in size at greater rates late in their development history in contrast to more recently discovered accumulations that achieve most growth early in their development history. Such differences greatly affect the statistical methods commonly used to forecast reserve growth. The individual accumulation-analysis method involves estimating the in-place petroleum quantity and its uncertainty, as well as the estimated (forecasted) recoverability and its respective uncertainty. These variables are assigned probabilistic distributions and are combined statistically to provide probabilistic estimates of ultimate recoverable quantities. Cumulative production and remaining reserves are then subtracted from the estimated ultimate recoverable quantities to provide potential reserve growth. In practice, results of the two methods are aggregated to various scales, the highest of which includes an entire country or the world total. The aggregated results are reported along with the statistically appropriate uncertainties.

  1. The Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Imaging Survey of BL Lacertae Objects. II. Clustering Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wurtz, Ron; Stocke, John T.; Ellingson, E.; Yee, H. K. C.

    1997-05-01

    The results of an extensive imaging survey of BL Lac objects conducted at the Canada-France-Hawaii 3.6 m Telescope (CFHT) are presented. This paper details the results pertinent to the clustering environments of BL Lacs; a companion paper (Wurtz, Stocke, & Yee) presented results on the host galaxies of BL Lacs obtained from the same Gunn r-band images. The clustering environments of BL Lac objects in this survey are on average found to be poor clusters, comparable in galaxy density to Abell richness class <0. Using the formalism developed by Longair & Seldner and the specific techniques employed by Yee & Green, a mean value for the galaxy-BL Lac two-point correlation function amplitude was found to be = 209 Mpc1.77 +/- 386 (mean +/-1 ? spread for H0 = 50 km s-1 Mpc-1 and q0 = 0.02). Only a few (at most six of 45) BL Lacs in this sample are found in clusters with richness class >1, and most of these are at z > 0.4. Various subsamples of BL Lacs with unique qualities (e.g., presence/absence of weak emission lines, high/low optical core dominance or polarization, X-ray vs. radio-selected, etc.) have statistically similar clustering properties, which further argues that these BL Lacs are all members of the same active galactic nucleus (AGN) class. However, we do find that, like radio-loud quasars, BL Lac environments are significantly richer at high redshift (for z > 0.35, the median Bgb = 500 Mpc1.77 compared to a median Bgb = 120 Mpc1.77 at lower z). Correlations are also found between Bgb and host galaxy luminosity and radio core dominance. Contrary to the expectations of unification schemes for BL Lacs, the clustering environments of BL Lacs, at both high and low redshift, are more similar to those of FR 2 radio galaxies and quasars than to those of FR 1's. Approximately 20% of low-z FR 1's are in richer clusters than almost all low-z BL Lacs (PKS 0548-322 is the lone exception of a BL Lac in a rich cluster); similarly, 20% of FR 1's have more luminous host galaxies than any BL Lac (Paper I). This new line of evidence strongly suggests that the unification scenario for BL Lacs with FR 1 radio galaxies requires a critical reexamination. As a minimum the ``parent population'' of BL Lacs must be modified to exclude the brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) in rich clusters at low redshift. The great similarity in the cosmic evolution of the cluster environment for radio-loud quasars, FR 2 radio galaxies, and BL Lac objects between z ~ 0.5 and 0 strongly suggests that a common physical mechanism operates to create a rapid luminosity evolution for AGNs in rich clusters. Since X-ray observations find rapid cosmic evolution in the intracluster medium and cluster potential well over similar timescales, the rapidly changing gas density and/or galaxy-galaxy interaction rate could be responsible for the fading of luminous AGNs in rich clusters (Stocke & Perrenod; Roos).

  2. The status of restrictive smoking policies: a survey of medical schools in the United States and Canada.

    PubMed Central

    Stillman, F A; Becker, D M

    1991-01-01

    All schools of medicine in the United States (N = 128) and Canada (N = 16) were surveyed by telephone to determine if they had instituted policies to restrict smoking. Some policy restricting smoking was reported by 80.56 percent of US schools (N = 103) and by 93.8 percent of Canadian schools (N = 15). However, only 52.3 percent of US (N = 67) and 56.3 percent of Canadian medical schools (N = 9) indicated they had formal written policy statements. Only 13 percent of US schools and 19 percent of Canadian schools had banned smoking totally. Images FIGURE 1 PMID:1983904

  3. Geological-geomechanical mapping and characterization of coastal cliffs from bathymetric and TLS coupled surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crosta, Giovanni B.; Villa, Alberto; Marchese, Fabio; Castellanza, Riccardo; Agliardi, Federico; Casulli, Vito; Casulli, Luca

    2015-04-01

    Geological and geomechanical characterization of coastal cliffs is fundamental for a more comprehensive understanding of coastal evolution, stability and hazard. In this contribution, both bathymetric and subaerial topographic data were used to reach a complete characterization. We performed simultaneous multibeam and TLS surveys along a vertical to overhanging rocky cliff. Macro to meso scale observations allowed the mapping of lithological contacts, the description of layer thickness and the identification of persistent discontinuities as well as their role in controlling slope cliff stability. Bathymetric observations facilitate the analysis of submerged morphologies, the description of rock mass conditions and the mapping of deposits and coastal platform remains. Furthermore, they make possible to relate deposits with more unstable cliff sectors, their orientation and the possible wave action. This detailed description of the vertical cliff is fundamental for the analysis of the cliff evolution. This can be achieved by multiple surveys, and the modelling of the cliff stability by means of numerical models In this research we investigated a sector (total length 500 m) of the Apulian coast (Italy) in Polignano a Mare (BA) of extreme cultural and natural interest because of the vicinity to historical buildings and the exceptional landscape features (e.g.Grotta Palazzese).

  4. Rules for the preparation of manuscript and illustrations designed for publication by the United States Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hampson, Thomas

    1888-01-01

    In the annual report of the Director of the U. S. Geological Survey for 1885-'86, pages 40 and 41, you set forth the functions of the chief of the editorial division as follows: "To secure clear and accurate statement in the material sent to press, careful proof-reading, and uniformity in the details of book-making, as well as to assist the Director in exercising a general supervision over the publications of the Survey."

  5. Anti-Austerity Adult Education in Canada: A Survey of a Nascent Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGray, Robert

    2015-01-01

    As the realities of austerity agendas exert pressure on adult education around the globe, this paper attempts to map the developing, albeit small, field of anti-austerity adult education in Canada. In doing so, I attempt to trace the connections between anti-austerity education and existing fields of adult education. I argue that the cases we see

  6. School Psychology in Canada: A Survey of Roles and Functions, Challenges and Aspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Jason J.; Hindes, Yvonne L.; Saklofske, Donald H.

    2009-01-01

    School psychology in Canada has evolved in recent years from being comprised mainly of "testers" to being regarded as an important partner in promoting the psychological and educational needs of children and supporting the mandates of our educational systems. As well, school psychology is now recognized as an area of specialization within

  7. Anti-Austerity Adult Education in Canada: A Survey of a Nascent Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGray, Robert

    2015-01-01

    As the realities of austerity agendas exert pressure on adult education around the globe, this paper attempts to map the developing, albeit small, field of anti-austerity adult education in Canada. In doing so, I attempt to trace the connections between anti-austerity education and existing fields of adult education. I argue that the cases we see…

  8. Computer Based Learning 2. A Survey of the Factors Influencing its Initiation and Development. 4 Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, C. Anne

    This chapter reports the responses from four universities in Canada to an international questionnaire as part of a study to investigate the initiation and development of computer facilities in education. Data are presented under the headings: general development and scale of work, purposes of the project or unit, training of non-specialists and…

  9. School Psychology in Canada: A Survey of Roles and Functions, Challenges and Aspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Jason J.; Hindes, Yvonne L.; Saklofske, Donald H.

    2009-01-01

    School psychology in Canada has evolved in recent years from being comprised mainly of "testers" to being regarded as an important partner in promoting the psychological and educational needs of children and supporting the mandates of our educational systems. As well, school psychology is now recognized as an area of specialization within…

  10. Virus Survey in Strawberry Production Fields in the United States and Canada

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In an effort to determine the distribution of strawberry viruses in the United States and Canada, approximately 1500 samples were collected and either brought back or shipped to the USDA-ARS laboratory in Corvallis between 2002 and 2007. RNA was extracted from leaf tissue and archived at -80C for s...

  11. Eighth Annual Report of the United States Geological Survey to the Secretary of the Interior, 1886-1887: Part 1

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powell, J.W.

    1889-01-01

    The Geological Survey was organized, with Mr. Clarence King as Director, in March, 1879. In March, 1881, Mr. King resigned and the present Director was appointed. From its organization to the present time the Survey has steadily grown as Congress has enlarged its functions and increased its appropriations. During this time the scientific organization has gradually developed to the condition set forth in the last annual report. It seems advisable now to describe fully the business organization and methods of the Survey, which has heretofore been done only in part. Under the act of July 7, 1884, a joint commission was created to consider the organization of certain scientific bureaus. In the volume of testimony prepared by that commission the business operations of the Geological Survey were in part set forth; but this partial presentation was unsystematic, the facts recorded being elicited in irregular order by interrogatories arising in the course of a long investigation. It is designed here to make a more thorough exposition oi the subject. The business system of the Geological Survey is subordinate to the scientific organization and its character is dependent thereon. The development of the divisions of the Survey whose function is the transaction of business has therefore followed the development of the purely scientific divisions, and overy modification of plan for the scientific work may carry with it some modification of the business organization.

  12. U.S. Geological Survey probabilistic methodology for oil and gas resource appraisal of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crovelli, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    Probabilistic methodology used by the U.S. Geological Survey is described for estimating the quantity of undiscovered recoverable conventional resources of oil and gas in the United States. A judgmental probability distribution of the "quantity of resource" and its properties is determined for a geologic province or basin. From this distribution, point and interval estimates of the quantity of undiscovered resource are obtained. Distributions and their properties are established for each of the following resources: (1) oil and nonassociated gas from estimates of the probability of the resource being present and the conditional probability distribution of the quantity of resource given that the resource is present, (2) associated-dissolved gas from its corresponding oil distribution, (3) total gas, (4) oil and total gas in two or more provinces. Computer graphics routines are illustrated with examples from the U.S. Geological Survey Circular 860. ?? 1984 Plenum Publishing Corporation.

  13. A quality-assurance plan for district ground-water activities of the U.S. Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brunett, J.O.; Barber, N.L.; Burns, A.W.; Fogelman, R.P.; Gillies, D.C.; Lidwin, R.A.; Mack, T.J.

    1997-01-01

    As the Nation's principal earth-science information agency, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is depended upon to collect data of the highest quality. This document provides the framework for collecting, analyzing and reporting ground-water data that are quality assured and quality controlled.

  14. U.S. Geological Survey quality-assurance plan for surface-water activities in Kansas, 2015

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Painter, Collin C.; Loving, Brian L.

    2015-01-01

    This Surface Water Quality-Assurance Plan documents the standards, policies, and procedures used by the Kansas Water Science Center (KSWSC) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for activities related to the collection, processing, storage, analysis, and publication of surface-water data.

  15. A history of the Water Resources Division, U.S. Geological Survey: vol. VIII 1979-94

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blakey, James F.; Biesecker, James E.; Feltz, Herman R.; Kantrowitz, Irwin H.; Yong, Loren E.; and others

    2005-01-01

    The mission of the Water Resources Division (WAD) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is to provide the hydrologic information and understanding needed for the optimum use and management of the Nation·s water resources for the overall benefit of the people of the United States.

  16. U.S. Geological Survey Field Leach Test for Assessing Water Reactivity and Leaching Potential of Mine Wastes, Soils, and Other Geologic and Environmental Materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hageman, Philip L.

    2007-01-01

    The U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) has developed a fast (5-minute), effective, simple, and cost-effective leach test that can be used to simulate the reactions that occur when materials are leached by water. The USGS Field Leach Test has been used to predict, assess, and characterize the geochemical interactions between water and a broad variety of geologic and environmental matrices. Examples of some of the samples leached include metal mine wastes, various types of dusts, biosolids (processed sewage sludge), flood and wetland sediments, volcanic ash, forest-fire burned soils, and many other diverse matrices. The Field Leach Test has been an integral part of these investigations and has demonstrated its value as a geochemical characterization tool. It has enabled investigators to identify which constituents are water reactive, soluble, mobilized, and made bioaccessible because of leaching by water, and to understand potential impacts of these interactions on the surrounding environment.

  17. Science strategy for Core Science Systems in the U.S. Geological Survey, 2013-2023

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bristol, R. Sky; Euliss, Ned H.; Booth, Nathaniel L.; Burkardt, Nina; Diffendorfer, Jay E.; Gesch, Dean B.; McCallum, Brian E.; Miller, David M.; Morman, Suzette A.; Poore, Barbara S.; Signell, Richard P.; Viger, Roland J.

    2012-01-01

    Core Science Systems is a new mission of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) that grew out of the 2007 Science Strategy, "Facing Tomorrow's Challenges: U.S. Geological Survey Science in the Decade 2007-2017." This report describes the vision for this USGS mission and outlines a strategy for Core Science Systems to facilitate integrated characterization and understanding of the complex earth system. The vision and suggested actions are bold and far-reaching, describing a conceptual model and framework to enhance the ability of USGS to bring its core strengths to bear on pressing societal problems through data integration and scientific synthesis across the breadth of science. The context of this report is inspired by a direction set forth in the 2007 Science Strategy. Specifically, ecosystem-based approaches provide the underpinnings for essentially all science themes that define the USGS. Every point on earth falls within a specific ecosystem where data, other information assets, and the expertise of USGS and its many partners can be employed to quantitatively understand how that ecosystem functions and how it responds to natural and anthropogenic disturbances. Every benefit society obtains from the planet - food, water, raw materials to build infrastructure, homes and automobiles, fuel to heat homes and cities, and many others, are derived from or effect ecosystems. The vision for Core Science Systems builds on core strengths of the USGS in characterizing and understanding complex earth and biological systems through research, modeling, mapping, and the production of high quality data on the nation's natural resource infrastructure. Together, these research activities provide a foundation for ecosystem-based approaches through geologic mapping, topographic mapping, and biodiversity mapping. The vision describes a framework founded on these core mapping strengths that makes it easier for USGS scientists to discover critical information, share and publish results, and identify potential collaborations that transcend all USGS missions. The framework is designed to improve the efficiency of scientific work within USGS by establishing a means to preserve and recall data for future applications, organizing existing scientific knowledge and data to facilitate new use of older information, and establishing a future workflow that naturally integrates new data, applications, and other science products to make it easier and more efficient to conduct interdisciplinary research over time. Given the increasing need for integrated data and interdisciplinary approaches to solve modern problems, leadership by the Core Science Systems mission will facilitate problem solving by all USGS missions in ways not formerly possible. The report lays out a strategy to achieve this vision through three goals with accompanying objectives and actions. The first goal builds on and enhances the strengths of the Core Science Systems mission in characterizing and understanding the earth system from the geologic framework to the topographic characteristics of the land surface and biodiversity across the nation. The second goal enhances and develops new strengths in computer and information science to make it easier for USGS scientists to discover data and models, share and publish results, and discover connections between scientific information and knowledge. The third goal brings additional focus to research and development methods to address complex issues affecting society that require integration of knowledge and new methods for synthesizing scientific information. Collectively, the report lays out a strategy to create a seamless connection between all USGS activities to accelerate and make USGS science more efficient by fully integrating disciplinary expertise within a new and evolving science paradigm for a changing world in the 21st century.

  18. Limitations Influencing Interventional Radiology in Canada: Results of a National Survey by the Canadian Interventional Radiology Association (CIRA)

    SciTech Connect

    O'Brien, Jeremy; Baerlocher, Mark Otto Asch, Murray R.; Hayeems, Eran; Kachura, John R.; Collingwood, Peter

    2007-09-15

    Purpose. To describe the current state and limitations to interventional radiology (IR) in Canada through a large, national survey of Canadian interventional radiologists. Methods. An anonymous online survey was offered to members of the Canadian Interventional Radiology Association (CIRA). Only staff radiologists were invited to participate. Results. Seventy-five (75) responses were received from a total of 247, giving a response rate of 30%. Respondents were split approximately equally between academic centers (47%) and community practice (53%), and the majority of interventional radiologists worked in hospitals with either 200-500 (49%) or 500-1,000 (39%) beds. Procedures listed by respondents as most commonly performed in their practice included PICC line insertion (83%), angiography and stenting (65%), and percutaneous biopsy (37%). Procedures listed as not currently performed but which interventional radiologists believed would benefit their patient population included radiofrequency ablation (36%), carotid stenting (34%), and aortic stenting (21%); the majority of respondents noted that a lack of support from referring services was the main reason for not performing these procedures (56%). Impediments to increasing scope and volume of practice in Canadian IR were most commonly related to room or equipment shortage (35%), radiologist shortage (33%), and a lack of funding or administrative support (28%). Conclusion. Interventional radiology in Canada is limited by a number of factors including funding, manpower, and referral support. A concerted effort should be undertaken by individual interventional radiologists and IR organizations to increase training capacity, funding, remuneration, and public exposure to IR in order to help advance the subspecialty.

  19. Geologic survey in the south-central region of Mato Grosso

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Balieiro, M. G.

    1983-01-01

    The field observations made in the Cuiaba Project area are described. Many geologic cross-sections were done in which the stratigraphic units and the geologic structures defined in the literature and observed in the LANDSAT MSS imagery were recognized.

  20. Archive of U.S. Geological Survey selected single-beam bathymetry datasets, 1969-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schreppel, Heather A.; Degnan, Carolyn H.; Dadisman, Shawn V.; Metzger, Dan R.

    2013-01-01

    New national programs, as well as natural and man-made disasters, have raised awareness about the need to find new and improved ways to share information about the coastal and marine environment with a wide-ranging public audience. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Coastal and Marine Geology Program (CMGP) has begun a large-scale effort to incorporate the program's published, digital geophysical data into a single point of access known as the Coastal and Marine Geoscience Data System (CMGDS) (http://cmgds.marine.usgs.gov/). To aid in data discovery, work is also being done to import CMGP data into highly visible data and information resources, such as the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) and two widely used Earth-science tools, GeoMapApp (GMA) (http://www.geomapapp.org) and Virtual Ocean (VO) (http://www.virtualocean.org/). This task of the CMGP Integrated Data Management System project will help support information exchange with partners, regional planning groups, and the public, as well as facilitate integrated spatial-data analysis. Sharing USGS-CMGP geophysical data via CMGDS, NGDC, GMA, and VO will aid data discovery and enable the data to support new purposes beyond those for which the data were originally intended. In order to make data available to NGDC, and from there into GMA and VO, the data must be reformatted into a standard exchange format and published. In 1977, a group of geophysical data managers from the public and private sectors developed the MGD77 format as the standard exchange format for geophysical data. In 2010, a tab-delimited version of the format was added as MGD77T (Hittelman and others, 1977). The MGD77T geophysical data format can include bathymetry, magnetics, gravity, and seismic navigation data. It is used for the transmission of data between marine institutions, data centers, and can be used by various software programs as an exchange format. A header (documentation) file and data file are created for each survey (Hittelman and others, 1977). More details about the MGD77T format are available at http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/mgg/dat/geodas/docs/mgd77.pdf (74MB PDF). This archive describes the detailed steps used to convert single-beam bathymetry and navigation files into the MGD77T format (Hittelman and others, 1977) for submission to NGDC and formal Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) (http://www.fgdc.gov/metadata) metadata as a publication of these single-beam bathymetry datasets.

  1. Doctorate Education in Canada: Findings from the Survey of Earned Doctorates, 2005/2006. Culture, Tourism and the Centre for Education Statistics. Research Paper. Catalogue no. 81-595-M No. 069

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Darren; Eisl-Culkin, Judy; Desjardins, Louise

    2008-01-01

    "Doctorate Education in Canada: Findings from the Survey of Earned Doctorates, 2005/2006" is the third paper in a series of reports written by the Learning Policy Directorate of Human Resources and Social Development Canada (HRSDC) and the Centre for Education Statistics of Statistics Canada. Each report presents an overview of doctoral education

  2. 77 FR 11565 - Agency Information Collection: Comment Request AGENCY: United States Geological Survey (USGS...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-27

    ... Cooperative Geologic Mapping Program (NCGMP)--EDMAP and STATEMAP. As required by the Paperwork Reduction Act...: Title: National Cooperative Geologic Mapping Program (NCGMP-EDMAP and STATEMAP). OMB Control Number... generation of geologic mappers. The NCGMP allocates funds to colleges and universities in the United...

  3. The side-looking airborne radar program of the US Geological Survey ( Appalachian Mountains).

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Southworth, C.S.

    1984-01-01

    SLAR images are being analysed by the USGS to support mapping of geologic structures in the folded and thrust-faulted Appalachian Mountains, geological hazard appraisal, and monitoring of foliage cover for use in geological research. Four examples of SLAR imagery acquired during the 1982 flight program are illustrated and discussed.-R.House

  4. Study finds Devonian gas resources of western Canada attractive target

    SciTech Connect

    Reinson, G.E.; Lee, P.J. )

    1993-09-13

    This report summarizes results of a recently completed study on the conventional natural gas resources estimated to be contained in Devonian strata of the Western Canada sedimentary basin. This study is the first in a series dealing with conventional gas resources of the basin south of 62[degree] N. Lat. Estimates of regional resource potential have been prepared periodically by the Geological Survey of Canada, using systematic geological basin analysis and statistical resource evaluation methods. The major play groups in the western Canada gas project are Devonian, Permo-Carboniferous, Triassic, Deformed Belt, Lower Cretaceous Mannville group, Middle Cretaceous Colorado group, and Upper Cretaceous-Tertiary. The Devonian assessment was undertaken first because of the existing comprehensive geological data base and because there is an upside potential for finding significant reserves in relatively large economic pools. The paper describes the assessment procedures andanalyzes mature plays and conceptual plays of gas.

  5. Bibliography of Water-Resources Investigations reports published by the U.S. Geological Survey from 1971 through 1982

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edmonds, Sharon A.

    1989-01-01

    This report contains a cross-referenced listing of 971 Water-Resources Investigations reports (WRIR's) published by the U.S. Geological Survey from 1971 through 1982. The reports are listed by WRIR number. Most requests for WRIR 's generally are by WRIR number; however, the Survey 's annual catalog, ' Publications of the U.S. Geological Survey (year), ' indexes WRIR 's under the National Technical Information Service number, with the WRIR appearing only at the end of the citation within the index. Additionally, a few WRIR 's have been listed in the index without any reference to their WRIR number; and some WRIR 's appeared only in the discontinued Water Resources Investigations folder series. This report lists WRIR 's in sequential order to assist the readership in locating a particular publication. (USGS)

  6. Public perceptions of climate change as a human health risk: surveys of the United States, Canada and Malta.

    PubMed

    Akerlof, Karen; Debono, Roberto; Berry, Peter; Leiserowitz, Anthony; Roser-Renouf, Connie; Clarke, Kaila-Lea; Rogaeva, Anastasia; Nisbet, Matthew C; Weathers, Melinda R; Maibach, Edward W

    2010-06-01

    We used data from nationally representative surveys conducted in the United States, Canada and Malta between 2008 and 2009 to answer three questions: Does the public believe that climate change poses human health risks, and if so, are they seen as current or future risks? Whose health does the public think will be harmed? In what specific ways does the public believe climate change will harm human health? When asked directly about the potential impacts of climate change on health and well-being, a majority of people in all three nations said that it poses significant risks; moreover, about one third of Americans, one half of Canadians, and two-thirds of Maltese said that people are already being harmed. About a third or more of people in the United States and Canada saw themselves (United States, 32%; Canada, 67%), their family (United States, 35%; Canada, 46%), and people in their community (United States, 39%; Canada, 76%) as being vulnerable to at least moderate harm from climate change. About one third of Maltese (31%) said they were most concerned about the risk to themselves and their families. Many Canadians said that the elderly (45%) and children (33%) are at heightened risk of harm, while Americans were more likely to see people in developing countries as being at risk than people in their own nation. When prompted, large numbers of Canadians and Maltese said that climate change can cause respiratory problems (78-91%), heat-related problems (75-84%), cancer (61-90%), and infectious diseases (49-62%). Canadians also named sunburn (79%) and injuries from extreme weather events (73%), and Maltese cited allergies (84%). However, climate change appears to lack salience as a health issue in all three countries: relatively few people answered open-ended questions in a manner that indicated clear top-of-mind associations between climate change and human health risks. We recommend mounting public health communication initiatives that increase the salience of the human health consequences associated with climate change. PMID:20644690

  7. Public Perceptions of Climate Change as a Human Health Risk: Surveys of the United States, Canada and Malta

    PubMed Central

    Akerlof, Karen; DeBono, Roberto; Berry, Peter; Leiserowitz, Anthony; Roser-Renouf, Connie; Clarke, Kaila-Lea; Rogaeva, Anastasia; Nisbet, Matthew C.; Weathers, Melinda R.; Maibach, Edward W.

    2010-01-01

    We used data from nationally representative surveys conducted in the United States, Canada and Malta between 2008 and 2009 to answer three questions: Does the public believe that climate change poses human health risks, and if so, are they seen as current or future risks? Whose health does the public think will be harmed? In what specific ways does the public believe climate change will harm human health? When asked directly about the potential impacts of climate change on health and well-being, a majority of people in all three nations said that it poses significant risks; moreover, about one third of Americans, one half of Canadians, and two-thirds of Maltese said that people are already being harmed. About a third or more of people in the United States and Canada saw themselves (United States, 32%; Canada, 67%), their family (United States, 35%; Canada, 46%), and people in their community (United States, 39%; Canada, 76%) as being vulnerable to at least moderate harm from climate change. About one third of Maltese (31%) said they were most concerned about the risk to themselves and their families. Many Canadians said that the elderly (45%) and children (33%) are at heightened risk of harm, while Americans were more likely to see people in developing countries as being at risk than people in their own nation. When prompted, large numbers of Canadians and Maltese said that climate change can cause respiratory problems (78–91%), heat-related problems (75–84%), cancer (61–90%), and infectious diseases (49–62%). Canadians also named sunburn (79%) and injuries from extreme weather events (73%), and Maltese cited allergies (84%). However, climate change appears to lack salience as a health issue in all three countries: relatively few people answered open-ended questions in a manner that indicated clear top-of-mind associations between climate change and human health risks. We recommend mounting public health communication initiatives that increase the salience of the human health consequences associated with climate change. PMID:20644690

  8. U.S. Geological Survey Energy and Minerals science strategy: a resource lifecycle approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ferrero, Richard C.; Kolak, Jonathan J.; Bills, Donald J.; Bowen, Zachary H.; Cordier, Daniel J.; Gallegos, Tanya J.; Hein, James R.; Kelley, Karen D.; Nelson, Philip H.; Nuccio, Vito F.; Schmidt, Jeanine M.; Seal, Robert R., II

    2013-01-01

    The economy, national security, and standard of living of the United States depend heavily on adequate and reliable supplies of energy and mineral resources. Based on population and consumption trends, the Nations use of energy and minerals can be expected to grow, driving the demand for ever broader scientific understanding of resource formation, location, and availability. In addition, the increasing importance of environmental stewardship, human health, and sustainable growth places further emphasis on energy and mineral resources research and understanding. Collectively, these trends in resource demand and the interconnectedness among resources will lead to new challenges and, in turn, require cutting- edge science for the next generation of societal decisions. The long and continuing history of U.S. Geological Survey contributions to energy and mineral resources science provide a solid foundation of core capabilities upon which new research directions can grow. This science strategy provides a framework for the coming decade that capitalizes on the growth of core capabilities and leverages their application toward new or emerging challenges in energy and mineral resources research, as reflected in five interrelated goals.

  9. Price current-meter standard rating development by the U.S. geological survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hubbard, E.F.; Schwarz, G.E.; Thibodeaux, K.G.; Turcios, L.M.

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has developed new standard rating tables for use with Price type AA and pygmy current meters, which are employed to measure streamflow velocity. Current-meter calibration data, consisting of the rates of rotation of meters at several different constant water velocities, have shown that the original rating tables are no longer representative of the average responsiveness of newly purchased meters or meters in the field. The new rating tables are based on linear regression equations that are weighted to reflect the population mix of current meters in the field and weighted inversely to the variability of the data at each calibration velocity. For calibration velocities of 0.3 m/s and faster, at which most streamflow measurements are made, the new AA-rating predicts the true velocities within 1.5% and the new pygmy-meter rating within 2.0% for more than 95% of the meters. At calibration velocities, the new AA-meter rating is up to 1.4% different from the original rating, and the new pygmy-meter rating is up to 1.6% different.

  10. Evaluation of stream chemistry trends in US Geological Survey reference watersheds, 1970-2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mast, M. Alisa

    2013-01-01

    The Hydrologic Benchmark Network (HBN) is a long-term monitoring program established by the US Geological Survey in the 1960s to track changes in the streamflow and stream chemistry in undeveloped watersheds across the USA. Trends in stream chemistry were tested at 15 HBN stations over two periods (19702010 and 19902010) using the parametric Load Estimator (LOADEST) model and the nonparametric seasonal Kendall test. Trends in annual streamflow and precipitation chemistry also were tested to help identify likely drivers of changes in stream chemistry. At stations in the northeastern USA, there were significant declines in stream sulfate, which were consistent with declines in sulfate deposition resulting from the reductions in SO2 emissions mandated under the Clean Air Act Amendments. Sulfate declines in stream water were smaller than declines in deposition suggesting sulfate may be accumulating in watershed soils and thereby delaying the stream response to improvements in deposition. Trends in stream chemistry at stations in other part of the country generally were attributed to climate variability or land disturbance. Despite declines in sulfate deposition, increasing stream sulfate was observed at several stations and appeared to be linked to periods of drought or declining streamflow. Falling water tables might have enhanced oxidation of organic matter in wetlands or pyrite in mineralized bedrock thereby increasing sulfate export in surface water. Increasing sulfate and nitrate at a station in the western USA were attributed to release of soluble salts and nutrients from soils following a large wildfire in the watershed.

  11. Streamstats: U.S. Geological Survey Web Application for Streamflow Statistics for Connecticut

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ahearn, Elizabeth A.; Ries, Kernell G., III; Steeves, Peter A.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction An important mission of the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) is to provide information on streamflow in the Nation's rivers. Streamflow statistics are used by water managers, engineers, scientists, and others to protect people and property during floods and droughts, and to manage land, water, and biological resources. Common uses for streamflow statistics include dam, bridge, and culvert design; water-supply planning and management; water-use appropriations and permitting; wastewater and industrial discharge permitting; hydropower-facility design and regulation; and flood-plain mapping for establishing flood-insurance rates and land-use zones. In an effort to improve access to published streamflow statistics, and to make the process of computing streamflow statistics for ungaged stream sites easier, more accurate, and more consistent, the USGS and the Environmental Systems Research Institute, Inc. (ESRI) developed StreamStats (Ries and others, 2004). StreamStats is a Geographic Information System (GIS)-based Web application for serving previously published streamflow statistics and basin characteristics for USGS data-collection stations, and computing streamflow statistics and basin characteristics for ungaged stream sites. The USGS, in cooperation with the Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection and the Connecticut Department of Transportation, has implemented StreamStats for Connecticut.

  12. U.S. Geological Survey community for data integration: data upload, registry, and access tool

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fort Collins Science Center Web Applications Team

    2012-01-01

    As a leading science and information agency and in fulfillment of its mission to provide reliable scientific information to describe and understand the Earth, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) ensures that all scientific data are effectively hosted, adequately described, and appropriately accessible to scientists, collaborators, and the general public. To succeed in this task, the USGS established the Community for Data Integration (CDI) to address data and information management issues affecting the proficiency of earth science research. Through the CDI, the USGS is providing data and metadata management tools, cyber infrastructure, collaboration tools, and training in support of scientists and technology specialists throughout the project life cycle. One of the significant tools recently created to contribute to this mission is the Uploader tool. This tool allows scientists with limited data management resources to address many of the key aspects of the data life cycle: the ability to protect, preserve, publish and share data. By implementing this application inside ScienceBase, scientists also can take advantage of other collaboration capabilities provided by the ScienceBase platform.

  13. Web services in the U.S. geological survey streamstats web application

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guthrie, J.D.; Dartiguenave, C.; Ries, Kernell G., III

    2009-01-01

    StreamStats is a U.S. Geological Survey Web-based GIS application developed as a tool for waterresources planning and management, engineering design, and other applications. StreamStats' primary functionality allows users to obtain drainage-basin boundaries, basin characteristics, and streamflow statistics for gaged and ungaged sites. Recently, Web services have been developed that provide the capability to remote users and applications to access comprehensive GIS tools that are available in StreamStats, including delineating drainage-basin boundaries, computing basin characteristics, estimating streamflow statistics for user-selected locations, and determining point features that coincide with a National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) reach address. For the state of Kentucky, a web service also has been developed that provides users the ability to estimate daily time series of drainage-basin average values of daily precipitation and temperature. The use of web services allows the user to take full advantage of the datasets and processes behind the Stream Stats application without having to develop and maintain them. ?? 2009 IEEE.

  14. StreamStats: a U.S. geological survey web site for stream information

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kernell, G. Ries, III; Gray, John R.

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has developed a Web application, named StreamStats, for providing streamflow statistics, such as the 100-year flood and the 7-day, 10-year low flow, to the public. Statistics can be obtained for data-collection stations and for ungaged sites. Streamflow statistics are needed for water-resources planning and management; for design of bridges, culverts, and flood-control structures; and for many other purposes. StreamStats users can point and click on data-collection stations shown on a map in their Web browser window to obtain previously determined streamflow statistics and other information for the stations. Users also can point and click on any stream shown on the map to get estimates of streamflow statistics for ungaged sites. StreamStats determines the watershed boundaries and measures physical and climatic characteristics of the watersheds for the ungaged sites by use of a Geographic Information System (GIS), and then it inserts the characteristics into previously determined regression equations to estimate the streamflow statistics. Compared to manual methods, StreamStats reduces the average time needed to estimate streamflow statistics for ungaged sites from several hours to several minutes.

  15. Water resources program of the U.S. Geological Survey related to agriculture in Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huntzinger, T.L.

    1982-01-01

    Surveillance activities of the U.S. Geological Survey Louisiana District include long-term, hydrologic-data-collection sites that serve a current-purpose, management function and (or) that furnish a data base for interpretative studies. The proposed program for 1982 includes a network of 69 surface-water data sites (continuous gaging stations), 250 flood-data sites (crest-stage stations), 679 ground-water wells (water-level observation and water-quality monitor wells), and 138 water-quality sites. The geographic distribution of the data sites is shown in the report. Interpretive studies have objectives that are oriented toward a particular geographic area , to a particular set of hydrologic phenomena, or to obtain information for use in solving specific problems. Current studies of interest to agriculture include the following: (1) Flood hydraulics and hydrology, (2) Low-flow or base-flow of streams in Louisiana, (3) Hydrologic studies in southwestern Louisiana, (4) Hydrologic impacts of surface mining in northern Louisiana, (5) Sparta aquifer study, and (6) Limnology of freshwater lakes. A network of partial record sites is also maintained to monitor specific flows. Peak stages (crest stage) are only recorded at sites where flood information is of interest. At other sites, only the low-flow or base-flow recession is obtained for use in determining relations between ground water and surface water, to assess water supply, and for effluent studies. (USGS)

  16. A summary of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hirsch, R.M.; Alley, W.M.; Wilber, W.G.

    1988-01-01

    Beginning in 1986, the Congress appropriated funds for the U.S. Geological Survey to test and refine concepts for a National Water Quality Assessment Program. At present, the program is in a pilot phase with field studies occurring in seven areas around the Nation. In 1990, a committee of the National Academy of Sciences will complete an evaluation of the design and potential utility of the program. A decision about moving to full-scale implementation will be made upon completion of this evaluation. The program is intended to address a wide range of national water quality issues that include chemical contamination, acidification, eutrophication, salinity, sedimentation, and sanitary quality. The goals of the program are to: (1) provide nationally consistent descriptions of current water quality conditions for a large part of the Nation 's water resources; (2) define long-term trends (or lack of trends) in water quality; and (3) identify and describe the relations of both current conditions and trends in water quality to natural and human factors. This information will be provided to water managers, policy makers, and the public to provide an improved scientific basis for evaluating the effectiveness of water quality management programs and for predicting the likely effects of contemplated changes in land- and water-management practices. (USGS)

  17. An evaluation of the U.S. Geological Survey World Petroleum Assessment 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klett, T.R.; Gautier, D.L.; Ahlbrandt, T.S.

    2005-01-01

    This study compares the additions to conventional crude oil and natural gas reserves as reported from January 1996 to December 2003 with the estimated undiscovered and reserve-growth volumes assessed in the U.S. Geological Survey World Petroleum Assessment 2000, which used data current through 1995. Approximately 28% of the estimated additions to oil reserves by reserve growth and approximately 11% of the estimated undiscovered oil volumes were realized in the 8 yr since the assessment (27% of the time frame for the assessment). Slightly more than half of the estimated additions to gas reserves by reserve growth and approximately 10% of the estimated undiscovered gas volumes were realized. Between 1995 and 2003, growth of oil reserves in previously discovered fields exceeded new-field discoveries as a source of global additions to reserves of conventional oil by a ratio of 3:1. The greatest amount of reserve growth for crude oil occurred in the Middle East and North Africa, whereas the greatest contribution from new-field discoveries occurred in sub-Saharan Africa. The greatest amount of reserve growth for natural gas occurred in the Middle East and North Africa, whereas the greatest contribution from new-field discoveries occurred in the Asia Pacific region. On an energy-equivalent basis, volumes of new gas-field discoveries exceeded new oil-field discoveries. Copyright ?? 2005. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists. All rights reserved.

  18. Geochemical sampling in arid environments by the U.S. Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinkle, Margaret E.

    1988-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is responsible for the geochemical evaluations used for mineral resource assessments of large tracts of public lands in the Western United States. Many of these lands are administered by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and are studied to determine their suitability or nonsuitability for wilderness designation. Much of the Western United States is arid or semiarid. This report discusses various geochemical sample media that have been used for evaluating areas in arid environments and describes case histories in BLM wilderness study areas in which stream-sediment and heavy-mineral-concentrate sample media were compared. As a result of these case history studies, the nonmagnetic fraction of panned heavy-mineral concentrates was selected as the most effective medium for reconnaissance geochemical sampling for resources other than gold, in arid areas. Nonmagnetic heavy-mineral-concentrate samples provide the primary analytical information currently used in geochemical interpretations of mineral resource potential assessment of BLM lands.

  19. Applications of the U.S. Geological survey's global land cover product

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reed, B.

    1997-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in partnership with several international agencies and universities, has produced a global land cover characteristics database. The land cover data were created using multitemporal analysis of advanced very high resolution radiometer satellite images in conjunction with other existing geographic data. A translation table permits the conversion of the land cover classes into several conventional land cover schemes that are used by ecosystem modelers, climate modelers, land management agencies, and other user groups. The alternative classification schemes include Global Ecosystems, the Biosphere Atmosphere Transfer Scheme, the Simple Biosphere, the USGS Anderson Level 2, and the International Geosphere Biosphere Programme. The distribution system for these data is through the World Wide Web ( the web site address is: http://edcwww.cr.usgs.gov/landdaac/glcc/glcc.html) or by magnetic media upon special request. The availability of the data over the World Wide Web, in conjunction with the flexible database structure, allows easy data access to a wide range of users. The web site contains a user registration form that allows analysis of the diverse applications of large-area land cover data. Currently, applications are divided among mapping (20 percent), conservation (30 percent), and modeling (35 percent).

  20. Use of field size distributions in US Geological Survey's estimates of undiscovered domestic petroleum resources

    SciTech Connect

    Houghton, J.C.

    1987-05-01

    The US Geological Survey (USGS) and the Minerals Management Service are updating the assessments in USGS Circular 860, Estimates of Undiscovered Recoverable Oil and Gas Resources. The onshore areas of petroleum potential in the US will be disaggregated into more than 300 plays, and field-size distributions will be presented for the undiscovered petroleum in each play. A Truncated Shifted Pareto (TSP) distribution is fit to the past discovery record in mature areas, and the quantiles from the fitted distribution are used in a comparative sense to support a subjective assessment of a distribution, usually a TSP, of the potential undiscovered fields. In frontier areas, qualtiles from a TSP that has been fitted to a selected analog play are used. The TSP is J shaped, is truncated at both a minimum and a maximum size, and is easy to fit and use. Two degrees of freedom that represent scale and shape are commonly used in fitting the TSP to the past record. Scale refers to the overall size of the fields, and shape refers to the degree of concentration versus dispersion in the habitat. A concentrated distribution is one in which the petroleum is concentrated in the few largest fields. For most plays, an efficiency of exploration is demonstrated by a scale decrease over time and a shape change from concentrated to dispersed, as the larger fields are generally discovered early in the record.

  1. Sudbury project (University of Muenster-Ontario Geological Survey): Summary of results - an updated impact model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Avermann, M.; Bischoff, L.; Brockmeyer, P.; Buhl, D.; Deutsch, A.; Dressler, B. O.; Lakomy, R.; Mueller-Mohr, V.; Stoeffler, D.

    1992-01-01

    In 1984 the Ontario Geological Survey initiated a research project on the Sudbury structure (SS) in cooperation with the University of Muenster. The project included field mapping (1984-1989) and petrographic, chemical, and isotope analyses of the major stratigraphic units of the SS. Four diploma theses and four doctoral theses were performed during the project (1984-1992). Specific results of the various investigations are reported. Selected areas of the SS were mapped and sampled: Footwall rocks; Footwall breccia and parts of the sublayer and lower section of the Sudbury Igneous Complex (SIC); Onaping Formation and the upper section of the SIC; and Sudbury breccia and adjacent Footwall rocks along extended profiles up to 55 km from the SIC. All these stratigraphic units of the SS were studied in substantial detail by previous workers. The most important characteristic of the previous research is that it was based either on a volcanic model or on a mixed volcanic-impact model for the origin of the SS. The present project was clearly directed toward a test of the impact origin of the SS without invoking an endogenic component. In general, our results confirm the most widely accepted stratigraphic division of the SS. However, our interpretation of some of the major stratigraphic units is different from most views expressed. The stratigraphy of the SS and its new interpretation is given as a basis for discussion.

  2. Integrating quality assurance in project work plans of the U.S. Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shampine, W.J.; Pope, L.M.; Koterba, M.T.

    1992-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's objectives for including quality assurance procedures in a project work plan are to ensure that the quality of the data collected is defined and is appropriate for the objectives of the investigation. The data- quality information can be used in the interpre- tation of the data. A project work plan that includes quality assessment provides definable benefits such as clarity of expectations, a method for obtaining a set of data that is expected and has been proven valid, a documentation trail, products that are produced on time and that meet project objectives, and a decrease in work that is lost or redone. Project chiefs must prepare and can publish the work plan for scientific investigations. An expanded outline of a framework that can be used to prepare a project work plan that includes quality assurance is described in this report and contains the following topics: data-quality objectives; project organization and responsibilities; data collection; data processing; project reviews; data analysis; remedial actions; project progress reports and quality assurance reports to management.

  3. Cost effectiveness of the US Geological Survey stream-gaging program in Alabama

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jeffcoat, H.H.

    1987-01-01

    A study of the cost effectiveness of the stream gaging program in Alabama identified data uses and funding sources for 72 surface water stations (including dam stations, slope stations, and continuous-velocity stations) operated by the U.S. Geological Survey in Alabama with a budget of $393,600. Of these , 58 gaging stations were used in all phases of the analysis at a funding level of $328,380. For the current policy of operation of the 58-station program, the average standard error of estimation of instantaneous discharge is 29.3%. This overall level of accuracy can be maintained with a budget of $319,800 by optimizing routes and implementing some policy changes. The maximum budget considered in the analysis was $361,200, which gave an average standard error of estimation of 20.6%. The minimum budget considered was $299,360, with an average standard error of estimation of 36.5%. The study indicates that a major source of error in the stream gaging records is lost or missing data that are the result of streamside equipment failure. If perfect equipment were available, the standard error in estimating instantaneous discharge under the current program and budget could be reduced to 18.6%. This can also be interpreted to mean that the streamflow data records have a standard error of this magnitude during times when the equipment is operating properly. (Author 's abstract)

  4. A method for mapping corn using the US Geological Survey 1992 National Land Cover Dataset

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maxwell, S.K.; Nuckols, J.R.; Ward, M.H.

    2006-01-01

    Long-term exposure to elevated nitrate levels in community drinking water supplies has been associated with an elevated risk of several cancers including non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, colon cancer, and bladder cancer. To estimate human exposure to nitrate, specific crop type information is needed as fertilizer application rates vary widely by crop type. Corn requires the highest application of nitrogen fertilizer of crops grown in the Midwest US. We developed a method to refine the US Geological Survey National Land Cover Dataset (NLCD) (including map and original Landsat images) to distinguish corn from other crops. Overall average agreement between the resulting corn and other row crops class and ground reference data was 0.79 kappa coefficient with individual Landsat images ranging from 0.46 to 0.93 kappa. The highest accuracies occurred in Regions where corn was the single dominant crop (greater than 80.0%) and the crop vegetation conditions at the time of image acquisition were optimum for separation of corn from all other crops. Factors that resulted in lower accuracies included the accuracy of the NLCD map, accuracy of corn areal estimates, crop mixture, crop condition at the time of Landsat overpass, and Landsat scene anomalies. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. U.S. Geological Survey Quality-Assurance Project for Sediment Analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gordon, John D.; Newland, Carla

    2000-01-01

    Introduction Sediment is derived primarily from natural weathering of rock and is an assemblage of individual mineral grains that are then deposited by some physical agent, such as water, wind, ice, or gravity (Fetter, 1988). The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) samples sediments and collects data on the amount of sediment in selected waterways. The most pressing sediment-related problems are associated with environmental questions, such as the transport and fate of attached pollutants, effects of sediment on aquatic biota and their habitats, and effects on sediment transport from land-use changes. Current (2000) sediment issues require that sediment studies address multiple objectives in water-resources management (Koltun and others, 1997). To support sediment research, the USGS operates laboratories for the analysis of the physical characteristics of sediment. Sediment laboratories producing data for the USGS have two principal functions: (1) the determination of suspended-sediment concentration in samples and (2) the determination of sand/fine separations. The reliability of these determinations and the usefulness of the data are dependent on the accuracy and reliability of the laboratory analyses (Guy, 1969).

  6. Neutron-activation analysis of several US Geological Survey and National Bureau of Standards reference materials

    SciTech Connect

    Daly, A.T.

    1981-01-01

    In this work, several US Geological Survey (U.S.G.S.) and National Bureau of Standards (N.B.S.) reference samples have been analyzed in an effort to improve the quality of elemental concentration data available on these materials, so they can be used in a program of verification of factor analysis source resolution procedures. The analyses of these samples were performed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The samples analyzed were: U.S.G.S. Green River Shale, N.B.S. 45b Homogeneous River Sediment, U.S.G.S. Analyzed Peridotite N.B.S. 1579 Powdered Lead-based Paint, U.S.G.S. Hawaian Basalt U.S.G.S. Marine Mud, U.S.G.S. Analyzed Cody Shale U.S.G.S. Glass Mountain Rhyolite, N.B.S. Argillaceous Limestone No. 1, and a sample of Spex ultrapure graphite. Neutron activation analysis was employed because of the high sensitivity that can be attained in determining elemental concentrations. Although INAA is a relatively simple method and the reproducibility of the data is good, the method shows some inaccuracies. The basic theory and technique are reviewed in an attempt to show where problems can arise and how they can be dealt with.

  7. Cost effectiveness of the US Geological Survey's stream-gaging program in New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolcott, S.W.; Gannon, W.B.; Johnston, W.H.

    1986-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey conducted a 5-year nationwide analysis to define and document the most cost effective means of obtaining streamflow data. This report describes the stream gaging network in New York and documents the cost effectiveness of its operation; it also identifies data uses and funding sources for the 174 continuous-record stream gages currently operated (1983). Those gages as well as 189 crest-stage, stage-only, and groundwater gages are operated with a budget of $1.068 million. One gaging station was identified as having insufficient reason for continuous operation and was converted to a crest-stage gage. Current operation of the 363-station program requires a budget of $1.068 million/yr. The average standard error of estimation of continuous streamflow data is 13.4%. Results indicate that this degree of accuracy could be maintained with a budget of approximately $1.006 million if the gaging resources were redistributed among the gages. The average standard error for 174 stations was calculated for five hypothetical budgets. A minimum budget of $970,000 would be needed to operated the 363-gage program; a budget less than this does not permit proper servicing and maintenance of the gages and recorders. Under the restrictions of a minimum budget, the average standard error would be 16.0%. The maximum budget analyzed was $1.2 million, which would decrease the average standard error to 9.4%. (Author 's abstract)

  8. Summary of the U. S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Assessment Program

    SciTech Connect

    Hirsh, R.M.; Alley, W.M.; Wilber, W.G.

    1988-01-01

    Beginning in 1986, the Congress appropriated funds for the US Geological Survey to test and refine concepts for a National Water Quality Assessment Program. At present, the program is in a pilot phase with field studies occurring in seven areas around the Nation. In 1990, a committee of the National Academy of Sciences will complete an evaluation of the design and potential utility of the program. A decision about moving to full-scale implementation will be made upon completion of the evaluation. The program is intended to address a wide range of national water quality issues that include chemical contamination, acidification, eutrophication, salinity, sedimentation, and sanitary quality. The goals of the program are to: (1) provide nationally consistent descriptions of current water quality conditions for a large part of the Nation's water resources; (2) define long-term trends in water quality; and (3) identify and describe the relations of both current conditions and trends in water quality to natural and human factors. This information will be provided to water managers, policy makers, and the public to provide an improved scientific basis for evaluating the effectiveness of water quality management programs and for predicting the likely effects of contemplated changes in land- and water-management practices.

  9. Performance Audit of the U.S. Geological Survey, Energy Resource Program Inorganic Geochemistry Laboratory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Luppens, James A.; Janke, Louis G.; McCord, Jamey D.; Bullock, John H.; Brazeau, Lisa; Affronter, Ronald H.

    2007-01-01

    A performance audit of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Energy Resource Program (ERP) Inorganic Geochemistry Laboratory (IGL) was conducted between August, 2003 and October, 2005. The goals were to ensure that a high level of analytical performance was maintained and identify any areas that could be enhanced. The audit was subdivided into three phases. Phase 1 was a preliminary assessment of current performance based on recent performance on CANSPEX samples. IGL performance was also compared to laboratories world-wide with similar scope. Phase 2 consisted of the implementation of the recommended changes made in Phase 1. Phase 3 of the audit consisted of a reassessment effort to evaluate the effectiveness of the recommendations made in the Phase 1 and an on-site audit of the laboratory facilities. Phases 1 and 3 required summary reports that are included in Appendices A and B of this report. The audit found that the IGL was one of the top two laboratories compared for trace element analyses. Several recommendations to enhance performance on major and minor elemental parameters were made and implemented. Demonstrated performance improvements as a result of the recommended changes were documented. Several initiatives to sustain the performance improvements gained from the audit have been implemented.

  10. Standard for the U.S. Geological Survey Historical Topographic Map Collection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allord, Gregory J.; Fishburn, Kristin A.; Walter, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    This document defines the digital map product of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Historical Topographic Map Collection (HTMC). The HTMC is a digital archive of about 190,000 printed topographic quadrangle maps published by the USGS from the inception of the topographic mapping program in 1884 until the last paper topographic map using lithographic printing technology was published in 2006. The HTMC provides a comprehensive digital repository of all scales and all editions of USGS printed topographic maps that is easily discovered, browsed, and downloaded by the public at no cost. Each printed topographic map is scanned as is and captures the content and condition of each map. The HTMC provides ready access to maps that are no longer available for distribution in print. A new generation of topographic maps called US Topo was defined in 2009. US Topo maps, though modeled on the legacy 7.5-minute topographic maps, conform to different standards. For more information on the HTMC, see the project Web site at: http://nationalmap.gov/historical/.

  11. Documentation of the U.S. Geological Survey Oceanographic Time-Series Measurement Database

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Montgomery, Ellyn T.; Martini, Marinna A.; Lightsom, Frances L.; Butman, Bradford

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Oceanographic Time-Series Measurements Database contains oceanographic observations made as part of studies designed to increase understanding of sediment transport processes and associated dynamics. Analysis of these data has contributed to more accurate prediction of the movement and fate of sediments and other suspended materials in the coastal ocean. The measurements were collected by investigators at the USGS Woods Hole Science Center (WHSC) and colleagues, beginning in 1975. Most of the field experiments were carried out on the U.S. continental shelf and slope. This report describes the instrumentation and platforms used to make the measurements; the methods used to process, apply quality-control criteria, and archive the data; and the data storage format. The report also includes instructions on how to access the data from the on-line database at http://stellwagen.er.usgs.gov/. As of 2008, the database contains about 4,250 files which may include observations of current velocity, ocean temperature, conductivity, pressure, and light transmission at one or more depths over some duration of time.

  12. Evaluation of stream chemistry trends in US Geological Survey reference watersheds, 1970-2010.

    PubMed

    Mast, M Alisa

    2013-11-01

    The Hydrologic Benchmark Network (HBN) is a long-term monitoring program established by the US Geological Survey in the 1960s to track changes in the streamflow and stream chemistry in undeveloped watersheds across the USA. Trends in stream chemistry were tested at 15 HBN stations over two periods (1970-2010 and 1990-2010) using the parametric Load Estimator (LOADEST) model and the nonparametric seasonal Kendall test. Trends in annual streamflow and precipitation chemistry also were tested to help identify likely drivers of changes in stream chemistry. At stations in the northeastern USA, there were significant declines in stream sulfate, which were consistent with declines in sulfate deposition resulting from the reductions in SO? emissions mandated under the Clean Air Act Amendments. Sulfate declines in stream water were smaller than declines in deposition suggesting sulfate may be accumulating in watershed soils and thereby delaying the stream response to improvements in deposition. Trends in stream chemistry at stations in other part of the country generally were attributed to climate variability or land disturbance. Despite declines in sulfate deposition, increasing stream sulfate was observed at several stations and appeared to be linked to periods of drought or declining streamflow. Falling water tables might have enhanced oxidation of organic matter in wetlands or pyrite in mineralized bedrock thereby increasing sulfate export in surface water. Increasing sulfate and nitrate at a station in the western USA were attributed to release of soluble salts and nutrients from soils following a large wildfire in the watershed. PMID:23715732

  13. Using U.S. Geological Survey data in material flow analysis: An introduction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sibley, S.F.

    2009-01-01

    A few sources of basic data on worldwide raw materials production and consumption exist that are independently developed and freely available to the public. This column is an introduction to the types of information available from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and explains how the data are assembled. The kind of information prepared by the USGS is essential to U.S. materials flow studies because the data make it possible to conduct these studies within a global context. The data include primary and secondary (scrap) production, consumption and stocks (mostly limited to the United States unless calculated), trade (not readily available for all countries), and prices for more than 80 mineral commodities. Materials flow studies by USGS specialists using these data are continuing (http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/mflow/). Figure 1 shows from where the data are collected and where they are used. Minerals information was downloaded by users 5.8 million times from USGS minerals information Web pages in 2008.

  14. Simulation of trickle irrigation, an extension to the US Geological Survey's computer program VS2D

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Healy, R.W.

    1987-01-01

    A method is presented for simulating water movement through unsaturated porous media in response to a constant rate of application from a surface source. Because the rate at which water can be absorbed by soil is limited, the water will pond; therefore the actual surface area over which the water is applied may change with time and in general will not be known beforehand. An iterative method is used to determine the size of this ponded area at any time. This method will be most useful for simulating trickling irrigation, but also may be of value for simulating movement of water is soils as the result of an accidental spill. The method is an extension to the finite difference computer program VS2D developed by the U.S. Geological Survey, which simulates water movement through variably saturated porous media. The simulated region can be a vertical, 2-dimensional cross section for treatment of a surface line source or an axially symmetric, 3-dimensional cylinder for a point source. Five test problems, obtained from the literature , are used to demonstrate the ability of the method to accurately match analytical and experimental results. (Author 's abstract)

  15. Analytical methods of the U.S. Geological Survey's New York District Water-Analysis Laboratory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lawrence, Gregory B.; Lincoln, Tricia A.; Horan-Ross, Debra A.; Olson, Mark L.; Waldron, Laura A.

    1995-01-01

    The New York District of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in Troy, N.Y., operates a water-analysis laboratory for USGS watershed-research projects in the Northeast that require analyses of precipitation and of dilute surface water and soil water for major ions; it also provides analyses of certain chemical constituents in soils and soil gas samples. This report presents the methods for chemical analyses of water samples, soil-water samples, and soil-gas samples collected in wateshed-research projects. The introduction describes the general materials and technicques for eachmethod and explains the USGS quality-assurance program and data-management procedures; it also explains the use of cross reference to the three most commonly used methods manuals for analysis of dilute waters. The body of the report describes the analytical procedures for (1) solution analysis, (2) soil analysis, and (3) soil-gas analysis. The methods are presented in alphabetical order by constituent. The method for each constituent is preceded by (1) reference codes for pertinent sections of the three manuals mentioned above, (2) a list of the method's applications, and (3) a summary of the procedure. The methods section for each constitutent contains the following categories: instrumentation and equipment, sample preservation and storage, reagents and standards, analytical procedures, quality control, maintenance, interferences, safety considerations, and references. Sufficient information is presented for each method to allow the resulting data to be appropriately used in environmental samples.

  16. Operation of U.S. Geological Survey unmanned digital magnetic observatories

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, L.R.

    1990-01-01

    The precision and continuity of data recorded by unmanned digital magnetic observatories depend on the type of data acquisition equipment used and operating procedures employed. Three generations of observatory systems used by the U.S. Geological Survey are described. A table listing the frequency of component failures in the current observatory system has been compiled for a 54-month period of operation. The cause of component failure was generally mechanical or due to lightning. The average percentage data loss per month for 13 observatories operating a combined total of 637 months was 9%. Frequency distributions of data loss intervals show the highest frequency of occurrence to be intervals of less than 1 h. Installation of the third generation system will begin in 1988. The configuration of the third generation observatory system will eliminate most of the mechanical problems, and its components should be less susceptible to lightning. A quasi-absolute coil-proton system will be added to obtain baseline control for component variation data twice daily. Observatory data, diagnostics, and magnetic activity indices will be collected at 12-min intervals via satellite at Golden, Colorado. An improvement in the quality and continuity of data obtained with the new system is expected. ?? 1990.

  17. Estimating bridge scour in New York from historical U.S. geological survey streamflow measurements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Butch, Gerard K.

    1993-01-01

    Historical streamflow measurements by the U.S. Geological Survey an bridge-inspection reports by the New York State Department of Transportation are being used to estimate scour at 31 bridges in New York State. Streamflow measurements that were made before, during, or after high flows are used to estimate scour and to define hydraulic properties associated with floods. Clear-water scour is common at most sites; local scour holes that formed during high flows did not refill after subsequent high flows. The 31 streambeds are armored by gravel; median particle size ranges form 22 to 68 millimeters. Streambed elevations measured after a high flow are assumed to represent the elevations during peak flow. Measurements at several bridges indicate scour by multiple high flows, severe floods, and debris. Three high flows at State Route 23 over the Otselic River in Cortland County produced 6.1 feet of local scour and partly exposed concrete pilings below the footing. Although the recurrence interval of each flow was less than 10 years, a 30-degree angle between the flow and the pier increased the tendency of the streambed to scour. State Route 427 over the Chemung River in Chemung County survived the 1972 flood ( recurrence interval greater than 100 years) because pilings supported the undermined piers. The maximum local scour during the 1972 flood was estimated to be 5.4 feet. A local-scour hole, 2.4 feet deep before the flood, was deepened to 7.8 feet.

  18. The U.S. Geological Survey cartographic and geographic information science research activities 2006-2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Usery, E. Lynn

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) produces geospatial databases and topographic maps for the United States of America. A part of that mission includes conducting research in geographic information science (GIScience) and cartography to support mapping and improve the design, quality, delivery, and use of geospatial data and topographic maps. The Center of Excellence for Geospatial Information Science (CEGIS) was established by the USGS in January 2006 as a part of the National Geospatial Program Office. CEGIS (http://cegis.usgs.gov) evolved from a team of cartographic researchers at the Mid-Continent Mapping Center. The team became known as the Cartographic Research group and was supported by the Cooperative Topographic Mapping, Geographic Analysis and Monitoring, and Land Remote Sensing programs of the Geography Discipline of the USGS from 1999-2005. In 2006, the Cartographic Research group and its projects (http://carto-research.er.usgs.gov/) became the core of CEGIS staff and research. In 2006, CEGIS research became focused on The National Map (http://nationalmap.gov).

  19. Data from selected U.S. Geological Survey national stream water quality monitoring networks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alexander, R.B.; Slack, J.R.; Ludtke, A.S.; Fitzgerald, K.K.; Schertz, T.L.

    1998-01-01

    A nationally consistent and well-documented collection of water quality and quantity data compiled during the past 30 years for streams and rivers in the United States is now available on CD-ROM and accessible over the World Wide Web. The data include measurements from two U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) national networks for 122 physical, chemical, and biological properties of water collected at 680 monitoring stations from 1962 to 1995, quality assurance information that describes the sample collection agencies, laboratories, analytical methods, and estimates of laboratory measurement error (bias and variance), and information on selected cultural and natural characteristics of the station watersheds. The data are easily accessed via user-supplied software including Web browser, spreadsheet, and word processor, or may be queried and printed according to user-specified criteria using the supplied retrieval software on CD-ROM. The water quality data serve a variety of scientific uses including research and educational applications related to trend detection, flux estimation, investigations of the effects of the natural environment and cultural sources on water quality, and the development of statistical methods for designing efficient monitoring networks and interpreting water resources data.

  20. Landslide modeling and forecasting—recent progress by the u.s. geological survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baum, Rex L.; Kean, Jason W.

    2015-01-01

    Landslide studies by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) are focused on two main objectives: scientific understanding and forecasting. The first objective is to gain better understanding of the physical processes involved in landslide initiation and movement. This objective is largely in support of the second objective, to develop predictive capabilities to answer the main hazard questions. Answers to the following six questions are needed to characterize the hazard from landslides: (1) Where will landslides occur? (2) What kind(s) of landslides will occur? (3) When will landslides occur? (4) How big will the landslides be? (5) How fast will the landslides travel? (6) How far will the landslides go? Although these questions are sometimes recast in different terms, such as frequency or recurrence rather than timing (when), the questions or their variants address the spatial, physical, and temporal aspects of landslide hazards. Efforts to develop modeling and forecasting capabilities by the USGS are primarily focused on specific landslide types that pose a high degree of hazard and show relatively high potential for predictability.

  1. The Use of U.S. Geological Survey Digital Geospatial Data Products for Science Research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Varanka, Dalia E.; Deering, Carol; Caro, Holly

    2012-01-01

    The development of geographic information system (GIS) transformed the practice of geographic science research. The availability of low-cost, reliable data by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) supported the advance of GIS in the early stages of the transition to digital technology. To estimate the extent of the scientific use of USGS digital geospatial data products, a search of science literature databases yielded numbers of articles citing USGS products. Though this method requires careful consideration to avoid false positives, these citation numbers of three types of products (vector, land-use/land-cover, and elevation data) were graphed, and the frequency trends were examined. Trends indicated that the use of several, but not all, products increased with time. The use of some products declined and reasons for these declines are offered. To better understand how these data affected the design and outcomes of research projects, the study begins to build a context for the data by discussing digital cartographic research preceding the production of mass-produced products. The data distribution methods used various media for different system types and were supported by instructional material. The findings are an initial assessment of the affect of USGS products on GIS-enabled science research. A brief examination of the specific papers indicates that USGS data were used for science and GIS conceptual research, advanced education, and problem analysis and solution applications.

  2. Preliminary summary of the 1976 Atlantic Margin Coring Project of the U.S. Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hathaway, John Cummins; Schlee, J.J.; Poag, C.W.; Valentine, P.C.; Weed, E.G.A.; Bothner, Michael H.; Kohout, F.A.; Manheim, F. T.; Schloam, R.; Miller, R.E.; Schultz, D.M.

    1976-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey Atlantic Margin Coring Project, 1976, a 60-day expedition to obtain core samples by drilling beneath the floor of the Continental Shelf and Slope of the eastern United States, was carried out in July, August, and September 1976 aboard D/V GLOMAR CONCEPTION. The coring penetrated as much as 310 meters below the sea floor at 19 sites along the continental margin from Georgia to Georges Bank off New England in water depths ranging from 20 to 300 meters; 1,020 meters of material were recovered in 380 cores, ranging in age from Late Cretaceous to Holocene. One of the major findings was the discovery of relatively fresh water (salinities less than 3 parts per thousand) extending beneath the Continental Shelf as much as 60 nautical miles seaward from the New Jersey coast. Water of about 1 part per thousand salinity was found beneath the shelf more than 7 nautical miles off Ocean City, Maryland and Barnegat Inlet, New Jersey. Analyses for light hydrocarbons in the cores show the highest concentrations (as much as 412,000 ppm) at sites in water depth greater than 200 meters (the shelf-slope break), principally in Pleistocene sediments, although methane concentrations greater than 400,000 ppm also were found in Miocene sediments at one site near the shelf edge. (Woodard-USGS)

  3. Aquifer descriptions from the U.S. Geological Survey Regional Aquifer-System Analysis Program, 1978-1993

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davidson, Claire B.; Doherty, Helen

    1994-01-01

    The Regional Aquifer-System Analysis Program of the U.S. Geological Survey began in 1978. The overall purpose of this program is to define the geologic, hydrologic, and geochemical framework of the Nation's most important aquifers and aquifer systems. This report summarizes the aquifer or aquifer system name, geographic area, rock units, equivalent names, lithology, thickness, hydrologic characteristics, water quality, water use, and references for 157 aquifers in 23 areas of the United States. A .zip file containing the aquifer data and data search programs (in compressed ASCII format) is included in the report.

  4. Strategic Plan for the U.S. Geological Survey Status and Trends of Biological Resources Program: 2004-2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dresler, Paul V.; Bartish, Timothy M.

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) provides a broad range of national expertise in geography, geology, hydrology, and biology. The mission of the USGS is to provide reliable scientific information to describe and understand the Earth; minimize loss of life and property from natural disasters; assist others in managing water, biological, and mineral resources; and enhance and protect quality of life. The USGS places a special emphasis on providing science to the land and resource management bureaus of the Department of the Interior (DOI). The Biological Resources Discipline activities assist in maintaining healthy ecosystems and natural resources so that these habitats can continue to provide food, energy, medicine, transportation, and recreation.

  5. Are clinicians being prepared to care for abused women? A survey of health professional education in Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Wathen, C Nadine; Tanaka, Masako; Catallo, Cristina; Lebner, Adrianne C; Friedman, M Kinneret; Hanson, Mark D; Freeman, Clare; Jack, Susan M; Jamieson, Ellen; MacMillan, Harriet L

    2009-01-01

    Background The current project undertook a province-wide survey and environmental scan of educational opportunities available to future health care providers on the topic of intimate partner violence (IPV) against women. Methods A team of experts identified university and college programs in Ontario, Canada as potential providers of IPV education to students in health care professions at the undergraduate and post-graduate levels. A telephone survey with contacts representing these programs was conducted between October 2005 and March 2006. The survey asked whether IPV-specific education was provided to learners, and if so, how and by whom. Results In total, 222 eligible programs in dentistry, medicine, nursing and other allied health professions were surveyed, and 95% (212/222) of programs responded. Of these, 57% reported offering some form of IPV-specific education, with undergraduate nursing (83%) and allied health (82%) programs having the highest rates. Fewer than half of undergraduate medical (43%) and dentistry (46%) programs offered IPV content. Postgraduate programs ranged from no IPV content provision (dentistry) to 41% offering content (nursing). Conclusion Significant variability exists across program areas regarding the methods for IPV education, its delivery and evaluation. The results of this project highlight that expectations for an active and consistent response by health care professionals to women experiencing the effects of violence may not match the realities of professional preparation. PMID:19575776

  6. THE CANADA-FRANCE ECLIPTIC PLANE SURVEY-L3 DATA RELEASE: THE ORBITAL STRUCTURE OF THE KUIPER BELT

    SciTech Connect

    Kavelaars, J. J.; Jones, R. L.; Murray, I.; Gladman, B. J.; Petit, J.-M.; Van Laerhoven, C.; Parker, Joel Wm.; Bieryla, A.; Nicholson, P.; Margot, J. L.; Rousselot, P.; Mousis, O.; Scholl, H.; Marsden, B.; Benavidez, P.; Campo Bagatin, A.; Doressoundiram, A.; Veillet, C.

    2009-06-15

    We report the orbital distribution of the trans-Neptunian comets discovered during the first discovery year of the Canada-France Ecliptic Plane Survey (CFEPS). CFEPS is a Kuiper Belt object survey based on observations acquired by the Very Wide component of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey (LS-VW). The first year's detections consist of 73 Kuiper Belt objects, 55 of which have now been tracked for three years or more, providing precise orbits. Although this sample size is small compared to the world-wide inventory, because we have an absolutely calibrated and extremely well-characterized survey (with known pointing history) we are able to de-bias our observed population and make unbiased statements about the intrinsic orbital distribution of the Kuiper Belt. By applying the (publically available) CFEPS Survey Simulator to models of the true orbital distribution and comparing the resulting simulated detections to the actual detections made by the survey, we are able to rule out several hypothesized Kuiper Belt object orbit distributions. We find that the main classical belt's so-called 'cold' component is confined in semimajor axis (a) and eccentricity (e) compared to the more extended 'hot' component; the cold component is confined to lower e and does not stretch all the way out to the 2:1 resonance but rather depletes quickly beyond a = 45 AU. For the cold main classical belt population we find a robust population estimate of N(H{sub g} < 10) = 50 {+-} 5 x 10{sup 3} and find that the hot component of the main classical belt represents {approx}60% of the total population. The inner classical belt (sunward of the 3:2 mean-motion resonance) has a population of roughly 2000 trans-Neptunian objects with absolute magnitudes H{sub g} < 10, and may not share the inclination distribution of the main classical belt. We also find that the plutino population lacks a cold low-inclination component, and so, the population is somewhat larger than recent estimates; our analysis shows a plutino population of N(H{sub g} < 10){approx} 25{sup +25} {sub -12} x 10{sup 3}compared to our estimate of the size of main classical Kuiper Belt population of N(H{sub g} < 10) {approx} (126{sup +50} {sub -46}) x 10{sup 3}.

  7. Opportunities and Needs for Mobile-Computing Technology to Support U.S. Geological Survey Fieldwork

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, Nathan J.; Halsing, David L.

    2006-01-01

    To assess the opportunities and needs for mobile-computing technology at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), we conducted an internal, Internet-based survey of bureau scientists whose research includes fieldwork. In summer 2005, 144 survey participants answered 65 questions about fieldwork activities and conditions, technology to support field research, and postfieldwork data processing and analysis. Results suggest that some types of mobile-computing technology are already commonplace, such as digital cameras and Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers, whereas others are not, such as personal digital assistants (PDAs) and tablet-based personal computers (tablet PCs). The potential for PDA use in the USGS is high: 97 percent of respondents record field observations (primarily environmental conditions and water-quality data), and 87 percent take field samples (primarily water-quality data, water samples, and sediment/soil samples). The potential for tablet PC use in the USGS is also high: 59 percent of respondents map environmental features in the field, primarily by sketching in field notebooks, on aerial photographs, or on topographic-map sheets. Results also suggest that efficient mobile-computing-technology solutions could benefit many USGS scientists because most respondents spend at least 1 week per year in the field, conduct field sessions that are least 1 week in duration, have field crews of one to three people, and typically travel on foot about 1 mi from their field vehicles. By allowing researchers to enter data directly into digital databases while in the field, mobile-computing technology could also minimize postfieldwork data processing: 93 percent of respondents enter collected field data into their office computers, and more than 50 percent spend at least 1 week per year on postfieldwork data processing. Reducing postfieldwork data processing could free up additional time for researchers and result in cost savings for the bureau. Generally, respondents support greater use of mobile-computing technology at the USGS and are interested in training opportunities and further discussions related to data archiving, access to additional digital data types, and technology development.

  8. Serological Survey of West Nile Virus in Pet Dogs from Saskatchewan, Canada.

    PubMed

    Gaunt, M Casey; Waldner, Cheryl; Taylor, Susan M

    2015-12-01

    Serum samples collected from 143 dogs from Saskatchewan, Canada, between 2008 and 2010 were evaluated for seroprevalence of West Nile virus (WNV). WNV antibodies were identified in 40/143 dogs (28%). Dogs that were primarily housed in the yard were 6.2 times (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.6-14.5) more likely to have antibodies than dogs housed in the house or garage. Dogs were more likely to be positive with increasing time spent outside. The results of this study document WNV seroprevalence in dogs from Saskatchewan and suggest that pet dogs might be useful as a sentinel species for WNV surveillance. PMID:26645738

  9. A preliminary global geologic map of Vesta based on Dawn Survey orbit data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yingst, R.; Williams, D. A.; Garry, W. B.; Mest, S. C.; Petro, N. E.; Buczkowski, D.; Schenk, P.; Jaumann, R.; Pieters, C. M.; Roatsch, T.; Preusker, F.; Nathues, A.; LeCorre, L.; Reddy, V.; Russell, C. T.; Raymond, C. A.; DeSanctis, C.; Ammannito, E.; Filacchione, G.

    2011-12-01

    NASA's Dawn spacecraft arrived at the asteroid 4Vesta on July 15, 2011, and is now collecting imaging, spectroscopic, and elemental abundance data during its one-year orbital mission. As part of the geological analysis of the surface, we have utilized images and data from the Survey orbital sequence to produce a global map of Vesta's surface. Unit boundaries and feature characteristics were determined primarily from morphologic analysis of image data; projected Framing Camera (FC) images were used as the base map. Spectral information from FC and VIR are used to refine unit contacts and to separate compositional distinctions from differences arising from illumination or other factors. Those units that could be discerned both in morphology and in the color data were interpreted as geologically distinct units. Vesta's surface is highly-cratered; differences in color and albedo are possible indicators of varying thicknesses and areal extents of crater ejecta. The most prominent candidate impact feature dominates the south pole. This feature consists of a depression roughly circular in shape, with a central hill that is characterized by smoother texture and lower albedo distinctive from the lower-lying surrounding terrain. A complex network of deep troughs and ridges cuts through the floor of the feature. Many of these troughs trend north-south, while others appear circumferential to the hill and are truncated by or terminate at orthogonal ridges/grooves. Detailed mapping of these features will provide information on their orientations, possible origin(s), and their relationship, if any, to the central hill. The equator of Vesta is also girdled by a wide set of flat-floored troughs. Their orientation implies that their formation is related to the south polar structure. Several regions on Vesta have a concentration of craters displaying low-albedo interiors or exteriors. These craters may have an exogenic origin, or may be the result of excavation of a thin sub-surface layer. Low-albedo regions also appear to have been uncovered by mass wasting around some topographic highs. If this dark material is endogenic in origin, this suggests that Vesta has both vertical and lateral stratigraphic heterogeneity. Current imaging also reveals dark materials and smooth regions that may be candidate locations/sites for volcanic activity. Further study at greater spatial and spectral resolution is required to unequivocally identify the character and origin of these features. The authors gratefully acknowledge the support of the Dawn Operations, Instruments, and Science Teams.

  10. U.S. Geological Survey Science for the Wyoming Landscape Conservation Initiative - 2008 Annual Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowen, Zachary H.; Aldridge, Cameron L.; Anderson, Patrick J.; Assal, Timothy J.; Baer, Lori Anne; Bristol, R. Sky; Carr, Natasha B.; Chong, Geneva W.; Diffendorfer, Jay E.; Fedy, Bradley C.; Garman, Steven L.; Germaine, Stephen; Grauch, Richard I.; Homer, Collin G.; Manier, Daniel J.; Kauffman, Matthew J.; Latysh, Natalie; Melcher, Cynthia P.; Miller, Kirk A.; Montag, Jessica; Nutt, Constance J.; Potter, Christopher; Sawyer, Hall; Smith, David B.; Sweat, Michael J.; Wilson, Anna B.

    2009-01-01

    The Wyoming Landscape Conservation Initiative (WLCI) was launched in 2007 in response to concerns about threats to the State's world class wildlife resources, especially the threat posed by rapidly increasing energy development in southwest Wyoming. The overriding purpose of the WLCI is to assess and enhance aquatic and terrestrial habitats at a landscape scale, while facilitating responsible energy and other types of development. The WLCI includes partners from Federal, State, and local agencies, with participation from public and private entities, industry, and landowners. As a principal WLCI partner, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) provides multidisciplinary scientific and technical support to inform decisionmaking in the WLCI. To address WLCI management needs, USGS has designed and implemented five integrated work activities: (1) Baseline Synthesis, (2) Targeted Monitoring and Research, (3) Integration and Coordination, (4) Data and Information Management, and (5) Decisionmaking and Evaluation. Ongoing information management of data and products acquired or generated through the integrated work activities will ensure that crucial scientific information is available to partners and stakeholders in a readily accessible and useable format for decisionmaking and evaluation. Significant progress towards WLCI goals has been achieved in many Science and Technical Assistance tasks of the work activities. Available data were identified, acquired, compiled, and integrated into a comprehensive database for use by WLCI partners and to support USGS science activities. A Web-based platform for sharing these data and products has been developed and is already in use. Numerous map products have been completed and made available to WLCI partners, and other products are in progress. Initial conceptual, habitat, and climate change models have been developed or refined. Monitoring designs for terrestrial and aquatic indicators have been completed, pilot data have been collected for terrestrial indicators, and evaluations of alternative monitoring designs are underway. Initial models and map products have been developed for assessing vegetation, surface disturbance, oil and gas resources, mineral resources, surficial geology, invasive species, aspen treatments, ungulate migration corridors, greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus), pygmy rabbits (Brachylagus idahoensis), and songbirds, and data were collected or compiled to validate and refine the models. Coordination and collaboration among partners has led to the production of several documents addressing WLCI objectives, strategies, and guiding principles, and has facilitated implementation of on-the-ground habitat treatments.

  11. An Early Pennsylvanian threshold for the influence of vegetation on fluvial landscapes, based on the geological record of Atlantic Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibling, Martin; Ielpi, Alessandro; Bashforth, Arden; Davies, Neil

    2015-04-01

    Vegetation profoundly influences modern fluvial systems, depending on plant life-history strategies, tolerance to disturbance, and habitat drainage. However, direct evidence for these dynamic relationships is cryptic and has commonly been overlooked in ancient deposits. We report evidence for profound interactions between channels, in situ and transported vegetation in Lower Pennsylvanian formations of Atlantic Canada (~310 Ma), attributed to braided, meandering and fixed-channel (anastomosing) systems. Plant groups include lycopsids that preferred stable wetland settings, disturbance-tolerant calamitaleans, and deeply rooted cordaitaleans (early gymnosperms) that originated in the late Mississippian and colonised both wetland and dryland settings. For the meandering and anastomosing channel deposits, upright vegetation was observed within channel-based bedforms and bars and on channel margins. Lycopsids and calamitalean groves colonized the channel bed and bank-attached bars during periods of reduced flow, nucleating bar growth after flow resumed. Upright lycopsids and cordaitaleans are common along channel cutbanks and are locally tilted towards the channel, implying involvement in bank stabilization. Rhizoconcretions that formed around deep cordaitalean roots may have aided bank reinforcement. Tetrapod and arthropod trackways in the channel deposits indicate a close linkage between riparian and aquatic ecosystems. In the braided systems, sediments that contain abundant cordaitalean logs constitute nearly 20% of channel deposits, and the logs form channel-base lags, fill channels up to 6 m deep, and form nuclei for shallow sandbars. Log accumulations overlain by shale lenses imply a contribution to channel avulsion. Rooted channel-sandstones containing upright trees are interpreted as vegetated islands in an island-braided system. Anastomosing systems are abundant in these Lower Pennsylvanian formations but rare in older strata, and the multi-channel island-braided systems are the oldest yet described. The rise to prominence of these two anabranching styles, broadly coinciding with the rise of cordaitaleans, implies that fluvial landscapes had crossed a threshold from a geomorphic and biogeomorphic mode of operation into a fully ecological mode with feedback loops between vegetation and fluvial processes. Thereafter, patterns of interaction between rivers and vegetation broadly resembled those of today, with prominent riparian corridors and profound consequences for aquatic, soil and other terrestrial ecosystems. Our field observations confirm the co-evolution of river systems, vegetation and animals, and highlight a need to incorporate vegetation more fully into earth-system and landscape models.

  12. Sudbury project (University of Muenster-Ontario Geological Survey): Field studies 1984-1989 - summary of results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bischoff, L.; Dressler, B. O.; Avermann, M. E.; Brockmeyer, P.; Lakomy, R.; Mueller-Mohr, V.

    1992-01-01

    In cooperation between the Ontario Geological Survey and the Institute of Geology and Institute of Planetology, geological, petrological, and geochemical studies were carried out on impact-related phenomena of the Sudbury structure during the last decade. The main results of the field studies are briefly reviewed. Footwall rocks, sublayer, and lower sections of the Sudbury Igneous Complex (SIC) were mainly mapped and sampled in the northern (Levack Township) and western (Trillabelle and Sultana Properties) parts of the north range. Within these mapping areas Sudbury Breccias (SB) and Footwall Breccias (FB) were studied; SB were also investigated along extended profiles beyond the north and south ranges up to 55 km from the SIC. The Onaping Formation (OF) and the upper section of the SIC were studied both in the north range (Morgan and Dowling Townships) and in the southern east range (Capreol and McLennan Townships).

  13. Water survey of Canada: Application for use of ERTS-A for retransmission of water resources data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halliday, R. A. (principal investigator); Reid, I. A.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The fact that water resources data can be retransmitted from remote areas of Canada by polar orbiting spacecraft to users in population centers on a near real time basis reliably, accurately, and at relative low cost continues to be demonstrated. Over 60,000 transmissions from the nine data collection platforms installed at Water Survey of Canada gauging stations have been received. The stage and ice-out data retransmitted via ERTS-1 have been plotted on a chart record produced by a water stage servo-manometer installed on the Albany River. The stage increased smoothly until shortly after noon on May 19, 1974. During this time the indicator showed that the ice surface was intact. The stage then dropped sharply and the indicator read that the ice was out. The erratic chart trace after that was consistent with the assumption that the ice surface had broken up and that some short duration jams of broken ice were occurring.

  14. Accuracy assessment of the U.S. Geological Survey National Elevation Dataset, and comparison with other large-area elevation datasets: SRTM and ASTER

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gesch, Dean B.; Oimoen, Michael J.; Evans, Gayla A.

    2014-01-01

    The National Elevation Dataset (NED) is the primary elevation data product produced and distributed by the U.S. Geological Survey. The NED provides seamless raster elevation data of the conterminous United States, Alaska, Hawaii, U.S. island territories, Mexico, and Canada. The NED is derived from diverse source datasets that are processed to a specification with consistent resolutions, coordinate system, elevation units, and horizontal and vertical datums. The NED serves as the elevation layer of The National Map, and it provides basic elevation information for earth science studies and mapping applications in the United States and most of North America. An important part of supporting scientific and operational use of the NED is provision of thorough dataset documentation including data quality and accuracy metrics. The focus of this report is on the vertical accuracy of the NED and on comparison of the NED with other similar large-area elevation datasets, namely data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER).

  15. Assessing health care in Canada's North: what can we learn from national and regional surveys?

    PubMed Central

    Young, T. Kue; Ng, Carmina; Chatwood, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Background Health surveys are a rich source of information on a variety of health issues, including health care. Objectives This article compares various national and regional surveys in terms of their geographical coverage with respect to the Canadian North, especially their Aboriginal population, and the comparability of the survey contents relating to health care. Methods Three surveys were selected as providing some information on health care, with separate estimates for the North and its Aboriginal populations. They are the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS), Aboriginal Peoples Survey (APS) and the First Nations Regional Health Survey (RHS). Results Different surveys focus on different categories of Aboriginal people, and no single survey has covered all categories of Aboriginal people in the North consistently. RHS is targeted at the on-reserve First Nations population only. APS and CCHS sample the off-reserve First Nations population as well as Métis and Inuit. To achieve adequate sample size for North–South comparisons and comparisons among Aboriginal groups within the North, several cycles of the biennial/annual CCHS can be merged, producing a large data set with consistent coverage of topics using comparable questions. The content areas of the 3 surveys can be broadly categorized as health status, health determinants and health care. Substantial variation exists across surveys in the domains covered. There are also changes over time in terms of definitions, questions and even basic concepts. The available health care content of the 3 surveys focus on access to different types of health services, contact with different categories of health professionals, unmet health needs and the use of preventive services. Many important dimensions of health care are not covered. Not all these basic indicators are available for the North or its Aboriginal populations. Conclusions A comprehensive survey of health care in the North with sufficient sample size to provide reliable estimates for its subpopulations – urban and remote, Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal, and First Nations, Inuit and Métis – would provide useful information to decision-makers and service providers. Analytical studies can also be conducted to investigate the correlations and interactions among health status, health determinants and health care and assess whether such relationships differ among the different population groups. PMID:26214103

  16. The Distribution of Faint Satellites around Central Galaxies in the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, C. Y.; Jing, Y. P.; Li, Cheng

    2012-11-01

    We investigate the radial number density profile and the abundance distribution of faint satellites around central galaxies in the low-redshift universe using the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) Legacy Survey. We consider three samples of central galaxies with magnitudes of M r = -21, -22, and -23 selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey group catalog of Yang et al. The satellite distribution around these central galaxies is obtained by cross-correlating these galaxies with the photometric catalog of the CFHT Legacy Survey. The projected radial number density of the satellites obeys a power-law form with the best-fit logarithmic slope of -1.05, independent of both the central galaxy luminosity and the satellite luminosity. The projected cross-correlation function between central and satellite galaxies exhibits a non-monotonic trend with satellite luminosity. It is most pronounced for central galaxies with M r = -21, where the decreasing trend of clustering amplitude with satellite luminosity is reversed when satellites are fainter than central galaxies by more than 2 mag. A comparison with the satellite luminosity functions in the Milky Way (MW) and M31 shows that the MW/M31 system has about twice as many satellites as around a typical central galaxy of similar luminosity. The implications for theoretical models are briefly discussed.

  17. THE DISTRIBUTION OF FAINT SATELLITES AROUND CENTRAL GALAXIES IN THE CANADA-FRANCE-HAWAII TELESCOPE LEGACY SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, C. Y.; Jing, Y. P.; Li, Cheng

    2012-11-20

    We investigate the radial number density profile and the abundance distribution of faint satellites around central galaxies in the low-redshift universe using the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) Legacy Survey. We consider three samples of central galaxies with magnitudes of M {sub r} = -21, -22, and -23 selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey group catalog of Yang et al. The satellite distribution around these central galaxies is obtained by cross-correlating these galaxies with the photometric catalog of the CFHT Legacy Survey. The projected radial number density of the satellites obeys a power-law form with the best-fit logarithmic slope of -1.05, independent of both the central galaxy luminosity and the satellite luminosity. The projected cross-correlation function between central and satellite galaxies exhibits a non-monotonic trend with satellite luminosity. It is most pronounced for central galaxies with M {sub r} = -21, where the decreasing trend of clustering amplitude with satellite luminosity is reversed when satellites are fainter than central galaxies by more than 2 mag. A comparison with the satellite luminosity functions in the Milky Way (MW) and M31 shows that the MW/M31 system has about twice as many satellites as around a typical central galaxy of similar luminosity. The implications for theoretical models are briefly discussed.

  18. Insights into the Structure and Surface Geology of Isla Socorro, Mexico, from Airborne Magnetic and Gamma-Ray Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paoletti, V.; Gruber, S.; Varley, N.; D'Antonio, M.; Supper, R.; Motschka, K.

    2015-12-01

    The island of Socorro is located in the eastern Pacific Ocean, 650 km off the coast of Mexico. It is a rare example of an oceanic volcanic island whose above sea level volume is made up mostly of peralkaline trachytes and rhyolites, with subordinate mafic rocks. Subaerial volcanism started several hundred thousand years ago and continues until recent times. We present an investigation of surface and subsurface geology of the island, based on the first detailed extensive geophysical survey on the island. Acquired airborne magnetic and gamma-ray data were compared to existing geological information and supplemented with field investigations and satellite imagery. Magnetic data show a wide minimum in the central part of the island, possibly connected to a high-temperature zone in the deeper central portion of the volcano, likely to be due to a still hot magma body. The data also depict two parallel edges possibly suggesting the existence of a nested caldera. Analysis on upward continued magnetic data by recent imaging techniques highlighted two deep sources located around 5 km b.s.l., interpreted as feeding structures that are now filled with crystalline rocks. Gamma-ray data have been interpreted through integration with the geological survey results. Several previously known volcanic deposits have been identified based on radioelement distribution, and others have been redefined based on field evidence. A new succession of volcanic members is proposed, to be verified through more detailed geological mapping, geochemical analyses of rock samples and radiometric dating.

  19. U.S. Geological Survey DLG-3 and Bureau of the Census TIGER data. Development and GIS applications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Batten, Lawrence G.

    1990-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has been actively developing digital cartographic and geographic data and standards since the early 1970's. One product is Digital Line Graph data, which offer a consistently accurate source of base category geographic information. The Bureau of the Census has combined their Dual Independent Map Encoding data with the Geological Survey's 1:100,000-scale Digital Line Graph data to prepare for the 1990 decennial census. The resulting Topologically Integrated Geographic Encoding and Referencing data offer a wealth of information. A major area of research using these data is in transportation analysis. The attributes associated with Digital Line Graphs can be used to determine the average travel times along each segment. Geographic information system functions can then be used to optimize routes through the network and to generate street name lists. Additional aspects of the subject are discussed.

  20. Results of the U. S. Geological Survey's analytical evaluation program for standard reference samples distributed in October 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Connor, B.F.; Currier, J.P.; Woodworth, M.T.

    2001-01-01

    This report presents the results of the U.S. Geological Survey's analytical evaluation program for six standard reference samples -- T-163 (trace constituents), M-156 (major constituents), N-67 (nutrient constituents), N-68 (nutrient constituents), P-35 (low ionic strength constituents), and Hg-31 (mercury) -- that were distributed in October 2000 to 126 laboratories enrolled in the U.S. Geological Survey sponsored interlaboratory testing program. Analytical data that were received from 122 of the laboratories were evaluated with respect to overall laboratory performance and relative laboratory performance for each analyte in the six reference samples. Results of these evaluations are presented in tabular form. Also presented are tables and graphs summarizing the analytical data provided by each laboratory for each analyte in the six standard reference samples. The most probable value for each analyte was determined using nonparametric statistics.

  1. Results of the U.S. Geological Survey's analytical evaluation program for standard reference samples distributed in October 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farrar, T.W.

    2000-01-01

    This report presents the results of the U.S. Geological Survey's analytical evaluation program for six standard reference samples -- T-159 (trace constituents), M-152 (major constituents), N-63 (nutrient constituents), N-64 (nutrient constituents), P-33 (low ionic strength constituents), and Hg-29 (mercury) -- that were distributed in October 1999 to 149 laboratories enrolled in the U.S. Geological Survey sponsored interlaboratory testing program. Analytical data that were received from 131 of the laboratories were evaluated with respect to overall laboratory performance and relative laboratory performance for each analyte in the six reference samples. Results of these evaluations are presented in tabular form. Also presented are tables and graphs summarizing the analytical data provided by each laboratory for each analyte in the six standard reference samples. The most probable value for each analyte was determined using nonparametric statistics.

  2. Results of the U. S. Geological Survey's Analytical Evaluation Program for Standard Reference Samples Distributed in March 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodworth, M.T.; Conner, B.F.

    2002-01-01

    This report presents the results of the U.S. Geological Survey's analytical evaluation program for six standard reference samples -- T- 169 (trace constituents), M- 162 (major constituents), N-73 (nutrient constituents), N-74 (nutrient constituents), P-38 (low ionic-strength constituents), and Hg-34 (mercury) -- that were distributed in March 2002 to laboratories enrolled in the U.S. Geological Survey sponsored intedaboratory testing program. Analytical data received from 93 laboratories were evaluated with respect to overall laboratory performance and relative laboratory performance for each analyte in the six reference samples. Results of these evaluations are presented in tabular form. Also presented are tables and graphs summarizing the analytical data provided by each laboratory for each analyte in the six standard reference samples. The most probable value for each analyte was determined using nonparametric statistics.

  3. Results of the U.S. Geological Survey's analytical evaluation program for standard reference samples distributed in March 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodworth, Mark T.; Connor, Brooke F.

    2003-01-01

    This report presents the results of the U.S. Geological Survey's analytical evaluation program for six standard reference samples -- T-173 (trace constituents), M-166 (major constituents), N-77 (nutrient constituents), N-78 (nutrient constituents), P-40 (low ionic-strength constituents), and Hg-36 (mercury) -- that were distributed in March 2003 to laboratories enrolled in the U.S. Geological Survey sponsored interlaboratory testing program. Analytical data received from 110 laboratories were evaluated with respect to overall laboratory performance and relative laboratory performance for each analyte in the six reference samples. Results of these evaluations are presented in tabular form. Also presented are tables and graphs summarizing the analytical data provided by each laboratory for each analyte in the six standard reference samples. The most probable value for each analyte was determined using nonparametric statistics.

  4. Results of the U.S. Geological Survey's Analytical Evaluation Program for standard reference samples distributed in March 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farrar, Jerry W.; Chleboun, Kimberly M.

    1999-01-01

    This report presents the results of the U.S. Geological Survey's analytical evaluation program for 8 standard reference samples -- T-157 (trace constituents), M-150 (major constituents), N-61 (nutrient constituents), N-62 (nutrient constituents), P-32 (low ionic strength constituents), GWT-5 (ground-water trace constituents), GWM- 4 (ground-water major constituents),and Hg-28 (mercury) -- that were distributed in March 1999 to 120 laboratories enrolled in the U.S. Geological Survey sponsored interlaboratory testing program. Analytical data that were received from 111 of the laboratories were evaluated with respect to overall laboratory performance and relative laboratory performance for each analyte in the seven reference samples. Results of these evaluations are presented in tabular form. Also presented are tables and graphs summarizing the analytical data provided by each laboratory for each analyte in the 8 standard reference samples. The most probable value for each analyte was determined using nonparametric statistics.

  5. Results of the U.S. Geological Survey's analytical evaluation program for standard reference samples distributed in September 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodworth, Mark T.; Connor, Brooke F.

    2003-01-01

    This report presents the results of the U.S. Geological Survey's analytical evaluation program for six standard reference samples -- T-171 (trace constituents), M-164 (major constituents), N-75 (nutrient constituents), N-76 (nutrient constituents), P-39 (low ionic-strength constituents), and Hg-35 (mercury) -- that were distributed in September 2002 to laboratories enrolled in the U.S. Geological Survey sponsored interlaboratory testing program. Analytical data received from 102 laboratories were evaluated with respect to overall laboratory performance and relative laboratory performance for each analyte in the six reference samples. Results of these evaluations are presented in tabular form. Also presented are tables and graphs summarizing the analytical data provided by each laboratory for each analyte in the six standard reference samples. The most probable value for each analyte was determined using nonparametric statistics.

  6. Results of the U. S. Geological Survey's analytical evaluation program for standard reference samples distributed in April 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodworth, M.T.; Connor, B.F.

    2001-01-01

    This report presents the results of the U.S. Geological Survey's analytical evaluation program for six standard reference samples -- T-165 (trace constituents), M-158 (major constituents), N-69 (nutrient constituents), N-70 (nutrient constituents), P-36 (low ionic-strength constituents), and Hg-32 (mercury) -- that were distributed in April 2001 to laboratories enrolled in the U.S. Geological Survey sponsored interlaboratory testing program. Analytical data received from 73 laboratories were evaluated with respect to overall laboratory performance and relative laboratory performance for each analyte in the six reference samples. Results of these evaluations are presented in tabular form. Also presented are tables and graphs summarizing the analytical data provided by each laboratory for each analyte in the six standard reference samples. The most probable value for each analyte was determined using nonparametric statistics.

  7. Results of the U.S. Geological Survey's analytical evaluation program for standard reference samples distributed in September 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodworth, Mark T.; Connor, Brooke F.

    2002-01-01

    This report presents the results of the U.S. Geological Survey's analytical evaluation program for six standard reference samples -- T-167 (trace constituents), M-160 (major constituents), N-71 (nutrient constituents), N-72 (nutrient constituents), P-37 (low ionic-strength constituents), and Hg-33 (mercury) -- that were distributed in September 2001 to laboratories enrolled in the U.S. Geological Survey sponsored interlaboratory testing program. Analytical data received from 98 laboratories were evaluated with respect to overall laboratory performance and relative laboratory performance for each analyte in the six reference samples. Results of these evaluations are presented in tabular form. Also presented are tables and graphs summarizing the analytical data provided by each laboratory for each analyte in the six standard reference samples. The most probable value for each analyte was determined using nonparametric statistics.

  8. Results of the U.S. Geological Survey's Analytical Evaluation Program for Standard Reference Samples Distributed in March 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farrar, Jerry W.; Copen, Ashley M.

    2000-01-01

    This report presents the results of the U.S. Geological Survey's analytical evaluation program for six standard reference samples -- T-161 (trace constituents), M-154 (major constituents), N-65 (nutrient constituents), N-66 nutrient constituents), P-34 (low ionic strength constituents), and Hg-30 (mercury) -- that were distributed in March 2000 to 144 laboratories enrolled in the U.S. Geological Survey sponsored interlaboratory testing program. Analytical data that were received from 132 of the laboratories were evaluated with respect to overall laboratory performance and relative laboratory performance for each analyte in the six reference samples. Results of these evaluations are presented in tabular form. Also presented are tables and graphs summarizing the analytical data provided by each laboratory for each analyte in the six standard reference samples. The most probable value for each analyte was determined using nonparametric statistics.

  9. Quality-Assurance Plan for Water-Quality Activities of the U.S. Geological Survey in Miami, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lietz, A. C., (compiler)

    2003-01-01

    In accordance with guidelines set forth by the Office of Water Quality in the Water Resources Discipline of the U.S. Geological Survey, a quality-assurance plan has been created for use by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in Miami to conduct water-quality activities. This quality-assurance plan documents the standards, policies, and procedures used by the Miami USGS for activities related to the collection, processing, storage, analysis, and publication of water-quality data. The policies and procedures that are documented in this quality-assurance plan for water-quality activities are meant to complement the Miami USGS quality-assurance plans for surface-water and ground-water activities.

  10. Marinas, mines, and mudpots. Building a feature-based production system at the U.S. geological survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chappell, Gary B.; Neff, Kathryn C.

    1991-01-01

    By the mid-1990's, the U.S. Geological Survey expects to produce spatial data according to its new data model, Digital Line Graph-Enhanced (DLG-E). This new data model currently defines more than 200 unique feature types that describe the geographic phenomena portrayed on the series of 1:24,000-scale topographic maps. Characteristics of features are encoded as attributes, and linkages between features are expressed as relationships. Ultimately, features are tied to the spatial components that represent their location and (or) shape. Developing the ability to manipulate the features that compose the DLG-E world presents many new challenges in the design of a data production system. Primary among these challenges is controlling the attribution and value of each feature type to ensure consistency in data content. Methods are under development at the U.S. Geological Survey to provide automated control over the DLG-E data production process.

  11. Suggestions to authors of papers submitted for publication by the United States Geological Survey with directions to typewriter operators

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, George McLane

    1913-01-01

    The first pamphlet containing suggestions to authors for the preparation of manuscript intended for publication by the Geological Survey was published in January, 1888. This pamphlet was revised and reprinted in 1892. In 1904 the Survey published suggestions for the preparation of geologic folios, and in 1906 suggestions for the preparation of reports on mining districts. All matter of present value that was included in these publications, with much additional material, has been incorporated in the pamphlet here presented. The first edition of this pamphlet was published in 1909. The edition now published contains some new material and discusses in greater detail several suggestions that were made in the first edition. In the compilation of both editions valuable aid has been rendered by Mr. Bernard H. Lane, assistant editor.

  12. US Geological Survey research on the environmental fate of uranium mining and milling wastes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landa, E.R.; Gray, J.R.

    1995-01-01

    Studies by the US Geological Survey (USGS) of uranium mill tailings (UMT) have focused on characterizing the forms in which radionuclides are retained and identifying factors influencing the release of radionuclides to air and water. Selective extraction studies and studies of radionuclide sorption by and leaching from components of UMT showed alkaline earth sulfate and hydrous ferric oxides to be important hosts of radium-226 (226Ra) in UMT. Extrapolating from studies of barite dissolution in anerobic lake sediments, the leaching of 226Ra from UMT by sulfate-reducing bacteria was investigated; a marked increase in 226Ra release to aqueous solution as compared to sterile controls was demonstrated. A similar action of iron(III)-reducing bacteria was later shown. Ion exchangers such as clay minerals can also promote the dissolution of host-phase minerals and thereby influence the fate of radionuclides such as 226Ra. Radon release studies examined particle size and ore composition as variables. Aggregation of UMT particles was shown to mask the higher emanating fraction of finer particles. Studies of various ores and ore components showed that UMT cannot be assumed to have the same radon-release characteristics as their precursor ores, nor can 226Ra retained by various substrates be assumed to emanate the same fraction of radon. Over the last decade, USGS research directed at offsite mobility of radionuclides from uranium mining and milling processes has focused on six areas: the Midnite Mine in Washington; Ralston Creek and Reservoir, Colorado; sites near Canon City, Colorado; the Monument Valley District of Arizona and Utah; the Cameron District of Arizona; and the Puerco River basin of Arizona and New Mexico.

  13. Health-based screening levels to evaluate U.S. Geological Survey ground water quality data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Toccalino, P.L.; Norman, J.E.

    2006-01-01

    Federal and state drinking-water standards and guidelines do not exist for many contaminants analyzed by the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program, limiting the ability to evaluate the potential human-health relevance of water-quality findings. Health-based screening levels (HBSLs) were developed collaboratively to supplement existing drinking-water standards and guidelines as part of a six-year, multi-agency pilot study. The pilot study focused on ground water samples collected prior to treatment or blending in areas of New Jersey where groundwater is the principal source of drinking water. This article describes how HBSLs were developed and demonstrates the use of HBSLs as a tool for evaluating water-quality data in a human-health context. HBSLs were calculated using standard U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) methodologies and toxicity information. New HBSLs were calculated for 12 of 32 contaminants without existing USEPA drinking-water standards or guidelines, increasing the number of unregulated contaminants (those without maximum contaminant levels (MCLs)) with human-health benchmarks. Concentrations of 70 of the 78 detected contaminants with human-health benchmarks were less than MCLs or HBSLs, including all 12 contaminants with new HBSLs, suggesting that most contaminant concentrations were not of potential human-health concern. HBSLs were applied to a state-scale groundwater data set in this study, but HBSLs also may be applied to regional and national evaluations of water-quality data. HBSLs fulfill a critical need for federal, state, and local agencies, water utilities, and others who seek tools for evaluating the occurrence of contaminants without drinking-water standards or guidelines. ?? 2006 Society for Risk Analysis.

  14. US Geological Survey research on the environmental fate of uranium mining and milling wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landa, E. R.; Gray, J. R.

    1995-07-01

    Studies by the US Geological Survey (USGS) of uranium mill tailings (UMT) have focused on characterizing the forms in which radionuclides are retained and identifying factors influencing the release of radionuclides to air and water. Selective extraction studies and studies of radionuclide sorption by and leaching from components of UMT showed alkaline earth sulfate and hydrous ferric oxides to be important hosts of radium-226 (226Ra) in UMT. Extrapolating from studies of barite dissolution in anerobic lake sediments, the leaching of226Ra from UMT by sulfate-reducing bacteria was investigated; a marked increase in226Ra release to aqueous solution as compared to sterile controls was demonstrated. A similar action of iron(III)-reducing bacteria was later shown. Ion exchangers such as clay minerals can also promote the dissolution of host-phase minerals and thereby influence the fate of radionuclides such as226Ra. Radon release studies examined particle size and ore composition as variables. Aggregation of UMT particles was shown to mask the higher emanating fraction of finer particles. Studies of various ores and ore components showed that UMT cannot be assumed to have the same radon-release characteristics as their precursor ores, nor can226Ra retained by various substrates be assumed to emanate the same fraction of radon. Over the last decade, USGS research directed at offsite mobility of radionuclides from uranium mining and milling processes has focused on six areas: the Midnite Mine in Washington; Ralston Creek and Reservoir, Colorado; sites near Canon City, Colorado; the Monument Valley District of Arizona and Utah; the Cameron District of Arizona; and the Puerco River basin of Arizona and New Mexico.

  15. US Geological Survey research on the environmental fate of uranium mining and milling wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Landa, E.R.; Gray, J.R.

    1995-07-01

    Studies by the US Geological Survey (USGS) of uranium mill tailings (UMT) have focused on characterizing the forms in which radionuclides are retained and identifying factors influencing the release of radionuclides to air and water. Selective extraction studies and studies of radionuclide sorption by and reaching from components of UMT showed alkaline earth sulfate and hydrous ferric oxides to be important hosts of radium-226 ({sup 226}Ra) in UMT. Extrapolating from studies of barite dissolution in anerobic lake sediments, the leaching of {sup 226}Ra from UMT by sulfate-reducing bacteria was investigated; a marked increase in {sup 226}Ra release to aqueous solution as compared to sterile controls was demonstrated. A similar action of iron(III)-reducing bacteria was later shown. Ion exchangers such as clay minerals can also promote the dissolution of host-phase minerals and thereby influence the fate of radionuclides such as {sup 226}Ra. Radon release studies examined particle size and ore composition as variables. Aggregation of UMT particles was shown to mask the higher emanating fraction of finer particles. Studies of various ores and ore components showed that UMT cannot be assumed to have the same radon-release characteristics as their precursor ores, nor can {sup 226}Ra retained by various substrates be assumed to emanate the same fraction of radon. Over the last decade, USGS research directed at offsite mobility of radionuclides form uranium mining and milling processes has focused on six areas: the Midnite Mine in Washington; Ralston Creek and Reservoir, Colorado; sites near Canon City, Colorado; the Monument Valley District of Arizona and Utah; the Cameron District of Arizona; and the Puerco River basin of Arizona and New Mexico. 48 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. U.S. Geological Survey Science Strategy for the Wyoming Landscape Conservation Initiative

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowen, Zachary H.; Aldridge, Cameron L.; Anderson, Patrick J.; Chong, Geneva W.; Drummond, Mark A.; Homer, Collin G.; Johnson, Ronald C.; Kauffman, Matthew J.; Knick, Steven T.; Kosovich, John J.; Miller, Kirk A.; Owens, Tom; Shafer, Sarah L.; Sweat, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    Southwest Wyoming's wildlife and habitat resources are increasingly affected by energy and urban/exurban development, climate change, and other key drivers of ecosystem change. To ensure that southwest Wyoming's wildlife populations and habitats persist in the face of development and other changes, a consortium of public resource-management agencies proposed the Wyoming Landscape Conservation Initiative (WLCI), the overall goal of which is to implement conservation actions. As the principal agency charged with conducting WLCI science, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has developed a Science Strategy for the WLCI. Workshops were held for all interested parties to identify and refine the most pressing management needs for achieving WLCI goals. Research approaches for addressing those needs include developing conceptual models for understanding ecosystem function, identifying key drivers of change affecting WLCI ecosystems, and conducting scientific monitoring and experimental studies to better understand ecosystems processes, cumulative effects of change, and effectiveness of habitat treatments. The management needs drive an iterative, three-phase framework developed for structuring and growing WLCI science efforts: Phase I entails synthesizing existing information to assess current conditions, determining what is already known about WLCI ecosystems, and providing a foundation for future work; Phase II entails conducting targeted research and monitoring to address gaps in data and knowledge during Phase I; and Phase III entails integrating new knowledge into WLCI activities and coordinating WLCI partners and collaborators. Throughout all three phases, information is managed and made accessible to interested parties and used to guide and improve management and conservation actions, future habitat treatments, best management practices, and other conservation activities.

  17. Neutronic and thermal hydraulic analysis of the Geological Survey TRIGA Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shugart, Nicolas

    The United States Geological Survey TRIGA Reactor (GSTR) is a 1 MW reactor located in Lakewood, Colorado. In support of the GSTR's relicensing efforts, this project developed and validated a Monte Carlo N-Particle Version 5 (MCNP5) model of the GSTR reactor. The model provided estimates of the excess reactivity, power distribution and the fuel temperature, water temperature, void, and power reactivity coefficients for the current and limiting core. The MCNP5 model predicts a limiting core excess reactivity of 6.48 with a peak rod power of 22.2 kW. The fuel and void reactivity coefficients for the limiting core are strongly negative, and the core water reactivity coefficient is slightly positive, consistent with other TRIGA analyses. The average fuel temperature reactivity coefficient of the full power limiting core is -0.0135 /K while the average core void coefficient is -0.069 /K from 0-20 % void. The core water temperature reactivity coefficient is +0.012 /K. Following the neutronics analysis, the project developed RELAP5 and PARET-ANL models of the GSTR hot-rod fuel channel under steady state and transient conditions. The GSTR limiting core, determined as part of this analysis, provides a worst case operating scenario for the reactor. During steady state operations, the hot rod of the limiting core has a peak fuel temperature of 829 K and a minimum departure from nucleate boiling ratio of 2.16. After a $3.00 pulse reactivity insertion the fuel reaches a peak temperature is 1070 K. Examining the model results several seconds after a pulse reveals flow instabilities that result from weaknesses in the current two-channel model.

  18. Creation of next generation U.S. Geological Survey topographic maps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Craun, Kari J.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is 2 years into a 3-year cycle to create new digital topographic map products for the conterminous United States from data acquired and maintained as part of The National Map databases. These products are in the traditional, USGS topographic quadrangle, 7.5-minute (latitude and longitude) cell format. The 3-year cycle was conceived to follow the acquisition of National Aerial Imagery Program (NAIP) orthorectified imagery, a key layer in the new product. In fiscal year (FY) 2009 (ending September 30, 2009), the first year of the 3-year cycle, the USGS produced 13,200 products. These initial products of the Digital MapBeta series had limited feature content, including only the NAIP image, some roads, geographic names, and grid and collar information. The products were created in layered georegistered Portable Document Format (PDF) files, allowing users with freely available Adobe Reader software to view, print, and perform simple Geographic Information System-like functions. In FY 2010 (ending September 30, 2010), the USGS produced 20,380 products. These products of the US Topo series added hydrography (surface water features), contours, and some boundaries. In FY 2011 (ending September 30, 2011), the USGS will complete the initial coverage with US Topo products and will add additional feature content to the maps. The design, development, and production associated with the US Topo products provide management and technical challenges for the USGS and its public and private sector partners. One challenge is the acquisition and maintenance of nationally consistent base map data from multiple sources. Another is the use of these data to create a consistent, current series of cartographic products that can be used by the broad spectrum of traditional topographic map users. Although the USGS and its partners have overcome many of these challenges, many, such as establishing and funding a sustainable base data-maintenance program, remain to be resolved for the long term.

  19. Selected reports of the U.S. Geological Survey on Water Resources in Mississippi, 1990-96

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moss, Carol P.

    1996-01-01

    Results of water-resources data-collection programs and interpretive hydrologic studies conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) are published in reports and are made available to universities, State and local agencies, other Federal agencies, and the public. The following is a list of selected USGS reports on water resources in Mississippi published since 1990 and categorized according to the major emphasis of the report; these reports are available for inspection at the Mississippi District Office in Pearl, Mississippi.

  20. MODFLOW-2000, The U.S. Geological Survey Modular Ground-Water Model -- GMG Linear Equation Solver Package Documentation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, John D.; Naff, Richard L.

    2004-01-01

    A geometric multigrid solver (GMG), based in the preconditioned conjugate gradient algorithm, has been developed for solving systems of equations resulting from applying the cell-centered finite difference algorithm to flow in porous media. This solver has been adapted to the U.S. Geological Survey ground-water flow model MODFLOW-2000. The documentation herein is a description of the solver and the adaptation to MODFLOW-2000.

  1. The U.S. Geological Survey side-looking airborne radar database: an aid to the interpretation of space images

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kover, Allan N.; Schoonmaker, James W., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has a database of side-looking airborne radar (SLAR) images of a significant part of the continental United States. These images provide a regional view of terrains and should be an aid to better understanding image data of satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and other systems. The USGS has been systematically collecting SLAR since 1980, initially in analog form, then in both analog and digital format since 1984.

  2. Results and Interpretations of U.S. Geological Survey Data Collected In and Around the Tuba City Open Dump, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Raymond H.; Otton, James K.; Horton, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    This Open-File Report was originally an Administrative Report presentation to the Bureau of Indian Affairs based on U.S. Geological Survey data that has been collected and presented in four previous reports (Open-File Reports 2009-1020, 2008-1380, and 2008-1374, and an Administrative Report on geophysical data). This presentation was given at a technical meeting requested by the BIA on March 3 and 4, 2009, in Phoenix, Arizona. The idea for this meeting was for all the technical people working on issues related to the Tuba City Open Dump site to come together and share their data collection procedures, results, interpretations, and working hypotheses. The meeting goal was to have a clear record of each party's interpretations and a summary of additional data that would be needed to solve differences of opinion. The intention of this presentation is not to provide an exhaustive summary of U.S. Geological Survey efforts at the Tuba City Open Dump site given in the four previously published Open-File Reports listed above, since these reports have already been made available. This presentation briefly summarizes the data collected for those reports and provides results, interpretations, and working hypotheses relating to the data available in these reports. The major questions about the Tuba City Open Dump addressed by the U.S. Geological Survey are (1) what are the sources for uranium and other constituents found in the ground water in and around the Tuba City Open Dump, (2) what is the current distribution of ground water contaminants away from the Tuba City Open Dump (can plume limits be delineated), and (3) what controls the mobility of uranium and other constituents in and around the Tuba City Open Dump? Data collection, results, and interpretations by the U.S. Geological Survey that address these questions are presented herein.

  3. The preparation of illustrations for reports of the United States Geological survey : with brief descriptions of processes of reproduction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ridgway, John L.

    1920-01-01

    There has been an obvious need in the Geological Survey o a paper devoted wholly to illustrations. No complete paper on the character, use, and mode of preparation of illustration has been published by the Survey, though brief suggestions concerning certain features of their use have been printed in connection wit other suggestions pertaining to publications. The present paper includes matter which it is hoped will be of service to authors in their work of making up original drafts of illustrations and to drafsmen who are using these originals in preparing more finished drawing but it is not a technical treatise on drafting.

  4. A Regional Guide to Iowa Landforms. Iowa Geological Survey Educational Series 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prior, Jean Cutler

    Presented is a non-technical account of the geological appearance and history of the state of Iowa. Included are Iowa's landscape features, geologic events, and processes that shaped the landscape. Maps and numerous illustrations picture the events and landforms described. Each of the state's seven principal landform regions is discussed in

  5. Proceedings of a U.S. Geological Survey pressure-sensor Workshop, Denver, Colorado, July 28-31, 1992

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilbourn, Sammy L.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted a Pressure Sensor Workshop, oriented toward the measurement of stage in surface waters, in Denver, Colorado, July 28-31, 1992. Twenty attendees from the U.S. Geological Survey and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration gave presentations concerning their experiences with the use of pressure sensors in hydrologic investigations. This report is a compilation of the abstracts of the presentations made at the workshop. Workshop participants concluded that each of the sensors evaluated by the U.S. Geological Survey has strengths and weaknesses. Personnel contemplating the use of pressure sensors discussed at this workshop should contact workshop attendees and consult with them about their experiences with those sensors. The attendees preferred to use stilling wells with float-operated water-level sensors as the primary means for monitoring water levels. However, pressure sensor systems were favored as replacements for mercury manometers and as alternatives to stilling wells at sites where stilling wells are not practical or cost effective.

  6. A survey of brucellosis and tuberculosis in bison in and around Wood Buffalo National Park, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Tessaro, Stacy V.; Forbes, Lorry B.; Turcotte, Claude

    1990-01-01

    Examinations of complete or partial remains of 72 bison found dead in and around Wood Buffalo National Park, Canada, revealed evidence of brucellosis in 18 (25%) and tuberculosis in 15 (21%), with a combined prevalence of 42%. Urease-positive and ureasenegative strains of Brucella abortus biovar 1, and strains of biovar 2, were isolated from tissues of bison, including synovium and exudate from severe arthritic lesions. Mycobacterium bovis was isolated from a range of granulomatous lesions that were similar to those reported in tuberculous cattle. Diseased bison had a broad geographical distribution, and were found outside the park on at least three natural corridors. The diseases have a deleterious effect on this population of bison, and pose a health risk to other bison herds, livestock, and native hunters in the region. ImagesFigure 3.Figure 4. PMID:17423532

  7. Employer-Sponsored Training in Canada: Synthesis of the Literature Using Data from the Workplace and Employee Survey. Learning Research Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dostie, Benoit; Montmarquette, Claude

    2007-01-01

    This report presents a review of studies and articles on employer-sponsored training in Canada. The authors reviewed documentation that used data from the Workplace and Employee Survey (WES) and offer a synthesis of the current state of knowledge. The report looks alternately at issues pertaining to determinants of training from the employer and

  8. Airborne Geophysical Surveys Illuminate the Geologic and Hydrothermal Framework of the Pilgrim Springs Geothermal Area, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McPhee, D. K.; Glen, J. M.; Bedrosian, P. A.

    2012-12-01

    An airborne magnetic and frequency-domain electromagnetic (EM) survey of the Pilgrim Springs geothermal area, located on the Seward Peninsula in west-central Alaska, delineates key structures controlling hydrothermal fluid flow. Hot springs, nearby thawed regions, and high lake temperatures are indicative of high heat flow in the region that is thought to be related to recent volcanism. By providing a region-wide geologic and geophysical framework, this work will provide informed decisions regarding drill-site planning and further our understanding of geothermal systems in active extensional basins. Helicopter magnetic and EM data were acquired using a Fugro RESOLVE system equipped with a high sensitivity cesium magnetometer and a multi-coil, multi-frequency EM system sensitive to the frequency range of 400-140,000 Hz. The survey was flown ~40 m above ground along flight lines spaced 0.2-0.4 km apart. Various derivative and filtering methods, including maximum horizontal gradient of the pseudogravity transformation of the magnetic data, are used to locate faults, contacts, and structural domains. A dominant northwest trending anomaly pattern characterizes the northeastern portion of the survey area between Pilgrim Springs and Hen and Chickens Mountain and may reflect basement structures. The area south of the springs, however, is dominantly characterized by east-west trending, range-front-parallel anomalies likely caused by late Cenozoic structures associated with the north-south extension that formed the basin. Regionally, the springs are characterized by a magnetic high punctuated by several east-west trending magnetic lows, the most prominent occurring directly over the springs. The lows may result from demagnetization of magnetic material along range-front parallel features that dissect the basin. We inverted in-phase and quadrature EM data along each profile using the laterally-constrained inversion of Auken et al. (2005). Data were inverted for 20-layer models starting from a 50 ohm-m half-space and with no prior model. Lateral constraints were relaxed in proximity to known or suspected structures using horizontal gradients in the measured data as a proxy for lateral variations in subsurface resistivity. A region of low resistivity (< 5 ohm-m) characterizes Pilgrim Springs and extends farther to the north and northeast, indicative of high heat flow and saline geothermal fluids associated with the hot springs. More moderate resistivities (50-200 ohm-m) characterize surrounding rivers and streams and are likely due to variations in sediment clay content. High resistivities (> 1000 ohm-m) associated with the mountain ranges reflect Precambrian metamorphic basement and overlying Paleozoic carbonates. An equally resistive region exists between the range front of the Kigluaik Mountains and dense stream channels surrounding Pilgrim Springs. This region of high resistivity reflects permafrost in the subsurface, in agreement with permafrost mapping in the area. An east-west trending, low resistivity (100-200 ohm-m) anomaly follows the base of the Kigluaik Mountains and may indicate fractured rocks within the range-front fault that hosted fluid flow and subsequent mineralization.

  9. Geoscientific Vocabularies and Linked Data at The British Geological Survey - progress and pragmatism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCormick, T.; Heaven, R.

    2013-12-01

    The British Geological Survey makes extensive use of controlled vocabularies to promote standardisation and interoperability between its databases and other digital information systems. Many of our vocabularies are published and searchable at http://www.bgs.ac.uk/data/vocabularies/home.html/. There is a movement to ';open up' government data in both the US and UK. In the UK this is promoted by data.gov.uk. Some view linked data as the best way to share and connect disparate data, information and knowledge, in order to develop a ';Web of Data'. Linked data facilitate connections between data sets, and lower the barriers to accessing data that must otherwise be discovered and exploited using other methods. Recently there has been a rapid increase in the rate of publication of linked data, this increase currently being estimated at 300% per year. In the past 2 years we have undertaken a pilot study to publish some of our authoritative vocabularies as linked data. This study has focussed primarily on publishing BGS' 1:625 000 scale geologic map data for the UK, supported by development of linked data sets for: Earth materials - based on the BGS Rock Classification Scheme; lithostratigraphy - based on the BGS Lexicon of Named Rock Units; and geochronology - based on the International Commission on Stratigraphy. The BGS linked data sets are published at data.bgs.ac.uk. We have learned a number of lessons about the potential and limitations of linked data and associated technologies. We do not envisage SPARQL endpoints being the primary route for public access to linked data because the user would require technical knowledge of the data structure, and because it can be a security threat. Rather, SPARQL may lie behind a user-friendly API. Federated SPARQL queries that can interrogate distributed data sources are in reality too slow, and in practise the data sets would likely be combined in a single store. The data sets in our pilot study are all reasonably static and we solve performance and security issues by serving the linked data as pre-generated static files in a range of formats rather than using a triple-store. This also allows the data to be indexed by search engines. Wherever possible it is good practice to use predicates from well-known published sources, for example RDFS, SKOS, or Dublin Core, in preference to inventing new ones. This promotes re-use of the linked data by as many potential users as possible. Linked data do not directly address logical inference, which is supposed to be one of the aims of the ';Semantic Web'. This sort of ';calculating with knowledge' must be implemented using additional, possibly human-based rather than mechanical, reasoning. Linked data come with all the same issues surrounding provenance and authority of the data that any web resource is subject to. There are issues surrounding versioning and permanence of URIs. Our work on publishing BGS' vocabularies as linked data is proceeding in parallel with our work with the Commission of Geoscience Information (CGI) Geoscience Terminology Working Group which is jointly developing multilingual vocabularies in range of knowledge domains.

  10. A drug use survey among clients of harm reduction sites across British Columbia, Canada, 2012

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In British Columbia (BC), understanding of high-risk drug use trends is largely based on survey and cohort study data from two major cities, which may not be representative of persons who use drugs in other regions. Harm reduction stakeholders, representing each of the five geographic health regions in BC, identified a need for data on drug use to inform local and regional harm reduction activities across the province. The aims of this project were to (1) develop a drug use survey that could be feasibly administered at harm reduction (HR) sites across all health regions and (2) assess the data for differences in reported drug use frequencies by region. Methods A pilot survey focusing on current drug use was developed with stakeholders and administered among clients at 28 HR supply distribution sites across the province by existing staff and peers. Data were collated and analysed using univariate and bivariate descriptive statistics to assess differences in reported drug use frequencies by geography. A post-survey evaluation was conducted to assess acceptability and feasibility of the survey process for participating sites. Results Crack cocaine, heroin, and morphine were the most frequently reported drugs with notable regional differences. Polysubstance use was common among respondents (70%) with one region having 81% polysubstance use. Respondents surveyed in or near their region's major centre were more likely to report having used crack cocaine (p?50km from the major centre. Participants accessing services >50km from the regional centre were more likely to have used morphine (p?survey process acceptable, feasible to administer annually, and useful for responding to client needs. Conclusions The survey was a feasible way for harm reduction sites across BC to obtain drug use data from clients who actively use drugs. Drug use frequencies differed substantially by region and community proximity to the regional centre, underlining the need for locally collected data to inform service planning. PMID:24766846

  11. Planetary GIS at the U.S. Geological Survey Astrogeology Science Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hare, T. M.; Skinner, J. A.; Fortezzo, C. M.; Gaddis, L. R.

    2015-06-01

    For the past 51 years, the USGS Astrogeology Science Center has been a resource for planetary geoscience, cartography, and remote sensing. In more recent years, we have supported GIS for planetary data integration, geologic mapping and analysis.

  12. A Survey of the Contemporary Indians of Canada: Economic, Political, Educational Needs and Policies. Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tremblay, M. A.; And Others

    Two sets of issues are discussed in this volume of the survey. These issues are related to the provision and adequacy of schools for the Indian child and adult, and to leadership, organization and direction of reserves. Although mindful of the wider setting of culture and community in which these issues find their definition, they are abstracted

  13. Survey of hepatic and pulmonary helminths of wild cervids in Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Pybus, M J

    1990-10-01

    During the 1988 hunting season, livers and lungs from 263 mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus), 198 moose (Alces alces), 147 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), and 94 wapiti (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) from Alberta (Canada) were collected for parasitological examination. Most of the samples (89%) were submitted by big game hunters throughout the province. Giant liver fluke (Fascioloides magna) was found in 9% of 22 yearling and 29% of 65 adult wapiti; 4% of 161 adult moose; and 2% of 97 adult white-tailed deer. The intensity of infection generally was low; however, one wapiti had over 600 flukes in the liver. Infections were restricted to alpine and montane regions in southwestern Alberta (97%) as well as boreal uplands of the Cypress Hills in southeastern Alberta (3%). Other parasites recorded included Taenia hydatigena cysts in liver of 61% of 191 moose and 14% of 247 mule deer. Dictyocaulus viviparus was found in lungs of 14% of 50 moose, 14% of 118 mule deer, 12% of 41 wapiti, and 6% of 54 white-tailed deer. Echinococcus granulosus cysts were found in lungs (and occasionally liver) of 37% of 51 moose. Incidental infections of Thysanosoma actinoides, Orthostrongylus macrotis, and Taenia omissa were recorded. Adult Dicrocoelium dendriticum were collected from liver of two wapiti, one mule deer, and one white-tailed deer from the Cypress Hills. PMID:2250321

  14. Framework for a U.S. Geological Survey Hydrologic Climate-Response Program in Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hodgkins, Glenn A.; Lent, Robert M.; Dudley, Robert W.; Schalk, Charles W.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents a framework for a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) hydrologic climate-response program designed to provide early warning of changes in the seasonal water cycle of Maine. Climate-related hydrologic changes on Maine's rivers and lakes in the winter and spring during the last century are well documented, and several river and lake variables have been shown to be sensitive to air-temperature changes. Monitoring of relevant hydrologic data would provide important baseline information against which future climate change can be measured. The framework of the hydrologic climate-response program presented here consists of four major parts: (1) identifying homogeneous climate-response regions; (2) identifying hydrologic components and key variables of those components that would be included in a hydrologic climate-response data network - as an example, streamflow has been identified as a primary component, with a key variable of streamflow being winter-spring streamflow timing; the data network would be created by maintaining existing USGS data-collection stations and establishing new ones to fill data gaps; (3) regularly updating historical trends of hydrologic data network variables; and (4) establishing basins for process-based studies. Components proposed for inclusion in the hydrologic climate-response data network have at least one key variable for which substantial historical data are available. The proposed components are streamflow, lake ice, river ice, snowpack, and groundwater. The proposed key variables of each component have extensive historical data at multiple sites and are expected to be responsive to climate change in the next few decades. These variables are also important for human water use and (or) ecosystem function. Maine would be divided into seven climate-response regions that follow major river-basin boundaries (basins subdivided to hydrologic units with 8-digit codes or larger) and have relatively homogeneous climates. Key hydrologic variables within each climate-response region would be analyzed regularly to maintain up-to-date analyses of year-to-year variability, decadal variability, and longer term trends. Finally, one basin in each climate-response region would be identified for process-based hydrologic and ecological studies.

  15. The U.S. Geological Survey Earthquake Hazards Program Website: Summary of Recent and Ongoing Developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wald, L. A.; Zirbes, M.; Robert, S.; Wald, D.; Presgrace, B.; Earle, P.; Schwarz, S.; Haefner, S.; Haller, K.; Rhea, S.

    2003-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earthquake Hazards Program (EHP) website (http://earthquake.usgs.gov/) focuses on 1) earthquake reporting for informed decisions after an earthquake, 2) hazards information for informed decisions and planning before an earthquake, and 3) the basics of earthquake science to help the users of the information understand what is presented. The majority of website visitors are looking for information about current earthquakes in the U.S. and around the world, and the second most visited portion of the website are the education-related pages. People are eager for information, and they are most interested in "what's in my backyard?" Recent and future web developments are aimed at answering this question, making the information more relevant to users, and enabling users to more quickly and easily find the information they are looking for. Recent and/or current web developments include the new enhanced Recent Global Earthquakes and U.S. Earthquakes webpages, the Earthquake in the News system, the Rapid Accurate Tectonic Summaries (RATS), online Significant Earthquake Summary Posters (ESP's), and the U.S. Quaternary Fault & Fold Database, the details of which are covered individually in greater detail in this or other sessions. Future planned developments include a consistent look across all EHP webpages, an integrated one-stop-shopping earthquake notification (EQMail) subscription webpage, new navigation tabs, and a backend database allowing the user to search for earthquake information across all the various EHP websites (on different webservers) based on a topic or region. Another goal is to eventually allow a user to input their address (Zip Code?) and in return receive all the relevant EHP information (and links to more detailed information) such as closest fault, the last significant nearby earthquake, a local seismicity map, and a local hazard map, for example. This would essentially be a dynamic report based on the entered location. This type of "what's in my backyard?" information would be of great benefit to both various organizations, such as insurance agencies and building contractors, and the general public.

  16. U.S. Geological Survey science for the Wyoming Landscape Conservation Initiative: 2011 annual report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowen, Zachary H.; Aldridge, Cameron L.; Anderson, Patrick J.; Assal, Timothy J.; Biewick, Laura R.H.; Blecker, Steven W.; Boughton, Gregory K.; Carr, Natasha B.; Chalfoun, Anna D.; Chong, Geneva W.; Clark, Melanie L.; Diffendorfer, Jay E.; Fedy, Bradley C.; Foster, Katharine; Garman, Steven L.; Germaine, Stephanie; Hethcoat, Matthew G.; Holloway, JoAnn; Homer, Collin G.; Kauffman, Matthew J.; Keinath, Douglas; Latysh, Natalie; Manier, Daniel J.; McDougal, Robert R.; Melcher, Cynthia P.; Miller, Kirk A.; Montag, Jessica; Olexa, Edward M.; Potter, Christopher J.; Schell, Spencer; Shafer, Sarah L.; Smith, David B.; Stillings, Lisa L.; Sweat, Michael J.; Tuttle, Michele L.W.; Wilson, Anna B.

    2013-01-01

    This is the fourth report produced by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for the Wyoming Landscape Conservation Initiative (WLCI) to detail annual work activities. In FY2011, there were 37 ongoing, completed, or new projects conducted under the five major multi-disciplinary science and technical-assistance activities: (1) Baseline Synthesis, (2) Targeted Monitoring and Research, (3) Data and Information Management, (4) Integration and Coordination, and (5) Decisionmaking and Evaluation. The four new work activities were (1) development of the Western Energy Citation Clearinghouse, a Web-based energy-resource database of references for literature and on-line resources focused on energy development and its effects on natural resources; (2) a study to support the Sublette County Conservation District in ascertaining potential water-quality impacts to the New Fork River from energy development in the Pinedale Anticline Project Area; (3) a study to test the efficacy of blending high-frequency temporal data provided by Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensors and high-resolution Landsat data for providing the fine-resolution data required to evaluate habitat responses to management activities at the landscape level; and (4) a study to examine the seasonal water chemistry of Muddy Creek, including documenting salinity patterns and providing a baseline for assessing potential effects of energy and other development on water quality in the Muddy Creek watershed. Two work activities were completed in FY2011: (1) the assessment of rancher perceptions of energy development in Southwest Wyoming and (2) mapping aspen stands and conifer encroachment using classification and regression tree (CART) analysis for effectiveness monitoring. The USGS continued to compile data, develop geospatial products, and upgrade Web-based products in support of both individual and overall WLCI efforts, including (1) ranking and prioritizing proposed conservation projects, (2) developing the WLCI integrated assessment, (3) developing the WLCI 5-year Conservation Action Plan, and (4) continuing to upgrade the content and improve the functionality of the WLCI Web site. For the WLCI FY2012 annual report, a decision was made to greatly reduce the overall length of the annual report, which will be accomplished by simplifying the report format and focusing on the take-home messages of each work activity for WLCI partners.

  17. Hf isotope compositions of U.S. Geological Survey reference materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weis, Dominique; Kieffer, Bruno; Hanano, Diane; Nobre Silva, Ins; Barling, Jane; Pretorius, Wilma; Maerschalk, Claude; Mattielli, Nadine

    2007-06-01

    A systematic multi-isotopic and trace element characterization of U.S. Geological Survey reference materials has been carried out at the Pacific Centre for Isotopic and Geochemical Research, University of British Columbia. Values of 176Hf/177Hf are recommended for the following reference materials (mean 2 SD): G-2: 0.282523 6; G-3: 0.282518 1; GSP-2: 0.281949 8; RGM-1: 0.283017 13; STM-1: 0.283019 12; STM-2: 0.283021 5; BCR-1: 0.282875 8; BCR-2: 0.282870 8; BHVO-1: 0.283106 12; BHVO-2: 0.283105 11; AGV-1: 0.282979 6; and AGV-2: 0.282984 9. Reproducibility is better than 50 ppm for the granitoid compositions and better than 40 ppm for the basaltic/andesitic compositions. For the isotopic analyses acquired early in this project on glass columns, Hf isotopic analyses from several of the reference materials were significantly less reproducible than Nd and Sr isotopic analyses determined from the same sample dissolution. The 176Hf/177Hf ratios for relatively radiogenic compositions (BCR-1, 2; BHVO-1, 2; RGM-1) were shifted systematically toward lower values by 100-150 ppm when a borosilicate primary column was used. Although systematic, the shift for felsic compositions was generally within analytical error, except for GSP-2, which has a very low Hf isotopic ratio, where the shift was to higher 176Hf/177Hf. Trace element and isotopic characterization of the borosilicate glass column, borosilicate frits, and quartz columns reveals extremely variable levels of trace elements. The 176Hf/177Hf ratios for these materials are very unradiogenic (borosilicate glass <0.28220 frit = 0.28193 4). The borosilicate frit material appears to be the most variable in elemental concentration and isotopic composition. The quartz material has very low levels (

  18. U.S. Geological Survey Emerging Applications of Unmanned Aircraft Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutt, M. E.

    2012-12-01

    In anticipation of transforming the research methods and resource management techniques employed across the Department of the Interior, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Project Office is conducting missions using small UAS- sUAS platforms (<20 lbs.). The USGS is dedicated to expanding the use of sUAS technology in support of scientific, resource and land management missions. UAS technology is currently being used by USGS and our partners to monitor environmental conditions, analyze the impacts of climate change, respond to natural hazards, understand landscape change rates and consequences, conduct wildlife inventories and support related land management and law enforcement missions. Our ultimate goal is to support informed decision making by creating the opportunity, via UAS technology, to gain access to an increased level of persistent monitoring of earth surface processes (forest health conditions, wildfires, earthquake zones, invasive species, etc.) in areas that have been logistically difficult, cost prohibitive or technically impossible to obtain consistent, reliable, timely information. USGS is teaming with the Department of the Interior Aviation Management Directorate to ensure the safe and cost effective adoption of UAS technology. While the USGS is concentrating on operating sUAS, the immense value of increased flight time and more robust sensor capabilities available on larger platforms cannot be ignored. We are partnering with several groups including the Department of Homeland Security, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Department of Defense, and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration for access to data collected from their fleet of high altitude, long endurance (HALE) UAS. The HALE systems include state of the art sensors including Electro-Optical, Thermal Infrared and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR). The data being collected by High Altitude, Long Endurance (HALE) systems is can be routinely shared in near real time at several DOI- USGS locations. Analysis tools are becoming available that can produce a robust set of products including a geo-referenced base for value added investigations. Much like the use of global positioning systems, unmanned aircraft systems have the potential of enabling us to be better stewards of the land. We are actively working to develop applications of the traditional full motion video capabilities and are engaged in developing additional sensor capabilities for sUAS including- magnetometers, temperature, radio telemetry, chemical and biological gas detection, and gimbal mounted "photogrammetric" cameras.

  19. Worldwide estimates of deep natural gas resources based on the U.S. Geological Survey World Petroleum Assessment 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dyman, T.S.; Crovelli, R.A.; Bartberger, C.E.; Takahashi, K.I.

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey recently assessed undiscovered conventional gas and oil resources in eight regions of the world outside the U.S. The resources assessed were those estimated to have the potential to be added to reserves within the next thirty years. This study is a worldwide analysis of the estimated volumes and distribution of deep (>4.5 km or about 15,000 ft), undiscovered conventional natural gas resources based on this assessment. Two hundred forty-six assessment units in 128 priority geologic provinces, 96 countries, and two jointly held areas were assessed using a probabilistic Total Petroleum System approach. Priority geologic provinces were selected from a ranking of 937 provinces worldwide. The U.S. Geological Survey World Petroleum Assessment Team did not assess undiscovered petroleum resources in the U.S. For this report, mean estimated volumes of deep conventional undiscovered gas resources in the U.S. are taken from estimates of 101 deep plays (out of a total of 550 conventional plays in the U.S.) from the U.S. Geological Survey's 1995 National Assessment of Oil and Gas Resources. A probabilistic method was designed to subdivide gas resources into depth slices using a median-based triangular probability distribution as a model for drilling depth to estimate the percentages of estimated gas resources below various depths. For both the World Petroleum Assessment 2000 and the 1995 National Assessment of Oil and Gas Resources, minimum, median, and maximum depths were assigned to each assessment unit and play; these depths were used in our analysis. Two-hundred seventy-four deep assessment units and plays in 124 petroleum provinces were identified for the U.S. and the world. These assessment units and plays contain a mean undiscovered conventional gas resource of 844 trillion cubic ft (Tcf) occuring at depths below 4.5 km. The deep undiscovered conventional gas resource (844 Tcf) is about 17% of the total world gas resource (4,928 Tcf) based on the provinces assessed and includes a mean estimate of 259 Tcf of U.S. gas from the U.S. 1995 National Assessment. Of the eight regions, the Former Soviet Union (Region 1) contains the largest estimated volume of undiscovered deep gas with a mean resource of 343 Tcf. ?? 2002 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  20. Resident research associateships, postdoctoral research awards 1989: opportunities for research at the U.S. Geological Survey, U.S. Department of the Interior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey; U.S. National Research Council

    1989-01-01

    The scientists of the U.S. Geological Survey are engaged in a wide range of geologic, geophysical, geochemical, hydrologic, and cartographic programs, including the application of computer science to them. These programs offer exciting possibilities for scientific achievement and professional growth to young scientists through participation as Research Associates.

  1. Unpublished letter from US Geological Survey Scientists to the editor of the New York Times Magazine regarding William J. Broads` November 18, 1990 article on Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    Dudley, W.W. Jr.; Buono, A.; Carr, M.D.; Downey, J.S.; Ervin, E.M.; Fox, K.F. Jr.; Gutentag, E.D.; Hayes, L.R.; Jones, B.F.; Luckey, R.R.; Muhs, D.R.; Peterman, Z.E.; Reheis, M.; Spengler, R.W.; Stuckless, J.S.; Taylor, E.M.; Whitney, J.W.; Wilson, W.E.; Winogard, I.J.

    1990-11-28

    This letter documents objections of a group of US Geological Survey Scientists to an article appearing November 18, 1990 in New York Times Magazine. The article was written by William J. Broad and dealt with a hypothesis of Jerry S. Szymanski. The letter addressed areas of concern; including hydrology, geology, tectonics, and the integrity of the scientists and their conclusions. (SM)

  2. Eighteenth annual report of the United States Geological Survey to the Secretary of the Interior, 1896-1897: Part I - Director's report, including triangulation and spirit leveling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walcott, Charles D.

    1897-01-01

    During the fiscal year 1896-97 the organization of the Geological Survey as set forth in the Director's last report was continued without material change, and the field work of 1896 was largely a continuatoin of the previous season.

  3. The current practice trends in pediatric bone-anchored hearing aids in Canada: a national clinical and surgical practice survey

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Since the introduction of bone-anchored hearing aids (BAHAs) in the 1980s, the practices of surgeons who implant these hearing aids have become varied; different indications and surgical techniques are utilized depending on the surgeon and institution. The objective of the current study is to describe the clinical and surgical practices of otolaryngologists in Canada who perform pediatric BAHA operations. Methods A detailed practice questionnaire was devised and sent to all members of the Canadian Society of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery. Those who performed pediatric BAHA surgeries were asked to participate. Results Twelve responses were received (response rate of 80%). All of the respondents identified congenital aural atresia to be an indication for pediatric BAHAs. Other indications were chronic otitis externa or media with hearing loss (92%), allergic reactions to conventional hearing aids (75%), congenital fixation or anomaly of ossicular chain (67%), and unilateral deafness (25%). Minor complications, such as skin reactions, were reported in 25% of cases, while major complications were very rare. There was great variability with regards to surgical techinque and post-operative management. The extent of financial support for the BAHA hardware and device also varied between provinces, and even within the same province. Conclusion There is a lack of general consensus regarding pediatric BAHA surgeries in Canada. With such a small community of otolaryngologists performing this procedure, we are hopeful that this survey can serve as an impetus for a national collaboration to establish a set of general management principles and inspire multi-site research ventures. PMID:23815797

  4. Climate variation and its effects on our land and water : Part B, Current research by the Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, George I., (Edited By)

    1978-01-01

    To better coordinate information being generated by the U.S. Geological Survey, a workshop was convened near Denver, Colo., on December 7-9, 1976, to exchange ideas about research that is oriented toward climate, climate variation, and the effects of climate on the Nation 's land and water resources. This is the first circular of a three-part report resulting from that workshop. Hydrologic records provide information to the earth scientist about the responses of ground water, surface water, and glaciers to climatic change; geologic sequences provide evidence of earth-surface water, and glaciers to climatic change; geologic sequences provide evidence of earth-surface responses to climatic change; biological records yield information about the effects of climatic change on the Earth 's biota; archeological records tell us where and how man was able to live under changing climatic conditions; and historical records allow the specific effects of short-term changes in climate to be accurately documented. The interrelation between present and past geologic environments, various methods of study , and the span of time over which the results can be applied are shown in a table. (Woodard-USGS)

  5. 163 years of refinement: the British Geological Survey sample registration scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howe, M. P.

    2011-12-01

    The British Geological Survey manages the largest UK geoscience samples collection, including: - 15,000 onshore boreholes, including over 250 km of drillcore - Vibrocores, gravity cores and grab samples from over 32,000 UK marine sample stations. 640 boreholes - Over 3 million UK fossils, including a "type and stratigraphic" reference collection of 250,000 fossils, 30,000 of which are "type, figured or cited" - Comprehensive microfossil collection, including many borehole samples - 290km of drillcore and 4.5 million cuttings samples from over 8000 UK continental shelf hydrocarbon wells - Over one million mineralogical and petrological samples, including 200,00 thin sections The current registration scheme was introduced in 1848 and is similar to that used by Charles Darwin on the Beagle. Every Survey collector or geologist has been issue with a unique prefix code of one or more letters and these were handwritten on preprinted numbers, arranged in books of 1 - 5,000 and 5,001 to 10,000. Similar labels are now computer printed. Other prefix codes are used for corporate collections, such as borehole samples, thin sections, microfossils, macrofossil sections, museum reference fossils, display quality rock samples and fossil casts. Such numbers infer significant immediate information to the curator, without the need to consult detailed registers. The registration numbers have been recorded in a series of over 1,000 registers, complete with metadata including sample ID, locality, horizon, collector and date. Citations are added as appropriate. Parent-child relationships are noted when re-registering subsubsamples. For example, a borehole sample BDA1001 could have been subsampled for a petrological thin section and off-cut (E14159), a fossil thin section (PF365), micropalynological slides (MPA273), one of which included a new holotype (MPK111), and a figured macrofossil (GSE1314). All main corporate collection now have publically-available online databases, such as PalaeoSaurus (fossils), Britrocks (mineralogy and petrology) and ComBo (combined onshore and offshore boreholes). ComBo links to core images, when available. Similar links are under development for Britrocks and PalaeoSaurus, with the latter also to include HR laser scanned digital models. These databases also link to internal and public GIS systems and to the BGS digital field data capture system. PalaeoSaurus holds an identification/authority/date history for each specimen, as well as recording type status, and figure and citation details. Similar comments can be added to Britrocks and ComBo. For several years, the BGS has provided online web access to the databases, for the discovery of physical samples , including parent-child links and citation information. Regretfully, authors frequently fail to cite sample registration numbers (nineteenth century geologists were sometimes better than their twenty-first century counterparts), or to supply copies of, or links to, the data generated, despite it being a condition of sample access. The need for editors and referees to enforce the inclusion of sample registration numbers, and for authors to lodge copies of papers, reports and data with the sample providers, is more important than yet another new database.

  6. Geological gyrocompass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKeown, M. H.; Beason, S. C.

    1988-08-01

    The geological gyrocompass is an accurate, portable instrument useful for geologic mapping and surveying which employs an aircraft gyrocompass, strike reference bars, a pair of sights and levelling devices for horizontally levelling the instrument. A clinometer graduated in degrees indicates the dip of the surface being measured.

  7. Bibliography of reports by members of the U.S. Geological Survey on the water resources of Alaska: 1870 through 1976

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Feulner, Alvin John; Reed, Katherine M.

    1977-01-01

    This bibliography lists publications prepared by members of the U.S. Geological Survey and published either by the Survey or by the other agencies and organizations between 1870 and the end of December 1976. The titles included are those whose primary topic is hydrology, water resources, or other aspects of water in Alaska. Related subjects, such as geology, included in many of these reports. (Woodard-USGS)

  8. Appraisal of the accuracy of U.S. Geological Survey ore reserve estimates for uranium-vanadium deposits on the Colorado Plateau

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bush, Alfred Lerner; Stager, Harold Keith

    1954-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has made estimates of the reserves of uranium and vanadium in the carnotite deposits explored by Geological Survey drilling on the Colorado Plateau. This report presents an appraisal of the accuracy of the reserve estimates for deposits in the Uravan mineral belt, the causes of inaccuracy, and the significance of the estimates in terms of the total known reserves of the region.

  9. Emerging trends in the treatment of triple-negative breast cancer in Canada: a survey

    PubMed Central

    Verma, S.; Provencher, L.; Dent, R.

    2011-01-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) has a poor prognosis compared to other subtypes and lacks common therapeutic targets, including HER 2 and the estrogen and progesterone receptors. The clinicopathological heterogeneity of the disease and limited treatment options make clinical management particularly challenging. Here we present the results of a survey of Canadian clinical oncologists regarding treatment of TNBC, and review recent and ongoing clinical research in this area. Our survey results show that the majority of respondents use a combination of anthracyclines-taxanes as adjuvant therapy for early TNBC. For the first-line treatment of metastatic TNBC, most clinicians recommend taxanes, while single agent capecitabine and platinum-based therapies are more common for subsequent lines of therapy. Despite the ongoing development of novel targeted therapies, chemotherapy remains the mainstay of treatment for TNBC. PMID:21874117

  10. THE CANADA-FRANCE HIGH-z QUASAR SURVEY: NINE NEW QUASARS AND THE LUMINOSITY FUNCTION AT REDSHIFT 6

    SciTech Connect

    Willott, Chris J.; Crampton, David; Hutchings, John B.; Schade, David; Delorme, Philippe; Reyle, Celine; Albert, Loic; Bergeron, Jacqueline; Omont, Alain; Delfosse, Xavier; Forveille, Thierry; McLure, Ross J.

    2010-03-15

    We present discovery imaging and spectroscopy for nine new z {approx} 6 quasars found in the Canada-France High-z Quasar Survey (CFHQS) bringing the total number of CFHQS quasars to 19. By combining the CFHQS with the more luminous Sloan Digital Sky Survey sample, we are able to derive the quasar luminosity function from a sample of 40 quasars at redshifts 5.74 < z < 6.42. Our binned luminosity function shows a slightly lower normalization and flatter slope than found in previous work. The binned data also suggest a break in the luminosity function at M {sub 1450} {approx} -25. A double power-law maximum likelihood fit to the data is consistent with the binned results. The luminosity function is strongly constrained (1{sigma} uncertainty <0.1 dex) over the range -27.5 < M {sub 1450} < -24.7. The best-fit parameters are {phi}(M*{sub 1450}) = 1.14 x 10{sup -8} Mpc{sup -3} mag{sup -1}, break magnitude M*{sub 1450} = -25.13, and bright end slope {beta} = -2.81. However, the covariance between {beta} and M*{sub 1450} prevents strong constraints being placed on either parameter. For a break magnitude in the range -26 < M*{sub 1450} < -24, we find -3.8 < {beta} < -2.3 at 95% confidence. We calculate the z = 6 quasar intergalactic ionizing flux and show it is between 20 and 100 times lower than that necessary for reionization. Finally, we use the luminosity function to predict how many higher redshift quasars may be discovered in future near-IR imaging surveys.

  11. Survey of Trends in Adult Education and Training in Canada (1985-1995). Report of Canada in Preparation for CONFINTEA V.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaudet, Gaetan; Senechal, Gilles

    Between 1985 and 1995, the progress of adult education in Canada was largely influenced by the restructuring of the economy and the job market; the changing nature of the state; the media and new information and communication technologies; and social and cultural change. Adult participation in education and training increased from 19 percent in

  12. Survey of bottled drinking water sold in Canada. Part 2. Selected volatile organic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Page, B.D.; Conacher, H.B.S.; Salminen, J.

    1993-01-01

    Selected volatile organic compound (VOC) contaminants were determined in 182 samples of retail bottled waters purchased in Canada. Samples included spring water (86) packaged in containers of polyethylene or in smaller containers of transparent plastic or glass, mineral water (61) packaged only in transparent plastic or glass, and miscellaneous bottled waters (35). Analyses were performed by 3 laboratories, each using headspace sampling and capillary gas chromatography with either mass spectrometric (1 laboratory) or flame ionization detection with mass spectrometric confirmation, if required (2 laboratories). Benzene, the contaminant of primary interest, was detected in only 1 of the 182 samples at 2 {mu}g/kg. Other VOC contaminants detected (number of positive samples, average, and range of positives in {mu}g/kg) included toluene (20, 6.92, 0.5-63), cyclohexane (23, 39.2, 3-108), chloroform (12, 25.8, 3.7-70), and dichloromethane (4, 59, 22-97). Cyclohexane was found in the plastic and as a migrant from the plastic in 20 samples of spring water, but it was found in only 1 of 61 mineral water samples analyzed at only 3 {mu}g/kg/. Chloroform was found almost exclusively in samples that could have been obtained from public water supplies. It was not found in mineral water samples, but it was found in 1 spring water sample at 3.7 {mu}g/kg. The source of the toluene contamination was not known. Other VOCs detected include ethanol and limonene, associated with added flavoring; pentane, as a migrant from a foamed polystyrene cap liner; and 1,1,2,2-tetra-chloroethylene in a sample of demineralized water. 10 refs., 6 tabs.

  13. Survey of bottled drinking water sold in Canada. Part 2. Selected volatile organic compounds.

    PubMed

    Page, B D; Conacher, H B; Salminen, J; Nixon, G R; Riedel, G; Mori, B; Gagnon, J; Brousseau, Y

    1993-01-01

    Selected volatile organic compound (VOC) contaminants were determined in 182 samples of retail bottled waters purchased in Canada. Samples included spring water (86) packaged in containers of polyethylene or in smaller containers of transparent plastic or glass, mineral water (61) packaged only in transparent plastic or glass, and miscellaneous bottled waters (35). Analyses were performed by 3 laboratories, each using headspace sampling and capillary gas chromatography with either mass spectrometric (1 laboratory) or flame ionization detection with mass spectrometric confirmation, if required (2 laboratories). Benzene, the contaminant of primary interest, was detected in only 1 of the 182 samples at 2 micrograms/kg. Other VOC contaminants detected (number of positive samples, average, and range of positives in micrograms/kg) included toluene (20, 6.92, 0.5-63), cyclohexane (23, 39.2, 3-108), chloroform (12, 25.8, 3.7-70), and dichloromethane (4, 59, 22-97). Cyclohexane was found in the plastic and as a migrant from the plastic in 20 samples of spring water, but it was found in only 1 of 61 mineral water samples analyzed at only 3 micrograms/kg. Chloroform was found almost exclusively in samples that could have been obtained from public water supplies. It was not found in mineral water samples, but it was found in 1 spring water sample at 3.76 micrograms/kg. The source of the toluene contamination was not known. Other VOCs detected include ethanol and limonene, associated with added flavoring; pentane, as a migrant from a foamed polystyrene cap liner; and 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethylene in a sample of demineralized water. PMID:8448439

  14. Surveys of rice sold in Canada for aflatoxins, ochratoxin A and fumonisins

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, J.; Pantazopoulos, P.; Tam, J.; Cavlovic, P.; Kwong, K.; Turcotte, A.-M.; Lau, B.P.-Y.; Scott, P.M.

    2011-01-01

    Approximately 200 samples of rice (including white, brown, red, black, basmati and jasmine, as well as wild rice) from several different countries, including the United States, Canada, Pakistan, India and Thailand, were analysed for aflatoxins, ochratoxin A (OTA) and fumonisins by separate liquid Chromatographic methods in two different years. The mean concentrations for aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) were 0.19 and 0.17 ng g−1 with respective positive incidences of 56% and 43% (≥ the limit of detection (LOD) of 0.002 ng g−1). Twenty-three samples analysed in the second year also contained aflatoxin B2 (AFB2) at levels ≥LOD of 0.002 ng g−1 The five most contaminated samples in each year contained 1.44–7.14 ng AFB1 g−1 (year 1) and 1.45–3.48 ng AFB1 g−1 (year 2); they were mostly basmati rice from India and Pakistan and black and red rice from Thailand. The average concentrations of ochratoxin A (OTA) were 0.05 and 0.005 ng g−1 in year 1 and year 2, respectively; incidences of samples containing ≥LOD of 0.05 ng g−1 were 43% and 1%, respectively, in the 2 years. All positive OTA results were confirmed by LC-MS/MS. For fumonisins, concentrations of fumonisin B1 (FB1) averaged 4.5 ng g−1 in 15 positive samples (≥0.7 ng g−1) from year 1 (n = 99); fumonisin B2 (FB2) and fumonisin B3 (FB3) were also present (≥1 ng g−1). In the second year there was only one positive sample (14 ng g−1 FB1) out of 100 analysed. All positive FB1 results were confirmed by LC-MS/MS. PMID:21623501

  15. U.S. Geological Survey resource assessment of selected Tertiary coal zones in Wyoming, Montana and North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, D.J.; Ellis, M.S.

    2003-01-01

    In 1999, 1 Gt (1.1 billion st) of coal was produced in the United States. Of this total, 37% was produced in Wyoming, Montana and North Dakota. Coals of Tertiary age from these states typically have low ash contents. Most of these coals have sulfur contents that are in compliance with Clean Air Act standards and most have low concentrations of the trace elements that are of environmental concern. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Coal Resource Assessment for these states includes geologic, stratigraphic, palynologic and geochemical studies and resource calculations for major Tertiary coal zones in the Powder River, Williston, Greater Green River, Hanna and Carbon Basins. Calculated resources are 595 Gt (655 billion st). Results of the study are available in a USGS Professional Paper and a USGS Open-File Report, both in CD-ROM format.

  16. The U.S. geological survey rass-statpac system for management and statistical reduction of geochemical data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    VanTrump, G., Jr.; Miesch, A.T.

    1977-01-01

    RASS is an acronym for Rock Analysis Storage System and STATPAC, for Statistical Package. The RASS and STATPAC computer programs are integrated into the RASS-STATPAC system for the management and statistical reduction of geochemical data. The system, in its present form, has been in use for more than 9 yr by scores of U.S. Geological Survey geologists, geochemists, and other scientists engaged in a broad range of geologic and geochemical investigations. The principal advantage of the system is the flexibility afforded the user both in data searches and retrievals and in the manner of statistical treatment of data. The statistical programs provide for most types of statistical reduction normally used in geochemistry and petrology, but also contain bridges to other program systems for statistical processing and automatic plotting. ?? 1977.

  17. Economic gas resources remain in western Canada Triassic plays

    SciTech Connect

    Dallaire, S.M.; Waghmare, R.R.; Roux, L.; Conn, R.F. )

    1994-12-12

    This article reviews the estimates of economic potential of the undiscovered natural gas resources estimated to exist in the Triassic System of the interior plains region of the Western Canada sedimentary basin. This work was recently released as Part 2 of Geological Survey of Canada (GSC) Bulletin 483. It is the second in a series of multidisciplinary studies reviewing the petroleum geology, discovered and undiscovered gas resources, and economic potential of natural gas in the Western Canada basin. Economic potential measures the portion of the undiscovered resource which can be expected to provide economic investment opportunities over the long term. By taking costs and other economic constraints into account, a more realistic estimate of the resources of commercial interest to industry is provided. Estimates of economic potential are also relevant in supply/demand forecasting, in the resource management mandates of governments and regulatory bodies, and in the strategic planning of transportation systems.

  18. In situ gamma ray survey for geological mapping of Kmetasomatized metavolcanics at Bükkszentkereszt, Bükk Mts, Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Németh, Norbert; Pethõ, Gábor; Zajzon, Norbert

    2015-09-01

    The Middle-Upper Triassic Bagolyhegy Metarhyolite Formation of the Bükk Mts. (Hungary) hosts silicified bodies with high potassic feldspar content formed by Kmetasomatism. The rocks underwent a multistage deformation history including syn- and postmetamorphic folding and faulting. As the outcrop area is covered by soil and debris with some exposed silicified cliffs only, and potassium content is a characteristic feature of the metasomatized rocks, geological mapping was supported by a spectral gamma ray survey with a scintillation detector of NaI(Tl) crystal. A thunderstorm felling the beech forest made the soil horizon B also accessible in several pits, providing the opportunity to make measurements on the weathered debris instead of the topsoil (horizon A). Measurements in different arrangements were designed to test the effects of measuring time, measuring geometry and soil horizon. Our results show that concentration values obtained on the debris with a 2 min measuring time can be compared with those measured on exposed rock surfaces, producing a more reliable geological map than measurements on the topsoil with randomly variable K depletion. Pit geometry effects can be eliminated by the K/(eU+eTh) ratio. This results in a more realistic K distribution map if neither U nor Th enrichments are present. The survey successfully delineated the unexposed outcrop of K-enriched rocks on the survey area.

  19. Vertical gravity gradient surveys: field results and interpretations in British Columbia, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Agar, C.A.; Liard, J.O.

    1982-06-01

    Two vertical gravity gradient (VGG) surveys were completed during 1977 in British Columbia. The VGG method utilizes a La Coste and Rouberg model D gravity meter in conjunction with a small gradient tripod. The work indicates that the 'free-air' effect ranges between 2600-2800 E for southwestern British Columbia, which is somewhat lower than the theoretical value of 3086 E. The usefulness of the method in mining exploration is doubtful, especially in hilly or mountainous terrain where VGG values are shown to be very terrain-sensitive. However, the importance of knowing the regional VGG variations is emphasized by the work over the Hat Creek coal deposit, B.C.

  20. A review and evaluation of alternatives for updating U.S. Geological Survey land use and land cover maps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milazzo, Valerie A.

    1980-01-01

    Since 1974, the U.S. Geological Survey has been engaged in a nationwide program of baseline mapping of land use and land cover and associated data at a scale of 1:250,000. As l:100,000-scale bases have become available, they have been used for mapping certain areas and for special applications. These two scales are appropriate for mapping land use and land cover data on a nationwide basis within a practical time frame, and with an acceptable degree of standardization, accuracy, and level of detail. An essential requisite to better use of the land is current information on land use and land cover conditions and on the rates and trends of changes with time. Thus, plans are underway to update these maps and data. The major considerations in planning a nationwide program for updating U.S. Geological Survey land use and land cover maps are as follows: (1) How often should maps be updated? (2) What remotely sensed source materials should be used for detecting and compiling changes in land use and land cover? (3) What base maps should be used for presenting data on land use and land cover changes? (4) What maps or portions of a map should be updated? (5) What methods should be used for identifying and mapping changes? (6) What procedures should be followed for updating maps and what formats should be used? These factors must be considered in developing a map update program that portrays an appropriate level of information, relates to and builds upon the existing U.S. Geological Survey land use and land cover digital and statistical data base, is timely, cost-effective and standardized, and meets the varying needs of land use and land cover data users.

  1. U.S. Geological Survey Ecosystems science strategy: advancing discovery and application through collaboration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Byron K.; Wingard, G. Lynn; Brewer, Gary; Cloern, James E.; Gelfenbaum, Guy; Jacobson, Robert B.; Kershner, Jeffrey L.; McGuire, Anthony David; Nichols, James D.; Shapiro, Carl D.; van Riper, Charles, III; White, Robin P.

    2013-01-01

    Ecosystem science is critical to making informed decisions about natural resources that can sustain our Nations economic and environmental well-being. Resource managers and policymakers are faced with countless decisions each year at local, regional, and national levels on issues as diverse as renewable and nonrenewable energy development, agriculture, forestry, water supply, and resource allocations at the urbanrural interface. The urgency for sound decisionmaking is increasing dramatically as the world is being transformed at an unprecedented pace and in uncertain directions. Environmental changes are associated with natural hazards, greenhouse gas emissions, and increasing demands for water, land, food, energy, mineral, and living resources. At risk is the Nations environmental capital, the goods and services provided by resilient ecosystems that are vital to the health and wellbeing of human societies. Ecosystem sciencethe study of systems of organisms interacting with their environment and the consequences of natural and human-induced change on these systemsis necessary to inform decisionmakers as they develop policies to adapt to these changes. This Ecosystems Science Strategy is built on a framework that includes basic and applied science. It highlights the critical roles that U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists and partners can play in building scientific understanding and providing timely information to decisionmakers. The strategy underscores the connection between scientific discoveries and the application of new knowledge, and it integrates ecosystem science and decisionmaking, producing new scientific outcomes to assist resource managers and providing public benefits. We envision the USGS as a leader in integrating scientific information into decisionmaking processes that affect the Nations natural resources and human well-being. The USGS is uniquely positioned to play a pivotal role in ecosystem science. With its wide range of expertise, the Bureau can bring holistic, cross-scale, interdisciplinary capabilities to the design and conduct of monitoring, research, and modeling and to new technologies for data collection, management, and visualization. Collectively, these capabilities can be used to reveal ecological patterns and processes, explain how and why ecosystems change, and forecast change over different spatial and temporal scales. USGS science can provide managers with options and decision-support tools to use resources sustainably. The USGS has long-standing, collaborative relationships with the Department of the Interior (DOI) and other partners in the natural sciences, in both conducting science and applying the results. The USGS engages these partners in cooperative investigations that otherwise would lack the necessary support or be too expensive for a single bureau to conduct. The heart of this strategy is a framework for USGS ecosystems science that focuses on five long-term goals, which are seen as interconnected components that reinforce our vision of the USGS providing science that is at the forefront of decisionmaking.

  2. U.S. Geological Survey Science for the Wyoming Landscape Conservation Initiative-2010 Annual Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edit Bowen, Zachary H.; Aldridge, Cameron L.; Anderson, Patrick J.; Assal, Timothy J.; Biewick, Laura R.H.; Blecker, Steven W.; Boughton, Gregory K.; Bristol, R. Sky; Carr, Natasha B.; Chalfoun, Anna D.; Chong, Geneva W.; Clark, Melanie L.; Diffendorfer, Jay E.; Fedy, Bradley C.; Foster, Katharine; Garman, Steven L.; Germaine, Stephen; Holloway, JoAnn; Homer, Collin G.; Kauffman, Matthew J.; Keinath, Douglas; Latysh, Natalie; Manier, Daniel J.; McDougal, Robert R.; Melcher, Cynthia P.; Miller, Kirk A.; Montag, Jessica; Potter, Christopher J.; Schell, Spencer; Shafer, Sarah L.; Smith, David B.; Stillings, Lisa L.; Tuttle, Michele L.W.; Wilson, Anna B.

    2011-01-01

    This is the third report produced by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for the Wyoming Landscape Conservation Initiative (WLCI) to detail annual work activities. The first report described activities for 2007 and 2008, and the second report covered work activities for FY09. This third report covers work activities conducted in FY2010, and it continues the 2009 approach of reporting on all the individual activities to help give WLCI partners and other readers the full scope of what has been accomplished. New in this year's report is an additional section for each work activity that outlines the work planned for the following fiscal year. In FY2010, there were 35 ongoing/expanded, completed, or new projects conducted under the five major multi-disciplinary science and technical-assistance activities: (1) Baseline Synthesis; (2) Targeted Monitoring and Research; (3) Data and Information Management; (4) Integration and Coordination; and (5) Decisionmaking and Evaluation. The three new work activities were to (1) compile existing water data for the entire WLCI region and (2) develop regional curves (statistical models) for relating bankfull-channel geometry and discharge to drainages in the WLCI region, both of which will help guide long-term monitoring of water resources; and (3) initiate a groundwater-monitoring network to evaluate potential effects of energy-development activities on groundwater quality where groundwater is an important source of public/private water supplies. Results of the FY2009 work to develop methods for assessing soil organic matter and mercury indicated that selenium and arsenic levels may be elevated in the Muddy Creek Basin; thus, the focus of that activity was shifted in FY2010 to evaluate biogeochemical cycling of elements in the basin. In FY2010, two ongoing activities were expanded with the addition of more sampling plots: (a) the study of how greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) use vegetation-treatment areas (sites added to the Moxa Arch Natural Gas Development area) and (2) the study of cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) occurrence in burn treatments of the Little Mountain Ecosystem. The activity that entails evaluating relationships between ungulate herbivory and fire on aspen (Populus tremuloides) recruitment also was expanded to include relationships between stand characteristics of and herbivory on aspen in various ecohydrological settings. The USGS continued compiling data and developing geospatial products from all of its WLCI activities to support (1) ranking and prioritizing of proposed conservation projects, (2) developing the WLCI Integrated Assessment, and (3) developing the WLCI 5-year Conservation Action Plan. Two activities were completed in FY2010: (1) the conceptual modeling and indicator selection for monitoring resource conditions across the WLCI region, and (2) the literature review on effects of oil and gas development in western regions of the United States, both of which are in the last stages of publication.

  3. The Canada-United Kingdom Deep Submillimeter Survey. II. First Identifications, Redshifts, and Implications for Galaxy Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lilly, Simon J.; Eales, Stephen A.; Gear, Walter K. P.; Hammer, Franois; Le Fvre, Olivier; Crampton, David; Bond, J. Richard; Dunne, Loretta

    1999-06-01

    Identifications are sought for 12 submillimeter sources detected in a deep submillimeter survey. Six are securely identified, two have probable identifications, and four remain unidentified with IAB>25. Spectroscopic and estimated photometric redshifts indicate that four of the sources have z<1 and four have 13. The spectral energy distributions of the identifications, as defined by measurements or upper limits to the flux densities at 8000 , at 15, 450, 850 ?m, and at 6 cm, are consistent with the spectral energy distributions of high-extinction starbursts such as Arp 220. The far-IR luminosities of the sources at z>0.5 are of order 31012 h-250 Lsolar, i.e., slightly larger than that of Arp 220. As with local ultraluminous infrared galaxies, the optical luminosities of the identified galaxies are comparable to present-day L*, and the optical morphologies of many of the galaxies show evidence for mergers or highly disruptive interactions. Based on this small sample, the cumulative bolometric luminosity function shows strong evolution to z~1, but weaker or possibly even negative evolution beyond. The redshift dependence of the far-IR luminosity density does not appear, at this early stage, to be inconsistent with that seen in the ultraviolet luminosity density. Although the computation of bolometric luminosities is quite uncertain, the population of very luminous galaxies that is detected in the surveys at z>1 is already matching, in the far-IR, the bolometric output in the ultraviolet of the whole optically selected population. Assuming that the energy source in the far-IR is massive stars, this suggests that the total luminous output from star formation in the universe will be dominated by the far-IR emission once the lower luminosity sources, below the current far-IR detection threshold, are included. Furthermore, the detected systems have individual star formation rates (exceeding 300 h-250 Msolar yr-1) that are much higher than seen in the ultraviolet-selected samples and that are sufficient to form substantial stellar populations on dynamical timescales of 108 yr. The association with mergerlike morphologies and the obvious presence of dust makes it attractive to identify these systems as forming the metal-rich spheroid population, in which case we would infer that much of this activity has occurred relatively recently, at z~2. Based on observations with the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope, operated by the Joint Astronomy Center on behalf of the Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council of the United Kingdom, the National Research Council of Canada, and the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research; with the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT), operated by the CFHT Corporation on behalf of the National Research Council of Canada, the Centre National de la Researche Scientifique of France, and the University of Hawaii; with the Mayall 4 m telescope, operated by AURA, Inc., under cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation; and with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, observations obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by AURA, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  4. MAJOR SOURCE OF SIDE-LOOKING AIRBORNE RADAR IMAGERY FOR RESEARCH AND EXPLORATION: THE U. S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kover, Allan N.; Jones, John Edwin

    1985-01-01

    The US Geological Survey (USGS) instituted a program in 1980 to acquire side-looking airbore radar (SLAR) data and make these data readily available to the public in a mosaic format comparable to the USGS 1:250,000-scale topographic map series. The SLAR data are also available as strip images at an acquisition scale of 1:250,000 or 1:400,000 (depending on the acquisition system), as a variety of print products and indexes, and in a limited amount in digital form on computer compatible tapes. Three different commercial X-band (3-cm) systems were used to acquire the imagery for producing the mosaics.

  5. Guidelines for preparing a quality assurance plan for district offices of the U.S. Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schroder, L.J.; Shampine, W.J.

    1992-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has a policy that requires each District office to prepare a Quality Assurance Plan. This plan is a combination of a District's management principles and quality assurance processes. The guidelines presented in this report provide a framework or expanded outline that a District can use to prepare a plan. Parti- cular emphasis is given to a District's: (1) quality assurance policies; (2) organization and staff responsibilities; and (3) program and project planning. The guidelines address the 'how', 'what', and 'who' questions that need to be answered when a District Quality Assurance Plan is prepared.

  6. U.S. Geological Survey and Afghanistan Ministry of Mines and Industry cooperative assessment of Afghanistan's undiscovered oil and gas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wandrey, Craig J.; Ulmishek, Gregory; Agena, Warren; Klett, Timothy R.; Afghanistan Oil and Gas Research Assessment Team

    2006-01-01

    Results of the U.S. Geological Survey and Afghanistan Ministry of Mines and Industry cooperative assessment of undiscovered petroleum resources of northern Afghanistan were first released through this presentation on March 14, 2006, at the Afghan Embassy in Washington, D.C. On March 15 the results were presented in Kabul, Afghanistan. The purpose of the assessment and release of the results is to provide energy data required to implement the rebuilding and development of Afghanistan's energy infrastructure. This presentation includes a summary of the goals, process, methodology, results, and accomplishments of the assessment. It provides context for Fact Sheet 2006-3031, a summary of assessment results provided in the presentations.

  7. Cartography at the U.S. Geological Survey: the National Mapping Division's cartographic programs, products, design, and technology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ogrosky, Charles E.; Gwynn, William; Jannace, Richard

    1989-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is the prime source of many kinds of topographic and special-purpose maps of the United States and its outlying areas. It is also a prime source of digital map data. One main goal of the USGS is to provide large-scale topographic map coverage of the entire United States. Most of the Nation is already covered. We expect that initial coverage will be completed by 1991. For many purposes, many public agencies, private organizations, and individuals need reliable cartographic and geographic knowledge about our Nation. To serve such needs, all USGS maps are compiled to exacting standards of accuracy and content.

  8. A history of the Water Resources Branch, U.S. Geological Survey; Volume I, from predecessor surveys to June 30, 1919

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Follansbee, R.

    1994-01-01

    This volume is the first in a series of chronological summaries of the activities and achievements of the Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey. First published in 1939 through private subscription by interested personnel, Volume I is now available as a public document. The manuscripts of the following three volumes that cover the years 1919-47, all by the author of this volume, were reproduced by the Division in the 1950's for internal use only. Their publication for public use remains one of the Division's goals.

  9. Microbialite Morphologies and Distributions-Geoacoustic Survey with an AUV of Pavilion Lake, British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutsche, J. R.; Trembanis, A. C.

    2010-12-01

    With advances in lake bottom mapping it has been observed that modern microbialites, much like the ancient stromatolites, thrive in freshwater lake environments. Previously collected data shows that a diverse community of living stromatolites are present within Pavilion Lake (Laval et al., 2000, Lim et al., 2009). An additional comprehensive data set was collected in June-July 2010. By building on the previous dataset it is possible to compare two high-resolution geoacoustic datasets. Using Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) as exploration platforms to conduct surveys of the lake bottom, very high-resolution sonar data has been collected. The data collected in June-July 2010 is composed of 125 km of AUV trackline. This length of trackline allowed for survey coverage of nearly the entire lake bottom. The Gavia AUV used for this survey collected bathymetry data collocated with backscatter information. The data has been processed and gridded to 1m, with specific high value areas gridded to a finer 0.5m. The bathymetric data was compiled to create a base map of the floor of Pavilion Lake. Backscatter data was also collected and processed using the same 1m grid resolution. After the backscatter data was processed, it was draped over the bathymetry map of Pavilion Lake. The tools offered within the Fledermaus software package allow for the bathymetry data to be analyzed with respect to slope and rugosity. By analyzing this dense phase measuring bathymetric sonar of the lake bottom, with respect to slope and rugosity, it is possible to map the morphological trends of the stromatolites. Additionally, the ability to compare two datasets allows for erosional changes in the lake bottom to be identified. The bathymetry data allows for the quantitative analysis of bed forms within Pavilion Lake, allowing for a better understanding of microbialite morphologies. The backscatter data is increasingly important to the Pavilion Lake project because of the location and general surroundings of the lake. The lake itself is located in a limestone canyon, which frequently sustains erosional episodes. The backscatter data allows for the differentiation between erosional deposits and microbial mounds. The combination of backscatter and bathymetry allows for a further understanding of bedforms and microbialite growth patterns.

  10. Assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources of the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin, Canada, 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Higley, Debra

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey recently completed a geoscience-based assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of provinces within the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin. The Western Canada Sedimentary Basin primarily comprises the (1) Alberta Basin Province of Alberta, eastern British Columbia, and the southwestern Northwest Territories; (2) the Williston Basin Province of Saskatchewan, southeastern Alberta, and southern Manitoba; and (3) the Rocky Mountain Deformed Belt Province of western Alberta and eastern British Columbia. This report is part of the U.S. Geological Survey World Petroleum Resources Project assessment of priority geologic provinces of the world. The assessment was based on geoscience elements that define a total petroleum system (TPS) and associated assessment unit(s). These elements include petroleum source rocks (geochemical properties and petroleum generation, migration, and accumulation), reservoir description (reservoir presence, type, and quality), and petroleum traps (trap and seal types, and timing of trap and seal formation relative to petroleum migration). Using this framework, the Elk Point-Woodbend Composite TPS, Exshaw-Fernie-Mannville Composite TPS, and Middle through Upper Cretaceous Composite TPS were defined, and four conventional assessment units within the total petroleum systems were quantitatively assessed for undiscovered resources in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin.

  11. Water Facts and Figures for Planners and Managers. Geological Survey Circular 601-1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feth, J. H.

    This booklet presents the language used in dealing with water. The booklet is intended to provide decision-makers with an adequate base of information to analyze water sources for consumption, recreation, and industry. The first section defines water and its properties, geologic locations, domestic and industrial uses, and patterns of change. The

  12. Water Facts and Figures for Planners and Managers. Geological Survey Circular 601-1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feth, J. H.

    This booklet presents the language used in dealing with water. The booklet is intended to provide decision-makers with an adequate base of information to analyze water sources for consumption, recreation, and industry. The first section defines water and its properties, geologic locations, domestic and industrial uses, and patterns of change. The…

  13. A Web-Based Survey of Residents' Views on Advocating with Patients for a Healthy Built Environment in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Cruickshank, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To determine family medicine residents' perceived knowledge and attitudes towards the built environment and their responsibility for health advocacy and to identify their perceived educational needs and barriers to patient education and advocacy. Methods. A web-based survey was conducted in Canada with University of Toronto family medicine residents. Data were analyzed descriptively. Results. 93% agreed or strongly agreed that built environment significantly impacts health. 64% thought educating patients on built environment is effective disease prevention; 52% considered this a role of family physicians. 78% reported that advocacy for built environment is effective disease prevention; 56% perceived this to be the family physician's role. 59% reported being knowledgeable to discuss how a patient's environment may affect his/her health; 35% reported being knowledgeable to participate in community discussions on built environment. 78% thought education would help with integration into practice. Inadequate time (92%), knowledge (73%), and remuneration (54%) were barriers. Conclusions. While residents perceived value in education and advocacy as disease prevention strategies and acknowledged the importance of a healthy built environment, they did not consider advocacy towards this the family physician's role. Barrier reduction and medical education may contribute to improved advocacy, ultimately improving physical activity levels and patient health outcomes. PMID:25436150

  14. Use of electronic microprocessor-based instrumentation by the U.S. geological survey for hydrologic data collection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shope, William G., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is acquiring a new generation of field computers and communications software to support hydrologic data-collection at field locations. The new computer hardware and software mark the beginning of the Survey's transition from the use of electromechanical devices and paper tapes to electronic microprocessor-based instrumentation. Software is being developed for these microprocessors to facilitate the collection, conversion, and entry of data into the Survey's National Water Information System. The new automated data-collection process features several microprocessor-controlled sensors connected to a serial digital multidrop line operated by an electronic data recorder. Data are acquired from the sensors in response to instructions programmed into the data recorder by the user through small portable lap-top or hand-held computers. The portable computers, called personal field computers, also are used to extract data from the electronic recorders for transport by courier to the office computers. The Survey's alternative to manual or courier retrieval is the use of microprocessor-based remote telemetry stations. Plans have been developed to enhance the Survey's use of the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite telemetry by replacing the present network of direct-readout ground stations with less expensive units. Plans also provide for computer software that will support other forms of telemetry such as telephone or land-based radio.

  15. Changes in distribution of Canada geese nesting in Arkansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krementz, David G.; Ronke, M. Eliese

    2015-01-01

    The reintroduced Canada goose (Branta canadensis) population in Arkansas has grown in range and abundance in recent decades. We determined the geographic range of Arkansas resident Canada geese from 2004 to 2012 using volume contour maps from citizen science observations using eBird, a citizen science website, and hunter recovery locations from the U.S. Geological Survey Bird Banding Laboratory. Resulting maps indicate an increase in Canada goose encounters toward northwestern and southwestern Arkansas from the original relocations in the Arkansas River valley. We examined movement of Canada geese banded and recovered in Arkansas by determining the distance and angle of movement between initial and final encounter locations; 25% moved east, and 17% went west. The average distance moved from banding to recovery was 50 km (SE = 1 km). Recoveries of Canada geese banded in Arkansas were greatest in the Mississippi Flyway (58% of all geese) followed by the Central Flyway (37%) with some representation in both the Atlantic (4%) and Pacific flyways (0.9%). Movement from Arkansas to other states and Canada was influenced by goose age and sex. Older individuals traveled longer distances than younger ones, and females traveled longer distances than males. Our findings suggest that recently established Canada geese in Arkansas have slowly expanded within the state to the northwest and southwest with the expansion to the east being important now. Movement of Arkansas resident Canada geese on molt-migration can contribute to management issues in other states and provinces.

  16. Current status of core and advanced adult gastrointestinal endoscopy training in Canada: Survey of existing accredited programs

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Xin; Barkun, Alan N; Waschke, Kevin; Martel, Myriam

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the current status of core and advanced adult gastroenterology training in Canada. METHODS: A survey consisting of 20 questions pertaining to core and advanced endoscopy training was circulated to 14 accredited adult gastroenterology residency program directors. For continuous variables, median and range were analyzed; for categorical variables, percentage and associated 95% CIs were analyzed. RESULTS: All 14 programs responded to the survey. The median number of core trainees was six (range four to 16). The median (range) procedural volumes for gastroscopy, colonoscopy, percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy and sigmoidoscopy, respectively, were 400 (150 to 1000), 325 (200 to 1500), 15 (zero to 250) and 60 (25 to 300). Eleven of 13 (84.6%) programs used endoscopy simulators in their curriculum. Eight of 14 programs (57%) provided a structured advanced endoscopy training fellowship. The majority (88%) offered training of combined endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) and endoscopic ultrasonography. The median number of positions offered yearly for advanced endoscopy fellowship was one (range one to three). The median (range) procedural volumes for ERCP, endoscopic ultrasonography and endoscopic mucosal resection, respectively, were 325 (200 to 750), 250 (80 to 400) and 20 (10 to 63). None of the current programs offered training in endoscopic submucosal dissection or natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery. CONCLUSION: Most accredited adult Canadian gastroenterology programs met the minimal procedural requirements recommended by the Canadian Association of Gastroenterology during core training. However, a more heterogeneous experience has been observed for advanced training. Additional studies would be required to validate and standardize evaluation tools used during gastroenterology curricula. PMID:23712301

  17. THE SHAPE AND PROFILE OF THE MILKY WAY HALO AS SEEN BY THE CANADA-FRANCE-HAWAII TELESCOPE LEGACY SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Sesar, Branimir; Ivezic, Zeljko; Juric, Mario

    2011-04-10

    We use Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey data for 170 deg{sup 2}, recalibrated and transformed to the Sloan Digital Sky Survey ugri photometric system, to study the distribution of near-turnoff main-sequence stars in the Galactic halo along four lines of sight to heliocentric distances of {approx}35 kpc. We find that the halo stellar number density profile becomes steeper at Galactocentric distances greater than R{sub gal} {approx} 28 kpc, with the power-law index changing from n{sub inner} = -2.62 {+-} 0.04 to n{sub outer} = -3.8 {+-} 0.1. In particular, we test a series of single power-law models and find them to be strongly disfavored by the data. The parameters for the best-fit Einasto profile are n = 2.2 {+-} 0.2 and R{sub e} = 22.2 {+-} 0.4 kpc. We measure the oblateness of the halo to be q {identical_to} c/a = 0.70 {+-} 0.01 and detect no evidence of it changing across the range of probed distances. The Sagittarius stream is detected in the l = 173 deg. and b = -62 deg. direction as an overdensity of [Fe/H] {approx} -1.5 dex stars at R{sub gal} {approx} 32 kpc, providing a new constraint for the Sagittarius stream and dark matter halo models. We also detect the Monoceros stream as an overdensity of [Fe/H] > -1.5 dex stars in the l = 232 deg. and b = 26 deg. direction at R{sub gal} {approx}< 25 kpc. In the two sight lines where we do not detect significant substructure, the median metallicity is found to be independent of distance within systematic uncertainties ([Fe/H] {approx} -1.5 {+-} 0.1 dex).

  18. Canadian population risk of radon induced lung cancer: a re-assessment based on the recent cross-Canada radon survey

    PubMed Central

    Chen, J.; Moir, D.; Whyte, J.

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to indoor radon has been determined to be the second leading cause of lung cancer after tobacco smoking. Canadian population risk of radon induced lung cancer was assessed in 2005 with the radon distribution characteristics determined from a radon survey carried out in the late 1970s in 19 cities. In that survey, a grab sampling method was used to measure radon levels. The observed radon concentration in 14 000 Canadian homes surveyed followed a lognormal distribution with a geometric mean (GM) of 11.2 Bq m3 and a geometric standard deviation (GSD) of 3.9. Based on the information from that survey, it was estimated that ?10 % of lung cancers in Canada resulted from indoor radon exposure. To gain a better understanding of radon concentrations in homes across the country, a national residential radon survey was launched in April 2009. In the recent survey, long-term (3 month or longer) indoor radon measurements were made in roughly 14 000 homes in 121 health regions across Canada. The observed radon concentrations follow, as expected, a lognormal distribution with a GM of 41.9 Bq m3 and a GSD of 2.8. Based on the more accurate radon distribution characteristics obtained from the recent cross-Canada radon survey, a re-assessment of Canadian population risk for radon induced lung cancer was undertaken. The theoretical estimates show that 16 % of lung cancer deaths among Canadians are attributable to indoor radon exposure. These results strongly suggest the ongoing need for the Canadian National Radon Program. In particular, there is a need for a focus on education and awareness by all levels of government, and in partnership with key stakeholders, to encourage Canadians to take action to reduce the risk from indoor radon exposure. PMID:22874897

  19. Quaternary geology and geomorphology of the Dinosaur Provincial Park area and surrounding plains, Alberta, Canada: the identification of former glacial lobes, drainage diversions and meltwater flood tracks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, David J. A.

    2000-06-01

    The Quaternary geology and geomorphology of the lower Red Deer River drainage basin, centred on the Dinosaur Provincial Park badlands, provides information on pre-Late Wisconsinan drainage patterns and the dynamics of former lobes of the Laurentide Ice Sheet in western Canada. Patterns of deglaciation, proglacial lake evolution and spillway incision are also reconstructed based upon the distribution of surface materials and glacial/glaciofluvial landforms. The Empress Group fluvial and glaciolacustrine sediments, which could be as young as 27 ka BP, infill the precursor Red Deer River and its tributaries and document the initial advance of glacier ice into southern Alberta. Glaciotectonic disturbance of older sediments and bedrock, the production of deformation tills and the construction of a megafluting complex and cupola hills record the advances of a glacier lobe centred over the study area. Stratified inter- and intra-till beds record pulses of subglacial meltwater between phases of subsole deformation. The thickening of tills towards the margin of the lobe represents a till wedge, an expected product of sediment advection by glaciers moving over deformable beds. The eastern margin of the glacier lobe is demarcated by the interlobate Suffield hummocky moraine belt which contains overprinted thrust ridges, which record diachronous oscillations of neighbouring lobes within the ice sheet. Proglacial and glaciofluvial sediments were deposited in the area in association with proglacial Lake Bassano/Patricia, which drained eastwards when the Suffield moraine was dissected by spillways. Changes in the size of glacial lake Bassano/Patricia are clearly documented by a sequence of spillway incisions which culminated in the erosion of scabland topography and the initiation of a new course for the Red Deer River, a 15 km southward diversion of the main channel. In distinct contrast to the documented incision histories of other small rivers in Alberta, One Tree Creek and Little Sandhill Creek did not start major incisions of the Quaternary sediments over buried valley positions until the late-Holocene when environmental conditions were characterized by higher precipitation.

  20. Progress on water data integration and distribution: a summary of select U.S. Geological Survey data systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blodgett, David L.; Lucido, Jessica M.; Kreft, James M.

    2015-01-01

    Critical water-resources issues ranging from flood response to water scarcity make access to integrated water information, services, tools, and models essential. Since 1995 when the first water data web pages went online, the U.S. Geological Survey has been at the forefront of water data distribution and integration. Today, real-time and historical streamflow observations are available via web pages and a variety of web service interfaces. The Survey has built partnerships with Federal and State agencies to integrate hydrologic data providing continuous observations of surface and groundwater, temporally discrete water quality data, groundwater well logs, aquatic biology data, water availability and use information, and tools to help characterize the landscape for modeling. In this paper, we summarize the status and design patterns implemented for selected data systems. We describe how these systems contribute to a U.S. Federal Open Water Data Initiative and present some gaps and lessons learned that apply to global hydroinformatics data infrastructure.