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Sample records for canada leads charge

  1. Case report: Coccidiosis and lead poisoning in Canada geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Locke, L.N.; Bagley, G.E.

    1967-01-01

    Four dead Canada geese (Branta canadensis L.) collected at the Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge, Delaware were found to have both marked duodenal lesions of coccidiosis and high levels of lead in the liver. Although only one goose had lead shot in the gizzard, all four had levels of lead in the liver suggestive of lead poisoning.

  2. Reformulating Lead-Based Paint as a Problem in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Perron, Amélie

    2011-01-01

    Leaded gasoline was officially removed from the Canadian market in December 1990. The removal of a major lead source and the subsequent decline in children's blood lead levels marked an important transition point and sparked the emergence of new discourse on lead in Canada. Today, childhood lead poisoning is viewed as a problem of the past or a problem of the United States. Sparse Canadian surveillance data supported this view. Moreover, tensions among federal agencies evolved into a power struggle, with Health Canada ultimately becoming the dominant authority, thereby relegating important research initiatives to obscurity and also shaping a vastly weaker regulatory response to lead than occurred in the United States. PMID:21836119

  3. Lead exposure in Canada geese of the Eastern Prairie Population

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeStefano, S.; Brand, C.J.; Rusch, D.H.; Finley, Daniel L.; Gillespie, M.M.

    1991-01-01

    We monitored lead exposure in Eastern Prairie Population Canada geese during summer-winter, 1986-1987 and 1987-1988 at 5 areas. Blood lead concentrations in geese trapped during summer at Cape Churchill Manitoba were below levels indicative of recent lead exposure (0.18 ppm). Geese exposed to lead (≥0.18 ppm blood lead) increased to 7.6% at Oak Hammock Wildlife Management Area (WMA), southern Manitoba, where lead shot was still in use, and to 10.0% at Roseau River WMA, northern Minnesota, when fall-staging geese were close to a source of lead shot in Manitoba. Proportion of birds exposed to lead dropped to <2% at Lac Qui Parle WMA, Minnesota, a steel shot zone since 1980. On the wintering grounds at Swan Lake National Wildlife Refuge in Missouri, 4.9% of all geese showed exposure to lead before the hunting season. Lead exposure rose to 10.0% after hunting ended and then decreased to 5.2% in late winter. Incidence of lead shot in gizzards and concentrations of lead in livers supported blood assay data. Soil samples indicated that lead shot continues to be available to geese at Swan Lake, even though the area was established as a non-toxic shot zone in 1978. Steel shot zones have reduced lead exposure in the Eastern Prairie Population, but lead shot persists in the environment and continues to account for lead exposure and mortality in Eastern Prairie Population Canada geese.

  4. Lead pellet ingestion and liver-lead concentrations in upland game birds from southern Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Kreager, N; Wainman, B C; Jayasinghe, R K; Tsuji, L J S

    2008-02-01

    One-hundred twenty-three gizzards from upland game birds (chukar, Alectoris chukar; and common pheasant, Phasianus colchicus) harvested by hunters in southern Ontario, Canada, were examined for lead pellet ingestion by manual examination of gizzard contents and by radiography. Lead pellets were found to be ingested by chukars (6/76; 8%) and the common pheasant (16/47; 34%). Further, 13% (17/129) of the bird (wild turkey, Meleagris gallopavo; Hungarian partridge, Perdix perdix; chukar; and common pheasant) livers analyzed had elevated lead concentrations (> or =6 microg/g wet weight [ww]). Liver-lead concentrations above Health Canada's guideline for human consumption of fish protein (<0.5 microg/g ww) were found in 40% (51/129) of livers analyzed. Data indicate that the ingestion of lead pellets in upland game birds and the potential consumption of lead-contaminated meat by humans are concerns related to the continued use of lead shotshell for hunting. PMID:17763885

  5. Study on sources of charging lead acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diniş, C. M.; Popa, G. N.; Iagăr, A.

    2015-06-01

    The paper presents the general characteristics of lead acid batteries and two charging methods of these batteries. For charging of lead batteries was used an intelligent power source K 8012 (from Velleman). The power source allows fixing the level of the battery voltage and battery capacity. The intelligent power source uses the joint method (at constant current and, then, at constant voltage) and warning that indicates different situations in the charging process. Other method of charging presented in the paper is at constant voltage using a stabilized power source. In the paper experimental measurements were carried out using data acquisition card SER 10 BIT (from Conrad) for charging/ discharging of a lead acid battery 12V/9Ah (using an intelligent power source) and charging of another high capacity lead acid battery 12V/47Ah/390 A (using a stabilized power source). At the discharging of the lead acid batteries it were used automotive lamps as electric loads.

  6. Pulse charging of lead-acid traction cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smithrick, J. J.

    1980-01-01

    Pulse charging, as a method of rapidly and efficiently charging 300 amp-hour lead-acid traction cells for an electric vehicle application was investigated. A wide range of charge pulse current square waveforms were investigated and the results were compared to constant current charging at the time averaged pulse current values. Representative pulse current waveforms were: (1) positive waveform-peak charge pulse current of 300 amperes (amps), discharge pulse-current of zero amps, and a duty cycle of about 50%; (2) Romanov waveform-peak charge pulse current of 300 amps, peak discharge pulse current of 15 amps, and a duty of 50%; and (3) McCulloch waveform peak charge pulse current of 193 amps, peak discharge pulse current of about 575 amps, and a duty cycle of 94%. Experimental results indicate that on the basis of amp-hour efficiency, pulse charging offered no significant advantage as a method of rapidly charging 300 amp-hour lead-acid traction cells when compared to constant current charging at the time average pulse current value. There were, however, some disadvantages of pulse charging in particular a decrease in charge amp-hour and energy efficiencies and an increase in cell electrolyte temperature. The constant current charge method resulted in the best energy efficiency with no significant sacrifice of charge time or amp-hour output. Whether or not pulse charging offers an advantage over constant current charging with regard to the cell charge/discharge cycle life is unknown at this time.

  7. Charge Efficiency Tests of Lead/Acid Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowlette, J. J.

    1984-01-01

    Current, voltage, and gas evolution measured during charge/discharge cycles. Series of standarized tests for evaluating charging efficiency of lead/acid storage batteries described in report. Purpose of tests to provide information for design of battery charger that allows maximum recharge efficiency for electric-vehicle batteries consistent with other operating parameters, such as range, water loss, and cycle life.

  8. Exposure of migrant bald eagles to lead in prairie Canada.

    PubMed

    Miller, M J; Wayland, M E; Bortolotti, G R

    2001-01-01

    The prevalence of elevated exposure to lead was assessed in a migrant population of bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) at a waterfowl staging area in the southern portion of the Canadian prairies, from September to November, 1992-1995. Of 103 eagles, 8% exhibited blood lead (PbB) concentrations suggestive of elevated exposure to lead (> or = 0.200 microgram ml-1 wet wt.). PbB concentrations in eagles from the study area ranged from < 0.01 to 0.585 microgram ml-1, while those of nestling eagles from a reference site indicated normal or background exposure (< 0.01 microgram ml-1). No differences in the prevalence of elevated exposure were detected among genders or age classes (0.5- and > or = 1.5-year-old birds) (P > 0.05). The prevalence of elevated exposure was significantly greater in November than in October (21.7 vs. 3.8%) (all years: chi 2Y = 5.75, P = 0.017). Eagles with shotshell pellets in the digestive tract did not have accompanying high PbB concentrations. The prevalence of elevated lead exposure in this study was low in comparison to other areas in North America. Potential biases in the trapping technique as they relate to interpreting the results are addressed. PMID:11234531

  9. Pion double charge exchange reactions leading to double pionic atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Nieves, J.; Oset, E.; Vincente-Vacas, M.J. ); Hirenzaki, S.; Toki, H. )

    1992-10-20

    In this paper, the authors study theoretically pion double charge exchange reactions leading to double pionic atoms. The reaction cross-sections with two pions in the deeper bound pionic orbits in [sup 208]Pb are calculated with realistic pionic atom wave functions and distortion effects. The cross-sections are found to be d[sup 2] [sigma]/dEd[Omega] [approx] 10[sup [minus] 3] [minus] 10[sup [minus] 4] [mu]b/srMeV, which are only a small fraction of the double charge exchange.

  10. Prioritizing health leadership capabilities in Canada: Testing LEADS in a Caring Environment.

    PubMed

    Marchildon, Gregory P; Fletcher, Amber J

    2016-01-01

    This article is the first major empirical test of LEADS in a Caring Environment, the principal leadership capability framework in Canada. The results rank the perceived salience of leadership attributes, given time and budget constraints, while implementing a major organization reform in the Saskatchewan health system. The results also indicate important differences between self-assessed leadership behaviours versus observed behaviours in other leaders that may reflect participants' expectations of managers with designated authority. PMID:26656384

  11. Canada.

    PubMed

    1987-03-01

    In 1986, Canada's population stood at 25.5 million, with an annual growth rate of 1.2%. The infant mortality rate is 15/1000, and life expectancy is 69 years for males and 76 years for females. Of the labor force of 12.9 million, 3.5% are engaged in agriculture, 52% work in industry and commerce, 28.4% are in the services sector, and 5.9% are employed by the government. The gross national product was US$367.2 billion in 1986, with a per capita income of about $13,000. Canada is a constitutional monarchy with a bilingual federal system, a parliamentary form of government, and strong democratic traditions. The spectacular growth of Canadian manufacturing in recent decades has transformed the country from a rural agricultural society into a primarily urban and industrial society. The mineral industry has been a major factor in Canada's economic development. PMID:12178065

  12. Modeling of the charge acceptance of lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thele, M.; Schiffer, J.; Karden, E.; Surewaard, E.; Sauer, D. U.

    This paper presents a model for flooded and VRLA batteries that is parameterized by impedance spectroscopy and includes the overcharging effects to allow charge-acceptance simulations (e.g. for regenerative-braking drive-cycle profiles). The full dynamic behavior and the short-term charge/discharge history is taken into account. This is achieved by a detailed modeling of the sulfate crystal growth and modeling of the internal gas recombination cycle. The model is applicable in the full realistic temperature and current range of automotive applications. For model validation, several load profiles (covering the dynamics and the current range appearing in electrically assisted or hybrid cars) are examined and the charge-acceptance limiting effects are elaborately discussed. The validation measurements have been performed for different types of lead-acid batteries (flooded and VRLA). The model is therefore an important tool for the development of automotive power nets, but it also allows to analyze different charging strategies and energy gains which can be achieved during regenerative-braking.

  13. Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Robert F.; Ghosh, Ratna

    1986-01-01

    Discusses Canada's problems in searching for a national identity and the controversy of the Federal policy of multiculturalism. Presents its objectives within a bilingual framework and the contradictions involved. Suggests a workable model involving assimilation conditioned by regional or local circumstances, useful also as a development strategy.…

  14. Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillham, Virginia

    1991-01-01

    Lists and annotates 130 publications from the federal government of Canada and from the various Canadian provinces. Major topics include environmental concerns, particularly ecologically responsible forestry, global warming, and waste disposal/recycling; education at all levels, including bilingual concerns; and the Belanger-Campeau report, which…

  15. Lead poisoning in upland-foraging birds of prey in Canada.

    PubMed

    Clark, A J; Scheuhammer, A M

    2003-01-01

    We examined the degree of lead exposure, based on tissue-lead concentrations, in 184 raptors of 16 species found dead across Canada. The most prevalent species available for examination were Red-tailed hawks, Great horned owls, and Golden eagles (n = 131). The majority of individuals examined had very low lead accumulation, however 3-4% of total mortality in these 3 most commonly encountered species was attributed to lead poisoning. In addition, 1 of 9 Bald Eagles found dead far from aquatic environments was lead poisoned; and a single Turkey Vulture had a highly elevated bone-lead concentration (58 microg/g dry weight). Evidence from our study, along with other published research, indicates that upland-foraging birds of prey and scavengers that typically include game birds and mammals in their diets, are at risk for lead poisoning from the ingestion of lead projectiles from ammunition used in upland hunting. The use of non-lead ammunition for hunting upland game would effectively remove the only serious source of high lead exposure and lead poisoning for upland-foraging raptors. PMID:12739854

  16. Prevalence of lead exposure among age and sex cohorts of Canada geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeStefano, S.; Brand, C.J.; Rusch, D.H.

    1992-01-01

    We examined the prevalence of lead exposure from ingestion of waste lead shot among age and sex cohorts of Canada geese (Branta canadensis) on the breeding, migration, and wintering grounds of the Eastern Prairie Population. Blood samples from 6963 geese were assayed for lead concentration by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. On the breeding grounds, no goslings and < 1 % of adults showed evidence of recent exposure to lead shot (i.e., concentrations in the blood elevated above the threshold value of 0. 18 ppm lead). However, median background blood lead concentrations (i.e., blood samples with < 0.18 ppm lead) were higher in adults than goslings, indicating that exposure of adults to lead had occurred during previous seasons. Waste lead shot was available on the migration and wintering grounds, where a larger proportion of the blood samples from immatures (< 1 year old) than adults (> 1 year old) had lead concentrations greater-than-or-equal-to 0.18 ppm. Median background lead levels remained higher in adults than in immatures throughout fall and winter. We also found that more immature males than immature females had elevated lead concentrations. Higher rates of intake of food and grit (including shot) probably partially account for the higher prevalence of elevated lead concentrations in immature Canada geese.//Nous avons ??tudi?? l'importance des expositions au plomb par ingestion de plombs de chasse chez les diff??rentes cohortes (??ge et sexe) de Bernaches du Canada (Branta canadensis) dans les zones de reproduction et de migration et dans les territoires d'hiver chez la population de la Prairie de l'Est. Des ??chantillons de sang ont ??t?? pr??lev??s chez 6963 bernaches et analys??s au sphectrophotom??tre ? absorption atomique pour en d??terminer le contenu en plomb. Dans les zones de reproduction, les traces d'exposition r??cente ? des plombs (i.e. concentrations de plomb dans le sang au-dessus de la valeur seuil de 0,18 ppm) ??taient apparentes chez

  17. Soil lead concentrations and prevalence of hyperactive behavior among school children in Ottawa, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Ericson, J.E.; Mishra, S.I. )

    1990-01-01

    This pilot study presents findings of a case study of the prevalence of hyperactive behavior among school children and soil lead concentrations in the urban environment of Ottawa, Canada. Preexisting data on the prevalence of hyperactivity were correlated with soil lead concentrations from soil samples collected in 1981. Soil lead concentrations of the samples were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrometry. Further, synagraphic mapping was done to facilitate spatial analyses of the topographical patterning of the prevalence of hyperactivity and soil lead concentrations. The two major trends in the prevalence of hyperactivity and soil lead data are overlapped and seen as topographical ridges running northeast-southwest in the central part of the city. Both trends are geographically bounded and parallel to the major thoroughfares of the city. The explained variability in prevalence of hyperactivity based on soil lead concentrations is 25% in areas of high concordance between the residence of the children and location of the sampling points. The results illustrate the effectiveness of soil lead as a significant indicator of the psychological effect of hyperactivity among urban children, and its importance as a monitor of ambient lead.

  18. Creation of the sole regional laser lead extraction program serving Atlantic Canada: initial experience

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Kenneth J.; O’Keefe, Scott; Légaré, Jean-Francois

    2016-01-01

    Background An increasing need for laser lead extraction has grown in parallel with the increase of implantation of pacing and defibrillating devices. We reviewed the initial experience of a regional laser-assisted lead extraction program serving Atlantic Canada. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the cases of all consecutive patients who underwent laser lead extraction at the Maritime Heart Centre in Halifax, NS, between 2006 and 2015. We conducted univariate and Kaplan–Meier survivorship analyses. Results During the 9-year study period, 108 consecutive patients underwent laser lead extractions (218 leads extracted). The most common indication for extraction was infection (84.3%). Most patients were older than 60 years (73.1%) and had leads chronically implanted; the explanted leads were an average of 7.5 ± 6.8 years old. Procedural and clinical success (resolution of preoperative symptoms) rates and mortality were 96.8%, 97.2%, and 0.9%, respectively. Sternotomy procedures were performed in 3 instances: once for vascular repair due to perforation and twice to ensure that all infected lead material was removed. No minor complications required surgical intervention. Survival after discharge was 98.4% at 30 days and 94% at 12 months. Conclusion Atlantic Canada’s sole surgical extraction centre achieved high extraction success with a low complication rate. Lead extraction in an operative setting provides for immediate surgical intervention and is essential for the survival of patients with complicated cases. Surgeons must weigh the risks versus benefits in patients older than 60 years who have chronically implanted leads (> 1 yr) and infection. PMID:26999473

  19. Field evaluation of lead effects on Canada geese and mallards in the Coeur d'Alene River Basin, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henny, Charles J.; Blus, L.J.; Hoffman, D.J.; Sileo, L.; Audet, Daniel J.; Snyder, Mark R.

    2000-01-01

    Hatch year (HY) mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) in the Coeur d'Alene (CDA) River Basin had higher concentrations of lead in their blood than HY Western Canada geese (Branta canadensis moffitti) (geometric means 0.98 versus 0.28 I?g/g, wet weight). The pattern for adults of both species was similar, although geometric means (1.77 versus 0.41 I?g/g) were higher than in HY birds. HY mallards captured in the CDA River Basin in 1987 contained significantly lower lead concentrations in their blood than in 1994a??95 (0.36 versus 0.98 I?g/g); however, some very young mallards were sampled in 1987, and concentrations in adults were not significantly different in 1987, 1994, or 1995 (1.52, 2.07, 1.55 I?g/g, respectively). Both species in the CDA River Basin in 1994a??95 showed significantly reduced red blood cell delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity compared to the reference areas: Canada geese (HY a??65.4 to a??86.0%, adults a??82.3%), and mallards (HY a??90.7 to a??95.5%, adults a??94.1%). Canada goose goslings were divided into size classes, and the two smaller classes from the CDA River Basin had significantly elevated free erythrocyte protoporphyrin (protoporphyrin) levels compared to the reference area (15.2?? and 6.9??). HY and adult mallards both had significantly elevated protoporphyrin (5.9?? and 7.5??). Recognizing that interspecific differences exist in response and sensitivity to lead, it appears (at least for hemoglobin and hematocrit) that Canada geese were more sensitive to lead than mallards, i.e., adverse hematologic effects occur at lower blood lead concentrations. Only Canada geese from the CDA River Basin, in spite of lower blood lead concentrations, had significantly reduced mean hemoglobin and hematocrit values. No euthanized Canada geese (all HYs) from CDA River Basin were classified as clinically lead poisoned, but 38 Canada geese found dead in the CDA River Basin during a concurrent study succumbed to lead poisoning between 1992 and

  20. Developmental toxicity of lead-contaminated sediment in Canada geese (Branta canadensis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffman, David J.; Heinz, Gary H.; Sileo, Louis; Audet, Daniel J.; Campbell, Juile K.; Obrecht, Holly H., III

    2000-01-01

    Sediment ingestion has recently been identified as an important exposure route for toxicants in waterfowl. The effects of lead-contaminated sediment from the Coeur d'Alene River Basin (CDARB) in Idaho on posthatching development of Canada geese (Branta canadensis) were examined for 6 wk. Day-old goslings received either untreated control diet, clean sediment (48%) supplemented control diet, or CDARB sediment (3449 mug/g lead) supplemented diets at 12%, 24%, or 48%. The 12% CDARB diet resulted in a geometric mean blood lead concentration of 0.68 ppm (ww), with over 90% depression of red blood cell ALAD activity and over fourfold elevation of free erythrocyte protoporphyrin concentration. The 24% CDARB diet resulted in blood lead of 1.61 ppm with decreased hematocrit, hemoglobin, and plasma protein in addition to the effects just described. The 48% CDARB diet resulted in blood lead of 2.52 ppm with 22% mortality, decreased growth, and elevated plasma lactate dehydrogenase-L (LDH-L) activity. In this group the liver lead concentration was 6.57 ppm (ww), with twofold increases in hepatic lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, TBARS) and in reduced glutathione concentration; associated effects included elevated glutathione reductase activity but lower protein-bound thiols concentration and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PDH) activity. The kidney lead concentration in this group was 14.93 ppm with subacute renal tubular nephrosis in one of the surviving goslings. Three other geese in this treatment group exhibited calcified areas of marrow, and one of these displayed severe chronic fibrosing pancreatitis. Lead from CDARB sediment accumulated less readily in gosling blood and tissues than reported in ducklings but at given concentrations was generally more toxic to goslings. Many of these effects were similar to those reported in wild geese and mallards within the Coeur d'Alene River Basin.

  1. Differences in oxidative stress between young Canada geese and mallards exposed to lead-contaminated sediment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mateo, R.; Hoffman, D.J.

    2001-01-01

    Lead (Pb) exposure causes an increase in tissue lipid peroxides and variation in glutathione (GSH) concentration, which can be related to peroxidative damage of cell membranes in Pb poisoned animals. Species and individual variation in sensitivity to Pb poisoning among animals may be due to differential resistance to oxidative stress. We compared the effects of oxidative stress caused by Pb exposure (1.7, 414 and 828 ig/g of diet) for the first six weeks in growing young of two species of waterfowl, Canada geese (Branta canadensis) and mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), with the first species being possibly more sensitive to Pb poisoning based on previous field and laboratory observations. Blood and liver Pb concentrations increased more in mallards than in geese; this may be explained on the basis of body weight, being 3.2 times higher in geese, and hepatic metabolism where GSH-S-transferase activity is 2.9 fold higher in geese and presumably has a role in the binding of Pb to GSH and subsequent biliary excretion. In contrast, mallards showed higher hepatic levels of GSH and activities of GSH peroxidase (GPX) and GSH reductase (GR). Although both species showed an increase in hepatic GSH concentration with Pb exposure, the increase of lipid peroxidation with Pb exposure was more significant in geese. Within treatment groups, hepatic GSH concentrations were inversely related to liver Pb concentration in both species, which may correspond to the role of GSH in Pb excretion. Hepatic GSH was also inversely related to hepatic lipid peroxidation, but only in mallards and in agreement with the differences observed in GPX and GR activities. The lower resistance to lipid peroxidation of Canada geese may explain why birds of this species found dead in the field by Pb shot ingestion often have a lower number of shot in the gizzard and lower liver Pb concentrations than mallards.

  2. Waste minimization charges up recycling of spent lead-acid batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Queneau, P.B.; Troutman, A.L. )

    1993-08-01

    Substantial strides are being made to minimize waste generated form spent lead-acid battery recycling. The Center for Hazardous Materials Research (Pittsburgh) recently investigated the potential for secondary lead smelters to recover lead from battery cases and other materials found at hazardous waste sites. Primary and secondary lead smelters in the U.S. and Canada are processing substantial tons of lead wastes, and meeting regulatory safeguards. Typical lead wastes include contaminated soil, dross and dust by-products from industrial lead consumers, tetraethyl lead residues, chemical manufacturing by-products, leaded glass, china clay waste, munitions residues and pigments. The secondary lead industry also is developing and installing systems to convert process inputs to products with minimum generation of liquid, solid and gaseous wastes. The industry recently has made substantial accomplishments that minimize waste generation during lead production from its bread and butter feedstock--spent lead-acid batteries.

  3. Effects of nontoxic shot regulations on lead accumulation in ducks and American woodcock in Canada.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, A L; Scheuhammer, A M; Chan, H M

    2005-04-01

    Prior to the first nontoxic shot zones being established in Canada, a nationwide survey of lead (Pb) concentrations in wing bones of hatch year (HY) dabbling and diving ducks determined the incidence of elevated Pb exposure in waterfowl in different parts of the country (Scheuhammer and Dickson 1996). The main objectives of the present study were (1) to compare these previously collected data with the incidence of elevated Pb accumulation in the same species several years after the establishment of a national regulation in 1997 prohibiting the use of Pb shot for waterfowl hunting; and (2) to survey waterfowl hunters to determine reported levels of compliance with the nontoxic shot regulation. Average bone-Pb concentrations in dabbling ducks (mallards [Anas platyrhyncos] and American black ducks [Anas rubripes] combined) decreased significantly between 1989+1990 and 2000 (11 microg/g vs. 4.8 microg/g, respectively [p < 0.01]). Ring-necked ducks (Aythya collaris) showed a similar decrease in mean bone-Pb concentrations, from 28 microg/g to 10 microg/g (p < 0.01). These declines in bone-Pb concentration were consistent with the results of a large anonymous hunter survey, which indicated a high level of reported compliance (>80%) with the nontoxic shot regulation among waterfowl hunters residing in Ontario and British Columbia. Conversely, American woodcock (Scolopax minor), an important upland game species not affected by the nontoxic shot regulation, showed no decrease in mean bone-Pb concentration since the national regulation came into effect (19 microg/g in 1995 vs. 21 microg/g in 2000). A majority (70%) of waterfowl hunters in British Columbia and Ontario who also hunt upland game birds report continued (legal) use of Pb shot for upland game bird hunting. PMID:15719196

  4. Neospora caninum is the leading cause of bovine fetal loss in British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Devon J; Orsel, Karin; Waddington, Josh; Rajeev, Malavika; Sweeny, Amy R; Joseph, Tomy; Grigg, Michael E; Raverty, Stephen A

    2016-03-15

    The protozoan pathogen Neospora caninum is recognized as a leading cause of infectious abortions in cattle worldwide. To evaluate the impact of neosporosis on dairy and beef herd production, a retrospective, longitudinal study was performed to identify the impact of neosporosis alongside other causes of fetal abortion in British Columbia, Canada. Retrospective analysis of pathology records of bovine fetal submissions submitted to the Animal Health Centre, Abbotsford, British Columbia, a provincial veterinary diagnostic laboratory, from January 2007 to July 2013 identified 182 abortion cases (passive surveillance). From July 2013 to May 2014, an active surveillance program identified a further 54 abortion cases from dairy farmers in the Upper Fraser Valley, British Columbia. Of the total 236 fetal submissions analyzed, N. caninum was diagnosed in 18.2% of cases, making it the most commonly identified infectious agent associated with fetal loss. During active surveillance, N. caninum was associated with 41% of fetuses submitted compared to 13.3% during passive surveillance (p<0.001). Breed of dam was significantly associated with N. caninum diagnosis, with a higher prevalence in dairy versus beef breeds, and fetuses of 3-6 months gestational age had the highest prevalence of N. caninum. There was no significant association with dam parity. N. caninum was diagnosed in every year except 2009 and cases were geographically widespread throughout the province. Furthermore, the active surveillance program demonstrates that N. caninum is highly prevalent in the Upper Fraser Valley and is a major causal agent of production losses in this dairy intensive region. PMID:26872927

  5. Effect of positive pulse charge waveforms on the energy efficiency of lead-acid traction cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smithrick, J. J.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of four different charge methods on the energy conversion efficiency of 300 ampere hour lead acid traction cells were investigated. Three of the methods were positive pulse charge waveforms; the fourth, a constant current method, was used as a baseline of comparison. The positive pulse charge waveforms were: 120 Hz full wave rectified sinusoidal; 120 Hz silicon controlled rectified; and 1 kHz square wave. The constant current charger was set at the time average pulse current of each pulse waveform, which was 150 amps. The energy efficiency does not include charger losses. The lead acid traction cells were charged to 70 percent of rated ampere hour capacity in each case. The results of charging the cells using the three different pulse charge waveforms indicate there was no significant difference in energy conversion efficiency when compared to constant current charging at the time average pulse current value.

  6. Spatial and temporal variation in lead levels related to body condition in the Mississippi Valley population of Canada geese.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, W E; Gates, R J

    1999-04-01

    Concern over lead poisoning led to progressive prohibition of toxic shot to harvest waterfowl in the 1980's. Nevertheless, waterfowl remain susceptible to ingestion of lead shot because illegal use continues and spent shot persists in soil and wetland substrates. While mortality due to lead toxicosis has subsided, sublethal effects may still affect survival and reproduction. We measured liver lead levels and body condition in 732 Canada geese (Branta canadensis interior) during July 1984 to April 1989 in southern Illinois (USA), east-central Wisconsin (USA), and northern Ontario (Canada). Although we sampled only individuals that were visibly healthy, 55 of 732 (7.5%) geese had elevated liver lead levels (> 2 ppm). Lead levels of 46 (6.3%) geese indicated subclinical poisoning (2-6 ppm) and 9 (1.2%) geese had lead levels indicative of clinical poisoning (> 6 ppm). A greater proportion of juveniles (14.3%) had elevated lead levels than did adults (6.0%), but there was no difference between genders. Lead levels were highest in autumn and winter in southern Illinois, but were low during nesting and summer, despite legal use of lead shot in northern Ontario during our study. Lead poisoning (> or = 5% of the population) was still evident during all seasons in juveniles, and during autumn and winter in adults, 5 to 10 yr after toxic shot was banned from areas where we collected geese during migration and winter. Elevated lead levels did not affect total body mass, lipid reserves, or mineral levels of geese we collected. Protein levels also were unaffected below 10 ppm, but there was evidence of decline at higher concentrations. Thus, it seems unlikely that lead exposure currently affects survival or reproduction of Mississippi Valley Population (MVP) geese via body condition, although other sublethal effects cannot be discounted. PMID:10231744

  7. Estimation of snag carbon transfer rates by ecozone and lead species for forests in Canada.

    PubMed

    Hilger, A B; Shaw, C H; Metsaranta, J M; Kurz, W A

    2012-12-01

    Standing dead trees (snags) and downed woody debris contribute substantially to the carbon (C) budget of Canada's forest. Accurate parameterization of the C transfer rates (CTRs) from snags to downed woody debris is important for forest C dynamics models such as the Carbon Budget Model of the Canadian Forest Sector (CBM-CFS3), but CTRs are rarely measured or reported in the literature. Therefore, forest C models generally use snag fall rates (FRs) available in the literature, as a proxy for CTRs. However, FRs are based on stem counts while CTRs refer to mass transfers. Stem mass and stem number are not linearly related, with small diameter trees representing disproportionately lower C mass transfers. Therefore this proxy, while convenient, may bias C transfer from standing dead to downed woody material. Here, we combined tree data from 10802 sample plots and previously published species-specific individual-tree relationships between tree diameter (diameter at breast height, dbh) and fall rate to derive stand-level estimates of CTRs for the CBM-CFS3. We estimated CTRs and FRs and used the FR values to validate this approach by comparing them with standardized FR values compiled from the literature. FRs generally differed from CTRs. The overall CTR (4.78% +/- 0.02% per year, mean +/- SE) was significantly smaller than the overall FR (5.40% +/- 0.02% per year; mean +/- SE). Both the difference between FR and CTR (FR - CTR) and the CTR itself varied by ecozone, with ecozone means for CTR ranging from 3.94% per year to 10.02% per year. This variation was explained, in part, by heterogeneity in species composition, size (dbh distribution), structure, and age of the stands. The overall mean CTR estimated for the Snag_Stemwood (4.78% per year) and the Snag_Branches (11.95% per year) pools of the CBM-CFS3 were approximately 50% and 20% higher than the current default rates used in the CBM-CFS3 of 3.2% and 10.0%, respectively. Our results demonstrate that using CTRs to

  8. Saudi Arabia and Canada Lead in Pay for Faculty Members, Study Finds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Karin

    2008-01-01

    Starting salaries for newly minted professors are highest in Canada, but for the best prospects of raising earnings over an academic career, one should look to Saudi Arabian universities. These are some of the findings of a new study that looks at faculty pay across international borders, examining salary data in 15 countries, among them the…

  9. Blood lead concentrations of waterfowl from unhunted and heavily hunted marshes of Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island, Canada.

    PubMed

    Daury, R W; Schwab, F E; Bateman, M C

    1993-10-01

    Blood lead concentrations of juvenile American black ducks (Anas rubripes) sampled in unhunted sanctuaries of Nova Scotia (NS) and Prince Edward Island (PEI), Canada, usually were < 30 parts per billion (ppb). Based on gizzard content analyses of juvenile American black ducks from hunted areas, eight (24%) of 33 flightless birds contained ingested lead shot. Blood lead concentrations were > or = 100 ppb in seven of eight juveniles with ingested shot; thus we adopted blood lead concentrations 100 ppb as our threshold indicating exposure to non-background lead. The proportion of both American black ducks and ring-necked ducks (Aythya collaris) with elevated blood lead concentrations (> 100 ppb) exceeded 5% in hunted areas sampled in NS and PEI combined. The Canadian Wildlife Service draft policy is to consider replacing lead shot with non-toxic shot for waterfowl and snipe hunting if 5% of American black ducks exceed a blood lead concentration of 200 ppb. American black ducks significantly (P < 0.05) exceeded this threshold but ring-necked ducks did not. The source of lead in hunted areas may have been lead shot; we recommend that it be eliminated and replaced by an acceptable non-toxic shot for waterfowl hunting. Twenty four (96%) of 25 of American black ducks overwintering in Sullivans Pond, Dartmouth, NS, contained elevated (> 100 ppb) blood lead concentrations and 19 (76%) had detrimental concentrations (> 200 ppb). We believe that the source of lead at Sullivans Pond was automobile emissions. PMID:8258857

  10. Applying Dixon and Dixon's Integrative Model for Environmental Health Research toward a critical analysis of childhood lead poisoning in Canada.

    PubMed

    Perron, Amélie; O'Grady, Kelly A

    2010-01-01

    Occurrences of childhood lead poisoning resulting from exposure to residential sources of lead is an underresearched area in Canada. Dixon and Dixon's Integrative Model for Environmental Health Research substantiates this claim by grouping Canadian research on this health topic into the model's 4 domains: physiological, vulnerability, epistemological, and health protection. This process is useful not only for identifying research gaps within the Canadian context but also in setting the groundwork for a future critical analysis to illuminate the sociopolitical and economic influences that shape healthcare knowledge, and ultimately, influence how healthcare providers and policy makers produce and use this information. PMID:20154520

  11. Taking Charge--Leading with Passion and Purpose in the Principalship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Paul L.

    2011-01-01

    "Taking Charge" is a practical guide to the "craft knowledge" of leading schools from an experienced principal, school reformer, and educational consultant. Drawing on his own experiences as well as the experiences of other school leaders, Shaw captures the essence of what principals do and the leadership traits they need to take charge for school…

  12. Charge regimes for valve-regulated lead-acid batteries: Performance overview inclusive of temperature compensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Y. S.; Hurley, W. G.; Wölfle, W. H.

    The main battery type employed in standby applications is the valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) battery. Float charging is normally used to maintain the battery in its fully charged state, however, float charging has limitations that can damage the battery and shorten its life. New charge regimes have evolved in recent years to tackle the intrinsic problems of float charging. The intermittent charge (IC) regime and the interrupted charge control (ICC) regime have been developed to prolong the service life of the battery in standby applications. The battery is normally maintained in the standby mode for a long period of time and there are infrequent discharge tests to verify the efficacy of the battery. Hence, the service life of the battery is highly correlated to its charge regime. This paper reviews the charge regimes for VRLA batteries, and assesses their charging performance and their impact on the service life of the battery. Recognising that temperature plays a significant role in battery operation, temperature compensation schemes are described for different charge regimes.

  13. Rapid, efficient charging of lead-acid and nickel-zinc traction cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smithrick, J. J.

    1978-01-01

    Lead-acid and nickel-zinc traction cells were rapidly and efficiently charged using a high rate tapered direct current (HRTDC) charge method which could possibly be used for on-the-road service recharge of electric vehicles. The HRTDC method takes advantage of initial high cell charge acceptance and uses cell gassing rate and temperature as an indicator of charging efficiency. On the average, in these preliminary tests, 300 amp-hour nickel-zinc traction cells were given a HRTDC (initial current 500 amps, final current 100 amps) to 78 percent of rated amp-hour capacity within 53 minutes at an amp-hour efficiency of 92 percent and an energy efficiency of 52 percent. Three hundred amp-hour lead-acid traction cells were charged to 69 percent of rated amp-hour capacity within 46 minutes at an amp-hour efficiency of 91 percent with an energy efficiency of 64 percent. In order to find ways to further decrease the recharge times, the effect of periodically (0 to 400 Hz) pulse discharging cells during a constant current charging process (94% duty cycle) was investigated. Preliminary data indicate no significant effect of this type of pulse discharging during charge on charge acceptance of lead-acid or nickel-zinc cells.

  14. Aspects of lead/acid battery technology 5. Dry charging of formed negative plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prout, L.

    The objective in the dry charging of formed negative plates in lead/acid batteries is to preserve the highly active sponge lead material from attack by atmospheric oxygen until the dry and unfilled charged battery is put into service. This review discusses the following methods that are commonly used for dry charging: (i) drying in a vacuum; (ii) drying by direct application of superheated steam; (iii) drying in an inert-gas atmosphere; (iv) removal of water by hot kerosene and subsequent drying in a closed kerosene vapour chamber and (v) drying in the presence of anti-oxidants. The protection of dry-charge characteristics, rapid evaluation of dry-charge quality and testing for excess wax or oil inhibitors are also described.

  15. Lead, mercury, cadmium, chromium, and arsenic levels in eggs, feathers, and tissues of Canada geese of the New Jersey Meadowlands

    SciTech Connect

    Tsipoura, Nellie; Burger, Joanna; Newhouse, Michael; Jeitner, Christian; Gochfeld, Michael; Mizrahi, David

    2011-08-15

    The New Jersey Meadowlands are located within the heavily urbanized New York/New Jersey Harbor Estuary and have been subject to contamination due to effluent and runoff from industry, traffic, and homes along the Hackensack River and nearby waterways. These extensive wetlands, though heavily impacted by development and pollution, support a wide array of bird and other wildlife species. Persistent contaminants may pose threats to birds in these habitats, affecting reproduction, egg hatchability, nestling survival, and neurobehavioral development. Metals of concern in the Meadowlands include arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, and mercury. These metals were analyzed in eggs, feathers, muscle, and liver of Canada geese (Branta canadensis) breeding in four wetland sites. We sampled geese collected during control culling (n=26) and collected eggs from goose nests (n=34). Levels of arsenic were below the minimum quantification level (MQL) in most samples, and cadmium and mercury were low in all tissues sampled. Chromium levels were high in feather samples. Mercury levels in eggs of Canada geese, an almost exclusively herbivorous species, were lower (mean {+-}SE 4.29{+-}0.30 {mu}g/g wet weight) than in eggs of omnivorous mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), and insectivorous red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus) and marsh wrens (Cistothorus palustris) from the Meadowlands, consistent with trophic level differences. However, lead levels were higher in the goose eggs (161{+-}36.7 ng/g) than in the other species. Geese also had higher levels of lead in feathers (1910{+-}386 ng/g) than those seen in Meadowlands passerines. By contrast, muscle and liver lead levels were within the range reported in waterfowl elsewhere, possibly a reflection of metal sequestration in eggs and feathers. Elevated lead levels may be the result of sediment ingestion or ingestion of lead shot and sinkers. Finally, lead levels in goose liver (249{+-}44.7 ng/g) and eggs (161{+-}36.7 ng/g) may pose a

  16. Influence of bismuth on the charging ability of negative plates in lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, L. T.; Ceylan, H.; Haigh, N. P.; Manders, J. E.

    To examine the influence of bismuth on the charging ability of negative plates in lead-acid batteries, plates are made from three types of oxides: (i) leady oxide of high quality which contains virtually no bismuth (termed 'control oxide'); (ii) control oxide in which bismuth oxide is blended at bismuth levels from 0.01 to 0.12 wt.%; (iii) leady oxide produced from Pasminco VRLA Refined™ lead (0.05-0.06 wt.%Bi). An experimental tool—the 'conversion indicator'—is developed to assess the charging ability of the test negative plates when cycling under either zero percent state-of-charge (SoC)/full-charge or partial state-of-charge (PSoC) duty. Although the conversion indicator is not the true charging efficiency, the two parameters have a close relationship, namely, the higher the conversion indicator, the greater the charging efficiency. Little difference is found in the charging ability, irrespective of bismuth content and discharge rate, when the plates are subjected to zero percent SoC/full-charge duty; the conversion indicator lies in the range 81-84%. By contrast, there is a marked difference when the negative plates are subjected to PSoC duty, i.e. consecutive cycling through 90-60, 70-40, 80-40 and 90-40% SoC windows. Up to 0.06 wt.%Bi improves the charging ability, especially with a low and narrow PSoC window (40-70% SoC) of the type that will be experienced in 42 V powernet automobile and hybrid electric duties. To maximize this beneficial effect, bismuth must be distributed uniformly in the plates. This is best achieved by using VRLA Refined™ lead for oxide production.

  17. Sealed NiCad vs. sealed lead acid batteries - Charge control and monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Haas, R.M. )

    1991-09-01

    A control regime for NiCad and lead acid batteries which can evaluate the available energy deliverable by the battery at any time is reported. The use of battery cell impedance, state of charge, incremental slope tests, a charge control regime, discharge monitor, and charge control circuit to monitor the battery is discussed. It is shown how the battery state of readiness can be established with reasonable accuracy for both types of batteries and how the control regime can be continually optimized for best performances.

  18. Charged-Higgs-boson production at the LHC: Next-to-leading-order supersymmetric QCD corrections

    SciTech Connect

    Dittmaier, Stefan; Kraemer, Michael; Spira, Michael; Walser, Manuel

    2011-03-01

    The dominant production process for heavy charged-Higgs bosons at the LHC is the associated production with heavy quarks. We have calculated the next-to-leading-order supersymmetric QCD corrections to charged-Higgs production through the parton processes qq,gg{yields}tbH{sup {+-}} and present results for total cross sections and differential distributions. The QCD corrections reduce the renormalization and factorization scale dependence and thus stabilize the theoretical predictions. We present a comparison of the next-to-leading-order results for the inclusive cross section with a calculation based on bottom-gluon fusion gb{yields}tH{sup {+-}} and discuss the impact of the next-to-leading-order corrections on charged-Higgs searches at the LHC.

  19. Interim report on studies of uranium, thorium, and lead migration at Key Lake, Saskatchewan, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, D.B.; Gancarz, A.J.

    1980-07-01

    The redistribution of uranium, thorium, and lead is being examined in samples representing several million cubic meters of sandstone and metamorphased sediments in the Athabasca Basin which is located in the northwest corner of the Canadian province of Saskatchewan. The region of study includes zones of uranium mineralization at Key Lake. Mineralization occurs at the unconformity between the Athabasca sandstone and the underlying metasediments and in fault zones within the metasediments. Lead isotopes record a radiometric age of 1300 +- 150 m.y. in samples from above and below the unconformity. This age probably reflects the time of deposition of the sandstones and an associated redistribution of uranium and/or lead in the underlying rocks. Many of the samples have been fractionated with respect to radiogenic lead and the actinide parent elements since that time. Sandstones and altered rocks from the region above the unconformity have been a transport path and are a repository for lead. In contrast, mineralized rocks are deficient in radiogenic lead and must be an important source of lead in the local geologic environment. However, the isotopic composition of lead missing from the ores is different from that found in the overlying sandstones. The two types of rocks do not appear to represent complements with respect to a source and a repository for lead.

  20. Lead, mercury, cadmium, chromium, and arsenic levels in eggs, feathers, and tissues of Canada geese of the New Jersey Meadowlands.

    PubMed

    Tsipoura, Nellie; Burger, Joanna; Newhouse, Michael; Jeitner, Christian; Gochfeld, Michael; Mizrahi, David

    2011-08-01

    The New Jersey Meadowlands are located within the heavily urbanized New York/New Jersey Harbor Estuary and have been subject to contamination due to effluent and runoff from industry, traffic, and homes along the Hackensack River and nearby waterways. These extensive wetlands, though heavily impacted by development and pollution, support a wide array of bird and other wildlife species. Persistent contaminants may pose threats to birds in these habitats, affecting reproduction, egg hatchability, nestling survival, and neurobehavioral development. Metals of concern in the Meadowlands include arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, and mercury. These metals were analyzed in eggs, feathers, muscle, and liver of Canada geese (Branta canadensis) breeding in four wetland sites. We sampled geese collected during control culling (n=26) and collected eggs from goose nests (n=34). Levels of arsenic were below the minimum quantification level (MQL) in most samples, and cadmium and mercury were low in all tissues sampled. Chromium levels were high in feather samples. Mercury levels in eggs of Canada geese, an almost exclusively herbivorous species, were lower (mean ±SE 4.29±0.30μg/g wet weight) than in eggs of omnivorous mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), and insectivorous red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus) and marsh wrens (Cistothorus palustris) from the Meadowlands, consistent with trophic level differences. However, lead levels were higher in the goose eggs (161±36.7ng/g) than in the other species. Geese also had higher levels of lead in feathers (1910±386ng/g) than those seen in Meadowlands passerines. By contrast, muscle and liver lead levels were within the range reported in waterfowl elsewhere, possibly a reflection of metal sequestration in eggs and feathers. Elevated lead levels may be the result of sediment ingestion or ingestion of lead shot and sinkers. Finally, lead levels in goose liver (249±44.7ng/g) and eggs (161±36.7ng/g) may pose a risk if consumed

  1. Lead exposure through consumption of big game meat in Quebec, Canada: risk assessment and perception.

    PubMed

    Fachehoun, Richard Coovi; Lévesque, Benoit; Dumas, Pierre; St-Louis, Antoine; Dubé, Marjolaine; Ayotte, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Game meat from animals killed by lead ammunition may expose consumers to lead. We assessed the risk related to lead intake from meat consumption of white-tailed deer and moose killed by lead ammunition and documented the perception of hunters and butchers regarding this potential contamination. Information on cervid meat consumption and risk perception were collected using a mailed self-administrated questionnaire which was addressed to a random sample of Quebec hunters. In parallel, 72 samples of white-tailed deer (n = 35) and moose (n = 37) meats were collected from voluntary hunters and analysed for lead content using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. A risk assessment for people consuming lead shot game meat was performed using Monte Carlo simulations. Mean lead levels in white-tailed deer and moose killed by lead ammunition were 0.28 and 0.17 mg kg(-1) respectively. Risk assessment based on declared cervid meat consumption revealed that 1.7% of the surveyed hunters would exceed the dose associated with a 1 mmHg increase in systolic blood pressure (SBP). For consumers of moose meat once, twice or three times a week, simulations predicted that 0.5%, 0.9% and 1.5% of adults would be exposed to a dose associated with a 1 mmHg increase in SBP, whereas 0.9%, 1.9% and 3.3% of children would be exposed to a dose associated with 1 point intelligence quotient (IQ) decrease, respectively. For consumers of deer meat once, twice or three times a week, the proportions were 1.6%, 2.9% and 4% for adults and 2.9%, 5.8% and 7.7% for children, respectively. The consumption of meat from cervids killed with lead ammunition may increase lead exposure and its associated health risks. It would be important to inform the population, particularly hunters, about this potential risk and promote the use of lead-free ammunition. PMID:26161681

  2. Discrete carbon nanotubes increase lead acid battery charge acceptance and performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swogger, Steven W.; Everill, Paul; Dubey, D. P.; Sugumaran, Nanjan

    2014-09-01

    Performance demands placed upon lead acid batteries have outgrown the technology's ability to deliver. These demands, typically leading to Negative Active Material (NAM) failure, include: short, high-current surges; prolonged, minimal, overvoltage charging; repeated, Ah deficit charging; and frequent deep discharges. Research shows these failure mechanisms are attenuated by inclusion of carbon allotropes into the NAM. Addition of significant quantities of carbon, however, produces detrimental changes in paste rheology, leading to lowered industrial throughput. Additionally, capacity, cold-cranking performance, and other battery metrics are negatively affected at high carbon loads. Presented here is Molecular Rebar® Lead Negative, a new battery additive comprising discrete carbon nanotubes (dCNT) which uniformly disperse within battery pastes during mixing. NS40ZL batteries containing dCNT show enhanced charge acceptance, reserve capacity, and cold-cranking performance, decreased risk of polarization, and no detrimental changes to paste properties, when compared to dCNT-free controls. This work focuses on the dCNT as NAM additives only, but early-stage research is underway to test their functionality as a PAM additive. Batteries infused with Molecular Rebar® Lead Negative address the needs of modern lead acid battery applications, produce none of the detrimental side effects associated with carbon additives, and require no change to existing production lines.

  3. Spin polarized photons from an axially charged plasma at weak coupling: Complete leading order

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamo, Kiminad A.; Yee, Ho-Ung

    2016-03-01

    In the presence of (approximately conserved) axial charge in the QCD plasma at finite temperature, the emitted photons are spin aligned, which is a unique P - and C P -odd signature of axial charge in the photon emission observables. We compute this "P -odd photon emission rate" in a weak coupling regime at a high temperature limit to complete leading order in the QCD coupling constant: the leading log as well as the constant under the log. As in the P -even total emission rate in the literature, the computation of the P -odd emission rate at leading order consists of three parts: (1) Compton and pair annihilation processes with hard momentum exchange, (2) soft t - and u -channel contributions with hard thermal loop resummation, (3) Landau-Pomeranchuk-Migdal resummation of collinear bremsstrahlung and pair annihilation. We present analytical and numerical evaluations of these contributions to our P -odd photon emission rate observable.

  4. Unraveling Charge Carriers Generation, Diffusion, and Recombination in Formamidinium Lead Triiodide Perovskite Polycrystalline Thin Film.

    PubMed

    Piatkowski, Piotr; Cohen, Boiko; Ponseca, Carlito S; Salado, Manuel; Kazim, Samrana; Ahmad, Shahzada; Sundström, Villy; Douhal, Abderrazzak

    2016-01-01

    We report on studies of the formamidinium lead triiodide (FAPbI3) perovskite film using time-resolved terahertz (THz) spectroscopy (TRTS) and flash photolysis to explore charge carriers generation, migration, and recombination. The TRTS results show that upon femtosecond excitation above the absorption edge, the initial high photoconductivity (∼75 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1)) remains constant at least up to 8 ns, which corresponds to a diffusion length of 25 μm. Pumping below the absorption edge results in a mobility of 40 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) suggesting lower mobility of charge carriers located at the bottom of the conduction band or shallow sub-bandgap states. Furthermore, analysis of the THz kinetics reveals rising components of <1 and 20 ps, reflecting dissociation of excitons having different binding energies. Flash photolysis experiments indicate that trapped charge carriers persist for milliseconds. PMID:26703885

  5. Temperature effects on sealed lead acid batteries and charging techniques to prolong cycle life.

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchinson, Ronda

    2004-06-01

    Sealed lead acid cells are used in many projects in Sandia National Laboratories Department 2660 Telemetry and Instrumentation systems. The importance of these cells in battery packs for powering electronics to remotely conduct tests is significant. Since many tests are carried out in flight or launched, temperature is a major factor. It is also important that the battery packs are properly charged so that the test is completed before the pack cannot supply sufficient power. Department 2665 conducted research and studies to determine the effects of temperature on cycle time as well as charging techniques to maximize cycle life and cycle times on sealed lead acid cells. The studies proved that both temperature and charging techniques are very important for battery life to support successful field testing and expensive flight and launched tests. This report demonstrates the effects of temperature on cycle time for SLA cells as well as proper charging techniques to get the most life and cycle time out of SLA cells in battery packs.

  6. Development of a charge algorithm for the optimized charging of a 120-V flooded lead-acid lighthouse battery with forced electrolyte destratification. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Nowak, D.

    1989-10-01

    Proper charging was identified as the most important requirement for the reliable and economical operation of a battery that is part of the hybrid power system for remote lighthouses. Therefore a charge algorithm was developed to optimize charging of a flooded lead-acid battery with forced electrolyte destratification. This algorithm is independent of the operating temperature, the state of charge and the battery age. It controls charging according to the weakest battery module in the pack and is able in the course of several cycles to automatically equalize the performance of the modules in the battery pack without excessive overcharging. The charge algorithm prevents overheating due to bad battery connectors and quite generally responds to all causes of poor charge acceptance with a gentle treatment of the battery during charging.

  7. Understanding sensitization behavior of lead selenide photoconductive detectors by charge separation model

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Lihua E-mail: shi@ou.edu; Qiu, Jijun; Weng, Binbin; Chang, Caleb; Yuan, Zijian; Shi, Zhisheng E-mail: shi@ou.edu

    2014-02-28

    We introduce a charge separation model in this work to explain the mechanism of enhanced photoconductivity of polycrystalline lead salt photoconductors. Our results show that this model could clarify the heuristic fabrication processes of such lead salt detectors that were not well understood and often considered mysterious for nearly a century. The improved lifetime and performance of the device, e.g., responsivity, are attributed to the spatial separation of holes and electrons, hence less possibility of carrier recombination. This model shows that in addition to crystal quality the size of crystallites, the depth of outer conversion layer, and doping concentration could all affect detector performance. The simulation results agree well with experimental results and thus offer a very useful tool for further improvement of lead salt detectors. The model was developed with lead salt family of photoconductors in mind, but may well be applicable to a wider class of semiconducting films.

  8. A Snapshot of School-Based Mental Health and Substance Abuse in Canada: Where We Are and Where It Leads Us

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manion, Ian; Short, Kathy H.; Ferguson, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    The Mental Health Commission of Canada supported a comprehensive research project to determine the current state of mental health and substance use programs and practices in Canadian schools. The School-Based Mental Health and Substance Abuse Consortium is made up of a group of 40 leading Canadian researchers, policy makers, and practitioners. The…

  9. Electromagnetic Instrumentation for Exploration and the Environment: A Retrospective Look by Canada's Leading Manufacture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catalano, M.

    2009-05-01

    Geonics Limited has a very rich and varied history. This talk will provide a historical perspective about how a few key individuals shaped the development of some of the world's most useful electromagnetic (EM) geophysical instrumentation. A brief review of these systems, including the science behind them, will showcase the evolution of each to the market place and emphasize how a combination of business savvy and a constant investment to research is what lead to a successful line of instrumentation. In 1950 a company called Aeromagnetic Surveys Ltd. was established that was considered "the largest and most diversified air- survey firm in the world" (FLIGHT, 1954), for its time. It employed Vaino Ronka and Alex Herz, young engineers, who patented several new EM technologies including an in-phase and quadrature towed bird helicopter EM system (the first commercial transistorized instrument). The two also set new standards for ground based horizontal loop EM systems and won several mining Blue Ribbon Awards. By the end of 1958, Mr. Ronka began offering independent design services for geophysical instruments and it became inevitable that one day he would form his own company. Geonics Limited was incorporated in 1962 by Vaino Ronka and Alex Herz and the EM-16 VLF receiver, first sold in 1965, became the first successful instrument. It's considered the best selling electrical geophysical tool of all-time and is still sold today by the same model name 44 years later. In 1974, the company was purchased by James Duncan McNeill, the former chief engineering physicist of Barringer Research Ltd. During his time as president of Geonics he was responsible for an explosion of new instruments from the 70's, 80's and into the 90's that permanently placed Geonics instruments in virtually every government environmental lab and consulting firm active in near-surface geophysics. His ability to foresee new problem areas and to define new roles that geophysical methods could play in a

  10. A study of lead-acid battery efficiency near top-of-charge and the impact on PV system design

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, J.W.; Corey, G.P.

    1996-07-01

    Knowledge of the charge efficiency of lead-acid batteries near top-of-charge is important to the design of small photovoltaic systems. In order to know how much energy is required from the photovoltaic array in order to accomplish the task of meeting load, including periodic full battery charge, a detailed knowledge of the battery charging efficiency as a function of state of charge is required, particularly in the high state-of-charge regime, as photovoltaic systems are typically designed to operate in the upper 20 to 30% of battery state-of-charge. This paper presents the results of a process for determining battery charging efficiency near top-of-charge and discusses the impact of these findings on the design of small PV systems.

  11. The partial state-of-charge cycle performance of lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeuchi, Taisuke; Sawai, Ken; Tsuboi, Yuichi; Shiota, Masashi; Ishimoto, Shinji; Hirai, Nobumitsu; Osumi, Shigeharu

    Negative plate lugs of flooded lead-acid battery were corroded during partial state-of-charge (PSoC) pattern cycle life tests simulated from stop and go vehicle driving. Potential step was applied to Pb-Ca-Sn alloy electrode at various potential and time regimes, and the electrode surface was observed by in situ electrochemical atomic force microscope (EC-AFM) to investigate the corrosion mechanisms during the potential step cycles. It was found out that the severe corrosion occurs when the oxidation of Pb to PbSO 4 and partial reduction of passive layer of PbSO 4 take turns many times. It was also found out that the periodic full charge, the optimization of the alloy composition, addition of the material that may make the reaction mechanism change to electrolyte were effective to suppress the corrosion rate.

  12. Spin polarized photons from an axially charged plasma at weak coupling: Complete leading order

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Mamo, Kiminad A.; Yee, Ho-Ung

    2016-03-24

    In the presence of (approximately conserved) axial charge in the QCD plasma at finite temperature, the emitted photons are spin aligned, which is a unique P- and CP-odd signature of axial charge in the photon emission observables. We compute this “P-odd photon emission rate” in a weak coupling regime at a high temperature limit to complete leading order in the QCD coupling constant: the leading log as well as the constant under the log. As in the P-even total emission rate in the literature, the computation of the P-odd emission rate at leading order consists of three parts: (1) Comptonmore » and pair annihilation processes with hard momentum exchange, (2) soft t- and u-channel contributions with hard thermal loop resummation, (3) Landau-Pomeranchuk-Migdal resummation of collinear bremsstrahlung and pair annihilation. In conclusion, we present analytical and numerical evaluations of these contributions to our P-odd photon emission rate observable.« less

  13. Unravelling the mechanism of photoinduced charge transfer processes in lead iodide perovskite solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchioro, Arianna; Teuscher, Joël; Friedrich, Dennis; Kunst, Marinus; van de Krol, Roel; Moehl, Thomas; Grätzel, Michael; Moser, Jacques-E.

    2014-03-01

    Lead halide perovskites have recently been used as light absorbers in hybrid organic-inorganic solid-state solar cells, with efficiencies as high as 15% and open-circuit voltages of 1 V. However, a detailed explanation of the mechanisms of operation within this photovoltaic system is still lacking. Here, we investigate the photoinduced charge transfer processes at the surface of the perovskite using time-resolved techniques. Transient laser spectroscopy and microwave photoconductivity measurements were applied to TiO2 and Al2O3 mesoporous films impregnated with CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite and the organic hole-transporting material spiro-OMeTAD. We show that primary charge separation occurs at both junctions, with TiO2 and the hole-transporting material, simultaneously, with ultrafast electron and hole injection taking place from the photoexcited perovskite over similar timescales. Charge recombination is shown to be significantly slower on TiO2 than on Al2O3 films.

  14. Mobile Charge-Induced Fluorescence Intermittency in Methylammonium Lead Bromide Perovskite.

    PubMed

    Wen, Xiaoming; Ho-Baillie, Anita; Huang, Shujuan; Sheng, Rui; Chen, Sheng; Ko, Hsien-chen; Green, Martin A

    2015-07-01

    Organic-inorganic halide perovskite has emerged as a very promising material for solar cells due to its excellent photovoltaic enabling properties resulting in rapid increase in device efficiency over the last 3 years. Extensive knowledge and in-depth physical understanding in the excited state carrier dynamics are urgently required. Here we investigate the fluorescence intermittency (also known as blinking) in vapor-assisted fabricated CH3NH3PbBr3 perovskite. The evident fluorescence blinking is observed in a dense CH3NH3PbBr3 perovskite film that is composed of nanoparticles in close contact with each other. In the case of an isolated nanoparticle no fluorescence blinking is observed. The "ON" probability of fluorescence is dependent on the excitation intensity and exhibits a similar power rule to semiconductor quantum dots at higher excitation intensity. As the vapor-assisted fabricated CH3NH3PbBr3 perovskite film is a cluster of nanoparticles forming a dense film, it facilitates mobile charge migration between the nanoparticles and charge accumulation at the surface or at the boundary of the nanoparticles. This leads to enhanced Auger-like nonradiative recombination contributing to the fluorescence intermittency observed. This finding provides unique insight into the charge accumulation and migration and thus is of crucial importance for device design and improvement. PMID:26086568

  15. Sources and evolution of anthropogenic lead in dated sediments from Lake Clair, Québec, Canada.

    PubMed

    Ndzangou, Sabary Omer; Richer-Laflèche, Marc; Houle, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    Two sediments cores were collected from the deepest part of Lake Clair (Québec, Canada) to assess the historical sources of Pb additions to the lake. The cores were collected by divers by carefully inserting a Plexiglas tube into the sediments. To determine the stratigraphic ages of the sediments, (210)Pb and (137)Cs activities were counted by gamma-ray spectroscopy. Lead concentrations and isotopic ratios were performed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), following digestion of the samples with a mixture of HF, HNO(3), and HClO(4) acids and Pb separation by anion-exchange chromatography. Starting at the middle of the 19th century, Pb content of the sediments increased until 1975. The maximum Pb enrichment factor of 35 times (relative to the natural background) was found in sediments deposited in 1975. At this time, excess Pb flux was estimated to be about 0.03 g m(-2) yr(-1). Before 1872, the Pb isotopic ratios were relatively stable (mean (206)Pb/(207)Pb = 1.20 +/- 0.01), reflecting the natural Pb background. Between 1872 and 1894, the source of anthropogenic Pb was highly radiogenic as shown by the Pb isotopic signatures of the sediments (mean (206)Pb/(207)Pb = 1.22 +/- 0.01), possibly reflecting deforestation and agricultural developments in the St.-Lawrence Valley. Between 1894 and 1937, widespread use of industrial and domestic charcoals may explain the isotopic composition of Pb accumulated in the sediments (mean (206)Pb/(207)Pb = 1.19 +/- 0.01). From 1937 to 1975, Pb isotopic compositions became less radiogenic ((206)Pb/(207)Pb from 1.18 to 1.17) even though elemental Pb abundance reached extremely high values (623 mg kg(-1)). This isotopic shift reflects increased use of alkyl-lead in gasoline. For sediments accumulated between 1967 and 1996, the U.S. contribution to anthropogenic Pb accumulated in Lake Clair sediments amounted to between 30 and 63%. PMID:15888887

  16. Maternal and umbilical cord blood levels of mercury, lead, cadmium, and essential trace elements in Arctic Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Butler Walker, Jody . E-mail: jody@butlerwalker.ca; Houseman, Jan; Seddon, Laura; McMullen, Ed; Tofflemire, Karen; Mills, Carole; Corriveau, Andre; Weber, Jean-Philippe; LeBlanc, Alain; Walker, Mike; Donaldson, Shawn G.; Van Oostdam, Jay

    2006-03-15

    Maternal and umbilical cord blood levels of mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and the trace elements copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and selenium (Se) are reported for Inuit, Dene/Metis, Caucasian, and Other nonaboriginal participants from Arctic Canada. This is the first human tissue monitoring program covering the entire Northwest Territories and Nunavut for multiple contaminants and establishes a baseline upon which future comparisons can be made. Results for chlorinated organic pesticides and PCBs for these participants have been reported elsewhere. Between May 1994 and June 1999, 523 women volunteered to participate by giving their written informed consent, resulting in the collection of 386 maternal blood samples, 407 cord samples, and 351 cord:maternal paired samples. Geometric mean (GM) maternal total mercury (THg) concentrations ranged from 0.87{mu}g/L (SD=1.95) in the Caucasian group of participants (n=134) to 3.51{mu}g/L (SD=8.30) in the Inuit group (n=146). The GM of the Inuit group was 2.6-fold higher than that of the Dene/Metis group (1.35{mu}g/L, SD=1.60, n=92) and significantly higher than those of all other groups (P<0.0001). Of Inuit women participants, 3% (n=4) were within Health Canada's level of concern range (20-99{mu}g/L) for methylmercury (MeHg) exposure. Of Inuit and Dene/Metis cord samples, 56% (n=95) and 5% (n=4), respectively, exceeded 5.8{mu}g/L MeHg, the revised US Environmental Protection Agency lower benchmark dose. GM maternal Pb was significantly higher in Dene/Metis (30.9{mu}g/L or 3.1{mu}g/dL; SD=29.1{mu}g/L) and Inuit (31.6{mu}g/L, SD=38.3) participants compared with the Caucasian group (20.6{mu}g/L, SD=17.9) (P<0.0001). Half of all participants were smokers. GM blood Cd in moderate smokers (1-8 cigarettes/day) and in heavy smokers (>8 cigarettes/day) was 7.4-fold higher and 12.5-fold higher, respectively, than in nonsmokers. The high percentage of smokers among Inuit (77%) and Dene/Metis (48%) participants highlights the need for

  17. Strong Electrostatic Interactions Lead to Entropically Favorable Binding of Peptides to Charged Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Sprenger, K G; Pfaendtner, Jim

    2016-06-01

    Thermodynamic analyses can provide key insights into the origins of protein self-assembly on surfaces, protein function, and protein stability. However, obtaining quantitative measurements of thermodynamic observables from unbiased classical simulations of peptide or protein adsorption is challenging because of sampling limitations brought on by strong biomolecule/surface binding forces as well as time scale limitations. We used the parallel tempering metadynamics in the well-tempered ensemble (PTMetaD-WTE) enhanced sampling method to study the adsorption behavior and thermodynamics of several explicitly solvated model peptide adsorption systems, providing new molecular-level insight into the biomolecule adsorption process. Specifically studied were peptides LKα14 and LKβ15 and trpcage miniprotein adsorbing onto a charged, hydrophilic self-assembled monolayer surface functionalized with a carboxylic acid/carboxylate headgroup and a neutral, hydrophobic methyl-terminated self-assembled monolayer surface. Binding free energies were calculated as a function of temperature for each system and decomposed into their respective energetic and entropic contributions. We investigated how specific interfacial features such as peptide/surface electrostatic interactions and surface-bound ion content affect the thermodynamic landscape of adsorption and lead to differences in surface-bound conformations of the peptides. Results show that upon adsorption to the charged surface, configurational entropy gains of the released solvent molecules dominate the configurational entropy losses of the bound peptide. This behavior leads to an apparent increase in overall system entropy upon binding and therefore to the surprising and seemingly nonphysical result of an apparent increased binding free energy at elevated temperatures. Opposite effects and conclusions are found for the neutral surface. Additional simulations demonstrate that by adjusting the ionic strength of the solution

  18. Quartz resonator state-of-charge monitor for lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cernosek, R. W.; Martin, S. J.; Wessendorf, K. O.; Rumpf, A. N.

    We have demonstrated that a thickness shear mode quartz resonator can be used as a real-time, in situ monitor of the state-of-charge of lead-acid batteries. The resonator is sensitive to changes in the density and viscosity of the sulfuric acid electrolyte. Both of these liquid parameters vary monotonically with the battery state-of-charge. This new monitor is more precise than sampling hydrometers, and since it is compatible with the corrosive electrolyte environment, it can be used for in situ monitoring. A TSM resonator consists of gold electrodes deposited on opposite surfaces of a thin AT-cut quartz crystal. When an RF voltage is applied to the electrodes, a shear strain is introduced in the piezoelectric quartz and mechanical resonance occurs between the surfaces. A liquid in contact with one of the quartz surfaces is viscously entrained, which perturbs the resonant frequency and resonance magnitude. If the surface is smooth, the changes in both frequency and magnitude are proportional to (rho(eta))(exp (1/2)), where rho is the liquid density and eta is the viscosity.

  19. Quartz resonator state-of-charge monitor for lead-acid batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Cernosek, R.W.; Martin, S.J.; Wessendorf, K.O.; Rumpf, A.N.

    1994-06-01

    We have demonstrated that a thickness shear mode quartz resonator can be used as a real-time, in situ monitor of the state-of-charge of lead-acid batteries. The resonator is sensitive to hanges in the density and viscosity of the sulfuric acid electrolyte. Both of these liquid parameters vary monotonically with the battery state-of-charge. This new monitor is more precise than sampling hydrometers, and since it is compatible with the Corrosive electrolyte environment, it can be used for in situ monitoring. A TSM resonator consists of gold electrodes deposited on opposite surfaces of a thin AT-cut quartz crystal. When an RF voltage is applied to the electrodes, a shear strain is introduced in the piezoelectric quartz and mechanical resonance occurs between the surfaces. A liquid in contact with one of the quartz surfaces is viscously entrained, which perturbs the resonant frequency and resonance magnitude. If the surface is smooth, the changes in both frequency and magnitude are proportional to ({rho}{eta}) {sup {1/2}}, where {rho} is the liquid density and {eta} is the viscosity.

  20. Fuzzy modelling for the state-of-charge estimation of lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgos, Claudio; Sáez, Doris; Orchard, Marcos E.; Cárdenas, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel fuzzy model based structure for the characterisation of discharge processes in lead-acid batteries. This structure is based on a fuzzy model that characterises the relationship between the battery open-circuit voltage (Voc), the state of charge (SoC), and the discharge current. The model is identified and validated using experimental data that is obtained from an experimental system designed to test battery banks with several charge/discharge profiles. For model identification purposes, two standard experimental tests are implemented; one of these tests is used to identify the Voc-SoC curve, while the other helps to identify additional parameters of the model. The estimation of SoC is performed using an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) with a state transition equation that is based on the proposed fuzzy model. Performance of the proposed estimation framework is compared with other parametric approaches that are inspired on electrical equivalents; e.g., Thevenin, Plett, and Copetti.

  1. Lead-acid batteries for partial-state-of-charge applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hariprakash, B.; Gaffoor, S. A.; Shukla, A. K.

    2 V/40 Ah valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) cells have been constructed with negative plates employing carbon black as well as an admixture of carbon black + fumed silica as additives in negative active material for partial-state-of-charge (PSoC) applications. Electrical performance of such cells is compared with conventional 2 V/40 Ah VRLA cells for PSoC operation. Active material utilization has been found to be higher for carbon-black + fumed-silica mixed negative plates while formation is faster for cells with carbon-black mixed negative plates. Both faradaic efficiency and percentage capacity delivered have been found to be higher for cells with carbon-black + fumed-silica mixed negative plates. However, a high self-discharge rate is observed for cells with carbon-black + fumed-silica mixed negative plates.

  2. System dynamic model and charging control of lead-acid battery for stand-alone solar PV system

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, B.J.; Hsu, P.C.; Wu, M.S.; Ho, P.Y.

    2010-05-15

    The lead-acid battery which is widely used in stand-alone solar system is easily damaged by a poor charging control which causes overcharging. The battery charging control is thus usually designed to stop charging after the overcharge point. This will reduce the storage energy capacity and reduce the service time in electricity supply. The design of charging control system however requires a good understanding of the system dynamic behaviour of the battery first. In the present study, a first-order system dynamics model of lead-acid battery at different operating points near the overcharge voltage was derived experimentally, from which a charging control system based on PI algorithm was developed using PWM charging technique. The feedback control system for battery charging after the overcharge point (14 V) was designed to compromise between the set-point response and the disturbance rejection. The experimental results show that the control system can suppress the battery voltage overshoot within 0.1 V when the solar irradiation is suddenly changed from 337 to 843 W/m{sup 2}. A long-term outdoor test for a solar LED lighting system shows that the battery voltage never exceeded 14.1 V for the set point 14 V and the control system can prevent the battery from overcharging. The test result also indicates that the control system is able to increase the charged energy by 78%, as compared to the case that the charging stops after the overcharge point (14 V). (author)

  3. Effects of constant-current/constant-voltage charge parameters on lead-acid traction cell performance

    SciTech Connect

    Deluca, W.H.; Biwer, R.L.; Yao, N.P.

    1981-01-01

    A factor described for the application of battery systems for electric vehicle propulsion is the methodology of charging. It was quantitatively determined that both the total charge cycle time and the maximum charging rate (constant-current level) are limited by battery charge acceptance. The test system and procedures are outlined, acquired battery parameter data presented, and conclusions discussed.

  4. Spectral Features and Charge Dynamics of Lead Halide Perovskites: Origins and Interpretations.

    PubMed

    Sum, Tze Chien; Mathews, Nripan; Xing, Guichuan; Lim, Swee Sien; Chong, Wee Kiang; Giovanni, David; Dewi, Herlina Arianita

    2016-02-16

    Lead halide perovskite solar cells are presently the forerunner among the third generation solution-processed photovoltaic technologies. With efficiencies exceeding 20% and low production costs, they are prime candidates for commercialization. Critical insights into their light harvesting, charge transport, and loss mechanisms have been gained through time-resolved optical probes such as femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy (fs-TAS), transient photoluminescence spectroscopy, and time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy. Specifically, the discoveries of long balanced electron-hole diffusion lengths and gain properties in halide perovskites underpin their significant roles in uncovering structure-function relations and providing essential feedback for materials development and device optimization. In particular, fs-TAS is becoming increasingly popular in perovskite characterization studies, with commercial one-box pump-probe systems readily available as part of a researcher's toolkit. Although TAS is a powerful probe in the study of charge dynamics and recombination mechanisms, its instrumentation and data interpretation can be daunting even for experienced researchers. This issue is exacerbated by the sensitive nature of halide perovskites where the kinetics are especially susceptible to pump fluence, sample preparation and handling and even degradation effects that could lead to disparate conclusions. Nonetheless, with end-users having a clear understanding of TAS's capabilities, subtleties, and limitations, cutting-edge work with deep insights can still be performed using commercial setups as has been the trend for ubiquitous spectroscopy instruments like absorption, fluorescence, and transient photoluminescence spectrometers. Herein, we will first briefly examine the photophysical processes in lead halide perovskites, highlighting their novel properties. Next, we proceed to give a succinct overview of the fundamentals of pump-probe spectroscopy in relation

  5. Production of leading charged particles and leading charged-particle jets at small transverse momenta in p p collisions at √{s }=8 TeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Bergauer, T.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hartl, C.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; Kiesenhofer, W.; Knünz, V.; Krammer, M.; Krätschmer, I.; Liko, D.; Mikulec, I.; Rabady, D.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, H.; Schöfbeck, R.; Strauss, J.; Treberer-Treberspurg, W.; Waltenberger, W.; Wulz, C.-E.; Mossolov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; Alderweireldt, S.; Bansal, S.; Cornelis, T.; de Wolf, E. A.; Janssen, X.; Knutsson, A.; Lauwers, J.; Luyckx, S.; Ochesanu, S.; Rougny, R.; van de Klundert, M.; van Haevermaet, H.; van Mechelen, P.; van Remortel, N.; van Spilbeeck, A.; Blekman, F.; Blyweert, S.; D'Hondt, J.; Daci, N.; Heracleous, N.; Keaveney, J.; Lowette, S.; Maes, M.; Olbrechts, A.; Python, Q.; Strom, D.; Tavernier, S.; van Doninck, W.; van Mulders, P.; van Onsem, G. P.; Villella, I.; Caillol, C.; Clerbaux, B.; de Lentdecker, G.; Dobur, D.; Favart, L.; Gay, A. P. R.; Grebenyuk, A.; Léonard, A.; Mohammadi, A.; Perniè, L.; Randle-Conde, A.; Reis, T.; Seva, T.; Thomas, L.; Vander Velde, C.; Vanlaer, P.; Wang, J.; Zenoni, F.; Adler, V.; Beernaert, K.; Benucci, L.; Cimmino, A.; Costantini, S.; Crucy, S.; Fagot, A.; Garcia, G.; McCartin, J.; Ocampo Rios, A. A.; Poyraz, D.; Ryckbosch, D.; Salva, S.; Sigamani, M.; Strobbe, N.; Thyssen, F.; Tytgat, M.; Yazgan, E.; Zaganidis, N.; Basegmez, S.; Beluffi, C.; Bruno, G.; Castello, R.; Caudron, A.; Ceard, L.; da Silveira, G. G.; Delaere, C.; Du Pree, T.; Favart, D.; Forthomme, L.; Giammanco, A.; Hollar, J.; Jafari, A.; Jez, P.; Komm, M.; Lemaitre, V.; Nuttens, C.; Pagano, D.; Perrini, L.; Pin, A.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Popov, A.; Quertenmont, L.; Selvaggi, M.; Vidal Marono, M.; Vizan Garcia, J. M.; Beliy, N.; Caebergs, T.; Daubie, E.; Hammad, G. H.; Aldá Júnior, W. L.; Alves, G. A.; Brito, L.; Correa Martins Junior, M.; Dos Reis Martins, T.; Molina, J.; Mora Herrera, C.; Pol, M. E.; Rebello Teles, P.; Carvalho, W.; Chinellato, J.; Custódio, A.; da Costa, E. M.; de Jesus Damiao, D.; de Oliveira Martins, C.; Fonseca de Souza, S.; Malbouisson, H.; Matos Figueiredo, D.; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Prado da Silva, W. L.; Santaolalla, J.; Santoro, A.; Sznajder, A.; Tonelli Manganote, E. J.; Vilela Pereira, A.; Bernardes, C. A.; Dogra, S.; Tomei, T. R. Fernandez Perez; Gregores, E. M.; Mercadante, P. G.; Novaes, S. F.; Padula, Sandra S.; Aleksandrov, A.; Genchev, V.; Hadjiiska, R.; Iaydjiev, P.; Marinov, A.; Piperov, S.; Rodozov, M.; Stoykova, S.; Sultanov, G.; Vutova, M.; Dimitrov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, M.; Cheng, T.; Du, R.; Jiang, C. H.; Plestina, R.; Romeo, F.; Tao, J.; Wang, Z.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Ban, Y.; Liu, S.; Mao, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Wang, D.; Xu, Z.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, L.; Zou, W.; Avila, C.; Cabrera, A.; Chaparro Sierra, L. F.; Florez, C.; Gomez, J. P.; Gomez Moreno, B.; Sanabria, J. C.; Godinovic, N.; Lelas, D.; Polic, D.; Puljak, I.; Antunovic, Z.; Kovac, M.; Brigljevic, V.; Kadija, K.; Luetic, J.; Mekterovic, D.; Sudic, L.; Attikis, A.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Mousa, J.; Nicolaou, C.; Ptochos, F.; Razis, P. A.; Rykaczewski, H.; Bodlak, M.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Assran, Y.; Elgammal, S.; Ellithi Kamel, A.; Mahmoud, M. A.; Kadastik, M.; Murumaa, M.; Raidal, M.; Tiko, A.; Eerola, P.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Kortelainen, M. J.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Peltola, T.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Wendland, L.; Talvitie, J.; Tuuva, T.; Besancon, M.; Couderc, F.; Dejardin, M.; Denegri, D.; Fabbro, B.; Faure, J. L.; Favaro, C.; Ferri, F.; Ganjour, S.; Givernaud, A.; Gras, P.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Jarry, P.; Locci, E.; Malcles, J.; Rander, J.; Rosowsky, A.; Titov, M.; Baffioni, S.; Beaudette, F.; Busson, P.; Chapon, E.; Charlot, C.; Dahms, T.; Dobrzynski, L.; Filipovic, N.; Florent, A.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Mastrolorenzo, L.; Miné, P.; Naranjo, I. N.; Nguyen, M.; Ochando, C.; Ortona, G.; Paganini, P.; Regnard, S.; Salerno, R.; Sauvan, J. B.; Sirois, Y.; Veelken, C.; Yilmaz, Y.; Zabi, A.; Agram, J.-L.; Andrea, J.; Aubin, A.; Bloch, D.; Brom, J.-M.; Chabert, E. C.; Collard, C.; Conte, E.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Gelé, D.; Goerlach, U.; Goetzmann, C.; Le Bihan, A.-C.; Skovpen, K.; van Hove, P.; Gadrat, S.; Beauceron, S.; Beaupere, N.; Bernet, C.; Boudoul, G.; Bouvier, E.; Brochet, S.; Carrillo Montoya, C. A.; Chasserat, J.; Chierici, R.; Contardo, D.; Courbon, B.; Depasse, P.; El Mamouni, H.; Fan, J.; Fay, J.; Gascon, S.; Gouzevitch, M.; Ille, B.; Kurca, T.; Lethuillier, M.; Mirabito, L.; Pequegnot, A. L.; Perries, S.; Ruiz Alvarez, J. D.; Sabes, D.

    2015-12-01

    The per-event yield of the highest transverse momentum charged particle and charged-particle jet, integrated above a given pTmin threshold starting at pTmin=0.8 and 1 GeV, respectively, is studied in p p collisions at √{s }=8 TeV . The particles and the jets are measured in the pseudorapidity ranges |η | <2.4 and 1.9, respectively. The data are sensitive to the momentum scale at which parton densities saturate in the proton, to multiple partonic interactions, and to other key aspects of the transition between the soft and hard QCD regimes in hadronic collisions.

  6. Electric and hybrid vehicles charge efficiency tests of ESB EV-106 lead acid batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowlette, J. J.

    1981-01-01

    Charge efficiencies were determined by measurements made under widely differing conditions of temperature, charge procedure, and battery age. The measurements were used to optimize charge procedures and to evaluate the concept of a modified, coulometric state of charge indicator. Charge efficiency determinations were made by measuring gassing rates and oxygen fractions. A novel, positive displacement gas flow meter which proved to be both simple and highly accurate is described and illustrated.

  7. Failure mode of valve-regulated lead-acid batteries under high-rate partial-state-of-charge operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, L. T.; Haigh, N. P.; Phyland, C. G.; Urban, A. J.

    Within the next decade, there will be major changes in automotive technology with the introduction of several new features which will increase significantly the on-board power requirements. This high power demand is beyond the capability of present 14 V alternators and thus a 42 V power network is to be adopted. The new 'PowerNet' requires the lead-acid battery to be capable of providing a large number of shallow discharge-charge cycles at a high rate. High-rate discharge is necessary for engine cranking and power assist, while high-rate charge is associated with regenerative braking. The battery will operate at these high rates in a partial-state-of-charge condition, so-called HRPSoC duty. Under simulated HRPSoC duty, it is found that the valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) battery fails prematurely due to the progressive accumulation of lead sulfate mainly on the surfaces of the negative plates. This is because the lead sulfate cannot be converted efficiently back to sponge lead during charging either from the engine or from regenerative braking. Eventually, the layer of lead sulfate develops to such extent that the effective surface area of the plate is reduced markedly and the plate can no longer deliver the high cranking-current demanded by the automobile. A mechanistic analysis of battery operation during HRPSoC duty shows that high-rate discharge is the key factor responsible for the build-up of the lead sulfate layer. Such discharge causes a compact layer of tiny lead sulfate crystals to form on the surface of the negative plate and subsequent charging gives rise to an early evolution of hydrogen. Hydrogen evolution is further exacerbated when a high charging current is used.

  8. Lead

    MedlinePlus

    ... Lead Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us Lead Poisoning is Preventable If your home was built before ... of the RRP rule. Read more . Learn about Lead Poisoning Prevention Week . Report Uncertified Contractors and Environmental Violations ...

  9. Polydivinylferrocene surface modified electrode for measuring state-of-charge of lead-acid battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Todd; Singh, Pritam; Baker, Murray V.; Issa, Touma B.

    This paper outlines an investigation of the electrochemical behaviour of polymeric divinylferrocene (PDVF) produced by direct polymerisation of divinylferrocene (DVF) monomer on a glassy carbon substrate. The findings indicate that PDVF undergoes reversible reduction/oxidation in neutral and acidic aqueous media containing perchlorate (ClO 4 -) and sulfhate (SO 4 2-). The anodic peak potential of the PDVF shifts linearly to less positive potentials as the sulfuric acid (H 2SO 4) concentration is increased from 1 to 5 M. The polymer film strongly adheres to the glassy carbon surface and is electrochemically stable when subjected to repeated voltammetric cycling in the potential range of -0.2 to +0.8 V vs. Ag|AgCl. The potential of the partially oxidized film of PVDF on a glassy carbon substrate against a Ag|AgCl/KCl reference electrode in sulfuric acid solution is stable, reproducible and varies linearly with the acid concentration in the range of 1-5 M. This observation may be suitable for potentiometrically measuring the state-of-charge of lead-acid batteries.

  10. Lead

    MedlinePlus

    ... obvious symptoms, it frequently goes unrecognized. CDC’s Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention Program is committed to the Healthy People ... Lead Levels Information for Parents Tips for preventing lead poisoning About Us Overview of CDC’s Childhood Lead Poisoning ...

  11. Chemical Control of Lead Sulfide Quantum Dot Shape, Self-Assembly, and Charge Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McPhail, Martin R.

    Lead(II) sulfide quantum dots (PbS QDs) are a promising excitonic material for numerous application that require that control of fluxes of charge and energy at nanoscale interfaces, such as solar energy conversion, photo- and electrocatalysis, light emitting diodes, chemical sensing, single-electron logic elements, field effect transistors, and photovoltaics. PbS QDs are particularly suitable for photonics applications because they exhibit size-tunable band-edge absorption and fluorescence across the entire near-infrared spectrum, undergo efficient multi-exciton generation, exhibit a long radiative lifetime, and possess an eight-fold degenerate ground-state. The effective integration of PbS QDs into these applications requires a thorough understanding of how to control their synthesis, self-assembly, and charge transport phenomena. In this document, I describe a series of experiments to elucidate three levels of chemical control on the emergent properties of PbS QDs: (1) the role of surface chemistry in controlling PbS QD shape during solvothermal synthesis, (2) the role of QD shape and ligand functionalization in self-assembly at a liquid-air interface, and (3) the role of QD packing structure on steady-state conductivity and transient current dynamics. At the synthetic level (1), I show that the final shape and surface chemistry of PbS QDs is highly sensitive to the formation of organosulfur byproducts by commonly used sulfur reagents. The insight into PbS QD growth gained from this work is then developed to controllably tune PbS QD shape from cubic to octahedral to hexapodal while maintaining QD size. At the following level of QD self-assembly (2), I show how QD size and shape dictate packing geometry in extended 2D arrays and how this packing can be controllably interrupted in mixed monolayers. I also study the role of ligand structure on the reorganization of QD arrays at a liquid-air interface and find that the specific packing defects in QD arrays vary

  12. Lead methylammonium triiodide perovskite-based solar cells: an interfacial charge-transfer investigation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaobao; Zhang, Hua; Cao, Kun; Cui, Jin; Lu, Jianfeng; Zeng, Xianwei; Shen, Yan; Wang, Mingkui

    2014-11-01

    This work reports on an investigation into interfacial charge transfer in CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite solar cells by using anatase TiO2 nanocuboids enclosed by active {100} and {001} facets. The devices show 6.0 and 8.0% power conversion efficiency with and without hole-transport material. Transient photovoltage/photocurrent decay and charge extraction, as well as impedance spectroscopy measurements, reveal that carbon materials are effective counter electrodes in perovskite solar cells. The photogenerated charges are observed to be stored in mesoporous TiO2 film under illumination and in the CH3NH3PbI3 layer in the dark. The use of 2,2',7,7'-tetrakis(N,N-di-p-methoxyphenylamine)-9,9-spirobifluorene (spiro-MeOTAD) as a hole-transport material accelerates interfacial charge recombination between the photogenerated electrons and holes. PMID:25213607

  13. Efficient charge-transport in hybrid lead iodide perovskite solar cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jinjin; Wang, Peng; Wei, Liyu; Liu, Zhenghao; Fang, Xueqian; Liu, Xianglin; Ren, Deliang; Mai, Yaohua

    2015-10-14

    Recently, highly efficient solar cells based on organic-inorganic perovskites have been intensively studied for developing fabricating methods and device structures. To improve the performance of perovskite film devices, delicate control of charge transfer material interconnectivity is required. Here, controlling the mesoporous TiO2 structure improves their charge collection and injection rate, and allows substantial enhancement of the corresponding device performance. We found that increasing the TiCl4 processing time deteriorates the device performance by introducing a large amount of excessively large perovskite particles, surface roughness and charge recombination. Proper TiCl4 processing dramatically improves the charge transport within the electron transfer layer, explaining the efficient performance of meso-superstructured solar cells. PMID:26356533

  14. Simulation of the current distribution in lead-acid batteries to investigate the dynamic charge acceptance in flooded SLI batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowal, Julia; Schulte, Dominik; Sauer, Dirk Uwe; Karden, Eckhard

    Measurements show that the dynamic charge acceptance (DCA) of flooded SLI lead-acid batteries during micro-cycling in conventional and micro-hybrid vehicles is strongly dependent on the short-term history, such as previous charge or discharge, current rate, lowest state of charge in the last 24 h and more. Factors of 10 have been reported. Inhomogeneous current distribution, especially as a result of acid stratification, has been suggested to explain the DCA variability. This hypothesis was investigated by simulation of a two-dimensional macrohomogeneous model. It provides a spatial resolution of three elements in horizontal direction in each electrode and three elements in vertical direction. For an existing set of parameters, different current profiles were analyzed with regard to the current distribution during charging and discharging. In these simulations, a strong impact of the short-term history on current, charge and acid density distribution was found as well as a strong influence of micro-cycles on both charge distribution and acid stratification.

  15. Charge Carrier Lifetimes Exceeding 15 μs in Methylammonium Lead Iodide Single Crystals.

    PubMed

    Bi, Yu; Hutter, Eline M; Fang, Yanjun; Dong, Qingfeng; Huang, Jinsong; Savenije, Tom J

    2016-03-01

    The charge carrier lifetime in organic-inorganic perovskites is one of the most important parameters for modeling and design of solar cells and other types of devices. In this work, we use CH3NH3PbI3 single crystal as a model system to study optical absorption, charge carrier generation, and recombination lifetimes. We show that commonly applied photoluminescence lifetime measurements may dramatically underestimate the intrinsic carrier lifetime in CH3NH3PbI3, which could be due to severe charge recombination at the crystal surface and/or fast electron-hole recombination close to the surface. By using the time-resolved microwave conductivity technique, we investigated the lifetime of free mobile charges inside the crystals. Most importantly, we find that for homogeneous excitation throughout the crystal, the charge carrier lifetime exceeds 15 μs. This means that the diffusion length in CH3NH3PbI3 can be as large as 50 μm if it is no longer limited by the dimensions of the crystallites. PMID:26901658

  16. Charge-Carrier Dynamics and Mobilities in Formamidinium Lead Mixed-Halide Perovskites.

    PubMed

    Rehman, Waqaas; Milot, Rebecca L; Eperon, Giles E; Wehrenfennig, Christian; Boland, Jessica L; Snaith, Henry J; Johnston, Michael B; Herz, Laura M

    2015-12-22

    The mixed-halide perovskite FAPb(Bry I1-y )3 is attractive for color-tunable and tandem solar cells. Bimolecular and Auger charge-carrier recombination rate constants strongly correlate with the Br content, y, suggesting a link with electronic structure. FAPbBr3 and FAPbI3 exhibit charge-carrier mobilities of 14 and 27 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) and diffusion lengths exceeding 1 μm, while mobilities across the mixed Br/I system depend on crystalline phase disorder. PMID:26402226

  17. Does regulating private long-term care facilities lead to better care? A study from Quebec, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Bravo, Gina; Dubois, Marie-France; Demers, Louis; Dubuc, Nicole; Blanchette, Danièle; Painter, Karen; Lestage, Catherine; Corbin, Cinthia

    2014-01-01

    Objective In the province of Quebec, Canada, long-term residential care is provided by two types of facilities: publicly funded accredited facilities and privately owned facilities in which care is privately financed and delivered. Following evidence that private facilities were delivering inadequate care, the provincial government decided to regulate this industry. We assessed the impact of regulation on care quality by comparing quality assessments made before and after regulation. In both periods, public facilities served as a comparison group. Design A cross-sectional study conducted in 2010–12 that incorporates data collected in 1995–2000. Settings Random samples of private and public facilities from two regions of Quebec. Participants Random samples of disabled residents aged 65 years and over. In total, 451 residents from 145 care settings assessed in 1995–2000 were compared with 329 residents from 102 care settings assessed in 2010–12. Intervention Regulation introduced by the province in 2005, effective February 2007. Main Outcome Measure Quality of care measured with the QUALCARE Scale. Results After regulation, fewer small-size facilities were in operation in the private market. Between the two study periods, the proportion of residents with severe disabilities decreased in private facilities whereas it remained >80% in their public counterparts. Meanwhile, quality of care improved significantly in private facilities, while worsening in their public counterparts, even after controlling for confounding. Conclusions The private industry now provides better care to its residents. Improvement in care quality likely results in part from the closure of small homes and change in resident case-mix. PMID:24737835

  18. History of Nutrition: The Long Road Leading to the Dietary Reference Intakes for the United States and Canada.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Suzanne P; Yates, Allison A; Atkinson, Stephanie A; Barr, Susan I; Dwyer, Johanna

    2016-01-01

    The Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) are reference values to guide the planning and assessing of nutrient intakes in the United States and Canada. The DRI framework was conceptualized in 1994, and the first reports were issued from 1997–2004, based on work by expert panels and subcommittees under the guidance of the Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine. Numerous conventions, challenges, and controversies were encountered during the process of defining and setting the DRIs, including the definition of the framework, the use of chronic disease endpoints, lack of data on requirements for children and youth, and methods for addressing nonessential bioactive substances with potential health benefits. DRIs may be used to plan and assess the nutrient intakes of both individuals and population groups, but the new paradigm particularly improved methods used for groups. It is now possible to estimate both the prevalence of inadequate intake and the prevalence of potentially excessive intake within a group. The DRIs have served as a potent influence on national nutrition policies, including those related to dietary guidance, food labeling, nutrition monitoring, food assistance programs, and military nutrition standards. Because of this important impact on nutrition policy, the DRIs must be based on the best possible and most up-to-date science. Unfortunately, no updates to specific DRIs are currently planned. Despite the long and challenging road that led to the current DRIs, it must not finish in a dead end. Monetary resources and political will are crucial to maintaining and continuously updating the DRIs. PMID:27180379

  19. Ionic charging by local imbalance at interfaces in hybrid lead halide perovskites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almora, Osbel; Guerrero, Antonio; Garcia-Belmonte, GermÃ

    2016-01-01

    Identification of specific operating mechanisms becomes particularly challenging when mixed ionic-electronic conductors are used in optoelectronic devices. Ionic effects in perovskite solar cells are believed to distort operation curves and possess serious doubts about their long term stability. Current hysteresis and switchable photovoltaic characteristics have been connected to the kinetics of ion migration. However, the nature of the specific ionic mechanism (or mechanisms) able to explain the operation distortions is still poorly understood. It is observed here that the local rearrangement of ions at the electrode interfaces gives rise to commonly observed capacitive effects. Charging transients in response to step voltage stimuli using thick CH3NH3PbI3 samples show two main polarization processes and reveal the structure of the ionic double-layer at the interface with the non-reacting contacts. It is observed that ionic charging, with a typical response time of 10 s, is a local effect confined in the vicinity of the electrode, which entails absence of net mobile ionic concentration (space-charge) in the material bulk.

  20. Isotopic composition of epiphytic lichens as a tracer of the sources of atmospheric lead emissions in southern Quebec, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Carignan, J.; Gariepy, C.

    1995-11-01

    Lead isotopic data are reported for epiphytic lichens, vegetation samples, and lacustrine sediments collected in the boreal forest of Quebec between 47{degrees} and 55{degrees}N, and along the St. Lawrence Valley between 45{degrees} to 48{degrees}N. Lichens located up to 500 km north of Noranda (48{degrees}N) record a significant input is not apparent beyond 53{degrees}N where only the isotopic signal typical of Canadian aerosols is recorded. Lichens along the St. Lawrence Valley show evidences for a dominant input from U.S. sources. The lead isotopic composition of lichens allow quantitative monitoring of the sources of atmospheric Pb. However, their slow metabolism and their unknown age detract from recording the Pb signal on short and precise timescales. Spruce needles have isotopic compositions undistinguishable from that of lichens; this reflects integration of the atmospheric Pb signal over a comparable time span, a result confirmed by the lead isotopic record in lacustrine sediments. Vegetation samples such as spruce bark, spruce wood, and decidous tree leaves are more radiogenic than lichens from the same site. This may reflect mixing of radiogenic Pb metabolized from soil solutions through the root system with atmospheric Pb. 37 refs., 4 figs.

  1. Measurement of the azimuthal anisotropy for charged particle production in sNN=2.76 TeV lead-lead collisions with the ATLAS detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdel Khalek, S.; Abdelalim, A. A.; Abdesselam, A.; Abdinov, O.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; AbouZeid, O. S.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Acerbi, E.; Acharya, B. S.; Adamczyk, L.; Adams, D. L.; Addy, T. N.; Adelman, J.; Aderholz, M.; Adomeit, S.; Adragna, P.; Adye, T.; Aefsky, S.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Aharrouche, M.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahles, F.; Ahmad, A.; Ahsan, M.; Aielli, G.; Akdogan, T.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimoto, G.; Akimov, A. V.; Akiyama, A.; Alam, M. S.; Alam, M. A.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alessandria, F.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexandre, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Aliev, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alison, J.; Aliyev, M.; Allbrooke, B. M. M.; Allport, P. P.; Allwood-Spiers, S. E.; Almond, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alon, R.; Alonso, A.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Alviggi, M. G.; Amako, K.; Amaral, P.; Amelung, C.; Ammosov, V. V.; Amorim, A.; Amorós, G.; Amram, N.; Anastopoulos, C.; Ancu, L. S.; Andari, N.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anders, G.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Andrieux, M.-L.; Anduaga, X. S.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anisenkov, A.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonaki, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonov, A.; Antos, J.; Anulli, F.; Aoun, S.; Aperio Bella, L.; Apolle, R.; Arabidze, G.; Aracena, I.; Arai, Y.; Arce, A. T. H.; Arfaoui, S.; Arguin, J.-F.; Arik, E.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnal, V.; Arnault, C.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Arutinov, D.; Asai, S.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Ask, S.; Åsman, B.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astbury, A.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Aubert, B.; Auge, E.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Avolio, G.; Avramidou, R.; Axen, D.; Ay, C.; Azuelos, G.; Azuma, Y.; Baak, M. A.; Baccaglioni, G.; Bacci, C.; Bach, A. M.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Backhaus, M.; Badescu, E.; Bagnaia, P.; Bahinipati, S.; Bai, Y.; Bailey, D. C.; Bain, T.; Baines, J. T.; Baker, O. K.; Baker, M. D.; Baker, S.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, P.; Banerjee, Sw.; Banfi, D.; Bangert, A.; Bansal, V.; Bansil, H. S.; Barak, L.; Baranov, S. P.; Barashkou, A.; Barbaro Galtieri, A.; Barber, T.; Barberio, E. L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Bardin, D. Y.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnett, B. M.; Barnett, R. M.; Baroncelli, A.; Barone, G.; Barr, A. J.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J.; Barrillon, P.; Bartoldus, R.; Barton, A. E.; Bartsch, V.; Bates, R. L.; Batkova, L.; Batley, J. R.; Battaglia, A.; Battistin, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H. S.; Beale, S.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P. H.; Beccherle, R.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, H. P.; Becker, S.; Beckingham, M.; Becks, K. H.; Beddall, A. J.; Beddall, A.; Bedikian, S.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Bee, C. P.; Begel, M.; Behar Harpaz, S.; Behera, P. K.; Beimforde, M.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, P. J.; Bell, W. H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellina, F.; Bellomo, M.; Belloni, A.; Beloborodova, O.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Bendel, M.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benhar Noccioli, E.; Benitez Garcia, J. A.; Benjamin, D. P.; Benoit, M.; Bensinger, J. R.; Benslama, K.; Bentvelsen, S.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Berglund, E.; Beringer, J.; Bernat, P.; Bernhard, R.; Bernius, C.; Berry, T.; Bertella, C.; Bertin, A.; Bertinelli, F.; Bertolucci, F.; Besana, M. I.; Besson, N.; Bethke, S.; Bhimji, W.; Bianchi, R. M.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Bieniek, S. P.; Bierwagen, K.; Biesiada, J.; Biglietti, M.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Biscarat, C.; Bitenc, U.; Black, K. M.; Blair, R. E.; Blanchard, J.-B.; Blanchot, G.; Blazek, T.; Blocker, C.; Blocki, J.; Blondel, A.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bobrovnikov, V. B.; Bocchetta, S. S.; Bocci, A.; Boddy, C. R.; Boehler, M.; Boek, J.; Boelaert, N.; Bogaerts, J. A.; Bogdanchikov, A.; Bogouch, A.; Bohm, C.; Bohm, J.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Bolnet, N. M.; Bomben, M.; Bona, M.; Bondarenko, V. G.; Bondioli, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Booth, C. N.; Bordoni, S.; Borer, C.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Borjanovic, I.; Borri, M.; Borroni, S.; Bortolotto, V.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Boterenbrood, H.; Botterill, D.; Bouchami, J.; Boudreau, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E. V.; Boumediene, D.; Bourdarios, C.; Bousson, N.; Boveia, A.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I. R.; Bozhko, N. I.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Braem, A.; Branchini, P.; Brandenburg, G. W.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J. E.; Braun, H. M.; Brelier, B.; Bremer, J.; Brendlinger, K.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Britton, D.; Brochu, F. M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Brodbeck, T. J.; Brodet, E.; Broggi, F.; Bromberg, C.; Bronner, J.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, W. K.; Brown, G.; Brown, H.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P. A.; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.; Brunet, S.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruschi, M.; Buanes, T.; Buat, Q.; Bucci, F.; Buchanan, J.; Buchanan, N. J.; Buchholz, P.; Buckingham, R. M.; Buckley, A. G.; Buda, S. I.; Budagov, I. A.; Budick, B.; Büscher, V.; Bugge, L.; Bulekov, O.; Bunse, M.; Buran, T.; Burckhart, H.; Burdin, S.; Burgess, T.; Burke, S.; Busato, E.; Bussey, P.; Buszello, C. P.; Butin, F.; Butler, B.; Butler, J. M.; Buttar, C. M.; Butterworth, J. M.; Buttinger, W.; Cabrera Urbán, S.; Caforio, D.; Cakir, O.; Calafiura, P.; Calderini, G.; Calfayan, P.; Calkins, R.; Caloba, L. P.; Caloi, R.; Calvet, D.; Calvet, S.; Camacho Toro, R.; Camarri, P.; Cambiaghi, M.; Cameron, D.; Caminada, L. M.; Campana, S.; Campanelli, M.; Canale, V.; Canelli, F.; Canepa, A.; Cantero, J.; Capasso, L.; Capeans Garrido, M. D. M.; Caprini, I.; Caprini, M.; Capriotti, D.; Capua, M.; Caputo, R.; Cardarelli, R.; Carli, T.; Carlino, G.; Carminati, L.; Caron, B.; Caron, S.; Carquin, E.; Carrillo Montoya, G. D.; Carter, A. A.; Carter, J. R.; Carvalho, J.; Casadei, D.; Casado, M. P.; Cascella, M.; Caso, C.; Castaneda Hernandez, A. M.; Castaneda-Miranda, E.; Castillo Gimenez, V.; Castro, N. F.; Cataldi, G.; Catinaccio, A.; Catmore, J. R.; Cattai, A.; Cattani, G.; Caughron, S.; Cauz, D.; Cavalleri, P.; Cavalli, D.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cavasinni, V.; Ceradini, F.; Cerqueira, A. S.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Cerutti, F.; Cetin, S. A.; Cevenini, F.; Chafaq, A.; Chakraborty, D.; Chan, K.; Chapleau, B.; Chapman, J. D.; Chapman, J. W.; Chareyre, E.; Charlton, D. G.; Chavda, V.; Chavez Barajas, C. A.; Cheatham, S.; Chekanov, S.; Chekulaev, S. V.; Chelkov, G. A.; Chelstowska, M. A.; Chen, C.; Chen, H.; Chen, S.; Chen, T.; Chen, X.; Cheng, S.; Cheplakov, A.; Chepurnov, V. F.; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R.; Chernyatin, V.; Cheu, E.; Cheung, S. L.; Chevalier, L.; Chiefari, G.; Chikovani, L.; Childers, J. T.; Chilingarov, A.; Chiodini, G.; Chisholm, A. S.; Chislett, R. T.; Chizhov, M. V.; Choudalakis, G.; Chouridou, S.; Christidi, I. A.; Christov, A.; Chromek-Burckhart, D.; Chu, M. L.; Chudoba, J.; Ciapetti, G.; Ciftci, A. K.; Ciftci, R.; Cinca, D.; Cindro, V.; Ciobotaru, M. D.; Ciocca, C.; Ciocio, A.; Cirilli, M.; Citterio, M.; Ciubancan, M.; Clark, A.; Clark, P. J.; Cleland, W.; Clemens, J. C.; Clement, B.; Clement, C.; Clifft, R. W.; Coadou, Y.; Cobal, M.; Coccaro, A.; Cochran, J.; Coe, P.; Cogan, J. G.; Coggeshall, J.; Cogneras, E.; Colas, J.; Colijn, A. P.; Collins, N. J.; Collins-Tooth, C.; Collot, J.; Colon, G.; Conde Muiño, P.; Coniavitis, E.; Conidi, M. C.; Consonni, M.; Consonni, S. M.; Consorti, V.; Constantinescu, S.; Conta, C.; Conti, G.; Conventi, F.; Cook, J.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, B. D.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Copic, K.; Cornelissen, T.; Corradi, M.; Corriveau, F.; Cortes-Gonzalez, A.; Cortiana, G.; Costa, G.; Costa, M. J.; Costanzo, D.; Costin, T.; Côté, D.; Coura Torres, R.; Courneyea, L.; Cowan, G.; Cowden, C.; Cox, B. E.; Cranmer, K.; Crescioli, F.; Cristinziani, M.; Crosetti, G.; Crupi, R.; Crépé-Renaudin, S.; Cuciuc, C.-M.; Cuenca Almenar, C.; Cuhadar Donszelmann, T.; Curatolo, M.; Curtis, C. J.; Cuthbert, C.; Cwetanski, P.; Czirr, H.; Czodrowski, P.; Czyczula, Z.; D'Auria, S.; D'Onofrio, M.; D'Orazio, A.; Da Silva, P. V. M.; Da Via, C.; Dabrowski, W.; Dafinca, A.; Dai, T.; Dallapiccola, C.; Dam, M.; Dameri, M.; Damiani, D. S.; Danielsson, H. O.; Dannheim, D.; Dao, V.; Darbo, G.; Darlea, G. L.; Davey, W.; Davidek, T.; Davidson, N.; Davidson, R.; Davies, E.; Davies, M.; Davison, A. R.; Davygora, Y.; Dawe, E.; Dawson, I.; Dawson, J. W.; Daya-Ishmukhametova, R. K.; De, K.; de Asmundis, R.; De Castro, S.; De Castro Faria Salgado, P. E.; De Cecco, S.; de Graat, J.; De Groot, N.; de Jong, P.; De La Taille, C.; De la Torre, H.; De Lotto, B.; de Mora, L.; De Nooij, L.; De Pedis, D.; De Salvo, A.; De Sanctis, U.; De Santo, A.; De Vivie De Regie, J. B.; De Zorzi, G.; Dean, S.; Dearnaley, W. J.; Debbe, R.; Debenedetti, C.; Dechenaux, B.; Dedovich, D. V.; Degenhardt, J.; Dehchar, M.; Del Papa, C.; Del Peso, J.; Del Prete, T.; Delemontex, T.; Deliyergiyev, M.; Dell'Acqua, A.; Dell'Asta, L.; Della Pietra, M.; della Volpe, D.; Delmastro, M.; Delruelle, N.; Delsart, P. A.; Deluca, C.; Demers, S.; Demichev, M.; Demirkoz, B.; Deng, J.; Denisov, S. P.; Derendarz, D.; Derkaoui, J. E.; Derue, F.; Dervan, P.; Desch, K.; Devetak, E.; Deviveiros, P. O.; Dewhurst, A.; DeWilde, B.; Dhaliwal, S.; Dhullipudi, R.; Di Ciaccio, A.; Di Ciaccio, L.; Di Girolamo, A.; Di Girolamo, B.; Di Luise, S.; Di Mattia, A.; Di Micco, B.; Di Nardo, R.; Di Simone, A.; Di Sipio, R.; Diaz, M. A.; Diblen, F.; Diehl, E. B.; Dietrich, J.; Dietzsch, T. A.; Diglio, S.; Dindar Yagci, K.; Dingfelder, J.; Dionisi, C.; Dita, P.; Dita, S.; Dittus, F.; Djama, F.; Djobava, T.; do Vale, M. A. B.; Do Valle Wemans, A.; Doan, T. K. O.; Dobbs, M.; Dobinson, R.; Dobos, D.; Dobson, E.; Dodd, J.; Doglioni, C.; Doherty, T.; Doi, Y.; Dolejsi, J.; Dolenc, I.; Dolezal, Z.; Dolgoshein, B. A.; Dohmae, T.; Donadelli, M.; Donega, M.; Donini, J.; Dopke, J.; Doria, A.; Dos Anjos, A.; Dosil, M.; Dotti, A.; Dova, M. T.; Doxiadis, A. D.; Doyle, A. T.; Drasal, Z.; Drees, J.; Dressnandt, N.; Drevermann, H.; Driouichi, C.; Dris, M.; Dubbert, J.; Dube, S.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Dudarev, A.; Dudziak, F.; Dührssen, M.; Duerdoth, I. P.; Duflot, L.; Dufour, M.-A.; Dunford, M.; Duran Yildiz, H.; Duxfield, R.; Dwuznik, M.; Dydak, F.; Düren, M.; Ebenstein, W. L.; Ebke, J.; Eckweiler, S.; Edmonds, K.; Edwards, C. A.; Edwards, N. C.; Ehrenfeld, W.; Ehrich, T.; Eifert, T.; Eigen, G.; Einsweiler, K.; Eisenhandler, E.; Ekelof, T.; El Kacimi, M.; Ellert, M.; Elles, S.; Ellinghaus, F.; Ellis, K.; Ellis, N.; Elmsheuser, J.; Elsing, M.; Emeliyanov, D.; Engelmann, R.; Engl, A.; Epp, B.; Eppig, A.; Erdmann, J.; Ereditato, A.; Eriksson, D.; Ernst, J.; Ernst, M.; Ernwein, J.; Errede, D.; Errede, S.; Ertel, E.; Escalier, M.; Escobar, C.; Espinal Curull, X.; Esposito, B.; Etienne, F.; Etienvre, A. I.; Etzion, E.; Evangelakou, D.; Evans, H.; Fabbri, L.; Fabre, C.; Fakhrutdinov, R. M.; Falciano, S.; Fang, Y.; Fanti, M.; Farbin, A.; Farilla, A.; Farley, J.; Farooque, T.; Farrell, S.; Farrington, S. M.; Farthouat, P.; Fassnacht, P.; Fassouliotis, D.; Fatholahzadeh, B.; Favareto, A.; Fayard, L.; Fazio, S.; Febbraro, R.; Federic, P.; Fedin, O. L.; Fedorko, W.; Fehling-Kaschek, M.; Feligioni, L.; Fellmann, D.; Feng, C.; Feng, E. J.; Fenyuk, A. B.; Ferencei, J.; Ferland, J.; Fernando, W.; Ferrag, S.; Ferrando, J.; Ferrara, V.; Ferrari, A.; Ferrari, P.; Ferrari, R.; Ferreira de Lima, D. E.; Ferrer, A.; Ferrer, M. L.; Ferrere, D.; Ferretti, C.; Ferretto Parodi, A.; Fiascaris, M.; Fiedler, F.; Filipčič, A.; Filippas, A.; Filthaut, F.; Fincke-Keeler, M.; Fiolhais, M. C. N.; Fiorini, L.; Firan, A.; Fischer, G.; Fischer, P.; Fisher, M. J.; Flechl, M.; Fleck, I.; Fleckner, J.; Fleischmann, P.; Fleischmann, S.; Flick, T.; Floderus, A.; Flores Castillo, L. R.; Flowerdew, M. J.; Fokitis, M.; Fonseca Martin, T.; Forbush, D. A.; Formica, A.; Forti, A.; Fortin, D.; Foster, J. M.; Fournier, D.; Foussat, A.; Fowler, A. J.; Fowler, K.; Fox, H.; Francavilla, P.; Franchino, S.; Francis, D.; Frank, T.; Franklin, M.; Franz, S.; Fraternali, M.; Fratina, S.; French, S. T.; Friedrich, F.; Froeschl, R.; Froidevaux, D.; Frost, J. A.; Fukunaga, C.; Fullana Torregrosa, E.; Fuster, J.; Gabaldon, C.; Gabizon, O.; Gadfort, T.; Gadomski, S.; Gagliardi, G.; Gagnon, P.; Galea, C.; Gallas, E. J.; Gallo, V.; Gallop, B. J.; Gallus, P.; Gan, K. K.; Gao, Y. S.; Gapienko, V. A.; Gaponenko, A.; Garberson, F.; Garcia-Sciveres, M.; García, C.; García Navarro, J. E.; Gardner, R. W.; Garelli, N.; Garitaonandia, H.; Garonne, V.; Garvey, J.; Gatti, C.; Gaudio, G.; Gaur, B.; Gauthier, L.; Gauzzi, P.; Gavrilenko, I. L.; Gay, C.; Gaycken, G.; Gayde, J.-C.; Gazis, E. N.; Ge, P.; Gee, C. N. P.; Geerts, D. A. A.; Geich-Gimbel, Ch.; Gellerstedt, K.; Gemme, C.; Gemmell, A.; Genest, M. H.; Gentile, S.; George, M.; George, S.; Gerlach, P.; Gershon, A.; Geweniger, C.; Ghazlane, H.; Ghodbane, N.; Giacobbe, B.; Giagu, S.; Giakoumopoulou, V.; Giangiobbe, V.; Gianotti, F.; Gibbard, B.; Gibson, A.; Gibson, S. M.; Gilbert, L. M.; Gilewsky, V.; Gillberg, D.; Gillman, A. R.; Gingrich, D. M.; Ginzburg, J.; Giokaris, N.; Giordani, M. 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V.; Peng, H.; Penning, B.; Penson, A.; Penwell, J.; Perantoni, M.; Perez, K.; Perez Cavalcanti, T.; Perez Codina, E.; Pérez García-Estañ, M. T.; Perez Reale, V.; Perini, L.; Pernegger, H.; Perrino, R.; Perrodo, P.; Persembe, S.; Peshekhonov, V. D.; Peters, K.; Petersen, B. A.; Petersen, J.; Petersen, T. C.; Petit, E.; Petridis, A.; Petridou, C.; Petrolo, E.; Petrucci, F.; Petschull, D.; Petteni, M.; Pezoa, R.; Phan, A.; Phillips, P. W.; Piacquadio, G.; Picazio, A.; Piccaro, E.; Piccinini, M.; Piec, S. M.; Piegaia, R.; Pignotti, D. T.; Pilcher, J. E.; Pilkington, A. D.; Pina, J.; Pinamonti, M.; Pinder, A.; Pinfold, J. L.; Ping, J.; Pinto, B.; Pirotte, O.; Pizio, C.; Plamondon, M.; Pleier, M.-A.; Pleskach, A. V.; Plotnikova, E.; Poblaguev, A.; Poddar, S.; Podlyski, F.; Poggioli, L.; Poghosyan, T.; Pohl, M.; Polci, F.; Polesello, G.; Policicchio, A.; Polini, A.; Poll, J.; Polychronakos, V.; Pomarede, D. M.; Pomeroy, D.; Pommès, K.; Pontecorvo, L.; Pope, B. G.; Popeneciu, G. A.; Popovic, D. S.; Poppleton, A.; Portell Bueso, X.; Posch, C.; Pospelov, G. E.; Pospisil, S.; Potrap, I. N.; Potter, C. J.; Potter, C. T.; Poulard, G.; Poveda, J.; Pozdnyakov, V.; Prabhu, R.; Pralavorio, P.; Pranko, A.; Prasad, S.; Pravahan, R.; Prell, S.; Pretzl, K.; Pribyl, L.; Price, D.; Price, J.; Price, L. E.; Price, M. J.; Prieur, D.; Primavera, M.; Prokofiev, K.; Prokoshin, F.; Protopopescu, S.; Proudfoot, J.; Prudent, X.; Przybycien, M.; Przysiezniak, H.; Psoroulas, S.; Ptacek, E.; Pueschel, E.; Purdham, J.; Purohit, M.; Puzo, P.; Pylypchenko, Y.; Qian, J.; Qian, Z.; Qin, Z.; Quadt, A.; Quarrie, D. R.; Quayle, W. B.; Quinonez, F.; Raas, M.; Radescu, V.; Radics, B.; Radloff, P.; Rador, T.; Ragusa, F.; Rahal, G.; Rahimi, A. M.; Rahm, D.; Rajagopalan, S.; Rammensee, M.; Rammes, M.; Randle-Conde, A. S.; Randrianarivony, K.; Ratoff, P. N.; Rauscher, F.; Rave, T. C.; Raymond, M.; Read, A. L.; Rebuzzi, D. M.; Redelbach, A.; Redlinger, G.; Reece, R.; Reeves, K.; Reichold, A.; Reinherz-Aronis, E.; Reinsch, A.; Reisinger, I.; Rembser, C.; Ren, Z. L.; Renaud, A.; Rescigno, M.; Resconi, S.; Resende, B.; Reznicek, P.; Rezvani, R.; Richards, A.; Richter, R.; Richter-Was, E.; Ridel, M.; Rijpstra, M.; Rijssenbeek, M.; Rimoldi, A.; Rinaldi, L.; Rios, R. R.; Riu, I.; Rivoltella, G.; Rizatdinova, F.; Rizvi, E.; Robertson, S. H.; Robichaud-Veronneau, A.; Robinson, D.; Robinson, J. E. M.; Robson, A.; Rocha de Lima, J. G.; Roda, C.; Roda Dos Santos, D.; Rodriguez, D.; Roe, A.; Roe, S.; Røhne, O.; Rojo, V.; Rolli, S.; Romaniouk, A.; Romano, M.; Romanov, V. M.; Romeo, G.; Romero Adam, E.; Roos, L.; Ros, E.; Rosati, S.; Rosbach, K.; Rose, A.; Rose, M.; Rosenbaum, G. A.; Rosenberg, E. I.; Rosendahl, P. L.; Rosenthal, O.; Rosselet, L.; Rossetti, V.; Rossi, E.; Rossi, L. P.; Rotaru, M.; Roth, I.; Rothberg, J.; Rousseau, D.; Royon, C. R.; Rozanov, A.; Rozen, Y.; Ruan, X.; Rubinskiy, I.; Ruckert, B.; Ruckstuhl, N.; Rud, V. I.; Rudolph, C.; Rudolph, G.; Rühr, F.; Ruggieri, F.; Ruiz-Martinez, A.; Rumiantsev, V.; Rumyantsev, L.; Runge, K.; Rurikova, Z.; Rusakovich, N. A.; Rutherfoord, J. P.; Ruwiedel, C.; Ruzicka, P.; Ryabov, Y. F.; Ryadovikov, V.; Ryan, P.; Rybar, M.; Rybkin, G.; Ryder, N. C.; Rzaeva, S.; Saavedra, A. F.; Sadeh, I.; Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Sadykov, R.; Safai Tehrani, F.; Sakamoto, H.; Salamanna, G.; Salamon, A.; Saleem, M.; Salek, D.; Salihagic, D.; Salnikov, A.; Salt, J.; Salvachua Ferrando, B. M.; Salvatore, D.; Salvatore, F.; Salvucci, A.; Salzburger, A.; Sampsonidis, D.; Samset, B. H.; Sanchez, A.; Sanchez Martinez, V.; Sandaker, H.; Sander, H. G.; Sanders, M. P.; Sandhoff, M.; Sandoval, T.; Sandoval, C.; Sandstroem, R.; Sandvoss, S.; Sankey, D. P. C.; Sansoni, A.; Santamarina Rios, C.; Santoni, C.; Santonico, R.; Santos, H.; Saraiva, J. G.; Sarangi, T.; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, E.; Sarri, F.; Sartisohn, G.; Sasaki, O.; Sasao, N.; Satsounkevitch, I.; Sauvage, G.; Sauvan, E.; Sauvan, J. B.; Savard, P.; Savinov, V.; Savu, D. O.; Sawyer, L.; Saxon, D. H.; Saxon, J.; Says, L. P.; Sbarra, C.; Sbrizzi, A.; Scallon, O.; Scannicchio, D. A.; Scarcella, M.; Schaarschmidt, J.; Schacht, P.; Schaefer, D.; Schäfer, U.; Schaepe, S.; Schaetzel, S.; Schaffer, A. C.; Schaile, D.; Schamberger, R. D.; Schamov, A. G.; Scharf, V.; Schegelsky, V. A.; Scheirich, D.; Schernau, M.; Scherzer, M. I.; Schiavi, C.; Schieck, J.; Schioppa, M.; Schlenker, S.; Schlereth, J. L.; Schmidt, E.; Schmieden, K.; Schmitt, C.; Schmitt, S.; Schmitz, M.; Schöning, A.; Schott, M.; Schouten, D.; Schovancova, J.; Schram, M.; Schroeder, C.; Schroer, N.; Schuler, G.; Schultens, M. J.; Schultes, J.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Schulz, H.; Schumacher, J. W.; Schumacher, M.; Schumm, B. A.; Schune, Ph.; Schwanenberger, C.; Schwartzman, A.; Schwemling, Ph.; Schwienhorst, R.; Schwierz, R.; Schwindling, J.; Schwindt, T.; Schwoerer, M.; Sciolla, G.; Scott, W. G.; Searcy, J.; Sedov, G.; Sedykh, E.; Segura, E.; Seidel, S. C.; Seiden, A.; Seifert, F.; Seixas, J. M.; Sekhniaidze, G.; Sekula, S. J.; Selbach, K. E.; Seliverstov, D. M.; Sellden, B.; Sellers, G.; Seman, M.; Semprini-Cesari, N.; Serfon, C.; Serin, L.; Serkin, L.; Seuster, R.; Severini, H.; Sevior, M. E.; Sfyrla, A.; Shabalina, E.; Shamim, M.; Shan, L. Y.; Shank, J. T.; Shao, Q. T.; Shapiro, M.; Shatalov, P. B.; Shaver, L.; Shaw, K.; Sherman, D.; Sherwood, P.; Shibata, A.; Shichi, H.; Shimizu, S.; Shimojima, M.; Shin, T.; Shiyakova, M.; Shmeleva, A.; Shochet, M. J.; Short, D.; Shrestha, S.; Shulga, E.; Shupe, M. A.; Sicho, P.; Sidoti, A.; Siegert, F.; Sijacki, Dj.; Silbert, O.; Silva, J.; Silver, Y.; Silverstein, D.; Silverstein, S. B.; Simak, V.; Simard, O.; Simic, Lj.; Simion, S.; Simmons, B.; Simoniello, R.; Simonyan, M.; Sinervo, P.; Sinev, N. B.; Sipica, V.; Siragusa, G.; Sircar, A.; Sisakyan, A. N.; Sivoklokov, S. Yu.; Sjölin, J.; Sjursen, T. B.; Skinnari, L. A.; Skottowe, H. P.; Skovpen, K.; Skubic, P.; Skvorodnev, N.; Slater, M.; Slavicek, T.; Sliwa, K.; Sloper, J.; Smakhtin, V.; Smart, B. H.; Smirnov, S. Yu.; Smirnov, Y.; Smirnova, L. N.; Smirnova, O.; Smith, B. C.; Smith, D.; Smith, K. M.; Smizanska, M.; Smolek, K.; Snesarev, A. A.; Snow, S. W.; Snow, J.; Snuverink, J.; Snyder, S.; Soares, M.; Sobie, R.; Sodomka, J.; Soffer, A.; Solans, C. A.; Solar, M.; Solc, J.; Soldatov, E.; Soldevila, U.; Solfaroli Camillocci, E.; Solodkov, A. A.; Solovyanov, O. V.; Soni, N.; Sopko, V.; Sopko, B.; Sosebee, M.; Soualah, R.; Soukharev, A.; Spagnolo, S.; Spanò, F.; Spighi, R.; Spigo, G.; Spila, F.; Spiwoks, R.; Spousta, M.; Spreitzer, T.; Spurlock, B.; St. Denis, R. D.; Stahlman, J.; Stamen, R.; Stanecka, E.; Stanek, R. W.; Stanescu, C.; Stanescu-Bellu, M.; Stapnes, S.; Starchenko, E. A.; Stark, J.; Staroba, P.; Starovoitov, P.; Staude, A.; Stavina, P.; Steele, G.; Steinbach, P.; Steinberg, P.; Stekl, I.; Stelzer, B.; Stelzer, H. J.; Stelzer-Chilton, O.; Stenzel, H.; Stern, S.; Stevenson, K.; Stewart, G. A.; Stillings, J. A.; Stockton, M. C.; Stoerig, K.; Stoicea, G.; Stonjek, S.; Strachota, P.; Stradling, A. R.; Straessner, A.; Strandberg, J.; Strandberg, S.; Strandlie, A.; Strang, M.; Strauss, E.; Strauss, M.; Strizenec, P.; Ströhmer, R.; Strom, D. M.; Strong, J. A.; Stroynowski, R.; Strube, J.; Stugu, B.; Stumer, I.; Stupak, J.; Sturm, P.; Styles, N. A.; Soh, D. A.; Su, D.; Subramania, HS.; Succurro, A.; Sugaya, Y.; Sugimoto, T.; Suhr, C.; Suita, K.; Suk, M.; Sulin, V. V.; Sultansoy, S.; Sumida, T.; Sun, X.; Sundermann, J. E.; Suruliz, K.; Sushkov, S.; Susinno, G.; Sutton, M. R.; Suzuki, Y.; Suzuki, Y.; Svatos, M.; Sviridov, Yu. M.; Swedish, S.; Sykora, I.; Sykora, T.; Szeless, B.; Sánchez, J.; Ta, D.; Tackmann, K.; Taffard, A.; Tafirout, R.; Taiblum, N.; Takahashi, Y.; Takai, H.; Takashima, R.; Takeda, H.; Takeshita, T.; Takubo, Y.; Talby, M.; Talyshev, A.; Tamsett, M. C.; Tanaka, J.; Tanaka, R.; Tanaka, S.; Tanaka, S.; Tanaka, Y.; Tanasijczuk, A. J.; Tani, K.; Tannoury, N.; Tappern, G. P.; Tapprogge, S.; Tardif, D.; Tarem, S.; Tarrade, F.; Tartarelli, G. F.; Tas, P.; Tasevsky, M.; Tassi, E.; Tatarkhanov, M.; Tayalati, Y.; Taylor, C.; Taylor, F. E.; Taylor, G. N.; Taylor, W.; Teinturier, M.; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, M.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Temming, K. K.; Ten Kate, H.; Teng, P. K.; Terada, S.; Terashi, K.; Terron, J.; Testa, M.; Teuscher, R. J.; Thadome, J.; Therhaag, J.; Theveneaux-Pelzer, T.; Thioye, M.; Thoma, S.; Thomas, J. P.; Thompson, E. N.; Thompson, P. D.; Thompson, P. D.; Thompson, A. S.; Thomsen, L. A.; Thomson, E.; Thomson, M.; Thun, R. P.; Tian, F.; Tibbetts, M. J.; Tic, T.; Tikhomirov, V. O.; Tikhonov, Y. A.; Timoshenko, S.; Tipton, P.; Tique Aires Viegas, F. J.; Tisserant, S.; Toczek, B.; Todorov, T.; Todorova-Nova, S.; Toggerson, B.; Tojo, J.; Tokár, S.; Tokunaga, K.; Tokushuku, K.; Tollefson, K.; Tomoto, M.; Tompkins, L.; Toms, K.; Tong, G.; Tonoyan, A.; Topfel, C.; Topilin, N. D.; Torchiani, I.; Torrence, E.; Torres, H.; Torró Pastor, E.; Toth, J.; Touchard, F.; Tovey, D. R.; Trefzger, T.; Tremblet, L.; Tricoli, A.; Trigger, I. M.; Trincaz-Duvoid, S.; Trinh, T. N.; Tripiana, M. F.; Trischuk, W.; Trivedi, A.; Trocmé, B.; Troncon, C.; Trottier-McDonald, M.; Trzebinski, M.; Trzupek, A.; Tsarouchas, C.; Tseng, J. C.-L.; Tsiakiris, M.; Tsiareshka, P. V.; Tsionou, D.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsiskaridze, V.; Tskhadadze, E. G.; Tsukerman, I. I.; Tsulaia, V.; Tsung, J.-W.; Tsuno, S.; Tsybychev, D.; Tua, A.; Tudorache, A.; Tudorache, V.; Tuggle, J. M.; Turala, M.; Turecek, D.; Turk Cakir, I.; Turlay, E.; Turra, R.; Tuts, P. M.; Tykhonov, A.; Tylmad, M.; Tyndel, M.; Tzanakos, G.; Uchida, K.; Ueda, I.; Ueno, R.; Ugland, M.; Uhlenbrock, M.; Uhrmacher, M.; Ukegawa, F.; Unal, G.; Underwood, D. G.; Undrus, A.; Unel, G.; Unno, Y.; Urbaniec, D.; Usai, G.; Uslenghi, M.; Vacavant, L.; Vacek, V.; Vachon, B.; Vahsen, S.; Valenta, J.; Valente, P.; Valentinetti, S.; Valkar, S.; Valladolid Gallego, E.; Vallecorsa, S.; Valls Ferrer, J. A.; van der Graaf, H.; van der Kraaij, E.; van der Leeuw, R.; van der Poel, E.; van der Ster, D.; van Eldik, N.; van Gemmeren, P.; van Kesteren, Z.; van Vulpen, I.; Vanadia, M.; Vandelli, W.; Vandoni, G.; Vaniachine, A.; Vankov, P.; Vannucci, F.; Varela Rodriguez, F.; Vari, R.; Varnes, E. W.; Varol, T.; Varouchas, D.; Vartapetian, A.; Varvell, K. E.; Vassilakopoulos, V. I.; Vazeille, F.; Vazquez Schroeder, T.; Vegni, G.; Veillet, J. J.; Vellidis, C.; Veloso, F.; Veness, R.; Veneziano, S.; Ventura, A.; Ventura, D.; Venturi, M.; Venturi, N.; Vercesi, V.; Verducci, M.; Verkerke, W.; Vermeulen, J. C.; Vest, A.; Vetterli, M. C.; Vichou, I.; Vickey, T.; Vickey Boeriu, O. E.; Viehhauser, G. H. A.; Viel, S.; Villa, M.; Villaplana Perez, M.; Vilucchi, E.; Vincter, M. G.; Vinek, E.; Vinogradov, V. B.; Virchaux, M.; Virzi, J.; Vitells, O.; Viti, M.; Vivarelli, I.; Vives Vaque, F.; Vlachos, S.; Vladoiu, D.; Vlasak, M.; Vlasov, N.; Vogel, A.; Vokac, P.; Volpi, G.; Volpi, M.; Volpini, G.; von der Schmitt, H.; von Loeben, J.; von Radziewski, H.; von Toerne, E.; Vorobel, V.; Vorobiev, A. P.; Vorwerk, V.; Vos, M.; Voss, R.; Voss, T. T.; Vossebeld, J. H.; Vranjes, N.; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M.; Vrba, V.; Vreeswijk, M.; Vu Anh, T.; Vuillermet, R.; Vukotic, I.; Wagner, W.; Wagner, P.; Wahlen, H.; Wakabayashi, J.; Walch, S.; Walder, J.; Walker, R.; Walkowiak, W.; Wall, R.; Waller, P.; Wang, C.; Wang, H.; Wang, H.; Wang, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, J. C.; Wang, R.; Wang, S. M.; Wang, T.; Warburton, A.; Ward, C. P.; Warsinsky, M.; Wasicki, C.; Watkins, P. M.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, I. J.; Watson, M. F.; Watts, G.; Watts, S.; Waugh, A. T.; Waugh, B. M.; Weber, M.; Weber, M. S.; Weber, P.; Weidberg, A. R.; Weigell, P.; Weingarten, J.; Weiser, C.; Wellenstein, H.; Wells, P. S.; Wenaus, T.; Wendland, D.; Wendler, S.; Weng, Z.; Wengler, T.; Wenig, S.; Wermes, N.; Werner, M.; Werner, P.; Werth, M.; Wessels, M.; Wetter, J.; Weydert, C.; Whalen, K.; Wheeler-Ellis, S. J.; Whitaker, S. P.; White, A.; White, M. J.; Whitehead, S. R.; Whiteson, D.; Whittington, D.; Wicek, F.; Wicke, D.; Wickens, F. J.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wielers, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wiglesworth, C.; Wiik-Fuchs, L. A. M.; Wijeratne, P. A.; Wildauer, A.; Wildt, M. A.; Wilhelm, I.; Wilkens, H. G.; Will, J. Z.; Williams, E.; Williams, H. H.; Willis, W.; Willocq, S.; Wilson, J. A.; Wilson, M. G.; Wilson, A.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Winkelmann, S.; Winklmeier, F.; Wittgen, M.; Wolter, M. W.; Wolters, H.; Wong, W. C.; Wooden, G.; Wosiek, B. K.; Wotschack, J.; Woudstra, M. J.; Wozniak, K. W.; Wraight, K.; Wright, C.; Wright, M.; Wrona, B.; Wu, S. L.; Wu, X.; Wu, Y.; Wulf, E.; Wunstorf, R.; Wynne, B. M.; Xella, S.; Xiao, M.; Xie, S.; Xie, Y.; Xu, C.; Xu, D.; Xu, G.; Yabsley, B.; Yacoob, S.; Yamada, M.; Yamaguchi, H.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamamoto, K.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamamura, T.; Yamanaka, T.; Yamaoka, J.; Yamazaki, T.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yan, Z.; Yang, H.; Yang, U. K.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Z.; Yanush, S.; Yao, Y.; Yasu, Y.; Ybeles Smit, G. V.; Ye, J.; Ye, S.; Yilmaz, M.; Yoosoofmiya, R.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, R.; Young, C.; Youssef, S.; Yu, D.; Yu, J.; Yu, J.; Yuan, L.; Yurkewicz, A.; Zabinski, B.; Zaets, V. G.; Zaidan, R.; Zaitsev, A. M.; Zajacova, Z.; Zanello, L.; Zaytsev, A.; Zeitnitz, C.; Zeller, M.; Zeman, M.; Zemla, A.; Zendler, C.; Zenin, O.; Ženiš, T.; Zinonos, Z.; Zenz, S.; Zerwas, D.; Zevi della Porta, G.; Zhan, Z.; Zhang, D.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, L.; Zhao, T.; Zhao, Z.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, S.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, N.; Zhou, Y.; Zhu, C. G.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zhuang, X.; Zhuravlov, V.; Zieminska, D.; Zimmermann, R.; Zimmermann, S.; Zimmermann, S.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zitoun, R.; Živković, L.; Zmouchko, V. V.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; Zsenei, A.; zur Nedden, M.; Zutshi, V.; Zwalinski, L.

    2012-07-01

    Differential measurements of charged particle azimuthal anisotropy are presented for lead-lead collisions at sNN=2.76 TeV with the ATLAS detector at the LHC, based on an integrated luminosity of approximately 8 μb-1. This anisotropy is characterized via a Fourier expansion of the distribution of charged particles in azimuthal angle relative to the reaction plane, with the coefficients vn denoting the magnitude of the anisotropy. Significant v2-v6 values are obtained as a function of transverse momentum (0.5charged particle pair distribution in relative azimuthal angle (Δφ=φa-φb) is performed to extract the coefficients vn,n=. For pairs of charged particles with a large pseudorapidity gap (|Δη=ηa-ηb|>2) and one particle with pT<3 GeV, the v2,2-v6,6 values are found to factorize as vn,n(pTa,pTb)≈vn(pTa)vn(pTb) in central and midcentral events. Such factorization suggests that these values of v2,2-v6,6 are primarily attributable to the response of the created matter to the fluctuations in the geometry of the initial state. A detailed study shows that the v1,1(pTa,pTb) data are consistent with the combined contributions from a rapidity-even v1 and global momentum conservation. A two-component fit is used to extract the v1 contribution. The extracted v1 is observed to cross zero at pT≈1.0 GeV, reaches a maximum at 4-5 GeV with a value comparable to that for v3, and decreases at higher pT.

  2. Single Charge Current in a Normal Mesoscopic Region Attached to Superconductor Leads via a Coupled Poisson Nonequilibrium Green Function Formalism

    PubMed Central

    Marin, F. P.

    2014-01-01

    We study the I-V characteristic of mesoscopic systems or quantum dot (QD) attached to a pair of superconducting leads. Interaction effects in the QD are considered through the charging energy of the QD; that is, the treatment of current transport under a voltage bias is performed within a coupled Poisson nonequilibrium Green function (PNEGF) formalism. We derive the expression for the current in full generality but consider only the regime where transport occurs only via a single particle current. We show for this case and for various charging energies values U 0 and associated capacitances of the QD the effect on the I-V characteristic. Also the influence of the coupling constants on the I-V characteristic is investigated. Our approach puts forward a novel interpretation of experiments in the strong Coulomb regime. PMID:24977220

  3. Pulsed-current charging of lead/acid batteries — a possible means for overcoming premature capacity loss?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, L. T.; Ozgun, H.; Lim, O. V.; Hamilton, J. A.; Vu, L. H.; Vella, D. G.; Rand, D. A. J.

    A pulsed-current technique is evaluated for the rapid charging of lead/acid cells that are prepared with either low-antimony or lead-calcium-tin grids. For comparative purposes, these cells are subjected to repetitive reserve-capacity cycling under either pulsed-current or conventional, invariant-current recharge. Although the latter charging is recommended by the manufacturers of the respective grids, it invokes premature capacity loss when combined with the high-rate discharge of the reserve-capacity test. Two significant benefits are found with the pulsed-current technique, namely, a reduction in recharging time by an order of magnitude (i.e., from ˜10 to ˜1 h), and an increase in cycle life by a factor of three to four. Temperature effects play only a minor role in prolonging battery endurance under pulsed-charging conditions. The technique also has the ability to recover the capacity of cycled cells. As expected, premature capacity loss occurs in both PbSb and PbCaSn cells cycled under invariant-current charging. The phenomenon is more acute in PbCa-based cells. The decline in capacity of PbSb cells is associated with a progressive change in the nature of the positive active material, i.e., from low crystallinity in the precursor material to a more defined crystallinity in the cycled mass. This behaviour reduces both the available surface area and the reactivity of the active material with the battery acid. By contrast, the capacity loss in PbCaSn cells is related to both a progressive increase in the crystallization of the active material during cycling (i.e., development of small crystals) and to the growth of a resistive 'PbO' layer immediately adjacent to the grid member. The latter phenomenon is the more dominant. Pulsed-current charging is found to be an effective means for delaying the crystallization process in the active material, as well as for minimizing the development of the 'PbO' layer during cycling. Thus, pulsed charging

  4. Article processing charges for open access publication-the situation for research intensive universities in the USA and Canada.

    PubMed

    Solomon, David; Björk, Bo-Christer

    2016-01-01

    Background. Open access (OA) publishing via article processing charges (APCs) is growing as an alternative to subscription publishing. The Pay It Forward (PIF) Project is exploring the feasibility of transitioning from paying subscriptions to funding APCs for faculty at research intensive universities. Estimating of the cost of APCs for the journals authors at research intensive universities tend to publish is essential for the PIF project and similar initiatives. This paper presents our research into this question. Methods. We identified APC prices for publications by authors at the 4 research intensive United States (US) and Canadian universities involved in the study. We also obtained APC payment records from several Western European universities and funding agencies. Both data sets were merged with Web of Science (WoS) metadata. We calculated the average APCs for articles and proceedings in 13 discipline categories published by researchers at research intensive universities. We also identified 41 journals published by traditionally subscription publishers which have recently converted to APC funded OA and recorded the APCs they charge. Results. We identified 7,629 payment records from the 4 European APC payment databases and 14,356 OA articles authored by PIF partner university faculty for which we had listed APC prices. APCs for full OA journals published by PIF authors averaged 1,775 USD; full OA journal APCs paid by Western European funders averaged 1,865 USD; hybrid APCs paid by Western European funders averaged 2,887 USD. The APC for converted journals published by major subscription publishers averaged 1,825 USD. APC funded OA is concentrated in the life and basic sciences. APCs funded articles in the social sciences and humanities are often multidisciplinary and published in journals such as PLOS ONE that largely publish in the life sciences. Conclusions. Full OA journal APCs average a little under 2,000 USD while hybrid articles average about 3,000 USD

  5. Article processing charges for open access publication—the situation for research intensive universities in the USA and Canada

    PubMed Central

    Björk, Bo-Christer

    2016-01-01

    Background. Open access (OA) publishing via article processing charges (APCs) is growing as an alternative to subscription publishing. The Pay It Forward (PIF) Project is exploring the feasibility of transitioning from paying subscriptions to funding APCs for faculty at research intensive universities. Estimating of the cost of APCs for the journals authors at research intensive universities tend to publish is essential for the PIF project and similar initiatives. This paper presents our research into this question. Methods. We identified APC prices for publications by authors at the 4 research intensive United States (US) and Canadian universities involved in the study. We also obtained APC payment records from several Western European universities and funding agencies. Both data sets were merged with Web of Science (WoS) metadata. We calculated the average APCs for articles and proceedings in 13 discipline categories published by researchers at research intensive universities. We also identified 41 journals published by traditionally subscription publishers which have recently converted to APC funded OA and recorded the APCs they charge. Results. We identified 7,629 payment records from the 4 European APC payment databases and 14,356 OA articles authored by PIF partner university faculty for which we had listed APC prices. APCs for full OA journals published by PIF authors averaged 1,775 USD; full OA journal APCs paid by Western European funders averaged 1,865 USD; hybrid APCs paid by Western European funders averaged 2,887 USD. The APC for converted journals published by major subscription publishers averaged 1,825 USD. APC funded OA is concentrated in the life and basic sciences. APCs funded articles in the social sciences and humanities are often multidisciplinary and published in journals such as PLOS ONE that largely publish in the life sciences. Conclusions. Full OA journal APCs average a little under 2,000 USD while hybrid articles average about 3,000 USD

  6. The dynamics of energy and charge transfer in lead sulfide quantum dot solids

    SciTech Connect

    Lingley, Zachary; Lu, Siyuan; Madhukar, Anupam

    2014-02-28

    We report on a systematic time-resolved photoluminescence study of the competing energy and charge transfer rates in PbS QDs of differing sizes in the same QD solid as a function of both temperature and ligand-controlled different inter-QD average separations. This complements previous studies that typically varied only one parameter and reveals new aspects while also confirming some known features. For the smallest PbS QDs, the dominant decay process is nonradiative resonant energy transfer (NRET) to adjacent larger dots for all separations but at a rate that increases with decreasing temperature. For the largest QDs, NRET being forbidden, the decay is found to be exponential in the inter-QD separation consistent with carrier tunneling but, for each fixed tunneling distance, exhibiting a thermally activated tunneling carrier population with the activation energy dependent upon the ligand length controlling the inter-QD separation. A consistent understanding of this expanded and rich decay rate behavior of both large and small QDs, we show, can be obtained by accounting for the ligand length dependent (a) dielectric environment of the QD solid modeled using an effective medium description, (b) the energy cost of dissociating the exciton into electron and hole in neighboring QDs, and (c) the potential participation of midgap states. Implications of the findings for NRET based photovoltaics are discussed.

  7. Studies on electrolyte formulations to improve life of lead acid batteries working under partial state of charge conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández, J. C.; Soria, M. L.; González, M.; García-Quismondo, E.; Muñoz, A.; Trinidad, F.

    For decades, valve regulated lead acid batteries with gel electrolyte have proved their excellent performance in deep cycling applications. However, their higher cost, when compared with flooded batteries, has limited their use in cost sensitive applications, such as automotive or PV installations. The use of flooded batteries in deep or partial state of charge working conditions leads to limited life due to premature capacity loss provoked by electrolyte stratification. Different electrolyte formulations have been tested, in order to achieve the best compromise between cost and life performance. Work carried out included electrochemical studies in order to determine the electrolyte stability and diffusional properties, and kinetic studies to check the processability of the electrolyte formulation. Finally, several 12 V batteries have been assembled and tested according to different ageing profiles.

  8. Role of electrical resistance of electrodes in modeling of discharging and charging of flooded lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gandhi, K. S.

    2015-03-01

    Electrical resistance of both the electrodes of a lead-acid battery increases during discharge due to formation of lead sulfate, an insulator. Work of Metzendorf [1] shows that resistance increases sharply at about 65% conversion of active materials, and battery stops discharging once this critical conversion is reached. However, these aspects are not incorporated into existing mathematical models. Present work uses the results of Metzendorf [1], and develops a model that includes the effect of variable resistance. Further, it uses a reasonable expression to account for the decrease in active area during discharge instead of the empirical equations of previous work. The model's predictions are compared with observations of Cugnet et al. [2]. The model is as successful as the non-mechanistic models existing in literature. Inclusion of variation in resistance of electrodes in the model is important if one of the electrodes is a limiting reactant. If active materials are stoichiometrically balanced, resistance of electrodes can be very large at the end of discharge but has only a minor effect on charging of batteries. The model points to the significance of electrical conductivity of electrodes in the charging of deep discharged batteries.

  9. Modeling of the cranking and charging processes of conventional valve regulated lead acid (VRLA) batteries in micro-hybrid applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gou, Jun; Lee, Anson; Pyko, Jan

    2014-10-01

    The cranking and charging processes of a VRLA battery during stop-start cycling in micro-hybrid applications were simulated by one dimensional mathematical modeling, to study the formation and distribution of lead sulfate across the cell and analyze the resulting effect on battery aging. The battery focused on in this study represents a conventional VRLA battery without any carbon additives in the electrodes or carbon-based electrodes. The modeling results were validated against experimental data and used to analyze the "sulfation" of negative electrodes - the common failure mode of lead acid batteries under high-rate partial state of charge (HRPSoC) cycling. The analyses were based on two aging mechanisms proposed in previous studies and the predictions showed consistency with the previous teardown observations that the sulfate formed at the negative interface is more difficult to be converted back than anywhere else in the electrodes. The impact of cranking pulses during stop-start cycling on current density and the corresponding sulfate layer production was estimated. The effects of some critical design parameters on sulfate formation, distribution and aging over cycling were investigated, which provided guidelines for developing models and designing of VRLA batteries in micro-hybrid applications.

  10. Use of a Cumulative Exposure Index to Estimate the Impact of Tap Water Lead Concentration on Blood Lead Levels in 1- to 5-Year-Old Children (Montréal, Canada)

    PubMed Central

    Ngueta, Gerard; Abdous, Belkacem; Tardif, Robert; St-Laurent, Julie; Levallois, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Background Drinking water is recognized as a source of lead (Pb) exposure. However, questions remain about the impact of chronic exposure to lead-contaminated water on internal dose. Objective Our goal was to estimate the relation between a cumulative water Pb exposure index (CWLEI) and blood Pb levels (BPb) in children 1–5 years of ages. Methods Between 10 September 2009 and 27 March 2010, individual characteristics and water consumption data were obtained from 298 children. Venous blood samples were collected (one per child) and a total of five 1-L samples of water per home were drawn from the kitchen tap. A second round of water collection was performed between 22 June 2011 and 6 September 2011 on a subsample of houses. Pb analyses used inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. Multiple linear regressions were used to estimate the association between CWLEI and BPb. Results Each 1-unit increase in CWLEI multiplies the expected value of BPb by 1.10 (95% CI: 1.06, 1.15) after adjustment for confounders. Mean BPb was significantly higher in children in the upper third and fourth quartiles of CWLEI (0.7–1.9 and ≥ 1.9 μg/kg of body weight) compared with the first (< 0.2 μg/kg) after adjusting for confounders (19%; 95% CI: 0, 42% and 39%; 95% CI: 15, 67%, respectively). The trends analysis yielded a p-value < 0.0001 after adjusting for confounders suggesting a dose–response relationship between percentiles of CWLEI and BPb. Conclusions In children 1–5 years of age, BPb was significantly associated with water lead concentration with an increase starting at a cumulative lead exposure of ≥ 0.7 μg Pb/kg of body weight. In this age group, an increase of 1 μg/L in water lead would result in an increase of 35% of BPb after 150 days of exposure. Citation Ngueta G, Abdous B, Tardif R, St-Laurent J, Levallois P. 2016. Use of a cumulative exposure index to estimate the impact of tap water lead concentration on blood lead levels in 1- to 5-year-old children

  11. Ultrafast charge generation and relaxation dynamics in methylammonium lead bromide perovskites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Xiaofan; Wen, Xiaoming; Sheng, Rui; Huang, Shujuan; Harada, Takaaki; Kee, Tak W.; Green, Martin A.; Ho-Baillie, Anita

    2015-12-01

    Methylammonium Lead Bromide (CH3NH3PbBr3) is a promising material for tandem solar cell due to its high band gap. Ultrafast optical techniques on a time scale of femto- and picosecond are used to investigate the carrier dynamics in CH3NH3PbBr3. An ultrafast cooling of hot carriers occurs in sub-picoseconds in CH3NH3PbBr3 by phonon scattering. Two ultrafast relaxation processes are attributed to optical phonon scattering and acoustic phonon scattering. The relaxation processes are evidently slower when CH3NH3PbBr3 is in contact with compact TiO2 (c-TiO2) layer, suggesting better quality CH3NH3PbBr3. when deposited on c-TiO2. The nanosecond decay in CH3NH3PbBr3 film is ascribed to electron-hole recombination. With the presence of c-TiO2 layer, this process is accelerated due to electron transport across the CH3NH3PbBr3/ c-TiO2 interface.

  12. Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) registry--leading the charge for National Cardiovascular Disease (NCVD) Database.

    PubMed

    Chin, S P; Jeyaindran, S; Azhari, R; Wan Azman, W A; Omar, I; Robaayah, Z; Sim, K H

    2008-09-01

    Coronary artery disease is one of the most rampant non-communicable diseases in the world. It begins indolently as a fatty streak in the lining of the artery that soon progresses to narrow the coronary arteries and impair myocardial perfusion. Often the atherosclerotic plaque ruptures and causes sudden thrombotic occlusion and acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), non-ST-elevation MI (NSTEMI) or unstable angina (UA). This phenomenon is called acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and is the leading cause of death not only in Malaysia but also globally. In order for us to tackle this threat to the health of our nation we must arm ourselves with reliable and accurate information to assess current burden of disease resources available and success of current strategies. The acute coronary syndrome (ACS) registry is the flagship of the National Cardiovascular Disease Database (NCVD) and is the result of the dedicated and untiring efforts of doctors and nurses in both public and private medical institutions and hospitals around the country, ably guided and supported by the National Heart Association, the National Heart Foundation, the Clinical Research Centre and the Ministry of Health of Malaysia. Analyses of data collected throughout 2006 from 3422 patients with ACS admitted to the 12 tertiary cardiac centres and general hospitals spanning nine states in Malaysia in this first report has already revealed surprising results. Mean age of patients was 59 years while the most consistent risk factor for STEMI was active smoking. Utilization of medications was high generally. Thirty-day mortality for STEMI was 11%, for NSTEMI 8% and UA 4%. Thrombolysis (for STEMI only) reduced in-hospital and 30-day mortality by nearly 50%. Percutaneous coronary intervention or PCI also reduced 30-day mortality for patients with non-ST elevation MI and unstable angina. The strongest determinants of mortality appears to be Killip Class and age of the patient. Fewer women received

  13. Measurement of the spectra of doubly charged particles emitted in bombardment of lead nuclei by. cap alpha. particles with energy 3. 6 GeV/nucleon

    SciTech Connect

    Ad'yasevich, B.P.; Antonenko, V.G.; Vinogradov, A.A.; Grigor'yan, Y.I.; Dukhanov, V.I.; Ippolitov, M.S.; Karadzhev, K.V.; Lebedev, A.L.; Man'ko, V.I.; Nikolaev, S.A.; Polunin, Y.P.; Tsvetkov, A.A.

    1983-12-01

    We have measured the spectra of double charged particles emitted in interaction of 3.6 GeV/nucleon ..cap alpha.. particles with lead nuclei. Spectra were measured at emission angles from 10 to 95/sup 0/ in the range of secondary-particle velocities 0.37<..beta..<0.55. Angular distributions were obtained, the total cross section for emission of doubly charged particles was evaluated, and the ratios of the contributions of doubly and singly charged particles were determined. The rapidity distributions of the invariant cross sections for production of doubly charged particles reveal maxima at a rapidity yroughly-equal0.15--0.20.

  14. Exposure of young children to household water lead in the Montreal area (Canada): the potential influence of winter-to-summer changes in water lead levels on children's blood lead concentration.

    PubMed

    Ngueta, G; Prévost, M; Deshommes, E; Abdous, B; Gauvin, D; Levallois, P

    2014-12-01

    Drinking water represents a potential source of lead exposure. The purpose of the present study was to estimate the magnitude of winter-to-summer changes in household water lead levels (WLLs), and to predict the impact of these variations on BLLs in young children. A study was conducted from September, 2009 to March, 2010 in 305 homes, with a follow-up survey carried out from June to September 2011 in a subsample of 100 homes randomly selected. The first 1-L sample was drawn after 5 min of flushing, followed by a further 4 consecutive 1-L samples after 30 min of stagnation. Non-linear regression and general linear mixed models were used for modelling seasonal effects on WLL. The batchrun mode of Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic (IEUBK) model was used to predict the impact of changes in WLL on children's blood lead levels (BLLs). The magnitude of winter-to-summer changes in average concentrations of lead corresponded to 6.55 μg/L in homes served by lead service lines (LSL+ homes) and merely 0.30 μg/L in homes without lead service lines. For stagnant samples, the value reached 10.55 μg/L in 'LSL+ homes' and remained very low (0.36 μg/L) in 'LSL- homes'. The change in the probability of BLLs ≥5 μg/dL due to winter-to-summer changes in WLL was increased from <5% (in winter) to about 20% (in summer) in children aged 0.5-2 years. The likelihood of having BLLs ≥5 μg/dL in young children during warm months was reduced by at least 40% by flushing tap-water. PMID:25087106

  15. Charge carrier recombination channels in the low-temperature phase of organic-inorganic lead halide perovskite thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wehrenfennig, Christian; Liu, Mingzhen; Snaith, Henry J.; Johnston, Michael B.; Herz, Laura M.

    2014-08-01

    The optoelectronic properties of the mixed hybrid lead halide perovskite CH3NH3PbI3-xClx have been subject to numerous recent studies related to its extraordinary capabilities as an absorber material in thin film solar cells. While the greatest part of the current research concentrates on the behavior of the perovskite at room temperature, the observed influence of phonon-coupling and excitonic effects on charge carrier dynamics suggests that low-temperature phenomena can give valuable additional insights into the underlying physics. Here, we present a temperature-dependent study of optical absorption and photoluminescence (PL) emission of vapor-deposited CH3NH3PbI3-xClx exploring the nature of recombination channels in the room- and the low-temperature phase of the material. On cooling, we identify an up-shift of the absorption onset by about 0.1 eV at about 100 K, which is likely to correspond to the known tetragonal-to-orthorhombic transition of the pure halide CH3NH3PbI3. With further decreasing temperature, a second PL emission peak emerges in addition to the peak from the room-temperature phase. The transition on heating is found to occur at about 140 K, i.e., revealing significant hysteresis in the system. While PL decay lifetimes are found to be independent of temperature above the transition, significantly accelerated recombination is observed in the low-temperature phase. Our data suggest that small inclusions of domains adopting the room-temperature phase are responsible for this behavior rather than a spontaneous increase in the intrinsic rate constants. These observations show that even sparse lower-energy sites can have a strong impact on material performance, acting as charge recombination centres that may detrimentally affect photovoltaic performance but that may also prove useful for optoelectronic applications such as lasing by enhancing population inversion.

  16. Potentiometric measurement of state-of-charge of lead-acid battery by using a bridged ferrocene surface modified electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Issa, Touma B.; Singh, Pritam; Baker, Murray V.

    Alkanethiol bridged, 3-(11-mercaptoundecyl)[3](1,1‧) ferrocenophane and 3-(11-mercaptoundecyl)[5](1,1‧) ferrocenophane were synthesized and their electrochemical behaviour in aqueous sulphuric acid electrolyte investigated. It is found that these compounds, chemisorbed on a gold substrate, undergo reversible electrochemical oxidation/reduction. The anodic and cathodic peak potentials are independent of the acid concentration in the range 1.0 × 10 -2 to 1.0 × 10 -7 M but change linearly with the acid concentration in the range 1-5 M. While this behaviour is similar to that for other ferrocenes like [3](1,1‧) ferrocenophane and [5](1,1‧) ferrocenophane the materials are much more chemically stable in aqueous sulphuric acid media. The presence of thiol group enhances the retainability of the bridged ferrocene while maintaining its chemical stability. The possibility of applying this observation for determining state-of-charge of lead-acid battery is discussed.

  17. Studies of the pulse charge of lead-acid batteries for PV applications. Part II. Impedance of the positive plate revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchev, A.; Delaille, A.; Perrin, M.; Lemaire, E.; Mattera, F.

    In the second part of this publication series, dedicated to the pulse charge of the lead-acid battery, a special attention is paid to the impedance spectrum of the positive plate as a source for estimation of the electrostatic capacitance of the double layer (C dl) on the surface of the positive active mass. The impedance spectra were measured at open circuit for different states of charge (SoC) in H 2SO 4 with specific gravity 1.24 and 1.28 g ml -1. A substantial difference was observed in the impedance spectra of partially charged and partially discharged positive plates keeping the same value of the SOC. The impedance data were subjected to inductance error correction, followed by differential impedance analysis (DIA). Considering the results from DIA, the recently published equivalent circuits of the positive plate in charged and in discharged state and the gel-crystal model of the lead dioxide, we proposed a model of the positive plate in partial state of charge (PSoC). The analysis of the obtained experimental results using this model and DIA show that the double layer capacitance is not frequency distributed. The influence of the state of charge and state of health on the model parameters is discussed. One of the most interesting results is the dependence of C dl on SOC-it features a hysteresis at which the values of C dl during the charge are 5-6 times higher than the corresponding ones during the discharge. This result was discussed in terms of changes in the double layer structure considering the gel-crystal model of the lead dioxide. During the discharge in H 2SO 4 with specific gravity 1.28 g ml -1 a passivation process was detected as a high frequency pseudo-inductive loop in the Nyquist plots in PSoC. The passivation time constant is higher at 50-60% SOC and decreases to zero in the end of the discharge. During the charge in both electrolytes, pseudo-inductive time constant was observed too. It was attributed to the phenomena of the dehydration of Pb

  18. Micro-hybrid electric vehicle application of valve-regulated lead-acid batteries in absorbent glass mat technology: Testing a partial-state-of-charge operation strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaeck, S.; Stoermer, A. O.; Hockgeiger, E.

    The BMW Group has launched two micro-hybrid functions in high volume models in order to contribute to reduction of fuel consumption in modern passenger cars. Both the brake energy regeneration (BER) and the auto-start-stop function (ASSF) are based on the conventional 14 V vehicle electrical system and current series components with only little modifications. An intelligent control algorithm of the alternator enables recuperative charging in braking and coasting phases, known as BER. By switching off the internal combustion engine at a vehicle standstill the idling fuel consumption is effectively reduced by ASSF. By reason of economy and package a lead-acid battery is used as electrochemical energy storage device. The BMW Group assembles valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries in absorbent glass mat (AGM) technology in the micro-hybrid electrical power system since special challenges arise for the batteries. By field data analysis a lower average state-of-charge (SOC) due to partial state-of-charge (PSOC) operation and a higher cycling rate due to BER and ASSF are confirmed in this article. Similar to a design of experiment (DOE) like method we present a long-term lab investigation. Two types of 90 Ah VRLA AGM batteries are operated with a test bench profile that simulates the micro-hybrid vehicle electrical system under varying conditions. The main attention of this lab testing is focused on capacity loss and charge acceptance over cycle life. These effects are put into context with periodically refresh charging the batteries in order to prevent accelerated battery aging due to hard sulfation. We demonstrate the positive effect of refresh chargings concerning preservation of battery charge acceptance. Furthermore, we observe moderate capacity loss over 90 full cycles both at 25 °C and at 3 °C battery temperature.

  19. Characterization of lead (Ⅱ)-containing activated carbon and its excellent performance of extending lead-acid battery cycle life for high-rate partial-state-of-charge operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Pengyang; Zhao, Ruirui; Zhang, Rongbo; Yi, Fenyun; Shi, Guang; Li, Aiju; Chen, Hongyu

    2015-07-01

    In this work, lead (Ⅱ)-containing activated carbon (Pb@C) is prepared as the additive of negative active mass (NAM), aiming to enhance the electrochemical characteristics of the lead-acid battery. The characters of the Pb@C materials and their electrochemical properties are characterized by XRD, SEM, back-scattering electron image (BESI) and electrochemical methods. The lead (Ⅱ) ions disperse well in the carbon bulk of the obtained Pb@C materials as observed, and these materials exhibit remarkable higher specific capacitance and higher hydrogen evolution over-potential compared with original carbons. Many 2 V lead-acid batteries are assembled manually in our lab, and then the batteries are disassembled after formation and high-rate-partial-state-of-charge (HRPSoC) cycling. Results manifest that the Pb@C additives exhibit high affinity to lead and act as a porous-skeleton in the formation process as well as under HRPSoC cycling conditions, leading to the small and fine formation of PbSO4 particles and accordingly higher active material utilization rate more than 50%, better cycling performance and charging acceptance. Besides, excellent cycle performances of these batteries have great relationship with the dazzling hydrogen evolution performance of Pb@C materials. A possible working mechanism is also proposed based on the testing data in this paper.

  20. The impact of drinking water, indoor dust and paint on blood lead levels of children aged 1–5 years in Montréal (Québec, Canada)

    PubMed Central

    Levallois, Patrick; St-Laurent, Julie; Gauvin, Denis; Courteau, Marilène; Prévost, Michèle; Campagna, Céline; Lemieux, France; Nour, Shokoufeh; D'Amour, Monique; Rasmussen, Pat E

    2014-01-01

    Lead is neurotoxic at very low dose and there is a need to better characterize the impact of domestic sources of lead on the biological exposure of young children. A cross-sectional survey evaluated the contribution of drinking water, house dust and paint to blood lead levels (BLLs) of young children living in old boroughs of Montréal (Canada). Three hundred and six children aged 1 to 5 years and currently drinking tap water participated in the study. For each participant, residential lead was measured in kitchen tap water, floor dust, windowsill dust and house paint and a venous blood sample was analyzed. Multivariate logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between elevated BLL in the children (≥ 75th percentile) and indoor lead contamination by means of odds ratios (OR) using 95% confidence intervals (CI). There was an association between BLL ≥75th percentile (1.78 μg/dL) and water lead when the mean water concentration was >3.3 μg/L: adjusted OR=4.7 (95% CI: 2.1–10.2). Windowsill dust loading >14.1 μg/ft2 was also associated with BLL ≥1.78 μg/dL: adjusted OR=3.2 (95% CI: 1.3–7.8). Despite relatively low BLLs, tap water and house dust lead contribute to an increase of BLLs in exposed young children. PMID:23361441

  1. Charged hadron azimuthal anisotropy (v2) in center of mass energy = 2.76 TeV lead-lead collisions from CMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhukova, Victoria

    The azimuthal anisotropy of charged particles is an important feature of the hot and dense medium produced in heavy ion collisions. In non-central nucleus-nucleus collisions, the maximum particle density defines an event plane which is an approximation to the participant plane. The participant plane reflects the direction of the maximum of the pressure gradient set up by the participating nucleons. The initial nuclear overlap region is spatially asymmetric with an “almond-like” shape. This spatial asymmetry is reflected in the momentum distribution of the particles with respect to the event plane. The anisotropy is quantified in terms of a Fourier expansion of the observed particle yields relative to the event-by-event orientation of the participant plane. The second coefficient of the expansion, υ 2, often referred to as “elliptic flow”, carries information on the early collision dynamics when measured in the low-pT domain. A similar signal of a different origin is observed in the high- pT regime and is associated with parton energy loss in the presence of the medium. In this work the azimuthal anisotropy of charged hadrons is determined over an extended transverse momentum (p t) range up to approximately 60 GeV/c in PbPb collisions at sNN = 2.76 TeV, covering both the low-pt region associated with hydrodynamic flow phenomena and the high-pt region, pt > 12 GeV/c, where the anisotropies reflect the path-length dependence of parton energy loss in the created medium.

  2. Lithospheric structure at the leading edge of the North American craton: Imaging the Shield-Cordillera transition in western Canada by teleseismic Rayleigh-wave analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, X.; Eaton, D. W.

    2013-12-01

    The tectonics of southwestern Canada is characterized by a transition from the Mesozoic-Cenozoic Cordilleran orogen to the Archean-Proterozoic craton, making this region an excellent natural laboratory to study episodic growth of continents. Here, we explore regional lithospheric structure using fundamental Rayleigh waves recorded by broadband seismometers from CNSN and various temporary networks (ATSN, CRANE, USArray) from 2006 to the present. Using a two-station cross-correlation technique, we extract phase velocities at periods ranging from 20 s to more than 200 s. Phase velocities for the region west of the deformation front are significantly lower than those of the region to the east, especially at periods of 30-200 s, reflecting strong lateral variations in lithosphere structure due to thermal and compositional differences. Our analysis is particularly focused on characterizing the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) across the transition, and identifying small-scale convection associated with the edge of the craton. Detailed 3-D lithospheric structural models developed in the near feature will shed more new lights on the transition from backarc to craton lithosphere and their geodynamical interactions.

  3. Geochemical constraints on the origin of the Kicking Horse and Monarch Mississippi Valley-type lead-zinc ore deposits, southeast British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandeginste, Veerle; Swennen, Rudy; Gleeson, Sarah A.; Ellam, Rob M.; Osadetz, Kirk; Roure, François

    2007-11-01

    Two Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) ore deposits, Kicking Horse and Monarch, have been studied with the aim of comparing the ores at the two localities and to characterize the origin of the mineralizing fluids and the ore formation process(es). Both deposits are hosted by the Middle Cambrian Cathedral Formation carbonate host rocks, Kicking Horse on the north and Monarch on the south flank of the Kicking Horse valley near Field (SE British Columbia). The ore bodies are situated at the transition of (western) basinal to (eastern) shallow-water strata of the paleo-Pacific passive margin succession in the Cordilleran Foreland Province of the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin. Both deposits are related spatially to normal faults. In both localities, the ore minerals are dominated by pyrite, sphalerite, and galena. Dolomite, minor quartz, and calcite are also present in close association with the ores. The salinity (21-30 wt% NaCl eq.) and homogenization temperatures (63-182°C) measured in fluid inclusions in carbonate, quartz, and sphalerite lie within the typical range of MVT fluid conditions. The good stoichiometry (50-53 mol% CaCO3), low δ18O values (-21 to -14‰ Vienna Peedee belemnite) and relatively high homogenization temperatures (>95°C) of the dolomite suggest the dolomites were formed under burial diagenesis. The ore-forming fluids probably interacted with siliciclastic units, based on elevated Li contents and 87Sr/86Sr ratios, which are highest in the dolomite type after the main ore stage. We propose that the ores formed from the mixing of a downward-infiltrating, sulfur-bearing halite-dissolution fluid with an upward-migrating, metal-rich evaporated seawater fluid, which had already undergone minor mixing with a dilute fluid.

  4. Characterization of Launched Atoms Leading to Observations of Cold Rydberg Atoms in the Field of a Charged Wire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodsell, Anne; Erwin, Emma

    2016-05-01

    We are preparing to accelerate and decelerate cold Rydberg atoms in the field of a charged wire. We cool and launch rubidium atoms and observe the distribution of atoms up to 16 mm above the trap location. We report a transverse speed less than 1/10 of the longitudinal launch speed. For Rydberg-atom observations, the cold cloud will be illuminated in mid-flight to promote atoms into the desired Rydberg state (e.g. n = 33-40). With a three-photon sequence we will access nf states and the nearby manifolds with linear Stark shifts. We observed the first two steps of this process using counter-propagating beams of 780 nm and 776 nm in a Rb cell. For cold Rydberg atoms, we will compare states that are strongly accelerated to states that are strongly decelerated by the field around the charged-wire target. We calculate that the displacement during the Rydberg lifetime (e.g. n = 35, τ = 30 μs) will be 200-300 μm farther for extreme attracted states. Detection will occur by spatially-dependent field ionization. Observations of atoms with zero angular momentum around the wire can be extended to atoms with nonzero angular momentum and also to study dynamics of Rydberg atoms with a quadratic Stark shift, building on previous work with ground-state atoms.

  5. Graphite and fiberglass additives for improving high-rate partial-state-of-charge cycle life of valve-regulated lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valenciano, J.; Sánchez, A.; Trinidad, F.; Hollenkamp, A. F.

    In order to accommodate regenerative braking energy input in hybrid and mild hybrid vehicles while maintaining boosting power at high rates of discharge, valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries must operate permanently at partial-state-of-charge (PSoC) conditions. As a consequence, new failure modes appear, e.g., irreversible sulfation in negative plates, that have to be overcome. In this way, work has been done to apply some solutions like improving charge acceptance in this "sulfated medium". Several batches of 6 V 20 Ah AGM VRLA batteries with spiral cell design have been assembled and tested, each batch containing novel additives in the negative active material (NAM). It has been observed that the addition of a sufficient amount of expanded graphite significantly improves cycle life under PSoC conditions. Moreover, life duration is also extended, although to a lesser extent, by using a novel fiberglass which increases surface area of NAM.

  6. Efficient Carrier Separation and Intriguing Switching of Bound Charges in Inorganic-Organic Lead Halide Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Gee Yeong; Oh, Seol Hee; Nguyen, Bich Phuong; Jo, William; Kim, Byeong Jo; Lee, Dong Geon; Jung, Hyun Suk

    2015-06-18

    We fabricated a mesoporous perovskite solar cell with a ∼14% conversion efficiency, and we investigated its beneficial grain boundary properties of the perovskite solar cells through the use of scanning probe microscopy. The CH3NH3Pb(I0.88,Br0.12)3 showed a significant potential barrier bending at the grain boundary and induced passivation. The potential difference value in the x = 0.00 sample is ∼50 mV, and the distribution of the positive potential is lower than that of the x = 0.12 sample. We also investigated the polarization and hysteretic properties of the perovskite thin films by measuring the local piezoresponse. Specifically, the charged grain boundaries play a beneficial role in electron-hole depairing and in suppressing recombination in order to realize high-efficiency perovskite solar cells. PMID:26266617

  7. Temperature effects on the energy bandgap and conductivity effective masses of charge carriers in lead telluride from first-principles calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatapathi, S.; Dong, B.; Hin, C.

    2014-07-01

    We determined the temperature effects on the electronic properties of lead telluride (PbTe) such as the energy bandgap and the effective masses of charge carriers by incorporating the structural changes of the material with temperature using ab-initio density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Though the first-principles DFT calculations are done at absolute zero temperatures, by incorporating the lattice thermal expansion and the distortion of Pb2+ ions from the equilibrium positions, we could determine the stable structural configuration of the PbTe system at different temperatures.

  8. Temperature effects on the energy bandgap and conductivity effective masses of charge carriers in lead telluride from first-principles calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Venkatapathi, S. Dong, B.; Hin, C.

    2014-07-07

    We determined the temperature effects on the electronic properties of lead telluride (PbTe) such as the energy bandgap and the effective masses of charge carriers by incorporating the structural changes of the material with temperature using ab-initio density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Though the first-principles DFT calculations are done at absolute zero temperatures, by incorporating the lattice thermal expansion and the distortion of Pb{sup 2+} ions from the equilibrium positions, we could determine the stable structural configuration of the PbTe system at different temperatures.

  9. Impedance measurements on lead-acid batteries for state-of-charge, state-of-health and cranking capability prognosis in electric and hybrid electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanke, Holger; Bohlen, Oliver; Buller, Stephan; De Doncker, Rik W.; Fricke, Birger; Hammouche, Abderrezak; Linzen, Dirk; Thele, Marc; Sauer, Dirk Uwe

    Various attempts have been made to use impedance measurements for online analysis and offline modelling of lead-acid batteries. This presentation gives an overview on the latest and successful approaches based on impedance measurements to assess state-of-charge (SoC), state-of-health (SoH) and cranking capability of lead-acid batteries. Furthermore, it is shown that impedance data can serve as a basis for dynamic battery models for the simulation of vehicle power-supply systems. The methods and procedures aim for a reliable prediction of battery performance in electric vehicles, hybrid cars and classical automotive applications. Although, it will become obvious that impedance measurements give valuable information on the battery state, typically the information needs to be combined with other conventional algorithms or self-learning tools to achieve reliable and stable results for real-world applications.

  10. Higher Molecular Weight Leads to Improved Photoresponsivity Charge Transport and Interfacial Ordering in a Narrow Bandgap Semiconducting Polymer

    SciTech Connect

    M Tong; S Cho; J Rogers; K Schmidt; B Hsu; D Moses; R Coffin; E Kramer; G Bazan; A Heeger

    2011-12-31

    Increasing the molecular weight of the low-bandgap semiconducting copolymer, poly[(4,4-didoecyldithieno[3,2-b:2',3'-d]silole)-2,6-diyl-alt-(2,1,3-benzothiadiazole)-4,7-diyl], Si-PDTBT, from 9 kDa to 38 kDa improves both photoresponsivity and charge transport properties dramatically. The photocurrent measured under steady state conditions is 20 times larger in the higher molecular weight polymer (HM{sub n} Si-PDTBT). Different decays of polarization memory in transient photoinduced spectroscopy measurements are consistent with more mobile photoexcitations in HM{sub n} Si-PDTBT relative to the lower molecular weight counterpart (LM{sub n} Si-PDTBT). Analysis of the current-voltage characteristics of field effect transistors reveals an increase in the mobility by a factor of 700 for HM{sub n} Si-PDTBT. Near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy and grazing incidence small angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) measurements demonstrate that LM{sub n} Si-PDTBT forms a disordered morphology throughout the depth of the film, whereas HM{sub n} Si-PDTBT exhibits pronounced {pi}-{pi} stacking in an edge-on configuration near the substrate interface. Increased interchain overlap between polymers in the edge-on configuration in HM{sub n} Si-PDTBT results in the higher carrier mobility. The improved optical response, transport mobility, and interfacial ordering highlight the subtle role that the degree of polymerization plays on the optoelectronic properties of conjugated polymer based organic semiconductors.

  11. Studies of the pulse charge of lead-acid batteries for PV applications. Part III. Electrolyte concentration effects on the electrochemical performance of the positive plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchev, A.; Delaille, A.; Karoui, F.; Perrin, M.; Lemaire, E.; Mattera, F.

    2008-05-01

    In the third part of this work the effects of the sulphuric acid concentration on the positive plate discharge capacity, impedance and oxygen overvoltage are discussed. It has been found that the full discharge capacity of the positive plate is available down to electrolyte concentrations of 3 mol l-1 (s.g. 1.18 g ml-1). At further acid dilution, capacity of the positive plate declines, keeping the utilization of the sulphuric acid about 50%. Decreasing the acid concentration, the oxygen overvoltage decreases with a factor of 12-18 mV M-1, excluding the effect of the equilibrium potential of the oxygen electrode as a function of pH. The capacitance of the electrical double layer decrease linearly with the dilution of the sulphuric acid suggesting strong adsorption effects. This suggestion has been confirmed from the measurements of potential of the zero charge of the positive plate, which increases from 1.11 to 1.34 V vs. Ag/Ag2SO4 in the region 1.11-4.60 M H2SO4. From the measurement of the time constant of the electronic transfer through the gel part of the lead dioxide (Tgel) as a function of the acid concentration and the applied potential, a change in the mechanism of the lead dioxide hydration has been estimated-below 1 M H2SO4Tgel increases sharply, showing sharp increases of the extent of the hydration. The dilution of the electrolyte increases substantially the value of average double layer current in the beginning of the charge. During the pulse overcharge at the employed frequency of 1 Hz, the average double layer current is equal to the pulse amplitude, suggesting that the maximal efficiency of the pulse charge is reached.

  12. Design of acid-lead battery stage-of-charge detection system based on refractive index detection technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Junyao; Yang, Kecheng; Xia, Min; Li, Lei; Zeng, Xianjiang

    2015-10-01

    Based on optical total reflection critical Angle method, we have designed a refractive index measurement system. It adopted a divergent light source and a CCD camera as the occurrence and receiver of the signal. The divergent light source sent out a bunch of tapered beam, exposure to the interface of optical medium and sulfuric acid solution. Light intensity reflected from the interface could be detected by the CCD camera and then sent to the embedded system. In the DSP embedded system, we could obtain the critical edge position through the light intensity distribution curve and converted it to critical angle. Through experiment, we concluded the relation between liquid refractive index and the critical angle edge position. In this system, the detecting precision of the refractive index of sulfuric acid solution reached 10-4. Finally, through the conversion of the refractive index and density, we achieved high accuracy online measurement of electrolyte density in lead-acid battery.

  13. Charge carrier dynamics of methylammonium lead iodide: from PbI₂-rich to low-dimensional broadly emitting perovskites.

    PubMed

    Klein, Johannes R; Flender, Oliver; Scholz, Mirko; Oum, Kawon; Lenzer, Thomas

    2016-04-28

    We provide an investigation of the charge carrier dynamics of the (MAI)(x)(PbI2)(1-x) system in the range x = 0.32-0.90 following the recently published "pseudobinary phase-composition processing diagram" of Song et al. (Chem. Mater., 2015, 27, 4612). The dynamics were studied using ultrafast pump-supercontinuum probe spectroscopy over the pump fluence range 2-50 μJ cm(-2), allowing for a wide variation of the initial carrier density. At high MAI excess (x = 0.90), low-dimensional perovskites (LDPs) are formed, and their luminescence spectra are significantly blue-shifted by ca. 50 nm and broadened compared to the 3D perovskite. The shift is due to quantum confinement effects, and the inhomogeneous broadening arises from different low-dimensional structures (predominantly 2D, but presumably also 1D and 0D). Accurate transient carrier temperatures are extracted from the transient absorption spectra. The regimes of carrier-carrier, carrier-optical phonon and acoustic phonon scattering are clearly distinguished. Perovskites with mole fractions x ≤ 0.71 exhibit extremely fast carrier cooling (ca. 300 fs) at low fluence of 2 μJ cm(-2), however cooling slows down significantly at high fluence of 50 μJ cm(-2) due to the "hot phonon effect" (ca. 2.8 ps). A kinetic analysis of the electron-hole recombination dynamics provides second-order recombination rate constants k2 which decrease from 5.3 to 1.5 × 10(-9) cm(3) s(-1) in the range x = 0.32-0.71. In contrast, recombination in the LDPs (x = 0.90) is more than one order of magnitude faster, 6.4 × 10(-8) cm(3) s(-1), which is related to the confined perovskite structure. Recombination in these LDPs should be however still slow enough for their potential application as efficient broadband emitters or solar light-harvesting materials. PMID:26972104

  14. Comparative Assessment of Soil Contamination by Lead and Heavy Metals in Riparian and Agricultural Areas (Southern Québec, Canada)

    PubMed Central

    Saint-Laurent, Diane; Hähni, Marlies; St-Laurent, Julien; Baril, Francis

    2010-01-01

    Soils contaminated with hydrocarbons (C10–C50), PAHS, lead and other heavy metals were recently found in the banks of two major rivers in southern Québec. Alluvial soils are contaminated over a distance of 100 kilometers. Eight sampling sites, including some located in agriculture areas (farm woodlots) have been selected to compare air pollution (aerosol fallout and rainout) and river pollution values. The concentrations detected in soil profiles for As, Cd and Pb vary between 3.01 to 37.88 mg kg−1 (As), 0.11 to 0.81 mg kg−1 (Cd) 12.32 to 149.13 mg kg−1 (Pb). These metallic elements are considered highly toxic and can harm wildlife and human health at high levels. The maximum concentration of Pb (149.13 mg kg−1) in soils of the riparian zone is twelve times higher than the average Pb concentration found in a natural state evaluated at 15.3 mg kg−1 (SD 17.5). Pb concentrations in soils of agricultural areas (woodland control sites) range between 12 and 22 mg kg−1, and given that these values are recorded in surrounding cultivated land, the issue of the quality of agricultural products (crops and forage) to feed livestock or destined for human consumption must be further addressed in detail. PMID:20948950

  15. Western Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Hay, P.W.; Robertson, D.C.

    1981-10-01

    In 1980, a third successive all-time drilling record was set in western Canada, with 8865 wells being drilled, up 20% since 1979. Exploratory drilling increased 30%, to 3744 wells, and development drilling increased 14%, to 5121 wells. The exploratory success rate increased to 66% in 1980, based on 1017 oil discoveries and 1463 gas discoveries. The development success rate increased marginally to 89%, with 1774 oil discoveries and 2778 gas discoveries. Average well depth increased in all four western provinces, and total land sales reached the record $1 billion mark in Alberta and a record $78 million in Saskatchewan. British Columbia land sales declined slightly to $181 million. Alberta drilling activity continued in the deeper portions of the Alberta basin and foothills, with major gas discoveries at Hanlan, Big Mountain, Blackstone, and Elmworth. Significant oil discoveries were made in the West Pembina Nisku pinnacle reefs, in the Upper Devonian at Del Bonita and Eaglesham, and in the Lower Cretaceous glauconite river channels in southern Alberta between Countess and Grand Forks. British Columbia successes occurred as the Elmworth Deep Basin play spilled over into British Columbia with gas discoveries at Tupper and Steeprock. Gas finds were also made at West Sierra and Murray. The Arctic Islands continued to yield the largest discoveries. Two major successes occurred in the Beaufort Sea, in an oil and gas discovery by Esso at Issungnak and a reentry oil discovery by Dome at Tarsuit. However, 1980 will especially be remembered for the introduction of the federal government's National Energy Program during October, with new taxes on revenue, lower than expected wellhead price increases, and major emphasis on increasing Canadian ownership and self-sufficiency. Industry and provincial government reaction was highly critical, and a major downturn in exploration is expected in western Canada in 1981. 3 figures, 8 tables.

  16. Beneficial effects of activated carbon additives on the performance of negative lead-acid battery electrode for high-rate partial-state-of-charge operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Jiayuan; Ding, Ping; Zhang, Hao; Wu, Xianzhang; Chen, Jian; Yang, Yusheng

    2013-11-01

    Experiments are made with negative electrode of 2 V cell and 12 V lead-acid battery doped with typical activated carbon additives. It turns out that the negative electrode containing tens-of-micron-sized carbon particles in NAM exhibits markedly increased HRPSoC cycle life than the one containing carbon particles with much smaller size of several microns or the one containing no activated carbon. The improved performance is mainly attributed to the optimized NAM microstructure and the enhanced electrode reaction kinetics by introducing appropriate activated carbon. The beneficial effects can be briefly summarized from three aspects. First, activated carbon acts as new porous-skeleton builder to increase the porosity and active surface of NAM, and thus facilitates the electrolyte diffusion from surface to inner and provides more sites for crystallization/dissolution of lead sulfate; second, activated carbon plays the role of electrolyte supplier to provide sufficient H2SO4 in the inner of plate when the diffusion of H2SO4 from plate surface cannot keep pace of the electrode reaction; Third, activated carbon acts as capacitive buffer to absorb excess charge current which would otherwise lead to insufficient NAM conversion and hydrogen evolution.

  17. Formation of Li3O4 nano particles in the discharge products of non-aqueous lithium-oxygen batteries leads to lower charge overvoltage.

    PubMed

    Shi, L; Xu, A; Zhao, T S

    2015-11-28

    Density functional theory calculations are made for bulk thermodynamic properties and surface energies of Li2O2, a primary discharge product, and Li3O4, a possible byproduct in the discharge products, of the non-aqueous lithium-oxygen batteries. Results show that the standard formation Gibbs free energy of bulk Li3O4 is marginally higher than that of Li2O2, but the surface energy of Li3O4 is much lower. Low surface energy results in both lowered nucleation energy and formation Gibbs free energy in the nanometer regime, allowing the Li3O4 nano particles to nucleate ahead of Li2O2 during the discharge process and to exist stably when particle sizes are smaller than about 40 nm. The scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) image of Li3O4 crystals is simulated and compared with the measured STEM image of the discharge product particles. The consistency between the simulated and measured STEM images suggests that the Li3O4 phase can exist stably as a discharge product. The energy profile of the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) occurring on the most abundant surfaces of Li3O4 is also calculated. The predicted overpotential for the OER on the {0001} surface (0.30 V) shows a good agreement with experimental data. The presence of more electronically conductive Li3O4 nano particles in the primary discharge product Li2O2 tends to decrease the charge overvoltage of the batteries, explaining why the lower voltage area (<3.5 V) was widely observed during the charging of the batteries. An increase in the oxygen pressure or a decrease in temperature enhances the stability of the Li3O4 phase and increase the proportion of the Li3O4 phase in the discharge products, consequently leading to a lower overall charge overvoltage. PMID:26486991

  18. Canada's population is aging.

    PubMed

    Verma, Jennifer; Samis, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Canada's population is aging, and the authors of this issue's lead article, Neena Chappell and Marcus Hollander, present a policy prescription for how to design a healthcare system that better responds to needs of older Canadians. The timing of this issue of Healthcare Papers is important: the first of the baby boomers turned 65 in January 2011. There is a pressing need to develop policies and implement sustainable reforms that will allow older adults to stay healthier and maintain their independence longer in their place of choice, while also creating efficiencies and quality improvements in our overall healthcare system that will benefit Canadians of all ages. PMID:21464621

  19. A next-to-leading-order QCD analysis of charged current event rates from (nu)N deep inelastic scattering at the Fermilab Tevatron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldman, Jesse Matthew

    This dissertation details the results of a NLO QCD analysis of overlinenoverline Fe and overlinenoverline Fe scattering at the Fermilab Tevatron. Recently an increasing number of measurements by a variety of experiments have led to a good understanding of the partonic contents of the nucleon. Accurate parameterisations of these contents and the fact that neutrino Deep Inelastic Scattering is an ideal probe of the nucleus allow for a unique understanding of QCD and related phenomena in the kinematic region for which Q2 > 5 GeV 2 and 0.1 < x < 0.7. Perturbative QCD and such non-perturbative effects as the EMC correction, the longitudinal structure function, RL, and higher twist corrections are studied and χ2 comparisons are made with the NuTeV charged current data sample. These comparisons indicate that a NLO perturbative QCD) model combined with the EMC correction and higher twist best agrees with the NuTeV data. Using this resultant model and altering the cuts to include all data for which 0.003 < x < 0.7 leads to a NLO measurement of the strange sea level, κ. Combining this result with the measurement of κ from the NuTeV dimuon analysis leads to limits on the Cabbibo-Kobayashi-Masakawa matrix element, Vcs, which are consistent with currently accepted values.

  20. Development of additives in negative active-material to suppress sulfation during high-rate partial-state-of-charge operation of lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawai, Ken; Funato, Takayuki; Watanabe, Masashi; Wada, Hidetoshi; Nakamura, Kenji; Shiomi, Masaaki; Osumi, Shigeharu

    Additives in the negative active-material of lead-acid batteries were examined to determine whether they could prevent progressive accumulation of lead sulfate (PbSO 4) in negative plates during high-rate partial-state-of-charge (HRPSoC) operation. This phenomenon is caused by progressive growth of PbSO 4 particles and a lack of conductive paths near these PbSO 4 particles. Barium sulfate (BaSO 4) particles in various sizes and synthetic lignin were added to the negative active-material to control PbSO 4 particle size during HRPSoC cycle-life. Some types of carbon fibres were also added to form conductive paths around the PbSO 4 particles. Synthetic lignin was found to be the most effective additive for improving battery life in HRPSoC cycle-life tests, whereas the other factors such as BaSO 4 size or carbon fibre extended less influence. The growth rate of PbSO 4 particles per cycle was much lower in a cell with synthetic lignin than in a cell with natural lignin.

  1. ASA24-Canada-2014

    Cancer.gov

    A Canadian adaptation of the Automated Self-Administered 24-hour (ASA24-Canada-2014) Recall has been developed by the Food Directorate at Health Canada in collaboration with the National Cancer Institute (NCI).

  2. Petrified Campus: The Crisis in Canada's Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bercuson, David; Bothwell, Robert; Granatstein, J. L.

    This book, which examines Canada's university system in the 1990s, is a follow-up to a 1984 book that was critical of Canadian undergraduate education. Educational finance, college admission standards, gender and racial issues, tenure, academic freedom, and scholarly writing and publishing are among the topics discussed. The charges against the…

  3. Measurements of cross-section of charge current inclusive of antineutrino scattering off nucleons using carbon, iron, lead and scintillator at MINER$\

    SciTech Connect

    Rakotondravohitra, Laza

    2015-08-18

    Neutrino physics is one of the most active fields in the domaine of high energy physics during the last century. The need of precise measurement of neutrino-nucleus interactions required by the neutrino oscillation experiments is a an exiting step. These measurements of cross-section are more than essential for neutrino oscillation experiment. Over the year, many measurements from varieties of experiments have been presented. MINERνA is one of the world leaders in measuring cross-section of neutrino and antineutrino -nucleus interactions. MINERνA is a neutrino-nucleus scattering experiment installed in the few-GeV NuMI beam line at Fermilab. In order to study nuclear dependence, MINERνA is endowed with different types of solid nuclear targets as well are liquid targets such as helium and water. This thesis presents measurements of cross-section of antineutrino scattering off nucleons using a variety of solid nuclear targets, carbon, iron, lead and also polystyrene scintillator (CH). The data set of antineutrino used for this analysis was taken between March and July 2010 with a total of 1.60X1020 protons on target. Charged current inclusive interactions were selected by requiring a positive muon and kinematics limitation of acceptance of the muon spectrometer are applied. The analysis requires neutrino energy between 2GeV et 20GeV and the angle of muon θmu < 17degree . The absolute cross-section # as function of neutrino energy and the differential cross-section dσ/ dxbj measured and shown the corresponding systematics for each nuclear targets. Data results are compared with prediction of the models implemented in the neutrino events generators GENIE 2.6.2 used by the experiment.

  4. Influence of expander components on the processes at the negative plates of lead-acid cells on high-rate partial-state-of-charge cycling. Part I: Effect of lignosulfonates and BaSO 4 on the processes of charge and discharge of negative plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlov, D.; Nikolov, P.; Rogachev, T.

    This study investigates the influence of the organic expander component (Vanisperse A) and of BaSO 4 on the performance of negative lead-acid battery plates on high-rate partial-state-of-charge (HRPSoC) cycling. Batteries operating in the HRPSoC mode should be classified as a separate type of lead-acid batteries. Hence, the additives to the negative plates should differ from the conventional expander composition. It has been established that lignosulfonates are adsorbed onto the lead surface and thus impede the charge processes, which results in impaired reversibility of the charge-discharge processes and hence shorter cycle life on HRPSoC operation, limited by sulfation of the negative plates. BaSO 4 exerts the opposite effect: it improves the reversibility of the processes in the HRPSoC mode and hence prolongs the cycle life of the cells. The most pronounced effect of BaSO 4 has been registered when it is added in concentration of 1.0 wt.% versus the leady oxide (LO) used for paste preparation. It has also been established that BaSO 4 lowers the overpotential of PbSO 4 nucleation. The results of the present investigation indicate that BaSO 4 affects also the crystallization process of Pb during cell charging. Thus, BaSO 4 eventually improves the performance characteristics of lead-acid cells on HRPSoC cycling.

  5. Low Exciton-Phonon Coupling, High Charge Carrier Mobilities, and Multiexciton Properties in Two-Dimensional Lead, Silver, Cadmium, and Copper Chalcogenide Nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yuchen; Singh, Vivek; Goodman, Samuel M; Nagpal, Prashant

    2014-12-18

    The development of two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials has revealed novel physical properties, like high carrier mobilities and the tunable coupling of charge carriers with phonons, which can enable wide-ranging applications in optoelectronic and thermoelectric devices. While mechanical exfoliation of graphene and some transition metal dichalcogenides (e.g., MoS2, WSe2) has enabled their fabrication as 2D semiconductors and integration into devices, lack of similar syntheses for other 2D semiconductor materials has hindered further progress. Here, we report measurements of fundamental charge carrier interactions and optoelectronic properties of 2D nanomaterials made from two-monolayers-thick PbX, CdX, Cu2X, and Ag2X (X = S, Se) using colloidal syntheses. Extremely low coupling of charge carriers with phonons (2-6-fold lower than bulk and other low-dimensional semiconductors), high carrier mobilities (0.2-1.2 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1), without dielectric screening), observation of infrared surface plasmons in ultrathin 2D semiconductor nanostructures, strong quantum-confinement, and other multiexcitonic properties (different phonon coupling and photon-to-charge collection efficiencies for band-edge and higher-energy excitons) can pave the way for efficient solution-processed devices made from these 2D nanostructured semiconductors. PMID:26273976

  6. Optoelectronic Studies of Methylammonium Lead Iodide Perovskite Solar Cells with Mesoporous TiO₂: Separation of Electronic and Chemical Charge Storage, Understanding Two Recombination Lifetimes, and the Evolution of Band Offsets during J-V Hysteresis.

    PubMed

    O'Regan, Brian C; Barnes, Piers R F; Li, Xiaoe; Law, Chunhung; Palomares, Emilio; Marin-Beloqui, Jose M

    2015-04-22

    Methylammonium lead iodide (MAPI) cells of the design FTO/sTiO2/mpTiO2/MAPI/Spiro-OMeTAD/Au, where FTO is fluorine-doped tin oxide, sTiO2 indicates solid-TiO2, and mpTiO2 is mesoporous TiO2, are studied using transient photovoltage (TPV), differential capacitance, charge extraction, current interrupt, and chronophotoamperometry. We show that in mpTiO2/MAPI cells there are two kinds of extractable charge stored under operation: a capacitive electronic charge (∼0.2 μC/cm(2)) and another, larger charge (40 μC/cm(2)), possibly related to mobile ions. Transient photovoltage decays are strongly double exponential with two time constants that differ by a factor of ∼5, independent of bias light intensity. The fast decay (∼1 μs at 1 sun) is assigned to the predominant charge recombination pathway in the cell. We examine and reject the possibility that the fast decay is due to ferroelectric relaxation or to the bulk photovoltaic effect. Like many MAPI solar cells, the studied cells show significant J-V hysteresis. Capacitance vs open circuit voltage (V(oc)) data indicate that the hysteresis involves a change in internal potential gradients, likely a shift in band offset at the TiO2/MAPI interface. The TPV results show that the V(oc) hysteresis is not due to a change in recombination rate constant. Calculation of recombination flux at V(oc) suggests that the hysteresis is also not due to an increase in charge separation efficiency and that charge generation is not a function of applied bias. We also show that the J-V hysteresis is not a light driven effect but is caused by exposure to electrical bias, light or dark. PMID:25785843

  7. Study Canada: International Outlook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monahan, Robert L.; And Others

    This self-contained unit of study on Canada is one of a series which can be used to supplement secondary level courses of social studies, contemporary world problems, government, history, and geography. Developed by teachers, the unit focuses on international relations. A comparative approach is used which stresses understanding Canada from…

  8. Canada: Country Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Eagle, Inc., Wellesley, MA.

    A profile of Canada emerges from this collection of black and white illustrative maps, tables, and graphs. Aspects of the country depicted include: geography, population, resources, international trade, government, and energy. Short texts on multiculturalism, the Canadian economy, the country's history, and U.S.-Canada relations also are included.…

  9. Canada and the World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilgour, David

    1998-01-01

    Highlights Canada's high marks in a poll on its international image in 20 countries. Asks how Canada should take advantage of its positive international image. Notes areas where Canadian foreign policy is most admired: advancement of global peace and human rights, provision of aid, and participation in international peacekeeping. (DSK)

  10. Canada's iron creek meteorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spratt, C. E.

    1989-04-01

    An iron mass, of meteoritical origin, found on a hilltop in the southern Canadian prairies, is unique to Canadian scientific history. It is the third largest meteorite to have been found in Canada (at one time it was reported to be Canada's largest single meteorite mass). A brief historical account, and a corrected official weight (145 kilograms), of this interesting meteorite is presented.

  11. Measurement of the centrality dependence of the charged-particle pseudorapidity distribution in proton-lead collisions at √{s_{_ {NN}}} = 5.02 TeV with the ATLAS detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aad, G.; Abajyan, T.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdel Khalek, S.; Abdinov, O.; Aben, R.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; AbouZeid, O. S.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Abulaiti, Y.; Acharya, B. S.; Adamczyk, L.; Adams, D. L.; Addy, T. N.; Adelman, J.; Adomeit, S.; Adye, T.; Agatonovic-Jovin, T.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Agustoni, M.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahmadov, F.; Aielli, G.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimoto, G.; Akimov, A. V.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Alconada Verzini, M. J.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexandre, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alio, L.; Alison, J.; Allbrooke, B. M. M.; Allison, L. J.; Allport, P. P.; Allwood-Spiers, S. E.; Almond, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alon, R.; Alonso, A.; Alonso, F.; Alpigiani, C.; Altheimer, A.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Alviggi, M. G.; Amako, K.; Amaral Coutinho, Y.; Amelung, C.; Ammosov, V. V.; Amor Dos Santos, S. P.; Amorim, A.; Amoroso, S.; Amram, N.; Amundsen, G.; Anastopoulos, C.; Ancu, L. S.; Andari, N.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anders, G.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Anduaga, X. S.; Angelidakis, S.; Anger, P.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anisenkov, A. V.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonaki, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonov, A.; Antos, J.; Anulli, F.; Aoki, M.; Aperio Bella, L.; Apolle, R.; Arabidze, G.; Aracena, I.; Arai, Y.; Arce, A. T. H.; Arguin, J.-F.; Argyropoulos, S.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnal, V.; Arslan, O.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Asai, S.; Asbah, N.; Ask, S.; Åsman, B.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astalos, R.; Atkinson, M.; Atlay, N. B.; Auerbach, B.; Auge, E.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Avolio, G.; Azuelos, G.; Azuma, Y.; Baak, M. A.; Bacci, C.; Bach, A. M.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Backhaus, M.; Backus Mayes, J.; Badescu, E.; Bagiacchi, P.; Bagnaia, P.; Bai, Y.; Bailey, D. C.; Bain, T.; Baines, J. T.; Baker, O. K.; Baker, S.; Balek, P.; Balli, F.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, Sw.; Bangert, A.; Bansal, V.; Bansil, H. S.; Barak, L.; Barber, T.; Barberio, E. L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnett, B. M.; Barnett, R. M.; Baroncelli, A.; Barone, G.; Barr, A. J.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J.; Bartoldus, R.; Barton, A. E.; Bartos, P.; Bartsch, V.; Bassalat, A.; Basye, A.; Bates, R. L.; Batkova, L.; Batley, J. R.; Battistin, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H. S.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P. H.; Beccherle, R.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, H. P.; Becker, K.; Becker, S.; Beckingham, M.; Beddall, A. J.; Beddall, A.; Bedikian, S.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Bee, C. P.; Beemster, L. J.; Beermann, T. A.; Begel, M.; Behr, J. K.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, P. J.; Bell, W. H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellerive, A.; Bellomo, M.; Belloni, A.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Bendtz, K.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benhar Noccioli, E.; Benitez Garcia, J. A.; Benjamin, D. P.; Bensinger, J. R.; Benslama, K.; Bentvelsen, S.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Berglund, E.; Beringer, J.; Bernard, C.; Bernat, P.; Bernius, C.; Bernlochner, F. U.; Berry, T.; Berta, P.; Bertella, C.; Bertolucci, F.; Besana, M. I.; Besjes, G. J.; Bessidskaia Bylund, O.; Besson, N.; Betancourt, C.; Bethke, S.; Bhimji, W.; Bianchi, R. M.; Bianchini, L.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Bieniek, S. P.; Bierwagen, K.; Biesiada, J.; Biglietti, M.; Bilbao De Mendizabal, J.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Black, C. W.; Black, J. E.; Black, K. M.; Blackburn, D.; Blair, R. E.; Blanchard, J.-B.; Blazek, T.; Bloch, I.; Blocker, C.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bobrovnikov, V. S.; Bocchetta, S. S.; Bocci, A.; Boddy, C. R.; Boehler, M.; Boek, J.; Boek, T. T.; Bogaerts, J. A.; Bogdanchikov, A. G.; Bogouch, A.; Bohm, C.; Bohm, J.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Boldyrev, A. S.; Bolnet, N. M.; Bomben, M.; Bona, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Borri, M.; Borroni, S.; Bortfeldt, J.; Bortolotto, V.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Boterenbrood, H.; Boudreau, J.; Bouffard, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E. V.; Boumediene, D.; Bourdarios, C.; Bousson, N.; Boutouil, S.; Boveia, A.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I. R.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Branchini, P.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J. E.; Braun, H. M.; Brazzale, S. F.; Brelier, B.; Brendlinger, K.; Brennan, A. J.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Bristow, K.; Bristow, T. M.; Britton, D.; Brochu, F. M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Bromberg, C.; Bronner, J.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, T.; Brooks, W. K.; Brosamer, J.; Brost, E.; Brown, G.; Brown, J.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P. A.; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.; Brunet, S.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruschi, M.; Bryngemark, L.; Buanes, T.; Buat, Q.; Bucci, F.; Buchholz, P.

    2016-04-01

    The centrality dependence of the mean charged-particle multiplicity as a function of pseudorapidity is measured in approximately 1 μ b^{-1} of proton-lead collisions at a nucleon-nucleon centre-of-mass energy of √{s_{_ {NN}}} = 5.02 {TeV} using the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. Charged particles with absolute pseudorapidity less than 2.7 are reconstructed using the ATLAS pixel detector. The [InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] collision centrality is characterised by the total transverse energy measured in the Pb-going direction of the forward calorimeter. The charged-particle pseudorapidity distributions are found to vary strongly with centrality, with an increasing asymmetry between the proton-going and Pb-going directions as the collisions become more central. Three different estimations of the number of nucleons participating in the [InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] collision have been carried out using the Glauber model as well as two Glauber-Gribov inspired extensions to the Glauber model. Charged-particle multiplicities per participant pair are found to vary differently for these three models, highlighting the importance of including colour fluctuations in nucleon-nucleon collisions in the modelling of the initial state of [InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] collisions.

  12. Measurement of the centrality dependence of the charged-particle pseudorapidity distribution in proton–lead collisions at $$\\sqrt{s_{_\\text {NN}}} = 5.02$$ s NN = 5.02  TeV with the ATLAS detector

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Aad, G.; Abajyan, T.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdel Khalek, S.; Abdinov, O.; Aben, R.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; AbouZeid, O. S.; et al

    2016-04-01

    The centrality dependence of the mean charged-particle multiplicity as a function of pseudorapidity is measured in approximately 1 μb-1 of proton–lead collisions at a nucleon–nucleon centre-of-mass energy ofmore » $$\\sqrt{s_{_\\text {NN}}} = 5.02$$ TeV using the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. Charged particles with absolute pseudorapidity less than 2.7 are reconstructed using the ATLAS pixel detector. The ρ + Ρb collision centrality is characterised by the total transverse energy measured in the Pb-going direction of the forward calorimeter. The charged-particle pseudorapidity distributions are found to vary strongly with centrality, with an increasing asymmetry between the proton-going and Pb-going directions as the collisions become more central. Three different estimations of the number of nucleons participating in the ρ + Ρb collision have been carried out using the Glauber model as well as two Glauber–Gribov inspired extensions to the Glauber model. In conclusion, charged-particle multiplicities per participant pair are found to vary differently for these three models, highlighting the importance of including colour fluctuations in nucleon–nucleon collisions in the modelling of the initial state of ρ + Ρb collisions.« less

  13. Measurement of the centrality dependence of the charged-particle pseudorapidity distribution in proton–lead collisions at $$\\sqrt{s_{_\\text {NN}}} = 5.02$$ TeV with the ATLAS detector

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Aad, G.; Abajyan, T.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdel Khalek, S.; Abdinov, O.; Aben, R.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; AbouZeid, O. S.; et al

    2016-04-01

    The centrality dependence of the mean charged-particle multiplicity as a function of pseudorapidity is measured in approximately 1 μb-1 of proton–lead collisions at a nucleon–nucleon centre-of-mass energy ofmore » $$\\sqrt{s_{_\\text {NN}}} = 5.02$$ TeV using the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. Charged particles with absolute pseudorapidity less than 2.7 are reconstructed using the ATLAS pixel detector. The ρ + Ρb collision centrality is characterised by the total transverse energy measured in the Pb-going direction of the forward calorimeter. The charged-particle pseudorapidity distributions are found to vary strongly with centrality, with an increasing asymmetry between the proton-going and Pb-going directions as the collisions become more central. Three different estimations of the number of nucleons participating in the ρ + Ρb collision have been carried out using the Glauber model as well as two Glauber–Gribov inspired extensions to the Glauber model. In conclusion, charged-particle multiplicities per participant pair are found to vary differently for these three models, highlighting the importance of including colour fluctuations in nucleon–nucleon collisions in the modelling of the initial state of ρ + Ρb collisions.« less

  14. Report from Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Orchard, D.

    1990-06-01

    This report announces Canada's strategies for dealing with smog; a pilot project for reducing smog and ozone through gasoline vapor recovery; setting national targets for curbing carbon dioxide emissions; and the development of a comprehensive air quality policy in Saskatchewan.

  15. Canada thistle phenology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Natural and experimental populations of Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense) were monitored at separate sites in western Minnesota for two and four years, respectively. Both populations responded similarly to environmental cues, except during the establishment year for the experimental population. Other...

  16. Photoconductivity of CdTe Nanocrystal-Based Thin Films. Te2- Ligands Lead To Charge Carrier Diffusion Lengths Over 2 Micrometers

    SciTech Connect

    Crisp, Ryan W.; Callahan, Rebecca; Reid, Obadiah G.; Dolzhnikov, Dmitriy S.; Talapin, Dmitri V.; Rumbles, Garry; Luther, Joseph M.; Kopidakis, Nikos

    2015-11-16

    We report on photoconductivity of films of CdTe nanocrystals (NCs) using time-resolved microwave photoconductivity (TRMC). Spherical and tetrapodal CdTe NCs with tunable size-dependent properties are studied as a function of surface ligand (including inorganic molecular chalcogenide species) and annealing temperature. Relatively high carrier mobility is measured for films of sintered tetrapod NCs (4 cm2/(V s)). Our TRMC findings show that Te2- capped CdTe NCs show a marked improvement in carrier mobility (11 cm2/(V s)), indicating that NC surface termination can be altered to play a crucial role in charge-carrier mobility even after the NC solids are sintered into bulk films.

  17. Photoconductivity of CdTe Nanocrystal-Based Thin Films: Te(2-) Ligands Lead To Charge Carrier Diffusion Lengths Over 2 μm.

    PubMed

    Crisp, Ryan W; Callahan, Rebecca; Reid, Obadiah G; Dolzhnikov, Dmitriy S; Talapin, Dmitri V; Rumbles, Garry; Luther, Joseph M; Kopidakis, Nikos

    2015-12-01

    We report on photoconductivity of films of CdTe nanocrystals (NCs) using time-resolved microwave photoconductivity (TRMC). Spherical and tetrapodal CdTe NCs with tunable size-dependent properties are studied as a function of surface ligand (including inorganic molecular chalcogenide species) and annealing temperature. Relatively high carrier mobility is measured for films of sintered tetrapod NCs (4 cm(2)/(V s)). Our TRMC findings show that Te(2-) capped CdTe NCs show a marked improvement in carrier mobility (11 cm(2)/(V s)), indicating that NC surface termination can be altered to play a crucial role in charge-carrier mobility even after the NC solids are sintered into bulk films. PMID:26571095

  18. The lateral distributions of charged particles of energy greater than 0.3 E sub crit in electron-photon cascades in lead and air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krys, E.; Wasilewski, A.

    1985-01-01

    In recent investigations, both theoretical and experimental, the agreement between cascade theory and experimental data is pointed out. The radial distributions obtained from the Monte Carlo simulation are compared ith the results of the analytical theory for all particles in cascades. The data on the mean radius of electron lateral distribution in air are compared with those in lead.

  19. Oligothiophene/graphene supramolecular ensembles managing light induced processes: preparation, characterization, and femtosecond transient absorption studies leading to charge-separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stergiou, A.; Gobeze, H. B.; Petsalakis, I. D.; Zhao, S.; Shinohara, H.; D'Souza, F.; Tagmatarchis, N.

    2015-09-01

    Advances in organic synthetic chemistry combined with the exceptional electronic properties of carbon allotropes, particularly graphene, is the basis used to design and fabricate novel electron donor-acceptor ensembles with desired properties for technological applications. Thiophene-based materials, which are mainly thiophene-containing polymers, are known for their notable electronic properties. In this frame moving from polymer to oligomer forms, new fundamental information would help for a better understanding of their electrochemical and photophysical properties. Furthermore, a successful combination of their electronic properties with those of graphene is a challenging goal. In this study, two oligothiophene compounds, which consist of three and nine thiophene-rings and are abbreviated 3T and 9T, respectively, were synthesized and noncovalently associated with liquid phase exfoliated few-layered graphene sheets (abbreviated eG), thus forming donor-acceptor 3T/eG and 9T/eG nanoensembes. Markedly, intra-ensemble electronic interactions between the two components in the ground and excited states were evaluated with the aid of UV-Vis and photoluminescence spectroscopy. Furthermore, redox assays revealed the one-electron oxidation of 3T accompanied by one-electron reduction due to eG in 3T/eG, whereas there were two reversible one-electron oxidations of 9T accompanied by one-electron reduction of eG9T/eG. The electrochemical band gap for the 3T/eG and 9T/eG ensembles were calculated and verified, in which the negative free-energy change for the charge-separated state of 3T/eG and 9T/eGvia the singlet excited state of 3T and 9T, respectively, were thermodynamically favorable. Finally, the results of transient pump-probe spectroscopy studies at the femtosecond time scale were supportive of charge transfer type interactions in the 3T/eG and 9T/eG ensembles. The estimated rates for intra-ensemble charge separation were found to be 9.52 × 109 s-1 and 2.2 × 1011 s-1

  20. Oligothiophene/graphene supramolecular ensembles managing light induced processes: preparation, characterization, and femtosecond transient absorption studies leading to charge-separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stergiou, A.; Gobeze, H. B.; Petsalakis, I. D.; Zhao, S.; Shinohara, H.; D'Souza, F.; Tagmatarchis, N.

    2015-09-01

    Advances in organic synthetic chemistry combined with the exceptional electronic properties of carbon allotropes, particularly graphene, is the basis used to design and fabricate novel electron donor-acceptor ensembles with desired properties for technological applications. Thiophene-based materials, which are mainly thiophene-containing polymers, are known for their notable electronic properties. In this frame moving from polymer to oligomer forms, new fundamental information would help for a better understanding of their electrochemical and photophysical properties. Furthermore, a successful combination of their electronic properties with those of graphene is a challenging goal. In this study, two oligothiophene compounds, which consist of three and nine thiophene-rings and are abbreviated 3T and 9T, respectively, were synthesized and noncovalently associated with liquid phase exfoliated few-layered graphene sheets (abbreviated eG), thus forming donor-acceptor 3T/eG and 9T/eG nanoensembes. Markedly, intra-ensemble electronic interactions between the two components in the ground and excited states were evaluated with the aid of UV-Vis and photoluminescence spectroscopy. Furthermore, redox assays revealed the one-electron oxidation of 3T accompanied by one-electron reduction due to eG in 3T/eG, whereas there were two reversible one-electron oxidations of 9T accompanied by one-electron reduction of eG9T/eG. The electrochemical band gap for the 3T/eG and 9T/eG ensembles were calculated and verified, in which the negative free-energy change for the charge-separated state of 3T/eG and 9T/eGvia the singlet excited state of 3T and 9T, respectively, were thermodynamically favorable. Finally, the results of transient pump-probe spectroscopy studies at the femtosecond time scale were supportive of charge transfer type interactions in the 3T/eG and 9T/eG ensembles. The estimated rates for intra-ensemble charge separation were found to be 9.52 × 109 s-1 and 2.2 × 1011 s-1

  1. A compact electric potential sensor array for the acquisition and reconstruction of the 7-lead electrocardiogram without electrical charge contact with the skin.

    PubMed

    Harland, C J; Clark, T D; Peters, N S; Everitt, M J; Stiffell, P B

    2005-12-01

    Conventional electrocardiogram (ECG) systems make use of separate electrical connections to the arms and legs. These use a 'long baseline' for the voltage reference potential which in the case of precordial ECG leads is provided using a Wilson central terminal (WCT) wiring configuration. The aims of this project were (a) to construct compact, non-invasive surface ECG sensor arrays which would operate without the need for a WCT reference, (b) to obtain high quality precordial ECGs showing fine differences in ECG detail between small adjacent areas of the chest and (c) to reconstruct, from a compact array of four sensors, ECGs which closely match to the conventional 7-lead ECG system, but without the need for multiple wires and long baselines. In this paper, we describe two sensor array configurations which have been constructed using electric potential sensors (EPSs). We show high quality precordial ECGs obtained from small areas of the surface of the chest and show the different angular vectors (leads) in the frontal cardiac plane constructed using signals from the array elements. We suggest that these ECG arrays, which are simple to apply, should prove to be a valuable tool in providing useful information about the state of the heart. PMID:16311443

  2. Uranium in Canada: A billion dollar industry

    SciTech Connect

    Ruzicka, V. )

    1989-12-01

    In 1988, Canada maintained its position as the world's leading producer of uranium with an output of more than 12,400 MT of uranium in concentrates, worth $1.1 billion Canadian. As domestic requirements represent only 15% of current Canadian production, most of the output was exported. With current implementation of the Canada/US Free Trade Agreement, the US has become Canada's major uranium export customer. With a large share of the world's known uranium resources, Canada remains the focus of international uranium exploration activity. In 1988, the uranium exploration expenditures in Canada exceeded $58 million Canadian. The principal exploration targets were deposits associated with Proterozoic unconformities in Saskatchewan and Northwest Territories, particularly those in the Athabasca and Thelon basin regions of the Canadian Shield. Major attention was also paid to polymetallic deposits in which uranium is associated with precious metals, such as gold and platinum group elements. Conceptual genetic models for these deposit types represent useful tools to guide exploration.

  3. Study of electrochemically active carbon, Ga2O3 and Bi2O3 as negative additives for valve-regulated lead-acid batteries working under high-rate, partial-state-of-charge conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Li; Chen, Baishuang; Wu, Jinzhu; Wang, Dianlong

    2014-02-01

    Electrochemically active carbon (EAC), Gallium (III) oxide (Ga2O3) and Bismuth (III) oxide (Bi2O3) are used as the negative additives of valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries to prolong the cycle life of VRLA batteries under high-rate partial-state-of-charge (HRPSoC) conditions, and their effects on the cycle life of VRLA batteries are investigated. It is found that the addition of EAC in negative active material can restrain the sulfation of the negative plates and prolong the cycle performance of VRLA batteries under HRPSoC conditions. It is also observed that the addition of Ga2O3 or Bi2O3 in EAC can effectively increase the overpotential of hydrogen evolution on EAC electrodes, and decrease the evolution rate of hydrogen. An appropriate addition amount of Ga2O3 or Bi2O3 in the negative plates of VRLA batteries can decrease the cut-off charging voltage, increase the cut-off discharging voltage, and prolong the cycle life of VRLA batteries under HRPSoC conditions. The battery added with 0.5% EAC and 0.01% Ga2O3 in negative active material shows a lowest cut-off charging voltage and a highest cut-off discharging voltage under HRPSoC conditions, and its' cycle life reaches about 8100 cycles which is at least three times longer than that without Ga2O3.

  4. Next-to-leading order QCD effects in associated charged Higgs and W boson production in the MSSM at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Gao Jun; Li Chongsheng; Li Zhao

    2008-01-01

    We present the calculations of the next-to-leading order (NLO) QCD corrections to the inclusive total cross sections for the associated production of the W{sup {+-}}H{sup {+-}} through bb annihilation in the minimal supersymmetric standard model at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. The NLO QCD corrections can either enhance or reduce the total cross sections, but they generally efficiently reduce the dependence of the total cross sections on the renormalization/factorization scale. The magnitude of the NLO QCD corrections is about 10% in most of the parameter space and can reach 15% in some parameter regions. We also show the Monte Carlo simulation results for the 2j+{tau}{sub jet}+pe{sub T} signature from the W{sup {+-}} and the H{sup {+-}} decays including the NLO QCD effects, and find an observable signal at a 5{sigma} level in some parameter region of the minimal supergravity model.

  5. Philosophical Differences. The Open-mindedness of Publicly Funded Catholic Schools in Canada Challenges American Preconceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCloskey, Patrick J.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author reports how the open-mindedness of publicly-funded Catholic schools in Canada has challenged American preconceptions on funding of parochial schools. In Canada, parochial education has been publicly funded since 1867. On the other hand, parochial schools in America must charge tuition fees and engage in extensive fund…

  6. Up From Suffrage: Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikulaninec, John S.

    Influences on the political and economic status of women in Canada between World Wars I and II are discussed, with emphasis on the struggle to enfranchise women on the provincial level, legislative precedents, and the relationship between educational achievement and economic opportunity. Data are derived from historical accounts; trade union…

  7. Canada's Indians. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, James

    Over a half million people in Canada today are identifiably of Native ancestry, legally categorized as Inuit (Eskimos), status Indians, or nonstatus Indians. Status Indians comprise 573 bands with total membership of about 300,000 people, most of whom live on 2,242 reserves. They are the direct responsibility of the federal government and have…

  8. University Study in Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada, Ottawa (Ontario). International Programmes Div.

    These notes for overseas students intending to attend university in Canada contain information on admission requirements and application and registration procedures. A sample budget for a 1967-68 undergraduate as well as a discussion of medical and other insurance are included in the summary of possible financial expenditures. Although there are…

  9. Canada in Space.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Paz, Shoshana

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the history of the Canadian Space Agency. Explains that Canada's space program grew out of the need to manage resources and communicate over large distances. Reports that the small Canadian space industry is growing rapidly. Describes Canadian cooperation in international space programs. Identifies space careers and examines the future…

  10. Child Care in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Kathy

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author describes early learning and care arrangements in Canada and how the country faced the challenges in the development of a National Child Care System. While the provincial/territorial governments are responsible for early learning and care, the federal government has formed health and social programs including some child…

  11. In Canada: Friendly Fire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Heather-jane

    2004-01-01

    One of Canada's more frequently quoted political malapropisms is attributed to Robert Thompson, who sternly reminded his fellow parliamentarians in 1973 that "the Americans are our best friends, whether we like it or not." This cross-border friendship is partly expedient, partly geographic, partly genuine, sometimes one-sided, and almost always…

  12. Profiling Canada's Families II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanier Inst. of the Family, Ottawa (Ontario).

    Noting that Canadians have witnessed profound demographic, economic, social, cultural, and technological changes over the last century and the need for sound demographic information for future planning, this report is the second to identify significant trends affecting Canada's families. Following an introductory section providing relevant…

  13. Update on Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hochstadt, John Webster

    1994-01-01

    Gift planning is increasing in Canada's colleges and universities to offset effects of retrenchment. New annuity vehicles and the emergence of university Crown Foundations offer tax breaks that support private giving to institutions. In addition, a simplified process for gifts is anticipated. (MSE)

  14. Influenza in Canada geese.

    PubMed

    Winkler, W G; Trainer, D O; Easterday, B C

    1972-01-01

    The role of wild avian species in the natural history of influenza is unknown. A serological study was carried out to ascertain the prevalence, distribution, and types of influenza antibody in several wild Canada goose populations. Geese were trapped and blood samples were obtained in each of 4 consecutive years, 1966-69. Antibody to influenzavirus was found in 66 (4.7%) of the 1 401 Canada geese tested by the haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test. Antiribonucleoprotein antibody was found in 8 of 1 359 sera tested by the agar gel precipitation (AGP) test. An increase in the percentage of reactors was seen each year. This increase was greater in two refuges with nonmigratory flocks. HI antibody was found against the turkey/Wisconsin/66, turkey/Wisconsin/68, turkey/Canada/63, and turkey/Alberta/6962/66, or closely related viruses. No antibody was found against duck/Ukraine/1/63 or human A/Hong Kong/68 virus at a time when the latter was prevalent in human populations, suggesting that Canada geese played no direct role in spreading the virus.Canada geese were experimentally exposed to turkey/Wisconsin/66 and turkey/Wisconsin/68 viruses; mallard ducks were exposed to turkey/Wisconsin/66 virus. HI antibody developed in 75% of the geese and 40% of the ducks but was generally short-lived. Anti-RNP antibody was detected in 15% of the exposed geese but in none of the ducks. Virus was recovered from 3 of 10 adult ducks but not from geese. None of the birds showed signs of disease. PMID:4541003

  15. Where Will LEAD Lead?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wildman, Louis

    After setting forth eight assumptions concerning the education of educational administrators, findings about the Leadership in Educational Administration Development (LEAD) program are discussed. The analysis is based on the first-year applications, telephone conversations with staff at a majority of the project sites, and additional material…

  16. Canada's physical activity guides: background, process, and development.

    PubMed

    Sharratt, Michael T; Hearst, William E

    2007-01-01

    This historical background paper chronicles the major events leading to the development of Canada's physical activity guides (for children, youth, adults, and older adults). The paper outlines the process and the steps used, including information (where applicable) regarding national partners, project administration, Health Canada communications, product development, endorsement, distribution and implementation, collateral activities, media relations and evaluation framework. Brief summaries of the science that led to the recommended guidelines are included. The paper also summarizes the various physical activity guide assessment and evaluation projects and their findings, particularly as they relate to research carried out on Canada's physical activity guides for children and youth (and the associated support resources). PMID:18213939

  17. [Physical activity guidelines in Canada: context, process and development].

    PubMed

    Sharratt, Michael T; Hearst, William E

    2007-01-01

    This historical background paper chronicles the major events leading to the development of Canada's physical activity guides (for children, youth, adults, and older adults). The paper outlines the process and the steps used, including information (where applicable) regarding national partners, project administration, Health Canada communications, product development, endorsement, distribution and implementation, collateral activities, media relations and evaluation framework. Brief summaries of the science that led to the recommended guidelines are included. The paper also summarizes the various physical activity guide assessment and evaluation projects and their findings, particularly as they relate to research carried out on Canada's physical activity guides for children and youth (and the associated support resources). PMID:19377535

  18. LEADING WITH LEADING INDICATORS

    SciTech Connect

    PREVETTE, S.S.

    2005-01-27

    This paper documents Fluor Hanford's use of Leading Indicators, management leadership, and statistical methodology in order to improve safe performance of work. By applying these methods, Fluor Hanford achieved a significant reduction in injury rates in 2003 and 2004, and the improvement continues today. The integration of data, leadership, and teamwork pays off with improved safety performance and credibility with the customer. The use of Statistical Process Control, Pareto Charts, and Systems Thinking and their effect on management decisions and employee involvement are discussed. Included are practical examples of choosing leading indicators. A statistically based color coded dashboard presentation system methodology is provided. These tools, management theories and methods, coupled with involved leadership and employee efforts, directly led to significant improvements in worker safety and health, and environmental protection and restoration at one of the nation's largest nuclear cleanup sites.

  19. Focus: immigration to Canada.

    PubMed

    Hiebert, D

    1994-01-01

    This is a special section containing four articles on aspects of immigration in Canada. The first article, by Daniel Hiebert, examines current migration policy at both federal and regional levels and the impact of these policies on the distribution of immigrants and on regional inequalities. The second article, by Alan Nash, looks at the incompatibility between regulations pertaining to business and refugee migration. The final two papers look at the specifics of acculturation among Italian and Caribbean immigrants in Toronto. PMID:12320209

  20. Transnational surrogacy: Canada's contradictions.

    PubMed

    Lozanski, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    Transnational commercial surrogacy represents a form of medical tourism undertaken by intended parents who seek to hire women in other countries, increasingly often in the global South, as surrogates. While much of the scholarly literature focuses on the conditions of surrogacy within host countries, such as India, there has been limited analysis of transnational surrogacy focused upon origin countries. In this article, I build upon the scholarship that explores the impact of host country structures on transnational surrogacy, with special attention to the significance of Canadian citizenship policy through analysis of legislation and policy vis-à-vis transnational commercial surrogacy. The Canadian case demonstrates clear contradictions between the legislation and policy that is enacted domestically to prohibit commercial surrogacy within Canada and legislation and policy that implicitly sanctions commercial surrogacy through the straightforward provision of citizenship for children born of such arrangements abroad. The ethical underpinnings of Canada's domestic prohibition of commercial surrogacy, which is presumed to exploit women and children and to impede gender equality, are violated in Canada's bureaucratic willingness to accept children born of transnational commercial surrogacy as citizens. Thus, the ethical discourses apply only to Canadian citizens within Canadian geography. The failure of the Canadian government to hold Canadian citizens who participate in transnational commercial surrogacy to the normative imperatives that prohibit the practice within the country, or to undertake a more nuanced, and necessarily controversial, discussion of commercial surrogacy reinforces transnational disparities in terms of whose bodies may be commodified as a measure of gendered inequality. PMID:25308235

  1. Millennials: Leading the Charge for Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emeagwali, N. Susan

    2011-01-01

    No conversation about student leadership would be complete without a closer look at the population of students who sit in classrooms today, their traits and hopes for the future, to determine what kind of leaders they are likely to make. They are in fact the Millennials--born between 1982 and perhaps 2004. And the Millennials, also known as the…

  2. Lead Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... Experiments Stories Lessons Topics Games Activities Lessons MENU Lead Poisoning Kids Homepage Topics Pollution Lead Poisoning What is ... you can avoid contact with it! Sources of Lead Poisoning HOUSE PAINTS: Before1950, lead-based paint was used ...

  3. Lead Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... to determine lead sources, educating family members about lead poisoning , and instituting follow-up testing to monitor the ... high levels of lead, see the article on Lead Poisoning . The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has ...

  4. Lead Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Lead Poisoning What is it and who is affected? Lead is a highly toxic substance, exposure to which ... and children can suffer from the effects of lead poisoning, but childhood lead poisoning is much more frequent. ...

  5. Canada Basin revealed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mosher, David C.; Shimeld, John; Hutchinson, Deborah R.; Chian, D; Lebedeva-Ivanova, Nina; Jackson, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    More than 15,000 line-km of new regional seismic reflection and refraction data in the western Arctic Ocean provide insights into the tectonic and sedimentologic history of Canada Basin, permitting development of new geologic understanding in one of Earth's last frontiers. These new data support a rotational opening model for southern Canada Basin. There is a central basement ridge possibly representing an extinct spreading center with oceanic crustal velocities and blocky basement morphology characteristic of spreading centre crust surrounding this ridge. Basement elevation is lower in the south, mostly due to sediment loading subsidence. The sedimentary succession is thickest in the southern Beaufort Sea region, reaching more than 15 km, and generally thins to the north and west. In the north, grabens and half-grabens are indicative of extension. Alpha-Mendeleev Ridge is a large igneous province in northern Amerasia Basin, presumably emplaced synchronously with basin formation. It overprints most of northern Canada Basin structure. The seafloor and sedimentary succession of Canada Basin is remarkably flat-lying in its central region, with little bathymetric change over most of its extent. Reflections that correlate over 100s of kms comprise most of the succession and on-lap bathymetric and basement highs. They are interpreted as representing deposits from unconfined turbidity current flows. Sediment distribution patterns reflect changing source directions during the basin’s history. Initially, probably late Cretaceous to Paleocene synrift sediments sourced from the Alaska and Mackenzie-Beaufort margins. This unit shows a progressive series of onlap unconformities with a younging trend towards Alpha and Northwind ridges, likely a response to contemporaneous subsidence. Sediment source direction appeared to shift to the Canadian Arctic Archipelago margin for the Eocene and Oligocene, likely due to uplift of Arctic islands during the Eurekan Orogeny. The final

  6. Manicouagin Reservoir of Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Recorded by the Space Shuttle Atlantis STS-110 mission, this is a photograph of the ice- covered Manicouagin Reservoir located in the Canadian Shield of Quebec Province in Eastern Canada, partially obscured by low clouds. This reservoir marks the site of an impact crater, 60 miles (100 kilometers) wide, which according to geologists was formed 212 million years ago when a meteorite crashed into this area. Over millions of years, the crater has been worn down by glaciers and other erosional processes. The Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis, STS-110 mission, was launched April 8, 2002 and returned to Earth April 19, 2002.

  7. Assisted Dying in Canada.

    PubMed

    Schuklenk, Udo

    2014-01-01

    This paper makes an affirmative ethical case in favour of the decriminalization of assisted dying in Canada. It then proceeds to defending the affirmative case against various slippery-slope arguments that are typically deployed by opponents of assisted dying. Finally, a recent case of questionable professional conduct by anti-euthanasia campaigners cum academics is flagged as a warning to all of us not to permit the quality of the professional debate to deteriorate unacceptably, despite the personal emotional investments involved on all sides of the debate. PMID:26871530

  8. Canada's largest mining scheme

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-05-01

    A large coal mining development in Canada's British Columbia, is opening up the wilderness in the northeastern part of that province. North East Coal Development, two open-pit mines operated by Quintette Coal Ltd., and Teck Corporation, both Vancouver-based mining companies, has started to ship to a group of Japanese steel companies 6,500,000 tons annually of metallurgical and additional quantities of thermal coal. To open this wilderness, some 80 miles southwest of Dawson Creek, and to develop the two surface mines, processing plants, and associated facilities involved several massive multimillion-dollar projects. These projects are discussed.

  9. Canada: irrational energy policies

    SciTech Connect

    Paehlke, R.C.

    1982-09-01

    Despite energy shortages, recent weeks have seen the collapse or at least postponement of three major energy projects in Canada: the Cold Lake (Alberta) heavy oil plant, the Alsands oil sands plant, and the Alaska Highway natural gas pipeline. All have fallen victim to the combination of high interest rates and increasing doubts that oil prices will continue to rise at an annual rate of five percent in real terms. Current energy problems and policies are discussed including decline of oil reserves, expanded domestic use and export of Canadian natural gas, expansion of the nuclear energy program, demand for electricity, and energy conservation. (JMT)

  10. Women Physicists in Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Predoi-Cross, Adriana; Austin, Roby; Bhadra, Sampa; McKenna, Janis; Xu, Li-Hong; Steinitz, Michael

    2009-04-01

    In recent years the overall climate for women in academia in Canada has improved. Efforts are being made to attract girls to science at a young age. The enrollment of women across undergraduate and graduate programs in the physical sciences has increased gradually in the past decade, with a sharp increase at the graduate level. In light of a large number of upcoming retirements in academic positions, the presence of women in academia will continue to grow, supported by efforts to ensure equity in academia made by government agencies, academic institutions, and faculty associations.

  11. Lead toxicity: a review

    PubMed Central

    Ara, Anjum; Usmani, Jawed Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Lead toxicity is an important environmental disease and its effects on the human body are devastating. There is almost no function in the human body which is not affected by lead toxicity. Though in countries like US and Canada the use of lead has been controlled up to a certain extent, it is still used vehemently in the developing countries. This is primarily because lead bears unique physical and chemical properties that make it suitable for a large number of applications for which humans have exploited its benefits from historical times and thus it has become a common environmental pollutant. Lead is highly persistent in the environment and because of its continuous use its levels rise in almost every country, posing serious threats. This article reviews the works listed in the literature with recent updates regarding the toxicity of lead. Focus is also on toxic effects of lead on the renal, reproductive and nervous system. Finally the techniques available for treating lead toxicity are presented with some recent updates. PMID:27486361

  12. Canada's east coast play

    SciTech Connect

    Doig, I.M.

    1984-02-01

    The intent of this paper is to give a basic overview presentation on Canada's east coast play - most likely the number one offshore play in the free world - and possibly the world. The play stretches 2,500 miles north and south, as it follows the Labrador Coast, past the Strait of Belle Isle and onto the Grand Banks of Newfoundland and as it makes a 90 degree turn, 1,000 miles east to west along the coast of Nova Scotia to the Georges Bank. 3,500 miles in all - which if placed in western Canada, would stretch from northern Alberta to southern Mexico. It's geologic potential is immense - 15-20 billion barrels of oil and 80-90 Tcf of natural gas. And so far only approximately 2 billion barrels of oil and 5 Tcf of natural gas have been found. There is more out there. And less than 200 wells have been drilled - still very virgin territory. Two world size discoveries have been made in the area. Hibernia, on the Grand Banks, is estimated to contain 1.8 billion barrels. Venture, on the Scotian Shelf, has a natural gas reserve of 2.5 Tcf - big by Canadian standards and significant in that Mobil Oil has also made some other interesting discoveries on the same Sable Island block which have not been delineated.

  13. Seasonal ingestion of toxic and nontoxic shot by Canada geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeStefano, S.; Brand, C.J.; Samuel, M.D.

    1995-01-01

    We used rates of ingested shot and elevated blood-lead levels (≥0.18 ppm) to estimate the proportion of Canada geese (Branta canadensis) exposed to lead on 3 study areas in Manitoba, Minnesota, and Missouri. Lead exposure was prevalent on all areas and was common after the hunting season closed, when up to 15% of geese could have been exposed to lead shot. However, the proportion of steel shot ingested by geese has increased during the past 2 decades. We suggest that lead exposure is still a source of indirect hunting mortality in Canada geese but project that the prevalence of lead exposure in the Eastern Prairie Population and other waterfowl populations will decrease as nontoxic shot regulations persist and hunters use steel or other nontoxic shot.

  14. Farming. Canada at Work Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, Ann; Drake, Jane

    This book is part of the Canada At Work series that introduces children to the people, machines, work and environmental concerns involved in bringing to market the products from important Canadian natural resources. This volume features a year-round look at two kinds of agriculture in Canada. On the vegetable farm, children find out about spring…

  15. Education in Canada: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunning, Paula

    This reference book provides a basic understanding of how education works in Canada, from preschool to adult education. Chapter 1 examines Canada's elementary and secondary schools and covers: (1) decision making for public schools (roles and responsibilities of provincial, local, and federal governments); (2) paying for public education (revenue…

  16. OECD Economic Surveys: Canada 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2012

    2012-01-01

    Canada weathered the global economic crisis well, mainly reflecting sustained growth in domestic pending, and the economy is continuing to grow despite the persistence of international turbulence, most recently stemming from the euro zone sovereign debt crisis. In Canada's case, several factors are acting in its favour. Federal fiscal plans are…

  17. Q Fever Update, Maritime Canada

    PubMed Central

    Marrie, Thomas J.; Campbell, Nancy; McNeil, Shelly A.; Webster, Duncan

    2008-01-01

    Since the 1990s, reports of Q fever in Nova Scotia, Canada, have declined. Passive surveillance for Q fever in Nova Scotia and its neighboring provinces in eastern Canada indicates that the clinical manifestation of Q fever in the Maritime provinces is pneumonia and that incidence of the disease may fluctuate. PMID:18258080

  18. In Canada, Business Schools Lead Push for Globalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewington, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    At Canadian universities, business schools are light-years ahead of the rest of the campus in raising their global profile. Intensive foreign-student-recruitment efforts, friendly Canadian immigration rules, mandatory study-abroad requirements, and, in some cases, the option to pursue programs in multiple languages have combined to pack a punch in…

  19. Lead Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Lead is a metal that occurs naturally in the earth's crust. Lead can be found in all parts of our ... from human activities such as mining and manufacturing. Lead used to be in paint; older houses may ...

  20. Lead poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... swallows a lead object or breathes in lead dust, some of the poison can stay in the ... a health problem. Lead is everywhere, including dirt, dust, new toys, and old house paint. Unfortunately, you ...

  1. Lead Toxicity

    MedlinePlus

    ... homes. • Most people, especially children, who suffer from lead poisoning are exposed through lead-contaminated household dust or ... and six if they are at risk of lead poisoning (see: ). Who can I call to get more ...

  2. Radiation Protection in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Brown, John R.; Jarvis, Anita A.

    1964-01-01

    A recent survey was carried out with respect to radiobiological and radiological health projects in Canada. Letters of inquiry, followed by two questionnaires, were sent out to every institution where radiation research was likely to have been undertaken. Approximately 75% of those contacted replied. Of the total of 200 studies, 84% were classified as biological and medical studies, the remaining 16% as environmental radiation studies. Responses to the inquiry stressed the inadequacy of the present governmental budget for radiation research, the need for higher salaries for research workers, and the necessity of a more intensive teaching program for technicians and professional personnel. The granting of longer-term grants, rather than annually renewable grants, is urged. PMID:14226104

  3. Belcher Islands, Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Belcher Islands are an archipelago in Hudson Bay in Canada, belonging to the territory of Nunavit. The hamlet of Sanikiluaq is on the north coast of Flaherty Island. Over 1500 islands make up the archipelago. The folded sedimentary and volcanic rocks making up the islands are Proterozoic in age between 0.5 and 2.5 billion years old.

    The image mosaic was acquired 18 September 2006, covers an area of 45.7 x 113.3 km, and is located near 56.1 degrees north latitude, 79.4 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  4. Gambling households in Canada.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Martha; McMullan, John L; Perrier, David C

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the distribution of gambling dollars in Nova Scotia, Saskatchewan and Canada and studies the impact of this spending on households. We focus first on how gambling expenditures are related to the level and source of household income as well as to other demographic characteristics such as age, education, household composition, geographical area, and sources of income. Next we analyze how gambling expenditures are distributed among those households that gamble. We show how expenditure patterns differ in the intensity of gambling as measured by the proportion of household income or total amount of dollars spent on gambling. Then we study the affects that gambling has on spending on household necessities, changes in net worth, retirement savings and household debt. Finally we determine whether gambling expenditures act as a substitute or a complement to other recreational spending on entertainment products and services. Throughout the paper we offer a comparative analysis of provincial and national data. PMID:15353922

  5. Mackenzie River Delta, Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The Mackenzie River in the Northwest Territories, Canada, with its headstreams the Peace and Finley, is the longest river in North America at 4241 km, and drains an area of 1,805,000 square km. The large marshy delta provides habitat for migrating Snow Geese, Tundra Swans, Brant, and other waterfowl. The estuary is a calving area for Beluga whales. The Mackenzie (previously the Disappointment River) was named after Alexander Mackenzie who travelled the river while trying to reach the Pacific in 1789.

    The image was acquired on August 4, 2005, covers an area of 55.8 x 55.8 km, and is located at 68.6 degrees north latitude, 134.7 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  6. Immigration and Language Policy and Planning in Quebec and Canada: Language Learning and Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrick, Maeve; Donovan, Paula

    2010-01-01

    The connections between immigration and language policy and planning in Quebec and Canada are long established. With the continuing upward trajectory in levels of immigration to Canada and Quebec the linguistic integration of these new arrivals remains an important topic. In recent years, Asia has overtaken Europe as the leading source of…

  7. THE CANADIAN PERSPECTIVE ON CORROSION CONTROL: HEALTH CANADA'S CORROSION CONTROL GUIDELINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Health Canada has proposed a Corrosion Control Guideline, based on lead, which is undergoing public consultation and expected to be finalized in 2007. In Canada, there are no regulations and little guidance to address corrosion problems and existing sampling methods are inappropr...

  8. Canada: Health system review.

    PubMed

    Marchildon, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    Canada is a high-income country with a population of 33 million people. Its economic performance has been solid despite the recession that began in 2008. Life expectancy in Canada continues to rise and is high compared with most OECD countries; however, infant and maternal mortality rates tend to be worse than in countries such as Australia, France and Sweden. About 70% of total health expenditure comes from the general tax revenues of the federal, provincial and territorial governments. Most public revenues for health are used to provide universal medicare (medically necessary hospital and physician services that are free at the point of service for residents) and to subsidise the costs of outpatient prescription drugs and long-term care. Health care costs continue to grow at a faster rate than the economy and government revenue, largely driven by spending on prescription drugs. In the last five years, however, growth rates in pharmaceutical spending have been matched by hospital spending and overtaken by physician spending, mainly due to increased provider remuneration. The governance, organization and delivery of health services is highly decentralized, with the provinces and territories responsible for administering medicare and planning health services. In the last ten years there have been no major pan-Canadian health reform initiatives but individual provinces and territories have focused on reorganizing or fine tuning their regional health systems and improving the quality, timeliness and patient experience of primary, acute and chronic care. The medicare system has been effective in providing Canadians with financial protection against hospital and physician costs. However, the narrow scope of services covered under medicare has produced important gaps in coverage and equitable access may be a challenge in these areas. PMID:23628429

  9. Mineral resource of the month: lead

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guberman, David

    2004-01-01

    The United States is a major producer and consumer of refined lead, representing almost one quarter of total world production and consumption. Two mines in Alaska and six in Missouri accounted for 97 percent of domestic lead production in 2002. The United States also imports enough refined lead to satisfy almost 20 percent of domestic consumption. Other major producers or consumers of refined lead in the world are Australia, Canada, China, France, Germany, Italy, Japan and the United Kingdom.

  10. Closed windows, open doors: geopolitics and post-1949 mainland Chinese immigration to Canada.

    PubMed

    Liu X-f; Norcliffe, G

    1996-01-01

    "Since 1949 there have been dramatic changes in the flow of migrants from Mainland China to Canada.... Even though Canada in theory opened a window for family reunification in the postwar era by removing long-standing discriminatory clauses blocking Chinese immigration, in practice cold war geopolitics led the Chinese to shut that window, blocking nearly all emigration. Changing geopolitical circumstances led China to develop an open-door policy between 1973 and 1989, leading to increasing flows of migrants to Canada. The political response in Canada to the Tiananmen Square massacre of 1989 was to allow all Chinese students and workers in Canada to stay, if they so wished.... The result was a large inflow making MCIs [mainland Chinese immigrants] the third-largest group of immigrants to Canada in the early 1990s." (EXCERPT) PMID:12292965

  11. Closed windows, open doors: geopolitics and post-1949 Mainland Chinese immigration to Canada.

    PubMed

    Liu X-f; Norcliffe, G

    1996-01-01

    "Since 1949 there have been dramatic changes in the flow of migrants from Mainland China to Canada, which existing structural models of migration, emphasizing factors in the destination country, do not fully capture. Conditions in the country of origin, and geopolitical relationships between China and Canada, played a decisive role in this migration.... Changing geopolitical circumstances led China to develop an open-door policy between 1973 and 1989, leading to increasing flows of migrants to Canada. The political response in Canada to the Tiananmen Square massacre of 1989 was to allow all Chinese students and workers in Canada to stay, if they so wished.... The result was a large inflow making MCIS the third-largest group of immigrants to Canada in the early 1990s." (EXCERPT) PMID:12292966

  12. Lead Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... our environment. Much of it comes from human activities such as mining and manufacturing. Lead used to be in paint; older houses may still have lead paint. You could be exposed to lead by Eating food or drinking water that contains lead. Water pipes in older homes ...

  13. Lead poisoning

    SciTech Connect

    Rekus, J.F.

    1992-08-01

    Construction workers who weld, cut or blast structural steel coated with lead-based paint are at significant risk of lead poisoning. Although technology to control these exposures may not have existed when the lead standard was promulgated, it is available today. Employers who do not take steps to protect their employees from lead exposure may be cited and fined severely for their failure.

  14. CHARGE IMBALANCE

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, John

    1980-09-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the theory of charge imbalance, and to discuss its relevance to a number of experimental situations. We introduce the concepts of quasiparticle charge and charge imbalance, and discuss the generation and detection of charge imbalance by tunneling. We describe the relaxation of the injected charge imbalance by inelastic scattering processes, and show how the Boltzmann equation can be solved to obtain the steady state quasiparticle distribution and the charge relaxation rate. Details are given of experiments to measure charge imbalance and the charge relaxation rate when inelastic scattering is the predominant relaxation mechanism. Experiments on and theories of other charge relaxation mechanisms are discussed, namely relaxation via elastic scattering in the presence of energy gap anisotropy, or in the presence of a pair breaking mechanism such as magnetic impurities or an applied supercurrent or magnetic field. We describe three other situations in which charge imbalance occurs, namely the resistance of the NS interface, phase slip centers, and the flow of a supercurrent in the presence of a temperature gradient.

  15. Quick charge battery

    SciTech Connect

    Parise, R.J.

    1998-07-01

    Electric and hybrid electric vehicles (EVs and HEVs) will become a significant reality in the near future of the automotive industry. Both types of vehicles will need a means to store energy on board. For the present, the method of choice would be lead-acid batteries, with the HEV having auxiliary power supplied by a small internal combustion engine. One of the main drawbacks to lead-acid batteries is internal heat generation as a natural consequence of the charging process as well as resistance losses. This limits the re-charging rate to the battery pack for an EV which has a range of about 80 miles. A quick turnaround on recharge is needed but not yet possible. One of the limiting factors is the heat buildup. For the HEV the auxiliary power unit provides a continuous charge to the battery pack. Therefore heat generation in the lead-acid battery is a constant problem that must be addressed. Presented here is a battery that is capable of quick charging, the Quick Charge Battery with Thermal Management. This is an electrochemical battery, typically a lead-acid battery, without the inherent thermal management problems that have been present in the past. The battery can be used in an all-electric vehicle, a hybrid-electric vehicle or an internal combustion engine vehicle, as well as in other applications that utilize secondary batteries. This is not restricted to only lead-acid batteries. The concept and technology are flexible enough to use in any secondary battery application where thermal management of the battery must be addressed, especially during charging. Any battery with temperature constraints can benefit from this advancement in the state of the art of battery manufacturing. This can also include nickel-cadmium, metal-air, nickel hydroxide, zinc-chloride or any other type of battery whose performance is affected by the temperature control of the interior as well as the exterior of the battery.

  16. Internal Charging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minow, Joseph I.

    2014-01-01

    (1) High energy (>100keV) electrons penetrate spacecraft walls and accumulate in dielectrics or isolated conductors; (2) Threat environment is energetic electrons with sufficient flux to charge circuit boards, cable insulation, and ungrounded metal faster than charge can dissipate; (3) Accumulating charge density generates electric fields in excess of material breakdown strenght resulting in electrostatic discharge; and (4) System impact is material damage, discharge currents inside of spacecraft Faraday cage on or near critical circuitry, and RF noise.

  17. A Plan to Appreciate Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, R. Yorke

    1971-01-01

    A plan is suggested for establishing a chain of ecology-wildlife interpretation centers throughout Canada emphasizing regional interpretation of the landscape. Wye Marsh Wildlife Center, Midland, Ontario, is described in detail. (BL)

  18. The Canada Goose (Branta canadensis)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Deusen, Roswell D.

    1973-01-01

    Study of Canada Goose in schools can provide opportunities for many activities such as poetry writing, art, ecosystems, and outdoor education. Provides some background information about these birds. (PS)

  19. Lead poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... lead is still found in some modern faucets. Soil contaminated by decades of car exhaust or years ... house paint scrapings. Lead is more common in soil near highways and houses. Hobbies involving soldering, stained ...

  20. Charging machine

    DOEpatents

    Medlin, John B.

    1976-05-25

    A charging machine for loading fuel slugs into the process tubes of a nuclear reactor includes a tubular housing connected to the process tube, a charging trough connected to the other end of the tubular housing, a device for loading the charging trough with a group of fuel slugs, means for equalizing the coolant pressure in the charging trough with the pressure in the process tubes, means for pushing the group of fuel slugs into the process tube and a latch and a seal engaging the last object in the group of fuel slugs to prevent the fuel slugs from being ejected from the process tube when the pusher is removed and to prevent pressure liquid from entering the charging machine.

  1. Lead Pencils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, L. B.

    1971-01-01

    A study, undertaken to determine the lead content of paint on various pencils in the Goddard supply system, is reported. The survey found that lead content varied from .04 mg per pencil for carmine colored pencils to approximately 43 mg per pencil for yellow colored pencils. Results also show that yellow pencils had higher lead content than other colors analyzed. More detailed results are given in tabular form.

  2. Battery-Charge-State Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vivian, H. C.

    1985-01-01

    Charge-state model for lead/acid batteries proposed as part of effort to make equivalent of fuel gage for battery-powered vehicles. Models based on equations that approximate observable characteristics of battery electrochemistry. Uses linear equations, easier to simulate on computer, and gives smooth transitions between charge, discharge, and recuperation.

  3. Transient elastography in Canada: Current state and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Aljawad, Mohammed; Sirpal, Sanjeev; Yoshida, Eric M; Chandok, Natasha

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Transient elastography (TE) is a safe and effective technology to noninvasively assess hepatic fibrosis in patients with numerous liver conditions. TE is not readily available to all Canadians, and data regarding how this technology is incorporated into clinical practice are lacking. OBJECTIVE: To describe TE practices in Canada, and to identify strategies to optimize access and usage. METHODS: All Canadian centres with TE devices were invited to complete a survey after obtaining purchasing data from the national distributor of the device. Descriptive statistics were generated. RESULTS: Forty-two devices were available in Canada as of January 2015. Seventy-one percent are used in academic settings, 74% are hospital based and 26% are in private clinics. The test is performed by trained nurses in 48% of centres, physicians in 19%, technicians in 9.5% and by any member of the health care team in 19%. Nineteen percent of centres provide satellite clinics to perform the test. While the majority of the centres perform the test at no additional cost to patients, 29% charge a variable fee. CONCLUSION: In Canada, most TE devices are used in academic and/or hospital-based settings, thus limiting access to this technology to many patients. A sizeable minority of centres mandate patients pay variable out-of-pocket fees. Satellite clinics offered by some centres could increase access, but are not widespread. The lack of uniformity with TE practices in Canada suggests that a national policy is needed. PMID:26069895

  4. Canada deserves a national health system.

    PubMed

    Noseworthy, T W

    1997-01-01

    A defining--some would say peculiar--feature about Canada and Canadians is the strong position that we give social programs within our national identity. FORUM presents an essay by Dr. Thomas Noseworthy based on an address to the annual meeting of the Association of Canadian Medical Colleges in April 1996. In it, Dr. Noseworthy calls for a national health system. He sees the federal government retaining an important role in preserving medicare and, in fact, strengthening its powers in maintaining national consistency and standards. Dr. Noseworthy's views are contrary to the governmental decentralization and devolution of powers occurring across the country. In a "point/counterpoint" exchange on this issue, we have invited commentaries from three experts. Raisa Deber leads off by noting that while a national health system may be desirable, constitutional provisions would be an obstacle. Governments, says Deber, have an inherent conflict of interest between their responsibility for maintaining the health care system and their desire to shift costs. Michael Rachlis reminds us that medicare fulfills important economic as well as social objectives. It helps to support Canada's business competitiveness among other nations. The problem, say Rachlis, is that public financing of health care does not ensure an efficient delivery system. Michael Walker offers some reality orientation. He observes that Canada's health care system is based upon ten public insurance schemes with widely different attributes. While he supports a minimum standard of health care across the country, citizens should be able to purchase private medical insurance and have access to a parallel private health care delivery system. Ultimately, this debate is about who should control social programs: the provinces or the federal government? We'll let you, the readers, decide. PMID:10167074

  5. Leading Democratically

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookfield, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Democracy is the most venerated of American ideas, the one for which wars are fought and people die. So most people would probably agree that leaders should be able to lead well in a democratic society. Yet, genuinely democratic leadership is a relative rarity. Leading democratically means viewing leadership as a function or process, rather than…

  6. Decadal variability of Arctic sea ice in the Canada Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connor, L. N.

    2015-12-01

    A series of spring Arctic flight campaigns surveying a region over the Canada Basin, from 2006 to 2015, has resulted in unique observations that reveal new details of sea ice leads and freeboard evolution, during a decade of significant interannual variability in the Arctic ice cover. The series began in 2006 with a joint NASA/NOAA airborne altimetry campaign over a 1300 km survey line northwest of the Canadian Archipelago extending into the northern Beaufort Sea. Operation IceBridge (OIB) took up this flight line again in 2009 and repeated it annually through 2012. Additional observations have been collected along a 1000+ km flight line, in the southern Canada Basin and eastern Beaufort Sea, between 2009 and 2015. Here we examine laser altimetry, snow radar data, and high-resolution visible imagery to better understand the frequency and distribution of leads and ice floes, the characteristics of first- and multi-year ice types in the survey region, and their impact on the derivation and accuracy of sea ice freeboard. We demonstrate a novel lead detection methodology that depends only upon laser altimeter measurements, and we quantify the impact of low lead frequencies on estimates of instantaneous sea surface height. The analysis reveals a variable springtime freeboard north of 78° N, significantly reduced after 2006, and a notable lead outbreak over the Canada Basin during 2010.

  7. Modes of continental decretion in western Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, F. A.

    2010-12-01

    Between the Archean Slave Province and the Pacific Ocean, the North American continent in Canada appears to have ‘grown’ westward during Paleoproterozoic (Wopmay) and Paleozoic-Mesozoic (Cordilleran) orogenesis. However, results from geological observations combined with regional geophysical surveys lead to interpretations in which pre-orogenic basement in both the Wopmay and the Cordillera projects far beneath proposed ‘accreted’ terranes. In the Wopmay orogen (1.89-1.84 Ga), deep geophysical images indicate that Archean Slave basement projects in the subsurface up to 50 km west of the Medial zone (formerly Wopmay fault), a boundary that was previously interpreted as the transition from Slave basement to accreted terrane basement. The Slave basement appears as a west-tapering tectonic wedge into accreted(?) rocks, consistent with an interpretation by Hildebrand and Bowring (Geology, 1999) that the Archean lithosphere that was formerly west of the wedge broke off and was recycled. In the Cordillera, cross sections of the lithosphere illustrate that lower crustal and upper mantle rocks as much as 2/3 of the distance across the orogen can be stratigraphically, geologically and seismically correlated to the ancient cratonic margin. Retrodeformation of rocks that were deposited on or adjacent to the craton leads to the conclusion that, prior to the onset of terrane accretion, the North American margin and associated rocks projected even farther west (today’s coordinates) - at least as far as the modern margin. Apparently, as flakes of terranes were added to the surface in the western regions of the Cordillera, the North American lithosphere, which may have been foreshortened during contraction, was tectonically and/or thermally eroded from below. As a result, terrane accretion in the Cordillera apparently resulted in a net decretion of continental lithosphere. Together, these observations lead to the interpretation that the processes responsible for

  8. Sustainable health care for Canada.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, J; Angus, D; Albert, T

    1995-01-01

    Sustainable Health Care For Canada is a synthesis of the research findings of the Cost-Effectiveness of the Canadian Health Care System Project initiated by the Economic Council of Canada. Upon the council's closing, the team moved to become part of the Queen's-University of Ottawa Economic Projects to complete the research. During the project, 18 working papers were produced, in addition to the research report and the synthesis report. In this article, the authors provide an overview of this large-scale research program and highlight some of its key findings. PMID:10140965

  9. Leaders Leading and Learning (Part 1)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannay, Lynne M.; Manning, Michael; Earl, Sandra; Blair, Don

    2006-01-01

    Internationally, large scale reform is big business and yet relatively little is known about the senior administrators who manage and lead local educational reform implementation. In this first of a two-part article, the authors focus on the role of senior administrators in facilitating large-scale reform in one Ontario, Canada school district…

  10. Lead-free piezoceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Yasuyoshi; Takao, Hisaaki; Tani, Toshihiko; Nonoyama, Tatsuhiko; Takatori, Kazumasa; Homma, Takahiko; Nagaya, Toshiatsu; Nakamura, Masaya

    2004-11-01

    Lead has recently been expelled from many commercial applications and materials (for example, from solder, glass and pottery glaze) owing to concerns regarding its toxicity. Lead zirconium titanate (PZT) ceramics are high-performance piezoelectric materials, which are widely used in sensors, actuators and other electronic devices; they contain more than 60 weight per cent lead. Although there has been a concerted effort to develop lead-free piezoelectric ceramics, no effective alternative to PZT has yet been found. Here we report a lead-free piezoelectric ceramic with an electric-field-induced strain comparable to typical actuator-grade PZT. We achieved this through the combination of the discovery of a morphotropic phase boundary in an alkaline niobate-based perovskite solid solution, and the development of a processing route leading to highly <001> textured polycrystals. The ceramic exhibits a piezoelectric constant d33 (the induced charge per unit force applied in the same direction) of above 300picocoulombs per newton (pCN-1), and texturing the material leads to a peak d33 of 416pCN-1. The textured material also exhibits temperature-independent field-induced strain characteristics.

  11. Ultrafast Photoinduced Charge Separation Leading to High-Energy Radical Ion-Pairs in Directly Linked Corrole-C60 and Triphenylamine-Corrole-C60 Donor-Acceptor Conjugates.

    PubMed

    Sudhakar, Kolanu; Gokulnath, Sabapathi; Giribabu, Lingamallu; Lim, Gary N; Trâm, Tạ; D'Souza, Francis

    2015-12-01

    Closely positioned donor-acceptor pairs facilitate electron- and energy-transfer events, relevant to light energy conversion. Here, a triad system TPACor-C60 , possessing a free-base corrole as central unit that linked the energy donor triphenylamine (TPA) at the meso position and an electron acceptor fullerene (C60) at the β-pyrrole position was newly synthesized, as were the component dyads TPA-Cor and Cor-C60. Spectroscopic, electrochemical, and DFT studies confirmed the molecular integrity and existence of a moderate level of intramolecular interactions between the components. Steady-state fluorescence studies showed efficient energy transfer from (1) TPA* to the corrole and subsequent electron transfer from (1) corrole* to fullerene. Further studies involving femtosecond and nanosecond laser flash photolysis confirmed electron transfer to be the quenching mechanism of corrole emission, in which the electron-transfer products, the corrole radical cation (Cor(⋅+) in Cor-C60 and TPA-Cor(⋅+) in TPACor-C60) and fullerene radical anion (C60(⋅-)), could be spectrally characterized. Owing to the close proximity of the donor and acceptor entities in the dyad and triad, the rate of charge separation, kCS , was found to be about 10(11)  s(-1), suggesting the occurrence of an ultrafast charge-separation process. Interestingly, although an order of magnitude slower than kCS , the rate of charge recombination, kCR , was also found to be rapid (kCR ≈10(10)  s(-1)), and both processes followed the solvent polarity trend DMF>benzonitrile>THF>toluene. The charge-separated species relaxed directly to the ground state in polar solvents while in toluene, formation of (3) corrole* was observed, thus implying that the energy of the charge-separated state in a nonpolar solvent is higher than the energy of (3) corrole* being about 1.52 eV. That is, ultrafast formation of a high-energy charge-separated state in toluene has been achieved in these closely spaced corrole

  12. Canada's Highly Qualified Manpower Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, A. G.; And Others

    The purpose of this report is to assemble basic statistics on highly qualified manpower resources in Canada, especially focusing on scientists and engineers, for the development of policies and research in this field. The economic background contributing to the growth of the white-collar and professional labor force is discussed, and the roles of…

  13. Registration of 'Homestead' Canada Wildrye

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Homestead’ ( PI 655522) Canada wildrye (Elymus canadensis L.) was developed cooperatively by USDA-ARS and the University of Nebraska and was released in 2008 for use in the Great Plains and the Midwest USA. It was developed using the Ecotype Selection Breeding System from a collection made in a r...

  14. The Inuit (Eskimo) of Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creery, Ian

    This report examines the history of the colonization of Arctic Canada and the efforts of its 25,000 Inuit residents to decolonize themselves. Initial sections outline the origins and early history of the Inuit; characteristics of Inuit culture, family life, and spirituality; the effects of whaling and the fur trade; and the movement of the Inuit…

  15. Canada's Crisis in Advanced Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Canadian Community Colleges, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The key to economic and social development lies in the knowledge and skill base of human capital. This report, presented to the House of Commons Standing Committee on Finance, calls for vigorous action on the part of the Government of Canada, in concert with the provinces and territories, to protect the Canadian economy from a skills shortage…

  16. Teaching Composition Theory in Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Roger

    1995-01-01

    Describes one teacher's experience of teaching composition theory on the graduate level at a Canadian university. Explains that there are only two rhetoric and composition programs in Canada and that, generally, Canadian universities have been slow to make the transition from neocolonialism to postcolonialism. (TB)

  17. Financing Higher Education in Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada, Ottawa (Ontario).

    It is the purpose of the committee responsible for this document to study, report, and make recommendations on the financing of universities and colleges of Canada, with particular reference to the decade ending 1975, including: (1) prospective financial requirements of universities and colleges, for operation, research, physical facilities and…

  18. The Metis: Canada's Forgotten People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sealey, D. Bruce; Lussier, Antoine S.

    The Metis appeared early on the pages of Canada's history, were a major determinant in the westward expansion of the nation, and are still a significant segment of modern Canadian society. This book (1) traces their origin and their slow evolution to nationhood; (2) examines the Golden Age; (3) describes the battles won and lost with the nation of…

  19. Canadian Post-Secondary Education: A Positive Record--An Uncertain Future. Report on Learning in Canada 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canadian Council on Learning, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This report aims to inform Canadians on the extent to which Canada's post-secondary education sector is contributing to Canadians' social and economic objectives, its ability to respond to a fast-changing global environment, and how Canada's approach to higher education compares with other leading developed countries. Analysis of currently…

  20. The ecotoxicology of lead shot and lead fishing weights.

    PubMed

    Scheuhammer, A M; Norris, S L

    1996-10-01

    : Lead shot ingestion is the primary source of elevated lead exposure and poisoning in waterfowl and most other bird species. For some species (e.g. Common Loons, Gavia immer), lead sinker ingestion is a more frequent cause of lead poisoning. In freshwater environments where recreational angling activity and loon populations co-occur, lead poisoning from ingestion of small (<50 gram) lead sinkers or jigs accounts for 10-50% of recorded adult loon mortality, depending on the locations studied. Lead shot ingestion occurs in waterfowl, and in a wide variety of non-waterfowl species, including upland game birds, shorebirds, raptors, and scavengers. Where it has been explicitly studied in Canada and the US, lead poisoning mortality of bald (Haliacetus leucocephalus) and golden eagles (Aquila chrysactos) from eating prey animals with lead shot embedded in their tissues accounts for an estimated 10-15% of the recorded post-fledging mortality in these raptorial species. In addition to environments that experience hunting with lead shot, clay target shooting ranges, especially those in which the shotfall zones include ponds, marshes, lakes, rivers, beaches, or other aquatic-type environments, create a significant risk of shot ingestion and poisoning for waterbirds. Metallic lead pellets deposited onto soils and aquatic sediments are not chemically or environmentally inert, although tens or hundreds of years may be required for total breakdown and dissolution of pellets. Functional, affordable non-toxic alternatives to lead shot and sinkers are being currently produced, and additional such products are being developed. Several countries have successfully banned the use of small lead sinkers, and of lead shot for waterfowl and other hunting, also for clay target shooting, using a phasing-out process that gives manufactures, sellers, and users adequate time to adjust to the regulations. PMID:24193869

  1. 75 FR 30097 - Notice and Request for Comments: Canada-Compliance With Softwood Lumber Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-28

    ... Agreement, 74 FR 16,436 (April 10, 2009) (notice); 74 FR 17,276 (April 14, 2009) (annex). B. Canada's Steps... percent ad valorem export charge on softwood lumber shipments from Ontario, Quebec, Manitoba, and... softwood lumber products subject to the SLA from the provinces of Ontario, Quebec, Manitoba,...

  2. Control of transformer losses in Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Wiegand, D.A.

    1994-12-31

    A new standard issued by the Canadian Standards Association, CSA C802, imposes maximum losses on transformers 10 MVA and below. Included are Distribution Transformers, small Power Transformers, and Dry Types. Implementation will start though the publishing in mid 1994 of the Gazette by Ontario`s Ministry of Energy. The Gazette will call for conformance to C802 after a lead time of one year to eighteen months, depending on the type of transformer. Other provincial energy ministries have been awaiting this development and are expected to follow suit shortly thereafter. The federal department, Natural Resources Canada, is also attuned to these actions and is expected to issue supportive legislation which will control movement of transformers across provincial and national borders.

  3. Ecotoxicology: Lead

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scheuhammer, A.M.; Beyer, W.N.; Schmitt, C.J.

    2008-01-01

    Lead (Pb) is a naturally occurring metallic element; trace concentrations are found in all environmental media and in all living things. However, certain human activities, especially base metal mining and smelting; combustion of leaded gasoline; the use of Pb in hunting, target shooting, and recreational angling; the use of Pb-based paints; and the uncontrolled disposal of Pb-containing products such as old vehicle batteries and electronic devices have resulted in increased environmental levels of Pb, and have created risks for Pb exposure and toxicity in invertebrates, fish, and wildlife in some ecosystems.

  4. Tetraethyl lead

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Tetraethyl lead ; CASRN 78 - 00 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  5. Charge transport in nanoscale junctions.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Tim; Kornyshev, Alexei; Bjørnholm, Thomas

    2008-09-01

    the molecular level. Nanoscale charge transport experiments in ionic liquids extend the field to high temperatures and to systems with intriguing interfacial potential distributions. Other directions may include dye-sensitized solar cells, new sensor applications and diagnostic tools for the study of surface-bound single molecules. Another motivation for this special issue is thus to highlight activities across different research communities with nanoscale charge transport as a common denominator. This special issue gathers 27 articles by scientists from the United States, Germany, the UK, Denmark, Russia, France, Israel, Canada, Australia, Sweden, Switzerland, the Netherlands, Belgium and Singapore; it gives us a flavour of the current state-of-the-art of this diverse research area. While based on contributions from many renowned groups and institutions, it obviously cannot claim to represent all groups active in this very broad area. Moreover, a number of world-leading groups were unable to take part in this project within the allocated time limit. Nevertheless, we regard the current selection of papers to be representative enough for the reader to draw their own conclusions about the current status of the field. Each paper is original and has its own merit, as all papers in Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter special issues are subjected to the same scrutiny as regular contributions. The Guest Editors have deliberately not defined the specific subjects covered in this issue. These came out logically from the development of this area, for example: 'Traditional' solid state nanojunctions based on adsorbed layers, oxide films or nanowires sandwiched between two electrodes: effects of molecular structure (aromaticity, anchoring groups), symmetry, orientation, dynamics (noise patterns) and current-induced heating. Various 'physical effects': inelastic tunnelling and Coulomb blockade, polaron effects, switching modes, and negative differential resistance; the role of

  6. Triboelectric and plasma charging of microparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heijmans, L. C. J.; Nijdam, S.

    2016-06-01

    The charge on two sets of 100 μm polystyrene particles has been measured using their acceleration in an externally applied electric field. This allows for the measurement of the individual charge on multiple particles at the same time. It is found that particles will charge each other both positively and negatively due to the triboelectric effect. This leads to a broad particle-charge distribution with positive, negative and neutral particles. The particle charge can be largely removed by applying a plasma over the particle containing surface. After plasma charge removal, the particles are triboelectrically recharged when they come into contact with other materials.

  7. Charge Storage, Conductivity and Charge Profiles of Insulators as Related to Spacecraft Charging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennison, J. R.; Swaminathan, Prasanna; Frederickson, A. R.

    2004-01-01

    Dissipation of charges built up near the surface of insulators due to space environment interaction is central to understanding spacecraft charging. Conductivity of insulating materials is key to determine how accumulated charge will distribute across the spacecraft and how rapidly charge imbalance will dissipate. To understand these processes requires knowledge of how charge is deposited within the insulator, the mechanisms for charge trapping and charge transport within the insulator, and how the profile of trapped charge affects the transport and emission of charges from insulators. One must consider generation of mobile electrons and holes, their trapping, thermal de-trapping, mobility and recombination. Conductivity is more appropriately measured for spacecraft charging applications as the "decay" of charge deposited on the surface of an insulator, rather than by flow of current across two electrodes around the sample. We have found that conductivity determined from charge storage decay methods is 102 to 104 smaller than values obtained from classical ASTM and IEC methods for a variety of thin film insulating samples. For typical spacecraft charging conditions, classical conductivity predicts decay times on the order of minutes to hours (less than typical orbit periods); however, the higher charge storage conductivities predict decay times on the order of weeks to months leading to accumulation of charge with subsequent orbits. We found experimental evidence that penetration profiles of radiation and light are exceedingly important, and that internal electric fields due to charge profiles and high-field conduction by trapped electrons must be considered for space applications. We have also studied whether the decay constants depend on incident voltage and flux or on internal charge distributions and electric fields; light-activated discharge of surface charge to distinguish among differing charge trapping centers; and radiation-induced conductivity. Our

  8. Women in physics in Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Li-Hong; Ghose, Shohini; Milner-Bolotin, Marina; McKenna, Janis; Bhadra, Sampa; Predoi-Cross, Adriana; Dasgupta, Arundhati; Campbell, Melanie; Barkanova, Svetlana; Steinitz, Michael

    2015-12-01

    While the overall climate for women physicists both in academia and industry has improved significantly over the past decade in Canada, it will be some time before women are well represented. Numbers of women in physics at all academic levels have increased, but are less than ideal at the full professor level. Organizations such as the Canadian Association of University Teachers and local initiatives are striving to minimize the socio-economic and professional gaps between women and men. The Canadian Association of Physicists, through its Committee to Encourage Women in Physics, and the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council are supportive and serve as catalysts, bringing together men and women to discuss and address issues concerning women in physics across Canada.

  9. Toxic shock syndrome in Canada.

    PubMed Central

    Clayton, A. J.; Peacocke, J. E.; Ewan, P. E.

    1982-01-01

    Since 1976, 53 confirmed or suspected cases of toxic shock syndrome (TSS) have been reported in Canada. Twenty-two cases occurred in 1980, and by October 1981 another 21 had been reported. In Canada, like the United States, where nearly 1200 cases have been recorded, TSS appears to be associated with tampon use, although a few cases have occurred in males and in nonmenstruating women. Of the 53 patients 3 died. The enterotoxin produced by Staphylococcus aureus is probably responsible for TSS. Manufacturers of tampons have now placed warning labels on tampon boxes and information on TSS in the instruction inserts. Women should select tampons of appropriate absorbency for the various stages of menstruation. PMID:7042059

  10. Ottawa, Canada and Glaciated Landscape

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Ottawa, in the province of Ontario, (46.5N, 75.5W) is the capital of Canada and can be seen near the bottom of this scene on the Ottawa River. The region shown lies within the Canadian Shield. The glaciated surface of the land is underlain by lower Precambrian granite and sedimentary rock. Long fractures within these crystalline rocks have, in places, been carved out by glacial action. The resultant depressions are often water filled bogs and lakes.

  11. Women in Physics in Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenna, Janis

    2012-10-01

    Here we are in the 21st century in Canada, where most of us would say that young girls and boys have equal access to education, opportunities, and careers of their own choice. In Canada, women currently outnumber men in full-time university enrollment, in Medical Schools and in Law Schools. 48% of the Canadian work force is female, yet women make up only 21% of working professionals in science, engineering and technology. Canada-wide in Physics, the situation is such that only 20% of our BSc graduates are women, and 19% of our PhD graduates are women. It is evident that the ``leaky pipeline'' in Physics leaks most at a young age, before BSc graduation. High school physics statistics in BC indicate that while most of the grade 12 science and math disciplines have roughly equal numbers of young men and women enrolled, this is not the case for high school physics, where province-wide, only 30% of Physics 12 students are women. (Biology is also skewed, but in the other direction: 62% of Biology 12 students are women) This poster will present current statistics and will hopefully be a wake-up call for us all to consider participating in more outreach in science, and especially physics, in our high schools.

  12. Routine outcome measures in Canada.

    PubMed

    Kisely, Steve; Adair, Carol E; Lin, Elizabeth; Marriott, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Canada is a federal country of 10 provinces and three territories. High level information on mental health conditions and service use has mostly been generated from administrative data collected by provinces and territories. These include four major types - hospital admissions and discharges, physician billings, ambulatory care services, and drug databases. At the national level, the Canadian Institute for Health Information brings together this information to produce indicators of outcome. Although these data provide information on patient and health system characteristics, they do not capture the full spectrum of formal and informal mental healthcare. These include changes in health status, functioning, community integration and quality of life. As a result, some jurisdictions have begun to implement more standardized measures of outcome such as the clinician-rated Health of the Nation Outcome Scales or the inpatient Resident Assessment Instrument - Mental Health. In this paper we provide an overview of mental-health-related data sources in Canada, highlight some of the more progressive practices beginning to emerge, and conclude with some thoughts about how the routine measurement and reporting of mental health outcomes in Canada might be advanced including efforts at engaging both clinicians and decision-makers. PMID:25738745

  13. Education of pharmacists in Canada.

    PubMed

    Austin, Zubin; Ensom, Mary H H

    2008-12-15

    In Canada, the education of pharmacists is built upon a foundation of strong, research-intensive publicly funded universities and a universal health-care system that balances government and private financing for prescription medications. The evolution of pharmacy education and practice in Canada has laid the foundation for a variety of emerging trends related to expanded roles for pharmacists, increasing interprofessional collaboration for patient-centered care, and emergence of pharmacy technicians as a soon-to-be regulated professional group in parts of the country. Current challenges include the need to better integrate internationally educated pharmacists within the domestic workforce and tools to ensure continuous professional development and maintenance of competency of practitioners. Academic pharmacy is currently debating how best to manage the need to enhance the pharmacy curriculum to meet current and future skills needs, and whether a doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) degree ought to become the standard entry-to-practice qualification for pharmacists in Canada. PMID:19325948

  14. The Geological Survey of Canada: Energy needs of tomorrow through collaboration today

    SciTech Connect

    Prior, D.B.; Mossop, G.D.

    1995-08-01

    Canada`s national centre for geoscience research and information is the Geological Survey of Canada (GSC). Two of its divisions, the Institute of Sedimentary and Petroleum Geology and the Atlantic Geoscience Centre work closely with the energy exploration and production industry and universities. One successful GSC innovation is the Industrial Farmers Program that promotes cost-shared projects on geoscience problems of mutual interest. An example is the Hydrocarbon Charge Modelling Project which has struck a series of mutually beneficial alliances among the GSC, oil and gas companies and universities. The GSC`s high quality skills in basin analysis, including sequence stratigraphy, biostratigraphy, structure and tectonics, petroleum geology, geophysics, geochemistry and environmental work are underpinned by vast data holdings on Canada`s mature Western Canada Sedimentary Basin and onshore/offshore frontier basins. Laboratory facilities include laser ablation ICP-mass spectrometry, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, Rock-Eval/TOC, pyrolysis and thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction and fluorescence, scanning electron microscopy, organic and inorganic petrology and paleontology processing. Sophisticated computing facilities provide capabilities in basin and crustal modelling, 2- and 3-D seismic interpretation and seismic processing and computerised cartography. Solutions to the exploration, production and environmental problems faced by a cyclical business sector are mom efficiently sought through cooperative research by bringing together the diverse capabilities of industry, government and universities. Through such broad, collaborative partnerships society will ensure the economic and environmentally sustainable development of its future energy needs.

  15. Charge Compensation in RE3+ (RE = Eu, Gd) and M+ (M = Li, Na, K) Co-Doped Alkaline Earth Nanofluorides Obtained by Microwave Reaction with Reactive Ionic Liquids Leading to Improved Optical Properties

    SciTech Connect

    Lorbeer, C; Behrends, F; Cybinska, J; Eckert, H; Mudring, Anja -V

    2014-01-01

    Alkaline earth fluorides are extraordinarily promising host matrices for phosphor materials with regard to rare earth doping. In particular, quantum cutting materials, which might considerably enhance the efficiency of mercury-free fluorescent lamps or SC solar cells, are often based on rare earth containing crystalline fluorides such as NaGdF4, GdF3 or LaF3. Substituting most of the precious rare earth ions and simultaneously retaining the efficiency of the phosphor is a major goal. Alkaline earth fluoride nanoparticles doped with trivalent lanthanide ions (which are required for the quantum cutting phenomenon) were prepared via a microwave assisted method in ionic liquids. As doping trivalent ions into a host with divalent cations requires charge compensation, this effect was thoroughly studied by powder X-ray and electron diffraction, luminescence spectroscopy and 23Na, 139La and 19F solid state NMR spectroscopy. Monovalent alkali ions were codoped with the trivalent lanthanide ions to relieve stress and achieve a better crystallinity and higher quantum cutting abilities of the prepared material. 19F-magic angle spinning (MAS)-NMR-spectra, assisted by 19F{23Na} rotational echo double resonance (REDOR) studies, reveal distinct local fluoride environments, the populations of which are discussed in relation to spatial distribution and clustering models. In the co-doped samples, fluoride species having both Na+ and La3+ ions within their coordination sphere can be identified and quantified. This interplay of mono- and trivalent ions in the CaF2 lattice appears to be an efficient charge compensation mechanism that allows for improved performance characteristics of such co-doped phosphor materials.

  16. Preface: Charge transport in nanoscale junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albrecht, Tim; Kornyshev, Alexei; Bjørnholm, Thomas

    2008-09-01

    the molecular level. Nanoscale charge transport experiments in ionic liquids extend the field to high temperatures and to systems with intriguing interfacial potential distributions. Other directions may include dye-sensitized solar cells, new sensor applications and diagnostic tools for the study of surface-bound single molecules. Another motivation for this special issue is thus to highlight activities across different research communities with nanoscale charge transport as a common denominator. This special issue gathers 27 articles by scientists from the United States, Germany, the UK, Denmark, Russia, France, Israel, Canada, Australia, Sweden, Switzerland, the Netherlands, Belgium and Singapore; it gives us a flavour of the current state-of-the-art of this diverse research area. While based on contributions from many renowned groups and institutions, it obviously cannot claim to represent all groups active in this very broad area. Moreover, a number of world-leading groups were unable to take part in this project within the allocated time limit. Nevertheless, we regard the current selection of papers to be representative enough for the reader to draw their own conclusions about the current status of the field. Each paper is original and has its own merit, as all papers in Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter special issues are subjected to the same scrutiny as regular contributions. The Guest Editors have deliberately not defined the specific subjects covered in this issue. These came out logically from the development of this area, for example: 'Traditional' solid state nanojunctions based on adsorbed layers, oxide films or nanowires sandwiched between two electrodes: effects of molecular structure (aromaticity, anchoring groups), symmetry, orientation, dynamics (noise patterns) and current-induced heating. Various 'physical effects': inelastic tunnelling and Coulomb blockade, polaron effects, switching modes, and negative differential resistance; the role of

  17. Surveillance of hospitalized farm injuries in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Pickett, W; Hartling, L; Dimich-Ward, H; Guernsey, J; Hagel, L; Voaklander, D; Brison, R

    2001-01-01

    Objective—To provide an overview of hospital admissions for the treatment of farm injuries. Methods—Design: descriptive analysis of data from the Canadian Agricultural Injury Surveillance Program (CAISP). Population: persons experiencing a farm injury requiring hospitalization, April 1991 to March 1995. Access to hospital separation data was negotiated within Canadian provinces. Individual cases were verified by medical records personnel and supplemental data describing injury circumstances were obtained. Analysis: descriptive analyses characterizing farm injuries by: persons involved, mechanisms, primary diagnoses, and agents of injury. Results—Data from 8/10 Canadian provinces representing 98% of the farm population were obtained. A total of 8263 farm injuries were verified. Adults aged 60 years and older were over-represented in these injuries. Leading external causes of agricultural machinery injury included entanglements, being pinned/struck by machinery, falls, and runovers. Non-machinery causes included falls from heights, animal related trauma, and being struck/by against objects. Leading diagnoses varied by age group, but included: limb fractures/open wounds, intracranial injuries, skull fractures, and spinal/truncal fractures. Conclusions—CAISP is a new agricultural injury surveillance program in Canada. Data from this system are actively used to inform prevention initiatives, and to indicate priorities for etiological and experimental research in the Canadian agricultural setting. PMID:11428559

  18. Canada Education Savings Program: Annual Statistical Review 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Resources and Skills Development Canada, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Canada Education Savings Program (CESP) has been an initiative of the Government of Canada since 1998. As part of the Department of Human Resources and Skills Development Canada, the program administers the Canada Education Savings Grant (CESG) and the Canada Learning Bond (CLB). These two initiatives help Canadian families save for a child's…

  19. Abortion health services in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Norman, Wendy V.; Guilbert, Edith R.; Okpaleke, Christopher; Hayden, Althea S.; Steven Lichtenberg, E.; Paul, Maureen; White, Katharine O’Connell; Jones, Heidi E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine the location of Canadian abortion services relative to where reproductive-age women reside, and the characteristics of abortion facilities and providers. Design An international survey was adapted for Canadian relevance. Public sources and professional networks were used to identify facilities. The bilingual survey was distributed by mail and e-mail from July to November 2013. Setting Canada. Participants A total of 94 abortion facilities were identified. Main outcome measures The number and location of services were compared with the distribution of reproductive-age women by location of residence. Results We identified 94 Canadian facilities providing abortion in 2012, with 48.9% in Quebec. The response rate was 83.0% (78 of 94). Facilities in every jurisdiction with services responded. In Quebec and British Columbia abortion services are nearly equally present in large urban centres and rural locations throughout the provinces; in other Canadian provinces services are chiefly located in large urban areas. No abortion services were identified in Prince Edward Island. Respondents reported provision of 75 650 abortions in 2012 (including 4.0% by medical abortion). Canadian facilities reported minimal or no harassment, in stark contrast to American facilities that responded to the same survey. Conclusion Access to abortion services varies by region across Canada. Services are not equitably distributed in relation to the regions where reproductive-age women reside. British Columbia and Quebec have demonstrated effective strategies to address disparities. Health policy and service improvements have the potential to address current abortion access inequity in Canada. These measures include improved access to mifepristone for medical abortion; provincial policies to support abortion services; routine abortion training within family medicine residency programs; and increasing the scope of practice for nurses and midwives to include abortion

  20. Bulk charges in eleven dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawking, S. W.; Taylor-Robinson, M. M.

    1998-07-01

    Eleven dimensional supergravity has electric type currents arising from the Chern-Simon and anomaly terms in the action. However the bulk charge integrates to zero for asymptotically flat solutions with topological trivial spatial sections. We show that by relaxing the boundary conditions to generalisations of the ALE and ALF boundary conditions in four dimensions one can obtain static solutions with a bulk charge. Solutions involving anomaly terms preserve between 1/16 and 1/4 of the supersymmetries but Chern-Simons fluxes generally break all of the remaining supersymmetry. One can introduce membranes with the same sign of charge into these backgrounds. This raises the possibility that these generalized membranes might decay quantum mechanically to leave just a bulk distribution of charge. Alternatively and more probably, a bulk distribution of charge can decay into a collection of singly charged membranes. Dimensional reductions of these solutions lead to novel representations of extreme black holes in four dimensions with up to four charges. We discuss how the eleven-dimensional Kaluza-Klein monopole wrapped around a space with non-zero first Pontryagin class picks up an electric charge proportional to the Pontryagin number.

  1. Lead and the Environment: An Approach to Educating Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsuji, Leonard J. S.; Nieboer, Evert; Karagatzides, Jim D.

    1999-01-01

    A lead shot environmental education program using hands-on activities and public information displays was directed toward adult Cree of Mushkegowuk Territory, Ontario (Canada). Of 47 participants at the beginning of the study, 7 thought lead shot was detrimental to animals, the environment, and people. After program implementation, all…

  2. Coccidia of Aleutian Canada geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greiner, E.C.; Forrester, Donald J.; Carpenter, J.W.; Yparraguirre, D.R.

    1981-01-01

    Fecal samples from 122 captive and 130 free-ranging Aleutian Canada geese (Branta canadensis leucopareia) were examined for oocysts of coccidia. Freeranging geese sampled on the spring staging ground near Crescent City, California were infected with Eimeria hermani, E. truncata, E. magnalabia, E. fulva, E. clarkei and Tyzzeria parvula. Except for E. clarkei, the same species of coccidia were found in geese on their breeding grounds in Alaska. Most of the coccidial infections in captive geese from Amchitka Island, Alaska and Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Maryland, consisted of Tyzzeria.

  3. Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillham, Virginia

    1992-01-01

    This annotated bibliography lists 110 Canadian federal and provincial government documents published in 1991 that address a wide range of topics, including demographics; constitutional law; social issues, including problems of women, children, and minorities; education; the environment; and standard of living. A list of reviewers is included. (MES)

  4. Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilham, Virginia

    1994-01-01

    Annotates 122 publications from the Canadian federal government and from 9 Canadian provinces. Topics include environmental programs and problems, gambling, crime, young offenders, health and welfare issues, use of electronic information, materials on education, employment, tourism, the North American Free Trade Agreement, and issues relating to…

  5. CHARGE BOTTLE FOR A MASS SEPARATOR

    DOEpatents

    Davidson, P.H.

    1959-07-01

    Improved mass separator charge bottles are described for containing a dense charge of a chemical compound of copper, nickel, lead or other useful substance which is to be vaporized, and to the method of utilizing such improvcd charge bottles so that the chemical compound is vaporized from the under surface of the charge and thus permits the non-volatile portion thereof to fall to the bottom of the charge bottle where it does not form an obstacle to further evaporation. The charge bottle comprises a vertically disposed cylindrical portion, an inner re-entrant cylindrical portion extending axially and downwardly into the same from the upper end thereof, and evaporative source material in the form of a chemical compound compacted within the upper annular pontion of the charge bottle formed by the re-entrant cylindrical portion, whereby vapor from the chemical compound will pass outwardly from the charge bottle through an apertured closure.

  6. Q fever in maritime Canada.

    PubMed Central

    Marrie, T. J.; Haldane, E. V.; Noble, M. A.; Faulkner, R. S.; Lee, S. H.; Gough, D.; Meyers, S.; Stewart, J.

    1982-01-01

    Only nine cases of Q fever were recorded in Canada in the 20 years prior to 1978. In the 18 months from August 1979 to January 1981 the disease was diagnosed serologically in six patients from the Maritime provinces. All were epidemiologically unrelated and none had been exposed to animals. Five had pneumonia and one had chronic Q fever with probable prosthetic valve endocarditis. Three of the five pneumonia patients presented with signs and symptoms of an acute lower respiratory tract infection and were indistinguishable clinically from other patients with atypical pneumonias. The other two with pneumonia presented with nonresolving pulmonary infiltrates and complained of decreased energy. Four of the five pneumonia patients responded well to treatment with erythromycin; the fifth required two courses of tetracycline. The patient with chronic Q fever had a large amount of cryoglobulins in his serum and evidence of immune complex disease. These cases indicate that Q fever should be considered as a possible cause of atypical pneumonia in Canada. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 PMID:7074457

  7. Engineering charge ordering into multiferroicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xu; Jin, Kui-juan

    2016-04-01

    Multiferroic materials have attracted great interest but are rare in nature. In many transition-metal oxides, charge ordering and magnetic ordering coexist, so that a method of engineering charge-ordered materials into ferroelectric materials would lead to a large class of multiferroic materials. We propose a strategy for designing new ferroelectric or even multiferroic materials by inserting a spacing layer into each two layers of charge-ordered materials and artificially making a superlattice. One example of the model demonstrated here is the perovskite (LaFeO3)2/LaTiO3 (111) superlattice, in which the LaTiO3 layer acts as the donor and the spacing layer, and the LaFeO3 layer is half doped and performs charge ordering. The collaboration of the charge ordering and the spacing layer breaks the space inversion symmetry, resulting in a large ferroelectric polarization. As the charge ordering also leads to a ferrimagnetic structure, (LaFeO3)2/LaTiO3 is multiferroic. It is expected that this work can encourage the designing and experimental implementation of a large class of multiferroic structures with novel properties.

  8. Canada Experientially: Every Trail Has a Story.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Bob

    The discovery of Canada means rolling out a new map, giving meaning to the land and its heritage. Experientially discovering Canada is at the heart of teaching and learning. It is necessary to balance experiential exploration with classroom and library exploration. In order to achieve this, the student must be a traveler. Programs that attempt to…

  9. An Update on School Choice in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Mark

    2008-01-01

    This article gives an update on school choice in Canada. Currently, school choice in Canada is stable. Provincialism, in both senses of the word, is a major factor in Canadian political life. There is no contradiction between Ontario's recent electoral rejection of the extension of funding to non-Catholic religious schools, and the strong support…

  10. Indians: An Introduction to Canada's Native People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacLean, Hope

    An introduction to Canada Natives briefly identifies the seven different culture areas which existed in Canada before the white man came, and the Indian tribes who lived in those areas. The booklet then gives more extensive description of the history and culture of the Huron (farmers of the Eastern Woodlands), the Blackfoot (Plains), the Ojibwa…

  11. Historical Empathy and "Canada: A People's History"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Darren; Clark, Penney

    2006-01-01

    In this article, we examine the CBC/Radio-Canada series, "Canada: A People's History," for its use of empathy, specifically with regard to its portrayal of Aboriginal people. We call the empathy promoted in the series, emotive empathy, and compare it to the concept of historical empathy constructed by researchers in history education. The emotive…

  12. Open Educational Resources in Canada 2015

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGreal, Rory; Anderson, Terry; Conrad, Dianne

    2015-01-01

    Canada's important areas of expertise in open educational resources (OER) are beginning to be built upon or replicated more broadly in all education and training sectors. This paper provides an overview of the state of the art in OER initiatives and open higher education in general in Canada, providing insights into what is happening nationally…

  13. Research on Asian longhorned beetle in Canada

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An established population of the Asian Longhorned Beetle (ALB) (Anoplophora glabripennis) (Motschulsky) was discovered in 2003 in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Given the enormous risk that ALB posses to the expansive forests of southern Canada and northern U.S. and the urgent need to eradicate ALB, as ...

  14. Illiteracy and Adult Literacy Teaching in Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Serge

    1985-01-01

    In Canadian society there are people who are totally illiterate, and they are all the more conscious of their illiteracy as a personal weakness because most of the population is literate. Literacy teaching and practices in Canada are discussed. Illiteracy in Canada and in the third world is also compared. (RM)

  15. GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE: GOVERNMENT OF CANADA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Government of Canada Climate Change Site was developed to inform Canadians about climate change and how it affects our environment. The site explains what the Government of Canada is doing about climate change and how individuals, communities, businesses, industries, and ever...

  16. Measurements of W Charge Asymmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Holzbauer, J. L.

    2015-10-06

    We discuss W boson and lepton charge asymmetry measurements from W decays in the electron channel, which were made using 9.7 fb$^{-1}$ of RunII data collected by the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. The electron charge asymmetry is presented as a function of pseudo-rapidity out to |$\\eta$| $\\le$ 3.2, in five symmetric and asymmetric kinematic bins of electron transverse momentum and the missing transverse energy of the event. We also give the W charge asymmetry as a function of W boson rapidity. The asymmetries are compared with next-to-leading order perturbative quantum chromodynamics calculations. These charge asymmetry measurements will allow more accurate determinations of the proton parton distribution functions and are the most precise to date.

  17. Charge-pump voltage converter

    DOEpatents

    Brainard, John P.; Christenson, Todd R.

    2009-11-03

    A charge-pump voltage converter for converting a low voltage provided by a low-voltage source to a higher voltage. Charge is inductively generated on a transfer rotor electrode during its transit past an inductor stator electrode and subsequently transferred by the rotating rotor to a collector stator electrode for storage or use. Repetition of the charge transfer process leads to a build-up of voltage on a charge-receiving device. Connection of multiple charge-pump voltage converters in series can generate higher voltages, and connection of multiple charge-pump voltage converters in parallel can generate higher currents. Microelectromechanical (MEMS) embodiments of this invention provide a small and compact high-voltage (several hundred V) voltage source starting with a few-V initial voltage source. The microscale size of many embodiments of this invention make it ideally suited for MEMS- and other micro-applications where integration of the voltage or charge source in a small package is highly desirable.

  18. Uncertainties in hydrocarbon charge prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visser, W.; Bell, A.

    Computer simulations allow the prediction of hydrocarbon volumes, composition and charge timing in undrilled petroleum prospects. Whereas different models may give different hydrocarbon charge predictions, it has now become evident that a dominant cause of erroneous predictions is the poor quality of input data. The main culprit for prediction errors is the uncertainty in the initial hydrogen index (H/C) of the source rock. A 10% uncertainty in the H/C may lead to 50% error in the predicted hydrocarbon volumes, and associated gas-oil ratio. Similarly, uncertainties in the maximum burial temperature and the kinetics of hydrocarbon generation may lead to 20-50% error. Despite this, charge modelling can have great value for the ranking of prospects in the same area with comparable geological histories.

  19. Universities Review Overhead Charges; Some Alter Policies on President's Home.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cordes, Colleen

    1991-01-01

    Congressional investigations into university overhead charges, especially those at Stanford University (California), for federally sponsored research are leading universities to reexamine and change some policies, including charging some housing costs for university officers to government contracts. (DB)

  20. Encephalitis, Ontario, Canada, 2002–2013

    PubMed Central

    Parpia, Alyssa S.; Li, Ye; Chen, Cynthia; Dhar, Badal

    2016-01-01

    Encephalitis, a brain inflammation leading to severe illness and often death, is caused by >100 pathogens. To assess the incidence and trends of encephalitis in Ontario, Canada, we obtained data on 6,463 Ontario encephalitis hospitalizations from the hospital Discharge Abstract Database for April 2002–December 2013 and analyzed these data using multiple negative binomial regression. The estimated crude incidence of all-cause encephalitis in Ontario was ≈4.3 cases/100,000 persons/year. Incidence rates for infants <1 year of age and adults >65 years were 3.9 and 3.0 times that of adults 20–44 years of age, respectively. Incidence peaks during August–September in 2002 and 2012 resulted primarily from encephalitis of unknown cause and viral encephalitis. Encephalitis occurred more frequently in older age groups and less frequently in women in Ontario when compared to England, but despite differences in population, vector-borne diseases, climate, and geography, the epidemiology was overall remarkably similar in the two regions. PMID:26890626

  1. Accidents in Canada: mortality and hospitalization.

    PubMed

    Riley, R; Paddon, P

    1989-01-01

    For Canadians under 45, accidents are the leading cause of both death and hospitalization. For the Canadian population as a whole, accidents rank fourth as a cause of death, after cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer and respiratory disease. This article analyzes accident mortality and hospitalization in Canada using age-specific rates, age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR), and potential years of life lost (PYLL). The six major causes of accidental death for men are motor vehicle traffic accidents (MVTA), falls, drowning, fires, suffocation and poisoning. For women, the order is slightly different: MVTA, falls, fires, suffocation, poisoning and drowning. From 1971 to 1986, age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR) for accidents decreased by 44% for men and 39% for women. The largest decrease occurred in the under 15 age group. Accidents accounted for 11.5% of total hospital days in 1985, and 8% of hospital discharges. Because young people have the highest rates of accidental death, potential years of life lost (PYLL) are almost as high for accidents as for cardiovascular disease, although CVD deaths outnumbered accidental deaths by almost five to one in 1985. PMID:2491351

  2. Canada's population: growth and dualism.

    PubMed

    Beaujot, R P

    1978-04-01

    In Canada the current 1.3% population growth rate is causing some concern. Those concerned argue that such a rate of growth in combination with high levels of consumption could jeopardize the country's resource base and its comfortable style of living. Many Canadians are questioning high levels of immigration, for now that the fertility level is below replacement level, net immigration contributes substantially to population growth (over 1/3 in 1976). The growing proportion of non-Europeans among recent immigrants is causing resentment, and, in a tight job market, immigrants are regarded as threats to the World War 2 baby boom cohort who are now at working ages. The baby boom generation also puts stress on housing and health services, and it will increase the need for pension checks as it ages. Although French fertility is no longer high and immigration is no longer dominated by the British, the French group's 200-year struggle to preserve its identity continues on in the current effort of the Quebec government to enforce the use of French language by law within that province. Geography and climate dictate another demographic fact that divides the country and pervades its history. In addition to intense regionalism, uneven population distribution is responsible for 2 other concerns: the rapid growth of several already large cities and depopulation of many small communities. Focus in this discussion is on Canada's population growth in the past and as projected for the future, historical and current fertility, mortality and immigration trends, the search for a new immigration policy, the impact of the baby boom generation on the population's age structure and the problems this creates, and recent shifts in population distribution and in the country's ethnic and linguistic makeup. The population policy proposals evolved thus far involve to a great extent the use of immigration as a lever for achieving given population objectives. PMID:12335577

  3. Determination of the proton charge radius from elastic electron-proton scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horbatsch, Marko; Hessels, Eric A.

    2016-05-01

    Precisely measured electron-proton elastic scattering cross sections are reanalyzed to evaluate their strength for determining the rms charge radius (RE) of the proton. More than half of the cross sections at lowest Q2 are fit using two single-parameter form-factor models, with the first based on a dipole parametrization, and the second on a linear fit to a conformal-mapping variable. These low-Q2 fits extrapolate the slope of the form factor to Q2 = 0 and determine RE values of approximately 0.84 and 0.89 fm, respectively. Fits spanning all Q2, in which the single constants are replaced with cubic splines at larger Q2, lead to similar results for RE. We conclude that the scattering data are consistent with RE ranging from at least 0.84 to 0.89 fm, and therefore is consistent with both of the discrepant determinations of RE made using muonic and electronic hydrogen-atom spectroscopy. NSERC Canada, Canada Research Chair Program.

  4. Trends in extinction risk for imperiled species in Canada.

    PubMed

    Favaro, Brett; Claar, Danielle C; Fox, Caroline H; Freshwater, Cameron; Holden, Jessica J; Roberts, Allan

    2014-01-01

    Protecting and promoting recovery of species at risk of extinction is a critical component of biodiversity conservation. In Canada, the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC) determines whether species are at risk of extinction or extirpation, and has conducted these assessments since 1977. We examined trends in COSEWIC assessments to identify whether at-risk species that have been assessed more than once tended to improve, remain constant, or deteriorate in status, as a way of assessing the effectiveness of biodiversity conservation in Canada. Of 369 species that met our criteria for examination, 115 deteriorated, 202 remained unchanged, and 52 improved in status. Only 20 species (5.4%) improved to the point where they were 'not at risk', and five of those were due to increased sampling efforts rather than an increase in population size. Species outcomes were also dependent on the severity of their initial assessment; for example, 47% of species that were initially listed as special concern deteriorated between assessments. After receiving an at-risk assessment by COSEWIC, a species is considered for listing under the federal Species at Risk Act (SARA), which is the primary national tool that mandates protection for at-risk species. We examined whether SARA-listing was associated with improved COSEWIC assessment outcomes relative to unlisted species. Of 305 species that had multiple assessments and were SARA-listed, 221 were listed at a level that required identification and protection of critical habitat; however, critical habitat was fully identified for only 56 of these species. We suggest that the Canadian government should formally identify and protect critical habitat, as is required by existing legislation. In addition, our finding that at-risk species in Canada rarely recover leads us to recommend that every effort be made to actively prevent species from becoming at-risk in the first place. PMID:25401772

  5. University students and mental health. Canada, Britain and Singapore.

    PubMed

    Gold, J H

    1979-01-01

    There are many crucial determinants of the individual outcome and benefit of a university education including the stressful interplay of cultural and socioeconomic factors which are of growing importance in the inflationary 1970's. An epidemiological study of university students from 1969-1972 in Canada, 1973-1974 in Britain, and 1975 in Singapore, attempted to identify stresses leading to mental ill-health in these students. Singapore was chosen as an example of a culture bridging the developed Northern and developing Southern nations of the world. Cultural differences affecting the results of the study are discussed as is the role of social change. PMID:511452

  6. Energy reality and future projections for Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Dincer, I.; Dost, S.; Li, X.

    1997-04-01

    Energy is of great importance in the Canadian economy. Canada is not only the world`s largest consumer of energy per capita, but is also a major energy producer, including significant amounts for export. Technology has altered the way Canadians produce and consume energy, increasing the diversity of energy sources, i.e., natural gas, oil, natural gas liquids, coal, hydro, nuclear, and renewables and others. In this article a detailed investigation is carried out to analyze the present situation of Canada`s energy resources in terms of energy production and consumption and sectoral energy uses, and simple and effective correlations for their future projections are provided.

  7. Factors influencing wetland use by Canada geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Naugle, D.E.; Gleason, J.S.; Jenks, J.A.; Higgins, K.F.; Mammenga, P.W.; Nusser, S.M.

    1997-01-01

    Seasonal and semi-permanent wetlands in eastern South Dakota were surveyed in 1995 and 1996 to identify habitat characteristics influencing wetland use by Canada geese (Branta canadensis maxima). Position of a wetland within the landscape and its area were important landscape-scale features influencing wetland use by geese. Our delineation of potential Canada goose habitat using a wetland geographic information system indicated that distribution and area of semi-permanent wetlands likely limit Canada goose occurrence in regions outside the Prairie Coteau. Periodicity in hydrologic cycles within landscapes also may influence goose use of wetlands in eastern South Dakota.

  8. [Colorectal carcinoma in Cronkhite-Canada syndrome].

    PubMed

    Zügel, N P; Hehl, J A; Jechart, G; Tannapfel, A; Wienbeck, M; Witte, J

    2001-05-01

    We report a 63-year-old lady with Cronkhite-Canada syndrome, who developed colorectal cancer. A hemicolectomy was performed, and the tumor specimen was prepared for DNA-analysis and immunohistochemical screening. We found a mutation of p53 gene without APC- and ras-gene alteration and expression of erbB2-protooncogen. The polyps in non-hereditary Cronkhite-Canada-syndrom are neither adenomatous nor hyperplastic, but patients often develop colorectal cancers. The steps of mutation do not follow the adenoma-carcinoma sequence, first described by Vogelstein 1988. This and previous observations suggest that carcinogenesis in Cronkhite-Canada syndrome follows another independent sequence. PMID:11413916

  9. Charge of a quasiparticle in a superconductor

    PubMed Central

    Ronen, Yuval; Cohen, Yonatan; Kang, Jung-Hyun; Haim, Arbel; Rieder, Maria-Theresa; Heiblum, Moty; Mahalu, Diana; Shtrikman, Hadas

    2016-01-01

    Nonlinear charge transport in superconductor–insulator–superconductor (SIS) Josephson junctions has a unique signature in the shuttled charge quantum between the two superconductors. In the zero-bias limit Cooper pairs, each with twice the electron charge, carry the Josephson current. An applied bias VSD leads to multiple Andreev reflections (MAR), which in the limit of weak tunneling probability should lead to integer multiples of the electron charge ne traversing the junction, with n integer larger than 2Δ/eVSD and Δ the superconducting order parameter. Exceptionally, just above the gap eVSD ≥ 2Δ, with Andreev reflections suppressed, one would expect the current to be carried by partitioned quasiparticles, each with energy-dependent charge, being a superposition of an electron and a hole. Using shot-noise measurements in an SIS junction induced in an InAs nanowire (with noise proportional to the partitioned charge), we first observed quantization of the partitioned charge q = e*/e=n, with n = 1–4, thus reaffirming the validity of our charge interpretation. Concentrating next on the bias region eVSD∼2Δ, we found a reproducible and clear dip in the extracted charge to q ∼0.6, which, after excluding other possibilities, we attribute to the partitioned quasiparticle charge. Such dip is supported by numerical simulations of our SIS structure. PMID:26831071

  10. Charge of a quasiparticle in a superconductor.

    PubMed

    Ronen, Yuval; Cohen, Yonatan; Kang, Jung-Hyun; Haim, Arbel; Rieder, Maria-Theresa; Heiblum, Moty; Mahalu, Diana; Shtrikman, Hadas

    2016-02-16

    Nonlinear charge transport in superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) Josephson junctions has a unique signature in the shuttled charge quantum between the two superconductors. In the zero-bias limit Cooper pairs, each with twice the electron charge, carry the Josephson current. An applied bias VSD leads to multiple Andreev reflections (MAR), which in the limit of weak tunneling probability should lead to integer multiples of the electron charge ne traversing the junction, with n integer larger than 2Δ/eVSD and Δ the superconducting order parameter. Exceptionally, just above the gap eVSD ≥ 2Δ, with Andreev reflections suppressed, one would expect the current to be carried by partitioned quasiparticles, each with energy-dependent charge, being a superposition of an electron and a hole. Using shot-noise measurements in an SIS junction induced in an InAs nanowire (with noise proportional to the partitioned charge), we first observed quantization of the partitioned charge q = e*/e = n, with n = 1-4, thus reaffirming the validity of our charge interpretation. Concentrating next on the bias region eVSD ~ 2Δ, we found a reproducible and clear dip in the extracted charge to q ~ 0.6, which, after excluding other possibilities, we attribute to the partitioned quasiparticle charge. Such dip is supported by numerical simulations of our SIS structure. PMID:26831071

  11. New statistical downscaling for Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdock, T. Q.; Cannon, A. J.; Sobie, S.

    2013-12-01

    This poster will document the production of a set of statistically downscaled future climate projections for Canada based on the latest available RCM and GCM simulations - the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP; Mearns et al. 2007) and the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5). The main stages of the project included (1) downscaling method evaluation, (2) scenarios selection, (3) production of statistically downscaled results, and (4) applications of results. We build upon a previous downscaling evaluation project (Bürger et al. 2012, Bürger et al. 2013) in which a quantile-based method (Bias Correction/Spatial Disaggregation - BCSD; Werner 2011) provided high skill compared with four other methods representing the majority of types of downscaling used in Canada. Additional quantile-based methods (Bias-Correction/Constructed Analogues; Maurer et al. 2010 and Bias-Correction/Climate Imprint ; Hunter and Meentemeyer 2005) were evaluated. A subset of 12 CMIP5 simulations was chosen based on an objective set of selection criteria. This included hemispheric skill assessment based on the CLIMDEX indices (Sillmann et al. 2013), historical criteria used previously at the Pacific Climate Impacts Consortium (Werner 2011), and refinement based on a modified clustering algorithm (Houle et al. 2012; Katsavounidis et al. 1994). Statistical downscaling was carried out on the NARCCAP ensemble and a subset of the CMIP5 ensemble. We produced downscaled scenarios over Canada at a daily time resolution and 300 arc second (~10 km) spatial resolution from historical runs for 1951-2005 and from RCP 2.6, 4.5, and 8.5 projections for 2006-2100. The ANUSPLIN gridded daily dataset (McKenney et al. 2011) was used as a target. It has national coverage, spans the historical period of interest 1951-2005, and has daily time resolution. It uses interpolation of station data based on thin-plate splines. This type of method has been shown to have

  12. Quick spacecraft charging primer

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, Brian Arthur

    2014-03-12

    This is a presentation in PDF format which is a quick spacecraft charging primer, meant to be used for program training. It goes into detail about charging physics, RBSP examples, and how to identify charging.

  13. Rigid separator lead acid batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Cannone, A.G.; Salkind, A.J.; Stempin, J.L.; Wexell, D.R.

    1996-11-01

    Lead acid cells assembled with extruded separators displayed relatively uniform capacity and voltage parameters through 100{sup +} cycles of charge/discharge. This contrasts to failure of control cells with glass mat separators after 60 cycles. The mullite/alumina separators with 50, 60, and 70% porosity separators appear suitable for both flooded and sealed lead acid cell applications. The advantages of the rigid ceramic separators over fiber mat materials are in the uniformity of capacity and voltage, the ease of cell assembly, and the probability that firm stacking pressure on the active material will yield greater cycle life, especially at elevated temperatures.

  14. Youth Apprenticeships in Canada: On Their Inferior Status Despite Skilled Labour Shortages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehmann, Wolfgang; Taylor, Alison; Wright, Laura

    2014-01-01

    In Canada, youth apprenticeships have been promoted as an educational alternative that leads to the development of valuable skills, allows for the opportunity to earn an income while learning and helps youth to gain a head start into lucrative, creative and in-demand careers. Yet, these programmes have remained rather marginal and continue to be…

  15. Canada Education Savings Program: Annual Statistical Review--2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Resources and Skills Development Canada, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Canada Education Savings Program is an initiative of the Government of Canada. As part of the Department of Human Resources and Skills Development, the program administers the Canada Education Savings Grant and the Canada Learning Bond. These two initiatives help Canadian families save for a child's post-secondary education in Registered…

  16. Canada Education Savings Program: Annual Statistical Review 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Resources and Skills Development Canada, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Canada Education Savings Program has been an initiative of the Government of Canada since 1998. As part of the Department of Human Resources and Skills Development, the program administers the Canada Education Savings Grant and the Canada Learning Bond. These two initiatives help Canadian families save for a child's post-secondary education in…

  17. 9 CFR 93.517 - Swine from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Swine from Canada. 93.517 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine Canada 7 § 93.517 Swine from Canada. (a) For purposes other than immediate slaughter. Swine offered for importation from Canada for purposes other than immediate...

  18. 9 CFR 93.517 - Swine from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Swine from Canada. 93.517 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine Canada 7 § 93.517 Swine from Canada. (a) For purposes other than immediate slaughter. Swine offered for importation from Canada for purposes other than immediate...

  19. 9 CFR 93.517 - Swine from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Swine from Canada. 93.517 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine Canada 7 § 93.517 Swine from Canada. (a) For purposes other than immediate slaughter. Swine offered for importation from Canada for purposes other than immediate...

  20. 9 CFR 93.517 - Swine from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Swine from Canada. 93.517 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine Canada 7 § 93.517 Swine from Canada. (a) For purposes other than immediate slaughter. Swine offered for importation from Canada for purposes other than immediate...

  1. 9 CFR 93.517 - Swine from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Swine from Canada. 93.517 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine Canada 7 § 93.517 Swine from Canada. (a) For purposes other than immediate slaughter. Swine offered for importation from Canada for purposes other than immediate...

  2. 9 CFR 93.317 - Horses from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Horses from Canada. 93.317 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Canada 16 § 93.317 Horses from Canada. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, horses from Canada shall be inspected as provided in § 93.306; shall...

  3. 9 CFR 93.317 - Horses from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Horses from Canada. 93.317 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Canada 16 § 93.317 Horses from Canada. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, horses from Canada shall be inspected as provided in § 93.306; shall...

  4. 9 CFR 93.317 - Horses from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Horses from Canada. 93.317 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Canada 16 § 93.317 Horses from Canada. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, horses from Canada shall be inspected as provided in § 93.306; shall...

  5. 9 CFR 93.317 - Horses from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Horses from Canada. 93.317 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Canada 16 § 93.317 Horses from Canada. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, horses from Canada shall be inspected as provided in § 93.306; shall...

  6. 9 CFR 93.317 - Horses from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Horses from Canada. 93.317 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Canada 16 § 93.317 Horses from Canada. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, horses from Canada shall be inspected as provided in § 93.306; shall...

  7. Charge-qubit-atom hybrid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Deshui; Valado, María Martínez; Hufnagel, Christoph; Kwek, Leong Chuan; Amico, Luigi; Dumke, Rainer

    2016-04-01

    We investigate a hybrid system of a superconducting charge qubit interacting directly with a single neutral atom via electric dipole coupling. Interfacing of the macroscopic superconducting circuit with the microscopic atomic system is accomplished by varying the gate capacitance of the charge qubit. To achieve a strong interaction, we employ two Rydberg states with an electric-dipole-allowed transition, which alters the polarizability of the dielectric medium of the gate capacitor. Sweeping the gate voltage with different rates leads to a precise control of hybrid quantum states. Furthermore, we show a possible implementation of a universal two-qubit gate.

  8. Situation awareness system for Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Andrew

    1999-07-01

    Situation awareness encompasses a knowledge of orders, plans and current knowledge of friendly force actions. Knowing where you are and being able to transmit that information in near real-time to other friendly forces provides the ability to exercise precise command and control over those forces. With respect to current command and control using voice methods, between 40 percent and 60 percent of Combat Net Radio traffic relates to location reporting of some sort. Commanders at Battle Group and below spend, on average, 40 percent of their total time performing position and navigation related functions. The need to rapidly transfer own force location information throughout a force and to process the received information quickly, accurately and reliably provides the rationale for the requirement for an automated situation awareness system. This paper describes the Situation Awareness System (SAS) being developed by Computing Devices Canada for the Canadian Department of National Defence as a component of the Position Determination and Navigation for Land Forces program. The SAS is being integrated with the Iris Tactical Command, Control, Communications System, which is also being developed by Computing Devices. The SAS software provides a core operating environment onto which command and control functionality can be easily added to produce general and specialist battlefield management systems.

  9. Canada issues booklet describing acid rain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A booklet recently released by Environment Canada describes acid rain in terms easily understood by the general public. Although Acid Rain — The Facts tends somewhat to give the Canadian side of this intercountry controversial subject, it nevertheless presents some very interesting, simple statistics of interest to people in either the U.S. or Canada. Copies of the booklet can be obtained from Inquiry Environment Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A OH3, Canada, tel. 613-997-2800.The booklet points out that acid rain is caused by emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx). Once released into the atmosphere, these substances can be carried long distances by prevailing winds and return to Earth as acidic rain, snow, fog, or dust. The main sources of SO2 emissions in North America are coal-fired power generating stations and nonferrous ore smelters. The main sources of NOx emissions are vehicles and fuel combustion. From economical and environmental viewpoints, Canada believes acid rain is one of the most serious problems presently facing the country: increasing the acidity of more than 20% of Canada's 300,000 lakes to the point that aquatic life is depleted and acidity of soil water and shallow groundwater is increasing, causing decline in forest growth and water fowl populations, and eating away at buildings and monuments. Acid rain is endangering fisheries, tourism, agriculture, and forest resources in an area of 2.6 million km2 (one million square miles) of eastern Canada, about 8% of Canada's gross national product.

  10. Calcium induced lipid domains: how to glue charge with charge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellenbroek, Wouter G.; Wang, Yu-Hsiu; Christian, David A.; Janmey, Paul A.; Liu, Andrea J.

    2010-03-01

    Multivalent ions such as calcium play an important role in soft and biological matter. In systems containing a fraction of highly negatively charged lipids (PIP2, an important actor in e.g. cell signaling) they can mediate an attraction between the like-charged lipids that is strong enough to promote formation of PIP2-rich domains. Such behavior is determined by charge correlations and therefore not captured by traditional mean-field (Poisson-Boltzmann) treatments. We study this effect experimentally and computationally in a mixed lipid monolayer. The simulations show that electrostatics alone can reproduce many of the trends seen in the experiments. Surprisingly, we find that electrostatic, Ca-mediated attractions between PIP2 lipids are strong enough to lead to nearly complete phase separation, so that domains of PIP2 can be found even at concentrations low enough to approach physiological conditions.

  11. Charged Dust Aggregate Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, Lorin; Hyde, Truell

    2015-11-01

    A proper understanding of the behavior of dust particle aggregates immersed in a complex plasma first requires a knowledge of the basic properties of the system. Among the most important of these are the net electrostatic charge and higher multipole moments on the dust aggregate as well as the manner in which the aggregate interacts with the local electrostatic fields. The formation of elongated, fractal-like aggregates levitating in the sheath electric field of a weakly ionized RF generated plasma discharge has recently been observed experimentally. The resulting data has shown that as aggregates approach one another, they can both accelerate and rotate. At equilibrium, aggregates are observed to levitate with regular spacing, rotating about their long axis aligned parallel to the sheath electric field. Since gas drag tends to slow any such rotation, energy must be constantly fed into the system in order to sustain it. A numerical model designed to analyze this motion provides both the electrostatic charge and higher multipole moments of the aggregate while including the forces due to thermophoresis, neutral gas drag, and the ion wakefield. This model will be used to investigate the ambient conditions leading to the observed interactions. This research is funded by NSF Grant 1414523.

  12. Leading the Charge: Exotic New Materials for Future Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yulin

    2010-09-28

    How will we improve computer technology to create chips that are smaller, faster, and more efficient? For leaps in performance, we need to create new types of semiconductors. In this lecture, the speaker will describe a new class of materials -- the 'topological insulators' -- that achieve robust performance by tying the paths of electrons in knots. These materials arose from a bold theoretical proposal that was recently verified by X-ray experiments at SLAC. THe speaker will describe the special properties of these materials and the promise for their applications.

  13. Leading the Charge for Real-Time Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aarons, Dakarai I.

    2009-01-01

    Well before the idea of using data to manage schools gained prominence on the national stage, Oklahoma's Western Heights school district had made the ideal of real-time, data-driven decisionmaking a reality. Back in 2001, Superintendent Joe Kitchens was already being spotlighted for his focus on creating a longitudinal-data system that would give…

  14. Leading the Charge: Governors, Higher Education and Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Council of Trustees and Alumni, 2014

    2014-01-01

    With this new tool, ACTA [American Council of Trustees and Alumni] is working to expand its outreach to governors nationwide on behalf of higher education reform, focusing on key issues of quality, cost, and accountability. ACTA has worked with governors and education leaders from across the country, and that experience has proven that innovative…

  15. Study of the charge radii of the stable lead isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Borchert, G.L.; Schult, O.W.B.; Speth, J.; Hansen, P.G.; Jonson, B.; Ravn, H.; McGrory, J.B.

    1982-01-01

    Isotope shifts have been measured of the K/sub ..cap alpha..l/ x-ray lines emitted after photo ionization of /sup 204/Pb, /sup 206/Pb, /sup 207/Pb and /sup 208/Pb samples. The results are compared with theoretical values for delta < r/sup 2/> calculated with a microscopic model. The x-ray shift data are also compared with optical data and the nuclear parameters lambda derived from electron scattering results.

  16. Chemical Information Instruction in Academe: Who Is Leading the Charge?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garritano, Jeremy R.; Culp, F. Bartow; Twiss-Brooks, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    Chemical information instruction (CII) has been recommended by the ACS Committee on Professional Training as a necessary component of the chemistry curriculum for both undergraduate and graduate students. Surveys conducted by the ACS Chemical Information Division (CINF) Education Committee in 1984 and 1993 showed the extent that CII had become…

  17. Leading the Charge for SoTL--Embracing Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassard, Anita; Sloboda, Brian

    2014-01-01

    The scholarship of teaching and learning (SoTL) enables colleges and universities to assess student learning and measure the outcomes by engaging in meaningful research, and to disseminate this research. The objective of this paper is to give a snapshot of and assess the current thinking behind this scholarship by presenting examples of SoTL, and…

  18. Federal Support of Universities and Colleges of Canada. Financing Higher Education in Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waines, W. J.

    The purpose of this report is to help the people and governments of Canada face the financial problems of university development over the next decade. The report deals with: (1) enrollment projections of Canada's universities and colleges; (2) projection of operating expenditures; (3) projection of capital expenditures; (4) estimated total…

  19. Only in Canada: A Study of National Market Potential for Christian Higher Education Canada (CHEC) Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiebert, Al

    2011-01-01

    In July 2007 Ipsos Reid delivered to Christian Higher Education Canada (CHEC) a report entitled "Christian Post-Secondary Education in Canada, Phase 3: Defining the Market". This article is a selective summary of the full 353-page report. It tabulates and analyzes findings from 1,000 phone interviews and 6,689 online surveys from six population…

  20. Filling of charged cylindrical capillaries.

    PubMed

    Das, Siddhartha; Chanda, Sourayon; Eijkel, J C T; Tas, N R; Chakraborty, Suman; Mitra, Sushanta K

    2014-10-01

    We provide an analytical model to describe the filling dynamics of horizontal cylindrical capillaries having charged walls. The presence of surface charge leads to two distinct effects: It leads to a retarding electrical force on the liquid column and also causes a reduced viscous drag force because of decreased velocity gradients at the wall. Both these effects essentially stem from the spontaneous formation of an electric double layer (EDL) and the resulting streaming potential caused by the net capillary-flow-driven advection of ionic species within the EDL. Our results demonstrate that filling of charged capillaries also exhibits the well-known linear and Washburn regimes witnessed for uncharged capillaries, although the filling rate is always lower than that of the uncharged capillary. We attribute this to a competitive success of the lowering of the driving forces (because of electroviscous effects), in comparison to the effect of weaker drag forces. We further reveal that the time at which the transition between the linear and the Washburn regime occurs may become significantly altered with the introduction of surface charges, thereby altering the resultant capillary dynamics in a rather intricate manner. PMID:25375597

  1. Lead-acid cell

    SciTech Connect

    Hradcovsky, R.J.; Kozak, O.R.

    1980-12-09

    A lead-acid storage battery is described that has a lead negative electrode, a lead dioxide positive electrode and a sulfuric acid electrolyte having an organic catalyst dissolved therein which prevents dissolution of the electrodes into lead sulfate whereby in the course of discharge, the lead dioxide is reduced to lead oxide and the lead is oxidized.

  2. Cosmology of a charged universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, A.

    1979-01-01

    The Proca generalization of electrodynamics admits the possibility that the universe could possess a net electric charge uniformly distributed throughout space, while possessing no electric field. A general-relativistic model of cosmological expansion dominated by such a charged background has been calculated, and is consistent with present observational limits on the Hubble constant, the deceleration parameter, and the age of the universe. However, if this cosmology applied at the present epoch, the very early expansion of the universe would have been too rapid for cosmological nucleosynthesis or thermalization of the background radiation to have occurred. Hence, domination of the present expansion by background charge appears to be incompatible with the 3-K background and big-bang production of light elements. If the present background charge density were sufficiently small (but not strictly zero), expansion from the epoch of nucleosynthesis would proceed according to the conventional scenario, but the energy due to the background charge would have dominated at some earlier epoch. This last possibility leads to equality of pressure and energy density in the primordial universe.

  3. Legalizing and Regulating Marijuana in Canada: Review of Potential Economic, Social, and Health Impacts

    PubMed Central

    Hajizadeh, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Notwithstanding a century of prohibition, marijuana is the most widely used illicit substance in Canada. Due to the growing public acceptance of recreational marijuana use and ineffectiveness of the existing control system in Canada, the issue surrounding legalizing this illicit drug has received considerable public and political attentions in recent years. Consequently, the newly elected Liberal Government has formally announced that Canada will introduce legislation in the spring of 2017 to start legalizing and regulating marijuana. This editorial aims to provide a brief overview on potential economic, social, and public health impacts of legal marijuana in Canada. The legalization could increase tax revenue through the taxation levied on marijuana products and could also allow the Government to save citizens’ tax dollars currently being spent on prohibition enforcement. Moreover, legalization could also remove the criminal element from marijuana market and reduce the size of Canada’s black market and its consequences for the society. Nevertheless, it may also lead to some public health problems, including increasing in the uptake of the drug, accidents and injuries. The legalization should be accompanied with comprehensive strategies to keep the drug out of the hands of minors while increasing awareness and knowledge on harmful effects of the drug. In order to get better insights on how to develop an appropriate framework to legalize marijuana, Canada should closely watch the development in the neighboring country, the United States, where some of its states viz, Colorado, Oregon, Washington, and Alaska have already legalized recreational use of marijuana.

  4. Lead-acid battery

    SciTech Connect

    Rowlette, J.J.

    1983-09-20

    A light weight lead-acid battery is disclosed having a positive terminal and a negative terminal and including one or more cells or grid stacks having a plurality of vertically stacked conductive monoplates with positive active material and negative active material deposited on alternating plates in the cell or grid stack. Electrolyte layers positioned between each monoplate are included to provide a battery cell having four sides which is capable of being electrically charged and discharged. Two vertical positive bus bars are provided on opposite sides of the battery cell for connecting the monoplates with positive active material together in parallel current conducting relation. In addition, two negative bus bars on opposite sides of the battery cell each being adjacent the positive bus bars are provided for connecting the monoplates with negative active material together in parallel current conducting relation. The positive and negative bus bars not only provide a low resistance method for connecting the plurality of conductive monoplates of their respective battery terminals but also provides support and structural strength to the battery cell structure. In addition, horizontal orientation of monoplates is provided in a vertical stacking arrangement to reduce electrolyte stratification and short circuiting due to flaking of positive and negative active materials from the monoplates.

  5. Lead-acid battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowlette, John J. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A light weight lead-acid battery (30) having a positive terminal (36) and a negative terminal (34) and including one or more cells or grid stacks having a plurality of vertically stacked conductive monoplates (10, 20) with positive active material and negative active material deposited on alternating plates in the cell or grid stack. Electrolyte layers (26, 28) positioned between each monoplate are included to provide a battery cell having four sides which is capable of being electrically charged and discharged. Two vertical positive bus bars (42, 43) are provided on opposite sides of the battery cell for connecting the monoplates (10) with positive active material together in parallel current conducting relation. In addition, two negative bus bars (38, 39) on opposite sides of the battery cell each being adjacent the positive bus bars are provided for connecting the monoplates (20) with negative active material together in parallel current conducting relation. The positive (42, 43) and negative (38, 39) bus bars not only provide a low resistance method for connecting the plurality of conductive monoplates of their respective battery terminals (36, 34) but also provides support and structural strength to the battery cell structure. In addition, horizontal orientation of monoplates (10, 20) is provided in a vertical stacking arrangement to reduce electrolyte stratification and short circuiting due to flaking of positive and negative active materials from the monoplates.

  6. Lead Poisoning Prevention Tips

    MedlinePlus

    ... CDC.gov . Lead Home Calendar of Events National Lead Poisoning Prevention Week Archived Materials CDC's Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention Program Advisory Committee (ACCLPP) Current Activities Blood ...

  7. Preface: Charge transport in nanoscale junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albrecht, Tim; Kornyshev, Alexei; Bjørnholm, Thomas

    2008-09-01

    the molecular level. Nanoscale charge transport experiments in ionic liquids extend the field to high temperatures and to systems with intriguing interfacial potential distributions. Other directions may include dye-sensitized solar cells, new sensor applications and diagnostic tools for the study of surface-bound single molecules. Another motivation for this special issue is thus to highlight activities across different research communities with nanoscale charge transport as a common denominator. This special issue gathers 27 articles by scientists from the United States, Germany, the UK, Denmark, Russia, France, Israel, Canada, Australia, Sweden, Switzerland, the Netherlands, Belgium and Singapore; it gives us a flavour of the current state-of-the-art of this diverse research area. While based on contributions from many renowned groups and institutions, it obviously cannot claim to represent all groups active in this very broad area. Moreover, a number of world-leading groups were unable to take part in this project within the allocated time limit. Nevertheless, we regard the current selection of papers to be representative enough for the reader to draw their own conclusions about the current status of the field. Each paper is original and has its own merit, as all papers in Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter special issues are subjected to the same scrutiny as regular contributions. The Guest Editors have deliberately not defined the specific subjects covered in this issue. These came out logically from the development of this area, for example: 'Traditional' solid state nanojunctions based on adsorbed layers, oxide films or nanowires sandwiched between two electrodes: effects of molecular structure (aromaticity, anchoring groups), symmetry, orientation, dynamics (noise patterns) and current-induced heating. Various 'physical effects': inelastic tunnelling and Coulomb blockade, polaron effects, switching modes, and negative differential resistance; the role of

  8. NEPTUNE Canada Community Science Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juniper, S.; Bornhold, B.; Barnes, C.; Phibbs, P.; Pirenne, B.

    2006-05-01

    In 2007 NEPTUNE Canada will install the first stage of a regional cabled observatory (RCO) in the northeast Pacific Ocean. Stage 2 of the RCO is being developed by the US-based ORION Project Office, through the National Science Foundation's Ocean Observatory Initiative (OOI). For Stage 1, a 800km fiber-optic cable will loop out from a shore station on Vancouver Island to the Juan de Fuca volcanic spreading ridge. Two seafloor nodes are planned, one to support studies of tectonic and hydrothermal activity on the Endeavour Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge, and the other for investigation of a broad range of processes in Barkley Canyon, on the continental slope of Vancouver Island. Each node will provide power and Ethernet communications to instruments that comprise multi-disciplinary community science experiments. These experiments were developed through a 2-year series of workshops and a final competition. Data from all instruments will be available on-line, through the NEPTUNE data management and archive system. Investigations at the Endeavour node will focus on links between seismic activity and hydrothermal emissions and their resulting impact on hydrothermal vent organisms and regional oceanic circulation and geochemical fluxes. This area provides a number of technical challenges, including the laying of the backbone cable over a volcanic terrain, and the placement of instruments and extension cables in areas of abundant high-temperature venting. Planned instruments include broad-band seismometers, acoustic Doppler current meters, video and digital still cameras and chemical sensors. Experiments at the Barkley Canyon site will emphasis the effects of water currents passing through the canyon, and seismic activity. Combined biological and physical oceanographic instruments will monitor the interaction between sediment transport along the axis of the canyon and the bioturbation activity of the fauna. A combined physical/biological experiment in the water column

  9. Snowflake Size Distribution Measurements in South Central Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokay, A.; Bringi, V. N.; Huang, G.; Schoenhuber, M.; Bashor, P. G.; Hudak, D.; Jackson, G. S.; Petersen, W. A.

    2007-05-01

    In support of NASA's Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission ground validation program, NASA's two laser optical disdrometers (Parsivel) and Colodaro State University (CSU) two-dimensional video disdrometer (2dvd) were deployed to a well-equipped precipitation observation site in South Central Ontario, Canada. The instruments were collocated and have been operating since late November 2006. So far, there has been numerous lake effect and synoptic winter storms over the site. In one event, parsivel disdrometers recorded 50 cm of snowfall. In addition, there have been at least 10 storms where the snow accumulation exceeded 4 cm. The leading objective of this study was to compare the parsivel and 2dvd size and fall velocity measurements for selected cases and relate the findings to the physical processes within and below the cloud. Unlike 2dvd, parsivel measures the maximum dimension of the snowflake in a single plane, while the fall velocity is calculated from the duration of the flake within the laser beam. The 2dvd samples the same flake in two planes from which fall velocity is obtained. The 2dvd also measures the maximum width and height in both planes. At the time of this abstract, two parsivels and 2dvd were operated nearly continuously for almost three months and preliminary data analysis is encouraging. The field site, which is known as Centre for Atmospheric Research Experiments (CARE), is an atmospheric research facility operated by the Air Quality Research Branch of the Meteorological Service of Canada and is located 80 km north of Toronto, Ontario, Canada in a rural agricultural and forested region. During the past three winters, a field campaign was conduced in support of Canadian CloudSat/CALIPSO validation project (c3vp). However, 2006-07 winter was the first since the satellites were in orbit. The coordinated efforts of aircraft missions over the CARE facility during the Intensive Operation Periods will enhance our understanding of cold cloud

  10. Lead shot contribution to blood lead of First Nations people: the use of lead isotopes to identify the source of exposure.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Leonard J S; Wainman, Bruce C; Martin, Ian D; Sutherland, Celine; Weber, Jean-Philippe; Dumas, Pierre; Nieboer, Evert

    2008-11-01

    Although lead isotope ratios have been used to identify lead ammunition (lead shotshell pellets and bullets) as a source of exposure for First Nations people of Canada, the actual source of lead exposure needs to be further clarified. Whole blood samples for First Nations people of Ontario, Canada, were collected from participants prior to the traditional spring harvest of water birds, as well as post-harvest. Blood-lead levels and stable lead isotope ratios prior to, and after the harvest were determined by ICP-MS. Data were analyzed by paired t-tests and Wilcoxon Signed-Ranks tests. All participants consumed water birds harvested with lead shotshell during the period of study. For the group excluding six males who were potentially exposed to other sources of lead (as revealed through a questionnaire), paired t-tests and Wilcoxon Signed-Ranks tests showed consistent results: significant (p<0.05) increases in blood-lead concentrations and blood levels of (206)Pb/(204)Pb and (206)Pb/(207)Pb towards the mean values we previously reported for lead shotshell pellets; and a significant decrease in (208)Pb/(206)Pb values towards the mean for lead shotshell pellets. However, when we categorized the group further into a group that did not use firearms and did not eat any other traditional foods harvested with lead ammunition other than waterfowl, our predictions for (206)Pb/(204)Pb, (206)Pb/(207)Pb and (208)Pb/(206)Pb hold true, but there was not a significant increase in blood-lead level after the hunt. It appears that the activity of hunting (i.e., use of a shotgun) was also an important route of lead exposure. The banning of lead shotshell for all game hunting would eliminate a source of environmental lead for all people who use firearms and/or eat wild game. PMID:18678397

  11. Multistep Charge Method by Charge Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segami, Go; Kusawake, Hiroaki; Shimizu, Yasuhiro; Iwasa, Minoru; Kibe, Koichi

    2008-09-01

    We studied reduction of the size and weight of the Power Control Unit (PCU). In this study, we specifically examined the weight of the Battery Charge Regulator (BCR), which accounts for half of the PCU weight for a low earth orbit (LEO) satellite. We found a multistep charge method by charge arrays and adopted a similar method for GEO satellites, thereby enabling the BCR reduction. We found the possibility of reducing the size and weight of PCU through more detailed design than that for a conventional PCU.BCRC1R1batterySAPower Control UnitBCRC1R1batterySAPower UnitHowever, this method decreases the state of charge (SOC) of the battery. Battery tests, a battery simulator test, and numerical analysis were used to evaluate the SOC decrease. We also studied effects of this method on the battery lifetime. The multistep charge method by charge arrays enabled charging to the same level of SOC as the conventional constant current/ constant voltage (CC/CV) charge method for a LEO satellite.

  12. Primary health care nurse practitioners in Canada.

    PubMed

    DiCenso, Alba; Auffrey, Lucille; Bryant-Lukosius, Denise; Donald, Faith; Martin-Misener, Ruth; Matthews, Sue; Opsteen, Joanne

    2007-08-01

    Canada, like many countries, is in the midst of primary health care reform. A key priority is to improve access to primary health care, especially in remote communities and areas with physician shortages. As a result, there is an increased emphasis on the integration of primary health care nurse practitioners. As of March 2006, legislation exists in all provinces and two territories in Canada that allows nurse practitioners (NPs) to implement their expanded nursing role. In this paper, we will briefly review the historical development of the NP role in Canada and situate it in the international context; describe the NP role, supply of NPs in the country, and the settings in which they work; propose an NP practice model framework; summarize facilitators and barriers to NP role implementation in primary health care delivery; and outline strategies to address the barriers. PMID:18041990

  13. Where Will LEAD Lead? An Update on My LEAD Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wildman, Louis

    Issues in the future of a federal collaborative program, Leadership in Educational Administration Development (LEAD), are discussed in this paper. Problems attributed to LEAD are its antagonistic posture to educational administration programs in higher education and political conflicts of interest. Methodology involved analysis of successful LEAD…

  14. [Immigration and labor: Australia and Canada compared].

    PubMed

    Iacovetta, F; Quinlan, M

    1995-08-01

    "Australia and Canada share...a common colonial history and many similarities in geography, economy, demography, etc., as well as a substantial anti-non anglo-celtic immigrant tradition, in spite of their being immigration countries. Those similarities and differences are analyzed here, as far as labor migration and relationships between immigrant and local labor are concerned. The arrival of European labor first, Asian later, was perceived similarly by both Australia and Canada, combining racial prejudice and unions' hostility towards contract labor migration as well as towards assisted migration. The evolution of those difficult relations through the 19th and 20th centuries is analyzed here." (SUMMARY IN ENG) PMID:12291896

  15. Satellite mobile data service for Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Egan, Glenn R.; Sward, David J.

    1990-01-01

    A commercial mobile satellite system which is to be constructed and operated in Canada is examined. This is done in two phases. First, mobile data services was introduced. Hub equipment and 3000 mobile data terminals were supplied. Over the satellite tests were performed. The mobile data service provides full two way digital messaging automatic vehicle location and fleet management services. The second phase is to construct, launch and make operational the MSAT satellite and associated network control facilities. The implementation is examined of the mobile data service in Canada, including the technical description. Marketing and applications are also examined.

  16. Satellite mobile data service for Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egan, Glenn R.; Sward, David J.

    A commercial mobile satellite system which is to be constructed and operated in Canada is examined. This is done in two phases. First, mobile data services was introduced. Hub equipment and 3000 mobile data terminals were supplied. Over the satellite tests were performed. The mobile data service provides full two way digital messaging automatic vehicle location and fleet management services. The second phase is to construct, launch and make operational the MSAT satellite and associated network control facilities. The implementation is examined of the mobile data service in Canada, including the technical description. Marketing and applications are also examined.

  17. Suicide among immigrant psychiatric patients in Canada.

    PubMed

    Chandrasena, R; Beddage, V; Fernando, M L

    1991-11-01

    Ninety-four Canadian-born psychiatric patients who committed suicide were compared with 23 foreign-born patients committing suicide in Canada. East Europeans were over-represented, and significant differences were found in the age distribution, stress, level of education, social isolation, and methods of suicide. Most foreign-born patients had come to Canada for family or economic reasons but were unemployed, with poor social integration. Employment, housing, education, social integration and a support network seem to be important in preventing these deaths. Cultural evaluation of the patient and early intervention is recommended. PMID:1756350

  18. Lead in petrol. The isotopic lead experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Facchetti, S. )

    1989-10-01

    Many studies were dedicated to the evaluation of the impact of automotive lead on the environment and to the assessment of its absorption in the human population. They can be subdivided into two groups, those based on changes of air and blood lead concentrations and those based on changes of air and blood lead isotopic compositions. According to various authors, 50-66% of the lead added to petrol is mobilized in the atmosphere, while most of the remainder adheres to the walls of the exhaust system from which it is expelled by mechanical and thermal shocks in the forms of easily sedimented particles. The fraction directly emitted by engine exhaust fumes is found in the form of fine particles, which can be transferred a long way from the emitting sources. However important the contribution of petrol lead to the total airborne lead may be, our knowledge does not permit a straightforward calculation of the percentage of petrol lead in total blood lead, which of course can also originate from other sources (e.g., industrial, natural). To evaluate this percentage in 1973, the idea of the Isotopic Lead Experiment (ILE project) was conceived to label, on a regional scale, petrol with a nonradioactive lead of an isotopic composition sufficiently different from that of background lead and sufficiently stable in time. This Account summarizes the main results obtained by the ILE project.

  19. Estimated hospitalizations attributed to norovirus and rotavirus infection in Canada, 2006-2010.

    PubMed

    Morton, V K; Thomas, M K; McEwen, S A

    2015-12-01

    Enteric viruses including norovirus and rotavirus are leading causes of gastroenteritis in Canada. However, only a small number of clinical cases are actually tested for these pathogens leading to systematic underestimation of attributed hospitalizations in administrative databases. The objective of this analysis was to estimate the number of hospitalizations due to norovirus and rotavirus in Canada. Hospitalization records for acute gastroenteritis-associated discharges at all acute-care hospitals in Canada between 2006 and 2011 were analysed. Cause-unspecified gastroenteritis hospitalizations were modelled using age-specific negative binomial models with cause-specified gastroenteritis admissions as predictors. The coefficients from the models were used to estimate the number of norovirus and rotavirus admissions. The total annual hospitalizations for rotavirus were estimated to be between 4500 and 10 000. Total annual hospitalizations for norovirus were estimated to be between 4000 and 11 000. The mean total annual cost associated with these hospitalizations was estimated to be at least $16 million for rotavirus and $21 million for norovirus (all figures in Canadian dollars). This study is the first comprehensive analysis of norovirus and rotavirus hospitalizations in Canada. These estimates provide a more complete assessment of the burden and economic costs of these pathogens to the Canadian healthcare system. PMID:25991407

  20. Smoking behaviours of current cancer patients in Canada.

    PubMed

    Liu, J; Chadder, J; Fung, S; Lockwood, G; Rahal, R; Halligan, M; Mowat, D; Bryant, H

    2016-06-01

    Evidence shows that continued smoking by cancer patients leads to adverse treatment outcomes and affects survival. Smoking diminishes treatment effectiveness, exacerbates side effects, and increases the risk of developing additional complications. Patients who continue to smoke also have a higher risk of developing a second primary cancer or experiencing a cancer recurrence, both of which ultimately contribute to poorer quality of life and poorer survival. Here, we present a snapshot of smoking behaviours of current cancer patients compared with the non-cancer patient population in Canada. Minimal differences in smoking behaviours were noted between current cancer patients and the rest of the population. Based on 2011-2014 data from the Canadian Community Health Survey, 1 in 5 current cancer patients (20.1%) reported daily or occasional smoking. That estimate is comparable to findings in the surveyed non-cancer patient population, of whom 19.3% reported smoking daily or occasionally. Slightly more male cancer patients than female cancer patients identified as current smokers. A similar distribution was observed in the non-cancer patient population. There is an urgent need across Canada to better support cancer patients in quitting smoking. As a result, the quality of patient care will improve, as will cancer treatment and survival outcomes, and quality of life for these patients. PMID:27330349

  1. Smoking behaviours of current cancer patients in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Liu, J.; Chadder, J.; Fung, S.; Lockwood, G.; Rahal, R.; Halligan, M.; Mowat, D.; Bryant, H.

    2016-01-01

    Evidence shows that continued smoking by cancer patients leads to adverse treatment outcomes and affects survival. Smoking diminishes treatment effectiveness, exacerbates side effects, and increases the risk of developing additional complications. Patients who continue to smoke also have a higher risk of developing a second primary cancer or experiencing a cancer recurrence, both of which ultimately contribute to poorer quality of life and poorer survival. Here, we present a snapshot of smoking behaviours of current cancer patients compared with the non-cancer patient population in Canada. Minimal differences in smoking behaviours were noted between current cancer patients and the rest of the population. Based on 2011–2014 data from the Canadian Community Health Survey, 1 in 5 current cancer patients (20.1%) reported daily or occasional smoking. That estimate is comparable to findings in the surveyed non-cancer patient population, of whom 19.3% reported smoking daily or occasionally. Slightly more male cancer patients than female cancer patients identified as current smokers. A similar distribution was observed in the non-cancer patient population. There is an urgent need across Canada to better support cancer patients in quitting smoking. As a result, the quality of patient care will improve, as will cancer treatment and survival outcomes, and quality of life for these patients. PMID:27330349

  2. Genetic analysis of superovulatory response of Holstein cows in Canada.

    PubMed

    Jaton, C; Koeck, A; Sargolzaei, M; Malchiodi, F; Price, C A; Schenkel, F S; Miglior, F

    2016-05-01

    Superovulation of dairy cattle is frequently used in Canada. The cost of this protocol is high, and so is the variability of the outcome. Knowing the superovulatory potential of a donor cow could influence the breeder's decision to superovulate it or not. The main objective of this study was to perform a genetic analysis for superovulatory response of Holstein cows in Canada using data recorded by Holstein Canada, and to investigate if these data could be used for genetic evaluation. Data contained the total number of embryos and the number of viable embryos from every successful flushing performed across Canada. After editing, 137,446 records of superovulation performed between 1992 and 2014 were analyzed. A univariate repeatability animal model analysis was performed for both total number of embryos and number of viable embryos. Because both data and residuals did not follow a normal distribution, records were subject to either logarithmic or Anscombe transformation. Using logarithmic transformation, heritability estimates (SE) of 0.15 (0.01) and 0.14 (0.01) were found for total number of embryos and number of viable embryos, respectively. Using Anscombe transformation, heritability estimates (SE) of 0.17 (0.01) and 0.14 (0.01) were found for total number of embryos and number of viable embryos, respectively. The genetic correlation between the 2 traits was estimated at 0.97 using logarithmic transformation and 0.95 using Anscombe transformation. Breeding values were estimated for 54,463 cows, and 3,513 sires. Only estimated breeding values of sires having a reliability higher than 40% were considered for estimated breeding values correlations with other routinely evaluated traits. The results showed that selection for a higher response to superovulation would lead to a slight decrease in milk production, but an improvement for functional traits, including all reproduction traits. In all cases, the estimated correlations are either low or modest. We conclude that

  3. Charge regulation circuit

    DOEpatents

    Ball, Don G.

    1992-01-01

    A charge regulation circuit provides regulation of an unregulated voltage supply in the range of 0.01%. The charge regulation circuit is utilized in a preferred embodiment in providing regulated voltage for controlling the operation of a laser.

  4. Biopharma business models in Canada.

    PubMed

    March-Chordà, I; Yagüe-Perales, R M

    2011-08-01

    This article provides new insights into the different strategy paths or business models currently being implemented by Canadian biopharma companies. Through a case-study methodology, seven biopharma companies pertaining to three business models were analyzed, leading to a broad set of results emerging from the following areas: activity, business model and strategy; management and human resources; and R&D, technology and innovation strategy. The three business models represented were: model 1 (conventional biotech oriented to new drug development, radical innovation and search for discoveries); model 2 (development of a technology platform, usually in proteomics and bioinformatics); and model 3 (incremental innovation, with shorter and less risky development timelines). PMID:21708279

  5. Charge exchange system

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Oscar A.

    1978-01-01

    An improved charge exchange system for substantially reducing pumping requirements of excess gas in a controlled thermonuclear reactor high energy neutral beam injector. The charge exchange system utilizes a jet-type blanket which acts simultaneously as the charge exchange medium and as a shield for reflecting excess gas.

  6. Spacecraft Charging Technology, 1980

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The third Spacecraft Charging Technology Conference proceedings contain 66 papers on the geosynchronous plasma environment, spacecraft modeling, charged particle environment interactions with spacecraft, spacecraft materials characterization, and satellite design and testing. The proceedings is a compilation of the state of the art of spacecraft charging and environmental interaction phenomena.

  7. Work-Related Child Care in Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayfield, Margie I.

    This study provides information on work-related child care programs and services in Canada today. In an overview of the subject, Chapter 1 discusses the criteria used to select programs for presentation in the study; defines work-related child care; and examines the increasing number of women in the workplace and the adaptation of the workplace to…

  8. Enriched Students Program: Nova Scotia, Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aylward, Margaret

    1987-01-01

    The Russell C. Gordon Elementary School (Nova Scotia, Canada) offers the Enriched Students Program (ESP) for academically gifted students. ESP goals include: fostering and developing individual interests of students; initiating higher level thinking skills; strengthening task commitment; stimulating creativity; promoting leadership qualities; and…

  9. Gathering Strength: Canada's Aboriginal Action Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, Ottawa (Ontario).

    Designed to renew the relationship between the Canadian government and the Aboriginal peoples of Canada, this action plan contains a statement of reconciliation, a statement of renewal, and four key objectives for action. First, renewing partnerships includes community-based healing to address the negative effects of the residential schools…

  10. Information Literacy Training in Canada's Public Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Julien, Heidi; Hoffman, Cameron

    2008-01-01

    The purposes of the study were to explore the role of Canada's public libraries in developing the public's information literacy (IL) skills, to explore current IL training practices, and to explore the perspectives and IL experiences of individuals who visit public libraries to access the Internet. This article documents the second phase of a…

  11. Health Status of Older Immigrants to Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newbold, K. Bruce; Filice, John K.

    2006-01-01

    Using the 2000/2001 Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS), this paper examines the health status of the older (aged 55[thorn]) immigrant population relative to that of non-immigrants in order to identify areas where their health statuses diverge. First, we compare the health status of older immigrants (foreign-born) aged 55 and over in Canada to…

  12. STEM Education in Canada: A Knowledge Synthesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeCoito, Isha

    2016-01-01

    Across Canada many initiatives have been initiated to generate more interest in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education; however, no single or comprehensive overview has been conducted that takes into account the impact of these STEM initiatives on teaching/learning outcomes in K-12 education. This knowledge synthesis of…

  13. Sport in Canada During the Depression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lappage, Ronald S.

    The author discusses the effect of the Great Depression upon sport in Canada. The difficulties of hockey and football teams are contrasted with the success of professional wrestling, horseracing, and bicycling. The economic plight of professional players who were not allowed to return to the "amateur" rank is discussed. Increased participation in…

  14. Echinococcus multilocularis in Urban Coyotes, Alberta, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Catalano, Stefano; Lejeune, Manigandan; Liccioli, Stefano; Verocai, Guilherme G.; Gesy, Karen M.; Jenkins, Emily J.; Kutz, Susan J.; Fuentealba, Carmen; Duignan, Padraig J.

    2012-01-01

    Echinococcus multilocularis is a zoonotic parasite in wild canids. We determined its frequency in urban coyotes (Canis latrans) in Alberta, Canada. We detected E. multilocularis in 23 of 91 coyotes in this region. This parasite is a public health concern throughout the Northern Hemisphere, partly because of increased urbanization of wild canids. PMID:23017505

  15. Careers Canada. Volume 3, Mechanical Repair Occupations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Manpower and Immigration, Ottawa (Ontario).

    This pamphlet, published by the Canadian Department of Manpower and Immigration, is the third of a Careers-Canada series and describes careers in mechanical repair occupations. The pamphlet is divided into eight major sections: (1) history and importance; (2) fields of work; (3) nature of work (this section is subdivided into automotive repair…

  16. Addiction Medicine in Canada: Challenges and Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    el-Guebaly, Nady; Crockford, David; Cirone, Sharon; Kahan, Meldon

    2011-01-01

    In Canada, the qualification of physicians is the jurisdiction of the College of Family Physicians and the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons. The Colleges have promoted the training of "generalists" in family medicine and "sophisticated generalists" among the traditional specialties, and the development of subspecialties has not been…

  17. New Markets for Private Education in Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Scott; Aurini, Janice; Quirke, Linda

    2002-01-01

    While provincial governments in Canada are increasingly regulating public schools in the name of accountability, more parents are choosing unregulated tutoring businesses or "new sector" private schools. Reasons include a competitive edge, an emphasis on cognitive development, a more personalized environment due to small teacher-student ratios,…

  18. Ethnic Bilingual Education for Canada's Minority Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillett, James Stephen

    1987-01-01

    Historical forces and factors affecting the development of Canada's bilingual programs for ethnic minorities include changing immigration policies, a decline in Anglo-conformism and growth in multiculturalism, fears about native language maintenance and second language learning, and language and cultural attitudes in second language learning. (MSE)

  19. Some Issues in Bilingual Education in Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swain, Merrill

    The basic language issues in Canada are two-fold: (1) French-Canadians are making serious attempts to maintain their native language and culture, and a move towards French unilingualism is apparent; (2) English-Canadians are showing increasing interest in becoming bilingual, mainly because they are not threatened by native language loss or by…

  20. Language and Ethnic Relations in Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberson, Stanley

    This study of contact between the French and English language groups in Canada is based on an ecological approach, emphasizing factors such as population composition, residential patterns, occupational pressures and age and sex differences rather than cultural or psychological ones. Part 1 begins with a general discussion of the problems of…

  1. Minority Language Education Rights in Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, Anwar N.

    1994-01-01

    The Supreme Court of Canada has ensured that provincial legislatures are under a compulsory obligation to take measures to provide whatever type and level of rights and services are appropriate for minority-language education for the particular number of pupils involved. (MLF)

  2. Teenage Pregnancy in Canada and Quebec

    PubMed Central

    Guilbert, Edith; Forget, Gilles

    1991-01-01

    In 1987, there were 36 694 known pregnancies in Canada among women aged 15 to 19. Although the Canadian teenage pregnancy rate decreased from 1980 to 1987, it remains three times higher than that of the industrialized country with the lowest rate. Health professionals, social workers, and educators can have an important role in preventing teenage pregnancy. PMID:21229025

  3. Reconsidering the Right to Privacy in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shade, Leslie Regan

    2008-01-01

    This article argues that post-September 11 political debates and legislation around security necessitates a reconsideration of a right to privacy in Canada. It looks at the proposal for a Canadian Charter of Privacy Rights promoted by Senator Sheila Finestone in the late 1990s and the current challenges of emergent material technologies…

  4. Sustainability in Higher Education in Atlantic Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beringer, Almut; Wright, Tarah; Malone, Leslie

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose is to ascertain the state of sustainability in higher education (SHE) in Atlantic Canada (sustainability education/curriculum; research and scholarship; operations; faculty/staff development and rewards; community outreach and service; student opportunities; and institutional mission, structure and planning).…

  5. Health claims on foods in Canada.

    PubMed

    L'abbé, Mary R; Dumais, Lydia; Chao, Eunice; Junkins, Beth

    2008-06-01

    Interest in the health effects of foods by both industry and consumers has put a spotlight on the role of health claims on foods in Canada. The current regulatory framework governing the use of different health claims on foods in Canada is described and compared with international approaches. Similarities were observed in how risk-reduction claims for serious diseases are managed in the United States, European Union and proposed by Food Standards Australia New Zealand, including the need for premarket authorization and the requirement for a high level of certainty based on the totality of evidence in substantiating this type of claim. However, approaches to permitting function claims other than those for the well-established functions of known nutrients are divergent among the jurisdictions compared. Canada also differs from other jurisdictions in not establishing core nutritional criteria for foods carrying disease risk-reduction claims. A brief overview of the status in Canada of a number of disease risk-reduction claims that have been approved in the United States, based on significant scientific agreement under the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act or through authoritative statements under the Food and Drug Administration Modernization Act, is also provided. PMID:18492861

  6. Historical Writing on Native People in Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Robin

    1982-01-01

    Reviews recent studies of native Canadian history. Because of more adequate available documentation, findings showed the most extensive work was on European-Indian contacts resulting from the fur trade. The author cites the need for more work on individual Indian cultural histories as well as a good general history of Canada's indigenous groups.…

  7. Teaching across Cultures: Canada and Qatar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prowse, Jacqueline; Goddard, J. Tim

    2010-01-01

    Findings from a comparative case study conducted in Canada and Qatar are presented in this article. The study examined the cultural context of a transnational post-secondary program offered by the Faculty of Business at a Canadian college, with campuses located in both St. John's and Doha. The instructors' perceptions of their students' cultures…

  8. Retransmission of hydrometric data in Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halliday, R. A. (Principal Investigator); Reid, I. A.

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Results have demonstrated the suitability of satellite retransmission as a means of obtaining near real time data from remote areas in Canada. Capital costs of the equipment installed at a gaging station are reasonable, and indications are that the DCPs do not require much maintenance. The potential impact on water resources data gathering activities is considerable.

  9. Closing Canada's ‘universal’ reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asghar, M.; Rogge, R.

    2015-08-01

    In reply to a post on the physicsworld.com blog about the forthcoming closure of the National Research Universal reactor at Chalk River, Ontario, Canada (“Lament for ‘the reactor that can do everything’”, 16 June, http://ow.ly/On9VN).

  10. Careers Canada. Volume 2, Clerical Occupations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Manpower and Immigration, Ottawa (Ontario).

    This pamphlet, published by the Canadian Department of Manpower and Immigration, is the second of a Careers-Canada series and describes careers in clerical occupations. The pamphlet is divided into nine major parts: (1) history and importance; (2) fields of employment; (3) nature of the work (this is subdivided into the secretarial group, the…

  11. International Reports on Literary Research: Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eakle, A. Jonathan, Comp.; Garber, Andrew M., Comp.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses research recently conducted by three Canadian researchers that involves professional practice, multicultural education, and media literacies. Details three very different studies focused on young children, providing evidence of the rich variety of research currently being undertaking in western Canada. (PM)

  12. Careers Canada. Volume 1, Careers in Construction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Manpower and Immigration, Ottawa (Ontario).

    This pamphlet, published by the Canadian Department of Manpower and Immigration, is the first of a Careers-Canada series and describes careers in construction. The pamphlet is divided into six major sections: (1) history and importance; (2) nature of the work, including planning, contracting, site preparation, roofing, finishing, plumbing; (3)…

  13. Teacher Quality in Canada. SAEE Research Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Susan M.

    This report examines the impact of teacher quality on student achievement in Canada, analyzing current research, practices, and innovations to provide a better understanding of the complexity of teaching and effective teacher deployment. The nine chapters focus on: (1) "Introduction"; (2) "Indicators of Teacher Quality" (defining teacher quality…

  14. Education in Canada. Reference Series No. 39.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canadian Dept. of External Affairs, Ottawa (Ontario).

    Each province in Canada has executive constitutional responsibility for education within its boundaries, so a single national system of education has not developed. Instead, there are distinct provincial systems that differ in organization, policies, and practices. This booklet describes those features of Canadian education common to most…

  15. Career Development in Canada: A Changing Landscape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellett, Ralph

    In Canada, responsibility for the career development delivery system is divided among federal, provincial/territorial, and municipal levels of government. Education comes under provincial/territorial jurisdiction. Career development varies across provinces and often from school to school. There are eight transition points throughout the school…

  16. VEGETATION AND POLLEN RELATIONSHIP IN EASTERN CANADA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The relationship between the vegetation and modern pollen assemblages in eastern Canada is summarized and analyzed using isopoll maps, ordination, and cluster analysis. he major vegetation zones recognized in the region are the shrub tundra, forest tundra (divided into shrub and ...

  17. Production Systems and Rural Development in Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinclair, Peter R.

    The paper examines the social structure of Canada's agricultural production. It argues that "the official development strategy is typical of state involvement in maturing capitalist economies and that, in so far as these policies are successful, they bring to an end small scale production of primary products by absorbing rural people into an…

  18. Greeks in Canada (an Annotated Bibliography).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bombas, Leonidas C.

    This bibliography on Greeks in Canada includes annotated references to both published and (mostly) unpublished works. Among the 70 entries (arranged in alphabetical order by author) are articles, reports, papers, and theses that deal either exclusively with or include a separate section on Greeks in the various Canadian provinces. (GC)

  19. Protectionist Measures in Postsecondary Ontario (Canada) TESL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jambor, Paul Z.

    2012-01-01

    TESL in Ontario, Canada, seems to be on an inauspicious path by having set up non-tariff protectionist measures in an apparent attempt to keep out a multinational TESL workforce, effectively going against the spirit of globalization. This paper highlights some of the differences between South Korean TEFL and TESL in Ontario; for the most part…

  20. Immigrant and refugee children in Canada.

    PubMed

    Beiser, M; Dion, R; Gotowiec, A; Hyman, I; Vu, N

    1995-03-01

    In view of Canada's commitment to immigration, understanding the sources of successful adaptation by immigrant and refugee children is vital. This paper reviews the literature on the mental health of migrant children and suggests an agenda for future research. PMID:7788620

  1. What Happened to Charter Schools in Canada?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mindzak, Michael

    2015-01-01

    For 20 years, charter schools have held a precarious existence in Canada. Implemented in the province of Alberta in 1994, only a handful of charter schools remain in the entire nation. In this article, I explore the ideas of school choice and charter schooling and how they have largely disappeared as educational policy issues for Canadians. While…

  2. Suggestopaedia-Canada. Information Letter, No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Racle, Gabriel

    This issue consists of the following: an article entitled "Suggestopaedia and Language Teaching, International Perspective"; an article which discusses possible adaptations of the Bulgarian Suggestopaedia - A New Method of Teaching Foreign Languages"; and bibliographical notes from Canada and Bulgaria announcing new publications on suggestopedia.…

  3. Culture and Community in Canada's Isolated Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, John; Anderson, Kirk; Jamal, Samina

    This paper presents highlights from surveys of some of Canada's most isolated schools, located in northern Labrador, Nunavut, northern Saskatchewan, and northern and interior British Columbia. Most served Inuit or other First Nations communities. Although all schools had contact by phone and most had e-mail, few were accessible by road. Five Inuit…

  4. A New College Challenges Canada's Public Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birchard, Karen

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a brand-new liberal-arts university which promises a different approach to teaching. Quest University is the first private, nonprofit, secular college in Canada. It has attracted professors with stellar credentials. Of its 79 freshmen, most are graduates of the rigorous International Baccalaureate high-school program, and…

  5. America = Las Americas. Canada, United States, Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toro, Leonor; And Others

    Written for teachers to use with migrant children in elementary grades and to highlight the many Americas, three magazines provide historical and cultural background information on Canada, the United States, and Mexico and feature biographies of Black and Hispanic leaders. Each edition has a table of contents indicating the language--Spanish…

  6. Adult Learning and Literacy in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shohet, Linda

    2001-01-01

    In Chapter Six, Linda Shohet offers a description of the adult literacy and learning system in Canada. In providing a historical overview of the development of the field, Shohet notes key political events that have influenced the funding and development of services for adults. Through her description, the author reveals the complexity and…

  7. Higher Education in Greece Compared to Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miliotis, Helen

    2014-01-01

    This paper compares and contrasts higher education in Canada and Greece. An overview of the systems in place is followed by an analysis centred on the triad of funding, access and quality. Similarities and differences are highlighted, and the current challenges and issues faced by both nations will be examined, especially in terms of world…

  8. 19 CFR 123.41 - Truck shipments transiting Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Truck shipments transiting Canada. 123.41 Section 123.41 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO United States and Canada In-Transit...

  9. Aging in Canada: State of the Art and Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheets, Debra J.; Gallagher, Elaine M.

    2013-01-01

    Canada shares many similarities with other industrialized countries around the world, including a rapidly aging population. What sets Canada uniquely apart is the collaborative approach that has been enacted in the health care system and the aging research initiatives. Canada has tremendous pride in its publicly funded health care system that…

  10. International Medical Graduates: Learning for Practice in Alberta, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockyer, Jocelyn; Hofmeister, Marianna; Crutcher, Rodney; Klein, Douglas; Fidler, Herta

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: There is little known about the learning that is undertaken by physicians who graduate from a World Health Organization-listed medical school outside Canada and who migrate to Canada to practice. What do physicians learn and what resources do they access in adapting to practice in Alberta, a province of Canada? Methods: Telephone…

  11. Labor Standards in the United States and Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Block, Richard N.; Roberts, Karen; Clarke, R. Oliver

    This volume attempts to measure and quantify 10 labor standards in the United States and Canada. Its two purposes are to begin to fill the gap in the research by developing a measure of labor standards that can be applied across countries and to apply that measure to the United States (U.S.) and Canada to test a popular hypothesis that Canada has…

  12. 19 CFR 123.41 - Truck shipments transiting Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Truck shipments transiting Canada. 123.41 Section 123.41 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CBP RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO United States and Canada In-Transit...

  13. Canada in the International Economy: A Teaching Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, William T.; Staunton, Ted, Ed.

    One of a series of teaching units designed to introduce secondary school students to the Canadian economy, this handbook contains instructional materials on Canada's role in the world economy. Ten sections contain readings and suggestions for activities related to Canadian trade, tariffs, the Canada-United States automobile pact, Canada-United…

  14. Canada: Unity in Diversity. Headline Series. No. 291.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doran, Charles, F.; Tang, Puay

    This document examines the historical, political and geographical status of Canada, its distribution of power, the Canada-U.S. Free Trade Agreement of 1989, and Canada's relations with the United States. The Meech Lake accord, a proposal designed to establish Quebec more firmly under the constitutional umbrella by granting the province distinct…

  15. PubMed Central Canada: Beyond an Open Access Repository?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nariani, Rajiv

    2013-01-01

    PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) represents a partnership between the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR), the National Research Council's Canada Institute for Scientific and Technical Information (NRC-CISTI), and the National Library of Medicine of the US. The present study was done to gauge faculty awareness about the CIHR Policy on…

  16. Can the South China Sea tell us anything about Canada Basin?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephenson, Randell; Li, Lu

    2016-04-01

    The Canada Basin (a sub-basin within the Amerasia Basin) and the South China Sea both preserve oceanic spreading centres and adjacent passive continental margins characterised by broad continent-ocean transition zones with hyper-extended continental crust. There are indications that hyper-extension in the South China Sea occurred mainly as a result of flow within a weak lower crustal layer and that it occurred both before and after plate break-up and the onset of ocean lithosphere formation at the sea-floor spreading axis. Available geophysical data from Canada Basin permit similar inferences. Both basins are about the same size and the oceanic segment in both is about the same size. Seafloor spreading in the South China Sea took place in the Cenozoic whereas in Canada Basin it is widely believed to have occurred during the Cretaceous. Widespread magmatism expressed as the High Arctic Large Igneous Province (HALIP) may or may not have played an intrinsic, linked, role in Canada Basin formation. No similar LIP is associated with the South China Sea although one mechanism proposed to have driven its formation is ascribed to mantle plume activity in its northernmost part. More conventionally the mechanism of opening of the South China Sea is considered to be "passive" rather than "active", related to plate reconfigurations in the southeast Asia region linked or not linked to the nearby collision of India and Eurasia and/or subduction of a "proto-South China Sea". The driving mechanism for opening of Canada Basin is poorly discussed in the literature but is generally ascribed to paleo-tectonic plate reconfigurations and subduction in the northern Pacific (Eurasia-North America plates) region in the Mesozoic. Can the South China Sea tell us anything about Canada Basin in terms of the pre-existing lithosphere of each and the geodynamic processes leading to its hyper-extension and eventual break-up?

  17. Theory of water and charged liquid bridges.

    PubMed

    Morawetz, K

    2012-08-01

    The phenomenon of liquid bridge formation due to an applied electric field is investigated. A solution of a charged catenary is presented, which allows one to determine the static and dynamical stability conditions where charged liquid bridges are possible. The creeping height, the bridge radius and length, as well as the shape of the bridge are calculated showing an asymmetric profile, in agreement with observations. The flow profile is calculated from the Navier-Stokes equation leading to a mean velocity, which combines charge transport with neutral mass flow and which describes recent experiments on water bridges. PMID:23005849

  18. Lead and the Romans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reddy, Aravind; Braun, Charles L.

    2010-01-01

    Lead poisoning has been a problem since early history and continues into modern times. An appealing characteristic of lead is that many lead salts are sweet. In the absence of cane and beet sugars, early Romans used "sugar of lead" (lead acetate) to sweeten desserts, fruits, and sour wine. People most at risk would have been those who consumed the…

  19. Battery charging in float vs. cycling environments

    SciTech Connect

    COREY,GARTH P.

    2000-04-20

    In lead-acid battery systems, cycling systems are often managed using float management strategies. There are many differences in battery management strategies for a float environment and battery management strategies for a cycling environment. To complicate matters further, in many cycling environments, such as off-grid domestic power systems, there is usually not an available charging source capable of efficiently equalizing a lead-acid battery let alone bring it to a full state of charge. Typically, rules for battery management which have worked quite well in a floating environment have been routinely applied to cycling batteries without full appreciation of what the cycling battery really needs to reach a full state of charge and to maintain a high state of health. For example, charge target voltages for batteries that are regularly deep cycled in off-grid power sources are the same as voltages applied to stand-by systems following a discharge event. In other charging operations equalization charge requirements are frequently ignored or incorrectly applied in cycled systems which frequently leads to premature capacity loss. The cause of this serious problem: the application of float battery management strategies to cycling battery systems. This paper describes the outcomes to be expected when managing cycling batteries with float strategies and discusses the techniques and benefits for the use of cycling battery management strategies.

  20. Lattice vibrations in lead bromide and chloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carabatos-Nédelec, C.; Bréhat, F.; Wyncke, B.

    Lead bromide and lead chloride lattice dynamics studies by polarized IR reflectivity and Raman scattering are reported at room temperature and at 10 K. Reflectivity spectra from 20 to 300 cm -1 have been fitted with a model of the factorized form of the dielectric function. The lattice modes frequencies, damping factors and oscillators strengths are given, as well as the effective charges of the polar modes. The study concludes the ionic character of the compounds.

  1. Progress Towards IYA2009 in Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hesser, James E.; Canada Committee, IYA

    2007-12-01

    We want Canadians to reconnect with the night sky through seven themes identified for national focus during IYA. Our overarching goal is to offer an engaging astronomy experience to every Canadian, with special efforts towards young people. Our partnership between the Canadian Astronomical Society, the Fédération des Astronomes Amateurs du Québec and the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada is bolstered by diverse national collaborators, e.g., planetarium and science centre communities, a national broadcaster, Canada's Aboriginal communities, the National Research Council and the Canadian Space Agency. Canada's amateur astronomers are committing magnificently to IYA and will be key to meeting our ambitious vision. We describe our themes, as well as progress towards their realization. Our vision involves many elements in common with U.S. plans, with mutual benefits arising from good liaison between the AAS and Canadian Committees. Naturally, our team is addressing responsibilities and opportunities unique to Canada. Our efforts are led by volunteers. Through programmes that create a legacy, we seek strong impact beyond 2009. We are providing activities accessible in both French and English, and are striving to leverage and strengthen existing outreach efforts wherever possible (thus avoiding reinventing the wheel and maximizing the impact of our limited resources). We are encouraging individuals to take local initiative, and are offering them moral support within the national context provided by our steering committee, as well as within the context provided by the IAU. Among examples that are described are strong efforts to involve Canada's Aboriginals, musical and arts organizations, etc., as well as our efforts to secure national exposure through, e.g., a series of postal stamps.

  2. Lead levels - blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to screen people at risk for lead poisoning. This may include industrial workers and children who ... also used to measure how well treatment for lead poisoning is working. Lead is common in the environment, ...

  3. Beam transport and space charge compensation strategies (invited).

    PubMed

    Meusel, O; Droba, M; Noll, D; Schulte, K; Schneider, P P; Wiesner, C

    2016-02-01

    The transport of intense ion beams is affected by the collective behavior of this kind of multi-particle and multi-species system. The space charge expressed by the generalized perveance dominates the dynamical process of thermalisation, which leads to emittance growth. To prevent changes of intrinsic beam properties and to reduce the intensity dependent focusing forces, space charge compensation seems to be an adequate solution. In the case of positively charged ion beams, electrons produced by residual gas ionization and secondary electrons provide the space charge compensation. The influence of the compensation particles on the beam transport and the local degree of space charge compensation is given by different beam properties as well as the ion beam optics. Especially for highly charged ion beams, space charge compensation in combination with poor vacuum conditions leads to recombination processes and therefore increased beam losses. Strategies for providing a compensation-electron reservoir at very low residual gas pressures will be discussed. PMID:26932109

  4. Beam transport and space charge compensation strategies (invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meusel, O.; Droba, M.; Noll, D.; Schulte, K.; Schneider, P. P.; Wiesner, C.

    2016-02-01

    The transport of intense ion beams is affected by the collective behavior of this kind of multi-particle and multi-species system. The space charge expressed by the generalized perveance dominates the dynamical process of thermalisation, which leads to emittance growth. To prevent changes of intrinsic beam properties and to reduce the intensity dependent focusing forces, space charge compensation seems to be an adequate solution. In the case of positively charged ion beams, electrons produced by residual gas ionization and secondary electrons provide the space charge compensation. The influence of the compensation particles on the beam transport and the local degree of space charge compensation is given by different beam properties as well as the ion beam optics. Especially for highly charged ion beams, space charge compensation in combination with poor vacuum conditions leads to recombination processes and therefore increased beam losses. Strategies for providing a compensation-electron reservoir at very low residual gas pressures will be discussed.

  5. Canada's Kids: Thriving? Or Just Surviving? = Les enfants du Canada: Se developpent-ils bien ou vivotent-ils simplement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCloskey, Donna, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    This quarterly journal issue (in English and French versions) includes the following articles: (1) "Canada's Kids: Thriving? Or Just Surviving?" (McCloskey, Donna), an overview of the latest research on the well-being of Canada's children; (2) "The Fence at the Edge of the Cliff: Approaching Family Policy in Canada" (Mirabelli, Alan), which…

  6. Comparison of the U.S. lead recycling industry in 1998 and 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilburn, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Since 1998, the structure of the lead recycling industry has changed and trade patterns of the domestic lead recycling industry have shifted. Although the domestic demand for lead has remained relatively constant since 1998, production of lead has increasingly shifted to the domestic secondary lead industry. The last primary lead smelter in the United States closed at the end of 2013, at which time the secondary lead industry became the sole source of domestic lead production. The amount of lead recovered annually from scrap batteries generally increased from about 900,000 metric tons in 1995 to more than 1,100,000 metric tons in 2012. The percentage of total U.S. lead production attributed to battery scrap increased from 65 percent in 1995 to 87 percent in 2012. Since the North American Free Trade Agreement took effect in 1994, trade patterns among the United States, Canada, and Mexico have changed for recycled lead products. In the late 1990s, the principal sources of lead waste and scrap not derived from batteries were Canada, Mexico, and South America; by 2011, the principal sources were Central America and Asia, with decreasing amounts from Canada and South America. Since 1998, the amount of lead derived from imported batteries and scrap from Canada has ranged from 50 to 90 percent, and the amount imported from Mexico has ranged from 3 to 20 percent. Canada received about 50 percent of the lead contained in spent lead-acid batteries and scrap exported from the United States in 1998, and Mexico received about 4 percent. By 2012, however, the amount of lead scrap exported to Canada had decreased to about 10 percent, and the amount of lead-based scrap products, primarily batteries, exported to Mexico from the United States had increased to 47 percent. Vertical integration of the domestic secondary lead industry and higher costs required to implement more stringent ambient air standards in the United States have led some companies to shift lead recycling

  7. Bursal depths of lesser snow and small Canada geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Higgins, K.F.

    1969-01-01

    Bursa of Fabricius depths of 88 lesser snow geese (Anser c. caerulescens) and 69 small Canada geese (Branta canadensis hutchinsii/parvipes complex) were measured. Bursal depths were unreliable indicators of age-classes of lesser snow geese and small Canada geese; previously, the same had been found to be true for large Canada geese (B. c. interior). Regression in size or closure of the bursa first occurred at 17-20 months of age (yearlings) in lesser snow geese and small Canada geese, but at 29-32 months of age (2-year-olds) in large Canada geese.

  8. Charge transport in disordered materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagorik, Adam Gerald

    This thesis is focused on on using Monte Carlo simulation to extract device relevant properties, such as the current voltage behavior of transistors and the efficiency of photovoltaics, from the hopping transport of molecules. Specifically, simulation is used to study organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) and organic photo-voltaics (OPVs). For OFETs, the current was found to decrease with increasing concentration of traps and barriers in the system. As the barrier/trap concentration approaches 100%, the current recovers as carrier begin to travel through the manifold of connected trap states. Coulomb interactions between like charges are found to play a role in removing carriers from trap states. The equilibrium current in OFETs was found to be independent of charge injection method, however, the finite size of devices leads to an oscillatory current. Fourier transforms of the electrical current show peaks that vary non-linearly with device length, while being independent of device width. This has implications for the mobility of carriers in finite sized devices. Lastly, the presence of defects and high barriers (> 0.4 eV) was found to produce negative differential resistance in the saturation region of OFET curves, unlike traps. While defects and barriers prohibit carriers from reaching the drain at high voltages, the repulsive interaction between like charged carriers pushes charges around the defects. For OPVs, the effects of device morphology and charge delocalization were studied. Fill factors increased with domain size in monolayer isotropic morphologies, but decreased for band morphologies. In single-phase systems without Coulomb interactions, astonishingly high fill factors (. 70%) were found. In multilayer OPVs,a complex interplay of domain size, connectivity, tortuosity, interface trapping, and delocalization determined efficiency.

  9. Search for Charged Higgs in CDF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    CDF Collaboration

    1996-05-01

    We present results of a search for charged Higgs production from pbarp collisions at √s=1.8 TeV at Fermilab's Tevatron collider using the CDF detector. An expanded Higgs sector containing charged Higgs bosons is a persistent feature of candidate theories to replace the Standard Model. The minimal supersymmetric extention of the Standard Model, for example, predicts that the dominant decay mode of the top quark is tarrow H+barrow τ+ν b for large values of tanβ. We use the hadronic decays of the tau lepton in this channel to set a new limit on charged Higgs production. *We thank the Fermilab staff and the technical staffs of the participating institutions for their vital contributions. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy and National Science Foundation; the Italian Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare; the Ministry of Education, Science and Culture of Japan; the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada; the National Science Council of the Republic of China; and the A. P. Sloan Foundation. Supported by U.S. NSF NSF-94-17820.

  10. Lead Surveillance Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Background on lead exposure is presented including forms of lead, sources, hematologic effects, neurologic effects, endocrine effects, renal effects, and reproductive and developmental effects. The purpose of the Lead Surveillance Program at LeRC is outlined, and the specifics of the Medical Surveillance Program for Lead Exposure at LeRC are discussed.

  11. Canadian support for population stabilization. The Rome draft Plan of Action. Dr. Jean Augustine, MP (Canada).

    PubMed

    1996-01-01

    Canada strongly believes in the central role to be played by the civil sector in the process leading to the World Food Summit. Dr. Augustine, Member of Parliament of Canada, described how the Canadian Government involved 350 national organizations over an eight-month period in the creation of the country's official position on food security. Canada has also negotiated with several other countries and international organizations on issues such as trade, human rights, the right to food, and follow-up to the Plan of Action. Dr. Augustine summarized Canada's 18 priorities for the World Food Summit. The priorities include human rights and good governance; poverty reduction; peace, security and conflict resolution; national responsibility for food security; national and global partnerships; nutrition and health; human resource development; gender equity; population stabilization; trade liberalization; agricultural adjustment to international markets; post-harvest marketing and food marketing; the role of the private sector; capacity building; environment and sustainable production; and research and technology transfer. PMID:12292041

  12. Charge Islands Through Tunneling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Daryl C.

    2002-01-01

    It has been recently reported that the electrical charge in a semiconductive carbon nanotube is not evenly distributed, but rather it is divided into charge "islands." This paper links the aforementioned phenomenon to tunneling and provides further insight into the higher rate of tunneling processes, which makes tunneling devices attractive. This paper also provides a basis for calculating the charge profile over the length of the tube so that nanoscale devices' conductive properties may be fully exploited.

  13. Battery formation charging apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, J.L.

    1987-08-04

    An apparatus is describe for charging electric storage batteries, the apparatus comprising: (a) a host computer for providing charging information to and receiving status information from at least one slave computer by means of a data link; and (b) at least one control module coupled to the slave computer for applying charging current to at least one electric storage battery in response to instructions received from the slave computer, and for providing feedback and status information to the slave computer.

  14. Human botulism in Canada (1919-1973)

    PubMed Central

    Dolman, C. E.

    1974-01-01

    Since 1919, in Canada, 62 authenticated outbreaks of human botulism have affected 181 persons, with 83 deaths, a fatality rate of 46%. Among these, 41 outbreaks were bacteriologically determined (31 in one laboratory) as six type A, four type B, one both A and B, and 30 type E. About two thirds of the total outbreaks, cases and deaths involved Eskimos and Pacific coast Indians consuming raw marine mammal products and salmon eggs, respectively. Other parts of Canada recorded seven occurrences due to miscellaneous vehicles, three being type B. Since January 1961 there have been 38 outbreaks, involving 94 cases with 33 deaths. These include 18 outbreaks among Eskimos, affecting 51 persons (of whom 24 died) in Labrador, southern Baffin Island, northern Quebec, and the Mackenzie area. Also, putrid salmon eggs caused 15 outbreaks among Pacific coast Indians, totalling 35 cases, of whom only six died, the low fatality rate reflecting the introduction of type E botulinus antitoxin during 1961. PMID:4855671

  15. Mental hospital depopulation in Canada: patient perspectives.

    PubMed

    Herman, N J; Smith, C M

    1989-06-01

    This paper reviews briefly the history of mental health depopulation in Canada over the past 30 years. The term "deinstitutionalization" is often used but is unsatisfactory. Using an exploratory, qualitative, methodological approach, data were collected on the problems encountered by a disproportionate, stratified random sample of 139 formerly institutionalized patients living in various geographical locales in Eastern Canada. Adopting a symbolic interactionist theoretical approach, this study, in an effort to fill a neglect in the literature, attempted to discover what the everyday world(s) of Canadian ex-mental patients was really like. Problems encountered related to stigma, poor housing, lack of back living skills, poverty, unemployment and aftercare. Quotations from patients are provided to illustrate such themes. The findings are discussed. PMID:2548698

  16. Alzheimer's disease and other dementias in Canada.

    PubMed

    Wong, Suzy L; Gilmour, Heather; Ramage-Morin, Pamela L

    2016-05-18

    This article provides information on Alzheimer's disease and other dementias, using the 2010/2011 Canadian Community Health Survey, the 2011/2012 Survey of Neurological Conditions in Institutions in Canada, and the 2011 Survey on Living with Neurological Conditions in Canada. Among Canadians aged 45 or older, an estimated 0.8% in private households and 45% in long-term residential care facilities had a diagnosis of dementia. Prevalence rose with age. The vast majority of people with dementia in private households received assistance with medical care (81%), housework and home maintenance (83%), meal preparation (88%), emotional support (90%), transportation (92%), and managing care (92%). Among those receiving assistance, 85% relied, at least in part, on family, friends or neighbours. The primary caregiver tended to be a spouse (46%) or an adult child (44%), most of whom were daughters (71%). The majority of primary caregivers lived in the same household (83%) and provided daily care (86%). PMID:27192206

  17. Canada invests in weather and climate monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-01-01

    Canada is investing $78.7 million over the next 5 years to improve weather and climate monitoring infrastructure, Canada's minister of the environment Peter Kent announced on 20 January. The Canadian weather radar network, which consists of 31 radar sites around the country, is slated to receive the bulk of the funding ($45.2 million) to allow existing newer-generation radars to upgrade to dual-polarization technology. Of the remainder, $18.8 million is for the Canadian weather and climate observing networks to supplement existing resources and upgrade about 250 observing stations; $10.5 million is to improve the Canadian lightning detection network; and $4.2 million is to upgrade the Canadian aerological network's navigational technology with multisensor GPS radiosonde equipment.

  18. Informed consent for videoconsultations in Canada.

    PubMed

    Chouinard, Isabelle; Scott, Richard E

    2009-01-01

    We performed a qualitative study of the practice of informed consent for videoconsultation in Canada. Fourteen cases were examined: the 13 provinces and territories, and the Federal jurisdiction representing aboriginal groups. Twenty-seven interviews were conducted with key informants (14 telehealth experts, 13 legal experts). The telehealth experts were people with direct experience of telehealth practice. The majority of the telehealth experts agreed that videoconsultations had not been integrated into the health-care system. An interesting finding of the study was that the integration status of videoconsultations was not indicative of informed consent practices. Telehealth providers favoured express written consent, or risk management practices, although there was a desire to move towards implied consent models for videoconsultations. The study also showed that the legal ramifications of the electronic transmission of non-recorded, real-time, personal health information had not been explored. This represents an important factor in guiding future consent for videoconsultations in Canada. PMID:19471027

  19. Trends in ectopic pregnancy in Canada.

    PubMed Central

    Hockin, J C; Jessamine, A G

    1984-01-01

    The incidence in Canada of one complication of sexually transmitted disease, ectopic pregnancy, was examined by age group for the years 1971 through 1980 by means of hospital statistics provided by Statistics Canada. The denominator was "reported pregnancies"--the total of live births, stillbirths, legal abortions and ectopic pregnancies in a given year. In 1980, 4123 ectopic pregnancies (9.3/1000 reported pregnancies) were reported, a 63% increase from 1970. The incidence had increased in each age stratum. This trend may be related to increasing rates of gonococcal infection and of hospitalization for pelvic inflammatory disease and lends confirmation to data from other countries that relate the increase in the rate of ectopic pregnancy to rising rates of sexually transmitted disease. PMID:6478362

  20. Aging small Canada geese by neck plumage

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Higgins, K.F.; Schoonover, L.J.

    1969-01-01

    The neck plumage method, a new technique for separating immature from adult Canada geese (Branta canadensis) in the hand, was evaluated by comparison with the notched tail feather and cloacal examination methods. Two (1.4 percent) of 141 geese examined were misaged, resulting in a 6 percent error in the immature-adult ratio obtained by the neck plumage method. The neck plumage method is a rapid aging method and reasonable accuracy (94 percent) can be obtained. It can also be used to differentiate immatures from adults on the ground at distances up to 175 yards, but was almost impossible to use when geese were in flight. As yet, the neck plumage method has only been tested on the subspecies (B. c. hutchinsii-parvipes complex) in the Tall-Grass Prairie population of small Canada geese.

  1. Postcolonial suicide among Inuit in Arctic Canada.

    PubMed

    Kral, Michael J

    2012-06-01

    Indigenous youth suicide incidence is high globally, and mostly involves young males. However, the Inuit of Arctic Canada have a suicide rate that is among the highest in the world (and ten times that for the rest of Canada). The author suggests that suicide increase has emerged because of changes stemming in part from the Canadian government era in the Arctic in the 1950s and 1960s. The effects of government intervention dramatically affected kin relations, roles, and responsibilities, and affinal/romantic relationships. Suicide is embedded in these relationships. The author also discusses the polarization between psychiatric and indigenous/community methods of healing, demonstrating that government-based intervention approaches to mental health are not working well, and traditional cultural healing practices often take place outside of the mainstream clinics in these communities. The main questions of the paper are: Who should control suicide prevention? What is the best knowledge base for suicide prevention? PMID:22392639

  2. Health Care Reform: Lessons From Canada

    PubMed Central

    Deber, Raisa Berlin

    2003-01-01

    Although Canadian health care seems to be perennially in crisis, access, quality, and satisfaction in Canada are relatively high, and spending is relatively well controlled. The Canadian model is built on a recognition of the limits of markets in distributing medically necessary care. Current issues in financing and delivering health care in Canada deserve attention. Key dilemmas include intergovernmental disputes between the federal and provincial levels of government and determining how to organize care, what to pay for (comprehensiveness), and what incentive structures to put in place for payment. Lessons for the United States include the importance of universal coverage, the advantages of a single payer, and the fact that systems can be organized on a subnational basis. PMID:12511378

  3. Charging of interplanetary grains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baragiola, R. A.; Johnson, R. E.; Newcomb, John L.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this program is to quantify, by laboratory experiments, the charging of ices and other insulators subject to irradiation with electrons, ions and ultraviolet photons and to model special conditions based on the data. The system and conditions to be studied are those relevant for charging of dust in magnetospheric plasmas. The measurements are supplemented by computer simulations of charging or grains under a variety of conditions. Our work for this period involved experiments on water ice, improved models of charging of ice grains for Saturn's E-ring, and the construction of apparatus for electron impact studies and measurements of electron energy distributions.

  4. Behavioral problems of farmed ostriches in Canada.

    PubMed Central

    Samson, J

    1996-01-01

    Ostriches farmed in Canada often have particular behavioral problems that are brought about by periods of extreme confinement during winter months. Although they still perform normal species specific behaviors such as twirling, kanteling, and kicking, abnormal behaviors become prominent when excessively confined. They include for all age groups of ostriches, feather-picking, behavioral stargazing, dietary indiscretion, pica, anorexia and adipsia, and aggression. These abnormal behaviors initiated by inadequate husbandry techniques, eventually become medical problems because of their severity. PMID:8809393

  5. Seasonal variation in anencephalus in Canada.

    PubMed Central

    Elwood, J M

    1975-01-01

    A study of the monthly numbers of stillbirths and of deaths due to anencephalus in Canada from 1954 to 1962 showed a weak tendency to a winter excess of affected births. The seasonal trend was more marked in the Prarie provinces and in Quebec than elsewhere; the maximum rate of anencephalus occurrence was in October to December in the Prairies and in British Columbia, and in January to March in other regions. PMID:1137766

  6. Acute copper toxicosis in the Canada goose.

    PubMed

    Henderson, B M; Winterfield, R W

    1975-01-01

    Acute copper toxicosis resulted in Canada geese, Branta canadensis, following ingestion of copper sulfate at about 600mg/kg from a small man-made pond on a game farm. The lesions were those associated with copper toxicosis in other avian species. The primary pathologic change was necrosis and sloughing of the proventriculus and gizzard. A greenish discoloration of the lungs also occurred. PMID:1156262

  7. Measles in Canada Between 2002 and 2013

    PubMed Central

    De Serres, Gaston; Desai, Shalini; Shane, Amanda; Hiebert, Joanne; Ouakki, Manale; Severini, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Background. In 1994, Canada committed to eliminate measles by the year 2000. This report presents the epidemiology of measles in Canada between 2002 and 2013 and its implications in sustaining measles elimination. Methods. Cases included individuals reported to the Canadian Measles and Rubella Surveillance System with confirmed measles. Results. In Canada, 1171 cases of measles were reported between 2002 and 2013 (incidence 0.29 cases per 100 000 population). The annual number of cases ranged from 6 to 752. The majority of cases were unvaccinated (63%) or had an unknown vaccination status (19%). The median age of cases was 14.4 years (range, <1 to 63 years) globally and 14 years when excluding the 2011 outbreak in Quebec where 68% of the 678 cases were 10 to 19 years old. With the exclusion of this outbreak, the incidence was highest in infants (1.0 per 100 000), lower but fairly similar between 1 and 19 years of age (0.2 to 0.4 per 100 000), and there was a substantial decline between 20 and 39 years of age (0.1 per 100 000). There was a significant trend towards a greater annual number of importations over the period. Although importations resulted in no transmission sustained for ≥12 months, 5 chains of transmission had >30 cases. The effective reproductive number between 2002 and 2013 was estimated at 0.86 (95% confidence interval, .81–.92). Conclusions. Canada has maintained elimination between 2002 and 2013, but additional efforts are needed to reduce the proportion of unimmunized individuals and respond to importation events. PMID:26110163

  8. Retransmission of hydrometric data in Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halliday, R. A. (Principal Investigator); Reid, I. A.

    1978-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The LANDSAT program has demonstrated that polar orbiting satellites can be used to relay hydrologic data from any part of Canada to a user without difficulty and at low cost. These data can be used for many operational purposes, the most important of which were identified as follows: hydroelectric power plant operation; water supply for municipalities, industries, and irrigation; navigation; flood forecasting; operation of flood control structures and systems; and recreation.

  9. Intestinal parasites in man in Labrador, Canada.

    PubMed

    Sole, T D; Croll, N A

    1980-05-01

    Labrador, a previously unsurveyed area of Canada, has been sampled for human intestinal parasites. Four hundred and one asymptomatic volunteers between 1 and 72 years of age, including Inuit, Naskapi and whites, were examined during the summer of 1977. They harboured: Entamoeba coli, E. histolytica, E. hartmanni, Giardia lamblia and Diphyllobothrium sp. The infection rates are considerably lower than those found in other studies of Northern Canadian communities. PMID:6966896

  10. Behavioral problems of farmed ostriches in Canada.

    PubMed

    Samson, J

    1996-07-01

    Ostriches farmed in Canada often have particular behavioral problems that are brought about by periods of extreme confinement during winter months. Although they still perform normal species specific behaviors such as twirling, kanteling, and kicking, abnormal behaviors become prominent when excessively confined. They include for all age groups of ostriches, feather-picking, behavioral stargazing, dietary indiscretion, pica, anorexia and adipsia, and aggression. These abnormal behaviors initiated by inadequate husbandry techniques, eventually become medical problems because of their severity. PMID:8809393

  11. Addressing Household Food Insecurity in Canada - Position Statement and Recommendations - Dietitians of Canada.

    PubMed

    2016-07-01

    POSITION STATEMENT It is the position of Dietitians of Canada that household food insecurity is a serious public health issue with profound effects on physical and mental health and social well-being. All households in Canada must have sufficient income for secure access to nutritious food after paying for other basic necessities. Given the alarming prevalence, severity and impact of household food insecurity in Canada, Dietitians of Canada calls for a pan-Canadian, government-led strategy to specifically reduce food insecurity at the household level, including policies that address the unique challenges of household food insecurity among Indigenous Peoples. Regular monitoring of the prevalence and severity of household food insecurity across all of Canada is required. Research must continue to address gaps in knowledge about household vulnerability to food insecurity and to evaluate the impact of policies developed to eliminate household food insecurity in Canada. Dietitians of Canada recommends: Development and implementation of a pan-Canadian government-led strategy that includes coordinated policies and programs, to ensure all households have consistent and sufficient income to be able to pay for basic needs, including food. Implementation of a federally-supported strategy to comprehensively address the additional and unique challenges related to household food insecurity among Indigenous Peoples, including assurance of food sovereignty, with access to lands and resources, for acquiring traditional/country foods, as well as improved access to more affordable and healthy store-bought/market foods in First Nation reserves and northern and remote communities. Commitment to mandatory, annual monitoring and reporting of the prevalence of marginal, moderate and severe household food insecurity in each province and territory across Canada, including among vulnerable populations, as well as regular evaluation of the impact of poverty reduction and protocols for

  12. Cancer mortality in Italian migrants to Canada.

    PubMed

    Geddes, M; Balzi, D; Buiatti, E; Brancker, A; Parkin, D M

    1994-02-28

    The present study reports on the analysis of cancer mortality in Italian first-generation migrants resident in Canada, deceased in the period between 1964-1985 (5,801 males: 3,267 females). Mortality in migrants is compared to that of the host population as well as to that in the migrants' country of origin. This is carried out both on a national level (Italy), and on a regional level with those regions that have made the greatest contribution to the Italian migratory flow (Southern Italy). Compared with the Canada-born population, significantly higher risks were evident for nasopharynx, stomach, liver and gallbladder tumors in migrants. Lower risks were observed for the oral cavity, esophagus, colon, rectum, pancreas (females), larynx, lung, melanoma, breast, ovary, prostate, bladder (females), and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in migrants. This is consistent with that evidenced in the comparison between Italy and Canada. The data are discussed in relation to the results of other studies on Italian migrants and the prevalence of main risk factors. PMID:8191592

  13. Climate impacts on northern Canada: introduction.

    PubMed

    Furgal, Chris; Prowse, Terry

    2009-07-01

    There is significant evidence that northern Canada's climate has already undergone substantial change. These changes have meant significant impacts for physical, natural and human systems in Canada's North. Climate models suggest that such trends will continue into the future, and therefore shifts in Arctic systems are expected for some time to come. This introductory paper is the first in a series published in two issues of Ambio presenting work conducted for northern chapters of two recent Canadian national climate science assessment initiatives, From Impacts to Adaptation: Canada in a Changing Climate 2007 and Human Health in a Changing Climate: A Canadian Assessment of Vulnerabilities and Adaptive Capacity. Collectively, these assessments involved the work of 24 scientists with expertise in a variety of disciplines and regions in the Canadian North. These assessment processes adopted aspects of a vulnerability approach to climate assessment, primarily through a review of existing and projected exposures and elements of adaptive capacity based on existing literature. In so doing, they have contributed towards a more comprehensive understanding of climate impacts and adaptations across the northern regions of the country. This paper provides an overview and introduction to the series of papers contained in the two issues of Ambio. PMID:19714956

  14. Evolution of thoracic surgery in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Deslauriers, Jean; Griffith Pearson, F; Nelems, Bill

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Canada’s contributions toward the 21st century’s practice of thoracic surgery have been both unique and multilayered. Scattered throughout are tales of pioneers where none had gone before, where opportunities were greeted by creativity and where iconic figures followed one another. OBJECTIVE: To describe the numerous and important achievements of Canadian thoracic surgeons in the areas of surgery for pulmonary tuberculosis, thoracic oncology, airway surgery and lung transplantation. METHOD: Information was collected through reading of the numerous publications written by Canadian thoracic surgeons over the past 100 years, interviews with interested people from all thoracic surgery divisions across Canada and review of pertinent material form the archives of several Canadian hospitals and universities. RESULTS: Many of the developments occurred by chance. It was the early and specific focus on thoracic surgery, to the exclusion of cardiac and general surgery, that distinguishes the Canadian experience, a model that is now emerging everywhere. From lung transplantation in chimera twin calves to ex vivo organ preservation, from the removal of airways to tissue regeneration, and from intensive care research to complex science, Canadians have excelled in their commitment to research. Over the years, the influence of Canadian thoracic surgery on international practice has been significant. CONCLUSIONS: Canada spearheaded the development of thoracic surgery over the past 100 years to a greater degree than any other country. From research to education, from national infrastructures to the regionalization of local practices, it happened in Canada.

  15. Canada geese in the Atlantic Flyway

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hestbeck, Jay B.

    1995-01-01

    Overall, the total number of wintering geese reaching a peak of 955,000 in 1981 and has since declined 40% to 569,000 in 1993. Compounding these distributional changes in wintering numbers, the subspecies composition has also changed. The Canada goose population is composed of migrant geese (primarily B.c. canadensis and B.c. interior) that breed in the subarctic regions of Canada and resident geese (primarily B.c. maxima and B.c. moffitti) that breed in southern Canada and the United States (Stotts 1983). The number of resident geese in Maine to Virginia has increased considerable from maybe 50,000 to 100,000 in 1981 (Conover and Chasko 1985) to an average of 560,000 in 1992-93 (H. Heusman, Massachusetts Division of Fisheries and Wildlife, personal communication). This rapid increase in resident geese suggests that the migrant population has declined more than the 40% decline observed in total wintering geese from 1981 to 1993.

  16. Fertility Adaptation of Child Migrants to Canada

    PubMed Central

    Adsera, Alicia; Ferrer, Ana

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzes the fertility behavior of immigrant women arriving to Canada before age 19 using the 20 per cent sample of the Canadian Census from 1991 through 2006. Findings show that fertility increases with age at immigration, and is particularly high for those immigrating in their late teens. This pattern prevails regardless of the country of origin or whether the mother tongue of the migrant is an official language in Canada or not. We do not find a ‘critical age’ at which the behavior of migrants with and without official mother tongue start to diverge by more, even though the fertility of migrants without official mother tongue is always higher on average. Formal education matters as the fertility of immigrants who arrived to Canada before adulthood and graduated from college is similar to that of their native peers regardless of their age of arrival. However, the fertility of those with less than tertiary education increasingly diverges with age at migration from similarly educated Canadians. PMID:23800074

  17. Urban Air Quality Forecasting in Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlovic, Radenko; Menard, Sylvain; Cousineau, Sophie; Stroud, Craig; Moran, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Environment and Climate Change Canada has been providing air quality (AQ) forecasts for major Canadian urban centers since 2001. Over this period, the Canadian AQ Forecast Program has expanded and evolved. It currently uses the Regional Air Quality Deterministic Prediction System (RAQDPS) modelling framework. At the heart of the RAQDPS is the GEM-MACH model, an on-line coupled meteorology‒chemistry model configured for a North American domain with 10 km horizontal grid spacing and 80 vertical levels. A statistical post-processing model (UMOS-AQ) is then applied to the RAQDPS hourly forecasts for locations with AQ monitors to reduce point forecast bias and error. These outputs provide the primary guidance from which operational meteorologists disseminate Air Quality Health Index (AQHI) forecasts to the public for major urban centres across Canada. During the 2015 summer Pan Am and Parapan Am Games, which were held in Ontario, Canada, an experimental version of the RAQDPS at 2.5 km horizontal grid spacing was run for a domain over the greater Toronto area. Currently, there is ongoing research to develop and assess AQ systems run at 1 km resolution. This presentation will show analyses of operational AQ forecast performance for several pollutants over the last few years in major Canadian urban centres such as Toronto, Montreal, Vancouver, Ottawa, and Calgary. Trends in observed pollution along with short- and long-term development plans for urban AQ forecasting will also be presented.

  18. Toxicokinetics of bone lead.

    PubMed Central

    Rabinowitz, M B

    1991-01-01

    This article discusses bone as a source of lead to the rest of the body and as a record of past lead exposure. Bone lead levels generally increase with age at rates dependent on the skeletal site and lead exposure. After occupational exposure, the slow decline in blood lead, a 5- to 19-year half-life, reflects the long skeletal half-life. Repeated measurements of bone lead demonstrate the slow elimination of lead from bone. Stable isotope ratios have revealed many details of skeletal uptake and subsequent release. The bulk turnover rates for compact bone are about 2% per year and 8% for spine. Turnover activity varies with age and health. Even though lead approximates calcium, radium, strontium, barium, fluorine, and other bone seekers, the rates for each are different. A simple, two-pool (bone and blood) kinetic model is presented with proposed numerical values for the changes in blood lead levels that occur with changes in turnover rates. Two approaches are offered to further quantify lead turnover. One involves a study of subjects with known past exposure. Changes in the ratio of blood lead to bone lead with time would reflect the course of bone lead availability. Also, stable isotopes and subjects who move from one geographical area to another offer opportunities. Sequential isotope measurements would indicate how much of the lead in blood is from current exposure or bone stores, distinct from changes in absorption or excretion. PMID:2040248

  19. Coronary Sinus Lead Extraction.

    PubMed

    Cronin, Edmond M; Wilkoff, Bruce L

    2015-12-01

    Expanded indications for cardiac resynchronization therapy and the increasing incidence of cardiac implantable electronic device infection have led to an increased need for coronary sinus (CS) lead extraction. The CS presents unique anatomical obstacles to successful lead extraction. Training and facility requirements for CS lead extraction should mirror those for other leads. Here we review the indications, technique, and results of CS lead extraction. Published success rates and complications are similar to those reported for other leads, although multiple techniques may be required. Re-implantation options may be limited, which should be incorporated into pre-procedural decision making. PMID:26596810

  20. Charge-Transfer Versus Charge-Transfer-Like Excitations Revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Barry; Sun, Haitao; Govind, Niranjan; Kowalski, Karol; Autschbach, Jochen

    2015-07-14

    Criteria to assess charge-transfer (CT) and `CT-like' character of electronic excitations are examined. Time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) with non-hybrid, hybrid, and tuned long-range corrected (LC) functionals is compared with with coupled-cluster (CC) benchmarks. The test set includes an organic CT complex, two `push-pull' donor-acceptor chromophores, a cyanine dye, and several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Proper CT is easily identified. Excitations with significant density changes upon excitation within regions of close spatial proximity can also be diagnosed. For such excitations, the use of LC functionals in TDDFT sometimes leads to dramatic improvements of the singlet energies, similar to proper CT, which has led to the concept of `CT-like' excitations. However, `CT-like' excitations are not like charge transfer, and the improvements are not obtained for the right reasons. The triplet excitation energies are underestimated for all systems, often severely. For the `CT-like' candidates, when going from a non-hybrid to an LC functional the error in the singlet-triplet (S/T) separation changes from negative to positive, providing error compensation. For the cyanine, the S/T separation is too large with all functionals, leading to the best error compensation for non-hybrid functionals.

  1. Space charge effect in isochronous rings

    SciTech Connect

    Pozdeyev,E.; Rodriguez, J.A.; Marti, F.; York, R.

    2008-08-25

    Cyclotrons, rings for precise nuclear mass spectrometry, and some light sources with extremely short bunches are operated or planned to be operated in the isochronous or almost isochronous regime. Also, many hadron synchrotrons run in the isochronous regime for a short period of time during transition crossing. The longitudinal motion is frozen in the isochronous regime that leads to accumulation of the integral of the longitudinal space charge force. In low-gamma hadron machines, this can cause a fast growth of the beam energy spread even at modest beam intensities. Additionally, the transverse component of the space charge effectively modifies the dispersion function and the slip factor shifting the isochronous (transition) point. In this paper, we discuss space charge effects in the isochronous regime and present experimental results obtained in the Small Isochronous Ring, developed at Michigan State University specifically for studies of space charge in the isochronous regime.

  2. Immigration in two federations: Canada and Australia.

    PubMed

    Atchison, J

    1988-03-01

    The need for increasingly widespread application of a policy or program, settlement, and multiculturalism is urgent in both Canada and Australia. For both countries there is a clear pattern of coalescence and divergence and the distinct growth of immigration as a federal function. While Australia has strengthened federal functions in a area of increasingly geo-political need, Canada is moving towards a looser model of federalism. By 1918 both countries were strengthening their federal functions in immigration as discussions within the British Empire on the recommendations of the 1917 Dominions Royal Commission took root. Both countries were interested in agricultural immigration and land settlement. The Great Depression caused a major reduction in population growth rates. From 1933-1948 Canada had a poor record of providing sanctuary for Jews. In Australia, however, Jewish voluntary agencies were aiding the reception of refugees by 1937. The 1st permanent embodiment of commonwealth jurisdiction over immigration was the establishment of an Immigration Branch within the Department of Interior around 1938. Australia needed extra population for defense. The major structural link between government and the immigrant communities was through the Good Neighbor Movement, which began on a nationwide basis in 1950. Both Canada and Australia are major receiving countries for refugees. In 1973 Australia reached the position of effective, practical nondiscrimination achieved by Canada in 1967. Prime Minister Trudeau's policy was multiculturalism within a framework of bilingualism. By 1978 Australia had a new federalism policy, which in all areas concerned with immigrants, refugees and ethnicity, rationalized resources allocation and imposed a political philosophy. The foci of multiculturalism in Australia are 1) community languages; 2) creation of a tolerant, non-discriminatory society; and 3) equity and participation. In 1978 Australia specified population replacement and

  3. Ocean Networks Canada's "Big Data" Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewey, R. K.; Hoeberechts, M.; Moran, K.; Pirenne, B.; Owens, D.

    2013-12-01

    Ocean Networks Canada operates two large undersea observatories that collect, archive, and deliver data in real time over the Internet. These data contribute to our understanding of the complex changes taking place on our ocean planet. Ocean Networks Canada's VENUS was the world's first cabled seafloor observatory to enable researchers anywhere to connect in real time to undersea experiments and observations. Its NEPTUNE observatory is the largest cabled ocean observatory, spanning a wide range of ocean environments. Most recently, we installed a new small observatory in the Arctic. Together, these observatories deliver "Big Data" across many disciplines in a cohesive manner using the Oceans 2.0 data management and archiving system that provides national and international users with open access to real-time and archived data while also supporting a collaborative work environment. Ocean Networks Canada operates these observatories to support science, innovation, and learning in four priority areas: study of the impact of climate change on the ocean; the exploration and understanding the unique life forms in the extreme environments of the deep ocean and below the seafloor; the exchange of heat, fluids, and gases that move throughout the ocean and atmosphere; and the dynamics of earthquakes, tsunamis, and undersea landslides. To date, the Ocean Networks Canada archive contains over 130 TB (collected over 7 years) and the current rate of data acquisition is ~50 TB per year. This data set is complex and diverse. Making these "Big Data" accessible and attractive to users is our priority. In this presentation, we share our experience as a "Big Data" institution where we deliver simple and multi-dimensional calibrated data cubes to a diverse pool of users. Ocean Networks Canada also conducts extensive user testing. Test results guide future tool design and development of "Big Data" products. We strive to bridge the gap between the raw, archived data and the needs and

  4. Very Low Head Turbine Deployment in Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemp, P.; Williams, C.; Sasseville, Remi; Anderson, N.

    2014-03-01

    The Very Low Head (VLH) turbine is a recent turbine technology developed in Europe for low head sites in the 1.4 - 4.2 m range. The VLH turbine is primarily targeted for installation at existing hydraulic structures to provide a low impact, low cost, yet highly efficient solution. Over 35 VLH turbines have been successfully installed in Europe and the first VLH deployment for North America is underway at Wasdell Falls in Ontario, Canada. Deployment opportunities abound in Canada with an estimated 80,000 existing structures within North America for possible low-head hydro development. There are several new considerations and challenges for the deployment of the VLH turbine technology in Canada in adapting to the hydraulic, environmental, electrical and social requirements. Several studies were completed to determine suitable approaches and design modifications to mitigate risk and confirm turbine performance. Diverse types of existing weirs and spillways pose certain hydraulic design challenges. Physical and numerical modelling of the VLH deployment alternatives provided for performance optimization. For this application, studies characterizing the influence of upstream obstacles using water tunnel model testing as well as full-scale prototype flow dynamics testing were completed. A Cold Climate Adaptation Package (CCA) was developed to allow year-round turbine operation in ice covered rivers. The CCA package facilitates turbine extraction and accommodates ice forces, frazil ice, ad-freezing and cold temperatures that are not present at the European sites. The Permanent Magnet Generator (PMG) presents some unique challenges in meeting Canadian utility interconnection requirements. Specific attention to the frequency driver control and protection requirements resulted in a driver design with greater over-voltage capability for the PMG as well as other key attributes. Environmental studies in Europe included fish friendliness testing comprised of multiple in

  5. Nuclear Charge Radii Systematics

    SciTech Connect

    Marinova, Krassimira

    2015-09-15

    This paper is a brief overview of the existing systematics on nuclear mean square charge radii, obtained by a combined analysis of data from different types of experiment. The various techniques yielding data on nuclear charge radii are summarized. Their specific feature complexities and the accuracy and precision of the obtained information are also discussed.

  6. Deformation properties of lead isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolokonnikov, S. V.; Borzov, I. N.; Lutostansky, Yu. S.; Saperstein, E. E.

    2016-01-01

    The deformation properties of a long lead isotopic chain up to the neutron drip line are analyzed on the basis of the energy density functional (EDF) in the FaNDF0 Fayans form. The question of whether the ground state of neutron-deficient lead isotopes can have a stable deformation is studied in detail. The prediction of this deformation is contained in the results obtained on the basis of the HFB-17 and HFB-27 Skyrme EDF versions and reported on Internet. The present analysis reveals that this is at odds with experimental data on charge radii and magnetic moments of odd lead isotopes. The Fayans EDF version predicts a spherical ground state for all light lead isotopes, but some of them (for example, 180Pb and 184Pb) prove to be very soft—that is, close to the point of a phase transition to a deformed state. Also, the results obtained in our present study are compared with the predictions of some other Skyrme EDF versions, including SKM*, SLy4, SLy6, and UNE1. By and large, their predictions are closer to the results arising upon the application of the Fayans functional. For example, the SLy4 functional predicts, in just the same way as the FaNDF0 functional, a spherical shape for all nuclei of this region. The remaining three Skyrme EDF versions lead to a deformation of some light lead isotopes, but their number is substantially smaller than that in the case of the HFB-17 and HFB-27 functionals. Moreover, the respective deformation energy is substantially lower, which gives grounds to hope for the restoration of a spherical shape upon going beyond the mean-field approximation, which we use here. Also, the deformation properties of neutron-rich lead isotopes are studied up to the neutron drip line. Here, the results obtained with the FaNDF0 functional are compared with the predictions of the HFB-17, HFB-27, SKM*, and SLy4 Skyrme EDF versions. All of the EDF versions considered here predict the existence of a region where neutron-rich lead isotopes undergo

  7. CETA and pharmaceuticals: impact of the trade agreement between Europe and Canada on the costs of prescription drugs.

    PubMed

    Lexchin, Joel; Gagnon, Marc-André

    2014-01-01

    On a per capita basis, Canadian drug costs are already the second highest in the world after the United States and are among the fastest rising in the Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development. The Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (CETA) between the European Union (EU) and Canada will further exacerbate the rise in costs by:  Committing Canada to creating a new system of patent term restoration thereby delaying entry of generic medicines by up to two years; Locking in Canada's current term of data protection, and creating barriers for future governments wanting to reverse it;  Implementing a new right of appeal under the patent linkage system that will create further delays for the entry of generics.CETA will only affect intellectual property rights in Canada-not the EU. This analysis estimates that CETA's provisions will increase Canadian drug costs by between 6.2% and 12.9% starting in 2023. The Canadian government committed to compensating provinces for the rise in costs for their public drug plans. Importantly, this means that people paying out-of-pocket for their drugs or receiving them through private insurance, will be charged twice: once through higher drug costs and once more through their federal taxes.As drug costs continue to grow, there are limited options available for provincial/territorial governments: restrict the choice of medicines in public drug plans; transfer costs to patients who typically are either elderly or sick; or take money from other places in the health system, and threaten the viability of Canada's single payer system. CETA will therefore negatively impact the ability of Canada to offer quality health care. PMID:24885309

  8. Rain Drop Charge Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    S, Sreekanth T.

    begin{center} Large Large Rain Drop Charge Sensor Sreekanth T S*, Suby Symon*, G. Mohan Kumar (1) , S. Murali Das (2) *Atmospheric Sciences Division, Centre for Earth Science Studies, Thiruvananthapuram 695011 (1) D-330, Swathi Nagar, West Fort, Thiruvananthapuram 695023 (2) Kavyam, Manacaud, Thiruvananthapuram 695009 begin{center} ABSTRACT To study the inter-relations with precipitation electricity and precipitation microphysical parameters a rain drop charge sensor was designed and developed at CESS Electronics & Instrumentation Laboratory. Simultaneous measurement of electric charge and fall speed of rain drops could be done using this charge sensor. A cylindrical metal tube (sensor tube) of 30 cm length is placed inside another thick metal cover opened at top and bottom for electromagnetic shielding. Mouth of the sensor tube is exposed and bottom part is covered with metal net in the shielding cover. The instrument is designed in such a way that rain drops can pass only through unhindered inside the sensor tube. When electrically charged rain drops pass through the sensor tube, it is charged to the same magnitude of drop charge but with opposite polarity. The sensor tube is electrically connected the inverted input of a current to voltage converter operational amplifier using op-amp AD549. Since the sensor is electrically connected to the virtual ground of the op-amp, the charge flows to the ground and the generated current is converted to amplified voltage. This output voltage is recorded using a high frequency (1kHz) voltage recorder. From the recorded pulse, charge magnitude, polarity and fall speed of rain drop are calculated. From the fall speed drop diameter also can be calculated. The prototype is now under test running at CESS campus. As the magnitude of charge in rain drops is an indication of accumulated charge in clouds in lightning, this instrument has potential application in the field of risk and disaster management. By knowing the charge

  9. Lead and tap water

    MedlinePlus

    Water contaminated with lead ... The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) monitors drinking water in the United States. It requires water suppliers to produce annual water quality reports. These reports include information about lead amounts, and they ...

  10. VOLUMETRIC LEAD ASSAY

    SciTech Connect

    M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.; S.K. Dua; David Roelant; Sachin Kumar

    2001-01-01

    This report describes a system for handling and radioassay of lead, consisting of a robot, a conveyor, and a gamma spectrometer. The report also presents a cost-benefit analysis of options: radioassay and recycling lead vs. disposal as waste.

  11. Lead - nutritional considerations

    MedlinePlus

    ... lead soldered cans goes into effect. If imported wine containers have a lead foil wrapper, wipe the ... a towel moistened with lemon juice, vinegar, or wine before using. DO NOT store wine, spirits, or ...

  12. Lead - nutritional considerations

    MedlinePlus

    ... found in some containers and cooking utensils . Old paint poses the greatest danger for lead poisoning , especially ... leach out into the liquid. Other important recommendations: Paint over old leaded paint if it is in ...

  13. Lead and tap water

    MedlinePlus

    Water contaminated with lead ... The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) monitors drinking water and requires water suppliers to produce annual water quality reports. These reports, which include information about lead amounts, are available to consumers. For ...

  14. Charged topological entanglement entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuura, Shunji; Wen, Xueda; Hung, Ling-Yan; Ryu, Shinsei

    2016-05-01

    A charged entanglement entropy is a new measure which probes quantum entanglement between different charge sectors. We study symmetry-protected topological (SPT) phases in (2+1)-dimensional space-time by using this charged entanglement entropy. SPT phases are short-range entangled states without topological order and hence cannot be detected by the topological entanglement entropy. We demonstrate that the universal part of the charged entanglement entropy is nonzero for nontrivial SPT phases and therefore it is a useful measure to detect short-range entangled topological phases. We also discuss that the classification of SPT phases based on the charged topological entanglement entropy is related to that of the braiding statistics of quasiparticles.

  15. Charging black Saturn?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chng, Brenda; Mann, Robert; Radu, Eugen; Stelea, Cristian

    2008-12-01

    We construct new charged static solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell field equations in five dimensions via a solution generation technique utilizing the symmetries of the reduced Lagrangian. By applying our method on the multi-Reissner-Nordström solution in four dimensions, we generate the multi-Reissner-Nordström solution in five dimensions. We focus on the five-dimensional solution describing a pair of charged black objects with general masses and electric charges. This solution includes the double Reissner-Nordström solution as well as the charged version of the five-dimensional static black Saturn. However, all the black Saturn configurations that we found contain either a conical or naked singularity. We also obtain a non-extremal configuration of charged black strings that reduces in the extremal limit to a Majumdar-Papapetrou like solution in five dimensions.

  16. Transplacental transport of lead

    SciTech Connect

    Goyer, R.A. )

    1990-11-01

    Neurotoxicity is the major health effect from exposure to lead for infants and young children, and there is current concern regarding possible toxic effects of lead on the child while in utero. there is no placental-fetal barrier to lead transport. Maternal and fetal blood lead levels are nearly identical, so lead passes through the placenta unencumbered. Lead has been measured in the fetal brain as early as the end of the first trimester (13 weeks). There is a similar rate of increase in brain size and lead content throughout pregnancy in the fetus of mothers in the general population, so concentration of lead probably does not differ greatly during gestation unless exposure of the mother changes. Cell-specific sensitivity to the toxic effects of lead, however, may be greater the younger the fetus. Lead toxicity to the nervous system is characterized by edema or swelling of the brain due to altered permeability of capillary endothelial cells. Experimental studies suggest that immature endothelial cells forming the capillaries of the developing brain are less resistant to the effects of lead, permitting fluid and cations including lead to reach newly formed components of the brain, particularly astrocytes and neurons. Also, the ability of astrocytes and neurons to sequester lead in the form of lead protein complexes occurs only in the later stages of fetal development, permitting lead in maturing brain cells to interact with vital subcellular organelles, particularly mitochondria, which are the major cellular energy source. Intracellular lead also affects binding sites for calcium which, in turn, may affect numerous cell functions including neurotransmitter release.

  17. Solving the lead dilemma

    SciTech Connect

    Pollack, S. )

    1989-10-01

    This paper discusses the widespread problem of lead poisoning among children. The perils of deleading are addressed and several methods of deleading currently in use are detailed and analyzed. These include the traditional method of burning or sanding off leaded paint, the Baltimore Model involving extensive refabrication of infected dwellings, and encapsulation by which leaded surfaces in the home are covered to prevent the escape of lead dust.

  18. PHOTOEMISSION PROPERTIES OF LEAD.

    SciTech Connect

    SMEDLEY,J.; RAO,T.; WARREN,J.; SEKUTOWICZ,J.; LEFFERTS,R.; LIPSKI,A.

    2004-07-05

    In this paper we present a study of the photoemission properties of lead at several UV wavelengths, including a study of the damage threshold of electroplated lead under laser cleaning. A quantum efficiency in excess of 0.1% has been achieved for a laser cleaned, electroplated lead sample with a laser wavelength of 193 nm. Niobium cathodes have been measured for comparison, and lead is found to be a superior photoemitter for all measured wavelengths.

  19. Lead Poisoning in Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pueschel, Siegfried M., Ed.; Linakis, James G., Ed.; Anderson, Angela C., Ed.

    The magnitude of childhood lead poisoning has been inexplicably neglected by modern medicine and by legislators. However, since the 1970s, increased attention has been focused on lead poisoning, and advances have been made in several areas, including understanding of the neurodevelopmental and behavioral ramifications of lead poisoning, and…

  20. Lead Poisoning (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Lead Poisoning KidsHealth > For Parents > Lead Poisoning Print A A ... Family en español La intoxicación por plomo About Lead Poisoning If you have young kids, it's important to ...

  1. Lead Poisoning in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boeckx, Roger L.

    1986-01-01

    Urban children are exposed to lead through the air they breathe, the water they drink, and the food and nonfood substances they ingest. The history, diagnosis, and treatment of lead poisoning in these children are discussed. Includes information on the toxicology of lead and the various risk classes. (JN)

  2. Lead Poisoning in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drummond, A. H., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Early symptoms of lead poisoning in children are often overlooked. Lead poisoning has its greatest effects on the brain and nervous system. The obvious long-term solution to the lead poisoning problem is removal of harmful forms of the metal from the environment. (JN)

  3. Learn about Lead

    MedlinePlus

    ... Determine if your family is at risk for lead poisoning with the Lead Poisoning Home Checklist (PDF) . Top of page What do I do if I think my child or I have been exposed to lead? Talk to your pediatrician, general physician, or local ...

  4. Lead and children

    PubMed Central

    Abelsohn, Alan R.; Sanborn, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    Abstract OBJECTIVE To provide family physicians with a practical, evidence-based approach to screening for and preventing children’s exposure to lead. SOURCES OF INFORMATION MEDLINE was searched using terms relevant to lead exposure and poisoning. We reviewed English-language articles published in 2003 to 2008. Most cited studies provide level 2 or 3 evidence. MAIN MESSAGE Lead is a developmental neurotoxin. Children are most commonly exposed and they are most vulnerable. Lead exposure has been associated with many cognitive and motor deficits, as well as distractibility and other characteristics of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Although children’s blood lead levels have declined considerably over the past 3 decades with removal of lead from gasoline and paint, children can still be exposed to lead from lead paint in older homes, toys, and other sources. Because post-exposure treatment cannot reverse the cognitive effects of lead exposure, preventing lead exposure is essential. CONCLUSION Family physicians have an important role in screening for children at high risk of lead exposure, and in educating families to prevent the exposure of children to lead. PMID:20547517

  5. Lead poisoning: An overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gendel, Neil

    1993-01-01

    A problem that should be of great concern to all of us is the lead poisoning of children. First, I would like to present a short overview concerning the reasons everyone should care about lead poisoning, then discuss the history of lead poisoning, what is happening today across the country, and the future.

  6. Lead Poisoning in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guyaux, Susan

    1990-01-01

    Overexposure to lead can permanently impair a child's mental and physical development. This article discusses sources of lead paint, survey and testing methods, management and abatement plans, drinking water contamination, and associated federal standards. Although lead is present in soil and in art, theater, and vocational programs, no federal…

  7. Charge-exchange collisions in the low-velocity regime between multiply charged ions and atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Andersson, L.R. )

    1993-06-05

    Close-coupling calculations using a full quantum mechanical molecular-orbital model have been carried out for low-energy charge-exchange collisions with multiply charged ions. Trajectory effects at eV/amu energies are exemplified by the isotope-dependence of the charge-exchange cross sections and the polarization-induced enhancement of the capture probability in O[sup 5+]--H(D) collisions. An unfavorable comparison with experimental differential cross sections for Ar[sup 6+]--He collisions leads to a discussion of transfer-excitation caused by configuration mixing in the Ar[sup 5+] capture states.

  8. Lead-acid battery construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowlette, John J. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    The power characteristics of a lead-acid battery are improved by incorporating a dispersion of 1 to 10% by weight of a thermodynamically stable conductivity additive, such as conductive tin oxide coated glass fibers (34) of filamentary glass wool (42) in the positive active layer (32) carried on the grid (30) of the positive plate (16). The avoiding of positive plate reversal to prevent reduction of the tin oxide is accomplished by (a) employing an oversized positive plate and pre-charging it; (b) by pre-discharging the negative plate; and/or (c) by placing a circuit breaker (26) in combination with the plates (16, 18) and terminals (22, 24) to remove the load when the voltage of the positive plate falls below a pre-selected level.

  9. Hyperbranched lead selenide nanowire networks.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jia; Peng, Hailin; Chan, Candace K; Jarausch, Konrad; Zhang, Xiao Feng; Cui, Yi

    2007-04-01

    Lead chalcogenide nanostructures are good potential candidates for applications in multiexciton solar cells, infrared photodetectors, and electroluminescence devices. Here we report the synthesis and electrical measurements of hyperbranched PbSe nanowire networks. Hyperbranched PbSe nanowire networks are synthesized via a vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism. The branching is induced by continuously feeding the PbSe reactant with the vapor of a low-melting-point metal catalyst including In, Ga, and Bi. The branches show very regular orientation relationships: either perpendicular or parallel to each other. The diameter of the individual NWs depends on the size of the catalyst droplets, which can be controlled by the catalyst vapor pressure. Significantly, the hyperbranched networks can be grown epitaxially on NaCl, a low-cost substrate for future device array applications. Electrical measurements across branched NWs show the evolution of charge carrier transport with distance and degree of branching. PMID:17348716

  10. Climate Change and Malaria in Canada: A Systems Approach

    PubMed Central

    Berrang-Ford, L.; MacLean, J. D.; Gyorkos, Theresa W.; Ford, J. D.; Ogden, N. H.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the potential for changes in imported and autochthonous malaria incidence in Canada as a consequence of climate change. Drawing on a systems framework, we qualitatively characterize and assess the potential direct and indirect impact of climate change on malaria in Canada within the context of other concurrent ecological and social trends. Competent malaria vectors currently exist in southern Canada, including within this range several major urban centres, and conditions here have historically supported endemic malaria transmission. Climate change will increase the occurrence of temperature conditions suitable for malaria transmission in Canada, which, combined with trends in international travel, immigration, drug resistance, and inexperience in both clinical and laboratory diagnosis, may increase malaria incidence in Canada and permit sporadic autochthonous cases. This conclusion challenges the general assumption of negligible malaria risk in Canada with climate change. PMID:19277107

  11. Canada's first fixed-site aircraft noise monitoring system

    SciTech Connect

    Standen, N.M.

    1982-01-01

    The nature of aircraft noise management in Canada as it is presently evolving is discussed. The population of aircraft operating in Canada is similar to most western nations with regard to aircraft type. Canada's airport system includes major airports owned and operated by the federal Department of Transport (Transport Canada), airports owned and operated by provinces, municipalities or local commissions, and privately owned and operated airports, largely catering to general aviation. In addition, there are airports which are owned by Transport Canada, but operated by another agency. The consequence of this arrangement is that the major jet transport traffic is handled by airports which are owned and operated by either Transport Canada or another government agency.

  12. Climate change and malaria in Canada: a systems approach.

    PubMed

    Berrang-Ford, L; Maclean, J D; Gyorkos, Theresa W; Ford, J D; Ogden, N H

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the potential for changes in imported and autochthonous malaria incidence in Canada as a consequence of climate change. Drawing on a systems framework, we qualitatively characterize and assess the potential direct and indirect impact of climate change on malaria in Canada within the context of other concurrent ecological and social trends. Competent malaria vectors currently exist in southern Canada, including within this range several major urban centres, and conditions here have historically supported endemic malaria transmission. Climate change will increase the occurrence of temperature conditions suitable for malaria transmission in Canada, which, combined with trends in international travel, immigration, drug resistance, and inexperience in both clinical and laboratory diagnosis, may increase malaria incidence in Canada and permit sporadic autochthonous cases. This conclusion challenges the general assumption of negligible malaria risk in Canada with climate change. PMID:19277107

  13. Lead in the environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pattee, O.H.; Pain, D.J.

    2003-01-01

    Anthropogenic uses of lead have probably altered its availability and environmental distribution more than any other toxic element. Consequently, lead concentrations in many living organisms may be approaching thresholds of toxicity for the adverse effects of lead. Such thresholds are difficult to define, as they vary with the chemical and physical form of lead, exposure regime, other elements present and also vary both within and between species. The technological capability to accurately quantify low lead concentrations has increased over the last decade, and physiological and behavioral effects have been measured in wildlife with tissue lead concentrations below those previously considered safe for humans.s.236 Consequently. lead criteria for the protection of wildlife and human health are frequently under review, and 'thresholds' of lead toxicity are being reconsidered. Proposed lead criteria for the protection of natural resources have been reviewed by Eisler. Uptake of lead by plants is limited by its generally low availability in soils and sediments, and toxicity may be limited by storage mechanisms and its apparently limited translocation within most plants. Lead does not generally accumulate within the foliar parts of plants, which limits its transfer to higher trophic levels. Although lead may concentrate in plant and animal tissues, no evidence of biomagnification exists. Acid deposition onto surface waters and soils with low buffering capacity may influence the availability of lead for uptake by plants and animals, and this may merit investigation at susceptible sites. The biological significance of chronic low-level lead exposure to wildlife is sometimes difficult to quantify. Animals living in urban environments or near point sources of lead emission are inevitably subject to greater exposure to lead and enhanced risk of lead poisoning. Increasingly strict controls on lead emissions in many countries have reduced exposure to lead from some sources

  14. Interaction of bacterial wall with electrically charged solid substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajaev, Vladimir

    2015-11-01

    Recent experimental studies indicate that the electrically charged substrates can exhibit antibacterial properties above a certain threshold value of the charge density. To explain these observations, we develop a mathematical model of interaction between a bacterial wall, described as a charge-regulating surface, and a charged solid substrate. Viscous flow in the aqueous film separating the two surfaces is described by a lubrication-type equation. Electrical charge transport is incorporated into the model and coupled to the flow. The complex interplay between charge transport, electrostatic interaction of the surfaces, and viscous flow leads to criteria for the critical charge density needed to achieve antibacterial properties for a range of different types of harmful bacteria.

  15. Thermodynamics of emergent magnetic charge screening in artificial spin ice.

    PubMed

    Farhan, Alan; Scholl, Andreas; Petersen, Charlotte F; Anghinolfi, Luca; Wuth, Clemens; Dhuey, Scott; Chopdekar, Rajesh V; Mellado, Paula; Alava, Mikko J; van Dijken, Sebastiaan

    2016-01-01

    Electric charge screening is a fundamental principle governing the behaviour in a variety of systems in nature. Through reconfiguration of the local environment, the Coulomb attraction between electric charges is decreased, leading, for example, to the creation of polaron states in solids or hydration shells around proteins in water. Here, we directly visualize the real-time creation and decay of screened magnetic charge configurations in a two-dimensional artificial spin ice system, the dipolar dice lattice. By comparing the temperature dependent occurrence of screened and unscreened emergent magnetic charge defects, we determine that screened magnetic charges are indeed a result of local energy reduction and appear as a transient minimum energy state before the system relaxes towards the predicted ground state. These results highlight the important role of emergent magnetic charges in artificial spin ice, giving rise to screened charge excitations and the emergence of exotic low-temperature configurations. PMID:27581972

  16. Folding without charges

    PubMed Central

    Kurnik, Martin; Hedberg, Linda; Danielsson, Jens; Oliveberg, Mikael

    2012-01-01

    Surface charges of proteins have in several cases been found to function as “structural gatekeepers,” which avoid unwanted interactions by negative design, for example, in the control of protein aggregation and binding. The question is then if side-chain charges, due to their desolvation penalties, play a corresponding role in protein folding by avoiding competing, misfolded traps? To find out, we removed all 32 side-chain charges from the 101-residue protein S6 from Thermus thermophilus. The results show that the charge-depleted S6 variant not only retains its native structure and cooperative folding transition, but folds also faster than the wild-type protein. In addition, charge removal unleashes pronounced aggregation on longer timescales. S6 provides thus an example where the bias toward native contacts of a naturally evolved protein sequence is independent of charges, and point at a fundamental difference in the codes for folding and intermolecular interaction: specificity in folding is governed primarily by hydrophobic packing and hydrogen bonding, whereas solubility and binding relies critically on the interplay of side-chain charges. PMID:22454493

  17. Lead and uranium group abundances in cosmic rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yadav, J. S.; Perelygin, V. P.

    1985-01-01

    The importance of Lead and Uranium group abundances in cosmic rays is discussed in understanding their evolution and propagation. The electronic detectors can provide good charge resolution but poor data statistics. The plastic detectors can provide somewhat better statistics but charge resolution deteriorates. The extraterrestrial crystals can provide good statistics but with poor charge resolution. Recent studies of extraterrestrial crystals regarding their calibration to accelerated uranium ion beam and track etch kinetics are discussed. It is hoped that a charge resolution of two charge units can be achieved provided an additional parameter is taken into account. The prospects to study abundances of Lead group, Uranium group and superheavy element in extraterrestrial crystals are discussed, and usefulness of these studies in the light of studies with electronic and plastic detectors is assessed.

  18. Stability of highly-charged Reissner-Nordström black holes to charged scalar perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hod, Shahar

    2015-02-01

    The stability of Reissner-Nordström black holes under the influence of neutral perturbation fields was proved by Moncrief four decades ago. However, the superradiant scattering phenomenon, which characterizes the dynamics of charged bosonic fields in these charged black-hole spacetimes, imposes a greater and nontrivial threat on their stability. According to this well-known phenomenon, integer-spin charged fields interacting with a Reissner-Nordström black hole can be amplified (gain energy) by extracting some of the black-hole Coulomb energy. If, in addition to being electrically charged, the incident bosonic fields also possess nonzero rest masses, then the mutual gravitational attraction between the central black hole and the fields may prevent the extracted energy and electric charge from escaping to infinity. One may suspect that the physical mechanism of superradiant amplification of charged bosonic fields in the charged Reissner-Nordström black-hole spacetime, when combined with the confinement mechanism provided by the mutual gravitational attraction between the black hole and the massive fields, may lead to a superradiant instability of the Reissner-Nordström black-hole spacetime. (This suspicion is mainly based on our experience with rotating Kerr black holes, which are known to be characterized by an analogous superradiant instability when coupled to massive bosonic fields.) However, in this paper we show that, for highly-charged Reissner-Nordström black holes in the charge interval 8 /9 <(Q/M ) 2<1 , the two physical mechanisms which are required in order to trigger the superradiant instability phenomenon in the black-hole spacetime [namely: (1) the superradiant amplification of incident charged scalar fields by the charged black hole, and (2) the existence of a binding potential well in the black-hole exterior region which prevents the extracted energy and electric charge from escaping to infinity] cannot operate simultaneously. In particular, we

  19. Prior Learning Assessment in Canada: A Credit to Workforce Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Roberta; Van Kleef, Joy

    1997-01-01

    Describes the implementation of Prior Learning Assessment (PLA) at many educational institutions across Canada. Suggests that PLA should be incorporated into every skills training and upgrading program. (JOW)

  20. The formation and continuance of lesbian families in Canada.

    PubMed

    Foster, Deborah

    2005-01-01

    What makes a lesbian family? It has been said that the last few decades have seen a "lesbian baby boom" as reproductive choices have opened up for lesbians; but has this been true for lesbians in Canada? This article explores how lesbian families have formed and grown in Canada since the 1970s. It looks at the various types of lesbian families in Canada and explores lesbians' past and current access to reproductive technologies and adoption across Canada. Current Canadian literature is presented, including information on lesbians' and their families' experience with the medical profession. PMID:16482703

  1. Formaldehyde concentration in discharge from land based aquaculture facilities in Atlantic Canada.

    PubMed

    Lalonde, Benoit A; Ernst, William; Garron, Christine

    2015-04-01

    Formaldehyde is used in freshwater aquaculture facilities in the Maritimes region of Canada to prevent external parasites and is discharged without treatment to freshwater receiving environments. In this study, formaldehyde was measured at effluent outfalls and 100 m downstream of four land based aquaculture facilities at various post-treatment time intervals. Concentrations of formaldehyde ranged from 0.2 to 7.1 mg/L. Based on Environment Canada's environmental no effect value, all of the samples show a potential risk to aquatic life. Furthermore, based on a chronic aquatic life water quality criterion of 1.61 mg/L all but two of the samples had concentrations considered to be toxic to aquatic life. An acute water quality criteria was only exceeded once in all of the environmental measurements of formaldehyde. These results lead us to hypothesize that the discharge of formaldehyde from land-based facilities may cause adverse chronic impacts. PMID:25687360

  2. The great transformation: a long-run perspective on physical well-being in Canada.

    PubMed

    Cranfield, John; Inwood, Kris

    2007-07-01

    During the 19th century the physical stature of the Canadian-born stagnated or declined slightly in spite of a substantial increase in income. Stature varied regionally within Canada. The Quebec population was especially short; men in the Atlantic coastal region were taller than their low incomes would lead us to expect. Heights increased dramatically in the 20th Century. The pattern of long-run change is consistent with evidence of age-specific mortality and with the relationship between income and physical well-being envisaged by Preston [Preston, S., 1975. The changing relationship between mortality and the level of economic development. Popul. Stud. 29, 231-248]. The transition from stagnant or declining stature to secular increase points to a dramatic shift ca. 1900 in the evolution of the physical standard of living in Canada. PMID:17369002

  3. Pachybrachis (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Cryptocephalinae) of Eastern Canada

    PubMed Central

    Barney, Robert J.; LeSage, Laurent; Savard, Karine

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Seventeen Pachybrachis species occurring in eastern Canada [Ontario (ON), Québec (QC), New Brunswick (NB), Nova Scotia (NS), and Prince Edward Island (PE)] are treated by the authors. Two new national records were discovered, both from southernmost Ontario: P. cephalicus Fall and P. luctuosus Suffrian. Four species were new provincial records: P. cephalicus (ON), P. luctuosus (ON, QC), P. obsoletus Suffrian (NB), P. peccans (PE). A fully illustrated key to the Pachybrachis of eastern Canada is provided and supported with extensive photographs, distribution maps, and plant associations. Three species were distributed from southern Ontario into at least one province in the Maritimes (P. nigricornis (Say), P. obsoletus Suffrianand P. peccans Suffrian). Six species were distributed along the shores of the Great Lakes (Erie, Michigan, and Ontario) and rivers (Ottawa, Saguenay and St. Lawrence), but unknown from central and northern ON and QC (P. bivittatus (Say), P. hepaticus hepaticus (F. E. Melsheimer), P. othonus othonus (Say), P. pectoralis (F. E. Melsheimer), P. spumarius Suffrianand P. trinotatus (F. E. Melsheimer)). Seven species were rare, five being found exclusively from southern ON (P. calcaratus Fall, P. cephalicus, P. luridus (Fabricius), P. subfasciatus (J. E. LeConte)and P. tridens (F. E. Melsheimer)), with two having, in addition, a disjunct population in QC (P. atomarius (F. E. Melsheimer)and P. luctuosus). One species was found to be the northern most extension of an eastern United States (US) distribution into the eastern townships of QC (P. m-nigrum (F. E. Melsheimer)). There were no Pachybrachis that could be considered arctic, subarctic, or boreal species; no specimens were found from Labrador and Newfoundland, and all species had southern affinities. Pachybrachis atomarius, P. calcaratus, P. luridus, P. subfaciatus, and P. tridens, not seen over the last 30–70 years, may be extirpated from eastern Canada. PMID:24163583

  4. Space Radar Image of Victoria, Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This three-frequency spaceborne radar image shows the southern end of Vancouver Island on the west coast of Canada. The white area in the lower right is the city of Victoria, the capital of the province of British Columbia. The three radar frequencies help to distinguish different land use patterns. The bright pink areas are suburban regions, the brownish areas are forested regions, and blue areas are agricultural fields or forest clear-cuts. Founded in 1843 as a fur trading post, Victoria has grown to become one of western Canada's largest commercial centers. In the upper right is San Juan Island, in the state of Washington. The Canada/U.S. border runs through Haro Strait, on the right side of the image, between San Juan Island and Vancouver Island. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) on October 6, 1994, onboard the space shuttle Endeavour. The area shown is 37 kilometers by 42 kilometers (23 miles by 26 miles) and is centered at 48.5 degrees north latitude, 123.3 degrees west longitude. North is toward the upper left. The colors are assigned to different radar frequencies and polarizations as follows: red is L-band horizontally transmitted and received; green is C-band, vertically transmitted and received; and blue is X-band, vertically transmitted and received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth program.

  5. Epidemiology of hepatitis B in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jun; Zou, Shimian; Giulivi, Antonio

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To provide a current and comprehensive review of the epidemiology of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in Canada. DATA SOURCES: Published and unpublished epidemiological studies and surveillance reports of the past decade, primarily from Canada were studied. Fifty reports addressing HBV surveillance, incidence and prevalence, transmission-associated risk factors, co-infections, and prevention strategies were reviewed. DATA SYNTHESIS: HBV infection is an important vaccine-preventable infectious disease in Canada. The incidence rate of clinically recognized, acute HBV infection in 1998/1999 was estimated to be 2.3/100,000 people or approximately 700 cases a year. The prevalence of HBV carriers is estimated to be 0.5% to 1.0% of the population, but varies substantially according to population-specific risk factors. Most acute HBV infections are associated with injection drug use or high risk heterosexual activities, but 20% to 30% of acute cases did not report any identified risk factors. Surveillance activities such as the National Notifiable Disease Reporting system provide information regarding trends and risk factors. The primary preventive strategy for HBV consists of universal immunization for preadolescents and/or infants. Other strategies, such as the universal prenatal screening and postnatal immunization, and the prevention of nosocomial acquistion, are also important. The recently described hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) escape mutants may not be detected by current HBsAg test assays, and the existing HBV vaccines may not protect vaccinees from infections by such mutants. CONCLUSION: Ongoing surveillance and research are required to assess risk factors for HBV transmission, evaluate the effectiveness of immunization programs and monitor the impact of HBsAg escape mutants. PMID:18159361

  6. Sedimentation in Canada Basin, Western Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosher, D. C.; Shimeld, J.; Jackson, R.; Hutchinson, D. R.; Chapman, B.; Chian, D.; Childs, J. R.; Mayer, L. A.; Edwards, B. D.; Verhoef, J.

    2010-12-01

    The Canada Basin of the western Arctic Ocean is the least studied ocean basin on Earth. Marine seismic field programs were conducted during the past 5 years in order to study the geology, sedimentary history and geomorphology of the region. As part of this program, five annual icebreaker expeditions acquired bathymetric, seismic reflection and seismic refraction data on a regional scale. More than 12,000 km of multi-channel seismic reflection data and 120 sonobuoy seismic refraction records over abyssal plain and continental rise regions of Canada Basin, Northwind Ridge and Alpha Ridge were acquired. The success of these programs was achieved through novel technical modifications to equipment to permit towing in heavy ice conditions and through collaboration between multiple Canadian and US agencies and institutions, enabling utilization of two ice breakers during seismic and multibeam data acquisition in heavy ice. The seafloor of the Canada Basin is remarkably flat-lying in its central region, with little bathymetric change over most of its extent. The sedimentary succession is generally flat lying with reflections extending over hundreds of km. These reflections onlap bathymetric highs, such as Alpha and Northwind ridges. The sedimentary succession is thickest in the Beaufort Sea region, reaching more than 6.5 km, and generally thins to the north and west. Reflection characteristics suggest that sediment volume input to the Arctic Ocean has been high and dominated by turbidity current deposition, similar to Amundsen and Nansen Basins of the eastern Arctic. These turbidites originate from the eastern and southern continental margins. There is no evidence of contemporaneous or post-depositional reworking by bottom currents. Additionally, there is little evidence of tectonic deformation after primary basin-forming events except in the NE quadrant, nearer Alpha Ridge. In this area, there is significant normal faulting propagating from basement through much of the

  7. Climate impacts on northern Canada: regional background.

    PubMed

    Prowse, Terry D; Furgal, Chris; Bonsal, Barrie R; Peters, Daniel L

    2009-07-01

    Understanding the implications of climate change on northern Canada requires a background about the size and diversity of its human and biogeophysical systems. Occupying an area of almost 40% of Canada, with one-third of this contained in Arctic islands, Canada's northern territories consist of a diversity of physical environments unrivaled around the circumpolar north. Major ecozones composed of a range of landforms, climate, vegetation, and wildlife include: Arctic, boreal and taiga cordillera; boreal and taiga plains; taiga shield; and northern and southern Arctic. Although generally characterized by a cold climate, there is an enormous range in air temperature with mean annual values being as high as -5 degrees C in the south to as low as -20 degrees C in the high Arctic islands. A similar contrast characterizes precipitation, which can be > 700 mm y(-1) in some southern alpine regions to as low as 50 mm y(-1) over islands of the high Arctic. Major freshwater resources are found within most northern ecozones, varying from large glaciers or ice caps and lakes to extensive wetlands and peat lands. Most of the North's renewable water, however, is found within its major river networks and originates in more southerly headwaters. Ice covers characterize the freshwater systems for multiple months of the year while permafrost prevails in various forms, dominating the terrestrial landscape. The marine environment, which envelops the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, is dominated by seasonal to multiyear sea ice often several meters thick that plays a key role in the regional climate. Almost two-thirds of northern Canadian communities are located along coastlines with the entire population being just over 100 000. Most recent population growth has been dominated by an expansion of nonaboriginals, primarily the result of resource development and the growth of public administration. The economies of northern communities, however, remain quite mixed with traditional land

  8. Electrodeposited nanostructured lead dioxide as a thin film electrode for a lightweight lead-acid battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egan, D. R. P.; Low, C. T. J.; Walsh, F. C.

    Thin films of nanostructured lead dioxide are investigated as a positive electrode material for a lightweight lead-acid battery. The films are obtained by constant current deposition from electrolytes of lead methanesulfonate in methanesulfonic acid. The films are tested in two conditions namely (a) cyclic voltammetry and (b) constant current battery cycling in sulfuric acid. The charge and discharge current density, charge density and charge efficiency are measured as a function of cycle number. The effect of deposition conditions, such as solution temperature (295 and 333 K), type of substrate and electrolyte additive (hexadecyltrimethylammonium hydroxide), on the electrochemical performance of the PbO 2 in sulfuric acid is investigated. It is found that the as-deposited lead dioxide film is compact and nanostructured β-phase structure. Following successive cycling in sulfuric acid, the compact thin film gradually transforms into a porous microstructure consisting of positive active material (PbO 2 and PbSO 4), several tens of nanometres size. The charge density, discharge density and peak discharge current density of the PbO 2 improve with cycling of the thin film electrode.

  9. Bound charges and currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herczyński, Andrzej

    2013-03-01

    Bound charges and currents are among the conceptually challenging topics in advanced courses on electricity and magnetism. It may be tempting for students to believe that they are merely computational tools for calculating electric and magnetic fields in matter, particularly because they are usually introduced through abstract manipulation of integral identities, with the physical interpretation provided a posteriori. Yet these charges and currents are no less real than free charges and currents and can be measured experimentally. A simpler and more direct approach to introducing this topic, suggested by the ideas in the classic book by Purcell and emphasizing the physical origin of these phenomena, is proposed.

  10. Take Charge of Your Health: A Guide for Teenagers

    MedlinePlus

    ... less grouchy and restless. Stay charged up all day Skipping meals can lead to weight gain. Follow ... friends. Stay active indoors, too. Be active every day Physical activity should be part of your daily ...

  11. Lead-acid battery with improved cycle life and increased efficiency for lead leveling application and electric road vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winsel, A.; Schulz, J.; Guetlich, K. F.

    1983-11-01

    Lifetime and efficiency of lead acid batteries are discussed. A gas lift pump was used to prevent acid stratification and to reduce the charging factor (down to 1.03 to 1.05). A re-expansion method was applied and an expander depot and a compound separation were built in. Cycle life is increased from 700 cycles to 1690 cycles. Efficiency is increased by energy and time saving due to the reduced charging factor and by the use of a recombination stopper and a charge indicator with remote control. It is suggested that the lead acid system is still one of the best possibilities for electric road vehicle applications.

  12. Amp-hour counting charge control for photovoltaic hybrid power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hund, T.D.; Thompson, B.

    1997-10-01

    An amp-hour counting battery charge control algorithm has been defined and tested using the Digital Solar Technologies MPR-9400 microprocessor based photovoltaic hybrid charge controller. This work included extensive laboratory and field testing of the charge algorithm on vented lead-antimony and valve regulated lead-acid batteries. The test results have shown that with proper setup amp-hour counting charge control is more effective than conventional voltage regulated sub-array shedding in returning the lead-acid battery to a high state of charge.

  13. Progress on the NEPTUNE Canada Seismograph Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, G. C.; Meldrum, R. D.; Heesemann, M.; Mulder, T. L.; Brillon, C. D.; Cassidy, J. F.

    2012-12-01

    NEPTUNE Canada is the world's first deep-sea regional multi-disciplinary scientific cabled ocean observatory. In the fall of 2007 an 800 kilometer ring of powered fiber optic cable was laid on the seafloor over the northern part of the Juan de Fuca plate and connected to a shore facility near Port Alberni on Vancouver Island. In September 2009, three broadband OBS packages were deployed in the form of a large triangle with apexes at mid plate near ODP 1027 (water depth of 2654m) and two sites on the continental slope, near ODP 889 (1256m) and Barkley Canyon (396m). The broadband systems comprise a broadband seismometer and strong motion accelerometer in a spherical titanium case surficially buried in a caisson backfilled with glass beads. Noise levels observed are as expected with the spectra being similar to, or quieter than, coastal seismograph stations in approximately the 10 to 20 second period range. The OBS's have higher noise levels at longer periods where ocean swells and the resultant infragravity waves dominate the noise spectra, and in the 1-10 Hz bandwidth typically used for locating local earthquakes. The shallowest site at Barkley Canyon has the highest noise levels. A small array, about 6 km in maximum dimension, is under construction on the Endeavour segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge to record earthquake activity in the vicinity of the many NEPTUNE Canada multi-disciplinary ridge experiments. Two short period instruments were installed there in 2010. A broadband instrument and two additional short period instruments are planned to complete the initial ridge array. Even though the NEPTUNE Canada seismograph network is not yet complete, measured by the use of its data, it is a success already. The data are routinely used along with data from land seismographs of the Canadian National Seismograph Network for locating earthquakes in the region. However, the smallest seismic arrivals picked on the land stations cannot be routinely picked on the OBS

  14. Genesee Phase 3, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Peltier, R.

    2005-08-01

    Genesee Phase 3 is Canada's first supercritical power plant and, at 450 MW, is significant not only for its low levels of greenhouse gas emissions, made possible by the use of supercritical technology and emissions off-sets. It also marks the North American debut of a boiler, derived from a proven 500-MW-class Hitachi reference plant, that operates at sliding pressure. The key benefits of operating in this mode are high efficiency, operating flexibility, and reliability. This boiler design may well migrate to the US in the very near future. 6 figs.

  15. Cronkhite Canada syndrome: a new hypothesis.

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, K; Anthony, P P; Miller, D S; Warin, A P

    1985-01-01

    The occurrence of Cronkhite Canada syndrome in a 78 year old man is described. The presence of total gastrointestinal mucosal atrophy with nail loss is reported for the first time. It is suggested that the polyps represent residues of aged cells with no absorptive function and that the condition results from the loss of normal proliferative stimuli or acquired resistance to them. The primary biochemical abnormality may be in the affected epithelia but the changes here could alternatively be secondary to failure of synthesis or release of growth factors. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:3996943

  16. ACCC's Response to Industry Canada's Consultation on Improving Canada's Digital Advantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Canadian Community Colleges, 2010

    2010-01-01

    As the national and international voice representing over 150 publicly-funded colleges, institutes, polytechnics, cegeps, university colleges and universities with a college mandate, the Association of Canadian Community Colleges (ACCC) welcomes the opportunity to provide input to Industry Canada's consultation on a Digital Economy Strategy for…

  17. Models of Community Learning Networks in Canada = Modeles de reseaux d'apprentissage communautaires au Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Resources Development Canada, Hull (Quebec). Office of Learning Technologies.

    Canada-based community learning networks (CLNs) were examined to provide an operational definition of CLNs, design a framework for their review and analysis, and identify best practices in CLNs. Data were collected from three sources: interviews with 16 key stakeholders in CLNs, literature review, and case studies of five Canadian CLNs. The…

  18. Educational Policy and Planning. Canada I. Review of Educational Policies in Canada: Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    This is the first volume of a six-volume review of educational practices and policies in Canada. This is an introduction that provides a general overview of the constitutional, statistical, operational, and organizational background of education in the nation. The subsequent volumes deal with education in four geographical regions and the…

  19. Educational Policy and Planning. Canada VI. Review of Educational Policies in Canada: Western Region.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    The final volume in a series on educational policy and planning in Canada, this review concentrates on the western provinces--British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba. Sections of the document discuss the educational foundations of the Canadian west; the educational system as it was in 1974--its purposes and institutions, attendance,…

  20. Response to Industry Canada's Consultation Paper "Seizing Canada's Moment: Moving Forward in Science, Technology and Innovation"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Wayne D.; Turk, James L.

    2014-01-01

    According to these authors, Canada is in need of a new science policy and strategy. The current direction of the federal government is threatening to impede scientific progress and compromise the integrity and independence of public science. This is reflected in the government's waning commitment to funding basic research; its attempts to steer…

  1. Canada's Campaign for Immigrants and the Images in "Canada West" Magazine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Detre, Laura A.

    2004-01-01

    One of the major challenges that Canadian government officials felt they faced at the end of the nineteenth century was the development of the prairie West. By this time there were large urban centers in eastern Canada, but many Canadians worried that they had not truly ensured the future existence of their country. To do this the government…

  2. Active Canada 20/20: A physical activity plan for Canada.

    PubMed

    Spence, John C; Faulkner, Guy; Costas Bradstreet, Christa; Duggan, Mary; Tremblay, Mark S

    2016-01-01

    Physical inactivity is a pressing public health concern. In this commentary we argue that Canada's approach to increasing physical activity (PA) has been fragmented and has lacked coordination, funding and a strategic approach. We then describe a potential solution in Active Canada 20/20 (AC 20/20), which provides both a national plan and a commitment to action from non-government and public sectors with a view to engaging corporate Canada and the general public. It outlines a road map for initiating, coordinating and implementing proactive initiatives to address this prominent health risk factor. The identified actions are based on the best available evidence and have been endorsed by the majority of representatives in the relevant sectors. The next crucial steps are to engage all those involved in public health promotion, service provision and advocacy at the municipal, provincial and national levels in order to incorporate AC 20/20 principles into practice and planning and thus increase the PA level of every person in Canada. Further, governments, as well as the private, not-for-profit and philanthropic sectors, should demonstrate leadership and continue their efforts toward providing the substantial and sustained resources needed to recalibrate Canadians' habitual PA patterns; this will ultimately improve the overall health of our citizens. PMID:26986905

  3. The Canadian Experience: Leading the Way

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pungente, John J.; Duncan, Barry; Anderse, Neil

    2005-01-01

    Media literacy educators from the United States regularly pay homage to their colleagues in Canada. Canadians have talked about, thought about, taught about, and written about media literacy for many years. Canada first hosted a World Conference in media literacy in Guelph, Ontario, in 1990, and all provinces in Canada now include media literacy…

  4. Small bright charged colloidal quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Qin, Wei; Liu, Heng; Guyot-Sionnest, Philippe

    2014-01-28

    Using electrochemical charge injection, the fluorescence lifetimes of negatively charged core/shell CdTe/CdSe QDs are measured as a function of core size and shell thickness. It is found that the ensemble negative trion lifetimes reach a maximum (∼4.5 ns) for an intermediate shell thickness. This leads to the smallest particles (∼4.5 nm) with the brightest trion to date. Single dot measurements show that the negative charge suppresses blinking and that the trion can be as bright as the exciton at room temperature. In contrast, the biexciton lifetimes remain short and exhibit only a monotonous increase with shell thickness, showing no correlation with the negative trion decays. The suppression of the Auger process in small negatively charged CdTe/CdSe quantum dots is unprecedented and a significant departure from prior results with ultrathick CdSe/CdS core/shell or dot-in-rod structures. The proposed reason for the optimum shell thickness is that the electron-hole overlap is restricted to the CdTe core while the electron is tuned to have zero kinetic energy in the core for that optimum shell thickness. The different trend of the biexciton lifetime is not explained but tentatively attributed to shorter-lived positive trions at smaller sizes. These results improve our understanding of multiexciton recombination in colloidal quantum dots and may lead to the design of bright charged QDs for more efficient light-emitting devices. PMID:24350673

  5. Benchmark Airport Charges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    de Wit, A.; Cohn, N.

    1999-01-01

    The Netherlands Directorate General of Civil Aviation (DGCA) commissioned Hague Consulting Group (HCG) to complete a benchmark study of airport charges at twenty eight airports in Europe and around the world, based on 1996 charges. This study followed previous DGCA research on the topic but included more airports in much more detail. The main purpose of this new benchmark study was to provide insight into the levels and types of airport charges worldwide and into recent changes in airport charge policy and structure. This paper describes the 1996 analysis. It is intended that this work be repeated every year in order to follow developing trends and provide the most up-to-date information possible.

  6. Benchmark Airport Charges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deWit, A.; Cohn, N.

    1999-01-01

    The Netherlands Directorate General of Civil Aviation (DGCA) commissioned Hague Consulting Group (HCG) to complete a benchmark study of airport charges at twenty eight airports in Europe and around the world, based on 1996 charges. This study followed previous DGCA research on the topic but included more airports in much more detail. The main purpose of this new benchmark study was to provide insight into the levels and types of airport charges worldwide and into recent changes in airport charge policy and structure, This paper describes the 1996 analysis. It is intended that this work be repeated every year in order to follow developing trends and provide the most up-to-date information possible.

  7. Space charge in proton linacs

    SciTech Connect

    Wangler, T. P.; Merrill, F.; Rybarcyk, L.; Ryne, R.

    1998-11-05

    Space charge effects on beam dynamics in linear accelerators are discussed. Practical linac beam dynamics calculation methods which include space charge effects are discussed. Also, the status of beam performance experiments including space charge studies are summarized.

  8. Lead Poison Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    With NASA contracts, Whittaker Corporations Space Science division has developed an electro-optical instrument to mass screen for lead poisoning. Device is portable and detects protoporphyrin in whole blood. Free corpuscular porphyrins occur as an early effect of lead ingestion. Also detects lead in urine used to confirm blood tests. Test is inexpensive and can be applied by relatively unskilled personnel. Similar Whittaker fluorometry device called "drug screen" can measure morphine and quinine in urine much faster and cheaper than other methods.

  9. Modeling of spacecraft charging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whipple, E. C., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Three types of modeling of spacecraft charging are discussed: statistical models, parametric models, and physical models. Local time dependence of circuit upset for DoD and communication satellites, and electron current to a sphere with an assumed Debye potential distribution are presented. Four regions were involved in spacecraft charging: (1) undisturbed plasma, (2) plasma sheath region, (3) spacecraft surface, and (4) spacecraft equivalent circuit.

  10. Electrically charged targets

    DOEpatents

    Goodman, Ronald K.; Hunt, Angus L.

    1984-01-01

    Electrically chargeable laser targets and method for forming such charged targets in order to improve their guidance along a predetermined desired trajectory. This is accomplished by the incorporation of a small amount of an additive to the target material which will increase the electrical conductivity thereof, and thereby enhance the charge placed upon the target material for guidance thereof by electrostatic or magnetic steering mechanisms, without adversely affecting the target when illuminated by laser energy.

  11. Lead poisoning: case studies.

    PubMed

    Gordon, J N; Taylor, A; Bennett, P N

    2002-05-01

    Early clinical features of lead toxicity are non-specific and an occupational history is particularly valuable. Lead in the body comprises 2% in the blood (t1/2 35 days) and 95% in bone and dentine (t1/2 20-30 years). Blood lead may remain elevated for years after cessation from long exposure, due to redistribution from bone. Blood lead concentration is the most widely used marker for inorganic lead exposure. Zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) concentration in blood usefully reflects lead exposure over the prior 3 months. Symptomatic patients with blood lead concentration >2.4 micromol l-1 (50 microg dl-1) or in any event >3.8 micromol l-1 (80 microg dl-1) should receive sodium calciumedetate i.v., followed by succimer by mouth for 19 days. Asymptomatic patients with blood lead concentration >2.4 micromol l-1 (50 microg dl-1) may be treated with succimer alone. Sodium calciumedetate should be given with dimercaprol to treat lead encephalopathy. PMID:11994050

  12. Search milli-charged particles at SLAC

    SciTech Connect

    Langeveld, W.G.J.

    1997-01-01

    Particles with electric charge q {triple_bond} Qe {le} 10{sup -3} e and masses in the range 1-1000 MeV/c{sup 2} are not excluded by present experiments or by astrophysical or cosmological arguments. A beam dump experiment uniquely suited to the detection of such {open_quotes}milli-charged{close_quotes} particles has been carried out at SLAC, utilizing the short-duration pulses of the SLC electron beam to establish a tight coincidence window for the signal. The detector, a large scintillation counter sensitive to very small energy depositions, provided much greater sensitivity than previous searches. Analysis of the data leads to the exclusion of a substantial portion of the charge-mass plane. In this report, a preliminary mass-dependent upper limit is presented for the charge of milli-charged particles, ranging from Q = 1.7 x 10{sup -5} at milli-charged particle mass 0.1 MeV/c{sup 2} to Q = 9.5 x 10{sup -4} at 100 MeV/c{sup 2}.

  13. Tunable Morphologies from Charged Block Copolymers

    SciTech Connect

    Goswami, Monojoy; Sumpter, Bobby G; Mays, Jimmy; Messman, Jamie M

    2010-01-01

    The bulk morphologies formed by a new class of charged block copolymers, 75 vol % fluorinated polyisoprene (FPI) 25 vol% sulfonated polystyrene (PSS) with 50% sulfonation, are characterized, and the fundamental underlying forces that promote the self-assembly processes are elucidated. The results show how the bulk morphologies are substantially different from their uncharged diblock counterparts (PS-PI) and also how morphology can be tuned with volume fraction of the charged block and the casting solvent. A physical understanding based on the underlying strong electrostatic interactions between the charged block and counterions is obtained using Monte Carlo (MC) and Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations. The 75/25 FPI-PSS shows hexagonal morphologies with the minority blocks (PSS) forming the continuous phase due to charge percolation and the FPI blocks arranged in hexagonal cylinders. Some long-range order can be sustained even if lipophobicity is increased (addition of water), albeit with lower dimensional structures. However, thermal annealing provides sufficient energy to disrupt the percolated charges and promotes aggregation of ionic sites which leads to a disordered system. Diverse and atypical morphologies are readily accessible by simply changing the number distribution of the charges on PSS block.

  14. MOSFET Electric-Charge Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Paul A., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Charged-particle probe compact and consumes little power. Proposed modification enables metal oxide/semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) to act as detector of static electric charges or energetic charged particles. Thickened gate insulation acts as control structure. During measurements metal gate allowed to "float" to potential of charge accumulated in insulation. Stack of modified MOSFET'S constitutes detector of energetic charged particles. Each gate "floats" to potential induced by charged-particle beam penetrating its layer.

  15. String formation beyond leading colour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christiansen, Jesper R.; Skands, Peter Z.

    2015-08-01

    We present a new model for the hadronisation of multi-parton systems, in which colour correlations beyond leading N C are allowed to influence the formation of confining potentials (strings). The multiplet structure of SU(3) is combined with a minimisation of the string potential energy, to decide between which partons strings should form, allowing also for "baryonic" configurations (e.g., two colours can combine coherently to form an anticolour). In e + e -collisions, modifications to the leading-colour picture are small, suppressed by both colour and kinematics factors. But in pp collisions, multi-parton interactions increase the number of possible subleading connections, counteracting their naive 1/ N {/C 2} suppression. Moreover, those that reduce the overall string lengths are kinematically favoured. The model, which we have implemented in the PYTHIA 8 generator, is capable of reaching agreement not only with the important < p ⊥> ( n charged) distribution but also with measured rates (and ratios) of kaons and hyperons, in both ee and pp collisions. Nonetheless, the shape of their p ⊥ spectra remains challenging to explain.

  16. Mineral Facilities of Latin America and Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bernstein, Rachel; Eros, Mike; Quintana-Velazquez, Meliany

    2006-01-01

    This data set consists of records for over 900 mineral facilities in Latin America and Canada. The mineral facilities include mines, plants, smelters, or refineries of aluminum, cement, coal, copper, diamond, gold, iron and steel, nickel, platinum-group metals, salt, and silver, among others. Records include attributes such as commodity, country, location, company name, facility type and capacity if applicable, and generalized coordinates. The data were compiled from multiple sources, including the 2003 and 2004 USGS Minerals Yearbooks (Latin America and Candada volume), data to be published in the 2005 Minerals Yearbook Latin America and Canada Volume, minerals statistics and information from the USGS minerals information Web site (minerals.usgs.gov/minerals), and data collected by USGS minerals information country specialists. Data reflect the most recent published table of industry structure for each country. Other sources include statistical publications of individual countries, annual reports and press releases of operating companies,and trade journals. Due to the sensitivity of some energy commodity data, the quality of these data should be evaluated on a country-by-country basis. Additional information and explanation is available from the country specialists.

  17. Physician-Assisted Death in Canada.

    PubMed

    Browne, Alister; Russell, J S

    2016-07-01

    The Criminal Code of Canada prohibits persons from aiding or abetting suicide and consenting to have death inflicted on them. Together, these provisions have prohibited physicians from assisting patients to die. On February 6, 2015, the Supreme Court of Canada declared void these provisions insofar as they "prohibit physician-assisted death for a competent adult person who (1) clearly consents to the termination of life and (2) has a grievous and irremediable medical condition (including an illness, disease or disability) that causes enduring suffering that is intolerable to the individual in the circumstances of his or her condition." This declaration of invalidity was scheduled to take effect one year (later extended by six months) after the ruling, to give the government time to put legislation in place. We trace the history of this decision, discuss how it has forever changed the debate on physician-assisted dying, and identify the issues that must be resolved to write the legislation. Of special importance here are the topics of access, safeguards, and conscientious objection. PMID:27348822

  18. Health status of prisoners in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Kouyoumdjian, Fiona; Schuler, Andrée; Matheson, Flora I.; Hwang, Stephen W.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To review the literature for quantitative research on the health status of persons in custody in provincial, territorial, and federal correctional facilities in Canada, and summarize recent evidence. Quality of evidence A search was performed in research databases and the websites of relevant Canadian governmental and non-governmental organizations for quantitative studies of health conducted between 1993 and 2014. Studies were included that provided quantitative data on health status for youth or adults who had been detained or incarcerated in a jail or prison in Canada. Main message The health status of this population is poor compared with the general Canadian population, as indicated by data on social determinants of health, mortality in custody, mental health, substance use, communicable diseases, and sexual and reproductive health. Little is known about mortality after release, chronic diseases, injury, reproductive health, and health care access and quality. Conclusion Health status data should be used to improve health care and to intervene to improve health for persons while in custody and after release, with potential benefits for all Canadians. PMID:27427562

  19. Floods in Canada and Northern Minnesota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    During the first half of June, heavy rains inundated northern Minnesota and southern Canada, giving rise to floods that drove hundreds of people from their homes and drenched more than 300,000 acres of prime farmland. This false-color image of the flood (right) was acquired on June 15, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The worst of the flooding occurred on the border of Canada and Minnesota along the Roseau River, which now resembles a lake in the center of the image. The town of Roseau, Minnesota, which sits in the eastern end of the newly formed lake, was hit the hardest. Nearly all the buildings in the town took heavy water damage and many residents were forced to leave. Widespread flooding across an eight county region in Minnesota has drenched nearly 300,000 to 500,000 acres of farmland altogether. Many of the farmers hit lost 100 percent of their crops and will be unable to plant again for the season. Last week, President Bush declared northern Minnesota a disaster area. Normally, the Roseau River cannot even be seen on a MODIS image (left, acquired May 21, 2002), and the surrounding area is dry. In the false-color images, sage green, rusty orange, and blue is land, and water is black. Clouds are white and pink. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  20. Energy in Canada. Review and perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixon, R. S.

    1980-12-01

    Canada's historical energy consumption, its current consumption and its likely requirements by the turn of the century are reviewed. It is estimated that at least 50% more energy will be required in the year 2000 than is consumed now, assuming a minimum 2% growth rate in primary energy consumption. Both nonrenewable and renewable energy resources are examined in the light of these energy requirements and the need to substitute alternative energy sources for conventional oil in various end uses. The comparative risks involved in energy production are also reviewed. Most of the increase in energy consumption and the substitution of oil over the next 20 years is likely to be met by conventional energy sources, since indigenous reserves are extensive and the relevant technologies well established. Coal, nuclear and hydro reserves could cover the increase in energy demand until well into the next century, and natural gas reserves are sufficient to bridge the gap during conversion from oil to other energy sources. Nuclear power using advanced fuel cycles and oil from tar sands offer Canada long term security.