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Sample records for canadian organic residuals

  1. Canadian Forum on Combined Organ Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Cantarovich, Marcelo; Blydt-Hansen, Tom D; Gill, John; Tinckam, Kathryn; Schiff, Jeffrey; Alwayn, Ian; Bain, Vince; Dipchand, Anne I; Isaac, Debra; Kim, S Joseph; Lien, Dale; Zaltzman, Jeffrey; Young, Kimberly; Nickerson, Peter

    2016-06-01

    The Canadian Society of Transplantation and Canadian Blood Services conducted a consensus forum on combined renal/nonrenal transplants, as they are not part of Canadian organ-specific allocation models at present. The purpose of this initiative was to make recommendations, develop eligibility criteria, and a decision-making model on listing and allocation. Forty-two participants with expertise in combined transplantation participated in the consensus forum. The United States and Canadian data were reviewed. The consensus forum made recommendations regarding the following: (1) investigation of etiology, severity, duration, and level of renal dysfunction; (2) documentation of degree of nonreversible kidney injury; (3) eligibility for combined (either simultaneous or staged) transplantation; (4) research. Key recommendations were: (1) patients with end-stage nonrenal disease with estimated glomerular filtration rate less than 30 mL/min per 1.73 m for longer than 1 month or on dialysis less than 3 months, who fulfill criteria for nonreversibility of renal dysfunction (by level and duration of renal dysfunction, imaging, and pathology findings), would be eligible for combined renal/nonrenal transplantation; (2) patients on dialysis longer than 3 months would be eligible for combined renal/nonrenal transplantation; (3) staged renal after nonrenal transplantation with subsequent prioritized allocation of renal transplant was endorsed in selected cases. The validation and impact of these recommendations on allocation will require further studies. PMID:26588007

  2. Breaking the Deadlock: Lessons from Pan-Canadian Organizations.

    PubMed

    Zelmer, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    The authors of the lead essay in this issue propose a set of fiscal and other levers for accelerating Canadian healthcare reform. Among the mechanisms they endorse is the concept of a learning health system, which would encourage collaboration and information sharing between jurisdictions. From health system performance measurement to exchange of best practices, a number of the foundational elements of learning health systems have parallels or antecedents in functions undertaken by pan-Canadian organizations that address healthcare issues relevant to multiple jurisdictions. Experiences and outcomes of these organizations may therefore be instructive when considering proposals for healthcare reform, such as those made by Gardner, Fierlbeck, and Levy. PMID:26187565

  3. Ivermectin use and resulting milk residues on 4 Canadian dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Chicoine, Alan L; Durden, David A; MacNaughton, George; Dowling, Patricia M

    2007-08-01

    The Canadian gFARAD was contacted for milk withdrawal recommendations after multiple cases of topical ivermectin use in lactating dairy cows. The following 4 cases included pertinent milk residue information and illustrate the challenges faced by producers, veterinarians, and regulatory authorities when ivermectin use occurs in dairy cows. PMID:17824327

  4. Canadian inter-laboratory organically bound tritium (OBT) analysis exercise.

    PubMed

    Kim, S B; Olfert, J; Baglan, N; St-Amant, N; Carter, B; Clark, I; Bucur, C

    2015-12-01

    Tritium emissions are one of the main concerns with regard to CANDU reactors and Canadian nuclear facilities. After the Fukushima accident, the Canadian Nuclear Regulatory Commission suggested that models used in risk assessment of Canadian nuclear facilities be firmly based on measured data. Procedures for measurement of tritium as HTO (tritiated water) are well established, but there are no standard methods and certified reference materials for measurement of organically bound tritium (OBT) in environmental samples. This paper describes and discusses an inter-laboratory comparison study in which OBT in three different dried environmental samples (fish, Swiss chard and potato) was measured to evaluate OBT analysis methods currently used by CANDU Owners Group (COG) members. The variations in the measured OBT activity concentrations between all laboratories were less than approximately 20%, with a total uncertainty between 11 and 17%. Based on the results using the dried samples, the current OBT analysis methods for combustion, distillation and counting are generally acceptable. However, a complete consensus OBT analysis methodology with respect to freeze-drying, rinsing, combustion, distillation and counting is required. Also, an exercise using low-level tritium samples (less than 100 Bq/L or 20 Bq/kg-fresh) would be useful in the near future to more fully evaluate the current OBT analysis methods. PMID:26372740

  5. Mobility of organic carbon from incineration residues

    SciTech Connect

    Ecke, Holger Svensson, Malin

    2008-07-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) may affect the transport of pollutants from incineration residues when landfilled or used in geotechnical construction. The leaching of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash and air pollution control residue (APC) from the incineration of waste wood was investigated. Factors affecting the mobility of DOC were studied in a reduced 2{sup 6-1} experimental design. Controlled factors were treatment with ultrasonic radiation, full carbonation (addition of CO{sub 2} until the pH was stable for 2.5 h), liquid-to-solid (L/S) ratio, pH, leaching temperature and time. Full carbonation, pH and the L/S ratio were the main factors controlling the mobility of DOC in the bottom ash. Approximately 60 weight-% of the total organic carbon (TOC) in the bottom ash was available for leaching in aqueous solutions. The L/S ratio and pH mainly controlled the mobilization of DOC from the APC residue. About 93 weight-% of TOC in the APC residue was, however, not mobilized at all, which might be due to a high content of elemental carbon. Using the European standard EN 13 137 for determination of total organic carbon (TOC) in MSWI residues is inappropriate. The results might be biased due to elemental carbon. It is recommended to develop a TOC method distinguishing between organic and elemental carbon.

  6. Lead sorption-desorption from organic residues.

    PubMed

    Duarte Zaragoza, Victor M; Carrillo, Rogelio; Gutierrez Castorena, Carmen M

    2011-01-01

    Sorption and desorption are mechanisms involved in the reduction of metal mobility and bioavailability in organic materials. Metal release from substrates is controlled by desorption. The capacity of coffee husk and pulp residues, vermicompost and cow manure to adsorb Pb2+ was evaluated. The mechanisms involved in the sorption process were also studied. Organic materials retained high concentrations of lead (up to 36,000 mg L(-1)); however, the mechanisms of sorption varied according to the characteristics of each material: degree of decomposition, pH, cation exchange capacity and percentage of organic matter. Vermicompost and manure removed 98% of the Pb from solution. Lead precipitated in manure and vermicompost, forming lead oxide (PbO) and lead ferrite (PbFe4O7). Adsorption isotherms did not fit to the typical Freundlich and Langmuir equations. Not only specific and non-specific adsorption was observed, but also precipitation and coprecipitation. Lead desorption from vermicompost and cow manure was less than 2%. For remediation of Pb-polluted sites, the application of vermicompost and manure is recommended in places with alkaline soils because Pb precipitation can be induced, whereas coffee pulp residue is recommended for acidic soils where Pb is adsorbed. PMID:21780703

  7. Ethical Leadership in Canadian School Organizations: Tensions and Possibilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langlois, Lyse; Lapointe, Claire

    2007-01-01

    This study, which was sponsored by the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada, was conducted in French-language minority schools in seven Canadian provinces: British Columbia, Alberta, Manitoba, Ontario, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island and Nova Scotia. Using an open-ended interview guide, 47 principals were asked about the…

  8. Organization and Administration of Graduate Studies in Canadian Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holdaway, Edward A.

    1994-01-01

    A survey of 94 department heads and 112 graduate supervisors at 5 Canadian universities investigated organizational and administrative practices concerning graduate programs and factors affecting successful completion of/withdrawal from graduate programs. Factors identified include student motivation, quality of supervision, student selection,…

  9. Pesticide residues in imported, organic, and "suspect" fruits and vegetables.

    PubMed

    Winter, Carl K

    2012-05-01

    Consumers are frequently urged to avoid imported foods as well as specific fruits and vegetables due to health concerns from pesticide residues and are often encouraged to choose organic fruits and vegetables rather than conventional forms. Studies have demonstrated that while organic fruits and vegetables have lower levels of pesticide residues than do conventional fruits and vegetables, pesticide residues are still frequently detected on organic fruits and vegetables; typical dietary consumer exposure to pesticide residues from conventional fruits and vegetables does not appear to be of health significance. Similarly, research does not demonstrate that imported fruits and vegetables pose greater risks from pesticide residues than do domestic fruits and vegetables or that specific fruits and vegetables singled out as being the most highly contaminated by pesticides should be avoided in their conventional forms. PMID:22335627

  10. Saline groundwaters and brines in the Canadian Shield: Geochemical and isotopic evidence for a residual evaporite brine component

    SciTech Connect

    Bottomley, D.J. ); Gregoire, D.C. ); Raven, K.G. )

    1994-03-01

    Saline Ca-Na/Cl type groundwaters and brines sampled in deep mines over an extensive area of the Canadian Precambrian Shield have elevated Br/Cl ratios which may indicate that the chlorinity of these waters was derived from the infiltration of residual evaporitic brines, remnants of the great marine incursion of the Paleozoic era. Boron concentrations in these waters are generally low (i.e., < [approximately] 2 mg/L) relative to seawater or Alberta Basin Devonian formation waters. However, the [sup 11]B/[sup 10]B ratios of these waters are significantly greater than the average value for continental crustal rocks with the highest values ([approximately]4.19) approaching that of present-day seawater (4.20). Moreover, the boron isotopic ratios generally trend to higher values with increasing chlorinity which supports the conclusion from the Br-Cl relationship that most of the chloride in shield brines is of marine origin, rather than a product of water/rock interactions. If this is correct, crystalline rocks must then be sufficiently permeable on a regional scale to have allowed the brine to infiltrate to depths of several kilometers where it now resides. The presence of saline groundwaters in crystalline has important implications for the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program, which proposes disposal of waste fuel in a repository constructed at a depth of 500-1000 m in plutonic rock.

  11. [Determination of residual organic solvents and macroporous resin residues in Akebia saponin D].

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiao-han; Yang, Xiao-lin; Xiao, Wei; Wang, Zhen-zhong; Ding, Gang; Huang, Wen-zhe; Yang, Zhong-lin

    2015-05-01

    According to ICH, Chinese Pharmacopoeia and supplementary requirements on the separation and purification of herbal extract with macroporous adsorption resin by SFDA, hexane, acetidine, ethanol, benzene, methyl-benzene, o-xylene, m-xylene, p-xylene, styrene, diethyl-benzene and divinyl-benzene of residual organic solvents and macroporous resin residues in Akebia saponin D were determined by headspace capillary GC. Eleven residues in Akebia saponin D were completely separated on DB-wax column, with FID detector, high purity nitrogen as the carry gases. The calibration curves were in good linearity (0.999 2-0.999 7). The reproducibility was good (RSD < 10%). The average recoveries were 80.0% -110%. The detection limit of each component was far lower than the limit concentration. The method is simple, reproducible, and can be used to determine the residual organic solvents and macroporous resin residues in Akebia saponin D. PMID:26390656

  12. Hair combing to collect organic gunshot residues (OGSR).

    PubMed

    MacCrehan, William A; Layman, Malinda J; Secl, Janelle D

    2003-08-12

    A protocol is presented for the collection and analysis of gunshot residues (GSR) from hair. A fine-toothed comb is used for collection of the residues. A small zip-closure bag serves as a container for both sample storage and extraction of the characteristic organic powder additives. The success of this residue recovery approach was tested on simulated shooters and victims using mannequin-supported human wig hair as well as on human shooters. Residues were collected from four weapons: a revolver and semi-automatic pistol, rifle and shotgun. One characteristic additive, nitroglycerin, was detected by capillary electrophoresis (CE) in the majority of the collection experiments. PMID:12927420

  13. Preliminary evaluation of the persistence of organic gunshot residue.

    PubMed

    Arndt, James; Bell, Suzanne; Crookshanks, Lindsey; Lovejoy, Marco; Oleska, Casey; Tulley, Tanya; Wolfe, Drew

    2012-10-10

    The organic components of gunshot residue (OGSR, also called firearms discharge residue (FDR) or cartridge discharge residue (CDR)) have been studied and discussed in the literature. These residues, consisting of particulates such as burned and unburned powder as well as molecular compounds, are rarely used in casework except for purposes such as shooting reconstructions. Molecular compounds that survive the firing event or that are created as a result of the firing event could, with focused research and development, open a new avenue for forensic gunshot residue analysis. In this study, the persistence of organic gunshot residue was evaluated using diphenylamine (DPA) as a target analyte and ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) as the detection system. Samples were collected from hands using a solvent swabbing technique and the swab was analyzed using direct thermal desorption for sample introduction into the IMS. OGSR was found to persist for at least 4 h. Although DPA is a widely used industrial compound, analysis of numerous blank and background samples (n∼100) did not show any significant response for DPA using this detector. Variations were noted among individuals and as such, the data set does not support estimation of a half-life as has been done for traditional primer residues. No secondary transfers were observed, suggesting the possibility of skin adhesion via interactions between the lipophilic organic compounds and skin lipids. IMS proved valuable as a means of generating patterns for forensic pattern matching and shows promise as a screening tool applied to firearms discharge. PMID:22682933

  14. TILLAGE AND RESIDUE MANAGEMENT EFFECTS ON SOIL ORGANIC MATTER

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This college-level textbook is designed to help students and researchers understand the complexity of how to manage soil organic matter in a diversity of agroecosystems. This chapter describes the current state of knowledge on how tillage and residue management affect soil organic matter. Types of t...

  15. MESERAN Calibration for Low Level Organic Residues

    SciTech Connect

    Benkovich, M.G.

    2004-04-08

    Precision cleaning studies done at Honeywell Federal Manufacturing & Technologies (FM&T), the Kansas City Plant (KCP), and at other locations within the Department of Energy (DOE) Weapons complex over the last 30 years have depended upon results from MESERAN Evaporative Rate Analysis for detecting low levels of organic contamination. The characterization of the surface being analyzed is carried out by depositing a Carbon-14 tagged radiochemical onto the test surface and monitoring the rate at which the radiochemical disappears from the surface with a Geiger-Mueller counter. In the past, the total number of counts over a 2-minute span have been used to judge whether a surface is contaminated or not and semi-quantitatively to what extent. This technique is very sensitive but has not enjoyed the broad acceptance of a purely quantitative analysis. The work on this project developed calibrations of various organic contaminants typically encountered in KCP operations. In addition, a new analysis method was developed to enhance the ability of MESERAN Analyzers to detect organic contamination and yield quantitative data in the microgram and nanogram levels.

  16. Visualization of residual organic liquid trapped in aquifers

    SciTech Connect

    Conrad, S.H.; Wilson, J.L.; Mason, W.R.; Peplinski, W.J. )

    1992-02-01

    Organic liquids that are essentially immiscible with water migrate through the subsurface under the influence of capillary, viscous, and buoyancy forces. These liquids originate from the improper disposal of hazardous wastes, and the spills and leaks of petroleum hydrocarbons and solvents. The flow visualization experiments described in this study examined the migration of organic liquids through the saturated zone of aquifers, with a primary focus on the behavior of the residual organic liquid saturation, referring to that portion of the organic liquid that is trapped by capillary forces. Etched glass micromodels were used to visually observe dynamic multiphase displacement processes in pore networks. The resulting fluid distributions were photographed. Pore and blob casts were produced by a technique in which an organic liquid was solidified in place within a sand column at the conclusion of a displacement. The columns were sectioned and examined under optical and scanning electron microscopes. Photomicrographs of these sections show the morphology of the organic phase and its location within the sand matrix. The photographs from both experimental techniques reveal that in the saturated zone large amounts of residual organic liquid are trapped as isolated blobs of microscopic size. The size, shape, and spatial distribution of these blobs of residual organic liquid affect the dissolution of organic liquid into the water phase and the biotransformation of organic components. These processes are of concern for the prediction of pollution migration and the design of aquifer remediation schemes.

  17. Long-term monitoring of aldicarb residues in groundwater beneath a Canadian potato field.

    PubMed

    Priddle, M W; Mutch, J P; Jackson, R E

    1992-02-01

    Four shallow monitoring wells beneath a potato field to which Temik (active ingredient--aldicarb) had been applied were sampled up to 19 times over six years. These samples were regularly analyzed for aldicarb sulfoxide, aldicarb sulfone and nitrate and less frequently for major ions and for pH, EH, dissolved oxygen and alkalinity. Pesticide residue concentration in groundwater was related both to time after application and to the elevation of the water table, a measure of groundwater recharge. This dependence on recharge indicates storage in the unsaturated zone. The presence of relatively high residues four years after the last application is due to this storage phenomenon and to water and soil conditions, particularly low temperature, that inhibit the hydrolysis of the active species. PMID:1536598

  18. RESIDUAL MUTAGENICITY OF THE ALASKAN OIL SPILL ORGANICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    RESIDUAL MUTAGENICITY OF THE ALASKAN OIL SPILL ORGANICS. L.D.

    The Exxon Valdez, on March 24, 1989, spilled approximately eleven million gallons of Prudhoe Bay crude oil into the waters of Prince William Sound. Approximately 300 miles of
    contaminated beach are potential...

  19. 77 FR 67239 - National Organic Program; Periodic Residue Testing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-09

    ... rule for periodic residue testing (76 FR 23914). The rule proposed that certifying agents, on an annual... requirements outlined in the final rule, the NOP published, on June 13, 2011 in the Federal Register (76 FR... (76 FR 23914). Additional documents related to this final rule include the Organic Foods...

  20. An exploratory spatial analysis of soil organic carbon distribution in Canadian eco-regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, S.-Y.; Li, J.

    2014-11-01

    As the largest carbon reservoir in ecosystems, soil accounts for more than twice as much carbon storage as that of vegetation biomass or the atmosphere. This paper examines spatial patterns of soil organic carbon (SOC) in Canadian forest areas at an eco-region scale of analysis. The goal is to explore the relationship of SOC levels with various climatological variables, including temperature and precipitation. The first Canadian forest soil database published in 1997 by the Canada Forest Service was analyzed along with other long-term eco-climatic data (1961 to 1991) including precipitation, air temperature, slope, aspect, elevation, and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) derived from remote sensing imagery. In addition, the existing eco-region framework established by Environment Canada was evaluated for mapping SOC distribution. Exploratory spatial data analysis techniques, including spatial autocorrelation analysis, were employed to examine how forest SOC is spatially distributed in Canada. Correlation analysis and spatial regression modelling were applied to determine the dominant ecological factors influencing SOC patterns at the eco-region level. At the national scale, a spatial error regression model was developed to account for spatial dependency and to estimate SOC patterns based on ecological and ecosystem factors. Based on the significant variables derived from the spatial error model, a predictive SOC map in Canadian forest areas was generated. Although overall SOC distribution is influenced by climatic and topographic variables, distribution patterns are shown to differ significantly between eco-regions. These findings help to validate the eco-region classification framework for SOC zonation mapping in Canada.

  1. Research-based-decision-making in Canadian health organizations: a behavioural approach.

    PubMed

    Jbilou, Jalila; Amara, Nabil; Landry, Réjean

    2007-06-01

    Decision making in Health sector is affected by a several elements such as economic constraints, political agendas, epidemiologic events, managers' values and environment... These competing elements create a complex environment for decision making. Research-Based-Decision-Making (RBDM) offers an opportunity to reduce the generated uncertainty and to ensure efficacy and efficiency in health administrations. We assume that RBDM is dependant on decision makers' behaviour and the identification of the determinants of this behaviour can help to enhance research results utilization in health sector decision making. This paper explores the determinants of RBDM as a personal behaviour among managers and professionals in health administrations in Canada. From the behavioural theories and the existing literature, we build a model measuring "RBDM" as an index based on five items. These items refer to the steps accomplished by a decision maker while developing a decision which is based on evidence. The determinants of RBDM behaviour are identified using data collected from 942 health care decision makers in Canadian health organizations. Linear regression is used to model the behaviour RBDM. Determinants of this behaviour are derived from Triandis Theory and Bandura's construct "self-efficacy." The results suggest that to improve research use among managers in Canadian governmental health organizations, strategies should focus on enhancing exposition to evidence through facilitating communication networks, partnerships and links between researchers and decision makers, with the key long-term objective of developing a culture that supports and values the contribution that research can make to decision making in governmental health organizations. Nevertheless, depending on the organizational level, determinants of RBDM are different. This difference has to be taken into account if RBDM adoption is desired. Decision makers in Canadian health organizations (CHO) can help to build

  2. Luminescence from VUV Irradiated Cosmic Ice Analogs and Organic Residues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gudipati, Murthy S.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Chillier, Xavier; Allamandola, Louis J.; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The optical luminescent properties for a variety of vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) irradiated cosmic ice analogs and the complex organic residues produced from irradiation might be applicable to Solar System and interstellar observations and processes for various astronomical objects with an ice heritage. Some examples include grain temperature determination and vaporization rates, nebula radiation balance, albedo values, color analysis, and biomarker identification. Detailed results are presented for the mixed molecular ice: H2O:CH3OH:NH3:CO (100:50:1:1), a realistic representation for an interstellar/precometary ice. The irradiated ices and the room-temperature residues resulting from this energetic processing have remarkable photoluminescent properties in the visible (520-570 nm). The luminescence dependence on temperature, thermal cycling, and VUV exposure of the residue is described.

  3. A Review of the Tissue Residue Approach for Organic and Organometallic Compounds in Aquatic Organisms

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper reviews the tissue residue approach (TRA) for toxicity assessment as it applies to organic chemicals and some organometallic compounds (tin, mercury, and lead). Specific emphasis was placed on evaluating key factors that influence interpretation of critical body resid...

  4. Decision maker perceptions of resource allocation processes in Canadian health care organizations: a national survey

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Resource allocation is a key challenge for healthcare decision makers. While several case studies of organizational practice exist, there have been few large-scale cross-organization comparisons. Methods Between January and April 2011, we conducted an on-line survey of senior decision makers within regional health authorities (and closely equivalent organizations) across all Canadian provinces and territories. We received returns from 92 individual managers, from 60 out of 89 organizations in total. The survey inquired about structures, process features, and behaviours related to organization-wide resource allocation decisions. We focus here on three main aspects: type of process, perceived fairness, and overall rating. Results About one-half of respondents indicated that their organization used a formal process for resource allocation, while the others reported that political or historical factors were predominant. Seventy percent (70%) of respondents self-reported that their resource allocation process was fair and just over one-half assessed their process as ‘good’ or ‘very good’. This paper explores these findings in greater detail and assesses them in context of the larger literature. Conclusion Data from this large-scale cross-jurisdictional survey helps to illustrate common challenges and areas of positive performance among Canada’s health system leadership teams. PMID:23819598

  5. Biomarkers of Canadian High Arctic Litoral Sediments for Assessment of Organic Matter Sources and Degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pautler, B. G.; Austin, J.; Otto, A.; Stewart, K.; Lamoureux, S. F.; Simpson, M. J.

    2009-05-01

    Carbon stocks in the High Arctic are particularly sensitive to global climate change, and investigation of variations in organic matter (OM) composition is beneficial for the understanding of the alteration of organic carbon under anticipated future elevated temperatures. Molecular-level characterization of solvent extractable compounds and CuO oxidation products of litoral sedimentary OM at the Cape Bounty Arctic Watershed Observatory in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago was conducted to determine the OM sources and decomposition patterns. The solvent extracts contained a series of aliphatic lipids, steroids and one triterpenoid primarily of higher plant origin and new biomarkers, iso- and anteiso-alkanes originating from cerastium arcticum (Arctic mouse-ear chickweed, a native angiosperm) were discovered. Carbon preference index (CPI) values for the n-alkanes, n-alkanols and n-alkanoic acids suggests that the OM biomarkers result from fresh material input in early stage of degradation. The CuO oxidation products were comprised of benzyls, lignin phenols and short-chain diacids and hydroxyacids. High abundance of terrestrial OM biomarkers observed at sites close to the river inlet suggests fluvial inputs as an important pathway to deliver OM into the lake. The lignin phenol vegetation index (LPVI) also suggests that the OM origin is mostly from non-woody angiosperms. A relatively high degree of lignin alteration in the litoral sediments is evident from the abundant ratio of acids and aldehydes of the vanillyl and syringyl monomers. This suggests that the lignin contents have been diagenetically altered as the result of a long residence time in this ecosystem. The molecular-level characterization of litoral sedimentary OM in Canadian High Arctic region provides insight into current OM composition,potential responses to future disturbances and the biogeochemical cycling of carbon in the Arctic.

  6. Elastic Waves Push Residual Organic Fluids From Saturated Rock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beresnev, I. A.; Vigil, R. D.; Li, W.

    2004-12-01

    With world oil reserves dwindling and production shifting to increasingly forbidding environments, the emphasis is greater than ever on the more efficient extraction of the existing oil. Yet typically up to two-thirds of the U. S. domestic oil is abandoned underground. Elastic waves have been observed to increase productivity of oil wells, although the reason for the vibratory motion mobilizing the residual organic fluids has remained unclear. Residual oil is entrapped as blobs or ganglia in narrow pore constrictions due to the resisting capillary forces that prevent free motion of non-wetting fluids driven by water. A finite external pressure gradient, exceeding an "unplugging" threshold, is needed to carry the residual ganglia through. We show that vibrations help overcome the resistance of capillary forces by adding an oscillatory inertial forcing to the external gradient; when the vibratory forcing acts along the gradient and the threshold is exceeded, instant "unplugging" occurs. This mechanism predicts the mobilization effect to be proportional to the amplitude and inversely proportional to the frequency of vibrations. We observe this dependence in a laboratory experiment, in which residual saturation of an organic fluid is created in a glass micromodel, and mobilization of the dyed ganglia is monitored using digital photography. We also directly demonstrate the release of an entrapped ganglion from a pore constriction by the application of vibrations in a computational fluid-dynamics simulation. The technologies that can utilize this phenomenon are not limited to enhanced oil recovery, but also apply to the remediation of groundwater contaminated by leaks from underground storage tanks and surface spills of organic fluids.

  7. Association between organizational capacity and involvement in chronic disease prevention programming among Canadian public health organizations

    PubMed Central

    Hanusaik, Nancy; Sabiston, Catherine M.; Kishchuk, Natalie; Maximova, Katerina; O’Loughlin, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    In the context of the emerging field of public health services and systems research, this study (i) tested a model of the relationships between public health organizational capacity (OC) for chronic disease prevention, its determinants (organizational supports for evaluation, partnership effectiveness) and one possible outcome of OC (involvement in core chronic disease prevention practices) and (ii) examined differences in the nature of these relationships among organizations operating in more and less facilitating external environments. OC was conceptualized as skills and resources/supports for chronic disease prevention programming. Data were from a census of 210 Canadian public health organizations with mandates for chronic disease prevention. The hypothesized relationships were tested using structural equation modeling. Overall, the results supported the model. Organizational supports for evaluation accounted for 33% of the variance in skills. Skills and resources/supports were directly and strongly related to involvement. Organizations operating within facilitating external contexts for chronic disease prevention had more effective partnerships, more resources/supports, stronger skills and greater involvement in core chronic disease prevention practices. Results also suggested that organizations functioning in less facilitating environments may not benefit as expected from partnerships. Empirical testing of this conceptual model helps develop a better understanding of public health OC. PMID:25361958

  8. [Disorders of psychosexual maturation in adolescents with residual organic deficiency].

    PubMed

    Gur'eva, V A; Burelov, E A; Kuznetsov, I V; Smirnova, L K

    1991-01-01

    The paper is concerned with disorders of psychosexual maturity in adolescents (n-70). For that purpose in view a comparative nosological study of the early residual organic psychopathlike conditions (46 cases) and of organic psychopathies (24 cases) formed during the pubertal crisis was done at a forensic psychiatry hospital. According to the data obtained in the majority of the test subjects, there occurred asynchronisms of puberty (80%). Unlike group II (organic psychopathy) where disharmonic puberty was predominant, retarded puberty was recorded most frequently in group I. The main variants of psychosexual maturity were distinguished within the framework of the forms indicated: 2 variants in retardation and 6 variants in disharmonic puberty. Disharmonic puberty, then retarded puberty and pubertas precox were found to be dangerous for the onset of sexual disorders (perversions, deviations). Expert criteria for assessing the depth of sexual disorders were specified in addition. The new data obtained are of importance of both general and forensic psychiatry. PMID:1646545

  9. Atmosphere issues in detection of explosives and organic residues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, C. G.; Baudelet, M.; Bridge, C.; Fisher, M. K.; Sigman, M.; Dagdigian, P. J.; Richardson, M.

    2009-05-01

    This study makes a comparison of LIBS emission from molecular species in plasmas produced from organic residues on a non-metallic substrate by both a 5 ns Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm) and a 40 fs Ti:Sapphire laser (800 nm) in air and argon atmospheres. The organic samples analyzed had varying amounts of carbon, nitrogen, hydrogen, and oxygen in their molecular structure. The characterization was based on the atomic carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen lines as well as the diatomic species CN (B2Σ+ - X2Σ+) and the C2 (d3Πg - a3Πu). Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to identify similarities of the organic analyte via the emission spectra. The corresponding Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) curves show the limitations of the PCA model for the nanosecond regime in air.

  10. Dialysis therapy among elderly patients; data from the Canadian Organ Replacement Register, 1981-1991.

    PubMed

    Fenton, S S; Desmeules, M; Jeffery, J R; Corman, J L

    1993-01-01

    Reports of clinical outcomes after commencement of dialysis treatment among elderly patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) are not been numerous. This paper describes the demographic and clinical characteristics of the elderly treated for ESRD in Canada using the Canadian Organ Replacement Register data. Comparisons with younger age groups are also presented. Analyses of data for the period 1981-1991 indicated that the elderly (65+) represent an expanding portion of all new ESRD patients in Canada. Distributions of dialysis modalities showed no major differences by age groups (45-54, 55-64, 65-75, 75+). However, the overall usage of intermittent peritoneal dialysis has decreased over time (from 17% of patients in 1981-83 to 7% in 1990-91). Deaths from social causes were slightly more frequent among the elderly (15.9% of all deaths among those aged 65+ vs 10% among those aged 45-64). Moreover, deaths from infections were more common among patients on dialysis for a longer period of time and more common among patients on peritoneal dialysis than among those on hemodialysis. Discontinuations of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) because of the inability to cope increased with age. Patients with comorbid conditions were more likely to receive hemodialysis, and, as expected, the presence of these conditions increased with age and significantly reduced survival. Other determinants of survival included calendar period of registration, renal center size, and treatment modality. This paper illustrates the many changes over time in the elderly population treated for ESRD. Also of importance, however, is the elderly Canadian population with ESRD which is not presently treated. PMID:8105905

  11. Molecular and mass spectroscopic analysis of isotopically labeled organic residues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendoza-Gomez, Celia X.; Greenberg, J. Mayo; Mccain, P.; Ferris, J. P.; Briggs, R.; Degroot, M. S.; Schutte, Willem A.

    1989-01-01

    Experimental studies aimed at understanding the evolution of complex organic molecules on interstellar grains were performed. The photolysis of frozen gas mixtures of various compositions containing H2O, CO, NH3, and CH4 was studied. These species were chosen because of their astrophysical importance as deducted from observational as well as theoretical studies of ice mantles on interstellar grains. These ultraviolet photolyzed ices were warmed up in order to produce refractory organic molecules like the ones formed in molecular clouds when the icy mantles are being irradiated and warmed up either by a nearby stellar source or impulsive heating. The laboratory studies give estimates of the efficiency of production of such organic material under interstellar conditions. It is shown that the gradual carbonization of organic mantles in the diffuse cloud phase leads to higher and higher visual absorptivity - yellow residues become brown in the laboratory. The obtained results can be applied to explaining the organic components of comets and their relevance to the origin of life.

  12. A review of the tissue residue approach for organic and organometallic compounds in aquatic organisms.

    PubMed

    McElroy, Anne E; Barron, Mace G; Beckvar, Nancy; Driscoll, Susan B Kane; Meador, James P; Parkerton, Tom F; Preuss, Thomas G; Steevens, Jeffery A

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews the tissue residue approach (TRA) for toxicity assessment as it applies to organic chemicals and some organometallic compounds (Sn, Hg, and Pb) in aquatic organisms. Specific emphasis was placed on evaluating key factors that influence interpretation of critical body residue (CBR) toxicity metrics including data quality issues, lipid dynamics, choice of endpoints, processes that alter toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics, phototoxicity, species- and life stage-specific sensitivities, and biotransformation. The vast majority of data available on TRA is derived from laboratory studies of acute lethal responses to organic toxicants exhibiting baseline toxicity. Application of the TRA to various baseline toxicants as well as substances with specific modes of action via receptor-mediated processes, such as chlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons, pesticides, and organometallics is discussed, as is application of TRA concepts in field assessments of tissue residues. In contrast to media-based toxicity relationships, CBR values tend to be less variable and less influenced by factors that control bioavailability and bioaccumulation, and TRA can be used to infer mechanisms of toxic action, evaluate the toxicity of mixtures, and interpret field data on bioaccumulated toxicants. If residue-effects data are not available, body residues can be estimated, as has been done using the target lipid model for baseline toxicants, to derive critical values for risk assessment. One of the primary unresolved issues complicating TRA for organic chemicals is biotransformation. Further work on the influence of biotransformation, a better understanding of contaminant lipid interactions, and an explicit understanding of the time dependency of CBRs and receptor-mediated toxicity are all required to advance this field. Additional residue-effects data on sublethal endpoints, early life stages, and a wider range of legacy and emergent contaminants will be needed to improve the ability

  13. The Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for Children and Youth: Implications for practitioners, professionals, and organizations.

    PubMed

    Latimer-Cheung, Amy E; Copeland, Jennifer L; Fowles, Jonathon; Zehr, Lori; Duggan, Mary; Tremblay, Mark S

    2016-06-01

    The new Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for Children and Youth emphasize the integration of all movement behaviours that occur over a whole day (i.e., light, moderate, and vigorous physical activity, sedentary behaviour, and sleep). These guidelines shift the paradigm away from considering each behaviour in isolation. This concept of the "whole day matters" not only calls for a change in thinking about movement but also for redevelopment of dissemination and implementation practice. Past guideline launch activities largely have aimed to create awareness through passive dissemination strategies (e.g., Website posts, distribution of print resources). For the integrated guidelines to have public health impact, we must move beyond dissemination and raising of awareness to implementation and behaviour change. Shifting this focus requires new, innovative approaches to intervention, including interdisciplinary collaboration, policy change, and refocused service provision. The purpose of this paper is to identify practitioners, professionals, and organizations with potential to disseminate and/or implement the guidelines, discuss possible implementation strategies for each of these groups, and describe the few resources being developed and those needed to support dissemination and implementation efforts. This discussion makes readily apparent the need for a well-funded, comprehensive, long-term dissemination, implementation, and evaluation plan to ensure uptake and activation of the guidelines. PMID:27306438

  14. Body burden of metals and persistent organic pollutants among Inuit in the Canadian Arctic.

    PubMed

    Laird, Brian D; Goncharov, Alexey B; Chan, Hing Man

    2013-09-01

    Inuit living in the Arctic are exposed to elevated levels of environmental contaminants primarily due to long-range atmospheric transport. Blood sampling and contaminant biomonitoring was conducted as part of the International Polar Year Inuit Health Survey in 2007-2008. The body burden of metals (e.g. Cd, Pb) and persistent organic pollutants (e.g. PCBs, DDT & DDE, toxaphene, chlordane, PBDEs) were measured for Inuit participants (n=2172) from 36 communities in Nunavut, Nunatsiavut, and the Inuvialuit Settlement Region, in Canada. The geometric mean of blood concentrations for Cd, Pb, PCBs, DDE & DDT, toxaphene, and chlordane were higher than those in the Canadian general population. A total of 9% of study participants exceeded the intervention guideline of 100μgL(-1) for Pb, 11% of participants exceeded the trigger guideline of 5μgL(-1) for Cd, and 1% exceeded the intervention guideline of 100μgL(-1) for PCBs. Also, 3% of women of child-bearing age exceeded blood Pb of 100μgL(-1) while 28% of women of child-bearing age exceeded 5μgL(-1) of PCBs. This work showed that most Inuit Health Survey participants were below blood contaminant guidelines set by Health Canada but that metal and POP body burdens commonly exceed exposures observed in the general population of Canada. PMID:23770579

  15. Reuse of spent bleaching earth by polymerisation of residual organics.

    PubMed

    Beshara, Abdelhamid; Cheeseman, Christopher R

    2014-10-01

    Spent bleaching earth (SBE) is a waste generated by the edible oil industry that currently has limited options for beneficial reuse. In excess of ∼2 million tonnes per year of SBE is generated world-wide with major quantities available in the middle-east where significant volumes of edible oils are produced. Low pressure compaction followed by heat treatment at 150°C causes polymerisation of the residual organic components in SBE and this produces monolithic samples with high unconfined compressive strengths (54MPa). SBE can therefore be used to manufacture novel clay blocks for use in construction that are bonded by polymerised vegetable oil. This represents a new, innovative and resource efficient application for SBE. In this research, commercial SBE has been characterised and the effects of key processing variables (temperature and compaction pressure) on the compressive strength, porosity and density of the SBE clay blocks are reported and the mechanisms responsible for strength development are discussed. PMID:24846796

  16. Risk assessment and risk management at the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA): a perspective on the monitoring of foods for chemical residues.

    PubMed

    Bietlot, Henri P; Kolakowski, Beata

    2012-08-01

    The Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) uses 'Ranked Risk Assessment' (RRA) to prioritize chemical hazards for inclusion in monitoring programmes or method development projects based on their relative risk. The relative risk is calculated for a chemical by scoring toxicity and exposure in the 'risk model scoring system' of the Risk Priority Compound List (RPCL). The relative ranking and the risk management options are maintained and updated in the RPCL. The ranking may be refined by the data generated by the sampling and testing programs. The two principal sampling and testing programmes are the National Chemical Residue Monitoring Program (NCRMP) and the Food Safety Action Plan (FSAP). The NCRMP sampling plans focus on the analysis of federally registered products (dairy, eggs, honey, meat and poultry, fresh and processed fruit and vegetable commodities, and maple syrup) for residues of veterinary drugs, pesticides, environmental contaminants, mycotoxins, and metals. The NCRMP is complemented by the Food Safety Action Plan (FSAP) targeted surveys. These surveys focus on emerging chemical hazards associated with specific foods or geographical regions for which applicable maximum residue limits (MRLs) are not set. The data from the NCRMP and FSAP also influence the risk management (follow-up) options. Follow-up actions vary according to the magnitude of the health risk, all with the objective of preventing any repeat occurrence to minimize consumer exposure to a product representing a potential risk to human health. PMID:22851361

  17. 40 CFR Appendix Viii to Part 266 - Organic Compounds for Which Residues Must Be Analyzed

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Organic Compounds for Which Residues...—Organic Compounds for Which Residues Must Be Analyzed Volatiles Semivolatiles Benzene Bis(2-ethylhexyl... those compounds that do not have an established F039 nonwastewater concentration limit....

  18. 40 CFR Appendix Viii to Part 266 - Organic Compounds for Which Residues Must Be Analyzed

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Organic Compounds for Which Residues...—Organic Compounds for Which Residues Must Be Analyzed Volatiles Semivolatiles Benzene Bis(2-ethylhexyl... those compounds that do not have an established F039 nonwastewater concentration limit....

  19. Knowledge of and Opinions on HIV Preexposure Prophylaxis Among Front-Line Service Providers at Canadian AIDS Service Organizations

    PubMed Central

    Senn, Heather; Wilton, James; Sharma, Malika; Fowler, Shawn

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Oral daily tenofovir/emtricitabine (Truvada) is approved in the United States for HIV preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) but has generated controversy in the media and within HIV-affected communities. We conducted an online survey about PrEP-related knowledge, experience, opinions, and learning needs, and received 160 responses from service providers at Canadian AIDS Service Organizations. Respondents were cautiously optimistic about PrEP and 48.8% believed that PrEP warranted Health Canada approval. In multivariable logistic regression, support for PrEP approval was associated with more years working in HIV (odds ratio=1.89 per decade, 95% CI=1.10, 3.25), low baseline familiarity with PrEP (OR=3.24, 95% CI=1.01, 14.41), and knowing someone who had used PrEP (OR=4.39, 95% CI=1.28,15.08). Participants major concerns about PrEP were similar to those highlighted in other publications, and some issues specific to certain target populations were raised. Several participants (26.2%) had been asked about PrEP in the past year and 10.6% knew of one or more Canadian who had used PrEP. Despite clients' interest, most participants thought that they (60.6%) or their organization (63.1%) did not have enough current knowledge about PrEP, highlighting the need for further education on this novel HIV prevention strategy. PMID:23731254

  20. Simultaneous determination of inorganic and organic gunshot residues by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Morales, Ernesto Bernal; Vázquez, Alma L Revilla

    2004-12-24

    A capillary electrophoresis method was developed to analyze simultaneously 11 organic and 10 inorganic components of gunshot residues as a cheaper and possibly more specific method comparing to traditional techniques. Pre-capillary complexation and simultaneously a micellar phase were combined to determine not only the metal but also the organic residues from a firearm. In order to test the possibility to apply the developed method to real cases, residues from shot samples from different firearms were analyzed and their results were compared with those obtained with electrothermal atomic absorption spectroscopy, an established technique for gunshot residue analysis. Good agreement between both techniques for lead was found. PMID:15641366

  1. Crop residues quantification to obtain self-consumption compost in an organic garden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez de Fuentes, Pilar; Lopez Merino, María; Remedios Alvir, María; Briz de Felipe, Teresa

    2013-04-01

    This research focuses on quantifying the crop residue left after the campaign fall/winter (2011) for the organic garden crops of Agricultural ETSI, located in practice fields, to get compost for self-generated residues arising from within their own fields. This compost is produced by mixing this material with an organic residues source animal. In this way the plant organic residues provided the nitrogen required for an appropriate C/N and the animal organic residues can provide the carbon amount required to achieve an optimal scenario. The garden has a surface area of 180 m2 which was cultured with different seasonal vegetables, different families and attending practices and species associations' rotations, proper of farming techniques. The organic material of animal origin referred to, is rest from sheep renew bed, sustained management support the precepts of organic farming and cottage belongs to practice fields too. At the end of crop cycle, we proceeded to the harvest and sorting of usable crop residues, which was considered as net crop residues. In each case, these residues were subjected to a cutting treatment by the action of a mincing machine and then weighed to estimate the amounts given by each crop. For the sheep bed residue 1m2 was collected after three months having renewed. It had been made by providing 84 kg of straw bales in July and introducing about 12 Kg each. The herd consisted of three females and one playe. Each one of them was feed 300g and 600 g of straw per day. Two alternating different pens were used to simulate a regime of semi-intensive housing. A balance on how much organic residue material was obtained at the end and how much was obtained in the compost process is discussed in terms of volume and nutrients content is discussed.

  2. Simulating Soil Organic Carbon Dynamics with Residue Removal Using the CQESTR Model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Concerns about CO_2 emissions and fossil fuel supplies have enhanced interest in using crop residues for biofuel production; however, maintaining soil organic carbon (SOC) through residue return is vital for maintaining soil productivity. Our objectives were to simulate long-term SOC dynamics using ...

  3. Simulated impacts of crop residue removal and tillage on soil organic matter maintenance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cellulosic biofuel production may generate new markets and additional revenue for farmers. However, residue removal may cause other environmental problems such as soil erosion and loss of soil organic matter (SOM). The objective of this study was to determine the amounts of residue necessary for SOM...

  4. MUTAGEN ISOLATION METHODS: FRACTIONATION OF RESIDUE ORGANICS FROM AQUEOUS ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A basic assessment of the mutagenic activity of organic residues from water entails application of the Salmonella test to both the parent residue mixture and to major subfractions obtained by reverse phase and/or normal phase HPLC. Such analyses overcome the presence in particula...

  5. Organic geochemical signatures controlling methane outgassing at active mud volcanoes in the Canadian Beaufort Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DongHun, Lee; YoungKeun, Jin; JungHyun, Kim; Heldge, Niemann; JongKu, Gal; BoHyung, Choi

    2016-04-01

    Based on the water column acoustic anomalies related to active methane (CH4) venting, numerous active Mud Volcanoes (MVs) were recently identified at ~282, ~420, and ~740 m water depths on the continental slope of the Canadian Beaufort Sea (Paull et al., 2015). While geophysical aspects such as the multibeam bathymetric mapping are thoroughly investigated, biogeochemical processes controlling outgassing CH4 at the active MVs are not well constrained. Here, we investigated three sediment cores from the active MVs and one sediment core from a non-methane influenced reference site recovered during the ARA-05C expedition with the R/V ARAON in 2014. We analyzed lipid biomarkers and their stable carbon isotopic values (δ13C) in order to determine key biogeochemical processes involved in CH4 cycling in the MV sediments. Downcore CH4 and sulphate (SO42-) concentration measurements revealed a distinct sulfate-methane transition zone (SMTZ) at the shallow sections of the cores (15 - 45 cm below seafloor (cm bsf) at 282 m MV, 420 m MV, and 740 m MV). The most abundant diagnostic lipid biomarkers in the SMTZ were sn-2-hydroxyarchaeol (-94‰) and archaeol (-66‰) with the sn-2-hydroxyarchaeol: archaeol ratio of 1.1 to 5, indicating the presence of ANME-2 or -3. However, we also found substantial amounts of monocyclic biphytane-1 (BP-1, -118‰), which is rather indicative for ANME-1. Nevertheless, the concentration of sn-2-hydroxyarchaeol was 2-fold higher than any other archaeal lipids, suggesting a predominant ANME-2 or -3 rather than ANME-1 as a driving force for the anaerobic methane oxidation (AOM) in these systems. We will further investigate the microbial community at the active MVs using nucleic acid (RNA and DNA) sequence analyses in near future. Our study provides first biogeochemical data set of the active MVs in the Canadian Beaufort Sea, which helps to better understand CH4 cycling mediated in these systems. Reference Paull, C.K., et al. (2015), Active mud

  6. Composition of carbonaceous smoke particles from prescribed burning of a Canadian boreal forest: 1. Organic aerosol characterization by gas chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Mazurek, M.A.; Laterza, C.; Newman, L.; Daum, P.; Cofer, W.R. III; Levine, J.S.; Winstead, E.L.

    1995-06-01

    In this study we examine the molecular organic constituents (C8 to C40 lipid compounds) collected as smoke particles from a Canadian boreal forest prescribed burn. Of special interest are (1) the molecular identity of polar organic aerosols, and (2) the amount of polar organic matter relative to the total mass of aerosol particulate carbon. Organic extracts of smoke aerosol particles show complex distributions of the lipid compounds when analyzed by capillary gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The molecular constituents present as smoke aerosol are grouped into non-polar (hydrocarbons) and polar {minus}2 oxygen atoms) subtractions. The dominant chemical species found in the boreal forest smoke aerosol are unaltered resin compounds (C20 terpenes) which are abundant in unburned conifer wood, plus thermally altered wood lignins and other polar aromatic hydrocarbons. Our results show that smoke aerosols contain molecular tracers which are related to the biofuel consumed. These smoke tracers can be related structurally back to the consumed softwood and hardwood vegetation. In addition, combustion of boreal forest materials produces smoke aerosol particles that are both oxygen-rich and chemically complex, yielding a carbonaceous aerosol matrix that is enriched in polar substances. As a consequence, emissions of carbonaceous smoke particles from large-scale combustion of boreal forest land may have a disproportionate effect on regional atmospheric chemistry and on cloud microphysical processes.

  7. Headspace gas chromatography-flame ionization detector method for organic solvent residue analysis in dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Mijeong Lee; Zahn, Michael; Trinh, Thao; Jia, Qi; Ma, Wenwen

    2006-01-01

    An analytical method has been developed for the identification and quantification of 20 organic solvent residues in dietary supplements. The method utilizes a headspace sampler interfaced with gas chromatography and flame ionization detection. With split injection (5:1) and a DB-624 column, most of the organic solvents are separated in 9 min. The method has been validated and was found to be relatively simple and fast, and it can be applied to most common organic solvent residues. With the mass detector, the method was able to identify organic solvents beyond the 20 standards tested. PMID:17225592

  8. Chemical properties of litter inputs and organic matter along the Canadian Boreal Forest Transect Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preston, C. M.; Bhatti, J. S.; Norris, C. E.; Quideau, S. A.; Arevalo, C.

    2012-04-01

    To improve prediction of climate change impacts on the carbon balance of boreal forests, we are investigating C stocks, fluxes and organic matter quality of jack pine (Pinus banksiana) and black spruce (Picea mariana) stands in northern Saskatchewan and Manitoba along the Boreal Forest Transect Case Study (BFTCS). Jack pine stands occupy well-drained sandy soils with thin forest floor, whereas poorly-drained black spruce stands have a thick moss-dominated forest floor. Carbon storage for jack pine and black spruce stands respectively was 3.0-5.5 kg m-2 and 5.2-8.2 kg m-2 in vegetation, and 0.20-0.85 kg m-2 and 0.12-0.40 kg m-2 in coarse woody debris. Forest floor C stock was much higher for black spruce (6.0-12.7 kg m-2) than for jack pine (0.6-0.82 kg m-2). Mineral soil C to 50 cm was also significantly higher for black spruce (3.3-12.5 kg m-2) than for jack pine sites (2.2-3.0 kg m-2). Black spruce forest floor properties indicate hindered decomposition and N cycling, with high C/N ratios, strongly stratified and depleted ^13C and ^15N values, high tannins and phenolics, and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra typical of poorly decomposed plant material, especially roots and mosses. The thinner jack pine forest floor appears to be dominated by lichen, with charcoal in some samples. These contrasts are unlikely due to the small differences in aboveground litter inputs (110 vs 121 g m-2) for jack pine and black spruce respectively, 2000-2010 means) or litter quality. Development of colder, wetter and thicker black spruce forest floor is more likely associated with soil texture and drainage, further exacerbated by increasing sphagnum coverage and forest floor depth. This suggests that small environmental changes could trigger large C losses through enhanced forest floor decomposition. An investigation of mineral soil C stabilization in four jack pine sites showed that silt plus clay accounted for 15-43 % of 0-1 m C (1.5-2.8 kg m-2); silt held 0.9-3.3% of

  9. Assessing determinants of maternal blood concentrations for persistent organic pollutants and metals in the eastern and western Canadian Arctic.

    PubMed

    Curren, Meredith S; Liang, Chun Lei; Davis, Karelyn; Kandola, Kami; Brewster, Janet; Potyrala, Mary; Chan, Hing Man

    2015-09-15

    Aboriginal peoples in the Canadian Arctic are exposed to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and metals mainly through their consumption of a traditional diet of wildlife items. Recent studies indicate that many human chemical levels have decreased in the north, likely due to a combination of reduced global chemical emissions, dietary shifts, and risk mitigation efforts by local health authorities. Body burdens for chemicals in mothers can be further offset by breastfeeding, parity, and other maternal characteristics. We have assessed the impact of several dietary and maternal covariates following a decade of awareness of the contaminant issue in northern Canada, by performing multiple stepwise linear regression analyses from blood concentrations and demographic variables for 176 mothers recruited from Nunavut and the Northwest Territories during the period 2005-2007. A significant aboriginal group effect was observed for the modeled chemicals, except for lead and cadmium, after adjusting for covariates. Further, blood concentrations for POPs and metals were significantly associated with at least one covariate of older age, fewer months spent breastfeeding, more frequent eating of traditional foods, or smoking during pregnancy. Cadmium had the highest explained variance (72.5%) from just two significant covariates (current smoking status and parity). Although Inuit participants from the Northwest Territories consumed more traditional foods in general, Inuit participants from coastal communities in Nunavut continued to demonstrate higher adjusted blood concentrations for POPs and metals examined here. While this is due in part to a higher prevalence of marine mammals in the eastern Arctic diet, it is possible that other aboriginal group effects unrelated to diet may also contribute to elevated chemical body burdens in Canadian Arctic populations. PMID:25965033

  10. The importance of crop residue on soil aggregation and soil organic matter components

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Above- and below-ground plant residues are the soil’s main sources of organic materials that bind soil particles together into aggregates and increase soil carbon storage. Serving to stabilize soil particles, soil organic matter assists in supplying plant available nutrients, increases water holding...

  11. Morphological Study of Insoluble Organic Matter Residues from Primitive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Changela, H. G.; Stroud, R. M.; Peeters, Z.; Nittler, L. R.; Alexander, C. M. O'D.; DeGregorio, B. T.; Cody, G. D.

    2012-01-01

    Insoluble organic matter (IOM) constitutes a major proportion, 70-99%, of the total organic carbon found in primitive chondrites [1, 2]. One characteristic morphological component of IOM is nanoglobules [3, 4]. Some nanoglobules exhibit large N-15 and D enrichments relative to solar values, indicating that they likely originated in the ISM or the outskirts of the protoplanetary disk [3]. A recent study of samples from the Tagish Lake meteorite with varying levels of hydrothermal alteration suggest that nanoglobule abundance decreases with increasing hydrothermal alteration [5]. The aim of this study is to further document the morphologies of IOM from a range of primitive chondrites in order to determine any correlation of morphology with petrographic grade and chondrite class that could constrain the formation and/or alteration mechanisms.

  12. Photochemical and other sources of organic compounds in the Canadian high arctic aerosol pollution during winter-spring.

    PubMed

    Fu, Pingqing; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Barrie, Leonard A

    2009-01-15

    Total suspended particles collected at Alert in the Canadian high Arctic (February-June) were analyzed for solvent extractable organic compounds using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to better understand the sources and source apportionment of aerosol pollution that can affect the Arctic climate. More than 100 organic species were detected in the aerosols and were grouped into different compound classes based on the functional groups. Polyacids were found to be the most abundant compound class, followed by phthalates, aromatic acids, fatty acids, fatty alcohols, sugars/sugar alcohols, and n-alkanes, while polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, sterols, and lignin and resin acids were minor. Concentrations of total quantified organics seemed slightly higher in darkwinter aerosols (13.2-16.6 ng m(-3), average 14.5 ng m(-3)) than those after polar sunrise (6.70-17.7 ng m(-3), average 11.8 ng m(-3)). During dark winter, fossil fuel combustion products (30-51%), secondary oxidation products, as well as higher plant emissions were found as major contributors to the Arctic aerosols. However, after polar sunrise on 5 March, secondary oxidation products (5-53%) and plasticizer-derived phthalates became the dominant compound classes, followed by fossil fuel combustion and microbial/marine sources. Biomass burning emissions were found to contribute only 0.4-6% of the total identified organics, although they maximized in dark winter. This study demonstrates that long-range atmospheric transport, changes in the solar irradiance, and ambient temperature can significantly control the chemical composition of organic aerosols in the Arctic region. PMID:19238953

  13. Effects of iron-aluminium oxides and organic carbon on aggregate stability of bauxite residues.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Feng; Li, Yubing; Xue, Shengguo; Hartley, William; Wu, Hao

    2016-05-01

    In order to successfully establish vegetation on bauxite residue, properties such as aggregate structure and stability require improvement. Spontaneous plant colonization on the deposits in Central China over the last 20 years has revealed that natural processes may improve the physical condition of bauxite residues. Samples from three different stacking ages were selected to determine aggregate formation and stability and its relationship with iron-aluminium oxides and organic carbon. The residue aggregate particles became coarser in both dry and wet sieving processes. The mean weight diameter (MWD) and geometry mean diameter (GMD) increased significantly, and the proportion of aggregate destruction (PAD) decreased. Natural stacking processes could increase aggregate stability and erosion resistant of bauxite residues. Free iron oxides and amorphous aluminium oxides were the major forms in bauxite residues, but there was no significant correlation between the iron-aluminium oxides and aggregate stability. Aromatic-C, alkanes-C, aliphatic-C and alkenes-C were the major functional groups present in the residues. With increasing stacking age, total organic carbon content and aggregate-associated organic carbon both increased. Alkanes-C, aliphatic-C and alkenes-C increased and were mainly distributed in macro-aggregates, whereas aromatic-C was mainly distributed in <0.05-mm aggregates. Organic carbon stability in micro-aggregates was higher than that in macro-aggregates and became more stable. Organic carbon contents in total residues, and within different aggregate sizes, were all negatively correlated with PAD. It indicated that organic materials had a more significant effect on macro-aggregate stability and the effects of iron-aluminium oxides maybe more important for stability of micro-aggregates. PMID:26832865

  14. Financial incentives to increase Canadian organ donation: quick fix or fallacy?

    PubMed

    Gill, John S; Klarenbach, Scott; Barnieh, Lianne; Caulfield, Timothy; Knoll, Greg; Levin, Adeera; Cole, Edward H

    2014-01-01

    Unlike the United States, the potential to increase organ donation in Canada may be sufficient to meet the need for transplantation. However, there has been no national coordinated effort to increase organ donation. Strategies that do not involve payment for organs, such as investment in health care resources to support deceased donor organ donation and introduction of a remuneration framework for the work of deceased organ donation, should be prioritized for implementation. Financial incentives that may be permitted under existing legislation and that pose little risk to existing donation sources should be advanced, including the following: payment of funeral expenses for potential donors who register their decision on organ donation during life (irrespective of the decision to donate or actual organ donation) and removal of disincentives for directed and paired exchange living donation, such as payment of wages, payment for pain and suffering related to the donor surgery, and payment of directed living kidney donors for participation in Canada's paired exchange program. In contrast, it would be premature to contemplate a regulated system of organ sales that would require a paradigm shift in the current approach to organ donation and legislative change to implement. PMID:24200461

  15. Detection of organic residues on food processing equipment surfaces by spectral imaging method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Jianwei; Jun, Won; Kim, Moon S.; Chao, Kaunglin

    2010-04-01

    Organic residues on equipment surfaces in poultry processing plants can generate cross contamination and increase the risk of unsafe food for consumers. This research was aimed to investigate the potential of LED-induced fluorescence imaging technique for rapid inspection of organic residues on poultry processing equipment surfaces. High-power blue LEDs with a spectral output at 410 nm were used as the excitation source for a line-scanning hyperspectral imaging system. Common chicken residue samples including fat, blood, and feces from ceca, colon, duodenum, and small intestine were prepared on stainless steel sheets. Fluorescence emission images were acquired from 120 samples (20 for each type of residue) in the wavelength range of 500-700 nm. LED-induced fluorescence characteristics of the tested samples were determined. PCA (principal component analysis) was performed to analyze fluorescence spectral data. Two SIMCA (soft independent modeling of class analogy) models were developed to differentiate organic residues and stainless steel samples. Classification accuracies using 2-class ('stainless steel' and 'organic residue') and 4-class ('stainless steel', 'fat', 'blood', and 'feces') SIMCA models were 100% and 97.5%, respectively. An optimal single-band and a band-pair that are promising for rapid residue detection were identified by correlation analysis. The single-band approach using the selected wavelength of 666 nm could generate false negative errors for chicken blood inspection. Two-band ratio images using 503 and 666 nm (F503/F666) have great potential for detecting various chicken residues on stainless steel surfaces. This wavelength pair can be adopted for developing a LED-based hand-held fluorescence imaging device for inspecting poultry processing equipment surfaces.

  16. Radiocarbon dating organic residues at the microgram level

    SciTech Connect

    Kirner, D.L.; Burky, R.; Taylor, R.E.; Southon, J.R.

    1997-01-01

    Relation between submilligram sample size and {sup 14}C activity for sample blanks (wood from Pliocene sediments) and a contemporary standard (oxalic acid) for catalytically reduced graphitic carbon was examined down to 20 micrograms. Mean age of the 1 mg wood sample blanks is now about 51.3 ka (0.168 pMC) while the mean for 20 microgram sample blanks is about 42.9 ka. So far, the lowest value for a 1-mg wood sample blank is about 60.5 ka (0.056 pMC). We have determined a mean {sup 14}C age of about 9.4 ka from a suite of 7 organic extracts from hair, bone, and matting from a mummified human skeleton from Spirit Cave, Nevada. These data indicate that the Spirit Cave human is the third, oldest directly-dated, human skeleton currently known from North America.

  17. Relationship between child abuse exposure and reported contact with child protection organizations: results from the Canadian Community Health Survey.

    PubMed

    Afifi, Tracie O; MacMillan, Harriet L; Taillieu, Tamara; Cheung, Kristene; Turner, Sarah; Tonmyr, Lil; Hovdestad, Wendy

    2015-08-01

    Much of what is known about child abuse in Canada has come from reported cases of child abuse and at-risk samples, which likely represent the most severe cases of child abuse in the country. The objective of the current study is to examine the prevalence of a broad range of child abuse experiences (physical abuse, sexual abuse, and exposure to IPV) and investigate how such experiences and sociodemographic variables are related to contact with child protection organizations in Canada using a representative general population sample. Data were drawn from the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey: Mental Health collected from the 10 provinces using a multistage stratified cluster design (n=23,395; household response rate=79.8%; aged 18 years and older). Physical abuse only (16.8%) was the most prevalent child abuse experience reported with the exposure to specific combinations of two or more types of child abuse ranging from 0.4% to 3.7%. Only 7.6% of the adult population with a history of child abuse reported having had contact with child protection organizations. Experiencing all three types of child abuse was associated with the greatest odds of contact with child protection organizations (AOR=15.8; 95% CI=10.1 to 24.6). Physical abuse only was associated with one of the lowest odds of contact with child protection organizations. Preventing child abuse is widely acknowledged as an important, but challenging public health goal. Strategies to increase reporting of child abuse may help to protect children and to connect families with necessary services. One obvious priority would be physical abuse. PMID:26002601

  18. Application of organic geochemistry to coastal tar residues from Central California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kvenvolden, K.A.; Rosenbauer, R.J.; Hostettler, F.D.; Lorenson, T.D.

    2000-01-01

    Tar residues are common on the coastline of the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary. These coastal tar residues have been washed ashore and usually occur on headlands near the high-tide line. In this study, 18 coastal tar residues were collected and analyzed to determine their carbon isotopic compositions and the values of selected biomarker ratios. All of the residues have very heavy (13C-enriched) carbon isotopic compositions spanning a narrow range (??13C = -22.2 to -23.4???), and 28,30-bisnorhopane is present in all samples. These same geochemical characteristics are found in Monterey Formation oils from which the coastal tar residues were likely derived. These coastal residues could result from natural seeps or from accidental spills. Statistically the coastal tar residues can be organized into three groups, each of which may represent different spill or seep events. Seven samples of potential local representative sources for the tar residues were examined, but none could account for the coastal tars.

  19. Partnering with migrant friendly organizations: a case example from a Canadian school of nursing.

    PubMed

    Hickey, Jason; Gagnon, Anita J; Merry, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    Worldwide immigration to many high-income countries suggests that these countries' health care systems must become responsive to a more diverse population. Experiences working with newly arrived populations can provide healthcare students, professionals, and teachers, with valuable insight into the health and social conditions these newcomers face in both source and receiving countries. One way to gain this experience may be by developing partnerships between schools of nursing in receiving countries and international health organizations working in areas that are major migrant source regions for these countries. In this paper, we use a case example to describe, the process of identifying international, migrant-focused organizations, and the steps involved in developing partnerships with these organizations, for the implementation of a migrant health component in health professional curricula. After creating a set of criteria to evaluate partnership potential, we identified a list of international health organizations with whom we thought a partnership might be possible. Following application of our criteria, future work is being pursued with two organizations. Potential implications of this partnership include benefits to all parties involved that may help us move towards increased population and public health capacity. PMID:19581028

  20. Persistent organic pollutant and mercury concentrations in eggs of ground-nesting marine birds in the Canadian high Arctic.

    PubMed

    Peck, Liam E; Gilchrist, H Grant; Mallory, Conor D; Braune, Birgit M; Mallory, Mark L

    2016-06-15

    We collected eggs of eight marine bird species from several colony sites in the Canadian high Arctic located at approximately 76°N and analyzed them for concentrations of legacy persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and mercury. We provide the first report on concentrations of POPs in eggs of three Arctic species (Thayer's gull Larus thayeri, Sabine's gull Xema sabini, Ross's Gull Rhodostethia rosea), and we found significant differences in each of the POP profiles among the five species with sufficient data for statistical comparisons (Thayer's gull, black guillemot Cepphus grylle, Sabine's gull, Arctic tern Sterna paradisaea and common eider Somateria mollissima borealis). The Ross's Gull had unexpectedly high POP concentrations relative to the other species examined, although this was based on a single egg, while glaucous gull Larus hyperboreus eggs from our sampling location had very low POPs. Sabine's gulls had the lowest Hg of the eggs studied, consistent with their low trophic position, but concentrations of their legacy POPs were higher than expected. We also noted that total hexachlorocyclohexanes were higher than reported elsewhere in the circumpolar Arctic in three species. PMID:26971212

  1. Impact of forest harvesting on water quality and fluorescence characteristics of dissolved organic matter in Eastern Canadian Boreal Shield lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glaz, P.; Gagné, J.-P.; Archambault, P.; Sirois, P.; Nozais, C.

    2015-06-01

    Forestry activities in the Canadian Boreal region have increased in the last decades, raising concerns about their potential impact on aquatic ecosystems. Water quality and fluorescence characteristics of dissolved organic matter (DOM) were measured over a three-year period in eight Eastern Boreal Shield lakes: four lakes were studied before, one and two years after forest harvesting (perturbed lakes) and compared with four undisturbed reference lakes (unperturbed lakes) sampled at the same time. ANOVAs showed a significant increase in total phosphorus (TP) in perturbed lakes when the three sampling dates were considered and in DOC concentrations when considering one year before and one year after the perturbation only. At one year post-clear cutting DOC concentrations were about 15 % greater in the perturbed lakes at ~15 mg C L-1 compared to 12.5 mg C L-1 in the unperturbed lakes. In contrast, absorbance and fluorescence measurements showed that all metrics remained within narrow ranges compared to the range observed in natural waters, indicating that forest harvesting did not affect the nature of DOM characterised with spectroscopic techniques. Multivariate statistical analysis showed lakes to be significantly different one year after the perturbation. These results confirm an impact of forestry activities one year after the perturbation. However, this effect seems to be mitigated two years after, indicating that the system shows high resilience and may be able to return to its original condition.

  2. The Provincial Educational Communications Organizations in Canada. New Technologies in Canadian Education Series. Paper 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Joy; And Others

    This paper examines the history, functions, and impact of the four existing educational communications organizations in Canada: (1) TVOntario; (2) Radio Quebec; (3) ACCESS Alberta; and (4) the Knowledge Network of the West in British Columbia. It is noted that, while broadcasting and communications have always fallen under federal jurisdiction,…

  3. Fate of (14)C-organic pollutant residues in composted sludge after application to soil.

    PubMed

    Haudin, Claire-Sophie; Zhang, Yuhai; Dumény, Valérie; Lashermes, Gwenaëlle; Bergheaud, Valérie; Barriuso, Enrique; Houot, Sabine

    2013-08-01

    Organic micropollutants may be present in biosolids, leading to soil contamination when they are recycled in agriculture. A sludge spiked with (14)C-labelled glyphosate (GLY), sodium linear dodecylbenzene sulphonate (LAS), fluoranthene (FLT) or 4-n-nonylphenol (NP) was composted with green waste and the fate of the (14)C-micropollutant residues remaining after composting was assessed after the compost application to the soil. (14)C-residues were mineralised in the soil and represented after 140d 20-32% of the initial activity for LAS, 16-25% for GLY, 6-9% for FLT and 4-7% for NP. The (14)C-residues at the end of composting that could not be extracted with methanol or ammonia were minimally remobilised or even increased for FLT. After 140d, non-extractable residues represented 38-52% of all of the (14)C-residues remaining in the soil for FLT, 50-67% for GLY, 91-92% for NP and 94-97% for LAS and in most cases, less than 1% of the (14)C-residues were water soluble, suggesting a low direct availability for leaching and microbial or plant assimilation. FLT was identified as the main compound among the methanol-extractable (14)C-residues that may be potentially available. The fate of the (14)C-organic pollutant residues in composts after application to soil could be assessed through a sequential chemical extraction scheme and depended on the chemical nature of the pollutant. PMID:23545187

  4. Carbon and nitrogen mineralization and persistence of organic residues under conservation and conventional tillage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A combination of high biomass cover crops with organic mulches may be an option for no-till vegetable production, but mineralization rates from these residues is lacking. The objective of this study was to assess nutrient release rates and persistence from mimosa, lespedeza, oat straw, and soybean r...

  5. Detection of organic residues on poultry processing equipment surfaces by LED-induced fluorescence imaging

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic residues on equipment surfaces in poultry processing plants can generate cross- contamination and increase the risk of unsafe food for consumers. This research was aimed to investigate the potential of LED-induced fluorescence imaging technique for rapid inspection of stainless steel proces...

  6. 40 CFR Appendix Viii to Part 266 - Organic Compounds for Which Residues Must Be Analyzed

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Organic Compounds for Which Residues Must Be Analyzed VIII Appendix VIII to Part 266 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF SPECIFIC HAZARDOUS WASTES AND SPECIFIC TYPES OF HAZARDOUS WASTE...

  7. Detection of organic residues on food processing equipment surfaces by spectral imaging method

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic residues remaining attached to equipment surfaces during poultry processing operations can potentially generate cross-contamination and thus increase the risk of unsafe food for consumers. Current pre-operational sanitation monitoring mainly relies on human visual inspection, which is subje...

  8. Simulating Soil Organic Matter Dynamics and Effects of Residue Removal Using the CQESTR Model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Concern about CO2 emissions and fossil fuel supplies has increased interest in using crop residues for biofuel production. However, maintaining soil organic matter (SOM) is vital for maintaining soil productivity. Our objectives were to simulate long-term SOM dynamics of a sandy loam soil using the ...

  9. Determining pathogen and indicator levels in Class B municipal organic residuals used for land application

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biosolids are nutrient rich organic residuals that are currently in use to amend soils for food production. Treatment requirements to inactivate pathogens for production of Class A biosolids are energy intensive. One less energy intensive alternative is to treat biosolids to Cl...

  10. 40 CFR Appendix Viii to Part 266 - Organic Compounds for Which Residues Must Be Analyzed

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Organic Compounds for Which Residues Must Be Analyzed VIII Appendix VIII to Part 266 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF SPECIFIC HAZARDOUS WASTES AND SPECIFIC TYPES OF HAZARDOUS WASTE...

  11. Leaching of nitrogen and base cations from calcareous soil amended with organic residues.

    PubMed

    Zarabi, Mahboubeh; Jalali, Mohsen

    2012-01-01

    The potential for groundwater and surface water pollution by nutrients in organic residues, primarily nitrogen (N) and base cations (K+, Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+), is a consideration when applying such residues to land. In this study, we used a laboratory column leaching procedure to examine the leaching of N, K+, Na+, Ca2+ and Mg2+ in soils treated with two types of raw organic residues (poultry manure and potato residues) and one municipal waste compost, which are currently recycled on agricultural land in Iran. Each organic residue was thoroughly mixed with two different soils (sandy loam and clay) at the rate of 3%. Soil columns were leached at 4-d intervals for 92 d with distilled water, and effluents were analysed for pH, EC, nitrate (NO3(-)-N), ammonium (NH4(+)-N) K+, Na+, Ca2+ and Mg2+. The results indicated that the amounts of NO3(-)-N and NH4(+)-N leached from the poultry manure and potato residues could represent very important economic losses of N and pose an environmental threat under field conditions. The sandy loam soil amended with poultry manure lost the highest amount of NO3(-)-N (206.4 kg ha(-1)), and clay soil amended with poultry manure lost the highest amounts of NH4(+)-N (454.3 kg ha(-1)). The results showed that a treatment incorporating 3% of municipal waste compost could be used without negative effects to groundwater N concentration in clay soil. Significant amounts of K+, Na+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ were leached owing to the application of poultry manure, potato and municipal waste compost to soils. There was a positive relationship between K+, Na+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ with NO3(-)-N and NH4(+)-N leached in soils. Analysis of variance detected significant effects of amendment, soil type and time on the leaching NO3(-)-N, NH4(+)-N, K+, Na+, Ca2+ and Mg2+. PMID:22988618

  12. Organization and dynamics of tryptophan residues in brain spectrin: novel insight into conformational flexibility.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Madhurima; Chaudhuri, Arunima; Patra, Malay; Mukhopadhyay, Chaitali; Chakrabarti, Abhijit; Chattopadhyay, Amitabha

    2015-05-01

    Brain spectrin enjoys overall structural and sequence similarity with erythroid spectrin, but less is known about its function. We utilized the fluorescence properties of tryptophan residues to monitor their organization and dynamics in brain spectrin. Keeping in mind the functional relevance of hydrophobic binding sites in brain spectrin, we monitored the organization and dynamics of brain spectrin bound to PRODAN. Results from red edge excitation shift (REES) indicate that the organization of tryptophans in brain spectrin is maintained to a considerable extent even after denaturation. These results are supported by acrylamide quenching experiments. To the best of our knowledge, these results constitute the first report of the presence of residual structure in urea-denatured brain spectrin. We further show from REES and time-resolved emission spectra that PRODAN bound to brain spectrin is characterized by motional restriction. These results provide useful information on the differences between erythroid spectrin and brain spectrin. PMID:25835748

  13. XANES analysis of organic residues produced from the UV irradiation of astrophysical ice analogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuevo, M.; Milam, S. N.; Sandford, S. A.; De Gregorio, B. T.; Cody, G. D.; Kilcoyne, A. L. D.

    2011-09-01

    Organic residues formed in the laboratory from the ultraviolet (UV) photo-irradiation or ion bombardment of astrophysical ice analogs have been extensively studied for the last 15 years with a broad suite of techniques, including infrared (IR) and UV spectroscopies, as well as mass spectrometry. Analyses of these materials show that they consist of complex mixtures of organic compounds stable at room temperature, mostly soluble, that have not been fully characterized. However, the hydrolysis products of these residues have been partly identified using chromatography techniques, which indicate that they contain molecular precursors of prebiotic interest such as amino acids, nitrile-bearing compounds, and amphiphilic compounds. In this study, we present the first X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy measurements of three organic residues made from the UV irradiation of ices having different starting compositions. XANES spectra confirm the presence of different chemical functions in these residues, and indicate that they are rich in nitrogen- and oxygen-bearing species. These data can be compared with XANES measurements of extraterrestrial materials. Finally, this study also shows how soft X rays can alter the chemical composition of samples.

  14. XANES Analysis of Organic Residues Produced from the UV Irradiation of Astrophysical Ice Analogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nuevo, M.; Milam, S N.; Sandford, S A.; De Gregorio, B T.; Cody, G D.; Kilcoyne, A L.

    2011-01-01

    Organic residues formed in the laboratory from the ultraviolet (UV) photo-irradiation or ion bombardment of astrophysical ice analogs have been extensively studied for the last 15 years with a broad suite of techniques, including infrared (IR) and UV spectroscopies, as well as mass spectrometry. Analyses of these materials show that they consist of complex mixtures of organic compounds stable at room temperature, mostly soluble, that have not been fully characterized. However, the hydrolysis products of these residues have been partly identified using chromatography techniques, which indicate that they contain molecular precursors of prebiotic interest such as amino acids, nitrile-bearing compounds, and amphiphilic compounds. In this study, we present the first X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy measurements of three organic residues made from the UV irradiation of ices having different starting compositions. XANES spectra confirm the presence of different chemical functions in these residues, and indicate that they are rich in nitrogenand oxygen-bearing species. These data can be compared with XANES measurements of extraterrestrial materials. Finally, this study also shows how soft X rays can alter the chemical composition of samples.

  15. [Determination of organic residues in macroporous adsorption resins by gas chromatography].

    PubMed

    Jia, Cunqin; Li, Yangchun; Tu, Pengfei; Zhang, Hongquan

    2005-11-01

    A method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of benzene, toluene, xylene, styrene, decane, diethylbenzene, undecane, divinylbenzene, dodecane and naphthalene residues in macroporous adsorption resins (MARs). The organic residues were extracted from resin samples by ultrasonic extraction with dichloromethane and analyzed by gas chromatography. The chromatographic conditions were as follows: a DB-624 capillary column (30 m x 0.32 mm i.d., 1.8 microm); carrier gas, nitrogen with a flow rate of 2.5 mL/min; column temperature, programmed from 40 degrees C to 200 degrees C at a rate of 14 degrees C /min and kept at 200 degrees C for 1 min; flame ionization detector temperature, 250 degrees C; injector temperature, 220 degrees C; splitless injection, 1 microL. All the 10 organic residues were separated well in 12 min. The recoveries for spiked standards (n = 3) were 73.8% - 107.9%. The relative standard deviations were 1.3% - 4.4%. The limits of detection were 0.007 - 0.03 mg/L. This method is sensitive, accurate and quick. Nine commercial MARs and their pretreated samples were assayed, and the results show that the contents of organic residues varied greatly in two kinds of samples. And the pretreated MARs can be used safely in the production of traditional Chinese medicines. PMID:16499000

  16. The imperative of strategic alignment across organizations: the experience of the Canadian Cancer Society's Centre for Behavioural Research and Program Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Roy; Riley, Barbara L; Campbell, H Sharon; Manske, Stephen; Lamers-Bellio, Kim

    2009-01-01

    The Canadian Cancer Society's Centre for Behavioural Research and Program Evaluation (CBRPE) is a national asset for building pan-Canadian capacity to support intervention studies that guide population-level policies and programs. This paper briefly describes CBRPE's experience in advancing this work in the field of prevention. The aim is to illuminate issues of central importance for advancing the goals of the Population Health Intervention Research Initiative for Canada. According to our experience, success in building the population intervention field will depend heavily on purposeful alignment across organizations to enable integration of research, evaluation, surveillance, policy and practice. CBRPE's capacity development roles include a) a catalytic role in shaping this aligned inter-organizational milieu and b) investing our resources in building tangible assets (teams, indicators, data systems) that contribute relevant capacities within this emerging milieu. Challenges in building capacity in this field are described. PMID:19263980

  17. Proceedings organic and fuel uses for bark and wood residues, No. P-80-27

    SciTech Connect

    Allison, R.C.

    1980-01-01

    The proceedings begin with an introduction by Richard Allison. Papers on organic uses of bark are concerned with the future of the horticultural bark industry, accelerated composting of hardwood bark for use as a growing medium, use of hardwood bark in strip mine reclamation, and physical properties and sizing of bark for horticultural uses. Papers on fuel uses of bark discuss use of wood chips to supplement lignite as boiler fuel, gasification of mill residues with a downdraft gasifier, economics of burning wood, pelletized wood and bark residues for residential fuel, and utilization and disposal of wood ash. (Refs. 41).

  18. Trace the evolution of organic matter in interplanetary objects using residue analogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danger, G.; Fresneau, A.; Abou Mrad, N.; de Marcellus, P.; Orthous-Daunay, F. R.; Modica, P.; Vuitton, V.; Duvernay, F.; Flandinet, L.; Le Sergeant d'Hendecourt, L.; Thissen, R.; Chiavassa, T.

    2015-10-01

    This contribution focuses on one aspect of our work, which is related to the analysis of refractory residues formed from the UV irradiation and the subsequent warming-up to room temperature of astrophysical ice analogs, the RAHIIA project. The understanding of the chemical composition of these refractory residues, commonly called "yellow stuff", as well as the possible pathways to their formation in astrophysical environments, is an important step to establish what kind of organic matter could be available within interplanetary objects such as comets or asteroids, part of which end up as preserved meteorites on telluric planets.

  19. Properties and evolution of biomass burning organic aerosol from Canadian boreal forest fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jolleys, M. D.; Coe, H.; McFiggans, G.; Taylor, J. W.; O'Shea, S. J.; Le Breton, M.; Bauguitte, S. J.-B.; Moller, S.; Di Carlo, P.; Aruffo, E.; Palmer, P. I.; Lee, J. D.

    2014-10-01

    Airborne measurements of biomass burning organic aerosol (BBOA) from boreal forest fires reveal highly contrasting properties for plumes of different ages. These measurements, performed using an Aerodyne Research Inc. compact time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (C-ToF-AMS) during the BORTAS (quantifying the impact of BOReal forest fires on Tropospheric oxidants over the Atlantic using Aircraft and Satellites) experiment in the summer of 2011, have been used to derive normalised excess organic aerosol (OA) mass concentrations (ΔOA/ΔCO), with higher average ratios observed closer to source (0.190 ± 0.010) than in the far-field (0.097 ± 0.002). The difference in ΔOA/ΔCO between fresh and aged plumes is influenced by a change in dominant combustion conditions throughout the campaign. Measurements at source sampled largely smouldering fires, while plumes encountered in the far-field originated from fires occurring earlier in the campaign when fire activity had been more intense. Changing combustion conditions also affect the vertical distribution of biomass burning emissions, as aged plumes from more flaming-dominated fires are injected to higher altitudes of up to 6000 m. Proportional contributions of the mass-to-charge ratio (m/z) 60 and 44 peaks in the AMS mass spectra to the total OA mass (denoted f60 and f44) are used as tracers for primary and oxidized BBOA, respectively. Given the shorter aging times associated with near-field plumes, f44 is lower on average than in more aged, transported plumes. However, high levels of ΔO3/ΔCO and -log(NOx/NOy) close to source indicate that emissions can be subject to very rapid oxidation over short timescales. Conversely, the lofting of plumes into the upper troposphere can lead to the retention of source profiles after transportation over extensive temporal and spatial scales, with f60 also higher on average in aged plumes. Evolution of OA composition with aging is comparable to observations of BB tracers in

  20. Properties and evolution of biomass burning organic aerosol from Canadian boreal forest fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jolleys, M. D.; Coe, H.; McFiggans, G.; Taylor, J. W.; O'Shea, S. J.; Le Breton, M.; Bauguitte, S. J.-B.; Moller, S.; Di Carlo, P.; Aruffo, E.; Palmer, P. I.; Lee, J. D.; Percival, C. J.; Gallagher, M. W.

    2015-03-01

    Airborne measurements of biomass burning organic aerosol (BBOA) from boreal forest fires reveal highly contrasting properties for plumes of different ages. These measurements, performed using an Aerodyne Research Inc. compact time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (C-ToF-AMS) during the BORTAS (quantifying the impact of BOReal forest fires on Tropospheric oxidants over the Atlantic using Aircraft and Satellites) experiment in the summer of 2011, have been used to derive normalised excess organic aerosol (OA) mass concentrations (ΔOA / ΔCO), with higher average ratios observed closer to source (0.190±0.010) than in the far-field (0.097±0.002). The difference in ΔOA / ΔCO between fresh and aged plumes is influenced by a change in dominant combustion conditions throughout the campaign. Measurements at source comprised 3 plume interceptions during a single research flight and sampled largely smouldering fires. Twenty-three interceptions were made across four flights in the far-field, with plumes originating from fires occurring earlier in the campaign when fire activity had been more intense, creating an underlying contrast in emissions prior to any transformations associated with aging. Changing combustion conditions also affect the vertical distribution of biomass burning emissions, as aged plumes from more flaming-dominated fires are injected to higher altitudes of up to 6000 m. Proportional contributions of the mass-to-charge ratio (m/z) 60 and 44 peaks in the AMS mass spectra to the total OA mass (denoted f60 and f44) are used as tracers for primary and oxidised BBOA, respectively. f44 is lower on average in near-field plumes than those sampled in the far-field, in accordance with longer aging times as plumes are transported a greater distance from source. However, high levels of ΔO3 / ΔCO and -log(NOx / NOy) close to source indicate that emissions can be subject to very rapid oxidation over short timescales. Conversely, the lofting of plumes into the

  1. Effects of metal-contaminated forest soils from the Canadian shield to terrestrial organisms.

    PubMed

    Feisthauer, Natalie C; Stephenson, Gladys L; Princz, Juliska I; Scroggins, Richard P

    2006-03-01

    The effects of elevated metal concentrations in forest soils on terrestrial organisms were investigated by determining the toxicity of six site soils from northern Ontario and Quebec, Canada, using a battery of terrestrial toxicity tests. Soils were collected from three sites on each of two transects established downwind of nickel (Sudbury, ON, Canada) and copper (Rouyn-Noranda, PQ, Canada) smelting operations. Site soils were diluted to determine if toxicity estimates for the most-contaminated site soils could be quantified as a percent of site soil. Rouyn-Noranda soils were toxic following acute exposure (14 d) to plants, but not to invertebrates (7 d for collembola and 14 d for earthworms). However, Rouyn-Noranda soils were toxic to all species following chronic exposure (21, 35, and 63 d for plants, collembola, and earthworms, respectively). The toxicity of the Rouyn-Noranda site soils did not correspond to the gradient of metal concentrations in soil. Metal-contaminated Sudbury soils were toxic to plants but not to invertebrates, following acute exposure. Chronic exposure to Sudbury soils caused adverse effects to plant growth and invertebrate survival and reproduction. The toxicity of Sudbury soils corresponded to the metal concentration gradient, with one exception: The reference soil collected in October was toxic to collembola following acute and chronic exposure. This study evaluated the applicability of the new Environment Canada terrestrial toxicity test methods, developed using agricultural soils, to forest soils and also provided useful data to assess the ecological risk associated with mixtures of metals in soil. PMID:16566168

  2. Occurrence of 13 volatile organic compounds in foods from the Canadian total diet study.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xu-Liang; Sparling, Melissa; Dabeka, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are ubiquitous in the environment due to evaporation and incomplete combustion of fuels, use of consumer and personal care products, etc. and they can accumulate in foods. Some VOCs in foods can also be formed during food processing and preparation and migrate from food packaging. In this pilot study, a GC-MS method based on headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME) was validated and used to analyse selected individual foods which can be consumed directly and 153 different total diet composite food samples for 13 VOCs. Vinyl chloride was not detected in any of the 153 composite food samples, while the other 12 VOCs were detected at various frequencies, with m-xylene being the most frequently detected (in 151 of the 153 samples), followed by toluene (145), 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene (140), ethylbenzene (139), styrene (133), 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene (122), benzene (96), p-dichlorobenzene (95), n-butylbenzene (55), chloroform (45), naphthalene (45) and trichloroethylene (31). Concentrations of the 12 VOCs in most of the food composite samples were low, with the 90th percentiles from 1.6 ng g(-1) for n-butylbenzene to 20 ng g(-1) for toluene. However, some VOCs were detected at higher levels with maxima, for example, of 948 ng g(-1) for m-xylene and 320 ng g(-1) for ethylbenzene in chewing gum, 207 ng g(-1) for styrene and 157 ng g(-1) for toluene in herbs and spices. VOCs were detected at higher levels in most of the individual food items than their corresponding composite samples, for example, the average chloroform concentration in the individual canned soft drinks was 20 ng g(-1) compared with 3.0 ng g(-1) in their composite, and the average toluene concentration in the individual canned citrus juice was 96 ng g(-1) compared with 0.68 ng g(-1) in their composite. Thus, for determination of VOCs in foods which can be consumed directly, their individual food items should be analysed whenever possible for accurate

  3. Canadian Red Cross.

    PubMed

    Lavender, Colleen

    2008-01-01

    The Canadian Red Cross is guided by its Fundamental Principles--humanity, impartiality, neutrality, independence, voluntary service, unity, and universality--and organized in a traditional geographic hierarchical structure. Among the characteristics that have contributed to its success are a budgeting process that starts at the local level, measurement of program outcomes, and coordinated fundraising activities at the regional level. PMID:18551842

  4. Stabilization of Rocky Flats combustible residues contaminated with plutonium metal and organic solvents

    SciTech Connect

    Bowen, S.M.; Cisneros, M.R.; Jacobson, L.L.; Schroeder, N.C.; Ames, R.L.

    1998-09-30

    This report describes tests on a proposed flowsheet designed to stabilize combustible residues that were generated at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) during the machining of plutonium metal. Combustible residues are essentially laboratory trash contaminated with halogenated organic solvents and plutonium metal. The proposed flowsheet, designed by RFETS, follows a glovebox procedure that includes (1) the sorting and shredding of materials, (2) a low temperature thermal desorption of solvents from the combustible materials, (3) an oxidation of plutonium metal with steam, and (4) packaging of the stabilized residues. The role of Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in this study was to determine parameters for the low temperature thermal desorption and steam oxidation steps. Thermal desorption of carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4}) was examined using a heated air stream on a Rocky Flats combustible residue surrogate contaminated with CCl{sub 4}. Three types of plutonium metal were oxidized with steam in a LANL glovebox to determine the effectiveness of this procedure for residue stabilization. The results from these LANL experiments are used to recommend parameters for the proposed RFETS stabilization flowsheet.

  5. Characterization of laboratory analogs of interstellar/cometary organic residues using very high resolution mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danger, G.; Orthous-Daunay, F.-R.; de Marcellus, P.; Modica, P.; Vuitton, V.; Duvernay, F.; Flandinet, L.; Le Sergeant d'Hendecourt, L.; Thissen, R.; Chiavassa, T.

    2013-10-01

    Studying the chemical composition of organic matter in astrophysical environments is an important means to improve our understanding of its origin and evolution. This organic matter evolves from molecular clouds to protoplanetary disks, and as a final destination, takes part in the formation of many objects of our solar system, such as primitive chondritic material, planetesimals and finally planets. In this contribution, we perform experimental simulations based on the VUV irradiation and warming-up of primitive interstellar ice analogs (CH3OH:NH3:H2O), and characterize, for the first time, the resulting refractory residue, using very high resolution mass spectrometry (VHRMS) with an LTQ-orbitrap-XL instrument. An electrospray source allows ionizing all the molecules having proton donor or acceptor chemical functions, while limiting as much as possible their damages. Thus, this method provides the analysis of the whole ionizable molecules making up the residue. The analysis of the spectra shows that these residues contain a large number of molecules formed of CHNO elements, including macromolecular entities beyond 4000 Da. The average elemental composition of the residue is of H/C = 1.5, N/C = 0.4, O/C = 0.4. These first results are tentatively compared to VHRMS analyses of the soluble organic matter (SOM) present in the Murchison’s meteorite, a primitive chondrite of the CM class. The molecular richness observed can be considered as the “first step” of the complex abiotic organic matter in extraterrestrial media. This initial matter, that may be rather universal, could then evolve toward more processed materials in parent bodies, such as comets and asteroids, materials that are then observed and subsequently analyzed in meteorites found on Earth. In addition to providing some insight on the mixture complexity, VHRMS allows for the search of specific molecules. For instance, hexamethylenetetramine (HMT) and some of its derivatives are identified in these

  6. The MESERAN Method: Rapid Quantification of Non-Volatile Organic Residue (NVOR)

    SciTech Connect

    Benkovich, M.G.

    2002-06-13

    The precision analytical technique known as MESERAN Analysis permits quantitative measurement of the level of preexisting nonvolatile organic residue (NVOR) on a substrate from <1 nanogram (ng)/cm{sup 2} to > 100 micrograms ({micro}g)/cm{sup 2} in 2 minutes. MESERAN Analysis is also applicable to determining NVOR in solvents and solvent extracts. The MESERAN method is able to quantify organic contamination levels down to and below 1 ng by depositing as little as 10 microliters ({micro}L) of solvent containing a known amount of contamination on a clean substrate, allowing it to evaporate, and measuring the evaporated residue. The method will be described in detail and NVOR measurements determined from MESERAN data will be presented.

  7. Effects of water washing on removing organic residues in bottom ashes of municipal solid waste incinerators.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yen-Ching; Panchangam, Sri Chandana; Wu, Chung-Hsin; Hong, Pui-Kwan Andy; Lin, Cheng-Fang

    2011-01-01

    Due to their potential toxicity and odourous nature, the residual organics in municipal solid waste incinerators are recently gaining attention as an important issue of resources recovery apart from their complex mixture of organic counterpart. Studies of the organic fractions in municipal solid waste incinerator residues have been limited. In this study, extended solid-phase extraction of the water-washed bottom ash and liquid-phase extraction of the washing water were carried out with regard to bottom ash samples from three mass-burning incinerators in Taipei County (Taiwan) during four consecutive seasons of year 2008-2009. Supercritical fluid extraction and Soxtec extraction techniques along with GC-MS were successfully used to characterize the residual organics in weathered and washed bottom ashes. Supercritical fluid extraction provided the quantification of aliphatics and aromatic compounds such as hexanoic acid and benzaldehyde, respectively. Soxtec extraction was useful for qualitative analysis of aromatic and aliphatic groups in the ashes and many of which were odourous and toxic compounds. By mixing one unit weight (g) bottom ash with two unit volume (mL) water for 15 min, total organic carbon in the bottom ash was greatly reduced (e.g., from 4.1 to 1.8 wt.%). Among the removed were foul odour-causing compounds such as pyridine and quinoline derivatives, while some aromatic compounds such as 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde and low-molecular-weight aliphatics such as hexanoic acid remained. The results here suggest that washing with water can be an effective pre-treatment step for removing odour-causing and environmental concerned organics. PMID:21112610

  8. Professionalization as an Advocacy Strategy: A Content Analysis of Canadian Child Care Social Movement Organizations' 2008 Discursive Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langford, Rachel; Prentice, Susan; Albanese, Patrizia; Summers, Bernadette; Messina-Goertzen, Brianne; Richardson, Brooke

    2013-01-01

    Do early childhood education and care (ECEC) professionals make good advocates? Canadian advocates have fought for better child care policies since the mid-1940s. What has happened to this advocacy with the recent increased professionalization of the ECEC sector? How does increased professionalization limit, innovate or expand advocacy strategies?…

  9. Advanced Residuals Analysis for Determining the Number of PARAFAC Components in Dissolved Organic Matter.

    PubMed

    Cuss, Chad W; Guéguen, Céline; Andersson, Per; Porcelli, Don; Maximov, Trofim; Kutscher, Liselott

    2016-02-01

    Parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) has facilitated an explosion in research connecting the fluorescence properties of dissolved organic matter (DOM) to its functions and biogeochemical cycling in natural and engineered systems. However, the validation of robust PARAFAC models using split-half analysis requires an oft unrealistically large number (hundreds to thousands) of excitation-emission matrices (EEMs), and models with too few components may not adequately describe differences between DOM. This study used self-organizing maps (SOM) and comparing changes in residuals with the effects of adding components to estimate the number of PARAFAC components in DOM from two data sets: MS (110 EEMs from nine leaf leachates and headwaters) and LR (64 EEMs from the Lena River). Clustering by SOM demonstrated that peaks clearly persisted in model residuals after validation by split-half analysis. Plotting the changes to residuals was an effective method for visualizing the removal of fluorophore-like fluorescence caused by increasing the number of PARAFAC components. Extracting additional PARAFAC components via residuals analysis increased the proportion of correctly identified size-fractionated leaf leachates from 56.0 ± 0.8 to 75.2 ± 0.9%, and from 51.7 ± 1.4 to 92.9 ± 0.0% for whole leachates. Model overfitting was assessed by considering the correlations between components, and their distributions amongst samples. Advanced residuals analysis improved the ability of PARAFAC to resolve the variation in DOM fluorescence, and presents an enhanced validation approach for assessing the number of components that can be used to supplement the potentially misleading results of split-half analysis. PMID:26783366

  10. Sustainable reuse of rice residues as feedstocks in vermicomposting for organic fertilizer production.

    PubMed

    Shak, Katrina Pui Yee; Wu, Ta Yeong; Lim, Su Lin; Lee, Chieh Ai

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, rice (Oryza sativa or Oryza glaberrima) cultivation has increased in many rice-growing countries due to the increasing export demand and population growth and led to a copious amount of rice residues, consisting mainly of rice straw (RS) and rice husk (RH), being generated during and after harvesting. In this study, Eudrilus eugeniae was used to decompose rice residues alone and rice residues amended with cow dung (CD) for bio-transformation of wastes into organic fertilizer. Generally, the final vermicomposts showed increases in macronutrients, namely, calcium (11.4-34.2%), magnesium (1.3-40.8%), phosphorus (1.2-57.3%), and potassium (1.1-345.6%) and a decrease in C/N ratio (26.8-80.0%) as well as increases in heavy metal content for iron (17-108%), copper (14-120%), and manganese (6-60%) after 60 days of vermicomposting. RS as a feedstock was observed to support healthier growth and reproduction of earthworms as compared to RH, with maximum adult worm biomass of 0.66 g/worm (RS) at 60 days, 31 cocoons (1RS:2CD), and 23 hatchlings (1RS:1CD). Vermicomposting of RS yielded better results than RH among all of the treatments investigated. RS that was mixed with two parts of CD (1RS:2CD) showed the best combination of nutrient results as well as the growth of E. eugeniae. In conclusion, vermicomposting could be used as a green technology to bio-convert rice residues into nutrient-rich organic fertilizers if the residues are mixed with CD in the appropriate ratio. PMID:23900949

  11. Laboratory measurements of emissions of nonmethane volatile organic compounds from biomass burning in Chinese crop residues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inomata, S.; Tanimoto, H.; PAN, X.; Taketani, F.; Komazaki, Y.; Miyakawa, T.; Kanaya, Y.; Wang, Z.

    2014-12-01

    The emission factors (EFs) of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from the burning of Chinese crop residue were investigated as a function of modified combustion efficiency by the laboratory experiments. The VOCs including acetonitrile, aldehydes/ketones, furan, and aromatic hydrocarbons were monitored by proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry. Two samples, wheat straw and rape plant, were burned in dry conditions and for some experiments wheat straw was burned under wet conditions. We compared the present data to the field data reported by Kudo et al. [2014]. The agreement between the field and laboratory data was obtained for aromatics for relatively more smoldering data of dry samples but the field data were slightly underestimated compared with the laboratory data for oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs) and acetonitrile. When the EFs from the burning of wet samples were investigated, the underestimations for OVOCs and acetonitrile were improved compared with the data of dry samples. It may be a property of the burning of crop residue in the region of high temperature and high humidity that some inside parts of piled crop residue and/or the crop residue facing on the ground are still wet. But the ratios for acetic acid/glycolaldehyde was still lower than 1. This may suggest that strong loss processes of acetic acid/glycolaldehyde are present in the fresh plume.Kudo S., H. Tanimoto, S. Inomata, S. Saito, X. L. Pan, Y. Kanaya, F. Taketani, Z. F. Wang, H. Chen, H. Dong, M. Zhang, and K. Yamaji (2014), Emissions of nonmethane volatile organic compounds from open crop residue burning in Yangtze River Delta region, China, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 119, 7684-7698, doi: 10.1002/2013JD021044.

  12. Characterization of organic residues of size-resolved fog droplets and their atmospheric implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Abhishek; Ervens, Barbara; Gupta, Tarun; Tripathi, Sachchida N.

    2016-04-01

    Size-resolved fog water samples were collected in two consecutive winters at Kanpur, a heavily polluted urban area of India. Samples were analyzed by an aerosol mass spectrometer after drying and directly in other instruments. Residues of fine fog droplets (diameter: 4-16 µm) are found to be more enriched with oxidized (oxygen to carbon ratio, O/C = 0.88) and low volatility organics than residues of coarse (diameter > 22 µm) and medium size (diameter: 16-22 µm) droplets with O/C of 0.68 and 0.74, respectively. These O/C ratios are much higher than those observed for background ambient organic aerosols, indicating efficient oxidation in fog water. Accompanying box model simulations reveal that longer residence times, together with high aqueous OH concentrations in fine droplets, can explain these trends. High aqueous OH concentrations in smaller droplets are caused by their highest surface-volume ratio and high Fe and Cu concentrations, allowing more uptake of gas phase OH and enhanced Fenton reaction rates, respectively. Although some volatile organic species may have escaped during droplet evaporation, these findings indicate that aqueous processing of dissolved organics varies with droplet size. Therefore, large (regional, global)-scale models need to consider the variable reaction rates, together with metal-catalyzed radical formation throughout droplet populations for accurately predicting aqueous secondary organic aerosol formation.

  13. Organic particulate emissions from field burning of garden and agriculture residues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonçalves, Cátia; Evtyugina, Margarita; Alves, Célia; Monteiro, Cristina; Pio, Casimiro; Tomé, Mário

    2011-08-01

    To assess the particulate matter (PM) composition, the smoke from three different agriculture and garden residues, commonly subjected to open field burning in Northern Portugal (potato haulm (A), arable weed vegetation (B) and collard greens stalks/pruned green leafy-twigs (C)) have been sampled into 3 different size fractions (PM 2.5, PM 2.5-10 and PM > 10 ). To replicate another frequent practise of reducing or dispose agriculture/garden debris, residue C was complementarily burned in a metal container with addition of used lubricant oil. The size-segregated aerosol samples were analysed for elemental (EC) and organic (OC) carbon by a thermal-optical transmission technique. The organosoluble OC was fractionated by vacuum flash chromatography and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Burning of residue C produced the highest PM emissions. OC was the dominant carbonaceous component in all aerosol samples, contributing to about 98% of total carbon (TC). The detailed chemical profiles of particulate emissions, including organic tracer compounds, have been assessed. The contribution of phenolics (0.2-39% OC, w/w) and organic acids (1.5-13% OC, w/w) to OC was always predominant over other organic compounds, whose distribution patterns were found to vary from one residue to another. The polyphenols, as the guaiacyl derivatives, were particularly abundant in PM from the residue C burning, but anthropogenic constituents completely superimposed the emission profiles after addition of used lubricant oil. It was shown that the prevailing ambient conditions (such as high humidity) likely contributed to atmospheric processes (e.g. coagulation and hygroscopic growth), which influenced the particle size characteristics of the smoke tracers, shifting their distribution to larger diameters. Since it was shown that the relative contribution of different carbon forms and organic compounds may strongly depend on the size of the particulate matter, the barely

  14. Changes in soil chemical and microbiological properties during 4 years of application of various organic residues.

    PubMed

    Odlare, M; Pell, M; Svensson, K

    2008-01-01

    A 4-year field trial was established in eastern Sweden to evaluate the effects of organic waste on soil chemical and microbiological variables. A simple crop rotation with barley and oats was treated with either compost from household waste, biogas residue from household waste, anaerobically treated sewage sludge, pig manure, cow manure or mineral fertilizer. All fertilizers were amended in rates corresponding to 100kgNha(-1)year(-1). The effects of the different types of organic waste were evaluated by subjecting soil samples, taken each autumn 4 weeks after harvest, to an extensive set of soil chemical (pH, Org-C, Tot-N, Tot-P, Tot-S, P-AL, P-Olsen, K-AL, and some metals) and microbiological (B-resp, SIR, microSIR active and dormant microorganisms, PDA, microPDA, PAO, Alk-P and N-min) analyses. Results show that compost increased pH, and that compost as well as sewage sludge increased plant available phosphorus; however, the chemical analysis showed few clear trends over the 4 years and few clear relations to plant yield or soil quality. Biogas residues increased substrate induced respiration (SIR) and, compared to the untreated control amendment of biogas residues as well as compost, led to a higher proportion of active microorganisms. In addition, biogas residues increased potential ammonia oxidation rate (PAO), nitrogen mineralization capacity (N-min) as well as the specific growth rate constant of denitrifiers (microPDA). Despite rather large concentrations of heavy metals in some of the waste products, no negative effects could be seen on either chemical or microbiological soil properties. Changes in soil microbial properties appeared to occur more rapidly than most chemical properties. This suggests that soil microbial processes can function as more sensitive indicators of short-term changes in soil properties due to amendment of organic wastes. PMID:17697770

  15. Generation of organic acids and monosaccharides by hydrolytic and oxidative transformation of food processing residues.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Klaus; Bipp, Hans-Peter

    2005-05-01

    Carbohydrate-rich biomass residues, i.e. sugar beet molasses, whey powder, wine yeast, potato peel sludge, spent hops, malt dust and apple marc, were tested as starting materials for the generation of marketable chemicals, e.g. aliphatic acids, sugar acids and mono-/disaccharides. Residues were oxidized or hydrolyzed under acidic or alkaline conditions applying conventional laboratory digestion methods and microwave assisted techniques. Yields and compositions of the oxidation products differed according to the oxidizing agent used. Main products of oxidation by 30% HNO(3) were acetic, glucaric, oxalic and glycolic acids. Applying H(2)O(2)/CuO in alkaline solution, the organic acid yields were remarkably lower with formic, acetic and threonic acids as main products. Gluconic acid was formed instead of glucaric acid throughout. Reaction of a 10% H(2)O(2) solution with sugar beet molasses generated formic and lactic acids mainly. Na(2)S(2)O(8) solutions were very inefficient at oxidizing the residues. Glucose, arabinose and galactose were formed during acidic hydrolysis of malt dust and apple marc. The glucose content reached 0.35 g per gram of residue. Important advantages of the microwave application were lower reaction times and reduced reagent demands. PMID:15607197

  16. Adsorbable organic halogens (AOXs) in solid residues from hazardous and clinical waste incineration.

    PubMed

    Durmusoglu, Ertan; Bakoglu, Mithat; Karademir, Aykan; Kirli, Lale

    2006-01-01

    Trace concentrations of a variety of chemicals remain in solid residues following combustion even in properly designed and operated incinerators. In the present study, the adsorbable organic halogen (AOX) levels of the solid residues, i.e., bottom ash, fly ash, and filter cake, were investigated during a 82-day of continuous operation of a Hazardous and Clinical Waste Incinerator. The distribution of halogens in the waste input prior to the incineration was also determined. The AOX levels measured in bottom ash, fly ash and filter cake were in the range of 0.014-1.879, 0.012-0.263, and 0.004-0.062 mg-Cl(-)/kg, respectively. The AOX levels are significantly low in the fly ash and filter cake due to the post-combustion process in the incinerator. At the end of the 82 days, the total AOX output in the bottom ash, fly ash, and filter cake were 571, 3.71, and 6.26 g, respectively. The partitioning of the total AOX in solid residues was 98.28, 0.64, and 1.08% for the bottom ash, fly ash and filter cake, respectively. This shows that the bottom ash is more contaminated with AOX than the other two residues. PMID:16835121

  17. Laboratory measurements of emission factors of nonmethane volatile organic compounds from burning of Chinese crop residues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inomata, Satoshi; Tanimoto, Hiroshi; Pan, Xiaole; Taketani, Fumikazu; Komazaki, Yuichi; Miyakawa, Takuma; Kanaya, Yugo; Wang, Zifa

    2015-05-01

    The emission factors (EFs) of nonmethane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) emitted during the burning of Chinese crop residue were investigated as a function of modified combustion efficiency in laboratory experiments. NMVOCs, including acetonitrile, aldehydes/ketones, furan, and aromatic hydrocarbons, were monitored by proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry. Rape plant was burned in dry conditions and wheat straw was burned in both wet and dry conditions to simulate the possible burning of damp crop residue in regions of high temperature and humidity. We compared the present data to field data reported by Kudo et al. (2014). Good agreement between field and laboratory data was obtained for aromatics under relatively more smoldering combustion of dry samples, but laboratory data were slightly overestimated compared to field data for oxygenated VOC (OVOC). When EFs from the burning of wet samples were investigated, the consistency between the field and laboratory data for OVOCs was stronger than for dry samples. This may be caused by residual moisture in crop residue that has been stockpiled in humid regions. Comparison of the wet laboratory data with field data suggests that Kudo et al. (2014) observed the biomass burning plumes under relatively more smoldering conditions in which approximately a few tens of percentages of burned fuel materials were wet.

  18. Critical body residues in the marine amphipod Ampelisca abdita: Sediment exposures with nonionic organic contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Fay, A.A.; Brownawell, B.J.; Elskus, A.A.; McElroy, A.E.

    2000-04-01

    Body residues associated with acute toxicity were determined in the marine amphipod Ampelisca abdita exposed to spiked sediments. Nonylphenol and 2,2{prime},4,4{prime}-tetrachlorobiphenyl critical body residues (CBRs, body residue of contaminant at 50% mortality) were 1.1 {micro}mol/g wet tissue and 0.57 {micro}mol/g wet tissue, respectively, values near the low end of the CBR range expected for compounds acting via narcosis. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons tested, benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and benz[a]anthracene (BaA), were not acutely toxic at exposure concentrations of up to 43 and 1,280 {micro}g/g dry sediment for BaA and BaP respectively, and body burdens up to 1.2 {micro}mol/g wet tissue (for BaP). Neither polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) was significantly metabolized by A. abdita. The microextraction technique employed here allowed residue analysis of samples containing as few as three amphipods (0.33 mg dry wt). The CBR approach avoids confounding factors such as variations in bioavailability and uptake kinetics and could be employed to assess the relative contribution of specific contaminants or contaminant classes in mixtures to effects observed in toxicity tests with Ampelisca and other organisms.

  19. High throughput secondary electron imaging of organic residues on a graphene surface

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yangbo; O'Connell, Robert; Maguire, Pierce; Zhang, Hongzhou

    2014-01-01

    Surface organic residues inhibit the extraordinary electronic properties of graphene, hindering the development of graphene electronics. However, fundamental understanding of the residue morphology is still absent due to a lack of high-throughput and high-resolution surface characterization methods. Here, we demonstrate that secondary electron (SE) imaging in the scanning electron microscope (SEM) and helium ion microscope (HIM) can provide sub-nanometer information of a graphene surface and reveal the morphology of surface contaminants. Nanoscale polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) residues are visible in the SE imaging, but their contrast, i.e. the apparent lateral dimension, varies with the imaging conditions. We have demonstrated a quantitative approach to readily obtain the physical size of the surface features regardless of the contrast variation. The fidelity of SE imaging is ultimately determined by the probe size of the primary beam. HIM is thus evaluated to be a superior SE imaging technique in terms of surface sensitivity and image fidelity. A highly efficient method to reveal the residues on a graphene surface has therefore been established. PMID:25391356

  20. A previously undescribed organic residue sheds light on heat treatment in the Middle Stone Age.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Patrick; Porraz, Guillaume; Bellot-Gurlet, Ludovic; February, Edmund; Ligouis, Bertrand; Paris, Céline; Texier, Pierre-Jean; Parkington, John E; Miller, Christopher E; Nickel, Klaus G; Conard, Nicholas J

    2015-08-01

    South Africa has in recent years gained increasing importance for our understanding of the evolution of 'modern human behaviour' during the Middle Stone Age (MSA). A key element in the suite of behaviours linked with modern humans is heat treatment of materials such as ochre for ritual purposes and stone prior to tool production. Until now, there has been no direct archaeological evidence for the exact procedure used in the heat treatment of silcrete. Through the analysis of heat-treated artefacts from the Howiesons Poort of Diepkloof Rock Shelter, we identified a hitherto unknown type of organic residue - a tempering-residue - that sheds light on the processes used for heat treatment in the MSA. This black film on the silcrete surface is an organic tar that contains microscopic fragments of charcoal and formed as a residue during the direct contact of the artefacts with hot embers of green wood. Our results suggest that heat treatment of silcrete was conducted directly using an open fire, similar to those likely used for cooking. These findings add to the discussion about the complexity of MSA behaviour and appear to contradict previous studies that had suggested that heat treatment of silcrete was a complex (i.e., requiring a large number of steps for its realization) and resource-consuming procedure. PMID:26073074

  1. Skin permeation of organic gunshot residue: implications for sampling and analysis.

    PubMed

    Moran, Jordan Wade; Bell, Suzanne

    2014-06-17

    Traditional gunshot residue (GSR) analysis is based on detection of particulates formed from metals found in the primer. Recent concerns regarding the interpretation of GSR evidence has led to interest in alternatives such as the organic constituents (organic gunshot residue, OGSR) found in propellants. Previous work has shown OGSR to be detectable on hands for several hours after a firing event, and given the lipophilic nature of these compounds, it was expected that losses due to secondary transfer (an issue with GSR particulates) would be negligible. However, other loss mechanisms have been identified, specifically skin permeation and evaporation. This paper describes experimental and modeling studies used to elucidate characteristics of skin permeation of 5 compounds present in OGSR. Pharmaceutical methods were adapted to characterize skin permeation using a skin surrogate and Franz diffusion cells. The amount of compounds deposited on skin after an authentic firing event (1 and 2 shots) was experimentally determined and applied for the permeation experiments. A fully validated selected ion monitoring GC/MS method was developed for quantitative analysis, and easily accessible online tools were employed for modeling. Results showed that OGSR residues should be detectable on skin for many hours after a firing event of as few as one or two shots, with detection capability being a function of the efficacy of sampling and sample preparation and the instrumental method employed. The permeation rates of the OGSR compounds were sufficiently different to suggest the potential to develop methods to approximate time-since-deposition. PMID:24837230

  2. Characteristics of residual organics in municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yen-Ching; Yen, Jui-Hung; Lateef, Shaik Khaja; Hong, Pui-Kwan Andy; Lin, Cheng-Fang

    2010-10-15

    Although heavy metals in bottom ash have been a primary issue in resource recovery of municipal solid waste incinerator residues in past decades, less studied are potentially toxic and odorous organic fractions that exist as they have not been completely oxidized during the mass burn process. Using supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and soxtec extraction (SE) techniques, this study investigated the characteristics of un-oxidized organic residues contained in bottom ash from three municipal solid waste incinerators in Taiwan during 2008-2009. All together 99 organics were identified in bottom ash samples using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Among the identified organics, aromatic compounds were most frequently detected. No polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were extracted by SFE or SE. Several phthalates (e.g., phthalic acid isobutyl tridec-2-yn-1-yl ester, dibutyl phthalate and 2-butoxyethyl butyl benzene-1,2-dicarboxylate), organic phosphates (e.g., octicizer and phosphoric acid isodecyl diphenyl ester), and aromatics and amines including pyridine, quinoline derivatives, chloro- and cyano-organics were successfully extracted. Aromatic amines (e.g., 1-nitro-9,10-dioxo-9,10-dihydro-anthracene-2-carboxylic acid diethylamide and 3-bromo-N-(4-bromo-2-chlorophenyl)-propanamide) and aromatic compounds (other than amines) (e.g., 7-chloro-4-methoxy-3-methylquinoline and 2,3-dihydro-N-hydroxy-4-methoxy-3,3-dimethyl indole-2-one) are probably the major odorous compounds in bottom ash. This work identifies organic pollutants in incinerated bottom ash that have received far less attention than their heavy metals counterpart. PMID:20605069

  3. Contribution of the Residual Body in the Spatial Organization of Toxoplasma gondii Tachyzoites within the Parasitophorous Vacuole

    PubMed Central

    Muñiz-Hernández, S.; González del Carmen, M.; Mondragón, M.; Mercier, C.; Cesbron, M. F.; Mondragón-González, S. L.; González, S.; Mondragón, R.

    2011-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii proliferates and organizes within a parasitophorous vacuole in rosettes around a residual body and is surrounded by a membranous nanotubular network whose function remains unclear. Here, we characterized structure and function of the residual body in intracellular tachyzoites of the RH strain. Our data showed the residual body as a body limited by a membrane formed during proliferation of tachyzoites probably through the secretion of components and a pinching event of the membrane at the posterior end. It contributes in the intravacuolar parasite organization by the membrane connection between the tachyzoites posterior end and the residual body membrane to give place to the rosette conformation. Radial distribution of parasites in rosettes favors an efficient exteriorization. Absence of the network and presence of atypical residual bodies in a ΔGRA2-HXGPRT knock-out mutant affected the intravacuolar organization of tachyzoites and their exteriorization. PMID:22190852

  4. Partitioning of residual D-limonene cleaner vapor among organic materials in weapons

    SciTech Connect

    LeMay, J.D.

    1993-03-01

    D-limonene is a replacement solvent selected by Sandia and Allied-Signal to clean solder flux from electronics assemblies in firesets and programmers. D-limonene is much slower drying than the solvents it has replaced and this has raised concerns that residual quantities of the cleaner could be trapped in the electronics assemblies and eventually carried into warhead assemblies. This paper describes a study designed to evaluate how vapors from residual d-limonene cleaner would be partitioned among typical organic materials in a Livermore device. The goal was to identify possible compatibility problems arising from the use of d-limonene and, in particular, any interactions it may have with energetic materials. To predict the partitioning behavior of d-limonene, a simple model was developed and its predictions are compared to the experimental findings.

  5. Automatic inspection of a residual resist layer by means of self-organizing map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philippe, Zaki Sabit Fawzi; Robert, Stéphane; Bayard, Bernard

    2016-05-01

    Photolithography allows large-scale fabrication of nanocomponents in the semiconductor industry. This technique consists of manufacturing a desired pattern on a photoresist film transferred onto the substrate during the etching process. Therefore, the mask quality is essential for reliable etching. For example, the presence of a residual layer of resist might be considered as a mask defect and can lead to the failure of the etching process. We propose the use of a Kohonen self-organizing map for automatic detection of a residual layer from an ellipsometric signature. The feasibility of the suggested inspection by the use of a classification technique is discussed and simulations are carried out on a 750-nm period grating.

  6. Crop Management Effects on Crop Residue Production and Changes in Soil Organic Carbon in the Central Great Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crop biomass has been proposed as a source stock for bioethanol production. Acceptable levels of crop residue removal must be determined to prevent loss of soil organic carbon (SOC) and the degradation of soil physical and chemical properties resulting from SOC loss. Crop residue inputs and changes ...

  7. Canadian global village reality

    PubMed Central

    He, Meizi; Li, E.T.S.; Harris, Stewart; Huff, Murray W.; Yau, Chun Y.; Anderson, G. Harvey

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To test the appropriateness of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) cutoff points derived in largely white populations (ie, those of European descent) for detecting obesity-related metabolic abnormalities among East Asian and South Asian Canadians. DESIGN Cross-sectional survey. SETTING Primary care and community settings in Ontario. PARTICIPANTS Canadians of East Asian (n = 130), South Asian (n = 113), and European (n = 111) descent. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Variables for metabolic syndromes, including BMI, WC, body fat percentage, blood pressure, lipid profile, and fasting blood glucose and insulin levels, were measured. Receiver operating characteristics curve analysis was used to generate BMI and WC cutoff points based on various criteria for metabolic syndromes. RESULTS Adjusting for sex and age, East Asian Canadians had a significantly lower mean BMI (23.2 kg/m2) and mean WC (79.6 cm) than did those of South Asian (26.1 kg/m2 and 90.3 cm) and European (26.5 kg/m2 and 89.3 cm) descent (P < .05). The BMI cutoffs for an increased risk of metabolic abnormalities ranged from 23.1 to 24.4 kg/m2 in East Asian Canadians; 26.6 to 26.8 kg/m2 in South Asian Canadians; and 26.3 to 28.2 kg/m2 in European Canadians. Waist circumference cutoffs for increased risk of metabolic abnormalities were relatively low in East Asian men (83.3 to 85.2 cm) and women (74.1 to 76.7 cm), compared with South Asian men (98.8 cm) and women (90.1 to 93.5 cm), as well as European men (91.6 to 95.2 cm) and women (82.8 to 88.3 cm). CONCLUSION The BMI and WC cutoffs used for defining risk of metabolic abnormalities should be lowered for East Asian Canadians but not for South Asian Canadians. The World Health Organization ethnic-specific BMI and WC cutoffs should be used with caution, particularly with Asian migrants who have resided in Canada for a long period of time. PMID:20463258

  8. Contribution of microorganisms to non-extractable residue formation from biodegradable organic contaminants in soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowak, K. M.; Girardi, C.; Miltner, A.; Schäffer, A.; Kästner, M.

    2012-04-01

    Biodegradation of organic contaminants in soil is actually understood as their transformation into various primary metabolites, microbial biomass, mineralisation products and non-extractable residues (NER). NER are generally considered to be composed of parent compounds or primary metabolites with hazardous potential. Up to date, however, their chemical composition remains still unclear. Studies on NER formation are limited to quantitative analyses in soils or to simple humic acids-contaminant systems. However, in the case of biodegradable organic compounds, NER may also contain microbial biomass components, e.g. fatty acids (FA) and amino acids (AA). After cell death, these biomolecules are incorporated into soil organic matter (SOM) and stabilised, ultimately forming biogenic residues which are not any more extractable. We investigated the incorporation of the 13C-label into FA and AA and their fate during biodegradation experiments in soil with isotope-labelled 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (13C6-2,4-D) and ibuprofen (13C6-ibu) as model organic contaminants. Our study proved for the first time that nearly all NER formed from 13C6-2,4-D and 13C6-ibu in soil derived from harmless microbial biomass components stabilised in SOM. 13C-FA and 13C-AA contents in the living microbial biomass fraction decreased over time and these components were continuously incorporated into the non-living SOM pool in biotic experiments with 13C6-2,4-D and 13C6-ibu. The 13C-AA in the non-living SOM were surprisingly stable from day 32 (13C6-2,4-D) and 58 (13C6-ibu) until the end of incubation. We also studied the transformation of 13C6-2,4-D and 13C6-ibu into NER in the abiotic soil experiments. In these experiments, the total NER contents were much lower than in the corresponding biotic experiments. The absence of labelled biomolecules in the NER fraction in abiotic soils demonstrated that they consist of the potentially hazardous parent compounds and / or their metabolites. Biogenic

  9. Natural Gas Residual Fluids: Sources, Endpoints, and Organic Chemical Composition after Centralized Waste Treatment in Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Getzinger, Gordon J; O'Connor, Megan P; Hoelzer, Kathrin; Drollette, Brian D; Karatum, Osman; Deshusses, Marc A; Ferguson, P Lee; Elsner, Martin; Plata, Desiree L

    2015-07-21

    Volumes of natural gas extraction-derived wastewaters have increased sharply over the past decade, but the ultimate fate of those waste streams is poorly characterized. Here, we sought to (a) quantify natural gas residual fluid sources and endpoints to bound the scope of potential waste stream impacts and (b) describe the organic pollutants discharged to surface waters following treatment, a route of likely ecological exposure. Our findings indicate that centralized waste treatment facilities (CWTF) received 9.5% (8.5 × 10(8) L) of natural gas residual fluids in 2013, with some facilities discharging all effluent to surface waters. In dry months, discharged water volumes were on the order of the receiving body flows for some plants, indicating that surface waters can become waste-dominated in summer. As disclosed organic compounds used in high volume hydraulic fracturing (HVHF) vary greatly in physicochemical properties, we deployed a suite of analytical techniques to characterize CWTF effluents, covering 90.5% of disclosed compounds. Results revealed that, of nearly 1000 disclosed organic compounds used in HVHF, only petroleum distillates and alcohol polyethoxylates were present. Few analytes targeted by regulatory agencies (e.g., benzene or toluene) were observed, highlighting the need for expanded and improved monitoring efforts at CWTFs. PMID:26147419

  10. Surface residues dynamically organize water bridges to enhance electron transfer between proteins

    PubMed Central

    de la Lande, Aurélien; Babcock, Nathan S.; Řezáč, Jan; Sanders, Barry C.; Salahub, Dennis R.

    2010-01-01

    Cellular energy production depends on electron transfer (ET) between proteins. In this theoretical study, we investigate the impact of structural and conformational variations on the electronic coupling between the redox proteins methylamine dehydrogenase and amicyanin from Paracoccus denitrificans. We used molecular dynamics simulations to generate configurations over a duration of 40 ns (sampled at 100-fs intervals) in conjunction with an ET pathway analysis to estimate the ET coupling strength of each configuration. In the wild-type complex, we find that the most frequently occurring molecular configurations afford superior electronic coupling due to the consistent presence of a water molecule hydrogen-bonded between the donor and acceptor sites. We attribute the persistence of this water bridge to a “molecular breakwater” composed of several hydrophobic residues surrounding the acceptor site. The breakwater supports the function of nearby solvent-organizing residues by limiting the exchange of water molecules between the sterically constrained ET region and the more turbulent surrounding bulk. When the breakwater is affected by a mutation, bulk solvent molecules disrupt the water bridge, resulting in reduced electronic coupling that is consistent with recent experimental findings. Our analysis suggests that, in addition to enabling the association and docking of the proteins, surface residues stabilize and control interprotein solvent dynamics in a concerted way. PMID:20547871

  11. Scenario Modeling Potential Eco-Efficiency Gains from a Transition to Organic Agriculture: Life Cycle Perspectives on Canadian Canola, Corn, Soy, and Wheat Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelletier, N.; Arsenault, N.; Tyedmers, P.

    2008-12-01

    We used Life Cycle Assessment to scenario model the potential reductions in cumulative energy demand (both fossil and renewable) and global warming, acidifying, and ozone-depleting emissions associated with a hypothetical national transition from conventional to organic production of four major field crops [canola ( Brassica rapa), corn ( Zea mays), soy ( Glycine max), and wheat ( Triticum aestivum)] in Canada. Models of these systems were constructed using a combination of census data, published values, and the requirements for organic production described in the Canadian National Organic Standards in order to be broadly representative of the similarities and differences that characterize these disparate production technologies. Our results indicate that organic crop production would consume, on average, 39% as much energy and generate 77% of the global warming emissions, 17% of the ozone-depleting emissions, and 96% of the acidifying emissions associated with current national production of these crops. These differences were almost exclusively due to the differences in fertilizers used in conventional and organic farming and were most strongly influenced by the higher cumulative energy demand and emissions associated with producing conventional nitrogen fertilizers compared to the green manure production used for biological nitrogen fixation in organic agriculture. Overall, we estimate that a total transition to organic production of these crops in Canada would reduce national energy consumption by 0.8%, global warming emissions by 0.6%, and acidifying emissions by 1.0% but have a negligible influence on reducing ozone-depleting emissions.

  12. Scenario modeling potential eco-efficiency gains from a transition to organic agriculture: life cycle perspectives on Canadian canola, corn, soy, and wheat production.

    PubMed

    Pelletier, N; Arsenault, N; Tyedmers, P

    2008-12-01

    We used Life Cycle Assessment to scenario model the potential reductions in cumulative energy demand (both fossil and renewable) and global warming, acidifying, and ozone-depleting emissions associated with a hypothetical national transition from conventional to organic production of four major field crops [canola (Brassica rapa), corn (Zea mays), soy (Glycine max), and wheat (Triticum aestivum)] in Canada. Models of these systems were constructed using a combination of census data, published values, and the requirements for organic production described in the Canadian National Organic Standards in order to be broadly representative of the similarities and differences that characterize these disparate production technologies. Our results indicate that organic crop production would consume, on average, 39% as much energy and generate 77% of the global warming emissions, 17% of the ozone-depleting emissions, and 96% of the acidifying emissions associated with current national production of these crops. These differences were almost exclusively due to the differences in fertilizers used in conventional and organic farming and were most strongly influenced by the higher cumulative energy demand and emissions associated with producing conventional nitrogen fertilizers compared to the green manure production used for biological nitrogen fixation in organic agriculture. Overall, we estimate that a total transition to organic production of these crops in Canada would reduce national energy consumption by 0.8%, global warming emissions by 0.6%, and acidifying emissions by 1.0% but have a negligible influence on reducing ozone-depleting emissions. PMID:18574623

  13. Mapping residual organics and carbonate at grain boundaries and the amorphous interphase in mouse incisor enamel

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Lyle M.; Joester, Derk

    2015-01-01

    Dental enamel has evolved to resist the most grueling conditions of mechanical stress, fatigue, and wear. Adding insult to injury, it is exposed to the frequently corrosive environment of the oral cavity. While its hierarchical structure is unrivaled in its mechanical resilience, heterogeneity in the distribution of magnesium ions and the presence of Mg-substituted amorphous calcium phosphate (Mg-ACP) as an intergranular phase have recently been shown to increase the susceptibility of mouse enamel to acid attack. Herein we investigate the distribution of two important constituents of enamel, residual organic matter and inorganic carbonate. We find that organics, carbonate, and possibly water show distinct distribution patterns in the mouse enamel crystallites, at simple grain boundaries, and in the amorphous interphase at multiple grain boundaries. This has implications for the resistance to acid corrosion, mechanical properties, and the mechanism by which enamel crystals grow during amelogenesis. PMID:25852562

  14. Automotive shredder residue: a survey of the hazardous organic micro-pollutants spectrum in landfill biogas.

    PubMed

    Raboni, Massimo; Torretta, Vincenzo; Urbini, Giordano; Viotti, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we report an extensive set of analytical results on the quality of the biogas produced by a landfill of automotive shredder residues. In particular, the investigation was directed towards the identification of a spectrum of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (16 compounds) and a wide range of volatile organic compounds (35 compounds). This article highlights the most important indications of toxicological concern for the detected compounds. Among the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, chrysene shows the highest concentration, followed by pyrene and benzo(b)fluoranthene. Dibenz(a,h)anthracene, the most carcinogenic of the tested compounds, displayed results below the limit of analytical detectability. Benzo(a)pyrene, another typical carcinogenic compound, was detected at low concentrations. With regard to volatile organic compounds, the survey revealed a relevant concentration of toluene (found in fuels and paint thinner) significantly higher than the other compounds. Noticeable amounts of hexane, trichloromethane, and acetone were also found. PMID:25428428

  15. Mapping residual organics and carbonate at grain boundaries and the amorphous interphase in mouse incisor enamel.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Lyle M; Joester, Derk

    2015-01-01

    Dental enamel has evolved to resist the most grueling conditions of mechanical stress, fatigue, and wear. Adding insult to injury, it is exposed to the frequently corrosive environment of the oral cavity. While its hierarchical structure is unrivaled in its mechanical resilience, heterogeneity in the distribution of magnesium ions and the presence of Mg-substituted amorphous calcium phosphate (Mg-ACP) as an intergranular phase have recently been shown to increase the susceptibility of mouse enamel to acid attack. Herein we investigate the distribution of two important constituents of enamel, residual organic matter and inorganic carbonate. We find that organics, carbonate, and possibly water show distinct distribution patterns in the mouse enamel crystallites, at simple grain boundaries, and in the amorphous interphase at multiple grain boundaries. This has implications for the resistance to acid corrosion, mechanical properties, and the mechanism by which enamel crystals grow during amelogenesis. PMID:25852562

  16. Inactivation of hepatitis A virus and indicator organisms in water by free chlorine residuals.

    PubMed Central

    Grabow, W O; Gauss-Müller, V; Prozesky, O W; Deinhardt, F

    1983-01-01

    Hepatitis A virus (HAV) and selected indicator organisms were mixed together in chlorine-demand-free buffers at pH 6, 8, or 10 and exposed to free chlorine residuals, and the survival kinetics of individual organisms were compared. HAV was enumerated by a most-probable-number dilution assay, using PLC/PRF/5 liver cells for propagation of the virus and radioimmunoassay for its detection. At all pH levels, HAV was more sensitive than Mycobacterium fortuitum, coliphage V1 (representing a type of phage common in some sewage-polluted waters), and poliovirus type 2. Under certain conditions, HAV was more resistant than Escherichia coli, Streptococcus faecalis, coliphage MS2, and reovirus type 3. It was always more resistant than SA-11 rotavirus. Evidence is presented that conditions generally specified for the chlorine disinfection of drinking-water supplies will also successfully inactivate HAV and that HAV inactivation by free chlorine residuals can reliably be monitored by practical indicator systems consisting of appropriate combinations of suitable indicators such as coliform and acid-fast bacteria, coliphages, the standard plate count, and fecal streptococci. PMID:6314894

  17. Addition of an organic amendment and/or residue mud to bauxite residue sand in order to improve its properties as a growth medium.

    PubMed

    Jones, B E H; Haynes, R J; Phillips, I R

    2012-03-01

    The effects of addition of carbonated residue mud (RMC) or seawater neutralized residue mud (RMS), at two rates, in the presence or absence of added green waste compost, on the chemical, physical and microbial properties of gypsum-treated bauxite residue sand were studied in a laboratory incubation study. The growth of two species commonly used in revegetation of residue sand (Lolium rigidum and Acacia saligna) in the treatments was then studied in a 18-week greenhouse study. Addition of green waste-based compost increased ammonium acetate-extractable (exchangeable) Mg, K and Na. Addition of residue mud at 5 and 10% w/w reduced exchangeable Ca but increased that of Mg and Na (and K for RMS). Concentrations of K, Na, Mg and level of EC in saturation paste extracts were increased by residue mud additions. Concentrations of cations in water extracts were considerably higher than those in saturation paste extracts but trends with treatment were broadly similar. Addition of both compost and residue mud caused a significant decrease in macroporosity with a concomitant increase in mesoporosity and microporosity, available water holding capacity and the quantity of water held at field capacity. Increasing rates of added residue mud reduced the percentage of sample present as discrete sand particles and increased that in aggregated form (particularly in the 1-2 and >10mm diameter ranges). Organic C content, C/N ratio, soluble organic C, microbial biomass C and basal respiration were increased by compost additions. Where compost was added, residue mud additions caused a substantial increase in microbial biomass and basal respiration. L. rigidum grew satisfactorily in all treatments although yields tended to be reduced by additions of mud (especially RMC) particularly in the absence of added compost. Growth of A. saligna was poor in sand alone and mud-amended sand and was greatly promoted by additions of compost. However, in the presence of compost, addition of carbonated

  18. Influence of coagulation mechanisms on the residual aluminum--the roles of coagulant species and MW of organic matter.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Ruyuan; Xu, Hui; Xu, Weiying; Yang, Xiaofang; Wang, Dongsheng

    2015-06-15

    Aluminum (Al) based coagulants are widely used in coagulation process to enhance the removal of turbidity and dissolved substances in the drinking water treatment. However, it raised more concerns due to the increase of residual aluminum in treated water, which can cause even more issues. In this study, the effects of organic matter molecular weight and coagulants species on the concentration and aluminum distribution in residual aluminum were investigated. The residual aluminum concentration decreases as the organic matter (OM) molecular weight (MW) rises. Charge neutralization mechanism was found to be the most important factor that determines the residual aluminum concentration directly. Basically, higher Ala percentage leads to lower residual Al concentration at acidic conditions, and Alb/Alc plays an important role in controlling the residual Al concentration at neutral and alkaline condition. The flocs structures formed by charge neutralization mechanism will be more compact for the mid and high MW OM, and fractal dimension (Df) was important to reflect the dissolved residual aluminum rather than the flocs size. The total dissolved residual aluminum concentration of Al13 and Al30 was mainly contributed by the fractions with low and/or high MW, especially by the fraction with MW range of 0-1 kDa. PMID:25731148

  19. Toxicity of boric acid to Blattella germanica (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae) and analysis of residues in several organs.

    PubMed

    Habes, D; Kilani-Morakchi, S; Aribi, N; Farine, J P; Soltani, N

    2001-01-01

    Pestiferous cockroach species are associated closely with humans and are important from medical and public health points of view. Conventional insecticides have been used widely to control cockroaches which have developed resistance to these compounds. Thus, interest has again centered on lesser-used compounds such as boric acid. Boric acid has been used as an insecticide for many years, especially against cockroach. Its mode of action on insects has not been satisfactorily established. In Algeria, Blattella germanica (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae) is a serious pest in the urban environment and their infestation were controlled for many years by organophosphate, carbamate or pyrethroid insecticides. In order to obtain more information on the mode of action of boric acid, we first evaluated the oral toxicity of boric acid on B. germanica adults. Then, the compound was determined in several organs by an colorimetric method. This insecticide was incorporated into the diet and orally administered at different concentrations ranging from 1 to 40% (w/w) to newly emerged adults. Mortality was recorded at different times during treatment (24, 48, 72 and 144 h). Treatment resulted in a dose-dependent mortality since the LD50 (%) recorded are 85 at 24 h, 67 at 48 h, 39 at 72 h and 8 at 144 h, respectively. Then the quantity of boric acid accumulated in several organs (hemolymph, gut, ovaries, testicles and fat body) was determined as function the duration of treatment (1 to 5 days) for two doses (LD50 and LD90). Results revealed that bioaccumulation of residues in these organs increased as function the duration of treatment. In addition, relatively important amounts of residues, are detected in fat body. PMID:12425074

  20. Characterization of total organic carbon in solid residues provides insight into sludge incineration processes

    SciTech Connect

    Rubli, S.; Medilanski, E.; Belevi, H.

    2000-05-01

    In this paper, an analytical method is presented to determine the concentrations of elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) in incinerator residues. This method is applied to sewage sludge incinerators with different combustion technologies. The results show that the OC concentrations are below the detection limit of 0.01 g/kg of dry matter (DM) and that the EC concentrations are lower than 0.3 g/kg of DM in the solid residues of the investigated stationary fluidized-bed furnace and of the multiple-hearth furnace. The OC concentrations in the investigated rotary kiln are lower than 2.5 g/kg of DM, and the EC concentrations are between 20 and 35 g/kg of DM in the rotary kiln bottom ash. Information on processes occurring in the rotary kiln are obtained by determining the EC and OC concentrations in different particle size classes of the bottom ash as well as by sampling the bottom ash during the turn-off of the rotary kiln and determining the EC and OC concentrations in these samples. By combining the results with the process parameters, it is concluded that the OC/EC ratio is a viable indicator for the temperatures within the furnace bed, while the EC concentration indicates the oxygen supply into the furnace bed.

  1. Glass shell manufacturing in space. [residual gases in spherical shells made from metal-organic gels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nolen, R. J.; Ebner, M. A.; Downs, R. L.

    1980-01-01

    Residual gases always found in glass shells are CO2, O2 and N2. In those cases where high water vapor pressure is maintained in the furnace, water is also found in the shells. Other evidence for the existence of water in shells is the presence of water-induced surface weathering of the interior shell surface. Water and CO2 are the predominant volatiles generated by the pyrolysis of both inorganic and hydrolyzed metal-organic gels. The pyrolysates of unhydrolyzed metal-organic gels also contain, in addition to water and CO2, significant levels of organic volatiles, such as ethanol and some hydrocarbons; on complete oxidation, these produce CO2 and water as well. Water is most likely the initial blowing agent, it is produced copiously during the initial stages of heating. In the later stages, CO2 becomes the dominant gas as H2O is lost at increasing rates. Water in the shell arises mainly from gel dehydration, CO2 by sodium bicarbonate/carbonate decomposition and carbon oxidation, and O2 and N2 by permeation of the ambient furnace air through the molten shell wall.

  2. Prebiotic significance of extraterrestrial ice photochemistry: detection of hydantoin in organic residues.

    PubMed

    de Marcellus, Pierre; Bertrand, Marylène; Nuevo, Michel; Westall, Frances; Le Sergeant d'Hendecourt, Louis

    2011-11-01

    The delivery of extraterrestrial organic materials to primitive Earth from meteorites or micrometeorites has long been postulated to be one of the origins of the prebiotic molecules involved in the subsequent apparition of life. Here, we report on experiments in which vacuum UV photo-irradiation of interstellar/circumstellar ice analogues containing H(2)O, CH(3)OH, and NH(3) led to the production of several molecules of prebiotic interest. These were recovered at room temperature in the semi-refractory, water-soluble residues after evaporation of the ice. In particular, we detected small quantities of hydantoin (2,4-imidazolidinedione), a species suspected to play an important role in the formation of poly- and oligopeptides. In addition, hydantoin is known to form under extraterrestrial, abiotic conditions, since it has been detected, along with various other derivatives, in the soluble part of organic matter of primitive carbonaceous meteorites. This result, together with other related experiments reported recently, points to the potential importance of the photochemistry of interstellar "dirty" ices in the formation of organics in Solar System materials. Such molecules could then have been delivered to the surface of primitive Earth, as well as other telluric (exo-) planets, to help trigger first prebiotic reactions with the capacity to lead to some form of primitive biomolecular activity. PMID:22059641

  3. High photoluminescent metal-organic frameworks as optical markers for the identification of gunshot residues.

    PubMed

    Weber, Ingrid Távora; de Melo, Adenaule James Geber; Lucena, Marcella Auxiliadora de Melo; Rodrigues, Marcelo Oliveira; Alves, Severino

    2011-06-15

    Gunshot residue (GSR) are solid particles produced when a firearm is discharged, and its detection is important evidence in forensic investigations. Currently, scanning electron microscopy coupled to energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) is the standard technique adopted for the analysis and identification of GSR; however, this methodology is inefficient for lead-free ammunition. Herein, we report the inclusion of high photoluminescent metal-organic frameworks in ammunition to allow for the visual detection of GSR. The tests indicated that marked GSR is easily visible in proportions above 5.0 wt %. A total of 1 g of marker suffices to tag 100 0.38 mm bullets or 62 0.40 mm bullets. PMID:21585195

  4. Influence of biochar and plant growth on organic matter dynamics in a reclaimed mine residue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno-Barriga, Fabián; Díaz, Vicente; Alberto, Jose; Faz, Ángel; Zornoza, Raúl

    2016-04-01

    This study aims at assessing the impact of biochar and marble waste amendment and the development of vegetation in acidic mine wastes on organic matter dynamics. For this purpose, a mine residue was collected in a tailing pond from the Sierra Minera of Cartagena-La Unión (SE Spain), and a greenhouse experiment was established for 120 days. Marble waste (MW) was added in a rate of 200 g kg-1 as a source of calcium carbonate to increase the pH from 3 to 7.5-8 (average pH in the native soils of the area). We added biochar as a source of organic carbon and nutrients, in two different rates, 50 g kg-1 (BC1) and 100 g kg-1 (BC2). To assess the influence of vegetation growth on the creation of a technosoil from mine residues and its impact on organic matter dynamics, the plant species Piptatherum miliaceum (PM) was planted in half the pots with the different amendments. Thus, five treatments were established: unamended and unplanted control (CT), BC1, BC2, BC1+PM and BC2+PM. Results showed that the different treatments had no significant effect on aggregates stability, microbial biomass carbon and the emission of N2O and CH4. So, it seems that longer periods are needed to increase the stability of aggregates and microbial populations, since even the combined use of biochar, marble waste and vegetation was not enough to increase these properties in 120 days. Nonetheless, it was positive that the addition of biochar and the release of root exudates did not trigger the emission of greenhouse gases. Organic carbon significantly increased with the addition of biochar, with values similar to the dose applied, indicating high stability and low mineralization of the amendment. The addition of amendments significantly increased arylesterase activity, while the growth of the plant was needed to significantly increase β-glucosidase activity. The soluble carbon significantly decreased in BC1 and BC2 with regards to CT, while no significant differences were observed among CT and

  5. Effects of polymethylmethacrylate-transfer residues on the growth of organic semiconductor molecules on chemical vapor deposited graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Kratzer, Markus Teichert, Christian; Bayer, Bernhard C.; Kidambi, Piran R.; Matković, Aleksandar; Gajić, Radoš; Cabrero-Vilatela, Andrea; Weatherup, Robert S.; Hofmann, Stephan

    2015-03-09

    Scalably grown and transferred graphene is a highly promising material for organic electronic applications, but controlled interfacing of graphene thereby remains a key challenge. Here, we study the growth characteristics of the important organic semiconductor molecule para-hexaphenyl (6P) on chemical vapor deposited graphene that has been transferred with polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) onto oxidized Si wafer supports. A particular focus is on the influence of PMMA residual contamination, which we systematically reduce by H{sub 2} annealing prior to 6P deposition. We find that 6P grows in a flat-lying needle-type morphology, surprisingly independent of the level of PMMA residue and of graphene defects. Wrinkles in the graphene typically act as preferential nucleation centers. Residual PMMA does however limit the length of the resulting 6P needles by restricting molecular diffusion/attachment. We discuss the implications for organic device fabrication, with particular regard to contamination and defect tolerance.

  6. Nanomaterials - a Canadian Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grutter, Peter

    2004-03-01

    I will review nanomaterials research in Canada with a particular emphasis on coordinated initiatives and some experimental highlights, starting with a summary of Canadian initiatives. These range from the National Science and Engineering Research Council's Nano Innovation Platform (www.physics.mcgill.ca/NSERCnanoIP/), provincial initiatives like NanoQuebec (www.NanoQuebec.ca), organizations such as the Canadian Institute of Advanced Research (www.ciar.ca) or the National Institute of Nanotechnology (www.nint.ca) - a joint initiatives between the University of Alberta, the National Research Council (NRC) and the Province of Alberta. University based materials centers such as the Brockhouse Institute for Materials Research in Hamilton, the Institute for Research in Materials in Halifax, the Pacific Center for Advanced Materials and Microstructures in Vancouver or the Strategic Regroupment of University Centers in Advanced Materials in Montreal have strong nano components as has the NRC at various institutes. The 2nd half of the talk will highlight some Canadian research strengths in nano materials, from photonics, energy storage, bio-med to molecular self assembly and paper coatings.

  7. Adrift in Our National Consciousness: Meditations on Canadian Ecological Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowan, Greg

    2011-01-01

    Misao Dean (2006) discusses the canoe as a celebrated icon of Canadian culture in her critique of the Centennial celebrations of 1967; as part of the Centennial, the Canadian government organized the longest canoe race ever held. This author believes that the canoe has become a universal symbol of Canada and that all Canadians have the right to…

  8. Trace gas and particle emissions from open burning of three cereal crop residues: Increase in residue moistness enhances emissions of carbon monoxide, methane, and particulate organic carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Kentaro; Ono, Keisuke; Kajiura, Masako; Sudo, Shigeto; Yonemura, Seiichiro; Fushimi, Akihiro; Saitoh, Katsumi; Fujitani, Yuji; Tanabe, Kiyoshi

    2014-10-01

    We determined emission factors for open burning of straw of rice, wheat, and barley, as well as rice husks, and we incorporated the effects of moisture content on the emission factors for the straw. A closed system that simulated on-site backfiring of residues on the soil surface under moderate wind conditions was used to measure the gas and particle emissions from open burning of the residues on an upland field. Two moisture content conditions were evaluated: a dry condition (air-dried residues, 11-13% by weight) and a moist condition (20%). When a linear regression model with the initial moisture content of the residue as the explanatory variable showed good correlation between the primary emission data of a substance and the moisture content, the regression model was adopted as a function to give the emission factors. Otherwise, the unmodified primary data were used as the emission factors. The magnitudes of the gas and particle emissions differed among the residue types. For example, carbon monoxide (CO) emissions from straw of rice, wheat, and barley and rice husks burned under the dry condition were 27.2 ± 1.7, 41.8 ± 24.2, 46.9 ± 2.1, and 66.1 g kg-1 dry matter, and emissions of methane (CH4) were 0.75 ± 0.01, 2.01 ± 0.93, 1.47 ± 0.06, and 5.81 g kg-1 dry matter, respectively (n = 2 for straw with the standard deviation; n = 1 for husks). Emissions of carbon-containing gases and particles (e.g., CO, CH4, and particulate organic carbon) were higher under the moist condition than under the dry condition, which suggests that emission factors for open burning should incorporate the effects of moisture content except open burning performed in the dry season or arid zones.

  9. Promoting Active Citizenship through the Arts and Youth: Canadian Youth-Led Organizations as Beacons of Hope and Transformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porfilio, Brad J.; Gorlewski, Julie A.

    2012-01-01

    This essay details the pedagogical and cultural work of two youth-led organizations situated in Canada--Beat Nation and 411 Initiative for Change. Through the narratives generated by interviews with several of the organizations' artists and founders, the organizations' pedagogical work generated in cyberspace, and through artists' music,…

  10. Determining pathogen and indicator levels in class B municipal organic residuals used for land application.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Eric R; Boczek, Laura A; Ware, Michael W; McKay, Mary; Hoelle, Jill M; Schoen, Mary; Villegas, Eric N

    2015-01-01

    Biosolids are nutrient-rich organic residuals that are currently used to amend soils for food production. Treatment requirements to inactivate pathogens for production of Class A biosolids are energy intensive. One less energy intensive alternative is to treat biosolids to Class B standards, but it could result in higher pathogen loads. Quantitative microbial risk assessments models have been developed on land application of Class B biosolids but contain many uncertainties because of limited data on specific pathogen densities and the use of fecal indicator organisms as accurate surrogates of pathogen loads. To address this gap, a 12-mo study of the levels and relationships between , , and human adenovirus (HAdV) with fecal coliform, somatic, and F-RNA coliphage levels in Class B biosolids from nine wastewater treatment plants throughout the United States was conducted. Results revealed that fecal coliform, somatic, and F-RNA coliphage densities were consistent throughout the year. More important, results revealed that HAdV ( = 2.5 × 10 genome copies dry g) and ( = 4.14 × 10 cysts dry g) were in all biosolids samples regardless of treatment processes, location, or season. oocysts were also detected (38% positive; range: 0-1.9 × 10 oocysts dry g), albeit sporadically. Positive correlations among three fecal indicator organisms and HAdV, but not protozoa, were also observed. Overall, this study reveals that high concentrations of enteric pathogens (e.g., , , and HAdV) are present in biosolids throughout the United States. Microbial densities found can further assist management and policymakers in establishing more accurate risk assessment models associated with land application of Class B biosolids. PMID:25602342

  11. The development and comparison of collection techniques for inorganic and organic gunshot residues.

    PubMed

    Taudte, Regina Verena; Roux, Claude; Blanes, Lucas; Horder, Mark; Kirkbride, K Paul; Beavis, Alison

    2016-04-01

    The detection and interpretation of gunshot residues (GSR) plays an important role in the investigation of firearm-related events. Commonly, the analysis focuses on inorganic particles incorporating elements derived from the primer. However, recent changes in ammunition formulations and possibility that particles from non-firearm sources can be indistinguishable from certain primer particles challenge the standard operational protocol and call for adjustments, namely the combination of inorganic and organic GSR analysis. Two protocols for the combined collection and subsequent analysis of inorganic and organic GSR were developed and optimised for 15 compounds potentially present in organic GSR (OGSR). These protocols were conceptualised to enable OGSR analysis by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled with UV detection and triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (confirmation) and IGSR analysis by scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX). Using liquid extraction, the extraction recoveries from spiked swabs and stubs were ~80 % (50-98 % for swabs, 64-98 % for stubs). When the mixed OGSR standard was applied to the hands and recovered in the way that is usual for IGSR collection, GSR stubs performed significantly better than swabs (~30 %) for the collection of OGSR. The optimised protocols were tested and compared for combined OGSR and inorganic GSR analysis using samples taken at a shooting range. The most suitable protocol for combined collection and analysis of IGSR and OGSR involved collection using GSR stubs followed by SEM-EDX analysis and liquid extraction using acetone followed by analysis with UHPLC. PMID:26873197

  12. Contributions of wheat and maize residues to soil organic carbon under long-term rotation in north China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinzhou; Wang, Xiujun; Xu, Minggang; Feng, Gu; Zhang, Wenju; Yang, Xueyun; Huang, Shaomin

    2015-01-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics in agro-ecosystem is largely influenced by cropping. However, quantifying the contributions of various crops has been lacking. Here we employed a stable isotopic approach to evaluate the contributions of wheat and maize residues to SOC at three long-term experimental sites in north China. Soil samples were collected from 0-20, 20-40, 40-60, 60-80 and 80-100 cm after 13 and 20 years of wheat-maize rotation, and SOC and its stable (13)C composition were determined. Our data showed that the δ(13)C value of SOC varied, on average, from -22.1‰ in the 0-20 cm to -21.5‰ in the 80-100 cm. Carbon input through maize residues ranged from 35% to 68% whereas the contribution of maize residues to SOC (0-40 cm) ranged from 28% to 40%. Our analyses suggested that the retention coefficient was in the range of 8.0-13.6% for maize residues and 16.5-28.5% for wheat residues. The two-fold higher retention coefficient of wheat versus maize residues was due to the differences in the quality of residues and probably also in the temperature during the growing season. Our study highlighted the importance of crop management on carbon sequestration in agricultural lands. PMID:26100739

  13. Contributions of wheat and maize residues to soil organic carbon under long-term rotation in north China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jinzhou; Wang, Xiujun; Xu, Minggang; Feng, Gu; Zhang, Wenju; Yang, Xueyun; Huang, Shaomin

    2015-06-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics in agro-ecosystem is largely influenced by cropping. However, quantifying the contributions of various crops has been lacking. Here we employed a stable isotopic approach to evaluate the contributions of wheat and maize residues to SOC at three long-term experimental sites in north China. Soil samples were collected from 0-20, 20-40, 40-60, 60-80 and 80-100 cm after 13 and 20 years of wheat-maize rotation, and SOC and its stable 13C composition were determined. Our data showed that the δ13C value of SOC varied, on average, from -22.1‰ in the 0-20 cm to -21.5‰ in the 80-100 cm. Carbon input through maize residues ranged from 35% to 68% whereas the contribution of maize residues to SOC (0-40 cm) ranged from 28% to 40%. Our analyses suggested that the retention coefficient was in the range of 8.0-13.6% for maize residues and 16.5-28.5% for wheat residues. The two-fold higher retention coefficient of wheat versus maize residues was due to the differences in the quality of residues and probably also in the temperature during the growing season. Our study highlighted the importance of crop management on carbon sequestration in agricultural lands.

  14. Contributions of wheat and maize residues to soil organic carbon under long-term rotation in north China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jinzhou; Wang, Xiujun; Xu, Minggang; Feng, Gu; Zhang, Wenju; Yang, Xueyun; Huang, Shaomin

    2015-01-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics in agro-ecosystem is largely influenced by cropping. However, quantifying the contributions of various crops has been lacking. Here we employed a stable isotopic approach to evaluate the contributions of wheat and maize residues to SOC at three long-term experimental sites in north China. Soil samples were collected from 0–20, 20–40, 40–60, 60–80 and 80–100 cm after 13 and 20 years of wheat-maize rotation, and SOC and its stable 13C composition were determined. Our data showed that the δ13C value of SOC varied, on average, from −22.1‰ in the 0–20 cm to −21.5‰ in the 80–100 cm. Carbon input through maize residues ranged from 35% to 68% whereas the contribution of maize residues to SOC (0–40 cm) ranged from 28% to 40%. Our analyses suggested that the retention coefficient was in the range of 8.0–13.6% for maize residues and 16.5–28.5% for wheat residues. The two-fold higher retention coefficient of wheat versus maize residues was due to the differences in the quality of residues and probably also in the temperature during the growing season. Our study highlighted the importance of crop management on carbon sequestration in agricultural lands. PMID:26100739

  15. The use of FT-IR as a screening technique for organic residue analysis of archaeological samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shillito, Lisa M.; Almond, Matthew J.; Wicks, Karen; Marshall, Lisa-Jane R.; Matthews, Wendy

    2009-02-01

    A range of archaeological samples have been examined using FT-IR spectroscopy. These include suspected coprolite samples from the Neolithic site of Çatalhöyük in Turkey, pottery samples from the Roman site of Silchester, UK and the Bronze Age site of Gatas, Spain and unidentified black residues on pottery sherds from the Roman sites of Springhead and Cambourne, UK. For coprolite samples the aim of FT-IR analysis is identification. Identification of coprolites in the field is based on their distinct orange colour; however, such visual identifications can often be misleading due to their similarity with deposits such as ochre and clay. For pottery the aim is to screen those samples that might contain high levels of organic residues which would be suitable for GC-MS analysis. The experiments have shown coprolites to have distinctive spectra, containing strong peaks from calcite, phosphate and quartz; the presence of phosphorus may be confirmed by SEM-EDX analysis. Pottery containing organic residues of plant and animal origin has also been shown to generally display strong phosphate peaks. FT-IR has distinguished between organic resin and non-organic compositions for the black residues, with differences also being seen between organic samples that have the same physical appearance. Further analysis by GC-MS has confirmed the identification of the coprolites through the presence of coprostanol and bile acids, and shows that the majority of organic pottery residues are either fatty acids or mono- or di-acylglycerols from foodstuffs, or triterpenoid resin compounds exposed to high temperatures. One suspected resin sample was shown to contain no organic residues, and it is seen that resin samples with similar physical appearances have different chemical compositions. FT-IR is proposed as a quick and cheap method of screening archaeological samples before subjecting them to the more expensive and time-consuming method of GC-MS. This will eliminate inorganic samples such

  16. The use of FT-IR as a screening technique for organic residue analysis of archaeological samples.

    PubMed

    Shillito, Lisa M; Almond, Matthew J; Wicks, Karen; Marshall, Lisa-Jane R; Matthews, Wendy

    2009-02-01

    A range of archaeological samples have been examined using FT-IR spectroscopy. These include suspected coprolite samples from the Neolithic site of Catalhöyük in Turkey, pottery samples from the Roman site of Silchester, UK and the Bronze Age site of Gatas, Spain and unidentified black residues on pottery sherds from the Roman sites of Springhead and Cambourne, UK. For coprolite samples the aim of FT-IR analysis is identification. Identification of coprolites in the field is based on their distinct orange colour; however, such visual identifications can often be misleading due to their similarity with deposits such as ochre and clay. For pottery the aim is to screen those samples that might contain high levels of organic residues which would be suitable for GC-MS analysis. The experiments have shown coprolites to have distinctive spectra, containing strong peaks from calcite, phosphate and quartz; the presence of phosphorus may be confirmed by SEM-EDX analysis. Pottery containing organic residues of plant and animal origin has also been shown to generally display strong phosphate peaks. FT-IR has distinguished between organic resin and non-organic compositions for the black residues, with differences also being seen between organic samples that have the same physical appearance. Further analysis by GC-MS has confirmed the identification of the coprolites through the presence of coprostanol and bile acids, and shows that the majority of organic pottery residues are either fatty acids or mono- or di-acylglycerols from foodstuffs, or triterpenoid resin compounds exposed to high temperatures. One suspected resin sample was shown to contain no organic residues, and it is seen that resin samples with similar physical appearances have different chemical compositions. FT-IR is proposed as a quick and cheap method of screening archaeological samples before subjecting them to the more expensive and time-consuming method of GC-MS. This will eliminate inorganic samples such

  17. Absorption and fluorescence of dissolved organic matter in the waters of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, Baffin Bay, and the Labrador Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guéguen, Céline; Cuss, Chad W.; Cassels, Chase J.; Carmack, Eddy C.

    2014-03-01

    The optical properties of dissolved organic matter (DOM) were investigated for the first time in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago (CAA), Baffin Bay (BB), and Labrador Sea (LS) as part of the International Polar Year Canada's Three Oceans project (C3O). The dynamics and composition of absorbing DOM (i.e., colored DOM, or CDOM) and fluorescent DOM (FDOM) were evaluated in several distinct water masses occupying the three regions: surface waters, Arctic outflow waters, West Greenland Intermediate waters (WGIW), upper Labrador Sea waters (uLSW), and Bottom Baffin Deep Water (BBDW). Four fluorescent components were identified by applying parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) to 522 excitation emission matrix (EEM) spectra: three humic-like and one protein-like. The FDOM in surface waters of the CAA and BB differed considerably in character from those of the LS, with higher fluorescence intensity in the former. The fluorescence intensities of the two terrestrial humic-like components (C1 and C3) were linearly correlated with apparent oxygen utilization (AOU) in the CAA Arctic outflow and the WGIW whereas only humic-like C3 was significantly correlated with AOU in uLSW. These findings suggest that the humic-like components were produced in situ as organic matter was bio-oxidized. The slopes of the linear relationship between humic-like intensity and AOU were significantly greater in the WGIW relative to the Arctic outflow waters, which implies that FDOM in the Arctic-derived deeper layer was less prone to mineralization.

  18. Response of soil organic layer characteristics to different amounts of logging residue in a Scots pine thinning stand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smolander, Aino; Kitunen, Veikko; Tamminen, Pekka; Kukkola, Mikko

    2010-05-01

    Since there is an increasing demand for production of bioenergy, forest management using logging residue from both clear-cutting and thinning stands is becoming more common. Therefore there is a need of information how this whole-tree harvest, as compared to the traditional stem-only harvest, changes forest soil characteristics in long-term. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of logging residue removal on soil microbial processes related to C and N cycling and on two major groups of plant secondary compounds, phenolic compounds and terpenes. These two groups of compounds were of interest since logging residue contains the highest proportion of most of these compounds. In addition, certain phenolic compounds and terpenes have been shown to regulate N transformations in forests soils. The study site was a young Scots pine stand in central Finland. It was thinned and four different amounts of logging residue, consisting of needles and tree branches, were distributed around a tree: 0, 40, 80 and 120 kg of fresh logging residue on a circle (diameter 2.5 m) around a tree. Samples were taken from the organic layer (F+H) four years after the treatment. Two highest amounts of logging residue increased both C and net N mineralization and glucose-induced respiration, but the amount of logging residue did not affect microbial biomass C or N. There were not any large differences between the treatments in the concentrations of mono, sesqui-, di- or triterpenes, although some terpenes showed an increase with the highest amount of residues. Amount of logging residue did not clearly affect the concentrations of volatile monoterpenes in soil atmosphere.

  19. 40 CFR 63.494 - Back-end process provisions-residual organic HAP and emission limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) The monthly weighted average residual organic HAP content of all grades of styrene butadiene rubber produced by the emulsion process, polybutadiene rubber and styrene butadiene rubber produced by the solution process, and ethylene-propylene rubber produced by the solution process that is processed,...

  20. 40 CFR 63.494 - Back-end process provisions-residual organic HAP and emission limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) The monthly weighted average residual organic HAP content of all grades of styrene butadiene rubber produced by the emulsion process, polybutadiene rubber and styrene butadiene rubber produced by the solution process, and ethylene-propylene rubber produced by the solution process that is processed,...

  1. 40 CFR 63.494 - Back-end process provisions-residual organic HAP and emission limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) The monthly weighted average residual organic HAP content of all grades of styrene butadiene rubber produced by the emulsion process, polybutadiene rubber and styrene butadiene rubber produced by the solution process, and ethylene-propylene rubber produced by the solution process that is processed,...

  2. 40 CFR 63.494 - Back-end process provisions-residual organic HAP and emission limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) The monthly weighted average residual organic HAP content of all grades of styrene butadiene rubber produced by the emulsion process, polybutadiene rubber and styrene butadiene rubber produced by the solution process, and ethylene-propylene rubber produced by the solution process that is processed,...

  3. Organic residues as immobilizing agents in aided phytostabilization: (II) effects on soil biochemical and ecotoxicological characteristics.

    PubMed

    Alvarenga, P; Palma, P; Gonçalves, A P; Fernandes, R M; de Varennes, A; Vallini, G; Duarte, E; Cunha-Queda, A C

    2009-03-01

    Sewage sludge (SS), municipal solid waste compost, and garden waste compost (GWC) were used as immobilizing agents in aided phytostabilization of an acid metal-contaminated soil affected by mining activities. The organic residues were applied at 25, 50 and 100 Mg ha(-1) (dry weight basis) and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) was used as a "green cover". We studied the effects of the treatments on soil phytotoxicity and enzymatic activities, and on the composition and toxicity of the soil leachate towards Vibrio fischeri and Daphnia magna. Application of SS led to the greatest values of dehydrogenase, acid phosphatase, beta-glucosidase, protease and urease activities, corresponding to the greatest overall microbial and biochemical activity in amended soils. Conversely, GWC did not increase these enzymatic activities, relative to the unamended soil, or enhance ryegrass growth. Cellulase activity increased with increasing application rates of the amendments tested, but decreased at the highest SS application rate. The organic amendments were able to suppress soil toxicity to levels that did not affect D. magna, when applied at 50 and 100 Mg ha(-1), but SS, at the same application rates, increased the soil leachate toxicity towards V. fischeri. Moreover, ryegrass showed some phytotoxic symptoms when 100 Mg ha(-1) of SS were applied. This study showed the importance of an integrated evaluation of soil quality on remediation processes. Although SS immobilized trace metals and corrected soil acidity, improving soil biochemical status, when used at high application rates it led to toxicity of soil leachate towards V. fischeri, decreased soil cellulase activity and impaired ryegrass growth. PMID:19091381

  4. Portable SERS-enabled micropipettes for microarea sampling and reliably quantitative detection of surface organic residues.

    PubMed

    Fang, Wei; Zhang, Xinwei; Chen, Yong; Wan, Liang; Huang, Weihua; Shen, Aiguo; Hu, Jiming

    2015-09-15

    We report the first microsampling device for reliably quantitative, label-free and separation-free detection of multicomponents of surface organic residues (SORs) by means of a quality controllable surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-enabled micropipette. The micropipette is comprised of a drawn glass capillary with a tiny orifice (∼50 μm) at the distal tip, where the specially designed nanorattles (NRs) are compactly coated on the inner wall surface. SERS signals of 4-mercapto benzoic acid (MBA) anchored inside the internal gap of NRs could be used to evaluate and control the quality of micropipettes and, therefore, allow us to overcome the limitations of a reliably quantitative SERS assay using traditional substrates without an internal standard. By dropping a trace extraction agent on targeting SORs located on a narrow surface, the capillary and SERS functionalities of these micropipettes allow on-site microsampling via capillary action and subsequent multiplex distinction/detection due to their molecularly narrow Raman peaks. For example, 8 nM thiram (TMTD), 8 nM malachite green (MG), and 1.5 μM (400 ppb) methyl parathion (MPT) on pepper and cucumber peels have been simultaneously detected in a wide detection range. The portable SERS-enabled device could potentially be facilely incorporated with liquid-liquid or solid phase micro-extracting devices for a broader range of applications in rapid and field analysis of food/public/environment security related SORs. PMID:26274894

  5. Ammunition identification by means of the organic analysis of gunshot residues using Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    López-López, María; Delgado, Juan José; García-Ruiz, Carmen

    2012-04-17

    The ability to unequivocally identify a gunshot residue (GSR) when a firearm is discharged is a very important and crucial part of crime scene investigation. To date, the great majority of the analyses have focused on the inorganic components of GSR, but the introduction of "lead-free" or "nontoxic" ammunitions makes it difficult to prevent false negatives. This study introduces a fast methodology for the organic analysis of GSR using Raman spectroscopy. Six different types of ammunition were fired at short distances into cloth targets, and the Raman spectra produced by the GSR were measured and compared with the spectra from the unfired gunpowder ammunition. The GSR spectrum shows high similarity to the spectrum of the unfired ammunition, allowing the GSR to be traced to the ammunition used. Additionally, other substances that might be found on the victim's, shooter's, or suspect's clothes and might be confused with GSR, such as sand, dried blood, or black ink from a common ballpoint pen, were analyzed to test the screening capability of the Raman technique. The results obtained evidenced that Raman spectroscopy is a useful screening tool when fast analysis is desired and that little sample preparation is required for the analysis of GSR evidence. PMID:22424274

  6. Characterization of atmospheric aerosols for organic tarry matter and combustible matter during crop residue burning and non-crop residue burning months in Northwestern region of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Nirankar; Agarwal, Ravinder; Awasthi, Amit; Gupta, Prabhat K.; Mittal, Susheel K.

    2010-03-01

    Aerosol (total suspended particulate) samples collected at three diverse locations (urban-commercial, semi-urban and rural-agricultural) in Patiala, India were analyzed for loss on ignition (LOI) and organic tarry matter (OTM) content in ambient air during crop residue burning (CRB) episodes and non-crop residue burning (NCRB) months in 2006-2007. Results showed high levels of LOI and OTM during wheat and rice crop residue-burning periods at all the sites. Higher levels were obtained during rice crop residue-burning period as compared to the wheat residue-burning period. At semi-urban site, LOI varied between 53 ± 36 μg m -3 and 257 ± 14 μg m -3 constituting 38-78% (w/w) part of the aerosols whereas levels of OTM varied between 0.98 ± 0.11 μg m -3 and 7.93 ± 2.76 μg m -3 comprising 0.42-3.28% (w/w) fraction. At rural-agricultural area site, levels of LOI varied between 86 ± 40 μg m -3 and 293 ± 70 μg m -3 comprising 27-84% (w/w), whereas OTM levels varied between 1.31 ± 0.64 μg m -3 and 10.09 ± 6.56 μg m -3 constituting 0.83-2.42% (w/w) fraction of the aerosols. At urban-cum-commercial site, levels of LOI and OTM varied between 48 ± 23 μg m -3 and 281 ± 152 μg m -3 and 2.53 ± 1.23 μg m -3 and 17.40 ± 8.50 μg m -3, constituting 24-62% (w/w) part of the aerosols, respectively. Results also indicated that OTM and LOI were integral parts of aerosols and their concentrations were influenced by the crop residue burning practices with incorporated effect of vehicular activities in Patiala.

  7. Soil Organic Matter Quality of an Oxisol Affected by Plant Residues and Crop Sequence under No-Tillage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cora, Jose; Marcelo, Adolfo

    2013-04-01

    Plant residues are considered the primarily resource for soil organic matter (SOM) formation and the amounts and properties of plant litter are important controlling factors for the SOM quality. We determined the amounts, quality and decomposition rate of plant residues and the effects of summer and winter crop sequences on soil organic C (TOC) content, both particulate organic C (POC) and mineral-associated organic C (MOC) pools and humic substances in a Brazilian Rhodic Eutrudox soil under a no-tillage system. The organic C analysis in specifics pools used in this study was effective and should be adopted in tropical climates to evaluate the soil quality and the sustainability of various cropping systems. Continuous growth of soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill) on summer provided higher contents of soil POC and continuous growth of maize (Zea mays L.) provided higher soil humic acid and MOC contents. Summer soybean-maize rotation provided the higher plant diversity, which likely improved the soil microbial activity and the soil organic C consumption. The winter sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.), pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp), oilseed radish (Raphanus sativus L.) and pearl millet (Pennisetum americanum (L.) Leeke) enhanced the soil MOC, a finding that is attributable to the higher N content of the crop residue. Sunn hemp and pigeon pea provided the higher soil POC content. Sunn hemp showed better performance and positive effects on the SOM quality, making it a suitable winter crop choice for tropical conditions with a warm and dry winter.

  8. Comparison of the Organic Composition of Cometary Samples with Residues Formed from the UV Irradiation of Astrophysical Ice Analogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milam, S. N.; Nuevo, M.; Sandford, S. A.; Cody, G. D.; Kilcoyne, A. L. D.; Stroud, R. M.; DeGregorio, B. T.

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Stardust mission successfully collected material from Comet 81P/Wild 2 [1], including authentic cometary grains [2]. X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy analysis of these samples indicates the presence of oxygen-rich and nitrogen-rich organic materials, which contain a broad variety of functional groups (carbonyls, C=C bonds, aliphatic chains, amines, arnides, etc.) [3]. One component of these organics appears to contain very little aromatic carbon and bears some similarity to the organic residues produced by the irradiation of ices of interstellar/cometary composition, Stardust samples were also recently shown to contain glycine, the smallest biological amino acid [4]. Organic residues produced froth the UV irradiation of astrophysical ice analogs are already known to contain a large suite of organic molecules including amino acids [5-7], amphiphilic compounds (fatty acids) [8], and other complex species. This work presents a comparison between XANES spectra measured from organic residues formed in the laboratory with similar data of cometary samples collected by the Stardust mission

  9. Classification of explosive residues on organic substrates using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    De Lucia, Frank C; Gottfried, Jennifer L

    2012-03-01

    Standoff laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has previously been used to classify trace residues as either hazardous (explosives, biological, etc.) or benign. Correct classification can become more difficult depending on the surface/substrate underneath the residue due to variations in the laser-material interaction. In addition, classification can become problematic if the substrate material has a similar elemental composition to the residue. We have evaluated coupling multivariate analysis with standoff LIBS to determine the effectiveness of classifying thin explosive residue layers on painted surfaces. Good classification results were obtained despite the fact that the painted surface contributes to the LIBS emission signal. PMID:22410930

  10. Sedimentary links and the spatial organization of Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar) spawning habitat in a Canadian Shield river

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davey, Chad; Lapointe, Michel

    2007-01-01

    The segmenting of gravel-bed rivers flowing through mountain valleys into a number of discrete 'sedimentary links', each characterized by downstream fining of alluvium, is a relatively recent concept which offers promise to model the large-scale spatial organisation of many types of aquatic habitat (reproductive, feeding, refuge, etc), strongly dependent on dominant bed sediment calibre. Although, so far, the ecological application of the concept has mainly focused on benthic invertebrates, here we illustrate its application to fish (Atlantic salmon; Salmo salar). Moreover, the link concept has also been primarily applied to alpine river environments where link formation is triggered by point sources (mainly tributaries) supplying coarser sediment. However, somewhat lower relief, mountain valley landscapes of North Eastern Canada are often structured into sedimentary links triggered by non-point, 'supply zones' of coarse sediments, originating in bedrock canyon reaches or valley bottom deposits of glacial drift. Here, we propose an adaptation and extension of the original, sedimentary link concept to such landscapes and test its utility along one such system, the Ste Marguerite River (SMR), a salmon river draining the Canadian Shield in the Saguenay region of Québec. We first discuss a simple field and office based method of link delineation. Then we discuss potential sources of minor, sublink scale grain size variability and their effects on how sedimentary links are defined. Lastly, we demonstrate the usefulness of the link structure to model the distribution of Atlantic salmon spawning habitat (a habitat that depends critically on bed texture). Our results indicate that a revised sedimentary link typology is needed to describe longitudinal grain size patterns where non-point, valley-segment scale sources of coarse sediment are important and that consideration of the research purpose and scale is important in defining meaningful link units. We also show that

  11. Organic residue decomposition: The minicontainer-system a multifunctional tool in decomposition studies.

    PubMed

    Eisenbeis, G; Lenz, R; Heiber, T

    1999-01-01

    The Minicontainer-test, first described by Eisenbeis (1993), was designed to study the kinetics of organic residue decomposition at a microsite level. It is derived from the litterbag technique and consists of polyethylene minicontainers (volume about 1.5 cm(3)) filled with a test substrate (litter, straw, cellulose, etc.). The minicontainers (MCs) are closed at either end with plastic gauze discs of variable mesh size (e.g. 20 microm, 250 microm, 500 microm or 2 mm). A definite number of such units are inserted into PVC-bars, which can be implanted into the soil horizontally or vertically, or be exposed on the soil surface horizontally. The bars are very stable and can be exposed in different environments for months to years. If required, the bars can be removed temporarily and stored, e.g. during soil cultivation. Should fresh litter be used, two phases of decomposition can be distinguished: a fast initial phase, which can be mainly related to the effect of leaching, and a second slow phase depending mainly on the activity of soil organisms and litter quality. Several questions can be addressed to investigations using MCs, e.g. 1) parts of the soil fauna which are involved in decomposition (nematodes, microarthropods, and smaller specimens of the macrofauna, e.g. enchytraeidae, diplopods and dipteran larvae) can be extracted from the litter substrate using a miniscale high gradient extractor, 2) the organic mass loss of litter can be determined, 3) microbial biomass (C(mic), N(mic)) can be assessed by fumigation extraction and 4) microbial activity (respiration) in the test substrate can also be assessed by use of standardised methods. Compared to litterbag studies, the larger number of small replicate units improves the statistical evaluation. Until today the Minicontainer-test has been applied in forestry and agriculture, e.g. studying the effects of liming, soil restoration and the application of insecticides, e.g. Diflubenzuron (Dimilin) and Btk (Bacillus

  12. Effect of crop residue incorporation on soil organic carbon (SOC) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in European agricultural soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehtinen, Taru; Schlatter, Norman; Baumgarten, Andreas; Bechini, Luca; Krüger, Janine; Grignani, Carlo; Zavattaro, Laura; Costamagna, Chiara; Spiegel, Heide

    2014-05-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) improves soil physical (e.g. increased aggregate stability), chemical (e.g. cation exchange capacity) and biological (e.g. biodiversity, earthworms) properties. The sequestration of soil organic carbon (SOC) may mitigate climate change. However, as much as 25-75% of the initial SOC in world agricultural soils may have been lost due to intensive agriculture (Lal, 2013). The European Commission has described the decline of organic matter (OM) as one of the major threats to soils (COM(2006) 231). Incorporation of crop residues may be a sustainable and cost-efficient management practice to maintain the SOC levels and to increase soil fertility in European agricultural soils. Especially Mediterranean soils that have low initial SOC concentrations, and areas where stockless croplands predominate may be suitable for crop residue incorporation. In this study, we aim to quantify the effects of crop residue incorporation on SOC and GHG emissions (CO2 and N2O) in different environmental zones (ENZs, Metzger et al., 2005) in Europe. Response ratios for SOC and GHG emissions were calculated from pairwise comparisons between crop residue incorporation and removal. Specifically, we investigated whether ENZs, clay content and experiment duration influence the response ratios. In addition, we studied how response ratios of SOM and crop yields were correlated. A total of 718 response ratios (RR) were derived from a total of 39 publications, representing 50 experiments (46 field and 4 laboratory) and 15 countries. The SOC concentrations and stocks increased by approximately 10% following crop residue incorporation. In contrast, CO2 emissions were approximately six times and N2O emissions 12 times higher following crop residue incorporation. The effect of ENZ on the response ratios was not significant. For SOC concentration, the >35% clay content had significantly approximately 8% higher response ratios compared to 18-35% clay content. As the duration of the

  13. Comparison of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls residues in vegetables, grain and soil from organic and conventional farming in Poland.

    PubMed

    Witczak, Agata; Abdel-Gawad, Hassan

    2012-01-01

    Organic and conventional crops were studied by identifying the relationship between persistent organic pollutants in cereals, vegetables and soil. The residues of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in grains (rye and wheat), vegetables (carrots and beets) and soil collected from the fields. PCB residues recorded in the beets from organic farming were as high as 3.71 ppb dry weight (dry wt.), while in the soil from conventional farming of beets 0.53 ppb dry wt. Among vegetables, higher concentrations of pesticides were detected in organically grown beets (190.63 ppb dry wt.). Soil samples from the organic farming contained lower levels of organochlorine pesticide residues compared to the conventional farming. Taking into account toxicity equivalent (TEQ), the conventionally grown carrots accumulated the most toxic PCBs. Non-ortho and mono-ortho PCBs were also noted in the grain of conventionally grown rye and amounted to 3.05 pg-TEQ/g wet wt. PMID:22428896

  14. Comparison of the Organic Composition of Cometary Samples with Residues Formed from the UV Irradiation of Astrophysical Ice Analogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuevo, M.; Cody, G.; Kilcoyne, D.; Milam, S. N.; Sandford, S.

    2009-12-01

    We present C-, N-, and O-XANES (X-ray Absorption Near-Edge Spectroscopy) results of organic residues produced in the laboratory from the UV irradiation of astrophysical ice mixture analogs containing H2O, CO, CH3OH, NH3, and/or naphthalene (C10H8), and/or hexane (C6H14), in order to mimic processes that may occur in cold icy bodies of the outer Solar System, particularly comets. Such analyses showed that laboratory-formed organic residues mainly consist of a solid phase and an oily phase. C-XANES analysis of the solid phase suggests a rich distribution of organic functionalities, among which carbonyl, C=C, and alcohols, whereas N-XANES spectra indicate the possible presence of amide, amine, and nitrile groups. O-XANES spectra confirmed the O-bearing groups. These results are compared with the XANES spectra obtained from cometary samples.

  15. Effect of water content and organic carbon on remote sensing of crop residue cover

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crop residue cover is an important indicator of tillage method. Remote sensing of crop residue cover is an attractive and efficient method when compared with traditional ground-based methods, e.g., the line-point transect or windshield survey. A number of spectral indices have been devised for res...

  16. Organic amendments for risk mitigation of organochlorine pesticide residues in old orchard soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Performance of compost and biochar amendments for in situ risk mitigation of aged DDT, DDE and dieldrin residues in an old orchard soil was examined. The change in bioavailability of pesticide residues relative to an unamended control soil was assessed using Lumbricus terrestris in 4-L soil microcos...

  17. Positive feedback of crop residue incorporation on dissolved organic carbon contents under anaerobic conditions in temperate rice paddy soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Said-Pullicino, Daniel; Sodano, Marcella; Bertora, Chiara; Lerda, Cristina; Sacco, Dario; Celi, Luisella

    2016-04-01

    Rice paddy soils are generally characterized by large concentrations and fluxes of DOC in comparison to other ecosystems. Our recent studies have shown that the combination of relatively high pore-water DOC concentrations under anoxic soil conditions (>10-20 mg C l‑1) and important percolation fluxes of water during field flooding may contribute significant organic C inputs into the subsoil (18-51 g C m‑2) over the cropping season. Crop residues incorporated into the soil after harvest represent the main input of organic C into paddy soils, returning about 200-300 g C m‑2 y‑1 in single-cropped rice paddies. The anaerobic decomposition of these residues may supply important amounts of DOC to soil pore waters. Moreover, the supply of electron donors with the input of residue-derived labile OM may further increase DOC contents by stimulating the microbially-catalyzed reductive dissolution of Fe and Mn oxyhydroxides under anoxic conditions, and release of DOC previously stabilized on the mineral matrix (i.e. positive feedback). This could have important implications on organic C inputs into the subsoil as well as substrate availability for methane production. We therefore hypothesized that crop residue management practices that influence the amount of labile organic matter present in the soil at the time of field flooding may strongly influence soil solution DOC concentrations as well as the positive feedback on the release of soil-derived DOC. We tested this hypothesis at field-scale by evaluating variations in the contents and quality of DOC above and beneath the plough pan over the cropping season as a function of crop residue management practices involving: tillage and crop residue incorporation in spring (SPR), tillage and crop residue incorporation in spring, dry seeding and 1 month delayed flooding (DRY), tillage and crop residue incorporation in autumn (AUT), and straw removal after harvest and tillage in spring (REM). Moreover, we linked changes in DOC

  18. Impact of forest harvesting on water quality and fluorescence characteristics of dissolved organic matter in eastern Canadian Boreal Shield lakes in summer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glaz, P.; Gagné, J.-P.; Archambault, P.; Sirois, P.; Nozais, C.

    2015-12-01

    Forestry activities in the Canadian Boreal region have increased in the last decades, raising concerns about their potential impact on aquatic ecosystems. Water quality and fluorescence characteristics of dissolved organic matter (DOM) were measured over a 3-year period in eight eastern Boreal Shield lakes: four lakes were studied before, 1 and 2 years after forest harvesting (perturbed lakes) and compared with four undisturbed reference lakes (unperturbed lakes) sampled at the same time. ANOVAs showed a significant increase in total phosphorus (TP) in perturbed lakes when the three sampling dates were considered and in DOC concentrations when considering 1 year before and 1 year after the perturbation only. At 1 year post-clear cutting DOC concentrations were about 15 % greater in the perturbed lakes at ~ 15 mgC L-1 compared to 12.5 mgC L-1 in the unperturbed lakes. In contrast, absorbance and fluorescence measurements showed that all metrics remained within narrow ranges compared to the range observed in natural waters, indicating that forest harvesting did not affect the nature of DOM characterized with spectroscopic techniques. These results confirm an impact of forestry activities 1 year after the perturbation. However, this effect seems to be mitigated 2 years after, indicating that the system shows high resilience and may be able to return to its original condition in terms of water quality parameters assessed in this study.

  19. ParticipACTION: Baseline assessment of the capacity available to the 'New ParticipACTION': A qualitative study of Canadian organizations

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Evaluation of the original ParticipACTION campaign effects focused on individual awareness, recall, and understanding. Less studied has been the impact such campaigns have had on the broader organizational capacity to mobilize and advocate for physical activity. With the relaunch of ParticipACTION, the purpose of this study was to qualitatively explore baseline organizational capacity to promote physical activity messages, programs, and services within the Canadian context. Methods Using a purposeful sampling strategy, we conducted semi-structured telephone interviews with 49 key informants representing a range of national, provincial, and local organizations with a mandate to promote physical activity. Interview data were analysed using a thematic analytic approach. Results Key informants painted a generally positive picture of current organizational capacity to promote physical activity messages, programs, and services in Canada. Will and leadership were clear strengths while infrastructure limitations remained the greatest concern. Some specific challenges included: 1) funding issues: the absence of core funding in a climate of shifting funding priorities; 2) the difficulty of working without a national physical activity policy (lack of leadership); 3) inconsistent provincial and educational sector level policies; and 4) a persistent focus on obesity rather than physical inactivity. Conclusion The data generated here can be utilized to monitor the future impact of ParticipACTION on enhancing and utilizing this organizational capacity. A range of indicators are suggested that could be used to illustrate ParticipACTION's impact on the broad field of physical activity promotion in the future. PMID:19995458

  20. Metagenomes from thawing low-soil-organic-carbon mineral cryosols and permafrost of the canadian high arctic.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Archana; Layton, Alice C; Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana A; Williams, Daniel; Pfiffner, Susan M; Rekepalli, Bhanu; Stackhouse, Brandon; Lau, Maggie C Y; Phelps, Tommy J; Mykytczuk, Nadia; Ronholm, Jennifer; Whyte, Lyle; Onstott, Tullis C; Sayler, Gary S

    2014-01-01

    Microbial release of greenhouse gases from thawing permafrost is a global concern. Seventy-six metagenomes were generated from low-soil-organic-carbon mineral cryosols from Axel Heiberg Island, Nunavut, Canada, during a controlled thawing experiment. Permafrost thawing resulted in an increase in anaerobic fermenters and sulfate-reducing bacteria but not methanogens. PMID:25414511

  1. Residual organic matter and microbial respiration in bottom ash: Effects on metal leaching and eco-toxicity.

    PubMed

    Ilyas, A; Persson, K M; Persson, M

    2015-09-01

    A common assumption regarding the residual organic matter, in bottom ash, is that it does not represent a significant pool of organic carbon and, beyond metal-ion complexation process, it is of little consequence to evolution of ash/leachate chemistry. This article evaluates the effect of residual organic matter and associated microbial respiratory processes on leaching of toxic metals (i.e. arsenic, copper, chromium, molybdenum, nickel, lead, antimony and zinc), eco-toxicity of ash leachates. Microbial respiration was quantified with help of a respirometric test equipment OXITOP control system. The effect of microbial respiration on metal/residual organic matter leaching and eco-toxicity was quantified with the help of batch leaching tests and an eco-toxicity assay - Daphnia magna. In general, the microbial respiration process decreased the leachate pH and eco-toxicity, indicating modification of bioavailability of metal species. Furthermore, the leaching of critical metals, such as copper and chromium, decreased after the respiration in both ash types (fresh and weathered). It was concluded that microbial respiration, if harnessed properly, could enhance the stability of fresh bottom ash and may promote its reuse. PMID:25999368

  2. Arsenic and lead residues in carrots from foliar applications of monosodium methanearsonate (MSMA): A comparison between mineral and organic soils, or from soil residues.

    PubMed

    Zandstra, B H; De Kryger, T A

    2007-01-01

    Carrot roots may absorb arsenic residues when grown in soil that has been treated previously with arsenical pesticides. Arsenic residues in crops also may result from the inappropriate application of post-emergence arsenical herbicides. To compare potential sources of arsenic residues, carrots were planted in mineral or organic soil and treated post-emergence with the herbicide monosodium methanearsonate (MSMA) at 0, 0.56, 1.12, 2.24, 4.48, or 8.96 kg ha(-1). Arsenic concentration in all plant parts declined between 30 days before harvest and harvest. Arsenic concentration in peeled carrot roots ranged from less than the limit of detection (LOD) for untreated carrots to 0.963 mg kg(-1) (fresh weight) at harvest for carrots treated with 8.96 kg ha(-1) MSMA. In another study, carrots were grown in a greenhouse in soil collected from an old orchard site that had been sprayed with lead arsenate for many years. The old orchard site soil had an arsenic level of 110 mg kg(-1), and similar non-orchard soil had an arsenic level of 1.97 mg kg(-1). All carrot plant segments from plants grown in old orchard soil had higher arsenic concentrations than those from non-orchard soil. Peeled carrot roots from non-orchard soil contained 0.034 mg kg(-1) arsenic, while the peeled roots from old orchard soil had 0.135 mg kg(-1). Old orchard soil had a lead level of 496 mg kg(-1), compared with 6.52 mg kg(-1) for non-orchard soil. Peeled carrot roots from old orchard soil contained 0.885 mg kg(-1) lead, and peeled roots from non-orchard soil contained 0.147 mg kg(-1) lead. PMID:17164215

  3. Analysis of organic refractory residues coming from the heating of cometary ice analogs: an insight in complex cometary chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danger, Grégoire; Abou Mrad, Ninette; Fresnau, Aurelien; Duvernay, Fabrice; Chiavassa, Thierry

    2015-04-01

    This contribution focuses on one aspect of our work, which relate to the analysis of refractory residues formed from UV irradiation and warming of astrophysical ice analogs, the RAHIIA project. The understanding of the formation of refractory residues, commonly called "Yellow Stuff" is an important step to establish what kind of organic matter could be available within interplanetary objects such as comets or asteroids. We present here the first results obtained by spectrometric analysis with high resolution mass spectroscopy (LT-Orbitrap) of these residues. These analyzes show that these residues are composed of thousands of molecules of high molecular weight (m / z> 4000), and present an average elemental composition H/C= 1.6, N/C= 0.4, O/C= 0.4 for an initial ice containing H2O:CH3OH:NH3 3:1:1. We further develop specific data representation in order to obtain information on the residue composition. These representations allow to define that three different groups of molecules are present in these residues, molecules bearing only CHN, CHO or CHNO atoms. These representations also give important information on the family composition of each molecular group. All these developments will be used for the comparison of various residues as well as for the development of more specific analytical methods such as UHPLC-MS or GC-MS. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that from only three simple molecules CH3OH, H2O and NH3, a complex chemistry occurs when these molecules are subjected to physical processes available in cometary environments.

  4. 40 CFR Appendix Viii to Part 266 - Organic Compounds for Which Residues Must Be Analyzed

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... SPECIFIC TYPES OF HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Pt. 266, App. VIII Appendix VIII to Part 266... residues collected from areas downstream of the combustion chamber (e.g., ductwork, boiler tubes,...

  5. [Determination of organic phosphorus pesticide residues in scallion by gas chromatography coupled with microwave clean-up].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jun; Li, An; Li, Haiyan; Tong, Kexing; Zhou, Lili; Zhou, Huimin; Zhao, Tong

    2007-05-01

    A method for the determination of organic phosphorus pesticide residues is described. It covers 25 residues in scallion including dichlorvos, ethoprophos, phorate, diazinon, disulfoton, dimethoate, pirimiphos-methyl, chlorpyrifos, malathion, fenitrothion, parathion, chlorfenvinphos, ethion, EPN, dyfonate, chlorpyrifos-methyl, parathion-methyl, fenthion, quinalphos, gardona, methidathion, carbophenothion, phosmet, phosalone, and coumaphos. After the scallion samples were heated for 30 s in microwave oven, the residues were extracted with acetonitrile, and then the organic phase was salted out from the matrix. As a result, most of the interfering impurities were abolished in the heating process. In this study, these pesticides were categorized into two groups for analysis. The gas chromatographic analysis was performed on a capillary column (DB-1701, 30 m x 0.25 mm x 0.25 microm) and determined with a flame photometric detector. Linear correlation coefficients of the 25 organic phosphorus pesticides were not lower than 0.991 0 and the linear ranges for most of the compounds were between 0.1 to 5.0 mg/L. The detection limits were between 0.025 and 0.200 mg/L. In recovery study, average recoveries ranged from 85.2% to 119.6% at the fortification levels of 0.05, 0.2 and 0.5 mg/kg and the relative standard deviations were in the range of 2.1% and 14.8%. The method is a simple, rapid and highly efficient one to determine organic phosphorus pesticide residues in scallion. PMID:17679438

  6. Multi-residue analysis of organic pollutants in hair and urine for matrices comparison.

    PubMed

    Hardy, Emilie M; Duca, Radu C; Salquebre, Guillaume; Appenzeller, Brice M R

    2015-04-01

    Urine being currently the most classically used matrix for the assessment of human exposure to pesticides, a growing interest is yet observed in hair analysis for the detection of organic pollutants. The aim of the present work was to develop and to validate multi-residue analytical methods, as similar as possible, in order to determine pesticides and their metabolites in these two biological matrices despite their different nature. The list of parent compounds and their metabolites investigated here consisted of 56 compounds, including organochlorines, organophosphates, pyrethroids, carbamates, other pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Two different approaches were necessary for the analysis of non-polar compounds (mainly parents) on one hand and polar analytes (mainly metabolites) on the other hand. In the final procedure, extraction from hair was carried out with acetonitrile/water after sample decontamination and pulverization. Extract was split into two fractions, which were analyzed directly with solid phase microextraction (SPME) injection for non-polar compounds and after derivatization with liquid injection for polar compounds. In urine, non-polar compounds were analyzed directly using SPME. Polar compounds were analyzed after acidic hydrolysis, liquid-liquid extraction with acetonitrile-cyclohexane-ethyl acetate, derivatization and liquid injection. Analysis was performed with gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry operating in negative chemical ionization (GC-MS/MS-NCI) for all the compounds (non-polar and polar) in the two matrices. In hair, limits of quantification (LOQ) ranged from 0.02 pg/mg for trifluralin to 5.5 pg/mg for diethylphosphate. In urine, LOQ ranged from 0.4 pg/mL for α-endosulfan to 4 ng/mL for dimethyldithiophosphate. The analysis of samples supplemented with standards and samples collected from an animal previously submitted to chronic exposure to pesticides confirmed that all the compounds were analyzable in both

  7. Establishing a universal swabbing and clean-up protocol for the combined recovery of organic and inorganic explosive residues.

    PubMed

    Song-im, Nopporn; Benson, Sarah; Lennard, Chris

    2012-11-30

    A single-step solvent extraction and a solid-phase extraction (SPE) clean-up procedure was developed and optimised in order to establish a universal sampling and clean-up protocol for the combined recovery of organic and inorganic explosive residues. Mixtures of three common swabbing solvents (acetone, acetonitrile and methanol) with water, in various ratios, were assessed for the extraction of four target organic explosives [pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) and triacetone triperoxide (TATP)] and two inorganic anions (chlorate and nitrate) from alcohol wipes that were used as a swabbing medium. An efficient, single-step extraction of both organic and inorganic compounds from the wipes was achieved using 60% v/v methanol/water. To develop a clean-up procedure, four commercially available SPE cartridges (Oasis HLB, Isolute(®) C18, Bond-Elut(®) ENV and ABS ELUT Nexus) and an in-house packed XAD-7 cartridge were firstly evaluated for their retention capacity toward three organic explosives (PETN, TNT and RDX) in a mixture of methanol and water. A SPE technique was then developed and optimised from the short-listed sorbents with four representative organic explosives (including TATP). The Nexus cartridge was found to provide a suitable sorbent for extract clean-up following swab extraction with 60% v/v methanol/water. By incorporating the optimised clean-up procedure with the application of a polyester-based alcohol wipe as a sampling medium, a universal swabbing protocol for the combined recovery of both organic and inorganic explosive residues was established. The feasibility of the proposed protocol was assessed by collection and quantitation of the residue from a mixture of TNT, PETN and chlorate deposited on a laminate test surface. PMID:22959657

  8. Simultaneous recovery of organic and inorganic content of paper deinking residue through low-temperature microwave-assisted pyrolysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhanrong; Macquarrie, Duncan J; Aguiar, Pedro M; Clark, James H; Matharu, Avtar S

    2015-02-17

    Significant amounts of paper deinking residue (DIR) has been and is still being generated from paper deinking processes, representing both an economic and environmental burden for recycled paper mills. Our research on low-temperature (<200 °C) microwave-assisted (MW-assisted) pyrolysis of DIR allows for simultaneously efficient fast separation and recovery of the organic and inorganic content of DIR at relatively low temperature and within 15 min. Our study is the first highly detailed account of the use low-temperature MW-assisted pyrolysis to effect this change. The obtained liquid and solid products were characterized by a variety of analytical techniques (e.g., attenuated total reflection infrared, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, liquid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), X-ray diffraction, solid-state cross-polarization/magic-angle spinning (13)C NMR, and Bloch-decay (13)C NMR). The results reveal that the process efficiently separates the inorganic minerals as microwave residue (mainly calcite and kaolinite) from organic matter, and hence the microwave residue could be reused to produce new paper/cardboard products. The organic fraction bio-oil generated is energy-densified and rich in carbohydrates and is a potential source for valuable aromatic compounds. PMID:25590264

  9. Effect of residual gases in high vacuum on the energy-level alignment at noble metal/organic interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Helander, M. G.; Wang, Z. B.; Lu, Z. H.

    2011-10-31

    The energy-level alignment at metal/organic interfaces has traditionally been studied using ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) in ultra-high vacuum (UHV). However, since most devices are fabricated in high vacuum (HV), these studies do not accurately reflect the interfaces in real devices. We demonstrate, using UPS measurements of samples prepared in HV and UHV and current-voltage measurements of devices prepared in HV, that the small amounts of residual gases that are adsorbed on the surface of clean Cu, Ag, and Au (i.e., the noble metals) in HV can significantly alter the energy-level alignment at metal/organic interfaces.

  10. Effect of endomycorrhizae on the bioavailability of bound sup 14 C residues to onion plants from an organic soil treated with ( sup 14 C)fonofos

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, S.D.; Khan, S.U. )

    1990-03-01

    Uptake of bound {sup 14}C residues from an organic soil treated with radiolabeled fonofos (O-ethyl S-phenyl ethylphosphonodithioate) by selected Glomus endomycorrhiza and onion roots was studied. The hyphae of endomycorrhizal associations were capable of removing {sup 14}C residues from the soil and transporting them to onion plants. Bioavailability of soil-bound {sup 14}C residues, as measured by {sup 14}C residue content in onion, was increased 32 and 40% over that of nonmycorrhizal plants by hyphae of Glomus intraradices and Glomus vesiculiferium, respectively. The data suggest that under field conditions endomycorrhizal infection may greatly increase the bioavailability of soil-bound pesticide residues to plants.

  11. Urea, glycolic acid, and glycerol in an organic residue produced by ultraviolet irradiation of interstellar/pre-cometary ice analogs.

    PubMed

    Nuevo, Michel; Bredehöft, Jan Hendrik; Meierhenrich, Uwe J; d'Hendecourt, Louis; Thiemann, Wolfram H-P

    2010-03-01

    More than 50 stable organic molecules have been detected in the interstellar medium (ISM), from ground-based and onboard-satellite astronomical observations, in the gas and solid phases. Some of these organics may be prebiotic compounds that were delivered to early Earth by comets and meteorites and may have triggered the first chemical reactions involved in the origin of life. Ultraviolet irradiation of ices simulating photoprocesses of cold solid matter in astrophysical environments have shown that photochemistry can lead to the formation of amino acids and related compounds. In this work, we experimentally searched for other organic molecules of prebiotic interest, namely, oxidized acid labile compounds. In a setup that simulates conditions relevant to the ISM and Solar System icy bodies such as comets, a condensed CH(3)OH:NH(3) = 1:1 ice mixture was UV irradiated at approximately 80 K. The molecular constituents of the nonvolatile organic residue that remained at room temperature were separated by capillary gas chromatography and identified by mass spectrometry. Urea, glycolic acid, and glycerol were detected in this residue, as well as hydroxyacetamide, glycerolic acid, and glycerol amide. These organics are interesting target molecules to be searched for in space. Finally, tentative mechanisms of formation for these compounds under interstellar/pre-cometary conditions are proposed. PMID:20402585

  12. Canadian Chronology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacFarlane, John

    1987-01-01

    Provides a chronology of some of the nationally and regionally significant events which relate to the development of interpretive programs in Canada from 1789 through 1985. Includes the establishment of facilities, creation of organizations, important legislation, and honors to individuals and groups. (TW)

  13. Evidence for the enhanced lability of dissolved organic matter following permafrost slope disturbance in the Canadian High Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods, Gwen C.; Simpson, Myrna J.; Pautler, Brent G.; Lamoureux, Scott F.; Lafrenière, Melissa J.; Simpson, André J.

    2011-11-01

    Arctic landscapes are believed to be highly sensitive to climate change and accelerated disturbance of permafrost is expected to significantly impact the rate of carbon cycling. While half the global soil organic matter (SOM) is estimated to reside in Arctic soils, projected warmer temperatures and permafrost disturbance will release much of this SOM into waterways in the form of dissolved organic matter (DOM). The spring thaw and subsequent flushing of soils releases the highest contributions of DOM annually but has historically been undersampled due to the difficulties of sampling during this period. In this study, passive samplers were placed throughout paired High Arctic watersheds during the duration of the 2008 spring flush in Nunavut, Canada. The watersheds are very similar with the exception of widespread active layer detachments (ALDs) that occurred within one of the catchments during a period of elevated temperatures in the summer of 2007. DOM samples were analyzed for structural and spectral characteristics via nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and fluorescence spectroscopy as well as vulnerability to degradation with simulated solar exposure. Lignin-derived phenols were further assessed utilizing copper(II) oxide (CuO) oxidation and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The samples were found to have very low dissolved lignin phenol content (˜0.07% of DOC) and appear to originate from primarily non-woody angiosperm vegetation. The acid/aldehyde ratios for dissolved vanillyl phenols were found to be high (up to 3.6), indicating the presence of highly oxidized lignin. Differences between DOM released from the ALD vs. the undisturbed watershed suggest that these shallow detachment slides have significantly impacted the quality of Arctic DOM. Although material released from the disturbed catchment was found to be highly oxidized, DOM in the lake into which this catchment drained had chemical characteristics indicating high contributions from

  14. Does accreditation stimulate change? A study of the impact of the accreditation process on Canadian healthcare organizations

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background One way to improve quality and safety in healthcare organizations (HCOs) is through accreditation. Accreditation is a rigorous external evaluation process that comprises self-assessment against a given set of standards, an on-site survey followed by a report with or without recommendations, and the award or refusal of accreditation status. This study evaluates how the accreditation process helps introduce organizational changes that enhance the quality and safety of care. Methods We used an embedded multiple case study design to explore organizational characteristics and identify changes linked to the accreditation process. We employed a theoretical framework to analyze various elements and for each case, we interviewed top managers, conducted focus groups with staff directly involved in the accreditation process, and analyzed self-assessment reports, accreditation reports and other case-related documents. Results The context in which accreditation took place, including the organizational context, influenced the type of change dynamics that occurred in HCOs. Furthermore, while accreditation itself was not necessarily the element that initiated change, the accreditation process was a highly effective tool for (i) accelerating integration and stimulating a spirit of cooperation in newly merged HCOs; (ii) helping to introduce continuous quality improvement programs to newly accredited or not-yet-accredited organizations; (iii) creating new leadership for quality improvement initiatives; (iv) increasing social capital by giving staff the opportunity to develop relationships; and (v) fostering links between HCOs and other stakeholders. The study also found that HCOs' motivation to introduce accreditation-related changes dwindled over time. Conclusions We conclude that the accreditation process is an effective leitmotiv for the introduction of change but is nonetheless subject to a learning cycle and a learning curve. Institutions invest greatly to conform to

  15. XANES analysis of organic residues formed from the UV irradiation of astrophysical ice analogs and comparison with Stardust samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuevo, Michel; Milam, Stefanie; Sandford, Scott; Cody, George; Kilcoyne, David; de Gregorio, Bradley; Stroud, Rhonda

    The NASA Stardust mission successfully collected authentic cometary grains from Comet 81P/Wild 2.1,2 X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) analysis of these samples in-dicates that a number of them contains O-rich and N-rich organic materials, consisting of a broad variety of functional groups: carbonyls, C=C bonds, aliphatic chains, amines, amides, etc.3 One component of these organics contains very little aromatic carbon and resembles the organic residues produced by the irradiation of interstellar/cometary ice analogs. Stardust sam-ples were also recently shown to contain the amino acid glycine.4 Organic residues produced from the UV irradiation of astrophysical ice analogs are already known to contain a large suite of prebiotic molecules including amino acids,5-7 and amphiphilic compounds (fatty acids).8 In this work, residues were produced in the laboratory from the UV irradiation of mixtures of ices containing H2 O, CH3 OH, CO, and NH3 in relative proportions 100:50:1:1 at 7 K. Additional residues were produced from mixtures with no NH3 , and mixtures containing alkanes and/or naphthalene (C10 H8 ). C-, N-, and O-XANES spectra of these residues were measured in order to assess their organic functional group chemistry and overall atomic composition, as well as their C/N/O ratios. The first results indicate the presence of a number of chemical bonds and functions, namely, carbonyls, C=C bonds, alcohols, amides, amines, and nitrile groups, whose relative proportions are compared with XANES measurements of Stardust samples.9 References: 1. Brownlee, D. E., et al., Science, 314, 1711 (2006). 2. Sandford, S. A., et al., Science, 314, 1720 (2006). 3. Cody, G. D., et al., Meteoritics & Planet. Sci., 43, 353 (2008). 4. Elsila, J. E., et al., Meteoritics & Planet. Sci., 44, 1323 (2009). 5. Bernstein, M. P., et al., Nature, 416, 401 (2002). 6. Muñoz Caro, G. M., et al., Nature, 416, 403 (2002). n 7. Nuevo, M., et al., Orig. Life Evol. Biosph., 38, 37 (2008). 8

  16. Chemical Analysis of Organic Residues Found in Hellenistic Time Amphorae from SE Bulgaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zlateva, B.; Rangelov, M.

    2015-05-01

    We have used IR spectroscopy, 1H NMR spectroscopy, high-performance liquid chromatography and thin-layer chromatography to study the composition of resin residues found in 22 amphorae from Apollonia Pontika (SE Bulgaria). In particular this analysis of the resin residues was aimed at discovering the content of the amphorae and to verify the hypothesis on the transport of wine, named "Retsina". Additionally this hypothesis has been confirmed by a similar analysis of the modern resin sample from Aleppo pine (Pinus Halepensis) growing in the Attica region (Greece).

  17. Impact of Next Generation Sequencing on the Organization and Funding of Returning Research Results: Survey of Canadian Research Ethics Boards Members.

    PubMed

    Jaitovich Groisman, Iris; Godard, Beatrice

    2016-01-01

    Research Ethics Boards (REBs) are expected to evaluate protocols planning the use of Next Generation Sequencing technologies (NGS), assuring that any genomic finding will be properly managed. As Canadian REBs play a central role in the disclosure of such results, we deemed it important to examine the views and experience of REB members on the return of aggregated research results, individual research results (IRRs) and incidental findings (IFs) in current genomic research. With this intent, we carried out a web-based survey, which showed that 59.7% of respondents viewed the change from traditional sequencing to NGS as more than a technical substitution, and that 77% of respondents agreed on the importance of returning aggregated research results, the most compelling reasons being the recognition of participants' contribution and increasing the awareness of scientific progress. As for IRRs specifically, 50% of respondents were in favour of conveying such information, even when they only indicated the probability that a condition may develop. Current regulations and risk to participants were considered equally important, and much more than financial costs, when considering the return of IRRs and IFs. Respondents indicated that the financial aspect of offering genetic counseling was the least important matter when assessing it as a requisite. Granting agencies were named as mainly responsible for funding, while the organizing and returning of IRRs and IFs belonged to researchers. However, views in these matters differ according to respondents' experience. Our results draw attention to the need for improved guidance when considering the organizational and financial aspects of returning genetic research results, so as to better fulfill the ethical and moral principles that are to guide such undertakings. PMID:27167380

  18. Impact of Next Generation Sequencing on the Organization and Funding of Returning Research Results: Survey of Canadian Research Ethics Boards Members

    PubMed Central

    Godard, Beatrice

    2016-01-01

    Research Ethics Boards (REBs) are expected to evaluate protocols planning the use of Next Generation Sequencing technologies (NGS), assuring that any genomic finding will be properly managed. As Canadian REBs play a central role in the disclosure of such results, we deemed it important to examine the views and experience of REB members on the return of aggregated research results, individual research results (IRRs) and incidental findings (IFs) in current genomic research. With this intent, we carried out a web-based survey, which showed that 59.7% of respondents viewed the change from traditional sequencing to NGS as more than a technical substitution, and that 77% of respondents agreed on the importance of returning aggregated research results, the most compelling reasons being the recognition of participants’ contribution and increasing the awareness of scientific progress. As for IRRs specifically, 50% of respondents were in favour of conveying such information, even when they only indicated the probability that a condition may develop. Current regulations and risk to participants were considered equally important, and much more than financial costs, when considering the return of IRRs and IFs. Respondents indicated that the financial aspect of offering genetic counseling was the least important matter when assessing it as a requisite. Granting agencies were named as mainly responsible for funding, while the organizing and returning of IRRs and IFs belonged to researchers. However, views in these matters differ according to respondents’ experience. Our results draw attention to the need for improved guidance when considering the organizational and financial aspects of returning genetic research results, so as to better fulfill the ethical and moral principles that are to guide such undertakings. PMID:27167380

  19. Soil organic carbon and water content effects on remote crop residue cover estimation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conservation tillage (CT) systems help protect the soil and environment, and improve net farm profitability. CT methods leave increased amounts of crop residue cover (CRC) on the soil surface, minimizing soil erosion and evaporation. CT uses less fuel, disturbs soil less, and requires less fertili...

  20. The impact of corn residue removal on soil aggregates and particulate organic matter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Removal of corn stover as a biofuel feedstock is being considered. It is important to understand the implications of this practice when establishing removal guidelines to ensure the long-term sustainability of both the biofuel industry and soil health. Above- and below-ground plant residues are th...

  1. Corn residue removal impact on soil aggregate distribution and particulate organic matter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many questions have surfaced regarding short and long term impacts of corn residue removal for use in the biofuels industry. To address these concerns, a field study was established in eastern South Dakota in 2000 using no-till soil management within a two-year corn (Zea mays L.)/soybean [Glycine m...

  2. Land application of organic residuals: Public health threat or environmental benefit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Waste residuals consist of manure and biosolids produced by concentrated animal feeding operations and municipal waste water treatment plants. All wastes need to be disposed of in a proper manner, protecting public and environmental health, but also in a sustainable fashion to ensure that no system...

  3. Mirex residues in nontarget organisms after application of experimental baits for fire ant control, southwest Georgia--1971-72.

    PubMed

    Wojcik, D P; Banks, W A; Wheeler, W B; Jouvenaz, D P; Van Middelem, C H; Lofgren, C S

    1975-12-01

    Mirex, the only compound approved for control of the red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta) and the black imported fire ant (Solenopsis richteri), is normally applied at a rate of 1.40 kg/ha. (1.25 lb/acre). Influenced by recent studies showing that low levels of mirex are toxic to certain nontarget organisms, particularly estuarine species, authors report here on a monitoring study of mirex in three large treatment areas of southwest Georgia. Four formulations of bait were applied aerially in 1971-72. Low-level residues were observed in small terrestrial vertebrates and invertebrates and in fresh-water inhabitants. Levels detected were about the same for all baits. Maximum residues were detected 1-3 months after treatment and gradually declined to low levels of 0.02-1.16 ppm 1 year after treatment. PMID:1221350

  4. Boreal forest fire emissions in fresh Canadian smoke plumes: C1-C10 volatile organic compounds (VOCs), CO2, CO, NO2, NO, HCN and CH3CN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, I. J.; Akagi, S. K.; Barletta, B.; Blake, N. J.; Choi, Y.; Diskin, G. S.; Fried, A.; Fuelberg, H. E.; Meinardi, S.; Rowland, F. S.; Vay, S. A.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Wennberg, P. O.; Wiebring, P.; Wisthaler, A.; Yang, M.; Yokelson, R. J.; Blake, D. R.

    2011-07-01

    Boreal regions comprise about 17 % of the global land area, and they both affect and are influenced by climate change. To better understand boreal forest fire emissions and plume evolution, 947 whole air samples were collected aboard the NASA DC-8 research aircraft in summer 2008 as part of the ARCTAS-B field mission, and analyzed for 79 non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) using gas chromatography. Together with simultaneous measurements of CO2, CO, CH4, CH2O, NO2, NO, HCN and CH3CN, these measurements represent the most comprehensive assessment of trace gas emissions from boreal forest fires to date. Based on 105 air samples collected in fresh Canadian smoke plumes, 57 of the 80 measured NMVOCs (including CH2O) were emitted from the fires, including 45 species that were quantified from boreal forest fires for the first time. After CO2, CO and CH4, the largest emission factors (EFs) for individual species were formaldehyde (2.1 ± 0.2 g kg-1), followed by methanol, NO2, HCN, ethene, α-pinene, β-pinene, ethane, benzene, propene, acetone and CH3CN. Globally, we estimate that boreal forest fires release 2.4 ± 0.6 Tg C yr-1 in the form of NMVOCs, with approximately 41 % of the carbon released as C1-C2 NMVOCs and 21 % as pinenes. These are the first reported field measurements of monoterpene emissions from boreal forest fires, and we speculate that the pinenes, which are relatively heavy molecules, were detected in the fire plumes as the result of distillation of stored terpenes as the vegetation is heated. Their inclusion in smoke chemistry models is expected to improve model predictions of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. The fire-averaged EF of dichloromethane or CH2Cl2, (6.9 ± 8.6) × 10-4 g kg-1, was not significantly different from zero and supports recent findings that its global biomass burning source appears to have been overestimated. Similarly, we found no evidence for emissions of chloroform (CHCl3) or methyl chloroform (CH3CCl3

  5. Characterization of volatile organic gunshot residues in fired handgun cartridges by headspace sorptive extraction.

    PubMed

    Gallidabino, Matteo; Romolo, Francesco S; Weyermann, Celine

    2015-09-01

    In forensic investigation of firearm-related cases, determination of the residual amount of volatile compounds remaining inside a cartridge could be useful in estimating the time since its discharge. Published approaches are based on following the decrease of selected target compounds as a function of time by using solid phase micro-extraction (SPME). Naphthalene as well as an unidentified decomposition product of nitrocellulose (referred to as "TEA2") are usually employed for this purpose. However, reliability can be brought into question given their high volatility and low reproducibility of the extracted procedure. In order to identify alternatives and therefore develop improved dating methods, an extensive study on the composition and variability of volatile residues in nine different types of cartridges was carried out. Analysis was performed using headspace sorptive extraction (HSSE), which is a more exhaustive technique compared to SPME. One hundred sixty six compounds were identified (several of which for the first time), and it was observed that the final compositional characteristics of each residue were strongly dependent on its source. Variability of single identified compounds within and between different types of cartridge as well as their evolution over time were also studied. Many explosion products containing up to four aromatic rings were found to be globally present in high proportions. Twenty-seven of them (excluding naphthalene) also presented detectable decreases during the first 24 h. Therefore, they could be used as complementary target analytes in future dating methods. PMID:26168966

  6. Boost the electron mobility of solution-grown organic single crystals via reducing the amount of polar solvent residues

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Xue, Guobiao; Xin, Huolin L.; Wu, Jiake; Fan, Congcheng; Liu, Shuang; Huang, Zhuoting; Liu, Yujing; Shan, Bowen; Miao, Qian; Chen, Hongzheng; et al

    2015-10-29

    Enhancing electron transport to match with the development in hole transport is critical for organic electronics in the future. As electron motion is susceptible to extrinsic factors, seeking these factors and avoiding their negative effects have become the central challenge. Here, the existence of polar solvent residues in solution-grown single-crystals of 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl)-5,7,12,14-tetraazapentacene is identified as a factor detrimental to electron motion. Field-effect transistors of the crystals exhibit electron mobility boosted by about 60% after the residues are removed. The average electron mobility reaches up to 8.0 ± 2.2 cm2 V–1 s–1 with a highest value of 13.3 cm2 V–1 s–1;more » these results are significantly higher than those obtained previously for the same molecule (1.0–5.0 cm2 V–1 s–1). Furthermore, the achieved mobility is also higher than the maximum reported electron mobility for organic materials (11 cm2 V–1 s–1). As a result, this work should greatly accelerate the advancement of organic electron-transporting materials.« less

  7. Nutrition potential of biogas residues as organic fertilizer regarding the speciation and leachability of inorganic metal elements.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Neng-min; Luo, Tao; Guo, Xu-jing; Zhang, Hui; Deng, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Biogas residues (BRs) are prospective organic fertilizer sources for agricultural cultivation. Besides N and P, however, other inorganic metal elements, such as K, Fe, Cu, Zn and so on, also affect the nutritional level of BRs significantly. In this study, a sequential extraction procedure (SEP) combined with a toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) was conducted to investigate the speciation and leachability of metal components in BRs. The results showed that element K was the most effective nutrient component due to its largest available fraction and highest mobility factor (MF) of 78.4, whereas phytotoxic Al was the most stable and inert element in terms of its 96.68% residual fraction. Ca and Mg could be viewed as potential nutrient sources because their MFs exceeded 60. TCLP results revealed that these BRs could be classed as non-toxic organic waste but Cu and Zn should be paid more attention in that their total contents were beyond the permissible values. Meanwhile, more concerns should be given to Ni and Pb due to their large TCLP extractable fraction. In conclusion, these BRs can be used as a prospective nutrient pool for agricultural cultivation. SEP combined with TCLP can be effectively applied for assessing the nutrient level of the BRs as organic fertilizer for agricultural use. PMID:25285561

  8. Emissions of nonmethane volatile organic compounds from open crop residue burning in the Yangtze River Delta region, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudo, Shinji; Tanimoto, Hiroshi; Inomata, Satoshi; Saito, Shinji; Pan, Xiaole; Kanaya, Yugo; Taketani, Fumikazu; Wang, Zifa; Chen, Hongyan; Dong, Huabin; Zhang, Meigen; Yamaji, Kazuyo

    2014-06-01

    Open crop residue burning is one of the major sources of air pollutants including the precursors of photooxidants like ozone and secondary organic aerosol. We made measurements of trace gases including nonmethane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) in a rural area in central East China in June 2010. During the campaign, we identified six biomass burning events in total through the simultaneous enhancement of carbon monoxide and acetonitrile. Four cases represented fresh plumes (<2 h after emission), and two cases represented aged plumes (>3 h after emission), as determined by photochemical age. While we were not able to quantify formic acid, we identified an enhancement of major oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs) as well as low molecular alkanes and alkenes, and aromatic hydrocarbons in these plumes. The observed normalized excess mixing ratios (NEMRs) of OVOCs and alkenes showed dependence on air mass age, even in fresh smoke plumes, supporting the view that these species are rapidly produced and destructed, respectively, during plume evolution. Based on the NEMR data in the fresh plumes, we calculated the emission factors (EFs) of individual NMVOC. The comparison to previous reports suggests that the EFs of formaldehyde and acetic acid have been overestimated, while those of alkenes have been underestimated. Finally, we suggest that open burning of wheat residue in China releases about 0.34 Tg NMVOCs annually. If we applied the same EFs to all crops, the annual NMVOC emissions would be 2.33 Tg. The EFs of speciated NMVOCs can be used to improve the existing inventories.

  9. Polish Post-Secondary Vocational Schools and Canadian Community Colleges: A Comparison Using the School as an Organization and Social Institution as a Conceptual Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Norman L.; Davidson, Barry S.; Pachocinski, Ryszard; Griffith, Kimberly Grantham; Kritsonis, Wiilliam Allan

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study is to compare Polish post-secondary vocational institutions with Canadian community colleges. The research concentrates upon programs in tourism and information technology delivered by the two following Polish schools: "Policealne Studium Zawodowe" (Cracow, Poland), Cracow School of Information Technology; and three Canadian…

  10. Bioconversion of Gibberellin Fermentation Residue into Feed Supplement and Organic Fertilizer Employing Housefly (Musca domestica L.) Assisted by Corynebacterium variabile

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Sen; Xie, Jiufeng; Hu, Nan; Liu, Yixiong; Zhang, Jiner; Ye, Xiaobin; Liu, Ziduo

    2015-01-01

    The accumulation of a considerable quantity of gibberellin fermentation residue (GFR) during gibberellic acid A3 (GA3) production not only results in the waste of many resources, but also poses a potential hazard to the environment, indicating that the safe treatment of GFR has become an urgent issue for GA3 industry. The key to recycle GFR is converting it into an available resource and removing the GA3 residue. To this end, we established a co-bioconversion process in this study using house fly larvae (HFL) and microbes (Corynebacterium variabile) to convert GFR into insect biomass and organic fertilizer. About 85.5% GA3 in the GFR was removed under the following optimized solid-state fermentation conditions: 60% GFR, 40% rice straw powder, pH 8.5 and 6 days at 26°C. A total of 371g housefly larvae meal and 2,064g digested residue were bio-converted from 3,500g raw GFR mixture contaning1, 400g rice straw in the unit of (calculated) dry matter. HFL meal derived from GFR contained 56.4% protein, 21.6% fat, and several essential amino acids, suggesting that it is a potential alternative animal feed protein source. Additionally, the digested GFR could be utilized as an organic fertilizer with a content of 3.2% total nitrogen, 2.0% inorganic phosphorus, 1.3% potassium and 91.5% organic matter. This novel GFR bio-conversion method can mitigate potential environmental pollution and recycle the waste resources. PMID:25992605

  11. Bioconversion of Gibberellin Fermentation Residue into Feed Supplement and Organic Fertilizer Employing Housefly (Musca domestica L.) Assisted by Corynebacterium variabile.

    PubMed

    Yang, Sen; Xie, Jiufeng; Hu, Nan; Liu, Yixiong; Zhang, Jiner; Ye, Xiaobin; Liu, Ziduo

    2015-01-01

    The accumulation of a considerable quantity of gibberellin fermentation residue (GFR) during gibberellic acid A3 (GA3) production not only results in the waste of many resources, but also poses a potential hazard to the environment, indicating that the safe treatment of GFR has become an urgent issue for GA3 industry. The key to recycle GFR is converting it into an available resource and removing the GA3 residue. To this end, we established a co-bioconversion process in this study using house fly larvae (HFL) and microbes (Corynebacterium variabile) to convert GFR into insect biomass and organic fertilizer. About 85.5% GA3 in the GFR was removed under the following optimized solid-state fermentation conditions: 60% GFR, 40% rice straw powder, pH 8.5 and 6 days at 26 °C. A total of 371 g housefly larvae meal and 2,064 g digested residue were bio-converted from 3,500 g raw GFR mixture contaning1, 400 g rice straw in the unit of (calculated) dry matter. HFL meal derived from GFR contained 56.4% protein, 21.6% fat, and several essential amino acids, suggesting that it is a potential alternative animal feed protein source. Additionally, the digested GFR could be utilized as an organic fertilizer with a content of 3.2% total nitrogen, 2.0% inorganic phosphorus, 1.3% potassium and 91.5% organic matter. This novel GFR bio-conversion method can mitigate potential environmental pollution and recycle the waste resources. PMID:25992605

  12. Residues of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides in organically-farmed vegetables.

    PubMed

    Zohair, Azza; Salim, Abou-Bakr; Soyibo, Adeola A; Beck, Angus J

    2006-04-01

    The residues of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in soils from organic farms and their uptake by four varieties of organic-produced potatoes and three varieties of organic carrots from England were investigated. Samples of the soils, crop peels and cores were all Soxhlet-extracted in triplicate, cleaned up by open-column chromatography and analysed by a multi-residue analytical method using gas chromatography with mass selective detection. The concentrations of PAHs, PCBs and OCPs in soils from organic farms ranged from 590+/-43 to 2301+/-146 microg/kg, 3.56+/-0.73 to 9.61+/-1.98 microg/kg and 52.2+/-4.9 to 478+/-111 microg/kg, respectively. Uptake by different crop varieties were 8.42+/-0.93 to 40.1+/-4.9 microg/kg sigmaPAHs, 0.83+/-0.19 to 2.68+/-0.94 microg/kg sigmaPCBs and 8.09+/-0.83 to 133+/-27 microg/kg sigmaOCPs. Residue uptake from soils depended on plant variety; Desiree potato and Nairobi carrot varieties were more susceptible to PAH contamination. Likewise, uptake of PCBs and OCPs depended on potato variety. There were significant positive correlations between the PCB and OCP concentrations (P<0.05) in soils and carrots but no significant correlation was found between the concentrations of any contaminants in soils and potatoes. Peeling carrots and potatoes was found to remove 52-100% of the contaminant residues depending on crop variety and the properties of the contaminants. Soil-crop bioconcentration factors (BCFs) decreased with increasing logK(ow) for PAHs up to about 4.5 and for PCBs up to about 6.5, above which no changes were discernible for either class of contaminants. No relationship was observed between soil-crop BCFs and logK(ow) for OCPs, most likely because their concentrations were low and variable. PMID:16297429

  13. EFFECTS OF RESIDUAL ORGANIC MATTER ON ELEMENTAL ANALYSES BY SPARK SOURCE MASS SPECTROGRAPHY (SSMS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of research to define the effect of organics in SSMS and to evaluate several sample preparation methods for their removal. Samples of known organic content were fabricated by diluting NBS SRM 1633 fly ash (spiked with several trace elements) with a mixtur...

  14. High residue levels and the chemical form of mercury in tissues and organs of seabirds

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, E.Y.; Murakami, Toru; Saeki, Kazutoshi; Tatsukawa, Ryo

    1995-12-31

    Total and organic (methyl) mercury in liver, muscle, kidney and feather of 9 species of seabirds were analyzed to determine the levels and their distribution and to clarify the occurrences of high mercury levels and their detoxification process in seabirds. Total mercury levels in liver showed great variations in intra and interspecies, while organic mercury levels were less variable. As compared with species in relatively low mercury levels, the species which accumulated the high concentration of mercury like black-footed albatross exhibited the different distribution of mercury in the body: in total mercury burden, albatross species contained less than 10% in feather and over 50% in liver, while other species contained over 40% in feather and less than 20% in liver. The order of organic mercury concentrations in tissues were as follows: liver > kidney > muscle in seabirds examined, except oldsquaw. The mean percentage of organic mercury in total was 35%, 66%, and 36% in liver, muscle and kidney, respectively, for all the species. The significant negative correlations were found between organic mercury percentage to total mercury and total mercury concentrations in the liver and muscle of black-footed albatross and in the liver of laysan albatross. Furthermore, in liver, muscle, and kidney of all the species, the percentages of organic mercury had a negative trend with an increase of total mercury concentrations. The results suggest that albatross species may be capable for demethylating organic mercury in the tissues (mainly in liver), and for storing the mercury as immobilizable inorganic form in the liver as substitution for delivering organic mercury to other organs. It is noteworthy that the species with high degree of demethylation showed the lower mercury burdens in feather and slow moulting pattern.

  15. Organic amendments for risk mitigation of organochlorine pesticide residues in old orchard soils

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Centofantia, Tiziana; McConnell, Laura L.; Chaney, Rufus L.; Beyer, W. Nelson; Andradea, Natasha A.; Hapeman, Cathleen J.; Torrents, Alba; Nguyen, Anh; Anderson, Marya O.; Novak, J. M.; Jackson, Dana

    2015-01-01

    Performance of compost and biochar amendments for in situ risk mitigation of aged DDT, DDE and dieldrin residues in an old orchard soil was examined. The change in bioavailability of pesticide residues to Lumbricus terrestris L. relative to the unamended control soil was assessed using 4-L soil microcosms with and without plant cover in a 48-day experiment. The use of aged dairy manure compost and biosolids compost was found to be effective, especially in the planted treatments, at lowering the bioavailability factor (BAF) by 18–39%; however, BAF results for DDT in the unplanted soil treatments were unaffected or increased. The pine chip biochar utilized in this experiment was ineffective at lower the BAF of pesticides in the soil. The US EPA Soil Screening Level approach was used with our measured values. Addition of 10% of the aged dairy manure compost reduced the average hazard quotient values to below 1.0 for DDT + DDE and dieldrin. Results indicate this sustainable approach is appropriate to minimize risks to wildlife in areas of marginal organochlorine pesticide contamination. Application of this remediation approach has potential for use internationally in areas where historical pesticide contamination of soils remains a threat to wildlife populations.

  16. Organic amendments for risk mitigation of organochlorine pesticide residues in old orchard soils.

    PubMed

    Centofanti, Tiziana; McConnell, Laura L; Chaney, Rufus L; Beyer, W Nelson; Andrade, Natasha A; Hapeman, Cathleen J; Torrents, Alba; Nguyen, Anh; Anderson, Marya O; Novak, Jeffrey M; Jackson, Dana

    2016-03-01

    Performance of compost and biochar amendments for in situ risk mitigation of aged DDT, DDE and dieldrin residues in an old orchard soil was examined. The change in bioavailability of pesticide residues to Lumbricus terrestris L. relative to the unamended control soil was assessed using 4-L soil microcosms with and without plant cover in a 48-day experiment. The use of aged dairy manure compost and biosolids compost was found to be effective, especially in the planted treatments, at lowering the bioavailability factor (BAF) by 18-39%; however, BAF results for DDT in the unplanted soil treatments were unaffected or increased. The pine chip biochar utilized in this experiment was ineffective at lower the BAF of pesticides in the soil. The US EPA Soil Screening Level approach was used with our measured values. Addition of 10% of the aged dairy manure compost reduced the average hazard quotient values to below 1.0 for DDT + DDE and dieldrin. Results indicate this sustainable approach is appropriate to minimize risks to wildlife in areas of marginal organochlorine pesticide contamination. Application of this remediation approach has potential for use internationally in areas where historical pesticide contamination of soils remains a threat to wildlife populations. PMID:26716732

  17. UTAB: A COMPUTER DATABASE ON RESIDUES OF XENOBIOTIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS AND HEAVY METALS IN PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    UTAB can be used to estimate the accumulation of chemicals in vegetation and their subsequent movement through the food chain. he UTAB Database contains information concerned with the uptake/accumulation, translocation, adhesion, and biotransformation of both xenobiotic organic c...

  18. PREDICTION OF CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN AQUATIC ORGANISMS FOR A FIELD DISCHARGE SITUATION.

    EPA Science Inventory

    A field study was performed which compared predicted and measured concentrations of chemicals in receiving water organisms from three sampling locations on Five Mile Creek, Birmingham, Al. Two point source discharges, both from coke manufacturing facilities, were included in the ...

  19. [Simultaneous determination of 57 residual volatile organic solvents in honey by headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongming; Ge, Na; Wang, Fei; Li, Jin; Wu, Yanping; Huang, Xuezhe; Cao, Yanzhong

    2012-08-01

    A method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 57 residual volatile organic solvents (including several alkanes, aromatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, ketones, esters and ethers) in honey by headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-GC/MS). The honey sample was dissolved with water in a headspace vial, and the equilibration of the sample in the headspace vessel was achieved at 80 degrees C in 30 min. A DB-624 capillary chromatographic column (60 m x 0.25 mm x 1.40 mm) was used for the separation of 57 volatile organic solvents, and the analysis was performed by GC/MS. The external calibrations were used for the quantification. The linear ranges of the method were 0.005 - 0.2 microg for the alkanes, aromatic hydrocarbons and ethers, 0.05 - 2.0 microg for the esters, 0.5 - 20 microg for the ketones, 2.5 - 100 microg for the alcohols. The correlation coefficients were more than 0.996 for all the volatile organic solvents. The recoveries and the relative standard deviations were from 61.0% to 113.1% and 1.9% to 9.8%, respectively, at the spiked levels of 1.0 - 20 microg/kg for the alkanes, aromatic hydrocarbons and ethers, 10 - 200 microg/kg for the esters, 100 - 2 000 microg/kg for the ketones, 500 - 10 000 microg/kg for the alcohols. The limits of detection were 1.0 microg/kg for the alkanes, aromatic hydrocarbons and ethers, 10 microg/kg for the esters, 100 microg/kg for the ketones, 500 microg/kg for the alcohols. The method is simple, rapid, sensitive and accurate, and can be used for the simultaneous determination of residual volatile organic solvents in honey samples. PMID:23256380

  20. Notable Canadian Children's Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aubrey, Irene E.

    This annotated bibliography dealing with Canadian children's books aims to show the historical development of the literature. Included within the bibliography are: (1) notable Canadian books from the eighteenth century to the modern period, (2) lists of books which were awarded a bronze medal for the years 1947-1975, and (3) a list of fiction for…

  1. Canadian Science Parks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belanger, Charles H.

    1988-01-01

    Only 45 percent of Canadian research is funded and executed by the private sector. Influenced by success stories such as the U.S. Stanford Research Park, Canadians have looked at science parks as a means to diversify their economy and to increase cooperation among government, industry, and universities. (Author/MLW)

  2. Canadian Books for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonough, Irma, Ed.

    The children's books listed and annotated in this book were selected by Canadian children's librarians; they represent the most informative and relevant books in print for children, providing knowledge and understanding of the Canadian environment and cultural milieu. Each entry indicates bibliographic information and availability.…

  3. Small Grain Residue Management Effects on Soil Organic Carbon - A Literature Review

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Impact of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) straw removal from fields on soil organic C (SOC) is a concern. Increased animal populations and potential development of cellulosic ethanol production could increase the removal of straw from fields. This paper focuses on the ...

  4. Fall conservation deep tillage stabilizes maize residues into soil organic matter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Efforts for increasing soil organic matter (SOM) content under agricultural systems have primarily focused on management practices that reduce exposure of SOM to decomposition via minimum tillage. We assess an alternative approach, termed ‘fall conservation deep tillage’ (FCDT), to SOM stabilization...

  5. Linking soil organic carbon and environmental quality through conservation tillage and residue retention

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere during the past few centuries has contributed to a now well-known phenomenon called the greenhouse effect. Soil organic carbon has historically been a source of some of this carbon dioxide, resulting from accelerated decomposition of soil ...

  6. Crop residue mass needed to maintain soil organic carbon levels: Can it be determined?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High yield potential and extensive acreage of corn (Zea mays L.) led to identifying stover as a non-food, herbaceous bioenergy feedstock. A vital aspect of utilizing stover for energy is to establish harvest criteria that avoids exacerbating soil erosion or degrading soil organic carbon (SOC). Our g...

  7. Comparison of measured and modeled effects of residue removal on soil organic carbon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) is an important soil property strongly influenced by management. Changes in SOC are difficult to measure through direct sampling requiring long time periods and intensive sampling to detect small changes in the large, highly variable pool. Models have the potential to predi...

  8. CQESTR simulated changes in soil organic carbon under residue management practices in continuous corn systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) is an important soil property and strongly influenced by management. Changes in SOC stocks are difficult to measure through direct sampling, requiring both long time periods and intensive sampling to detect small changes in the large, highly variable pool. Models have the p...

  9. Different Analytical Procedures for the Study of Organic Residues in Archeological Ceramic Samples with the Use of Gas Chromatography-mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kałużna-Czaplińska, Joanna; Rosiak, Angelina; Kwapińska, Marzena; Kwapiński, Witold

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of the composition of organic residues present in pottery is an important source of information for historians and archeologists. Chemical characterization of the materials provides information on diets, habits, technologies, and original use of the vessels. This review presents the problem of analytical studies of archeological materials with a special emphasis on organic residues. Current methods used in the determination of different organic compounds in archeological ceramics are presented. Particular attention is paid to the procedures of analysis of archeological ceramic samples used before gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Advantages and disadvantages of different extraction methods and application of proper quality assurance/quality control procedures are discussed. PMID:25830900

  10. Vimentin filament organization and stress sensing depend on its single cysteine residue and zinc binding

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Sala, Dolores; Oeste, Clara L.; Martínez, Alma E.; Carrasco, M. Jesús; Garzón, Beatriz; Cañada, F. Javier

    2015-01-01

    The vimentin filament network plays a key role in cell architecture and signalling, as well as in epithelial–mesenchymal transition. Vimentin C328 is targeted by various oxidative modifications, but its role in vimentin organization is not known. Here we show that C328 is essential for vimentin network reorganization in response to oxidants and electrophiles, and is required for optimal vimentin performance in network expansion, lysosomal distribution and aggresome formation. C328 may fulfil these roles through interaction with zinc. In vitro, micromolar zinc protects vimentin from iodoacetamide modification and elicits vimentin polymerization into optically detectable structures; in cells, zinc closely associates with vimentin and its depletion causes reversible filament disassembly. Finally, zinc transport-deficient human fibroblasts show increased vimentin solubility and susceptibility to disruption, which are restored by zinc supplementation. These results unveil a critical role of C328 in vimentin organization and open new perspectives for the regulation of intermediate filaments by zinc. PMID:26031447

  11. Production of 15N-Labelled Liquid Organic Fertilisers Based on Manure and Crop Residue for Use in Fertigation Studies.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Alcántara, Belén; Martínez-Cuenca, Mary-Rus; Fernández, Carlos; Legaz, Francisco; Quiñones, Ana

    2016-01-01

    Large quantities of crop residue and animal manure from agricultural and livestock activities are annually produced worldwide. With proper management, these residues are potentially valuable sources of plant nutrients, mainly N. Recycling such subproducts in sustainably-based agricultural systems can minimise the use of mineral fertilisers, and hence reduce the potential risk of surface and groundwater pollution. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to obtain (small scale) two liquid labelled-organic fertilisers, an animal- and a vegetal-based organic (AO and VO, respectively) fertiliser, to be used as organic N sources in subsequent fertigation studies. Forage maize (Zea mays L.) grown under 15N-labelled fertiliser supply was used as raw material for VO fertiliser production, and also as 15N-labelled sheep feed to obtain 15N-labelled manure. The labelled faeces fraction was used as raw material for the AO fertiliser. The VO fertiliser was obtained after an acidic and an enzyme-driven hydrolysis. The AO fertiliser was obtained after acidic hydrolysis. The VO liquid fertiliser presented an N concentration of 330 mg·L-1, 85% of total N was organic, while ammonium and nitrate N accounted for 55% and 45% of the mineral nitrogen fraction, respectively. This fertiliser also exhibited high K, Ca and S concentrations and notable values for the remaining macro- and micronutrients. The AO liquid fertiliser had a similar total N concentration (496 mg·L-1, 82% of total N in an organic form) to that of VO, but its mineral N fraction significantly differed, which came in a predominantly (95%) ammonia form. It also had a high content of N, P, K and other macronutrients, and sufficient Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu and B levels, which suggests its suitability as a potential fertiliser. The percentage of 15N enrichment in both VO and AO liquid fertilisers exceeded 2% 15N atom excess, which enabled their use in subsequent assays run to assess nitrogen uptake efficiency. PMID:26982183

  12. Production of 15N-Labelled Liquid Organic Fertilisers Based on Manure and Crop Residue for Use in Fertigation Studies

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Alcántara, Belén; Martínez-Cuenca, Mary-Rus; Fernández, Carlos; Legaz, Francisco; Quiñones, Ana

    2016-01-01

    Large quantities of crop residue and animal manure from agricultural and livestock activities are annually produced worldwide. With proper management, these residues are potentially valuable sources of plant nutrients, mainly N. Recycling such subproducts in sustainably-based agricultural systems can minimise the use of mineral fertilisers, and hence reduce the potential risk of surface and groundwater pollution. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to obtain (small scale) two liquid labelled-organic fertilisers, an animal- and a vegetal-based organic (AO and VO, respectively) fertiliser, to be used as organic N sources in subsequent fertigation studies. Forage maize (Zea mays L.) grown under 15N-labelled fertiliser supply was used as raw material for VO fertiliser production, and also as 15N-labelled sheep feed to obtain 15N-labelled manure. The labelled faeces fraction was used as raw material for the AO fertiliser. The VO fertiliser was obtained after an acidic and an enzyme-driven hydrolysis. The AO fertiliser was obtained after acidic hydrolysis. The VO liquid fertiliser presented an N concentration of 330 mg·L-1, 85% of total N was organic, while ammonium and nitrate N accounted for 55% and 45% of the mineral nitrogen fraction, respectively. This fertiliser also exhibited high K, Ca and S concentrations and notable values for the remaining macro- and micronutrients. The AO liquid fertiliser had a similar total N concentration (496 mg·L-1, 82% of total N in an organic form) to that of VO, but its mineral N fraction significantly differed, which came in a predominantly (95%) ammonia form. It also had a high content of N, P, K and other macronutrients, and sufficient Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu and B levels, which suggests its suitability as a potential fertiliser. The percentage of 15N enrichment in both VO and AO liquid fertilisers exceeded 2% 15N atom excess, which enabled their use in subsequent assays run to assess nitrogen uptake efficiency. PMID:26982183

  13. Membrane Organization and Dynamics of ‘Inner Pair’ and ‘Outer Pair’ Tryptophan Residues in Gramicidin Channels

    PubMed Central

    Haldar, Sourav; Chaudhuri, Arunima; Gu, Hong; Koeppe, Roger E.; Kombrabail, Mamata; Krishnamoorthy, G.; Chattopadhyay, Amitabha

    2012-01-01

    The linear ion channel peptide gramicidin serves as an excellent prototype for monitoring the organization, dynamics and function of membrane-spanning channels. The tryptophan residues in gramicidin channels are crucial for establishing and maintaining the structure and function of the channel in the membrane bilayer. In order to address the basis of differential importance of tryptophan residues in gramicidin channel, we monitored the effects of pairwise substitution of two of the four gramicidin tryptophans, the inner pair (Trp-9 and -11) and the outer pair (Trp-13 and -15), using a combination of steady state and time-resolved fluorescence approaches and circular dichroism spectroscopy. We show here that these double tryptophan gramicidin analogs adopt different conformations in membranes, suggesting that the conformational preference of double tryptophan gramicidin analogs is dictated by the positions of the tryptophans in the sequence. These results assume significance in the context of recent observations that the inner pair of tryptophans (Trp-9 and -11) is more important for gramicidin channel formation and channel conductance. These results could be potentially useful in analyzing the effect of tryptophan substitution on the functioning of ion channels and membrane proteins. PMID:22892073

  14. Conversion of residual organics in corn stover-derived biorefinery stream to bioenergy via microbial fuel cell

    SciTech Connect

    Borole, Abhijeet P; Hamilton, Choo Yieng; Schell, Daniel J

    2012-01-01

    A biorefinery process typically uses about 4-10 times as much water as the amount of biofuel generated. The wastewater produced in a biorefinery process contains residual sugars, 5-furfural, phenolics, and other pretreatment and fermentation byproducts. Treatment of the wastewater can reduce the need for fresh water and potentially add to the environmental benefits of the process. Use of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) for conversion of the various organics present in a post-fermentation biorefinery stream is reported here. The organic loading was varied over a wide range to assess removal efficiency, coulombic efficiency and power production. A coulombic efficiency of 40% was observed for a low loading of 1% (0.66 g/L) and decreased to 1.8% for the undiluted process stream (66.4 g/L organic loading). A maximum power density of 1180 mW/m2 was observed at a loading of 8%. Excessive loading was found to result in poor electrogenic performance. The results indicate that operation of an MFC at an intermediate loading using dilution and recirculation of the process stream can enable effective treatment with bioenergy recovery.

  15. Solarization and biosolarization using organic wastes for the bioremediation of soil polluted with terbuthylazine and linuron residues.

    PubMed

    Fenoll, José; Hellín, Pilar; Flores, Pilar; Lacasa, Alfredo; Navarro, Simón

    2014-10-01

    Strategies for remediation of polluted soils are needed to accelerate the degradation and natural attenuation of pesticides. This study was conducted to assess the effect of solarization (S) and biosolarization (BS) during the summer season using organic wastes (composted sheep manure and sugar beet vinasse) for the bioremediation of soil containing residues of terbuthylazine and linuron. The results showed that both S and BS enhanced herbicide dissipation rates compared with the non-disinfected control, an effect which was attributed to the increased soil temperature and organic matter. Linuron showed similar behavior under S and BS conditions. However, terbuthylazine was degraded to a greater extent in the biosolarization experiment using sugar beet vinasse than in the both the solarization and biosolarization experiments using composted sheep manure treatments. The main organic intermediates detected during the degradation of terbuthylazine and linuron were identified, enabling the main steps of degradation to be proposed. The results confirm that both S and BS techniques can be considered as a remediation tools for polluted soils containing these herbicides. PMID:24905640

  16. Dynamics of carbon and nitrogen in a mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons contaminated soil amended with organic residues.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Espinoza, Y; Dendooven, L

    2007-08-01

    Contamination of soil with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) through oil spills occurs frequently in Mexico. PAHs are highly resistant to degradation and restoration of these contaminated soils might be achieved by applying readily available organic material. A clayey soil was contaminated in the laboratory with different forms of PAHs, i.e. phenanthrene, anthracene and benzo(a)pyrene, and amended with maize or biosolids while production of carbon dioxide (CO2), dynamics of ammonia (NH4-), nitrate (NO3-) and PAHs were monitored. The largest CO2 production rate was found in soil added with maize and biosolids and the lowest in the unamended soil. The concentration of PAHs added to the sterilized soil did not change significantly over time and addition of organic material had no significant effect on it. The concentration of PAHs in unsterilized soil decreased sharply in the first weeks independent of addition of organic material and changes were small thereafter. After 100 days, 77% of benzo(a)pyrene was removed from soil, but 91% and 93% of phenanthrene and anthracene, respectively was removed. It was concluded that the autochthonous microbial population degraded phenanthrene, anthracene and benzo(a)pyrene, but neither biosolids nor maize accelerated the decomposition of PAHs or affected their residual concentration. PMID:17879847

  17. Persistent organic pesticide residues in sediments of Vasai Creek near Mumbai: Assessment of sources and potential ecological risk.

    PubMed

    Singare, Pravin U

    2015-11-15

    Thirteen persistent organic pesticides were investigated in the sediments of Vasai Creek near Mumbai to evaluate their pollution levels and potential risks. It was observed that ΣOCPs level was in the range of 597-1538ng/g dw, with an average value of 1115.25ng/g dw. The level of ΣOPPs was in the range of 492-1034ng/g dw, with an average value of 798.15ng/g dw. The values o,p'-DDT/p,p'-DDT ratio gives an indication of use of technical DDT as the prime source of DDT, while the α/γ-BHC ratio indicate that BHCs in study area might have been received from fresh lindane. The results of an ecological risk assessment showed that sediment bound organic pesticides are of more ecotoxicological concern as they might create adverse ecological risk to the marine breeding habitats. These pesticides residues may get remobilize and released to overlying waters creating adverse effects on terrestrial and aquatic organisms. PMID:26428625

  18. Life cycle assessment of energy self-sufficiency systems based on agricultural residues for organic arable farms.

    PubMed

    Kimming, M; Sundberg, C; Nordberg, A; Baky, A; Bernesson, S; Norén, O; Hansson, P-A

    2011-01-01

    The agricultural industry today consumes large amounts of fossil fuels. This study used consequential life cycle assessment (LCA) to analyse two potential energy self-sufficient systems for organic arable farms, based on agricultural residues. The analysis focused on energy balance, resource use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. A scenario based on straw was found to require straw harvest from 25% of the farm area; 45% of the total energy produced from the straw was required for energy carrier production and GHG emissions were reduced by 9% compared with a fossil fuel-based reference scenario. In a scenario based on anaerobic digestion of ley, the corresponding figures were 13%, 24% and 35%. The final result was sensitive to assumptions regarding, e.g., soil carbon content and handling of by-products. PMID:20970998

  19. Reduction of hazardous organic solvent in sample preparation for hydrophilic pesticide residues in agricultural products with conventional liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Eiki; Kobara, Yuso; Baba, Koji; Eun, Heesoo

    2013-05-22

    An original extraction method using water as an extractant has been established for environmentally friendly sample preparation procedures for hydrophilic pesticides (acetamiprid, clothianidin, dinotefuran, flonicamid, imidacloprid, methomyl, pymetrozine, thiacloprid, and thiamethoxam) in agricultural samples with conventional HPLC. Water-based extraction and cleanup with two solid-phase extraction cartridges can recover target hydrophilic pesticides quantitatively. The matrix effects of tested samples on the proposed method developed herein were negligibly small. Under the optimized conditions, the recoveries of almost all tested pesticides were 70-120% with satisfactory precision (%CV < 20%). The analytical data are in good accordance with Japanese or European Union guidelines for pesticide residue analysis. The reduction rate of hazardous organic solvents used for the proposed method and by reducing the sample size for extraction was about 70% compared with the Japanese authorized reference method used in this work. The results demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed sample preparation procedures for hydrophilic pesticides. PMID:23614723

  20. LC-MS method development and comparison of sampling materials for the analysis of organic gunshot residues.

    PubMed

    Gassner, Anne-Laure; Weyermann, Céline

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed at developing a LC-MS method to compare the efficiency of various sampling materials for the collection and subsequent analysis of organic gunshot residues (OGSR). Seven sampling materials, namely two "swab"-type and five "stub"-type collection materials, were tested. The evaluation of sampling materials was systematically carried out by first analyzing blank extracts of the materials to check for potential interferences and determining matrix effects. Based on these results, the best four materials, namely cotton buds, polyester swabs, a tape from 3M and PTFE were compared in terms of collection efficiency during shooting experiments using a set of 9mm Luger ammunition. It was found that the tape was capable of recovering the highest amounts of OGSR. As tape-lifting is the technique currently used in routine for inorganic GSR, OGSR analysis might be implemented without modifying IGSR sampling and analysis procedure. PMID:27023011

  1. Effects of retorting factors on combustion properties of shale char. 3. Distribution of residual organic matters.

    PubMed

    Han, Xiangxin; Jiang, Xiumin; Cui, Zhigang; Liu, Jianguo; Yan, Junwei

    2010-03-15

    Shale char, formed in retort furnaces of oil shale, is classified as a dangerous waste containing several toxic compounds. In order to retort oil shale to produce shale oil as well as treat shale char efficiently and in an environmentally friendly way, a novel kind of comprehensive utilization system was developed to use oil shale for shale oil production, electricity generation (shale char fired) and the extensive application of oil shale ash. For exploring the combustion properties of shale char further, in this paper organic matters within shale chars obtained under different retorting conditions were extracted and identified using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method. Subsequently, the effects of retorting factors, including retorting temperature, residence time, particle size and heating rate, were analyzed in detail. As a result, a retorting condition with a retorting temperature of 460-490 degrees C, residence time of <40 min and a middle particle size was recommended for both keeping nitrogenous organic matters and aromatic hydrocarbons in shale char and improving the yield and quality of shale oil. In addition, shale char obtained under such retorting condition can also be treated efficiently using a circulating fluidized bed technology with fractional combustion. PMID:19896769

  2. Are Canadians Cultural Cuckoos?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mickleburgh, Brita

    1977-01-01

    The author believes that teachers have been remiss in transmitting Canadian culture to their students. They have also neglected the development of self-realization and identity in the majority of students. (Author)

  3. Microbiological Hazards of Household Toilets: Droplet Production and the Fate of Residual Organisms

    PubMed Central

    Gerba, Charles P.; Wallis, Craig; Melnick, Joseph L.

    1975-01-01

    Large numbers of bacteria and viruses when seeded into household toilets were shown to remain in the bowl after flushing, and even continual flushing could not remove a persistent fraction. This was found to be due to the adsorption of the organisms to the porcelain surfaces of the bowl, with gradual elution occurring after each flush. Droplets produced by flushing toilets were found to harbor both bacteria and viruses which had been seeded. The detection of bacteria and viruses falling out onto surfaces in bathrooms after flushing indicated that they remain airborne long enough to settle on surface throughout the bathroom. Thus, there is a possibility that a person may acquire an infection from an aerosol produced by a toilet. PMID:169732

  4. Biochemical stability of organic matter in soils amended with organic slow N-release fertilizer derived from charred plant residues and ammonoxidized lignin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knicker, Heike; de la Rosa, José Maria; López Martín, María; Clemente Barragan, Reyes; Liebner, Falk

    2013-04-01

    As an important plant nutrient, N that has been removed from the soil by plant growth is replaced mainly by the use of synthetic fertilizers. Although this practice has dramatically increased food production, the unintended costs to the environment and human health due to surplus and inefficient application have also been substantial. Major losses of N to the environment can be minimized if "sustainable" agricultural practices are combined with reasonable fertilization. The latter can be achieved by applying slow N-release fertilizers. Here, the N is incorporated into an organic matrix, which after its amendment to soils, slowly decompose, allowing the liberation of the nutrient. Deriving from organic waste, such an amendment helps to efficiently recycle resources and increases the C sequestration potential of soils. However, in order to turn this approach into a successful strategy, the material has to be bioavailable but still sufficiently recalcitrant to ensure slow and controlled N-release. In the present study, we tested potential slow N-release fertilizers recycled from organic waste for their biochemical stability in soils. They comprised N-rich charred grass residues and N-lignin derived from waste of the pulp and paper industry and enriched in N by ammonoxidation. The substrates were mixed with soil of an Histic Humaquept and subsequently subjected to microbial degradation at 28°C in a Respicond IV Apparatus for 10 weeks. Additionally, soil material without organic amendment and soils mixed with lignin or charcoal both with and without KNO3 were included into the experiment. During the degradation experiment the CO2 production was determined on an hourly base. The degradation rate constants and the mean residence times were calculated using a double exponential decay model (pools with fast and slow turnover). Alterations of the chemical composition of the organic matter during degradation were studied by solid-state 13C NMR spectroscopy. First results

  5. Impact of long-term organic residue recycling in agriculture on soil solution composition and trace metal leaching in soils.

    PubMed

    Cambier, Philippe; Pot, Valérie; Mercier, Vincent; Michaud, Aurélia; Benoit, Pierre; Revallier, Agathe; Houot, Sabine

    2014-11-15

    Recycling composted organic residues in agriculture can reduce the need of mineral fertilizers and improve the physicochemical and biological properties of cultivated soils. However, some trace elements may accumulate in soils following repeated applications and impact other compartments of the agrosystems. This study aims at evaluating the long-term impact of such practices on the composition of soil leaching water, especially on trace metal concentrations. The field experiment QualiAgro started in 1998 on typical loess Luvisol of the Paris Basin, with a maize-wheat crop succession and five modalities: spreading of three different urban waste composts, farmyard manure (FYM), and no organic amendment (CTR). Inputs of trace metals have been close to regulatory limits, but supplies of organic matter and nitrogen overpassed common practices. Soil solutions were collected from wick lysimeters at 45 and 100 cm in one plot for each modality, during two drainage periods after the last spreading. Despite wide temporal variations, a significant effect of treatments on major solutes appears at 45 cm: DOC, Ca, K, Mg, Na, nitrate, sulphate and chloride concentrations were higher in most amended plots compared to CTR. Cu concentrations were also significantly higher in leachates of amended plots compared to CTR, whereas no clear effect emerged for Zn. The influence of amendments on solute concentrations appeared weaker at 1 m than at 45 cm, but still significant and positive for major anions and DOC. Average concentrations of Cu and Zn at 1m depth lied in the ranges [2.5; 3.8] and [2.5; 10.5 μg/L], respectively, with values slightly higher for plots amended with sewage sludge compost or FYM than for CTR. However, leaching of both metals was less than 1% of their respective inputs through organic amendments. For Cd, most values were <0.05 μg/L. So, metals added through spreading of compost or manure during 14 years may have increased metal concentrations in leachates of

  6. A closed-loop biorefining system to convert organic residues into fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Rui

    This project delivers an energy positive and water neutral, closed-loop biorefining system that converts organic wastes into renewable energy and reduces the overall impacts on the environment. The research consisted of three major stages: The first stage of this project was conducted in an anaerobic co-digestion system. Effects of the ratio of dairy manure-to-food waste as well as operating temperature were tested on the performance of the co-digestion system. Results illustrated an increase in biogas productivity with the increase of supplemental food waste; fiber analysis revealed similar chemical composition (cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin) of final solid digestate regardless their different initial feedstock blends and digestion conditions. The molecular genetic analyses demonstrated that anaerobic methanogenic microorganisms were able to adjust their community assemblage to maximize biogas production and produce homogenized solid digestate. The second stage utilized electrocoagulation (EC) pretreated liquid digestate from previous stage to culture freshwater algae. Kinetics study showed a similar maximum growth rate (0.201-0.207 g TS day-1) in both 2x and 5x dilutions of EC solution; however, the algal growth was inhibited in original EC solution (1x), possibly due to the high ammonia-to-phosphate ratio. Algal community assemblage changed drastically in different dilutions of EC solution after a 9-day culture. The following semi-continuous culture in 2x and 5x EC media established steady biomass productivities and nitrogen removal rates; in addition, both conditions illustrated a phenomenon of phosphorus luxury uptake. Biomass composition analyses showed that algae cultured in medium containing higher nitrogen (2x EC medium) accumulated more protein but less carbohydrate and lipid than the 5x EC medium. The last stage involved hydrolyzing the algal biomass cultured in anaerobic digestion effluent and analyzing the effects of the neutralized algal

  7. Insight into the molecular composition of laboratory organic residues produced from interstellar/pre-cometary ice analogues using very high resolution mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danger, G.; Fresneau, A.; Abou Mrad, N.; de Marcellus, P.; Orthous-Daunay, F.-R.; Duvernay, F.; Vuitton, V.; Le Sergeant d'Hendecourt, L.; Thissen, R.; Chiavassa, T.

    2016-09-01

    Experimental simulations in the laboratory may provide important information about the chemical evolution occurring in various astrophysical objects such as extraterrestrial ices. Interstellar or (pre)cometary ice analogues made of H2O, CH3OH, and NH3 at 77 K, when subjected to an energetic process (VUV photons, electrons or ions) and then warmed-up to room temperature, lead, in the laboratory, to the formation of an organic residue. In this paper we expand our previous analysis of the residues in order to obtain a better insight into their molecular content. Data analyses show that three different chemical groups are present in the residue in the negative electrospray ionization (ESI) mode: CHN, CHO and CHNOsbnd whereas only two groups are detected in the positive ESI mode: CHN and CHNO. In both cases, the CHNO group is the most abundant. The application of specific data treatment shows that residue mainly contains aliphatic linear molecules or cyclic structures connected to unsaturated chemical functions such as esters, carboxylic acids, amides or aldehydes. In lower abundances, some molecules do present aromatic structures. The comparison of our residue with organic compounds detected in the Murchison meteorite gives an interesting match, which suggests that laboratory simulation of interstellar ice chemistry is relevant to understand astrophysical organic matter evolution.

  8. Canadian University, Inc., and the Role of Canadian Criticism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milz, Sabine

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author seeks to address the present function of Canadian criticism by undertaking a meditation on the contemporary Canadian university and stating his own position as a critic of Canadian literature in this institutional framework. The author asks: What are the connections between neoliberalism and cultural nationalism in…

  9. Effect of O horizon and Forest Harvest Residue Manipulations on Soil Organic Matter Content and Composition of a Loblolly Pine Plantation in the Southeastern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatten, J.; Mack, J.; Dewey, J.; Sucre, E.; Leggett, Z.

    2012-04-01

    Forest harvest residues and forest floor materials are significant sources of mineral soil organic matter and nutrients for regenerating and establishing forests. Harvest residues in particular are occasionally removed, piled, or burned following harvesting. While the forest floor is never purposely removed during operational harvesting and site preparation, they could become in high demand as bioenergy markets develop. Weyerhaeuser Company established an experimental study to evaluate the effect of forest-floor manipulation on site productivity and soil carbon. This study was installed in a loblolly pine plantation near Millport, Alabama, USA on the Upper Gulf Coastal Plain to test both extremes from complete removal of harvest residues and forest floor to doubling of these materials. This study has been continuously monitored since its establishment in 1994. We have examined the effects of varying forest floor levels on the biomass, soil carbon content, and soil carbon composition in the context of these management activities. Above- and below-ground productivity, soil moisture, soil temperature, and nutrient dynamics have been related to soil organic carbon in mineral soil size/density fractionation and lignin and cutin biomarkers from the cupric oxide (CuO) oxidation technique. We have found that while removing litter and harvest residues has little effect on biomass production and soil carbon, importing litter and harvest residues increases forest productivity and soil carbon content. Interestingly, increased carbon was observed in all depths assessed (O horizon, 0-20, 20-40, and 40-60cm) suggesting that this practice may sequester organic carbon in deep soil horizons. Our biomarker analysis indicated that importing litter and harvest residues increased relative contributions from above ground sources at the 20-40cm depth and increased relative contributions from belowground sources at the 40-60cm depth. These results suggest that organic matter manipulations

  10. COMPOSTING: A DURABLE TECHNOLOGY FOR DISINFECTION OF MANURE, SEWAGE SLUDGE, AND ORGANIC RESIDUALS IN AN ERA OF EMERGING AND RE-EMERGINING PATHOGENS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Composting is one of several technologies that have been used to treatment animal manure, sewage sludge, and a variety of other organic residuals many of which may contain pathogens or parasites of public health concern. The increasing number and size of confined animal feeding operations (CAFO) ha...

  11. Visceral organ weights, digestion and carcass characteristics of beef bulls differing in residual feed intake offered a high concentrate diet.

    PubMed

    Fitzsimons, C; Kenny, D A; McGee, M

    2014-06-01

    This study examined the relationship of residual feed intake (RFI) with digestion, body composition, carcass traits and visceral organ weights in beef bulls offered a high concentrate diet. Individual dry matter (DM) intake (DMI) and growth were measured in a total of 67 Simmental bulls (mean initial BW 431 kg (s.d.=63.7)) over 3 years. Bulls were offered concentrates (860 g/kg rolled barley, 60 g/kg soya bean meal, 60 g/kg molasses and 20 g/kg minerals per vitamins) ad libitum plus 0.8 kg grass silage DM daily for 105 days pre-slaughter. Ultrasonic muscle and fat depth, body condition score (BCS), muscularity score, skeletal measurements, blood metabolites, rumen fermentation and total tract digestibility (indigestible marker) were determined. After slaughter, carcasses and perinephric and retroperitoneal fat were weighed, carcasses were graded for conformation and fat score and weight of non-carcass organs, liver, heart, kidneys, lungs, gall bladder, spleen, reticulo-rumen full and empty and intestines full, were determined. The residuals of the regression of DMI on average daily gain (ADG), mid-test metabolic BW (BW0.75) and the fixed effect of year, using all animals, were used to compute individual RFI coefficients. Animals were ranked on RFI and assigned to high (inefficient), medium or low groupings. Overall mean ADG and daily DMI were 1.6 kg (s.d.=0.36) and 9.4 kg (s.d.=1.16), respectively. High RFI bulls consumed 7 and 14% more DM than medium and low RFI bulls, respectively (P<0.001). No differences between high and low RFI bulls were detected (P>0.05) for ADG, BW, BCS, skeletal measurements, muscularity scores, ultrasonic measurements, carcass weight, perinephric and retroperitoneal fat weight, kill-out proportion and carcass conformation and fat score. However, regression analysis indicated that a 1 kg DM/day increase in RFI was associated with a decrease in kill-out proportion of 20 g/kg (P<0.05) and a decrease in carcass conformation of 0.74 units (P<0

  12. Canadian Seismic Agreement

    SciTech Connect

    Wetmiller, R.J.; Lyons, J.A.; Shannon, W.E.; Munro, P.S.; Thomas, J.T.; Andrew, M.D.; Lapointe, S.P.; Lamontagne, M.; Wong, C.; Anglin, F.M.; Adams, J.; Cajka, M.G.; McNeil, W.; Drysdale, J.A. )

    1992-05-01

    This is a progress report of work carried out under the terms of a research agreement entitled the Canadian Seismic Agreement'' between the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC), the Canadian Commercial Corporation and the Geophysics Division of the Geological Survey of Canada (GD/GSC) during the period from July 01, 1989 to June 30, 1990. The Canadian Seismic Agreement'' supports generally the operation of various seismograph stations in eastern Canada and the collection and analysis of earthquake data for the purpose of mitigating seismic hazards in eastern Canada and the northeastern US. The specific activities carried out in this one-year period are summarized below under four headings; Eastern Canada Telemetred Network and local network developments, Datalab developments, strong-motion network developments and earthquake activity. During this period the first surface fault unequivocably determined to have accompanied a historic earthquake in eastern North America, occurred in northern Quebec.

  13. Transdisciplinary tour-de-force: The Canadian National Transplant Research Program.

    PubMed

    Hébert, Marie-Josée; Hartell, David; West, Lori

    2016-03-01

    The Canadian National Transplant Research Program, launched in 2013 with funding from the Canadian Institutes for Health Research and partners, bridges research in the fields of solid organ transplant, hematopoietic cell transplant, and organ donation. We describe the philosophy, structure, accomplishments, and challenges faced by the Canadian National Transplant Research Program to expand on facilitators and overcome roadblocks to successfully developing a transdisciplinary national research structure. PMID:26900804

  14. Effects of tillage and residue management on soil organic carbon and total nitrogen in the North China Plain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A suitable tillage-residue management system is needed in the North China Plain (NCP) that sustains soil fertility and agronomic productivity. The objective was to determine the effects of different tillage-residue managements for a winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), summer maize (Zea Mays L.) dou...

  15. Introducing New Priority Setting and Resource Allocation Processes in a Canadian Healthcare Organization: A Case Study Analysis Informed by Multiple Streams Theory

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Neale; Mitton, Craig; Dowling, Laura; Hiltz, Mary-Ann; Campbell, Matthew; Gujar, Shashi Ashok

    2016-01-01

    Background: In this article, we analyze one case instance of how proposals for change to the priority setting and resource allocation (PSRA) processes at a Canadian healthcare institution reached the decision agenda of the organization’s senior leadership. We adopt key concepts from an established policy studies framework – Kingdon’s multiple streams theory – to inform our analysis. Methods: Twenty-six individual interviews were conducted at the IWK Health Centre in Halifax, NS, Canada. Participants were asked to reflect upon the reasons leading up to the implementation of a formal priority setting process – Program Budgeting and Marginal Analysis (PBMA) – in the 2012/2013 fiscal year. Responses were analyzed qualitatively using Kingdon’s model as a template. Results: The introduction of PBMA can be understood as the opening of a policy window. A problem stream – defined as lack of broad engagement and information sharing across service lines in past practice – converged with a known policy solution, PBMA, which addressed the identified problems and was perceived as easy to use and with an evidence-base from past applications across Canada and elsewhere. Conditions in the political realm allowed for this intervention to proceed, but also constrained its potential outcomes. Conclusion: Understanding in a theoretically-informed way how change occurs in healthcare management practices can provide useful lessons to researchers and decision-makers whose aim is to help health systems achieve the most effective use of available financial resources PMID:26673646

  16. Magsat investigation. [Canadian shield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, D. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    A computer program was prepared for modeling segments of the Earth's crust allowing for heterogeneity in magnetization in calculating the Earth's field at Magsat heights. This permits investigation of a large number of possible models in assessing the magnetic signatures of subprovinces of the Canadian shield. The fit between the model field and observed fields is optimized in a semi-automatic procedure.

  17. Canadian Space Station program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doetsch, K. H.

    1991-01-01

    Information on the Canadian Space Station Program is given in viewgraph form. Topics covered include the Mobile Servicing Center (MSC), Space Station Freedom assembly milestones, the MB-3 launch configuration, a new workstation configuration, strategic technology development, the User Development Program, the Space Station Program budget, and Canada's future space activities.

  18. Canadian Experience with MARC.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapple, Sharon E.

    Canadian libraries have used Machine-readable Cataloging (MARC) since its beginnings in 1966, mainly for speeding up the cataloging of American imprints. The lack of bilingualism in Library of Congress MARC records was a major deficiency in Canada where bilingual access points are provided for all publications in the national bibliography,…

  19. Canadian Adult Basic Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooke, W. Michael, Comp.

    "Trends," a publication of the Canadian Association for Adult Education, is a collection of abstracts on selected subjects affecting adult education; this issue is on adult basic education (ABE). It covers teachers and teacher training, psychological factors relating to the ABE teacher and students, manuals for teachers, instructional materials,…

  20. Twitter and Canadian Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooke, Max

    2012-01-01

    An emerging group of leaders in Canadian education has attracted thousands of followers. They've made Twitter an extension of their lives, delivering twenty or more tweets a day that can include, for example, links to media articles, research, new ideas from education bloggers, or to their own, or simply a personal thought. At their best,…

  1. Reform in Canadian Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Small, J. M.

    1994-01-01

    A survey of 67 Canadian university vice presidents and 66 deans concerning reform in recent years found that the many changes reported were modest and reactive rather than bold and proactive. Most common changes involved strategic planning, retrenchment, curriculum expansion, response to enrollment changes, administrative restructuring, and more…

  2. Integrated management of organic wastes for remediation of massive tailings storage facilities under semiarid mediterranean climate type: efficacy of organic pork residues as study case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginocchio, Rosanna; Arellano, Eduardo; España, Helena; Gardeweg, Rosario; Bas, Fernando; Gandarillas, Mónica

    2016-04-01

    seeded with Lolium perenne. Experimental pots were kept under controlled conditions and irrigated up to 70% field water capacity for 42 days. After this period, chemical characteristics of the substrate and productive plant variables were determined and contrasted. Results showed that both pig wastes evaluated had significant (positive) and dose-dependent effects on plant productivity (both aerial and root biomass), but an increase in copper and zinc contents in aerial tissues occurred. Metal increments in aerial plant tissues were, however, below plant toxicity thresholds and represent no risk for cattle consumption. Application of any pork waste to mine tailings increased organic matter and macronutrient contents, besides raising pH. No substrate salinization was detected under the evaluated doses. These promising results show that organic pork residues are useful amendments for remediation of TSFs in north-central Chile. Furthermore, a twofold solution for environmental problems generated by two very relevant industrial sectors of the country is thus possible. Further studies are, however needed. Study funded by Project DIP-FAIF of P. Universidad Católica de Chile and by Project FB 0002-2014 of CONICYT. CICAP is also acknowledged.

  3. Committing Canadian sociology: developing a Canadian sociology and a sociology of Canada.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Ralph

    2014-05-01

    This paper is a slightly revised version of the author's "Outstanding Career Award Lecture" presented at the Annual Meeting of the Canadian Sociological Association in Victoria, British Columbia on June 6, 2013. The paper distinguishes between Canadian Sociology and the Sociology of Canada. The former involves the explanatory stance that one takes to understanding Canada. The latter addresses the significant social dimensions that underlie Canadian social organization, culture, and behavior. I make a case for a Canadian Sociology that focuses on the unique features of Canadian society rather than adopting a comparative perspective. I also argue that there is a continuing need within the Sociology of Canada to address the issues of staples development. However, I argue that "new" staples analysis must have a directional change from that of the past, in that social processes now largely determine the pattern of staples development. Moreover, new staples analysis must include issues that were never part of earlier staples analysis, such as issues of environmental impacts and of staples depletion under conditions, such as climate change. The paper concludes by analyzing four factors that provide the dominant social contexts for analyzing modern staples development: (1) the rise of neoliberal government, (2) the implementation of globalization and its social consequences, (3) the assumption of aboriginal rights and entitlement, and (4) the rise of environmentalism. These factors were generally not considered in earlier staples approaches. They are critical to understanding the role of staples development and its impact on Canada in the present time. PMID:24964518

  4. Indigenous populations health protection: A Canadian perspective

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The disproportionate effects of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic on many Canadian Aboriginal communities have drawn attention to the vulnerability of these communities in terms of health outcomes in the face of emerging and reemerging infectious diseases. Exploring the particular challenges facing these communities is essential to improving public health planning. In alignment with the objectives of the Pandemic Influenza Outbreak Research Modelling (Pan-InfORM) team, a Canadian public health workshop was held at the Centre for Disease Modelling (CDM) to: (i) evaluate post-pandemic research findings; (ii) identify existing gaps in knowledge that have yet to be addressed through ongoing research and collaborative activities; and (iii) build upon existing partnerships within the research community to forge new collaborative links with Aboriginal health organizations. The workshop achieved its objectives in identifying main research findings and emerging information post pandemic, and highlighting key challenges that pose significant impediments to the health protection and promotion of Canadian Aboriginal populations. The health challenges faced by Canadian indigenous populations are unique and complex, and can only be addressed through active engagement with affected communities. The academic research community will need to develop a new interdisciplinary framework, building upon concepts from ‘Communities of Practice’, to ensure that the research priorities are identified and targeted, and the outcomes are translated into the context of community health to improve policy and practice. PMID:23256553

  5. Mission statements in Canadian hospitals.

    PubMed

    Bart, Christopher K; Hupfer, Maureen

    2004-01-01

    One of the most popular management tools in the world, the mission statement also is subject to widespread criticism. In order to improve our understanding of the mission statement's strategic value and to provide actionable recommendations for healthcare organizations, the paper adopted a social constructionist perspective in a mission statement study conducted among Canadian hospital executives. The paper found seven factors underlying 23 possible mission statement content items. Four of these (grand inspiration, benefactors, competitive orientation and business definition) corresponded to the dimensions of dominant managerial logic proposed by von Krogh and Grand, and were positively related to various behavioral, financial performance and mission achievement measures. The findings indicate that not all mission statement components are created equal and that the recommendations of major strategy texts may require reconsideration where this particular institutional context is concerned. PMID:15366277

  6. Influence of alternating soil drying and wetting on the desorption and distribution of aged 14C-labeled pesticide residues in soil organic fractions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jablonowski, N. D.; Mucha, M.; Thiele, B.; Hofmann, D.; Burauel, P.

    2012-04-01

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of alternating soil drying and wetting on the release of aged 14C-labeled pesticide residues and their distribution in soil organic fractions (humic acids, fulvic acids, and humin substances). The used soils (gleyic cambisol; Corg 1.2%, pH 7.2) were obtained from the upper soil layer of two individual outdoor lysimeter studies containing either environmentally long-term aged 14C residues of the herbicide ethidimuron (ETD; 0-10 cm depth; time of aging: 9 years) or methabenzthiazuron (MBT; 0-30 cm depth; time of aging: 17 years). Triplicate soil samples (10 g dry soil equivalents) were (A=dry/wet) previously dried (45° C) or (B=wet/wet) directly mixed with pure water (1+2, w:w), shaken (150 rpm, 1 h), and centrifuged (~2000 g). The resulting supernatant was removed, filtered (0.45 μm) and subjected to 14C activity analysis via liquid scintillation counter (LSC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC) analysis, and LC-MS-MS analysis. This extraction procedure was repeated 15 individual times, for both setups (A) and (B). To determine the distribution of the aged 14C labelled pesticide residues in the soil organic matter fractions, the soil samples were subject to humic and fulvic acids fractionations at cycles 0, 4, 10, and 15. The residual pesticide 14C activity associated with the humic, fulvic, and humin substances (organic fraction remaining in the soil) fractions was determined via LSC. The water-extracted residual 14C activity was significantly higher in the extracts of the dry/wet, compared to the wet/wet soil samples for both pesticides. The total extracted 14C activity in the dry/wet soil extracts accounted for 51.0% (ETD) and 15.4% (MBT) in contrast to 19.0% (ETD) and 4.7% (MBT) in the wet/wet extracts after 15 water extractions. LC-MS-MS analysis revealed the parent compound ETD 27.9 μg kg-1 soil (dry/wet) and 10.7 μg kg-1 soil (wet/wet), accounting for 3.45 and 1.35% of total parent compound

  7. Influence of alternating soil drying and wetting on the desorption and distribution of aged 14C-labeled pesticide residues in soil organic fractions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jablonowski, N. D.; Mucha, M.; Thiele, B.; Hofmann, D.; Burauel, P.

    2012-04-01

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of alternating soil drying and wetting on the release of aged 14C-labeled pesticide residues and their distribution in soil organic fractions (humic acids, fulvic acids, and humin substances). The used soils (gleyic cambisol; Corg 1.2%, pH 7.2) were obtained from the upper soil layer of two individual outdoor lysimeter studies containing either environmentally long-term aged 14C residues of the herbicide ethidimuron (ETD; 0-10 cm depth; time of aging: 9 years) or methabenzthiazuron (MBT; 0-30 cm depth; time of aging: 17 years). Triplicate soil samples (10 g dry soil equivalents) were (A=dry/wet) previously dried (45° C) or (B=wet/wet) directly mixed with pure water (1+2, w:w), shaken (150 rpm, 1 h), and centrifuged (~2000 g). The resulting supernatant was removed, filtered (0.45 μm) and subjected to 14C activity analysis via liquid scintillation counter (LSC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC) analysis, and LC-MS-MS analysis. This extraction procedure was repeated 15 individual times, for both setups (A) and (B). To determine the distribution of the aged 14C labelled pesticide residues in the soil organic matter fractions, the soil samples were subject to humic and fulvic acids fractionations at cycles 0, 4, 10, and 15. The residual pesticide 14C activity associated with the humic, fulvic, and humin substances (organic fraction remaining in the soil) fractions was determined via LSC. The water-extracted residual 14C activity was significantly higher in the extracts of the dry/wet, compared to the wet/wet soil samples for both pesticides. The total extracted 14C activity in the dry/wet soil extracts accounted for 51.0% (ETD) and 15.4% (MBT) in contrast to 19.0% (ETD) and 4.7% (MBT) in the wet/wet extracts after 15 water extractions. LC-MS-MS analysis revealed the parent compound ETD 27.9 μg kg-1 soil (dry/wet) and 10.7 μg kg-1 soil (wet/wet), accounting for 3.45 and 1.35% of total parent compound

  8. Canadian seismic agreement

    SciTech Connect

    Wetmiller, R.J.; Lyons, J.A.; Shannon, W.E.; Munro, P.S.; Thomas, J.T.; Andrew, M.D.; Lamontagne, M.; Wong, C., Anglin, F.M.; Plouffe, M.; Lapointe, S.P.; Adams, J.; Drysdale, J.A. . Geophysics Div.)

    1990-04-01

    This is the twenty-first progress report under the agreement entitled Canadian Seismic Agreement between the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the Canadian Commercial Corporation. Activities undertaken by the Geophysics Division of the Geological Survey of Canada (GD/GSC) during the period from July 01, 1988 to June 30, 1989 and supported in part by the NRC agreement are described below under four headings; Eastern Canada Telemetred Network and local network developments, Datalab developments, strong motion network developments and earthquake activity. In this time period eastern Canada experienced its largest earthquake in over 50 years. This earthquake, which has been christened the Saguenay earthquake, has provided a wealth of new data pertinent to earthquake engineering studies in eastern North America and is the subject of many continuing studies, which are presently being carried out at GD and elsewhere. 41 refs., 21 figs., 7 tabs.

  9. Interaction of biochar and organic residues from sugarcane industry in soil chemical attributes and greenhouse gases emissions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernanda Abbruzzini, Thalita; Feola Conz, Rafaela; Pellegrino Cerri, Carlos Eduardo

    2014-05-01

    Researchers have highlighted the importance of providing soil quality in agricultural systems, besides mitigating greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions to the atmosphere and increasing soil carbon sequestration. Therefore, several studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of biochar as a soil conditioner, both in relation to increased C sequestration and improvements in soil chemical, physical and biological attributes, resulting in better conditions for plant growth. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of applying biochar produced from sugarcane straw to soils in relation to changes in soil chemical attributes and mitigation of greenhouse gases emissions into the atmosphere. To do so, we conducted a laboratory incubation under controlled environmental conditions (ie temperature and humidity) with and without the application of filter cake and vinasse (ie organic residues from sugarcane industry) and rates of biochar application (0, 10, 20 and 50 Mg ha-1). The fluxes of CO2, N2O and CH4 of each incubation unity were measured periodically (in days 1, 2, 5, 9, 13, 16, 20, 24, 28, 30, 47, 60, 91, 105, 123, 130, 138 and 150). Each treatment consisted of eight replicates with destructive samples evaluated at 30, 60, 90 and 150 days after incubation to characterize the chemical attributes of the incubated soil, besides GHG (CO2, N2O and CH4) emissions. In general, there was an increase in carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes over time due to the application of filter cake and vinasse and increasing dose of biochar. Regarding nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions, there was an increase of 82.35% with the application of vinasse and filter cake compared to the control treatment. However, different doses of biochar (10, 20 and 50 Mg ha-1) reduced N2O emissions by 29, 38.7 and 70.9%, respectively. The methane (CH4) flux was negligible in all treatments. We observed improvements in soil chemical attributes, such as higher pH, a substantial increase in the soil CEC, reduced exchangeable

  10. Higher antioxidant and lower cadmium concentrations and lower incidence of pesticide residues in organically grown crops: a systematic literature review and meta-analyses.

    PubMed

    Barański, Marcin; Srednicka-Tober, Dominika; Volakakis, Nikolaos; Seal, Chris; Sanderson, Roy; Stewart, Gavin B; Benbrook, Charles; Biavati, Bruno; Markellou, Emilia; Giotis, Charilaos; Gromadzka-Ostrowska, Joanna; Rembiałkowska, Ewa; Skwarło-Sońta, Krystyna; Tahvonen, Raija; Janovská, Dagmar; Niggli, Urs; Nicot, Philippe; Leifert, Carlo

    2014-09-14

    Demand for organic foods is partially driven by consumers' perceptions that they are more nutritious. However, scientific opinion is divided on whether there are significant nutritional differences between organic and non-organic foods, and two recent reviews have concluded that there are no differences. In the present study, we carried out meta-analyses based on 343 peer-reviewed publications that indicate statistically significant and meaningful differences in composition between organic and non-organic crops/crop-based foods. Most importantly, the concentrations of a range of antioxidants such as polyphenolics were found to be substantially higher in organic crops/crop-based foods, with those of phenolic acids, flavanones, stilbenes, flavones, flavonols and anthocyanins being an estimated 19 (95 % CI 5, 33) %, 69 (95 % CI 13, 125) %, 28 (95 % CI 12, 44) %, 26 (95 % CI 3, 48) %, 50 (95 % CI 28, 72) % and 51 (95 % CI 17, 86) % higher, respectively. Many of these compounds have previously been linked to a reduced risk of chronic diseases, including CVD and neurodegenerative diseases and certain cancers, in dietary intervention and epidemiological studies. Additionally, the frequency of occurrence of pesticide residues was found to be four times higher in conventional crops, which also contained significantly higher concentrations of the toxic metal Cd. Significant differences were also detected for some other (e.g. minerals and vitamins) compounds. There is evidence that higher antioxidant concentrations and lower Cd concentrations are linked to specific agronomic practices (e.g. non-use of mineral N and P fertilisers, respectively) prescribed in organic farming systems. In conclusion, organic crops, on average, have higher concentrations of antioxidants, lower concentrations of Cd and a lower incidence of pesticide residues than the non-organic comparators across regions and production seasons. PMID:24968103