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1

Cavernous Hemangioma of the Tympanic Membrane  

PubMed Central

Cavernous hemangioma seems to most frequently arise in the posterior portion of the external auditory canal. However, they rarely occur in the tympanic membrane. A 49-year-old male patient was referred for evaluation of right-sided pulsatile tinnitus that he'd experienced for the previous 2 years. Temporal bone computerized tomography showed an isolated soft tissue mass just lateral to the tympanic membrane. There was no evidence of bony erosion or middle ear invasion. The patient underwent excision of the mass using a postauricular approach. The mass was removed en bloc and the defect of the tympanic membrane was repaired by tympanoplasty type I. There was no recurrence after 1 year of follow-up. PMID:21716950

Choi, Hyun Suk; Hong, Yong Sung; Cho, Yong Bum

2011-01-01

2

Reexamination of tympanic membrane temperature as a core temperature.  

PubMed

Controversies surrounding tympanic temperature (Tty) itself and techniques for measuring it have dampened the potential usefulness of Tty in determining core temperature (operationally defined here as the body temperature taken at a deep body site). The present study was designed to address the following questions. 1) Can a tympanic membrane probe be made that is safer and more reliable than its predecessors? 2) Why is the effect of facial cooling and heating on Tty so inconsistent in reports from different laboratories? 3) Is Tty still useful as a measure of core temperature? Data from this study, obtained with a modified thermocouple probe, suggest that the widely reported facial skin cooling effect on Tty is most probably due to thermal contamination from the surrounding ear canal wall and/or suboptimal contact of the probe sensor with the tympanic membrane because 1) Tty that fell during facial cooling was increased to the precooling level by the repositioning of the probe sensor; 2) Tty determined by using a probe with a larger sensor area (the sensor soldered to a steel wire ring)tended to fall in response to facial cooling, whereas Tty determined with a thermally insulated probe ring did not; and 3) Tty obtained under careful positioning of the insulated probe was relatively insensitive to facial cooling or heating. Because Tty was practically identical to esophageal temperature (Tes) in the steady state, i.e., 36.83 +/- 0.20 (SD) degrees C for Tty and 36.87 +/- 0.16 degrees C for Tes at room temperature (n = 11), and because facial cooling had little effect on both Tty and Tes (36.86 +/- 0.17 degrees C for Tty and 36.86 +/- 0.26 degrees C for Tes during facial or scalp skin cooling), we support the postulate that Tty is a good measure of core temperature. The temperature transient in response to foot warming was detected 5 min (n = 2) faster with Tty than with Tes. Thus, with further improvements in the design of the probe. Tty can become a standard for determination of core body temperature. PMID:8926251

Sato, K T; Kane, N L; Soos, G; Gisolfi, C V; Kondo, N; Sato, K

1996-04-01

3

Moire-shift interferometer measurements of the shape of human and cat tympanic membrane  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The shape of the tympanic membrane is fairly complicated and seems to be of significant importance in the coupling of the acoustic sound pressure in the external ear canal to the motion of the middle ear ossicles. Precise measurements of the tympanic membrane shape are not available in literature. To measure the shape of a very thin, curved biological membrane a technique is required which does not deform the surface during the measurement. Casting techniques are therefore not well suited. A noncontacting measurement technique based on moire interferometry proved to be a better tool. A moire shift interferometer was used to measure with great precision the shape of the external surface of human and cat tympanic membrane. The dense matrix of z(x,y) values thus obtained does not only describe the shape with high spatial resolution but may also be used to calculate different geometrical parameters. As an example of direct application the authors have calculated the area of the curved surface to the pars tensa and pars flaccida for a human and a cat tympanic membrane.

Decraemer, Willem F.; Dirckx, Joris J.

1991-08-01

4

Endoscopic optical coherence tomography for imaging the tympanic membrane  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an imaging modality that enables micrometer-scale contactless subsurface imaging of biological tissue. Endoscopy, as another imaging method, has the potential of imaging tubular organs and cavities and therefore has opened up several application areas not accessible before. The combination of OCT and endoscopy uses the advantages of both methods and consequently allows additional imaging of structures beneath surfaces inside cavities. Currently, visual investigations on the surface of the human tympanic membrane are possible but only with expert eyes. up to now, visual imaging of the outer ear up to the tympanic membrane can be carried out by an otoscope, an operating microscope or an endoscope. In contrast to these devices, endoscopy has the advantage of imaging the whole tympanic membrane with one view. The intention of this research is the development of an endoscopic optical coherence tomography (EOCT) device for imaging the tympanic membrane depth-resolved and structures behind it. Detection of fluids in the middle ear, which function as an indicator for otitis media, could help to avoid the application of antibiotics. It is possible to detect a congeries of fluids with the otoscope but the ambition is to the early detection by OCT. The developed scanner head allows imaging in working distances in the range from zero up to 5 mm with a field of view of 2 mm. In the next step, the scanner head should be improved to increase the working distance and the field of view.

Burkhardt, Anke; Walther, Julia; Cimalla, Peter; Bornitz, Matthias; Koch, Edmund

2011-06-01

5

Correlating the site of tympanic membrane perforation with Hearing loss  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: It is recognized that the size of tympanic membrane(TM) perforation is proportional to the magnitude of hearing loss, however, there is no clear consensus on the effect of the location (site) of the perforation on the hearing loss. Hence the study is set to investigate the relationship between the location of perforation on TM and hearing loss. METHODS: A

Titus S Ibekwe; Onyekwere G Nwaorgu; Taiwo G Ijaduola

2009-01-01

6

Verruca vulgaris of tympanic membrane treated with topical immunotherapy.  

PubMed

Verruca vulgaris is a common skin disease caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, but it rarely involves the tympanic membrane. The current treatments for verruca are usually destructive and irreversible, should not be performed universally; the most relevant therapy will be variable subject to disease location, severity, and the patient's immune status. In this report, we demonstrated a case with verruca vulgaris of tympanic membrane, who had topical immunomodulatory agent treatment successfully with well-preserved hearing, and who has no any recurrence up to now for 3 years. In clinical, to cure verruca on the vulnerable tympanic membrane without hearing sequela is a dilemma, and there is no any treatment guideline due to its rarity. Topical immunomodulatory agent with high selectivity, showed great competence on this occasion and verified its practicability in treating verruca on unapproachable area, or where bearing vital functions; the convenient out-patient-based application also ensures good compliance. However, it does need longer duration and higher costs than the other routine treatment modalities. PMID:24321751

Shangkuan, Wei-Chuan; Lin, Ming-Yee

2014-01-01

7

A novel opto-electromagnetic actuator coupled to the tympanic membrane.  

PubMed

A new type of electromagnetic vibration transducer designed to be placed onto the tympanic membrane was developed. The actuator consisted of two photodiodes, two permanent magnets, an aluminum ring, two opposing wound coils, a latex membrane and a Provil Novo membrane. An optic probe was designed to allow sound and light signals to enter the ear canal, thereby preventing the acoustic occlusion effect of traditional ear molds. Two light-emitting diodes were used for carrying the input signals. The corresponding photodiodes were used for receiving the light signals and generating currents in the actuator. The opto-electromagnetic vibration actuator was fabricated and tested using a Laser Doppler vibrometer. The actuator showed displacements of vibration between 30 and 1 nm from 300 to 6500Hz and reduced in amplitude at higher frequencies. The average gain of the actuator with 140microA on the umbo displacement was about 20 dB relative to 87 dBA at the distance of 6cm from the tympanic membrane and 0microA in actuator. PMID:18995856

Lee, Chia-Fone; Shih, Chih-Hua; Yu, Jen-Fang; Chen, Jyh-Horng; Chou, Yuan-Fang; Liu, Tien-Chen

2008-12-01

8

Localization and proliferation of lymphatic vessels in the tympanic membrane in normal state and regeneration  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: •We newly developed the whole-mount imaging method of the tympanic membrane. •Lymphatic vessel loops were localized around the malleus handle and annulus tympanicus. •In regeneration, abundant lymphatic vessels were observed in the pars tensa. •Site-specific lymphatic vessels may play an important role in the tympanic membrane. -- Abstract: We clarified the localization of lymphatic vessels in the tympanic membrane and proliferation of lymphatic vessels during regeneration after perforation of the tympanic membrane by using whole-mount imaging of the tympanic membrane of Prox1 GFP mice. In the pars tensa, lymphatic vessel loops surrounded the malleus handle and annulus tympanicus. Apart from these locations, lymphatic vessel loops were not observed in the pars tensa in the normal tympanic membrane. Lymphatic vessel loops surrounding the malleus handle were connected to the lymphatic vessel loops in the pars flaccida and around the tensor tympani muscle. Many lymphatic vessel loops were detected in the pars flaccida. After perforation of the tympanic membrane, abundant lymphatic regeneration was observed in the pars tensa, and these regenerated lymphatic vessels extended from the lymphatic vessels surrounding the malleus at day 7. These results suggest that site-specific lymphatic vessels play an important role in the tympanic membrane.

Miyashita, Takenori, E-mail: takenori@med.kagawa-u.ac.jp [Department of Otolaryngology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, Kagawa 761-0793 (Japan)] [Department of Otolaryngology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, Kagawa 761-0793 (Japan); Burford, James L. [Department of Physiology and Biophysics and Department of Medicine, Zilkha Neurogenetic Institute, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90033 (United States)] [Department of Physiology and Biophysics and Department of Medicine, Zilkha Neurogenetic Institute, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90033 (United States); Hong, Young-Kwon [Department of Surgery and Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90033 (United States)] [Department of Surgery and Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90033 (United States); Gevorgyan, Haykanush; Lam, Lisa [Department of Physiology and Biophysics and Department of Medicine, Zilkha Neurogenetic Institute, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90033 (United States)] [Department of Physiology and Biophysics and Department of Medicine, Zilkha Neurogenetic Institute, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90033 (United States); Mori, Nozomu [Department of Otolaryngology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, Kagawa 761-0793 (Japan)] [Department of Otolaryngology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, Kagawa 761-0793 (Japan); Peti-Peterdi, Janos [Department of Physiology and Biophysics and Department of Medicine, Zilkha Neurogenetic Institute, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90033 (United States)] [Department of Physiology and Biophysics and Department of Medicine, Zilkha Neurogenetic Institute, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90033 (United States)

2013-10-25

9

Optoelectronic holographic otoscope for measurement of nano-displacements in tympanic membranes  

E-print Network

Current methodologies for characterizing tympanic membrane (TM) motion are usually limited to either average acoustic estimates (admittance or reflectance) or single-point mobility measurements, neither of which suffices ...

Rosowski, John J.

10

The effect of smooth muscle antagonists on the sound-induced motion of the tympanic membrane  

E-print Network

The pars tensa of the tympanic membrane is composed of three layers: an epidermal layer, a fibrous layer, and a mucosal layer. Recent studies (Kuijpers et al, 1999; Henson and Henson, 2000; Henson et al, 2005) suggest that ...

Graves, Amanda J. (Amanda Jean)

2005-01-01

11

Imaging the Human Tympanic Membrane Using Optical Coherence Tomography In Vivo  

PubMed Central

Objective Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a diagnostic imaging modality that combines low coherence light with inter ferometry to produce high-resolution cross-sectional images of living tissues. Using this technology, we have imaged in vivo the human tympanic membrane (TM) in the office clinic setting and characterized TM microstructure in normal and pathologic conditions. Study Design Prospective clinical trial. Materials and Methods The normal and diseased TMs in 10 adult subjects were examined. Each subject underwent direct microscopic examination before OCT imaging to provide visual coregistration of associated subsites including the anulus fibrosus, pars tensa, pars flaccida, and umbo. The probe from the imaging system (1,310-nm central wavelength, 15-?m coherence length, Niris; Imalux, Cleveland, OH, USA) was introduced into the ear canal to obtain lateral cross-sectional images. Results Systematic imaging of the TM was performed with characterization of the epithelial and collagenous layers. The overall TM thickness was clearly demonstrated and quantified. Conclusion The ability to noninvasively study middle ear microstructures in vivo is essential in the treatment of diseases of the ear. OCT may provide the otologist/neurotologist with the ability to 1) image pathology such as cholesteatoma, dimeric TMs, and chronic otitis media; 2) gauge the response to pharmacological therapy; and 3) monitor postsurgical changes after tympanoplasty and other procedures. OCT may provide a means to optimize the diagnosis and management of patients with middle ear disease. PMID:18957904

Djalilian, Hamid R.; Ridgway, James; Tam, Majestic; Sepehr, Ali; Chen, Zhongping; Wong, Brian J. F.

2010-01-01

12

Temperature effects on the tympanal membrane and auditory receptor neurons in the locust.  

PubMed

Poikilothermic animals are affected by variations in environmental temperature, as the basic properties of nerve cells and muscles are altered. Nevertheless, insect sensory systems, such as the auditory system, need to function effectively over a wide range of temperatures, as sudden changes of up to 10 °C or more are common. We investigated the performance of auditory receptor neurons and properties of the tympanal membrane of Locusta migratoria in response to temperature changes. Intracellular recordings of receptors at two temperatures (21 and 28 °C) revealed a moderate increase in spike rate with a mean Q10 of 1.4. With rising temperature, the spike rate-intensity-functions exhibited small decreases in thresholds and expansions of the dynamic range, while spike durations decreased. Tympanal membrane displacement, investigated using microscanning laser vibrometry, exhibited a small temperature effect, with a Q10 of 1.2. These findings suggest that locusts are affected by shifts in temperature at the periphery of the auditory pathway, but the effects on spike rate, sensitivity, and tympanal membrane displacement are small. Robust encoding of acoustic signals by only slightly temperature-dependent receptor neurons and almost temperature-independent tympanal membrane properties might enable locusts and grasshoppers to reliably identify sounds in spite of changes of their body temperature. PMID:25048563

Eberhard, Monika J B; Gordon, Shira D; Windmill, James F C; Ronacher, Bernhard

2014-09-01

13

Middle-ear function with tympanic-membrane perforations. II. A simple model  

E-print Network

Middle-ear function with tympanic-membrane perforations. II. A simple model Susan E. Vossa) Picker-Peabody Laboratory of Auditory Physiology and Department of Otolaryngology, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary and Department of Otolaryngology, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Boston, Massachusetts 02114; Speech

Allen, Jont

14

Attenuation of Fos expression to airpuff startle stimuli following tympanic membrane rupture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The airpuff startle stimulus consists of two modalities, tactile and acoustic. Tympanic membrane rupture (TMR) effectively deafens a rat, thus preventing it from perceiving the acoustic component of the airpuff and permitting study of the tactile component in isolation. Previous studies have shown that the tactile modality is sufficient to drive the cardiovascular response to the airpuff, but cannot elicit

Abraham A Palmer; Morton P Printz

1998-01-01

15

Tympanic Membrane Temperature and Emotional Dispositions in Preschool-Aged Children: A Methodological Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tympanic membrane (TM) temperature asymmetry has been proposed as a phenotypic marker of vulnerability to negative emotionality in children. Little is known about the stability of TM temperatures or how readily one can obtain a reliable index of the phenotype. TM temperatures were collected from 3- to 5-year-old children (N=73) over 5 months…

Gunnar, Megan R.; Donzella, Bonny

2004-01-01

16

Tympanic Membrane Boundary Deformations Derived from Static Displacements Observed with Computerized Tomography in Human and Gerbil  

PubMed Central

The middle ear is too complex a system for its function to be fully understood with simple descriptive models. Realistic mathematical models must be used in which structural elements are represented by geometrically correct three-dimensional (3D) models with correct physical parameters and boundary conditions. In the past, the choice of boundary conditions could not be based on experimental evidence as no clear-cut data were available. We have, therefore, studied the deformation of the tympanic membrane (TM) at its boundaries using X-ray microscopic computed tomography in human and gerbil while static pressure was applied to the ear canal. The 3D models of the TM and its bony attachments were carefully made and used to measure the deformation of the TM with focus on the periphery and the manubrium attachment. For the pars flaccida of the gerbil, the boundary condition can, for the most part, be described as simply supported. For the human pars flaccida, the situation is more complicated: superiorly, the membrane contacts the underlying bone more and more when pushed further inward, and it gradually detaches from the wall when sucked outward. In gerbil, the attachment of the TM to the manubrium can be described as simply supported. In human, the manubrium is attached underneath the TM via the plica mallearis and the contact of the TM with the bone is indirect. For both human and gerbil, a simple boundary condition for the peripheral edge of the pars tensa is not appropriate due to the intricate structure at the edge: the TM thickens rapidly before continuing into the annulus fibrosis which finally makes contact with the bone. PMID:19834763

Gea, Stefan L. R.; Funnell, Robert W. J.; Dirckx, Joris J. J.; Maier, Hannes

2009-01-01

17

Non-ossicular signal transmission in human middle ears: Experimental assessment of the “acoustic route” with perforated tympanic membranes  

PubMed Central

Direct acoustic stimulation of the cochlea by the sound-pressure difference between the oval and round windows (called the “acoustic route”) has been thought to contribute to hearing in some pathological conditions, along with the normally dominant “ossicular route.” To determine the efficacy of this acoustic route and its constituent mechanisms in human ears, sound pressures were measured at three locations in cadaveric temporal bones [with intact and perforated tympanic membranes (TMs)]: (1) in the external ear canal lateral to the TM, PTM; (2) in the tympanic cavity lateral to the oval window, POW; and (3) near the round window, PRW. Sound transmission via the acoustic route is described by two concatenated processes: (1) coupling of sound pressure from ear canal to middle-ear cavity, HPCAV?PCAV/PTM, where PCAV represents the middle-ear cavity pressure, and (2) sound-pressure difference between the windows, HWPD?(POW?PRW)/PCAV. Results show that: HPCAV depends on perforation size but not perforation location; HWPD depends on neither perforation size nor location. The results (1) provide a description of the window pressures based on measurements, (2) refute the common otological view that TM perforation location affects the “relative phase of the pressures at the oval and round windows,” and (3) show with an intact ossicular chain that acoustic-route transmission is substantially below ossicular-route transmission except for low frequencies with large perforations. Thus, hearing loss from TM perforations results primarily from reduction in sound coupling via the ossicular route. Some features of the frequency dependence of HPCAV and HWPD can be interpreted in terms of a structure-based lumped-element acoustic model of the perforation and middle-ear cavities. PMID:17902851

Voss, Susan E.; Rosowski, John J.; Merchant, Saumil N.; Peake, William T.

2008-01-01

18

Cortical representation of tympanic membrane movements due to pressure variation: an fMRI study.  

PubMed

Middle ear sensory information has never been localized in the homunculus of the somatosensory cortex (S1). We investigated the somatosensory representation of the middle ear in 15 normal hearing subjects. We applied small air pressure variations to the tympanic membrane while performing a 3T-fMRI study. Unilateral stimulations of the right ear triggered bilateral activations in the caudal part of the postcentral gyrus in Brodmann area 43 (BA 43) and in the auditory associative areas 42 (BA 42) and 22 (BA 22). BA 43 has been found to be involved in activities accompanying oral intake and could be more largely involved in pressure activities in the oropharynx area. The tympanic membrane is indirectly related to the pharynx area through the action of tensor tympani, which is a Eustachian tube muscle. The Eustachian tube muscles have a role in pressure equalization in the middle ear and also have a role in the pharyngeal phase of swallowing. Activation of BA 42 and BA 22 could reflect activations associated with the bilateral acoustic reflex triggered prior to self-vocalization to adjust air pressure in the oropharynx during speech. We propose that BA 43, 42, and 22 are the cortical areas associated with middle ear function. We did not find representation of tympanic membrane movements due to pressure in S1, but its representation in the postcentral gyrus in BA 43 seems to suggest that at least part of this area conveys pure somatosensory information. PMID:21484948

Job, Agnès; Paucod, Jean-Charles; O'Beirne, Greg A; Delon-Martin, Chantal

2011-05-01

19

Effect of caffeic acid phenethyl ester on myringosclerosis development in the tympanic membrane of rat.  

PubMed

Myringosclerosis is hyalinization and calcification of certain areas of the tympanic membrane, especially the fibrous lamina propria layer and appears as white sclerotic lesions. Ventilation tube insertion is one of the most performed operations in the pediatric otorhinolaryngology practice to treat chronic otitis media with effusion. Myringosclerosis is a very common sequela of ventilation tube insertion. In this experimental study, our aim was to show the histopathological effects of caffeic acid phenethyl ester on myringosclerosis development in rat tympanic membrane after myringotomy. The rats were randomly categorized into four experimental groups including the comparison group (n = 4), non-treated group (n = 7), the saline (control) group (n = 7), the caffeic acid phenethyl ester group (n = 7). Non-treated group did not receive any treatment for 15 days. Saline (2.5 mL/kg, intraperitoneal) was administered to the third group once a day for 15 days. Fourth group received caffeic acid phenethyl ester intraperitoneally once a day at a dose of 10 ?mol/kg for 15 days. Myringotomy was performed on the right tympanic membrane of all rats except comparison group using a sterile pick with the help of an operating microscope. Histopathological examination of myringosclerosis formation was done by a pathologist under light microscope. In histopathological analysis of groups, the severity of inflammation was milder in caffeic acid phenethyl ester group compared to non-treated and saline groups (p < 0.05). There was less myringosclerotic plaques in caffeic acid phenethyl ester group than in non-treated and saline groups (p < 0.05). TM thickness measurements were very close to each other in non-treated and saline groups. The tympanic membrane thickness of caffeic acid phenethyl ester group was much thinner than the other two groups (p < 0.05). Caffeic acid phenethyl ester decreases inflammation severity and the formation of myringosclerotic plaques. These two effects resulted in thinner tympanic membranes of rats which were treated with caffeic acid phenethyl ester. As a result, caffeic acid phenethyl ester has potential preventive effects on myringosclerosis development after myringotomy and ventilation tube insertion. PMID:24281567

Kinis, Vefa; Ozbay, Musa; Alabalik, Ulas; Gul, Aylin; Yilmaz, Beyhan; Ozkurt, Fazi Emre; Sengul, Engin; Topcu, Ismail

2015-01-01

20

Magnetically driven middle ear ossicles for optical measurement of vibrations in an ear with opened tympanic membrane.  

PubMed

Vibrations of the middle ear ossicles are easily measured by means of laser vibrometry. However, laser vibrometry requires free visual access to the object under investigation, and acquiring free visual access to the ossicles through the ear canal requires the removal of the tympanic membrane (TM), with the result that the ossicles can no longer be stimulated acoustically. To overcome this, we devised a new setup in which the ossicles can be driven magnetically. After measuring the response of the TM to an acoustic signal, we then remove it and attach a small magnet to the exposed manubrium (a part of the most lateral auditory ossicle, the malleus, which is normally attached to the TM). An electromagnetic excitation coil is then used to drive the magnet, and the output to the coil adjusted until the vibration of the manubrium, as measured by the vibrometer, matches that measured in response to the acoustic signal. Such a setup may have uses in research on middle ear mechanics, such as the measurement of nonlinearities in their response, as well as applications in the diagnosis of middle ear conditions such as the fixation of the ossicles by otosclerosis or in chronic otitis media. We describe our setup and discuss the viability of our method and its future clinical potential by presenting some measurements on an artificially fixated ear. PMID:24387412

Peacock, J; von Unge, M; Dirckx, J

2013-12-01

21

Magnetically driven middle ear ossicles for optical measurement of vibrations in an ear with opened tympanic membrane  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vibrations of the middle ear ossicles are easily measured by means of laser vibrometry. However, laser vibrometry requires free visual access to the object under investigation, and acquiring free visual access to the ossicles through the ear canal requires the removal of the tympanic membrane (TM), with the result that the ossicles can no longer be stimulated acoustically. To overcome this, we devised a new setup in which the ossicles can be driven magnetically. After measuring the response of the TM to an acoustic signal, we then remove it and attach a small magnet to the exposed manubrium (a part of the most lateral auditory ossicle, the malleus, which is normally attached to the TM). An electromagnetic excitation coil is then used to drive the magnet, and the output to the coil adjusted until the vibration of the manubrium, as measured by the vibrometer, matches that measured in response to the acoustic signal. Such a setup may have uses in research on middle ear mechanics, such as the measurement of nonlinearities in their response, as well as applications in the diagnosis of middle ear conditions such as the fixation of the ossicles by otosclerosis or in chronic otitis media. We describe our setup and discuss the viability of our method and its future clinical potential by presenting some measurements on an artificially fixated ear.

Peacock, J.; von Unge, M.; Dirckx, J.

2013-12-01

22

Animal models of chronic tympanic membrane perforation: in response to plasminogen initiates and potentiates the healing of acute and chronic tympanic membrane perforations in mice  

PubMed Central

Tympanic membrane perforations (TMP) are relatively common but are typically not treated in their acute stage, as most will heal spontaneously in 7–10 days. Those cases which fail to heal within 3 months are called chronic TMP which attract surgical intervention (e.g. myringoplasty), typically with a temporalis fascia autograft. New materials for the repair of chronic TMP are being developed to address deficiencies in the performance of autografts by undergoing evaluation in animal models prior to clinical study. However, there is currently a lack of ideal chronic TMP animal models available, hindering the development of new treatments. Various techniques and animal species have been investigated for the creation of chronic TMP with varied success. In the present commentary, we bring to the attention of readers the recent report by Shen et al. in Journal of Translational Medicine. The study reported the creation of a chronic TMP animal model in plasminogen gene deficient mice. However, the short observation time (9, 19 days), lack of success rate and the scarcity of solid evidence (e.g. otoscopic & histologic images) to confirm the chronicity of TMP warrant a more thorough discussion. PMID:24669846

2014-01-01

23

Noctuoid moths possess simple ears consisting of a tympanic membrane serviced by one (in the Notodontidae) or  

E-print Network

Noctuoid moths possess simple ears consisting of a tympanic membrane serviced by one (in the moths to detect the echolocation calls of aerially hunting bats (Roeder, 1967, 1974) and, in exceptional of the A2 cell, differences that supposedly provide the moths with the ability to discriminate between far

Fullard, James H.

24

Quantitative assessment of intracranial pressure by the tympanic membrane displacement audiometric technique in children with shunted hydrocephalus.  

PubMed

The objective of this prospective study was to compare the clinical features at presentation, tympanic membrane displacement test results and direct intracranial pressure measurements in children with shunted hydrocephalus to procure a quantitative measure of the intracranial pressure by tympanic membrane displacement test. A prospective comparative evaluation of 61 clinical episodes of shunt malfunction was assessed by volume displacement of the tympanic membrane and direct intracranial pressure measurements in 40 patients with shunted hydrocephalus between January 1995 and June 1996. The volume displacement of the tympanic membrane (Vm) on stapedial contraction was inward for raised intracranial pressure in 27 episodes and ranged from -120 nl to -506 nl (mean = -250 nl). This was confirmed by direct intracranial pressure monitoring, which ranged from 23 to 40 mm Hg (mean = 29 mm Hg). The tympanic membrane displacement test measurement in 30 episodes of low intracranial pressure ranged from +263 nl to +810 nl (mean = +530 nl), and this was corroborated by direct intracranial pressure measurement ranging from 1 to 6 mm Hg (mean = 3.8 mm Hg). The normal baseline Vm values obtained when the subjects were asymptomatic ranged from +58 nl to +175 nl (mean = +115 nl). The tympanic membrane displacement test as a non-invasive diagnostic tool in predicting changes in intracranial pressure had a sensitivity of 93% and specificity of 100%. The predictive value of the test was 100%, and the negative predictive value was 73%. The kappa statistical analysis was used to measure the agreements between the groups. The strength of the agreement was very good, kappa = 0.88 and the P value was < 0.001. The objective measure of intracranial pressure by tympanic membrane displacement test with the Vm value of -200 nl and more negative was indicative of raised intracranial pressure and a Vm value of +200 nl and greater, for low intracranial pressure. The intracranial pressure measurements made on an individual subject basis were reliable and accurate. The test can therefore be used for regular assessment of shunted hydrocephalics to enable correlation of intracranial pressure with symptoms in individual patients. PMID:9783141

Samuel, M; Burge, D M; Marchbanks, R J

1998-08-01

25

Bilateral keratin horns arising from the tympanic membranes: A case report.  

PubMed

A keratin horn is a horn-like projection composed of dense keratotic material. It usually arises in sun-exposed areas of the body. It can be derived from a variety of underlying benign, premalignant, or malignant epidermal lesions. Risk factors associated with malignant change within a keratin horn include a wide base, male sex, and increasing age, in addition to an origin in a sun-exposed area. The mainstay of management is to obtain a biopsy from the base of the horn and subsequent excision if the histopathologic analysis suggests a malignancy. We report an extremely rare case of bilateral keratin horns arising from the tympanic membranes in a 64-year-old woman. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of its kind to be published in the English-language literature. PMID:25651354

Phua, Chu Qin; Malik, Vikas; Sheehan, Patrick Zaid

2015-02-01

26

Reduction of tympanic membrane displacement during vocalization of the arboreal frog, Eleutherodactylus coqui.  

PubMed

Tympanic membrane (TM) velocities of vocalizing male frogs, Eleutherodactylus coqui, were measured in the field using laser vibrometry. The animal's call produced levels of 114-120 dB SPL measured at distances of 12-20 mm from the eardrum and mean TM displacements in response to the two notes of the male's own advertisement call were 1.84 and 2.08 nm, respectively. These values are close to the TM displacements obtained in response to playback of the two-note call at much lower sound levels. Thus TM vibrations are attenuated during phonation in the frog, and several candidate mechanisms for auditory sensitivity reduction are discussed. PMID:1619130

Narins, P M

1992-06-01

27

Motion of the Tympanic Membrane after Cartilage Tympanoplasty Determined by Stroboscopic Holography  

PubMed Central

Stroboscopic holography was used to quantify dynamic deformations of the tympanic membrane (TM) of the entire surface of the TM before and after cartilage tympanoplasty of the posterior or posterior-superior part of the TM. Cartilage is widely used in tympanoplasties to provide mechanical stability for the TM. Three human cadaveric temporal bones were used. A 6 mm × 3 mm oval cartilage graft was placed through the widely opened facial recess onto the medial surface of the posterior or posterior-superior part of the TM. The graft was either in contact with the bony tympanic rim and manubrium or not. Graft thickness was either 0.5 or 1.0 mm. Stroboscopic holography produced displacement amplitude and phase maps of the TM surface in response to stimulus sound. Sound stimuli were 0.5, 1, 4 and 7 (or 8) kHz tones. Middle ear impedance was measured from the motion of the entire TM. Cartilage placement generally produced reductions in the motion of the TM apposed to the cartilage, especially at 4 kHz and 7 or 8 kHz. Some parts of the TM showed altered motion compared to the control in all three cases. In general, middle ear impedance was either unchanged or increased somewhat after cartilage reconstruction both at low (0.5 and 1 kHz) and high (4 and 7 kHz) frequencies. At 4 kHz, with the 1.0 mm thick graft that was in contact with the bony tympanic rim, the impedance slightly decreased. While our earlier work with time-averaged holography allowed us to observe differences in the pattern of TM motion caused by application of cartilage to the TM, stroboscopic holography is more sensitive to TM motions and allowed us to quantify the magnitude and phase of motion of each point on the TM surface. Nonetheless, our results are similar to those of our earlier work: The placement of cartilage on the medial surface of TM reduces the motion of the TM that apposes the cartilage. These obvious local changes occur even though the cartilage had little effect on the sound-induced motion of the stapes. PMID:19909803

Aarnisalo, Antti A.; Cheng, Jeffrey T.; Ravicz, Michael E.; Furlong, Cosme; Merchant, Saumil N.; Rosowski, John J.

2009-01-01

28

Traumatic tympanic bulla fracture.  

PubMed

A Pekingese dog was presented for evaluation of head trauma with ventral head and neck swelling, puncture wounds, palpable mandibular fractures, and loss of menace, severe miosis, and loss of palpebral reflex of the right eye. Computed tomography confirmed multiple mandibular and zygomatic fractures, a right ear canal avulsion, and a complete right tympanic bulla fracture with ventral displacement. The tympanic bulla fracture was managed conservatively. Topical lubrication and antibiotic ointment was prescribed for the right eye. A subtotal hemimandibulectomy was performed to address the mandibular fractures. A temporary oesophagostomy feeding tube was placed. No short-term complications developed as a result of the fractured bulla and avulsed ear canal being left in situ, and no complications were reported 18 months after the injury. To the authors' knowledge this is the first report of a traumatic tympanic bulla fracture in the dog. PMID:23889756

Rubin, J A; Kim, S E; Bacon, N J

2013-11-01

29

TGF-?/HA complex promotes tympanic membrane keratinocyte migration and proliferation via ErbB1 receptor  

SciTech Connect

Tympanic membrane perforations are common and represent a management challenge to clinicians. Current treatments for chronic perforations involve a graft surgery and require general anaesthesia, including associated costs and morbidities. Bioactive molecules (e.g. growth factors, cytokines) play an important role in promoting TM wound healing following perforation and the use of growth factors as a topical treatment for tympanic membrane perforations has been suggested as an alternative to surgery. However, the choice of bioactive molecules best suited to promote wound healing has yet to be identified. We investigated the effects of hyaluronic acid, vitronectin, TGF-?, IL-24 and their combinations on migration, proliferation and adhesion of cultured human tympanic membrane-derived keratinocytes (hTM), in addition to their possible mechanisms of action. We found that TGF-?, TGF-?/HA and TGF-?/IL-24 promoted wound healing by significantly increasing both migration and proliferation. TGF-? and/or HA treated cells showed comparable cell–cell adhesion whilst maintaining an epithelial cell phenotype. With the use of receptor binding inhibitors for ErbB1 (AG1478) and CD44 (BRIC235), we revealed that the activation of ErbB1 is required for TGF-?/HA-mediated migration and proliferation. These results suggest factors that may be incorporated into a tissue-engineered membrane or directly as topical treatment for tympanic membrane perforations and hence reduce the need for a surgery. - Highlights: ? TGF-?, TGF-?/HA and TGF-?/IL-24 improved hTM keratinocyte migration and proliferation. ? TGF-? and/or HA maintained epithelial cell phenotype. ? TGF-?/HA-mediated migration and proliferation requires activation of ErbB1 receptor.

Mei Teh, Bing, E-mail: bing.teh@earscience.org.au [Ear Sciences Centre, School of Surgery, The University of Western Australia, Nedlands, WA (Australia); Ear Science Institute Australia, Subiaco, WA (Australia); Department of Otolaryngology, Head, Neck and Skull Base Surgery, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Nedlands, WA (Australia); Redmond, Sharon L. [Ear Sciences Centre, School of Surgery, The University of Western Australia, Nedlands, WA (Australia); Ear Science Institute Australia, Subiaco, WA (Australia); Shen, Yi [Ear Sciences Centre, School of Surgery, The University of Western Australia, Nedlands, WA (Australia); Ear Science Institute Australia, Subiaco, WA (Australia); Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck, Ningbo Lihuili Hospital (Ningbo Medical Centre), Ningbo, Zhejiang (China); Atlas, Marcus D. [Ear Sciences Centre, School of Surgery, The University of Western Australia, Nedlands, WA (Australia); Ear Science Institute Australia, Subiaco, WA (Australia); Department of Otolaryngology, Head, Neck and Skull Base Surgery, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Nedlands, WA (Australia); Marano, Robert J.; Dilley, Rodney J. [Ear Sciences Centre, School of Surgery, The University of Western Australia, Nedlands, WA (Australia); Ear Science Institute Australia, Subiaco, WA (Australia)

2013-04-01

30

Wave motion on the surface of the human tympanic membrane: holographic measurement and modeling analysis.  

PubMed

Sound-induced motions of the surface of the tympanic membrane (TM) were measured using stroboscopic holography in cadaveric human temporal bones at frequencies between 0.2 and 18 kHz. The results are consistent with the combination of standing-wave-like modal motions and traveling-wave-like motions on the TM surface. The holographic techniques also quantified sound-induced displacements of the umbo of the malleus, as well as volume velocity of the TM. These measurements were combined with sound-pressure measurements near the TM to compute middle-ear input impedance and power reflectance at the TM. The results are generally consistent with other published data. A phenomenological model that behaved qualitatively like the data was used to quantify the relative magnitude and spatial frequencies of the modal and traveling-wave-like displacement components on the TM surface. This model suggests the modal magnitudes are generally larger than those of the putative traveling waves, and the computed wave speeds are much slower than wave speeds predicted by estimates of middle-ear delay. While the data are inconsistent with simple modal displacements of the TM, an alternate model based on the combination of modal motions in a lossy membrane can also explain these measurements without invoking traveling waves. PMID:23363110

Cheng, Jeffrey Tao; Hamade, Mohamad; Merchant, Saumil N; Rosowski, John J; Harrington, Ellery; Furlong, Cosme

2013-02-01

31

Wave motion on the surface of the human tympanic membrane: Holographic measurement and modeling analysis  

PubMed Central

Sound-induced motions of the surface of the tympanic membrane (TM) were measured using stroboscopic holography in cadaveric human temporal bones at frequencies between 0.2 and 18?kHz. The results are consistent with the combination of standing-wave-like modal motions and traveling-wave-like motions on the TM surface. The holographic techniques also quantified sound-induced displacements of the umbo of the malleus, as well as volume velocity of the TM. These measurements were combined with sound-pressure measurements near the TM to compute middle-ear input impedance and power reflectance at the TM. The results are generally consistent with other published data. A phenomenological model that behaved qualitatively like the data was used to quantify the relative magnitude and spatial frequencies of the modal and traveling-wave-like displacement components on the TM surface. This model suggests the modal magnitudes are generally larger than those of the putative traveling waves, and the computed wave speeds are much slower than wave speeds predicted by estimates of middle-ear delay. While the data are inconsistent with simple modal displacements of the TM, an alternate model based on the combination of modal motions in a lossy membrane can also explain these measurements without invoking traveling waves. PMID:23363110

Cheng, Jeffrey Tao; Hamade, Mohamad; Merchant, Saumil N.; Rosowski, John J.; Harrington, Ellery; Furlong, Cosme

2013-01-01

32

Lateralized differences in tympanic membrane temperature, but not induced mood, are related to episodic memory.  

PubMed

The present research examined the effects of pre-encoding and pre-recall induced mood on episodic memory. It was hypothesized that happy and/or angry mood prior to encoding (increasing left hemisphere activity), in tandem with fearful mood prior to recall (increasing right hemisphere activity) would be associated with superior episodic memory. It was also hypothesized that tympanic membrane measures (TMT), indicative of hemispheric activity, would change as a function of induced mood. Although subjectively-experienced mood induction was successful, pre-encoding and pre-recall mood did not alter memory, and only altered TMT in the pre-encoding fear and pre-recall angry mood induction conditions. Interestingly, baseline absolute difference between left and right TMT, a measure of differential hemispheric activity, regardless of the direction of that activity, was significantly positively related to number of total words written, number of correctly recalled words, and corrected recall score. This same TMT measure pre-encoding, regardless of specific mood, was significantly negatively related to false recall. Results are discussed in terms the HERA model of episodic memory, and in the nature of interhemispheric interaction involved in episodic recall. PMID:25647603

Propper, Ruth E; Barr, Taylor D; Brunyé, Tad T

2015-03-01

33

Digital holographic measurements of shape and 3D sound-induced displacements of Tympanic Membrane.  

PubMed

Acoustically-induced vibrations of the Tympanic Membrane (TM) play a primary role in the hearing process, in that these motions are the initial mechanical response of the ear to airborne sound. Characterization of the shape and 3D displacement patterns of the TM is a crucial step to a better understanding of the complicated mechanics of sound reception by the ear. In this paper, shape and sound-induced 3D displacements of the TM in cadaveric chinchillas are measured by a lensless Dual-Wavelength Digital Holography system (DWDHS). The DWDHS consists of Laser Delivery (LD), Optical Head (OH), and Computing Platform (CP) subsystems. Shape measurements are performed in double-exposure mode and with the use of two wavelengths of a tunable laser while nanometer-scale displacements are measured along a single sensitivity direction and with a constant wavelength. In order to extract the three principal components of displacement in full-field-of-view, and taking into consideration the anatomical dimensions of the TM, we combine principles of thin-shell theory together with both, displacement measurements along the single sensitivity vector and TM surface shape. To computationally test this approach, Finite Element Methods (FEM) are applied to the study of artificial geometries. PMID:24790255

Khaleghi, Morteza; Lu, Weina; Dobrev, Ivo; Cheng, Jeffrey Tao; Furlong, Cosme; Rosowski, John J

2013-10-01

34

Attenuation of Fos expression to airpuff startle stimuli following tympanic membrane rupture.  

PubMed

The airpuff startle stimulus consists of two modalities, tactile and acoustic. Tympanic membrane rupture (TMR) effectively deafens a rat, thus preventing it from perceiving the acoustic component of the airpuff and permitting study of the tactile component in isolation. Previous studies have shown that the tactile modality is sufficient to drive the cardiovascular response to the airpuff, but cannot elicit the full behavioral startle response. In the present study Fos protein was used as a marker of neuronal activation to identify brain regions activated by the airpuff in both intact and TMR rats. Results show an attenuation of Fos expression following TMR in the dorsal and ventral cochlear nuclei, ventral nucleus of the lateral lemniscus and medial geniculate nucleus. In contrast, Fos expression following TMR was unchanged in the locus coeruleus, the laterodorsal tegmental nucleus, the supramammilary nucleus, and the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus. Analysis of behavioral data confirmed that the startle response to the airpuff was diminished following TMR. These data are the first of which we know to employ an immediate early gene approach to discriminate between brain regions activated by the tactile and acoustic startle stimulus modalities. The results are discussed in terms of the classical acoustic startle circuit, and the central autonomic pathways activated by the tactile component of the airpuff. PMID:9518564

Palmer, A A; Printz, M P

1998-03-16

35

Digital holographic measurements of shape and 3D sound-induced displacements of Tympanic Membrane  

PubMed Central

Acoustically-induced vibrations of the Tympanic Membrane (TM) play a primary role in the hearing process, in that these motions are the initial mechanical response of the ear to airborne sound. Characterization of the shape and 3D displacement patterns of the TM is a crucial step to a better understanding of the complicated mechanics of sound reception by the ear. In this paper, shape and sound-induced 3D displacements of the TM in cadaveric chinchillas are measured by a lensless Dual-Wavelength Digital Holography system (DWDHS). The DWDHS consists of Laser Delivery (LD), Optical Head (OH), and Computing Platform (CP) subsystems. Shape measurements are performed in double-exposure mode and with the use of two wavelengths of a tunable laser while nanometer-scale displacements are measured along a single sensitivity direction and with a constant wavelength. In order to extract the three principal components of displacement in full-field-of-view, and taking into consideration the anatomical dimensions of the TM, we combine principles of thin-shell theory together with both, displacement measurements along the single sensitivity vector and TM surface shape. To computationally test this approach, Finite Element Methods (FEM) are applied to the study of artificial geometries. PMID:24790255

Lu, Weina; Dobrev, Ivo; Cheng, Jeffrey Tao; Furlong, Cosme; Rosowski, John J

2014-01-01

36

Mice Deficient in Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator Have Delayed Healing of Tympanic Membrane Perforations  

PubMed Central

Mice deficient in plasminogen, the precursor of plasmin, show completely arrested healing of tympanic membrane (TM) perforations, indicating that plasmin plays an essential role in TM healing. The activation of plasminogen to plasmin is performed by two plasminogen activators (PAs), urokinase-type PA (uPA) and tissue-type PA (tPA). To elucidate the functional roles of PAs in the healing of TM perforations, we investigated the phenotypes of single gene-deficient mice lacking uPA (uPA?/?) or tPA (tPA?/?) after TM perforation. Delayed healing of TM perforations was observed in uPA?/? mice but not tPA?/? mice. The migration of keratinocytes was clearly delayed and seemed to be misoriented in uPA?/? mice. Furthermore, fibrin deposition and the inflammatory response were persistent in these mice. Our findings demonstrate that uPA plays a role in the healing of TM perforations. The observed phenotypes in uPA?/? mice are most likely due to the reduced generation of plasmin. PMID:23236466

Du, Chun; Wilczynska, Malgorzata; Hellström, Sten; Ny, Tor

2012-01-01

37

Optoelectronic holographic otoscope for measurement of nano-displacements in tympanic membranes  

PubMed Central

Current methodologies for characterizing tympanic membrane (TM) motion are usually limited to either average acoustic estimates (admittance or reflectance) or single-point mobility measurements, neither of which suffices to characterize the detailed mechanical response of the TM to sound. Furthermore, while acoustic and single-point measurements may aid in diagnosing some middle-ear disorders, they are not always useful. Measurements of the motion of the entire TM surface can provide more information than these other techniques and may be superior for diagnosing pathology. This paper presents advances in our development of a new compact optoelectronic holographic otoscope (OEHO) system for full-field-of-view characterization of nanometer scale sound-induced displacements of the surface of the TM at video rates. The OEHO system consists of a fiber optic subsystem, a compact otoscope head, and a high-speed image processing computer with advanced software for recording and processing holographic images coupled to a computer-controlled sound-stimulation and recording system. A prototype OEHO system is in use in a medical-research environment to address basic-science questions regarding TM function. The prototype provides real-time observation of sound-induced TM displacement patterns over a broad-frequency range. Representative time-averaged and stroboscopic holographic interferometry results in animals and cadaveric human samples are shown, and their potential utility discussed. PMID:19566316

Hernández-Montes, Maria del Socorro; Furlong, Cosme; Rosowski, John J.; Hulli, Nesim; Harrington, Ellery; Cheng, Jeffrey Tao; Ravicz, Michael E.; Santoyo, Fernando Mendoza

2009-01-01

38

Tympanic membrane contour measurement with two source positions in digital holographic interferometry  

PubMed Central

The data acquisition from the shape of an object is a must to complete its quantitative displacement measurement analysis. Over the past years whole field of view optical non-invasive testing has been widely used in many areas, from industrial ones to, for instance, biomedical research topics. To measure the surface contour from the tympanic membrane (TM) of ex-vivo cats digital holographic interferometry (DHI) is used in combination with a two-illumination positions method: the shape is directly measured from the phase change between two source positions by means of a digital Fourier transform method. The TM shape data in conjunction with its displacement data renders a complete and accurate description of the TM deformation, a feature that no doubt will serve to better comprehend the hearing process. Acquiring knowledge from the tissue shape indicates a mechanical behavior and, indirectly, an alteration in the physiological structure due to middle ear diseases or damages in the tissue that can deteriorate sound transmission. The TM shape contour was successfully measured by using two source positions within DHI showing that the TM has a conical shape. Its maximum depth was found to be 2 mm, considering the umbo as the reference point with respect to the TM annulus plane, where the setup is arranged in such a manner that it is capable of measuring a height of up to 7 mm. PMID:23243570

Solís, Silvino M.; Hernández-Montes, María del S.; Santoyo, Fernando M.

2012-01-01

39

Multiphoton microscopy imaging of collagen fiber layers and orientation in the tympanic membrane  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Greater understanding of tympanic membrane (TM) biomechanics has the potential to guide future advances in medical technology related to its surgical repair (myringoplasty). The pars tensa of the TM is a composite structure with two collagen fiber layers that provide the main scaffolding for the TM. The external layer is arranged in an approximately radial configuration, and the other is arranged in an approximately circumferential configuration. A more detailed knowledge of collagen fiber orientation and volume fraction could greatly improve existing mechanical simulations of the TM. To address this, we employed multiphoton microscopy (MPM) imaging of the TM in two modalities: second harmonic generation (SHG) and two-photon fluorescence (TPF). The unique spectral signature of SHG allows selective imaging of collagen fibers. TPF also produces images of fibrillar-type collagen but lacks the specificity of SHG. Both the SHG and TPF images show patterns of collagen organization in the TM that match expected results with respect to both orientation and size. Through MPM, we intend to accurately determine the collagen fiber layer thickness, density, and orientation as a function of radial position and quadrant location.

Jackson, R. P.; Chlebicki, C.; Krasieva, T. B.; Puria, S.

2008-02-01

40

Tympanic membrane contour measurement with two source positions in digital holographic interferometry.  

PubMed

The data acquisition from the shape of an object is a must to complete its quantitative displacement measurement analysis. Over the past years whole field of view optical non-invasive testing has been widely used in many areas, from industrial ones to, for instance, biomedical research topics. To measure the surface contour from the tympanic membrane (TM) of ex-vivo cats digital holographic interferometry (DHI) is used in combination with a two-illumination positions method: the shape is directly measured from the phase change between two source positions by means of a digital Fourier transform method. The TM shape data in conjunction with its displacement data renders a complete and accurate description of the TM deformation, a feature that no doubt will serve to better comprehend the hearing process. Acquiring knowledge from the tissue shape indicates a mechanical behavior and, indirectly, an alteration in the physiological structure due to middle ear diseases or damages in the tissue that can deteriorate sound transmission. The TM shape contour was successfully measured by using two source positions within DHI showing that the TM has a conical shape. Its maximum depth was found to be 2 mm, considering the umbo as the reference point with respect to the TM annulus plane, where the setup is arranged in such a manner that it is capable of measuring a height of up to 7 mm. PMID:23243570

Solís, Silvino M; Hernández-Montes, María Del S; Santoyo, Fernando M

2012-12-01

41

Plasminogen initiates and potentiates the healing of acute and chronic tympanic membrane perforations in mice  

PubMed Central

Background Most tympanic membrane (TM) perforations heal spontaneously, but approximately 10-20% remain open as chronic TM perforations. Chronic perforations can lead to an impaired hearing ability and recurrent middle ear infections. Traditionally, these perforations must be surgically closed, which is costly and time consuming. Therefore, there is a need for simpler therapeutic strategies. Previous studies by us have shown that plasminogen (plg) is a potent pro-inflammatory regulator that accelerates cutaneous wound healing in mice. We have also shown that the healing of TM perforations is completely arrested in plg-deficient (plg-/-) mice and that these mice develop chronic TM perforations. In the present study, we investigated the therapeutic potential of local plg injection in acute and chronic TM perforation mice models. Methods Plg-/- mice and wild-type mice were subjected to standardized TM perforations followed by local injection of plg into the soft tissue surrounding the TM. TM perforations with chronic characteristics were induced by leaving TM perforations in plg-/- mice untreated for 9 days before treatment. The healing process was observed through otomicroscope and finally confirmed by immunostaining. The quality of TM healing was evaluated based on the morphology of the TM. Result Daily local injections of plg into the soft tissue surrounding the TM restored the ability to heal TM perforations in plg-/- mice in a dose-dependent manner, and potentiated the healing rate and quality in wild-type mice. A single local injection of plg initiated the healing of the chronic-like TM perforations in these mice, resulting in a closed TM with a continuous but rather thick outer keratinocyte layer. However, three plg injections led to a completely healed TM with a thin keratinizing squamous epithelium covering a connective tissue layer. Conclusion Our data suggests that plg is a promising drug candidate for the treatment of chronic TM perforations in humans. PMID:24393366

2014-01-01

42

Regeneration of chronic tympanic membrane perforation using 3D collagen with topical umbilical cord serum.  

PubMed

Chronic tympanic membrane (TM) perforation is one of the most common otology complications. Current surgical management of TM perforation includes myringoplasty and tympanoplasty. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and feasibility of three dimensional (3D) porous collagen scaffolds with topically applied human umbilical cord serum (UCS) for the regeneration of chronic TM perforation in guinea pigs. To achieve this goal, we fabricated porous 3D collagen scaffolds (avg. strut diameter of 236 ± 51 ?m, avg. pore size of 382 ± 67 ?m, and a porosity of 96%) by using a 3 axis robot dispensing and low temperature plate systems. Guinea pigs were used in a model of chronic TM perforation. In the experimental group (n=10), 3D collagen scaffold was placed on the perforation and topically applied of UCS every other day for a period of 8 days. The control group ears (n=10) were treated with paper discs and phosphate buffered saline (PBS) only using the same regimen. Healing time, acoustic-mechanical properties, and morphological analysis were performed by otoendoscopy, auditory brainstem response (ABR), single-point laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV), optical coherence tomography (OCT), and light microscopic evaluation. The closure of the TM perforation was achieved in 100% of the experimental group vs. 43% of the control group, and this difference was statistically significant (p=0.034). The ABR threshold at all frequencies of the experimental group was significantly recovered to the normal level compared to the control group. TM vibration velocity in the experimental group recovered similar to the normal control level. The difference is very small and they are not statistically significant below 1 kHz (p=0.074). By OCT and light microscopic examination, regenerated TM of the experimental group showed thickened fibrous and mucosal layer. In contrast, the control group showed absence of fibrous layer like a dimeric TM. PMID:24016669

Jang, Chul Ho; Cho, Yong Beom; Yeo, MyungGu; Lee, Hyeongjin; Min, Eun Jung; Lee, Byung Hhwa; Kim, Geun Hyung

2013-11-01

43

Enhanced quantitative confocal microscopy and its application for the measurement of tympanic membrane thickness  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work shows that confocal microscopy allows a quantitative study of delicate 3D-biotissue in fresh condition, thus avoiding histological preparation processes. The developed procedure results in exact and accurate thickness data for mum-sized objects with a measuring error of less than 1mum. It is, however, necessary to take into account the effect of focal shift in the case of refractive index mismatch to obtain such precise data. The use of the proposed method is advised instead of the use of a paraxial approximation for the axial scale correction because the method improves measurement precision by a factor of four. The axial scaling correction factors obtained in this work show that for most practical situations the correction cannot be ignored when one wants to obtain precise quantitative data. The thickness correction method can also be used to determine with high accuracy the index of refraction of biological tissue. The thickness measurement method was applied to fresh, untreated tympanic membranes of the gerbil, the cat and the human. Thickness had to be measured at many points as it differs strongly across the membrane. Similar thickness distributions were found in all pars tensas measured even across the species studied: (1) a very thin, central region with a rather constant thickness, curving as a horse shoe upwards around the manubrium (thickness: gerbil: about 7mum, cat: about 10mum, human: large inter-specimen variation: 40mum-120mum), (2) a thinnest zone at the inferior side, (3) a thicker zone at the supero-anterior side, (4) superior to the umbo, an anterior region thicker than the posterior region, (5) maximal thicknesses in a very small region near the entire manubrium and the entire annular periphery. The pars flaccida is found to be thicker than the pars tensa. It shows no central homogeneous zone: the thickness varies irregularly and very rapidly over short distances. Arbitrarily spaced bumps and notches are present over the entire pars flaccida surface. The thickness results advise against the use of single thickness values in mathematical models. The presented thickness and its spatial distribution can be introduced into middle ear computer models to further improve model realism.

Kuypers, Liesbeth

2005-11-01

44

Motion of the surface of the human tympanic membrane measured with stroboscopic holography  

PubMed Central

Sound-induced motion of the surface of the human tympanic membrane (TM) was studied by stroboscopic holographic interferometery, which measures the amplitude and phase of the displacement at each of about 40000 points on the surface of the TM. Measurements were made with tonal stimuli of 0.5, 1, 4 and 8 kHz. The magnitude and phase of the sinusoidal displacement of the TM at each driven frequency were derived from the fundamental Fourier component of the raw displacement data computed from stroboscopic holograms of the TM recorded at eight stimulus phases. The correlation between the Fourier estimates and measured motion data was generally above 0.9 over the entire TM surface. We used three data presentations: (i) Plots of the phasic displacements along a single chord across the surface of the TM, (ii) Phasic surface maps of the displacement of the entire TM surface, and (iii) Plots of the Fourier derived amplitude and phase-angle of the surface displacement along four diameter lines that define and bisect each of the four quadrants of the TM. These displays led to some common conclusions: At 0.5 and 1 kHz, the entire TM moved roughly in-phase with some small phase delay apparent between local areas of maximal displacement in the posterior half of the TM. At 4 and 8 kHz, the motion of the TM became more complicated with multiple local displacement maxima arranged in rings around the manubrium. The displacements at most of these maxima were roughly in-phase, while some moved out-of-phase. Superposed on this in- and out-of-phase behavior were significant cyclic variations in phase with location of less than 0.2 cycles or occasionally rapid half-cycle step-like changes in phase. The high frequency displacement amplitude and phase maps discovered in this study can not be explained by any single wave motion, but are consistent with a combination of low and higher order modal motions plus some small traveling-wave-like components. The observations of the dynamics of TM surface motion from this study will help us better understand the sound-receiving function of the TM and how it couples sound to the ossicular chain and inner ear. PMID:20034549

Cheng, Jeffrey Tao; Aarnisalo, Antti A.; Harrington, Ellery; Hernandez-Montes, Maria del Socorro; Furlong, Cosme; Merchant, Saumil N.; Rosowski, John J.

2010-01-01

45

How can the hooded seal dive to a depth of 1000 m without rupturing its tympanic membrane? A morphological and functional study.  

PubMed

Recent studies using a satellite-linked dive recorder have shown that the hooded seal (Cystophora cristata), a common Arctic pinniped, can dive to a depth of > 1000 m and stay submerged for close to 1 h. At these depths the water pressure reaches 100 atm, entailing obvious risk of serious damage to the hearing apparatus, mainly the tympanic membrane (TM) and middle ear (ME). We dissected and photodocumented the temporal bones of five newborn and three adult hooded seals in order to study the temporal bone structure and reveal its protective mechanisms for extreme pressure changes. Specimens were sectioned and stained for light microscopy. The thicknesses of the pars tensa and pars flaccida were found to average 60 and 180 microm, respectively. The ME cavity hosts a cavernous tissue of thin-walled vessels beneath the modified respiratory epithelium. The ME and external ear canal (EAC) volumes can be altered appreciably by filling/emptying the cavernous tissue with blood. The ossicles were fixed by contracting the tensor tympani and stapedius muscles simultaneously with complete occlusion of the EAC. According to Boyle's law, the volume of the gas-filled ME cavity at a depth of 1000 m is only 1% of its volume at the surface of the sea. Ascent from such a depth allows the gas in the ME cavity to expand, causing the TM to bulge laterally. This movement is counteracted by a reduction in the blood volume inside the cavernous sinuses, action in the tensor tympani and stapedius muscles and discharge of gas through the Eustachian tube. The presence of a firm, broad-based exostosis in the floor of the EAC lateral to the TM helps to obstruct the EAC. PMID:11678167

Stenfors, L E; Sadé, J; Hellström, S; Anniko, M

2001-09-01

46

A finite element analysis of the natural frequencies of vibration of the human tympanic membrane. Part I.  

PubMed

The present work examines the natural frequencies of vibration of the decoupled human tympanic membrane using the finite element method. A model comprising 49 isoparametric semi-loof thin shell elements was built, based on shape measurements of Kirikae (1960) and our own measurements on several local cadaver ears. A range of material data input was used similar to that assessed earlier by Funnell and Laszlo (1978). The present results indicate the natural vibration mode shapes are simple at low frequencies, but become more complex at higher values as found earlier (Tonndorf and Khanna, 1972; Funnell and Laszlo, 1978), but at reduced frequencies. Data input of the real drum thickenesses and dimensions considerably increases the natural frequencies by about 50% above those for a uniformly thick membrane. It is suggested that realistic eardrum natural frequencies may result from the use of a membrane internal stress parameter in the data file in order to simulate the interplay between radial and circular fibres resulting in the observed drum curvature. PMID:2265302

Williams, K R; Lesser, T H

1990-10-01

47

Evaluation of the optimum time for direct application of fibroblast growth factor to human traumatic tympanic membrane perforations.  

PubMed

Abstract Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the optimum time for direct application of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) on large traumatic tympanic membrane perforations (TMPs). Study design: Prospective clinical study. Setting: Tertiary University Hospital. Methods: Ninety-three patients, with traumatic TMPs greater in extent than 25% of the entire tympanic membrane, were randomized into observation and bFGF-treated groups (?0.2-0.25?mL of bFGF solution was applied directly onto the TM once daily and continued until the perforation closed). Initial visit times were subcategorized into perforation durations of ?3 and >3 days, thereby rendering two subgroups, as follows: A and B in the observation group; and C and D in the bFGF-treated group. The closure rate and mean closure time were evaluated after 6 months. Results: Eighty-six patients were finally analyzed. After 6 months, the bFGF-treated group exhibited a significantly higher total closure rate (97.8 versus 82.5%, p??0.05) and mean closure time (p?>?0.05), between the A and B subgroups. Similarly, in the bFGF-treated group, visiting time was not associated with differences in closure rate (p?>?0.05) between the C and D subgroups. However, the D subgroup was characterized by significantly shortened mean closure time compared with the C subgroup (p?

Lou, Zhengcai; Wang, Yubizhuo

2014-11-01

48

Full-field transient vibrometry of the human tympanic membrane by local phase correlation and high-speed holography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the human hearing process would be helped by quantification of the transient mechanical response of the human ear, including the human tympanic membrane (TM or eardrum). We propose a new hybrid high-speed holographic system (HHS) for acquisition and quantification of the full-field nanometer transient (i.e., >10 kHz) displacement of the human TM. We have optimized and implemented a 2+1 frame local correlation (LC) based phase sampling method in combination with a high-speed (i.e., >40 K fps) camera acquisition system. To our knowledge, there is currently no existing system that provides such capabilities for the study of the human TM. The LC sampling method has a displacement difference of <11 nm relative to measurements obtained by a four-phase step algorithm. Comparisons between our high-speed acquisition system and a laser Doppler vibrometer indicate differences of <10 ?s. The high temporal (i.e., >40 kHz) and spatial (i.e., >100 k data points) resolution of our HHS enables parallel measurements of all points on the surface of the TM, which allows quantification of spatially dependent motion parameters, such as modal frequencies and acoustic delays. Such capabilities could allow inferring local material properties across the surface of the TM.

Dobrev, Ivo; Furlong, Cosme; Cheng, Jeffrey T.; Rosowski, John J.

2014-09-01

49

Full-field transient vibrometry of the human tympanic membrane by local phase correlation and high-speed holography.  

PubMed

Understanding the human hearing process would be helped by quantification of the transient mechanical response of the human ear, including the human tympanic membrane (TM or eardrum). We propose a new hybrid high-speed holographic system (HHS) for acquisition and quantification of the full-field nanometer transient (i.e., >10 kHz) displacement of the human TM. We have optimized and implemented a 2 þ 1 frame local correlation (LC) based phase sampling method in combination with a high-speed (i.e., >40 K fps) camera acquisition system. To our knowledge, there is currently no existing system that provides such capabilities for the study of the human TM. The LC sampling method has a displacement difference of <11 nm relative to measurements obtained by a four-phase step algorithm. Comparisons between our high-speed acquisition system and a laser Doppler vibrometer indicate differences of <10 ?s. The high temporal (i.e., >40 kHz) and spatial (i.e., >100 k data points) resolution of our HHS enables parallel measurements of all points on the surface of the TM, which allows quantification of spatially dependent motion parameters, such as modal frequencies and acoustic delays. Such capabilities could allow inferring local material properties across the surface of the TM. PMID:25191832

Dobrev, Ivo; Furlong, Cosme; Cheng, Jeffrey T; Rosowski, John J

2014-09-01

50

Simultaneous 3D imaging of sound-induced motions of the tympanic membrane and middle ear ossicles  

PubMed Central

Efficient transfer of sound by the middle ear ossicles is essential for hearing. Various pathologies can impede the transmission of sound and thereby cause conductive hearing loss. Differential diagnosis of ossicular disorders can be challenging since the ossicles are normally hidden behind the tympanic membrane (TM). Here we describe the use of a technique termed optical coherence tomography (OCT) vibrography to view the sound-induced motion of the TM and ossicles simultaneously. With this method, we were able to capture three-dimensional motion of the intact TM and ossicles of the chinchilla ear with nanometer-scale sensitivity at sound frequencies from 0.5 to 5 kHz. The vibration patterns of the TM were complex and highly frequency dependent with mean amplitudes of 70–120 nm at 100 dB sound pressure level. The TM motion was only marginally sensitive to stapes fixation and incus-stapes joint interruption; however, when additional information derived from the simultaneous measurement of ossicular motion was added, it was possible to clearly distinguish these different simulated pathologies. The technique may be applicable to clinical diagnosis in Otology and to basic research in audition and acoustics. PMID:23811181

Chang, Ernest W.; Cheng, Jeffrey T.; Röösli, Christof; Kobler, James B.; Rosowski, John J.; Yun, Seok Hyun

2013-01-01

51

Real-time automated thickness measurement of the in vivo human tympanic membrane using optical coherence tomography  

PubMed Central

Background Otitis media (OM), an infection in the middle ear, is extremely common in the pediatric population. Current gold-standard methods for diagnosis include otoscopy for visualizing the surface features of the tympanic membrane (TM) and making qualitative assessments to determine middle ear content. OM typically presents as an acute infection, but can progress to chronic OM, and after numerous infections and antibiotic treatments over the course of many months, this disease is often treated by surgically inserting small tubes in the TM to relieve pressure, enable drainage, and provide aeration to the middle ear. Diagnosis and monitoring of OM is critical for successful management, but remains largely qualitative. Methods We have developed an optical coherence tomography (OCT) system for high-resolution, depth-resolved, cross-sectional imaging of the TM and middle ear content, and for the quantitative assessment of in vivo TM thickness including the presence or absence of a middle ear biofilm. A novel algorithm was developed and demonstrated for automatic, real-time, and accurate measurement of TM thickness to aid in the diagnosis and monitoring of OM and other middle ear conditions. The segmentation algorithm applies a Hough transform to the OCT image data to determine the boundaries of the TM to calculate thickness. Results The use of OCT and this segmentation algorithm is demonstrated first on layered phantoms and then during real-time acquisition of in vivo OCT from humans. For the layered phantoms, measured thicknesses varied by approximately 5 µm over time in the presence of large axial and rotational motion. In vivo data also demonstrated differences in thicknesses both spatially on a single TM, and across normal, acute, and chronic OM cases. Conclusions Real-time segmentation and thickness measurements of image data from both healthy subjects and those with acute and chronic OM demonstrate the use of OCT and this algorithm as a robust, quantitative, and accurate method for use during real-time in vivo human imaging.

Hubler, Zita; Shemonski, Nathan D.; Shelton, Ryan L.; Monroy, Guillermo L.; Nolan, Ryan M.

2015-01-01

52

Dominance of Haemophilus influenzae in ear discharge from Indigenous Australian children with acute otitis media with tympanic membrane perforation  

PubMed Central

Background Indigenous Australian children living in remote communities experience high rates of acute otitis media with tympanic membrane perforation (AOMwiP). Otitis media in this population is associated with dense nasopharyngeal colonization of three primary otopathogens; Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Moraxella catarrhalis. Little is known about the relative abundance of these pathogens during infection. The objective of this study was to estimate the abundance and concordance of otopathogens in ear discharge and paired nasopharyngeal swabs from children with AOMwiP (discharge of not more than 6 weeks’ duration and perforation size <2%). Methods Culture and quantitative PCR (qPCR) estimation of H. influenzae, S. pneumoniae, M. catarrhalis and total bacterial load were performed on paired nasopharyngeal and ear discharge swabs from 55 Indigenous children with AOMwiP aged 3.5 – 45.6 months and resident in remote communities. Results By culture, H. influenzae, S. pneumoniae, and M. catarrhalis were detected in 80%, 84% and 91% of nasopharyngeal swabs, and 49%, 33% and 4% of ear discharge swabs, respectively. Using qPCR, H. influenzae, S. pneumoniae, and M. catarrhalis were detected in 82%, 82%, and 93% of nasopharyngeal swabs, and 89%, 41% and 18% of ear discharge swabs, respectively. Relative abundance of H. influenzae in ear discharge swabs was 0-68% of the total bacterial load (median 2.8%); whereas S. pneumoniae and M. catarrhalis relative abundances were consistently <2% of the total bacterial load. S. pneumoniae and M. catarrhalis abundances were significantly lower in ear discharge compared with nasopharyngeal swabs (p?=?0.001, p?

2013-01-01

53

[The emergency plastic reconstruction of the tympanic membrane defects of post-traumatic and iatrogenic etiology with the application of the nanostructured bioplastic material].  

PubMed

The objective of the present study was to estimate the effectiveness of the application of the nanostructured bioplastic material for the plastic reconstruction of tympanic defects of post-traumatic and iatrogenic etiology. The authors report the results of the emergency plastic reconstruction of tympanic defects of post-traumatic and iatrogenic nature with the application of the nanostructured bioplastic material (giamatrix). The analysis of the results of the study prfovidd definitive evidence of the effectiveness of plastic reconstruction of tympanic defects with the application of the nanostructured bioplastic material. PMID:25588474

Zabirov, R A; Kar'kaeva, S M; Shchetinin, V N; Akimov, A V

2014-01-01

54

Incomplete punctal canalization -a balloon variant of the external membrane: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Incomplete punctal canalization is an uncommon congenital disorder characterized by a dysgenetic punctum with membranes. External membranes, the most common type of incomplete punctal canalization are flat and overlie the punctum as a veil. We describe a newer variant of incomplete punctal canalization, its clinical profile, diagnostic criteria and management. Case presentation A 9-year-old Indian boy presented with watering of his right eye since birth. His right eye lower punctal area showed an avascular translucent elevation that appeared to have a smooth dome shape. An examination at high magnification showed the slopes of the dome gradually merging and contiguous with the tarsal conjunctiva. Based on a very high degree of suspicion, an impression of atypical external membrane variety of incomplete punctal canalization was made. Membranotomy was successful in the management of his condition. Conclusions A high degree of suspicion is the key point in the diagnosis of this variant, keeping in mind the other features described for incomplete punctal canalization- external membrane. It is possible that ballooning of these membranes may represent an evolutionary stage in the process of complete canalization and this could be the starting point for further dacryo-embryologic exploration and correlations. PMID:24716896

2014-01-01

55

Computer-assisted time-averaged holograms of the motion of the surface of the mammalian tympanic membrane with sound stimuli of 0.4 to 25 kHz  

PubMed Central

Time-averaged holograms describing the sound-induced motion of the tympanic membrane (TM) in cadaveric preparations from three mammalian species and one live ear were measured using opto-electronic holography. This technique allows rapid measurements of the magnitude of motion of the tympanic membrane surface at frequencies as high as 25 kHz. The holograms measured in response to low and middle-frequency sound stimuli are similar to previously reported time-averaged holograms. However, at higher frequencies (f > 4 kHz), our holograms reveal unique TM surface displacement patterns that consist of highly-ordered arrangements of multiple local displacement magnitude maxima, each of which is surrounded by nodal areas of low displacement magnitude. These patterns are similar to modal patterns (two-dimensional standing waves) produced by either the interaction of surface waves traveling in multiple directions or the uniform stimulation of modes of motion that are determined by the structural properties and boundary conditions of the TM. From the ratio of the displacement magnitude peaks to nodal valleys in these apparent surface waves, we estimate a Standing Wave Ratio of at least 4 that is consistent with energy reflection coefficients at the TM boundaries of at least 0.35. It is also consistent with small losses within the uniformly stimulated modal surface waves. We also estimate possible TM surface wave speeds that vary with frequency and species from 20 to 65 m/s, consistent with other estimates in the literature. The presence of standing wave or modal phenomena has previously been intuited from measurements of TM function, but is ignored in some models of tympanic membrane function. Whether these standing waves result either from the interactions of multiple surface waves that travel along the membrane, or by uniformly excited modal displacement patterns of the entire TM surface is still to be determined. PMID:19328841

Rosowski, John J.; Cheng, Jeffrey Tao; Ravicz, Michael E.; Hulli, Nesim; Hernandez-Montes, Maria; Harrington, Ellery; Furlong, Cosme

2009-01-01

56

Tympanic and transtympanic electrocochleography in acoustic neuroma and vestibular nerve section surgery.  

PubMed

Eighth nerve action potential (AP) amplitudes and latencies and cochlear microphonic (CM) amplitudes were compared using tympanic and transtympanic electrocochleography (ECOG) in two patient groups. Tympanic ECOG was performed with a wick electrode placed on the tympanic membrane (TM). Transtympanic ECOG was performed with a needle electrode placed on the promontory of the anesthetized patient. Eighteen subjects were tested by tympanic ECOG as part of a preoperative assessment for either acoustic neuroma removal or transection of the vestibular portion of the eighth cranial nerve. Surgery occurred within 1 week of the preoperative evaluation. Intraoperative auditory monitoring was performed using transtympanic ECOG. Baseline recordings were compared to the preoperative tympanic ECOG data. Stimuli were condensation and rarefaction clicks and tone bursts, presented by an insert earphone. As expected, the two methods resulted in essentially identical response latencies and large amplitude differences, although the response amplitudes were extremely variable. The AP amplitude and the CM amplitude did not increase by the same factor with the transtympanic (TT) electrode compared to the tympanic electrode. On comparison of preoperative and intraoperative response amplitudes with regard to stimulus polarity, tympanic electrocochleography appears to be a useful method of gathering preliminary information on the status of the patient's auditory system. In this study, tympanic ECOG was found to have some predictive value when trying to ascertain the best intraoperative monitoring situation. PMID:8424478

Winzenburg, S M; Margolis, R H; Levine, S C; Haines, S J; Fournier, E M

1993-01-01

57

A rare vascular tumor of the external auditory canal: the capillary hemangioma.  

PubMed

A 32-year-old woman presented to our department with a 10-month history of right-sided intermittant otorrhagia. There was no history of hearing loss or pulsatile tinnitus. Otomicroscopic examination revealed a reddish mass arising from the right antero-superior portion of bony canal wall, which measured about 1 cm in diameter. The tympanic membrane seemed to be uninvolved. A computed tomography scan of the temporal bone showed 0.6 x 0.8 cm diameter soft-tissue mass arising from the right external auditory canal, 0.5 cm away from tympanic membrane. The lesion was excised via a transcanal approach under local anesthesia. The histopathologic assessment indicated a capillary hemangioma. There was no recurrence four years after the surgery. Hemangioma of the external auditory canal is a rare otologic entity. It is commonly classified as capillary or cavernous hemangioma. According to the literature, this case represents the second patient with capillary hemangioma of the external auditory canal. PMID:19860637

Ya?ar, Hüsamettin; Ozkul, Haluk; Somay, Adnan

2009-01-01

58

Sound pressure distribution within natural and artificial human ear canals: Forward stimulation.  

PubMed

This work is part of a study of the interaction of sound pressure in the ear canal (EC) with tympanic membrane (TM) surface displacement. Sound pressures were measured with 0.5-2?mm spacing at three locations within the shortened natural EC or an artificial EC in human temporal bones: near the TM surface, within the tympanic ring plane, and in a plane transverse to the long axis of the EC. Sound pressure was also measured at 2-mm intervals along the long EC axis. The sound field is described well by the size and direction of planar sound pressure gradients, the location and orientation of standing-wave nodal lines, and the location of longitudinal standing waves along the EC axis. Standing-wave nodal lines perpendicular to the long EC axis are present on the TM surface >11-16?kHz in the natural or artificial EC. The range of sound pressures was larger in the tympanic ring plane than at the TM surface or in the transverse EC plane. Longitudinal standing-wave patterns were stretched. The tympanic-ring sound field is a useful approximation of the TM sound field, and the artificial EC approximates the natural EC. PMID:25480061

Ravicz, Michael E; Tao Cheng, Jeffrey; Rosowski, John J

2014-12-01

59

Virtual otoscopy for evaluating the inner ear with a fluid-filled tympanic cavity in dogs.  

PubMed

The feasibility of virtual otoscopy (VO) imaging was evaluated in five dogs with experimentally induced otitis media, two control dogs, and two canine patients with otitis media. VO images of the tympanic cavity and ossicles were generated with commercially available software using raw computed tomography (CT) data. Eight out of 10 ears inoculated with pathogen exhibited obvious clinical signs associated with otitis externa. CT images revealed soft tissue density material occupying the tympanic bulla compatible with otitis media in three dogs with experimentally induced otitis media and two patients. No remarkable features were observed on the radiographs. Four different VO views (ear canal, tympanic bulla, eustachian tube, and ossicular chain) were created. Promontory, cochlea window, tympanic, and septum bulla as well as ossicles were easily and clearly distinguished except for the incus and stapes of the clinical patients. VO images were not more suitable than images created with conventional CT for accurately diagnosing otitis media in this study. However, it appears that VO could be more feasible for assessing the complex structure of the inner ear in dogs with fluid-filled tympanic cavities since fluid accumulation within the tympanic bulla did not affect the evaluation of bony tissue in the middle ear on VO images. PMID:23271184

Cho, Youngkwon; Jeong, Jimo; Lee, Haebeom; Kim, Minsu; Kim, Namsoo; Lee, Kichang

2012-12-01

60

Endoscopic transcanal removal of symptomatic external auditory canal exostoses.  

PubMed

Exostoses are bony outgrowths of the external auditory canal (EAC) that can lead to cerumen entrapment, recurrent infections, and conductive hearing loss. When surgical removal is indicated, a drill or osteotome may be used via a post-auricular, endaural, or transcanal approach. Studies suggest that exostoses removed by transcanal osteotome result in decreased morbidity when compared to open, drilled approaches; however, inadvertent injury to the facial nerve or inner ear is a theoretical concern given the restrictive geometry of the EAC and challenges of visualizing the tip of the chisel through the microscope. The endoscope provides superior visualization of the external auditory canal and tympanic membrane compared to the microscope. We sought to demonstrate the efficacy and safety of endoscopic exostosis surgery with an osteotome. We find that the endoscope provides improved wide angled views without blind spots. There were no intraoperative complications. Endoscopic canaloplasty for exostoses may be readily applied. PMID:25459316

Kozin, Elliott D; Remenschneider, Aaron K; Shah, Parth V; Reardon, Edward; Lee, Daniel J

2014-10-16

61

Comparison of Ear-Canal Reflectance and Umbo Velocity in Patients with Conductive Hearing Loss  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Patients who present at hearing clinics with a conductive hearing loss (CHL) in the presence of an intact, healthy tympanic membrane create a unique challenge for otologists. While patient counseling, treatment options, and outcome vary with differing middle-ear pathologies, a non-invasive diagnostic that can differentiate between these pathologies does not currently exist. We evaluated the clinical utility and diagnostic accuracy of two non-invasive measures of middle-ear mechanics: ear-canal reflectance (ECR) and umbo velocity (VU).

Merchant, Gabrielle R.; Nakajima, Hideko H.; Pisano, Dominic V.; Röösli, Christof; Hamade, Mohamad A.; Mafoud, Lorice; Halpin, Christopher F.; Merchant, Saumil N.; Rosowski, John J.

2011-11-01

62

Vibration of the human tympanic membrane measured with OCT in a range between 0.4 kHz and 6.4 kHz on an ex vivo sample  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vibrations of the tympanic membrane (TM) play a key role for the transmission of sound to the inner ear. Today, there exist still problems in measuring the movement of the TM and there are unresolved issues in understanding the TM and its behavior. A non-invasive and contact-free in vivo investigation of the structure and the functional behavior of the TM would be a big step forward. In the presented study, the suitability of optical coherence tomography (OCT) for measuring the oscillation patterns of the TM in the frequency range covering the range of the human speech perception should be tested. For functional imaging a sound chirp was generated in the frequency range between 0.4 kHz - 6.4 kHz. To obtain the movement within a sufficient resolution, a grid of 25 x 25 measurement points was generated over the whole TM. The information of the oscillatory movement was encoded in the Doppler signal, provided by M-scans at several points of the TM. The frequency response functions of each frequency showed different oscillation patterns on the TM. The acquisition time of one single M-scan was only 8.5 ms and of the entire TM 5.3 s, emphasizing the potential of the method for future in vivo applications. Furthermore, the morphology was acquired with the same OCT-system, showing the feasibility for structural imaging and differentiation between typical regions of the TM. Thus, OCT was shown as a suitable method for the simultaneous measurement of the functional and structural behavior of the TM.

Burkhardt, Anke; Kirsten, Lars; Bornitz, Matthias; Zahnert, Thomas; Koch, Edmund

2013-06-01

63

[Cholesteatoma by osteoma of the external auditory canal].  

PubMed

Osteoma in the external auditory canal (EAC) is an uncommon benign tumor. The association of a cholesteatoma with an osteoma of EAC is extremely rare. We report a case of a 26-year-old woman with an osteoma of the left EAC that was complicated by a cholesteatoma in the EAC between the osteoma and left tympanic membrane. Surgical removal of the osteoma and cholesteatoma proved successful by postauricular approach. The follow up without recurrence is 24 months. Osteoma of the EAC is a solitary, unilateral, and slow-growing bony benign tumor. The foremost differential diagnosis is exostose that is multiple and bilateral. Cholesteatoma of the EAC is uncommon. Its basic pathogenesis is a chronic occlusion of the EAC. Surgical treatment avoids complications related to local aggressiveness of cholesteatoma. PMID:23393744

Maliki, O; Aderdour, L; Ziad, T; Nouri, H; Rouchdi, Y; Marrat, A; Raji, A

2012-01-01

64

Canal wall window mastoidectomy for extensive labyrinthine cholesteatoma: total dissection and hearing preservation.  

PubMed

This case report highlights outcomes of a 6-year-old patient who preserved functional hearing after complete dissection of an extensive labyrinthine cholesteatoma causing two semicircular canals fistulas with endolymph leak, tympanic and labyrinthine fallopian canal erosion of the facial nerve and internal auditory canal invasion with cerebrospinal fluid leak. The patient preserved 40 dB average of bone conduction threshold and 92% of speech discrimination score at 26 months postoperatively. This article reveals that canal wall window mastoidectomy might be an option even in cases of extensive cholesteatomatous labyrinthine fistula therefore avoiding hearing loss and long life cleaning of a canal wall down mastoid cavity. PMID:21605917

Bergeron, M; Saliba, I

2011-07-01

65

Assessment of hypothermia with a new “tympanic” thermometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. Rapid and accurate core temperature measurement is vitally important in trauma patients, especially in those with\\u000a accidental hypothermia. We tested a new aural thermometer to measure “tympanic” temperatures and assessed its accuracy during\\u000a normothermic and hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass.Methods. Tympanic, esophageal, and blood temperatures were compared in 10 patients undergoing open-heart surgery. In addition, the\\u000a stability and reaction time of

B. H. Walpoth; J. Galdikas; F. Leupi; W. Muehlemann; P. Schlaepfer; U. Althaus

1994-01-01

66

Detection of certain African, insectivorous bats by sympatric, tympanate moths  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tympanic organs of moths we studied in Zimbabwe responded differentially to the echolocation\\/hunting signals of sympatric, insectivorous bats. Bats employing very high frequencies (> 110 kHz) and\\/or low intensity cries tend to be first detected by tympanal preparations at distances considerably less than those with more intense, mid-frequency (20–60 kHz) cries. There appears to be some positive correlation between

James H. Fullard; Donald W. Thomas

1981-01-01

67

Comparison of Obliteration Materials Used for Revision Canal Wall-down Mastoidectomy with Mastoid Obliteration.  

PubMed

Aim: To describe our surgical technique and compare the results of obliteration materials. Patients and Methods: Fifty patients over a 7-year period were evaluated retrospectively. Out of these 50 consecutive patients, 29 had recurrent chronic otitis media (COM) with or without cholesteatoma and 21 patients had old open cavities. Efficacy of mastoid obliteration was assessed by an electronic chart review, otoendoscopic findings, temporal bone computerized tomography (CT) images, and postoperative caloric test. Results: Among 50 patients, inferiorly-based periosteal flap was used in 25 patients (50%) and anteriorly-based periosteal flap was used in the other 25 patients. Tympanic membrane and newly-formed external auditory canal wall was intact in 48 patients (96%). The newly-formed EAC provided sufficient aeration, and satisfactory aesthetic appearance. None of our patients complained of vertigo triggered by cold air or water. There was no significant difference in the caloric test results between the operated ear and the normal ear. No difference was observed in the caloric test between the bone pate and costal cartilage groups. Conclusion: Our results indicate that mastoid obliteration using autogenous bone pate or costal cartilage is helpful in improving the outcomes of revision canal wall-down mastoidectomy in patients with an old radical cavity and recurrent COM or cholesteatoma. PMID:25398825

Jo, Si Young; Eom, Tae Ho; Yang, Hyung Chae; Cho, Yong Beom; Jang, Chul Ho

68

Effects of the intensity of masking noise on ear canal recorded low-frequency cochlear microphonic waveforms in normal hearing subjects.  

PubMed

Compared to auditory brainstem responses (ABRs), cochlear microphonics (CMs) may be more appropriate to serve as a supplement to the test of otoacoustic emissions (OAEs). Researchers have shown that low-frequency CMs from the apical cochlea are measurable at the tympanic membrane using high-pass masking noise. Our objective is to study the effect of such noise at different intensities on low-frequency CMs recorded at the ear canal, which is not completely known. Six components were involved in this CM measurement including an ear canal electrode (1), a relatively long and low-frequency toneburst (2), and high-pass masking noise at different intensities (3). The rest components include statistical analysis based on multiple human subjects (4), curve modeling based on amplitudes of CM waveforms (CMWs) and noise intensity (5), and a technique based on electrocochleography (ECochG or ECoG) (6). Results show that low-frequency CMWs appeared clearly. The CMW amplitude decreased with an increase in noise level. It decreased first slowly, then faster, and finally slowly again. In conclusion, when masked with high-pass noise, the low-frequency CMs are measurable at the human ear canal. Such noise reduces the low-frequency CM amplitude. The reduction is noise-intensity dependent but not completely linear. The reduction may be caused by the excited basal cochlea which the low-frequency has to travel and pass through. Although not completely clear, six mechanisms related to such reduction are discussed. PMID:24793117

Zhang, Ming

2014-07-01

69

Tympanal mechanics and neural responses in the ears of a noctuid moth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ears evolved in many groups of moths to detect the echolocation calls of predatory bats. Although the neurophysiology of bat detection has been intensively studied in moths for decades, the relationship between sound-induced movement of the noctuid tympanic membrane and action potentials in the auditory sensory cells (A1 and A2) has received little attention. Using laser Doppler vibrometry, we measured the velocity and displacement of the tympanum in response to pure tone pulses for moths that were intact or prepared for neural recording. When recording from the auditory nerve, the displacement of the tympanum at the neural threshold remained constant across frequencies, whereas velocity varied with frequency. This suggests that the key biophysical parameter for triggering action potentials in the sensory cells of noctuid moths is tympanum displacement, not velocity. The validity of studies on the neurophysiology of moth hearing rests on the assumption that the dissection and recording procedures do not affect the biomechanics of the ear. There were no consistent differences in tympanal velocity or displacement when moths were intact or prepared for neural recordings for sound levels close to neural threshold, indicating that this and other neurophysiological studies provide good estimates of what intact moths hear at threshold.

Ter Hofstede, Hannah M.; Goerlitz, Holger R.; Montealegre-Z, Fernando; Robert, Daniel; Holderied, Marc W.

2011-12-01

70

Prevalence and characterization of small tympanic bone spicules and drumstick-like hyperostotic tympanic bone spicules in the middle ear cavity of dogs.  

PubMed

Rounded, sessile, hyperattenuating structures detected in computed tomography (CT) studies of canine tympanic bullae have been termed "otoliths." These have been proposed to represent dystrophic mineralizations or heterotopic bone formations in the middle ear that are potentially related to chronic otitis media. Aims of the current study were to describe the prevalence, macroscopic, and histological features of structures consistent with "otoliths" in the canine tympanic cavity. Tympanic bullae from 50 routinely necropsied dogs and 139 retrospectively retrieved CT scans of canine clinical cases were examined. Small tympanic bone spicules with pointed or clubbed tips essentially arising from the free margin of the septum bullae were bilaterally present in the tympanic cavities of all 50 of the necropsied dogs. In 48% of the dogs, "otolith"-like CT-detectable bone spicules carrying drumstick-like hyperostoses that were 1-6 mm in diameter were also present. In the retrospective survey of bulla CT scans of 139 cases, the prevalence of hyperostotic tympanic bone spicules (HTBS) was 20%. Findings from the current study indicated that the presence of small tympanic bone spicules in adult dogs is most likely due to physiological bone growth in the septum bullae and that HTBS represent osseous proliferations of small tympanic bone spicules. However, the factors inducing formation of hyperostotic spicules from small tympanic bone spicules remain unknown. The high prevalence of HTBS displaying a similar appearance in bulla CT scans in dogs suggests that these spicules should be included in a differential diagnosis list for "otoliths." PMID:25138894

Parzefall, Birgit; Rieger, Alexandra; Volk, Holger A; Maierl, Johann; Brühschwein, Andreas; Blutke, Andreas

2015-01-01

71

Simultaneous non-Hodgkin lymphoma of the external auditory canal and thyroid gland: A case report.  

PubMed

Approximately 25% of all cases of extranodal non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) occur in the head and neck region; NHL of the external auditory canal (EAC) and thyroid gland are rare. Specific immunohistochemical staining of the excised tissue is required to confirm the final pathologic diagnosis. We report the case of a 53-year-old woman with underlying systemic lupus erythematosus and autoimmune hemolytic anemia that were in remission. She presented with chronic left ear pain, a mass in the left EAC, and rapid growth of an anterior neck swelling that had led to left vocal fold palsy. High-resolution computed tomography (CT) of the temporal bone and CT of the neck detected a mass lateral to the left tympanic membrane and another mass in the anterior neck that had infiltrated the thyroid gland. The patient was diagnosed with simultaneous B-cell lymphoma of the left EAC and thyroid gland. She was treated with chemotherapy. She responded well to treatment and was lost to follow-up after 1 year. To the best of our knowledge, the simultaneous occurrence of a lymphoma in the EAC and the thyroid has not been previously described in the literature. PMID:25531844

Khaw, BeeLian; Sivalingam, Shailendra; Pathamanathan, Sitra Siri; Tan, Teck S; Naicker, Manimalar

2014-12-01

72

Tympanic paraganglioma with extension into the Eustachian tube and nasopharynx: a case report.  

PubMed

Tympanic paragangliomas usually present as a vascular middle ear mass, with the most common presenting symptoms being pulsatile tinnitus and hearing loss. We report an unusual case of a recurrent tympanic paraganglioma extending along the Eustachian tube and nasopharynx, presenting with recurrent epistaxis. PMID:21419377

Portero de la Torre, Miriam; Sánchez Gutiérrez, Rafael; Gallardo Muñoz, Inmaculada; Bravo Rodríguez, Francisco A

2012-01-01

73

68. CANAL PLAN 5 EAST. CANAL BED IS VISIBLE WHILE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

68. CANAL PLAN 5 EAST. CANAL BED IS VISIBLE WHILE FOOT OF CANAL IS UNDERGOING MAINTAINANCE. NOTE HOW LARGE AMOUNTS OF DIRT ARE HAULED FROM PLACE TO PLACE USING A CANAL BOAT AND CRADLE. - Morris Canal, Phillipsburg, Warren County, NJ

74

Drosophila Filamin encoded by the cheerio locus is a component of ovarian ring canals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The ring canals in the ovary of the fruit fly Drosophila provide a versatile system in which to study the assembly and regulation of membrane-associated actin structures. Derived from arrested cleavage furrows, ring canals allow direct communication between cells. The robust inner rim of filamentous actin that attaches to the ring-canal plasma membrane contains cytoskeletal proteins encoded by the

Nicholas S. Sokol; Lynn Cooley

1999-01-01

75

27. VIEW OF TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL HEADGATE WITH CANAL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

27. VIEW OF TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL HEADGATE WITH CANAL BRIDGE IN DISTANCE; LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

76

1. VIEW OF CANAL STATION COMPLEX FROM CANAL STREET, FACING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. VIEW OF CANAL STATION COMPLEX FROM CANAL STREET, FACING NORTH. - New Orleans City Railroad Company, Canal Station, Square 365, bounded by Canal, North Dupre, Iberville, & North White Streets, New Orleans, Orleans Parish, LA

77

496. Phys. Lett A., (2006) A.G.Ramm, The shape of the ear canal The shape of the ear canal #+  

E-print Network

496. Phys. Lett A., (2006) A.G.Ramm, The shape of the ear canal 1 #12; The shape of the ear canal@math.ksu.edu Abstract It is proved that the measurement of the acoustic pressure on the ear membrane allows one to determine the shape of the ear canal uniquely. 1 Introduction Consider a bounded domain D # R n , n = 3

78

Tympanal and atympanal 'mouth-ears' in hawkmoths (Sphingidae).  

PubMed Central

The labral pilifers and the labial palps form ultrasound-sensitive hearing organs in species of two distantly related hawkmoth subtribes, the Choerocampina and the Acherontiina. Biomechanical examination now reveals that their ears represent different types of hearing organs. In hearing species of both subtribes, the labral pilifer picks up vibrations from specialized sound-receiving structures of the labial palp that are absent in non-hearing species. In Choerocampina, a thin area of cuticle serves as an auditory tympanum, whereas overlapping scales functionally replace a tympanum in Acherontiina that can hear. The tympanum of Choerocampina and the scale-plate of Acherontiina both vibrate maximally in response to ultrasonic, behaviourally relevant sounds, with the vibrations of the tympanum exceeding those of the scale plate by ca. 15 dB. This amplitude difference, however, is not reflected in the vibrations of the pilifers and the neural auditory sensitivity is similar in hearing species of both subtribes. Accordingly, morphologically different - tympanal and atympanal - but functionally equivalent hearing organs evolved independently and in parallel within a single family of moths. PMID:11788041

Göpfert, Martin C; Surlykke, Annemarie; Wasserthal, Lutz T

2002-01-01

79

Prolonged Sleep Deprivation and Continuous Exercise: Effects on Melatonin, Tympanic Temperature, and Cognitive Function  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to examine tympanic temperature, melatonin, and cognitive function during a 36-hour endurance event. Nine male and three female participants took part in a 36-hour sustained endurance event without sleep (N = 12, mean age = 31.8 ± 5.0 yrs). Participants were stopped for data collection at checkpoints throughout the 36-hour event. Tympanic temperature was assessed, a psychomotor vigilance test (PVT) was administered, and saliva samples were collected. Salivary melatonin was determined via immunoassay. During the 36 hours of competition, melatonin levels were negatively correlated with the day of the race (rs = ?0.277, P = 0.039) and positively associated with nighttime (rs = 0.316, P = 0.021). Significant main effects of tympanic temperature (P < 0.001), day of the competition (P = 0.018), and a tympanic temperature ? day of competition interaction (P < 0.001) were used to predict minor lapses in attention. No associations between melatonin levels and cognitive function were observed (P > 0.05). During the event tympanic temperature declined and was associated with an increase in lapses in attention. With sustained endurance events becoming more popular future research is warranted to evaluate the physiological impact of participation. PMID:25110695

Davis, Greggory R.; Etheredge, Corey E.; Marcus, Lena; Bellar, David

2014-01-01

80

The Suez Canal  

Microsoft Academic Search

I NOTICE in your number of 4th inst. an article relating to the Suez Canal (by Mr. Login, C.E., late of the Ganges Canal), and shall be glad if you will allow me to make a few observations with reference to it.

Edw. Rae

1869-01-01

81

Acoustic relationships between tympanate moths and the Hawaiian hoary bat ( Lasiurus cinereus semotus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Certain moths possess tympanic organs (ears) that detect the echolocation signals of hunting, insectivorous bats. The auditory characteristics of these ears are matched to the acoustic features of the echolocation calls emitted by the moths' sympatric bat fauna. The two-celled ears of noctuoid moths from the Hawaiian island of Kauai, a site with only one species of bat (Lasiurus cinereus

James H. Fullard

1984-01-01

82

Main trajectories of nerves that traverse and surround the tympanic cavity in the rat  

PubMed Central

To guide surgery of nerves that traverse and surround the tympanic cavity in the rat, anatomical illustrations are required that are topographically correct. In this study, maps of this area are presented, extending from the superior cervical ganglion to the otic ganglion. They were derived from observations that were made during dissections using a ventral approach. Major blood vessels, bones, transected muscles of the tongue and neck and supra and infrahyoid muscles serve as landmarks in the illustrations. The course of the mandibular, facial, glossopharyngeal, vagus, accessory and hypoglossal nerves with their branches, and components of the sympathetic system, are shown and discussed with reference to data available in the literature. Discrepancies in this literature can be clarified and new data are presented on the trajectories of several nerves. The course of the tympanic nerve was established. This nerve originates from the glossopharyngeal nerve, enters the tympanic cavity, crosses the promontory, passes the tensor tympani muscle dorsally, and continues its route intracranially to the otic ganglion as the lesser petrosal nerve after intersecting with the greater petrosal nerve. Auricular branches of the glossopharyngeal and of the vagus nerve were noted. We also observed a pterygopalatine branch of the internal carotid nerve, that penetrates the tympanic cavity and courses across the promontory. PMID:11005717

WEIJNEN, J. A. W. M.; SURINK, S.; VERSTRALEN, M. J. M.; MOERKERKEN, A.; DE BREE, G. J.; BLEYS, R. L. A. W.

2000-01-01

83

Building the Erie Canal  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson designed to enhance literacy skills, students look at how the construction of the Erie Canal brought about major changes within United States, particularly in New York City, upstate New York, and the Midwest.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2010-12-28

84

Panama Canal capacity analysis  

SciTech Connect

Predicting the transit capacities of the various Panama Canal alternatives required analyzing data on present Canal operations, adapting and extending an existing computer simulation model, performing simulation runs for each of the alternatives, and using the simulation model outputs to develop capacity estimates. These activities are summarized in this paper. A more complete account may be found in the project final report (TAMS 1993). Some of the material in this paper also appeared in a previously published paper (Rosselli, Bronzini, and Weekly 1994).

Bronzini, M.S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., Knoxville, TN (United States). Center for Transportation Analysis

1995-04-27

85

COMPARISON OF EAR-CANAL REFLECTANCE AND UMBO VELOCITY IN PATIENTS WITH CONDUCTIVE HEARING LOSS: A PRELIMINARY STUDY  

PubMed Central

Objective The goal of the present study was to investigate the clinical utility of measurements of ear-canal reflectance (ECR) in a population of patients with conductive hearing loss in the presence of an intact, healthy tympanic membrane (TM) and an aerated middle ear. We also sought to compare the diagnostic accuracy of umbo velocity (VU) measurements and measurements of ECR in the same group of patients. Design This prospective study comprised 31 adult patients with conductive hearing loss, of which 14 had surgically-confirmed stapes fixation due to otosclerosis, 6 had surgically-confirmed ossicular discontinuity, and 11 had CT- and VEMP-confirmed superior semicircular canal dehiscence (SCD). Measurements on all 31 ears included pure-tone audiometry for 0.25 – 8 kHz, ECR for 0.2 – 6 kHz using the Mimosa Acoustics HearID system, and VU for 0.3 – 6 kHz using the HLV-1000 laser Doppler vibrometer (Polytec Inc). We analyzed power reflectance |ECR|2 as well as the absorbance level = 10×log10(1?|ECR|2). All measurements were made prior to any surgical intervention. The VU and ECR data were plotted against normative data obtained in a companion study of 58 strictly defined normal ears (Rosowski et al. 2011). Results Small increases in |ECR|2 at low-to-mid frequencies (400–1000 Hz) were observed in cases with stapes fixation, while narrow-band decreases were seen for both SCD and ossicular discontinuity. The SCD and ossicular discontinuity differed in that the SCD had smaller decreases at mid-frequency (~1000 Hz), while ossicular discontinuity had larger decreases at lower frequencies (500–800 Hz). SCD tended to have less air-bone gap at high frequencies (1–4 kHz) compared to stapes fixation and ossicular discontinuity. The |ECR|2 measurements, in conjunction with audiometry, could successfully separate 28 of the 31 cases into the three pathologies. By comparison, VU measurements, in conjunction with audiometry, could successfully separate various pathologies in 29 of 31 cases. Conclusions The combination of |ECR|2 with audiometry showed clinical utility in the differential diagnosis of conductive hearing loss in the presence of an intact TM and an aerated middle ear, and appears to be of similar sensitivity and specificity to measurements of VU plus audiometry. Additional research is needed to expand upon these promising preliminary results. PMID:21857516

Nakajima, Hideko H.; Pisano, Dominic V.; Roosli, Christof; Hamade, Mohamad A.; Merchant, Gabrielle R.; Mahfoud, Lorice; Halpin, Christopher F.; Rosowski, John J.; Merchant, Saumil N.

2011-01-01

86

The response of tympanate moths to the echolocation calls of a substrate gleaning bat, Myotis evotis  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.Most studies examining interactions between insectivorous bats and tympanate prey use the echolocation calls of aerially-feeding bats in their analyses. We examined the auditory responses of noctuid (Eurois astricta) and notodontid (Pheosia rimosa) moth to the echolocation call characteristics of a gleaning insectivorous bat, Myotis evotis.2.While gleaning, M. Evotis used short duration (mean ± SD = 0.66 ± 0.28 ms,

Paul A. Faure; James H. Fullard; Robert M. R. Barclay

1990-01-01

87

Evolution of the metathoracic tympanal ear and its mesothoracic homologue in the Macrolepidoptera (Insecta)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two independent methods of comparison, serial homology and phylogenetic character mapping, are employed to investigate the\\u000a evolutionary origin of the noctuoid moth (Noctuoidea) ear sensory organ. First, neurobiotin and Janus green B staining techniques\\u000a are used to describe a novel mesothoracic chordotonal organ in the hawkmoth, Manduca sexta, which is shown to be serially homologous to the noctuoid metathoracic tympanal

Jayne E. Yack; Geoff G. E. Scudder; James H. Fullard

1999-01-01

88

The Semicircular Canal Microphonic  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Present experiments were designed to quantify the alternating current (AC) component of the semicircular canal microphonic for angular motion stimulation as a function of stimulus frequency and amplitude. The oyster toadfish, Opsanus tau, was used as the experimental model. Calibrated mechanical indentation of the horizontal canal duct was used as a stimulus to generate hair-cell and afferent responses reproducing those present during head rotation. Sensitivity to polarization of the endolymph DC voltage re: perilymph was also investigated. Modulation of endolymph voltage was recorded using conventional glass electrodes and lock-in amplification over the frequency range 0.2-80 Hz. Access to the endolymph for inserting voltage recording and current passing electrodes was obtained by sectioning the anterior canal at its apex and isolating the cut ends in air. For sinusoidal stimulation below approx.10 Hz, the horizontal semicircular canal AC microphonic was nearly independent of stimulus frequency and equal to approximately 4 microV per micron indent (equivalent to approx. 1 microV per deg/s). A saturating nonlinearity decreasing the microphonic gain was present for stimuli exceeding approx.3 micron indent (approx. 12 deg/s angular velocity). The phase was not sensitive to the saturating nonlinearity. The microphonic exhibited a resonance near 30Hz consistent with basolateral current hair cell resonance observed previously in voltage-clamp records from semicircular canal hair cells. The magnitude and phase of the microphonic exhibited sensitivity to endolymphatic polarization consistent with electro-chemical reversal of hair cell transduction currents.

Rabbitt, R. D.; Boyle, R.; Highstein, S. M.; Dalton, Bonnie P. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

89

Ear-Canal Reflectance, Umbo Velocity and Tympanometry in Normal Hearing Adults  

PubMed Central

Objective This study compares measurements of ear-canal reflectance (ECR) to other objective measurements of middle-ear function including, audiometry, umbo velocity (VU), and tympanometry in a population of strictly defined normal hearing ears. Design Data were prospectively gathered from 58 ears of 29 normal hearing subjects, 16 female and 13 male, aged 22–64 years. Subjects met all of the following criteria to be considered as having normal hearing. (1) No history of significant middle-ear disease. (2) No history of otologic surgery. (3) Normal tympanic membrane (TM) on otoscopy. (4) Pure-tone audiometric thresholds of 20 dB HL or better for 0.25 – 8 kHz. (5) Air-bone gaps no greater than 15 dB at 0.25 kHz and 10 dB for 0.5 – 4 kHz. (6) Normal, type-A peaked tympanograms. (7) All subjects had two “normal” ears (as defined by these criteria). Measurements included pure-tone audiometry for 0.25 – 8 kHz, standard 226 Hz tympanometry, Ear canal reflectance(ECR) for 0.2 – 6 kHz at 60 dB SPL using the Mimosa Acoustics HearID system, and Umbo Velocity (VU ) for 0.3 – 6 kHz at 70–90 dB SPL using the HLV-1000 laser Doppler vibrometer (Polytec Inc). Results Mean power reflectance (|ECR|2) was near 1.0 at 0.2– 0.3 kHz, decreased to a broad minimum of 0.3 to 0.4 between 1 and 4 kHz, and then sharply increased to almost 0.8 by 6 kHz. The mean pressure reflectance phase angle (?ECR) plotted on a linear frequency scale showed a group delay of approximately 0.1 ms for 0.2 – 6 kHz. Small significant differences were observed in |ECR|2 at the lowest frequencies between right and left ears, and between males and females at 4 kHz. |ECR|2 decreased with age, but reached significance only at 1 kHz. Our ECR measurements were generally similar to previous published reports. Highly significant negative correlations were found between |ECR|2 and VU for frequencies below 1 kHz. Significant correlations were also found between the tympanometrically determined peak total compliance and |ECR|2 and The results suggest that middle-ear compliance VU at frequencies below 1 kHz. contributes significantly to the measured power reflectance and umbo velocity at frequencies below 1 kHz, but not at higher frequencies. Conclusions This study has established a database of objective measurements of middle ear function (ear-canal reflectance, umbo velocity, tympanometry) in a population of strictly defined normal hearing ears. The data will promote our understanding of normal middle ear function, and will serve as a control for comparison to similar measurements made in pathological ears. PMID:21857517

Rosowski, John J; Nakajima, Hideko H.; Hamade, Mohamad A.; Mafoud, Lorice; Merchant, Gabrielle R.; Halpin, Christopher F.; Merchant, Saumil N.

2011-01-01

90

23. VIEW OF GRAND CANAL, SHOWING NEW ALIGNMENT CANAL ON ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

23. VIEW OF GRAND CANAL, SHOWING NEW ALIGNMENT CANAL ON RIGHT. THIS PHOTO WAS TAKEN FROM APPROXIMATELY THE SAME SPOT AS THE PREVIOUS PHOTOGRAPH (AZ-17-22). Photographer: Kevin Kreisel-Coons, May 1990 - Grand Canal, North side of Salt River, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

91

7. 'FLOW IN CANAL NO. 1, A JOINTLY USED CANAL, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. 'FLOW IN CANAL NO. 1, A JOINTLY USED CANAL, ON MAY 22 WHEN 210 SECOND FEET OF WATER WAS FLOWING. THIS WAS LATER INCREASED TO 240 SECOND FEET FOR A NUMBER OF DAYS TO SATISFY THE DEMANDS OF THE DRY GULCH COMPANY.' 1925 - Irrigation Canals in the Uinta Basin, Duchesne, Duchesne County, UT

92

[Spinal canal stenosis].  

PubMed

Spinal stenosis is a narrowing of the spinal canal by a combination of bone and soft tissues, which can lead to mechanical compression of spinal nerve roots or the dural sac. The lumbal spinal compression of these nerve roots can be symptomatic, resulting in weakness, reflex alterations, gait disturbances, bowel or bladder dysfunction, motor and sensory changes, radicular pain or atypical leg pain and neurogenic claudication. The anatomical presence of spinal canal stenosis is confirmed radiologically with computerized tomography, myelography or magnetic resonance imaging and play a decisive role in optimal patient-oriented therapy decision-making. PMID:25398571

Papanagiotou, P; Boutchakova, M

2014-11-01

93

Love canal questions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conducted a 3-month monitoring study of the Love Canal area near Niagara Falls, N.Y., after the federal government pronounced that a potential health risk existed due to chemical waste dumps. In 1982 the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) decided that the area was habitable, subject to implementation of effective safeguards against leakage from the canal and to cleaning up of the contaminants. Now, the Congressional Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) has announced that, with the information available, it is not possible to demonstrate with certainty that unsafe levels do not exist within the so-called “emergency declaration area” (EDA).

Bell, Peter M.

94

Digital holographic otoscope for measurements of the human tympanic membrane in vivo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are developing an advanced computer-controlled digital optoelectronic holographic system (DOEHS) for diagnosing middle-ear conductive disorders and investigating the causes of failure of middle-ear surgical procedures. Our current DOEHS system can provide near real-time quantitative measurements of the sound-induced nano-meter scale motion of the eardrum. The DOEHS have been deployed and is currently being tested in clinical conditions, where it is being optimized for in-vivo measurements of patients. The stability of the measurement system during examination is crucial as the non-ideal clinical environment presents disturbances larger than the measured quantities from several domains - thermal, optical, electrical and mechanical. Examples include disturbances are due to heartbeat breathing, patients head's motion as well as environment induced mechanical disturbances (0.1-60Hz, 0.01-100 ?m). In this paper we focus on our current progress in the analysis and implementation of various acquisition strategies and algorithms for minimization of the measurement error due to mechanical disturbances in a clinic. We have also developed and implemented a versatile and modular otoscope head (OH) design providing a variety of capabilities for acoustic and displacement measurements of both post-mortem samples of varying sizes (1-12mm) as well as in-vivo examination of patients. The OH offers hybrid on-axis and off axis digital Furrier holographic setup for high resolution (?/35) 4 phase step measurements as well as fast (<0.1ms) single frame measurements for improved performance in the clinical environment. We also focus on the development of a mechatronic positioning system (MOP) for aiding in the localization of the TM in patients.

Dobrev, I.; Harrington, E. J.; Cheng, T.; Furlong, C.; Rosowski, J. J.

95

Sustained Attention to Local and Global Target Features Is Different: Performance and Tympanic Membrane Temperature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vision researchers have investigated the differences between global and local feature perception. No one has, however, examined the role of global and local feature discrimination in sustained attention tasks. In this experiment participants performed a sustained attention task requiring either global or local letter target discriminations or…

Helton, William S.; Hayrynen, Lauren; Schaeffer, David

2009-01-01

96

Cortical Representation of Tympanic Membrane Movements due to Pressure Variation: An fMRI Study  

E-print Network

in the homunculus of the somatosensory cortex (S1). We investigated the somatosensory representation of the middle, the somatosensory homunculus was first described by Penfield (Penfield and Rasmussen 1950). The human cortical map or the face (Nihashi, et al. 2002). To date, the somatosensory homunculus lacks a defined area corresponding

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

97

Morphological alterations in the tympanic membrane affected by tympanosclerosis: ultrastructural study.  

PubMed

The ultrastructure of tympanoslerotic tissue, surgically excised from patients, has been studied with particular reference to the morphological changes of the connective tissue components and mineralization. Detailed analysis revealed the combination of degenerative and fibroplastic alterations, especially in the circular fibrous layer of the thickened lamina propria. In the biological material in this study the authors recognized different stages of calcium plaque development with discrete, moderate, and severe degree of mineralization. Extracellular matrix vesicles, with or without calcareous deposits, released by degenerating fibroblasts were prominent. In these biopsies no distinct morphological features of an inflammatory reaction were seen. PMID:24134073

Tukaj, Cecylia; Kuczkowski, Jerzy; Sakowicz-Burkiewicz, Monika; Gulida, Gra?yna; Tretiakow, Dymitry; Mionskowski, Tomasz; Pawe?czyk, Tadeusz

2014-04-01

98

Important Factors for the Hearing Loss Caused by the Triple Semicircular Canal Occlusion in Guinea Pigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hypothesis: Dynamic recording of the auditory brainstem response is helpful in verifying harmful procedure(s) to hear- ing during triple semicircular canal occlusion (TSCO) surgery. The damage to the membranous semicircular labyrinth is the single major contributor to hearing loss caused by TSCO. Background: Posterior semicircular canal occlusion has been recognized as an efficient method of eliminating vertigo with- out causing

Shankai Yin; Dongzhen Yu; Zhengnong Chen; Zhenyu Cao; Jian Wang

2007-01-01

99

American Experience: Panama Canal  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Panama Canal was quite an undertaking of labor and engineering, and by the time it was completed on August 15th, 1914 the project had been underway (in some form) for well over two decades. Along the way, over 55,000 workers had been involved, 5,000 people had died during the project's duration, and over 350 million dollars had been spent. This riveting documentary looks at the history of this project, and visitors can watch the entire program here. The extra features provided here are real treats, and they can be found on the left-hand side of the page. Here visitors will find an interactive map of the Panama Canal region, along with a timeline, and an interview with the program's producer, Amanda Pollak. Also, the site includes articles on yellow fever, the workers, and the chief engineers of the Canal. Primary resources such as part of the canal record of 1907, suggestions for further reading, and teacher resources round out the site.

100

Distributed control at Love canal  

SciTech Connect

Love Canal is known worldwide as the site of one of the worst non-nuclear environmental disasters in modern history. For 12 years, a Niagara Falls, New York chemical company used the canal bed as a chemical dump. This article discusses the computerized control of equipment used to remove the toxic materials from the ground under Love Canal, and how the minimization of maintenance is reducing maintenance costs and increasing operator safety.

McPherson, G.; Rider, G.J.; Sadowski, B.; Moore, M.

1994-09-01

101

Tympanic temperature in confined beef cattle exposed to excessive heat load.  

PubMed

Angus crossbred yearling steers (n?=?168) were used to evaluate effects on performance and tympanic temperature (TT) of feeding additional potassium and sodium to steers exposed to excessive heat load (maximum daily ambient temperature exceeded 32°C for three consecutive days) during seasonal summer conditions. Steers were assigned one of four treatments: (1) control; (2) potassium supplemented (diet containing 2.10% KHCO?); (3) sodium supplemented (diet containing 1.10% NaCl); or (4) potassium and sodium supplemented (diet containing 2.10% KHCO? and 1.10% NaCl). Overall, additional KHCO? at the 2% level or NaCl at the 1% level did not improve performance or heat stress tolerance with these diet formulations. However, the addition of KHCO? did enhance water intake. Independent of treatment effects, TT of cattle displaying high, moderate, or low levels of stress suggest that cattle that do not adequately cool down at night are prone to achieving greater body temperatures during a subsequent hot day. Cattle that are prone to get hot but can cool at night can keep average tympanic temperatures at or near those of cattle that tend to consistently maintain lower peak and mean body temperatures. In addition, during cooler and moderately hot periods, cattle change TT in a stair-step or incremental pattern, while under hot conditions, average TT of group-fed cattle moves in conjunction with ambient conditions, indicating that thermoregulatory mechanisms are at or near maximum physiological capacity. PMID:19404683

Mader, T L; Gaughan, J B; Johnson, L J; Hahn, G L

2010-11-01

102

Wetland Loss: Digging of Canals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity has students build a model canal and perform experiments with it to illustrate the destruction of wetlands, resulting from the digging of canals for oil and gas exploration in the coastal wetlands and cypress logging in the swamps. Older students will examine topographic maps of the area in which they live to identify natural and constructed canals in the wetlands, and find older maps to compare the area of wetlands before and after major canals were built. Students can also research the relationship between channel building, subsidence and salt-water intrusion, and wetland loss in both fresh and salt-water wetlands across the United States.

103

ASTER Suez Canal  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the most important waterways in the world, the Suez Canal runs north to south across the Isthmus of Suez in northeastern Egypt. This image of the canal covers an area 36 kilometers (22 miles) wide and 60 kilometers (47 miles) long in three bands of the reflected visible and infrared wavelength region. It shows the northern part of the canal, with the Mediterranean Sea just visible in the upper right corner. The Suez Canal connects the Mediterranean Sea with the Gulf of Suez, an arm of the Red Sea. The artificial canal provides an important shortcut for ships operating between both European and American ports and ports located in southern Asia, eastern Africa, and Oceania. With a length of about 195 kilometers (121 miles) and a minimum channel width of 60 meters (197 feet), the Suez Canal is able to accommodate ships as large as 150,000 tons fully loaded. Because no locks interrupt traffic on this sea level waterway, the transit time only averages about 15 hours. ASTER acquired this scene on May 19, 2000.

Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high-resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface. Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high-resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.

The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Examples of applications include monitoring glacial advances and retreats, potentially active volcanoes, thermal pollution, and coral reef degradation; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; evaluating wetlands; mapping surface temperature of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

2000-01-01

104

15. ROUTE OF CANAL NORTHWEST OF THE DILLON CEMETERY. CANAL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. ROUTE OF CANAL NORTHWEST OF THE DILLON CEMETERY. CANAL PASSES BELOW HILLSIDE IN FOREGROUND, THROUGH THE LOWER EDGE OF THE TREES ON LEFT, ON FAR SIDE OF SMALL VALLEY JUST RIGHT OF CENTER, AND AROUND THE PROMINENT POINT ON THE RIGHT. VIEW IS TO THE EAST-SOUTHEAST. - Snake River Ditch, Headgate on north bank of Snake River, Dillon, Summit County, CO

105

Accuracy of infrared tympanic thermometry used in the diagnosis of Fever in children: a systematic review and meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Background. Accurate determination and detection of fever is essential in the appropriate treatment of pediatric population. It is widely known that improper definitions of fever can cause grave and dangerous consequences in medical procedures. Infrared tympanic thermometry seems a relatively new and popular alternative for traditional measurement in the diagnosis of pediatric fever. However, its accuracy in the diagnosis of fever remains a major concern. Design. Systematic review and meta-analysis. Data Sources. Medline, Ovid, Elsevier, Google Scholar, and Cochrane library. Study Selection. Cross-sectional, prospective design. Data Extraction. Two investigators independently assessed selected studies and extracted data. Disagreements were resolved by discussion with other reviewers. Results. A total of 25 articles were included in our meta-analysis. The summary estimates revealed that the pooled sensitivity was 0.70 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.68-0.72), pooled specificity was 0.86 (95% CI = 0.85-0.88), and pooled diagnostic odds ratio was 47.3 (95% CI = 29.76-75.18), for the diagnosis of fever using infrared tympanic thermometry. Additionally, the area under the summary receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.94, and Q* value was 0.87. Conclusion. A total of 25 articles that encompassing 31 studies were analyzed. Based on our meta-analysis, accuracy of infrared tympanic thermometry in diagnosing fever is high. We can cautiously make conclusion that infrared tympanic thermometry should be widely used as fever of thermometer. PMID:25104731

Zhen, Chen; Xia, Zhang; Ya Jun, Zhou; Long, Li; Jian, Shuai; Gui Ju, Cai; Long, Li

2015-02-01

106

The Love Canal: Beyond science?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When in 1978, the New York State Department of Health issued the report, ‘Love Canal—Public Health Time Bomb,’ the serious effects of chemical waste contamination in the Love Canal area became an issue of national concern. A few ‘studies’ since then have produced results in concert with those of initial reports that described ‘conditions of acute health effects’ as being linked to hazardous wastes incorporated in landfill in the Love Canal site near Niagara Falls, New York. Now that a ‘blue ribbon’ panel of experts from the medical sciences has reviewed the problems of Love Canal, however, a different view has emerged. The ‘Report of the Governors' Panel to Review Scientific Studies and the Development of Public Policy on Problems Resulting from Hazardous Wastes,’ transmitted in October of this year, identifies the following factors about the health effects at Love Canal:

Bell, Peter M.

107

Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, SHANKS,LILLY,Volume 24, 557-566, December 1981 AN EVALUATION OF TYMPANOMETRIC ESTIMATES OF EAR  

E-print Network

AN EVALUATION OF TYMPANOMETRIC ESTIMATES OF EAR CANAL VOLUME JANET E. SHANKS Veterans Administration Medical. The largest error (39%) occurred tbr an ear canal pressure of 200 daPa at 220 Hz, whereas the smallest error of the tympanic membrane. Finally, the effects of errors in estimating ear canal volume on static immittance

Allen, Jont

108

Social Saving of the Panama Canal  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the time when the Panama Canal was handed over to Panama, most people believed that the Canal was of little material worth to the United States. However, what was the value of this canal to the United States in the 1920s? We estimate the social savings generated by the Panama Canal for the United States in 1924 in order

William K. Hutchinson; Ricardo Ungo

2004-01-01

109

Ultrasonic cleaning of root canals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A crucial step during a dental root canal treatment is irrigation, where an antimicrobial fluid is injected into the root canal system to eradicate all bacteria. Agitation of the fluid using an ultrasonically vibrating miniature file has shown significant improvement in cleaning efficacy over conventional syringe irrigation. However, the physical mechanisms underlying the cleaning process, being acoustic streaming, cavitation or chemical activity, and combinations thereof, are not fully understood. High-speed imaging allows us to visualize the flow pattern and cavitation in a root canal model at microscopic scales, at timescales relevant to the cleaning processes (microseconds). MicroPIV measurements of the induced acoustic streaming are coupled to the oscillation characteristics of the file as simulated numerically and measured with a laser vibrometer. The results give new insight into the role of acoustic streaming and the importance of the confinement for the cleaning of root canals.

Verhaagen, Bram; Boutsioukis, Christos; Jiang, Lei-Meng; Macedo, Ricardo; van der Sluis, Luc; Versluis, Michel

2011-11-01

110

Looking back at Love Canal  

SciTech Connect

In the first part of this series (ES and T, April 1987, pp. 328-31) it was pointed out that the methods and conclusions of EPA's Love Canal Study were the subject of some controversy in the environmental community. Others defended the agency's approaches and methods. Part 2 makes no attempt to resolve the controversy; its purpose is to present the results and conclusions of the Love Canal.

Deegan, J. Jr.

1987-05-01

111

Limitations of navigation through Nubaria canal, Egypt  

PubMed Central

Alexandria port is the main Egyptian port at the Mediterranean Sea. It is connected to the Nile River through Nubaria canal, which is a main irrigation canal. The canal was designed to irrigate eight hundred thousand acres of agricultural lands, along its course which extends 100 km. The canal has three barrages and four locks to control the flow and allow light navigation by some small barges. Recently, it was decided to improve the locks located on the canal. More than 40 million US$ was invested in these projects. This decision was taken to allow larger barges and increase the transported capacity through the canal. On the other hand, navigation through canals and restricted shallow waterways is affected by several parameters related to both the channel and the vessel. Navigation lane width as well as vessel speed and maneuverability are affected by both the channel and vessel dimensions. Moreover, vessel dimensions and speed will affect the canal stability. In Egypt, there are no guide rules for navigation through narrow and shallow canals such Nubaria. This situation threatens the canal stability and safety of navigation through it. This paper discussed the characteristics of Nubaria canal and the guide rules for navigation in shallow restricted water ways. Dimensions limitation for barges navigating through Nubaria canal is presented. New safe operation rules for navigation in Nubaria canal are also presented. Moreover, the implication of navigation through locks on canal discharge is estimated.

Samuel, Magdy G.

2013-01-01

112

Mucoperiosteal Exostoses in the Tympanic Bulla of African Lions (Panthera leo).  

PubMed

Mucoperiosteal exostoses (MpEs) of the tympanic bulla (TB), also referred as middle-ear otoliths, have been occasionally described in dogs and cats in association with clinical signs of otitis media or as an incidental finding, but they have not been recorded in other species. In this report, we describe the radiographic, gross, and histopathologic features of MpEs in 8 African lions (Panthera leo). All animals (5 males and 3 females) were adults that had been kept in captivity and had their skeletons conserved as part of an anatomic academic collection. A radiographic study revealed mineralized structures in the TB consistent with MpEs in 7 of the 16 examined TB; a computed tomography study identified MpEs in 12 of the 16 TB. Six TB from 4 lions were sectioned, and several MpEs were demineralized for histopathologic analysis. Grossly, MpEs appeared variable in number and shape. Some were globular structures that were loosely attached to the mucosal surface of the TB; others were isolated to coalescent bone spicules extending from the mucoperiosteum. Position was also variable, but MpEs frequently developed in the hypotympanum, especially on the ventromedial aspect of the TB wall. Microscopically, MpEs were composed of osteonal bone growing from the periosteum and not by dystrophic calcification of necrotic tissue debris, as is hypothesized in dogs. PMID:24788401

Novales, M; Ginel, P J; Diz, A; Blanco, B; Zafra, R; Guerra, R; Mozos, E

2014-04-30

113

32. VIEW OF TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL FROM VICINITY OF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

32. VIEW OF TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL FROM VICINITY OF PROPOSED POWER CANAL, LOOKING UPSTREAM. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

114

Corinth Canal, Greece  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Isthmus of Corinth has played a very important role in the history of Greece. It is the only land bridge between the country's north (Attica) and south (Peloponnese). It is a 6 km wide tongue of land separating the Gulf of Corinth from the Saronic Sea. Populations, armies and commodities have got to move through it. In the 6th century BCE, the Greeks built the Diolkos, a 10 meter-wide stone roadway to pull ships across the Isthmus on wooden cylinders and wheeled vehicles. In 1882, a canal was started and completed 11 years later. It is 6343 meters long, 25 meters wide, and 8 meters deep.

With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

Size: 25.3 by 37.7 kilometers (15.7 by 23.4 miles) Location: 37.9 degrees North latitude, 23 degrees East longitude Orientation: North at top Image Data: ASTER bands 3, 2, and 1 Original Data Resolution: 15 meters (49.2 feet) Dates Acquired: May 9, 2005

2006-01-01

115

Electrophysiological and ultrastructural study of the atrioventricular canal during the development of the chick embryo.  

PubMed

The development of the atrioventricular canal (A-V canal) of embryonic chick hearts (35 to 120 h) was studied by morphological and electrophysiological techniques. The earliest identification of the A-V canal action potentials was at 45 to 49 h of incubation coinciding with the atrium formation and the appearance of its corresponding distinctive action potential. At that time the first atrioventricular delay was recorded and its action potentials showed a low rate of rise, particularly at the initiation of the upstroke and a long duration. The conduction velocity was the lowest in the A-V canal. As the development proceeded from 45 to 120 h, the cardiac cells of the A-V canal showed scanty membrane to membrane contacts and large intercellular spaces filled with abundant extracellular matrix components, in striking contrast to the paucity of these components in the atrium and ventricle. The morphological and electrophysiological characteristics described for the A-V canal cells, could help to explain their slow conduction properties and the atrioventricular delay. PMID:3723597

Argüello, C; Alanís, J; Pantoja, O; Valenzuela, B

1986-05-01

116

Superior semicircular canal occlusion—Transmastoid approach  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION The condition superior semi-circular canal dehiscence was first described by Minor et al. in 1998. PRESENTATION Of Case We describe a novel surgical approach to the management of superior semicircular canal dehiscence. Our surgical technique involves a transmastoid rather than middle cranial fossa approach to the superior semicircular canal. CONCLUSION We conclude that the transmastoid approach, if anatomically feasible, carries significant advantages compared to middle cranial fossa craniotomy approach for the management of superior semicircular canal dehiscence. PMID:22288041

Wijaya, C.; Dias, A.; Conlon, B.J.

2011-01-01

117

A.G.Ramm, Determination of the shape of the ear canal, Math. Sci. Res. Journ., 9(6), (2005),139-141.  

E-print Network

A.G.Ramm, Determination of the shape of the ear canal, Math. Sci. Res. Journ., 9(6), (2005),139-141. 1 #12;Determination of the shape of the ear canal A.G. Ramm Mathematics Department, Kansas State of the acoustic pressure on the ear membrane allows one to determine the shape of the ear channel uniquely. 1

118

Dupuytren's disease involving Guyon's canal.  

PubMed

Ectopic localization of Dupuytren's contracture is extremely rare. To the best of our knowledge, there have been only six cases reported in the literature. The authors present a case with Dupuytren's contracture involving Guyon's canal where the patient had limited wrist range of motion and ulnar neuropathy. PMID:24874274

Juvenspan, M; Schlur, C; Thomsen, L; Colom, A; Audren, J-L

2014-06-01

119

Erie Canal Technology: Stump Pullers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many years ago I saw a picture of a huge set of wheels that was used to remove tree stumps during the construction of the Erie Canal (1817-1825) and was intrigued by its use of leverage, mechanical advantage, and torque. Figure 1 is a scale model of the device based on my memory of the (lost) picture and published accounts.

Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

2013-01-01

120

Healing outcomes of large (>50%) traumatic membrane perforations with inverted edges following no intervention, edge approximation and fibroblast growth factor application; a sequential allocation, three-armed trial  

PubMed Central

Objective The goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of perforation edge approximation and direct application of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) each alone on the healing of large traumatic tympanic membrane perforations with inverted edges in humans. Study Design Prospective, sequential allocation, three-armed, controlled clinical study. Setting University-affiliated teaching hospital. Participants Fifty-eight patients with large traumatic tympanic membrane perforations (i.e. affecting >50% of the surface area) with inverted edges were recruited. They were sequentially allocated to three groups: no intervention (n & 18), edge approximation alone (n & 20) and direct application of bFGF (n & 20). Otoscopy were performed before the treatment and at follow-up visits. Main outcome measures The closure rate, closure time and rate of otorrhoea. Results Application of bFGF yielded a significantly higher average rate of perforation closure (100%) than edge approximation (60%) and no intervention (56%) (P < 0.05). It also significantly shortened the average closure time (12.4 ± 3.6 days) as compared to edge approximation (46.3 ± 8.7 days) and no intervention control (48.2 ± 5.3 days) (P < 0.05). Purulent otorrhoea was observed in none of the three groups. Conclusion Edge approximation of inverted edges has little benefit in improving the healing outcome of large traumatic tympanic membrane perforations and thus is not an ideal treatment option for large traumatic tympanic membrane perforations. Application of bFGF materially improves the closure rate of large traumatic tympanic membrane perforations and significantly shortens the closure time. PMID:23731690

Lou, Z-C; Wang, Y-B-Z

2013-01-01

121

Further studies on the ring canal system of the ovarian cystocytes of Drosophila melanogaster  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ultrastructural study was made of the ring canal system which connects the sister ovarian cystocytes that arise in the germaria of wild type Drosophila melanogaster females. It was discovered that during an oogonial mitosis both chromosomes and spindle are enclosed by a multilayered, perforated membrane system derived (at least in part) from the nuclear envelope. The cytokinesis of stem

Elizabeth A. Koch; Robert C. King

1969-01-01

122

Congenital fibrolipoma of anal canal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although rare, congenital lipomatosis presents during first few months of life as large sub-cutaneous fatty masses on chest\\u000a with extension into skeletal muscle bundles. Only a few such cases have been reported in the literature. A rare case of congenital\\u000a fibrolipoma of anal canal in a 3-day-old male child is being documented in the present report.

S. K. Mathur; Richa Jindal; Sunita Singh; Nisha Marwah; K. Rattan; B. Arora

2003-01-01

123

Algae control for hydrogeneration canals  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) was to assess and develop control practices for nuisance algae growth in power canal that delivers water to hydro-generation facilities. This growth results in expenditures related not only to lost generation but also labor and materials costs associated with implementing remediation procedures. On an industry-wide basis these costs associated with nuisance algal growth are estimated to be several million dollars per year.

Grahovac, P.

1997-02-16

124

Photodynamic therapy: An adjunct to conventional root canal disinfection strategies.  

PubMed

Although chemical-based root canal disinfectants are important to reduce microbial loads and remove infected smear layer from root dentin, they have only a limited ability to eliminate biofilm bacteria, especially from root complexities. This paper explores the novel photodynamic therapy (PDT) for antimicrobial disinfection of root canals. The combination of an effective photosensitizer, the appropriate wavelength of light and ambient oxygen is the key factor in PDT. PDT uses a specific wavelength of light to activate a non-toxic dye (photosensitizer), leading to the formation of reactive oxygen species. These reactive oxygen molecules can damage bacterial proteins, membrane lipids and nucleic acids, which promote bacterial cell death. In, addition PDT may enhance cross-linking of collagen fibrils in the dentin matrix and thereby improving dentin stability. The concept of PDT is plausible and could foster new therapy concepts for endodontics. The available knowledge should enable and encourage steps forward into more clinical-oriented research and development. This article discusses PDT as related to root canal disinfection, including its components, mechanism of action, reviews the current endodontic literature and also highlights the shortcomings and advancements in PDT techniques. PMID:25404404

Singh, Shipra; Nagpal, Rajni; Manuja, Naveen; Tyagi, Sashi Prabha

2014-11-17

125

179. Photocopy of Photograph, Twin Falls Canal Company, Bisbee Photo, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

179. Photocopy of Photograph, Twin Falls Canal Company, Bisbee Photo, September, 1912. Photographer unknown. VIEW OF LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY; VIEW OF LOW LINE CANAL IN PETE LINK'S FIELD. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

126

Management of Six Root Canals in Mandibular First Molar  

PubMed Central

Success in root canal treatment is achieved after thorough cleaning, shaping, and obturation of the root canal system. This clinical case describes conventional root canal treatment of an unusual mandibular first molar with six root canals. The prognosis for endodontic treatment in teeth with abnormal morphology is unfavorable if the clinician fails to recognize extra root canals.

Gomes, Fabio de Almeida; Sousa, Bruno Carvalho

2015-01-01

127

[From the Proceedings of the Physiological Society, 13-14 July 1973] Journal of Physiology, 234, 18-19P  

E-print Network

) in the auditory canal to record sound pressure changes close to the tympanic membrane. Broad-band noise was used about the position of a sound source in space is contained in the sound pressure changes recorded in or near the auditory canal. This method, of recording sound pressure changes within the external auditory

Rolls, Edmund T.

128

Water quality modeling for the Kennet and Avon Canal, a navigational canal in an inland catchment  

E-print Network

The Kennet and Avon Canal in southern England is experiencing severe water quality problems caused by inorganic sediment and algae. These water quality problems are affecting the angling sport of fishermen downstream of the confluence of the canal...

Zeckoski, Rebecca

2010-10-12

129

Meningiomas of the Internal Auditory Canal  

PubMed Central

Meningiomas represent 3 to 12% of the tumors that involve the cerebellopontine angle and internal auditory canal (IAC). Intracanalicular meningiomas, however, are rare. Only 10 well-documented cases have been reported in the English literature. The differential diagnosis includes acoustic neuromas, facial nerve neuromas, hemangiomas, lipomas, and meningiomas. We report two new cases of intracanalicular meningioma. Both patients had unilateral tinnitus. In case 1, the patient also experienced sensorineural hearing loss with unilateral tinnitus. In case 1, the lesion appeared hyperintense on T1-weighted and hypointense on T2-weighted magnetic resonance images. In case 2, the patient had an enhancing lesion in the right IAC. The tumors were moderately cellular, and meningeal whorls and meningothelial inclusions were present. Immunohistochemical staining revealed the tumors to be positive for epithelial membrane antigen (EMA) and negative for S-100 protein. The radiologic findings that help distinguish a meningioma from other lesions are reviewed. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5 PMID:17167637

Magliulo, Giuseppe; Zardo, Francesco; Bertin, Serena; D'Amico, Raffaello; Savastano, Vincenzo

2002-01-01

130

Otitis interna, media, and externa with destruction of the left tympanic bulla and subluxation and septic arthritis of the left temporomandibular joint in an alpaca (Vicugna pacos)  

PubMed Central

A 1.5-year-old, 37.7 kg, female alpaca was evaluated for a 2-week history of weight loss, left ear droop, and deviation of the rostral mandible to the right. Antemortem radiography and postmortem examination revealed otitis interna, media, and externa, destruction of the left tympanic bulla, and subluxation and septic arthritis of the left temporomandibular joint. PMID:23997267

Galvan, Noe; Middleton, John R.; Cook, Cristi; Britt, Lisa G.; Kuroki, Keiichi

2013-01-01

131

The primate semicircular canal system and locomotion  

PubMed Central

The semicircular canal system of vertebrates helps coordinate body movements, including stabilization of gaze during locomotion. Quantitative phylogenetically informed analysis of the radius of curvature of the three semicircular canals in 91 extant and recently extinct primate species and 119 other mammalian taxa provide support for the hypothesis that canal size varies in relation to the jerkiness of head motion during locomotion. Primate and other mammalian species studied here that are agile and have fast, jerky locomotion have significantly larger canals relative to body mass than those that move more cautiously. PMID:17576932

Spoor, Fred; Garland, Theodore; Krovitz, Gail; Ryan, Timothy M.; Silcox, Mary T.; Walker, Alan

2007-01-01

132

Schlemm's canal: the effect of intraocular pressure.  

PubMed

We have shown that in the excised eye when oil in the anterior chamber has made the trabecular mesh impermeable, resistance to circumferential flow along the canal increases moderately as transmural pressure is increased. At the same time, resistance to outflow from the canal through the collector channels increases markedly as transmural pressure is increased from low levels to 35 or 40 mm Hg. We have suggested that the usual primary defect in open-angle glaucoma is reduced facility of the inner canal wall and that collapse of the canal with reduction of filtering area and plugging of collector channels is a secondary effect. PMID:7451081

Moses, R A; Grodzki, W J; Etheridge, E L; Wilson, C D

1981-01-01

133

Love Canal: environmental and toxicological studies  

SciTech Connect

The New York State Department of Health has been involved at the Love Canal since 1978. The State has carried out numerous environmental and toxicological studies. The major purposes for these studies were to define how Love Canal contaminants might be escaping into the environment at large, what paths contaminant migration might take, and what toxicological effects Love Canal chemicals might have individually and together. Although underground contaminant migration was hypothesized along swales and underground utility bedding, these mechanisms have been proven not to be operative except for some migration along the utility bedding under Frontier Avenue. In general no underground migration has occurred outside the confines of the three city blocks that contain the Love Canal referred to as the ''first ring''. Studies have been confused by apparent burial of waste materials in areas proximate but not directly connected to the Love Canal. Migration of Love Canal leachate has occurred through storm sewers. Love Canal contaminants have reached creeks to the north and the Niagara River to the south through storm sewer transport. In spite of finding 2, 3, 7, 8 tetrachlorodibenzoparadioxin (TCDD), toxicological studies in situ and through exposure to volatile components in Love Canal soils do not indicate unusual toxicity. Animal studies continue in an attempt to determine the teratogenic and fetotoxic potential of Love Canal chemicals under different routes of exposure.

Kim, C.S.

1981-01-01

134

26. DETAIL OF HEADGATE HOIST MACHINERY, TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

26. DETAIL OF HEADGATE HOIST MACHINERY, TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

135

23. TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL HEADWORKS WITH MILNER DAM IN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

23. TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL HEADWORKS WITH MILNER DAM IN DISTANCE; LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

136

22. TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL HEADWORKS WITH MILNER DAM IN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

22. TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL HEADWORKS WITH MILNER DAM IN DISTANCE; LOOKING EAST. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

137

30. VIEW OF TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL FROM BRIDGE LOOKING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

30. VIEW OF TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL FROM BRIDGE LOOKING WEST DOWNSTREAM. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

138

31. VIEW OF TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL BRIDGE FROM DOWNSTREAM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

31. VIEW OF TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL BRIDGE FROM DOWNSTREAM LOOKING UPSTREAM. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

139

29. VIEW OF TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL BRIDGE FROM UPSTREAM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

29. VIEW OF TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL BRIDGE FROM UPSTREAM LOOKING DOWNSTREAM. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

140

24. TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL HEADWORKS, DOWNSTREAM LOOKING TOWARD THE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

24. TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL HEADWORKS, DOWNSTREAM LOOKING TOWARD THE EAST. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

141

Lock No. 1 St. Lucie Canal. Upper gate structure, masonry ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Lock No. 1- St. Lucie Canal. Upper gate structure, masonry plan- masonry elevations. - St. Lucie Canal, St. Lucie Lock No. 1, St. Lucie, Cross State Canal, Okeechobee Intracoastal Waterway, Stuart, Martin County, FL

142

11. 'Y' CONNECTOR TO PICACHO RESERVOIR ON MAIN CANAL. VIEW ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. 'Y' CONNECTOR TO PICACHO RESERVOIR ON MAIN CANAL. VIEW LOOKING WEST FROM MAIN CANAL - San Carlos Irrigation Project, Marin Canal, Amhurst-Hayden Dam to Picacho Reservoir, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

143

10. DETAIL, SOUTHEAST SPAN THROUGH CANAL, VIEW BLOCKED BY STEEL, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. DETAIL, SOUTHEAST SPAN THROUGH CANAL, VIEW BLOCKED BY STEEL, CLAD COUNTER WEIGHT, WATER SPAN RAISED OUT OF VIEW - Cape Cod Canal Lift Bridge, Spanning Cape Cod Canal, Buzzards Bay, Barnstable County, MA

144

2. VIEW OF FRONT ELEVATION, CANAL STATION COMPLEX, FACING NORTHEAST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. VIEW OF FRONT ELEVATION, CANAL STATION COMPLEX, FACING NORTHEAST - New Orleans City Railroad Company, Canal Station, Square 365, bounded by Canal, North Dupre, Iberville, & North White Streets, New Orleans, Orleans Parish, LA

145

21 CFR 872.3820 - Root canal filling resin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Root canal filling resin. 872.3820 Section...DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3820 Root canal filling resin. (a) Identification. A root canal filling resin is a device...

2010-04-01

146

21 CFR 872.3820 - Root canal filling resin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Root canal filling resin. 872.3820 Section...DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3820 Root canal filling resin. (a) Identification. A root canal filling resin is a device...

2013-04-01

147

21 CFR 872.3820 - Root canal filling resin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Root canal filling resin. 872.3820 Section...DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3820 Root canal filling resin. (a) Identification. A root canal filling resin is a device...

2012-04-01

148

21 CFR 872.3820 - Root canal filling resin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Root canal filling resin. 872.3820 Section...DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3820 Root canal filling resin. (a) Identification. A root canal filling resin is a device...

2014-04-01

149

21 CFR 872.3820 - Root canal filling resin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Root canal filling resin. 872.3820 Section...DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3820 Root canal filling resin. (a) Identification. A root canal filling resin is a device...

2011-04-01

150

Dundee Canal Industrial Historic District, Beginning at George Street in ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Dundee Canal Industrial Historic District, Beginning at George Street in Passaic & extending north along Dundee Canal approximately 1.2 miles to Canal headgates opposite East Clifton Avenue in Clifton, Passaic, Passaic County, NJ

151

3. August, 1971. VIEW ALONG CANAL SHOWING BORDER PATH AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. August, 1971. VIEW ALONG CANAL SHOWING BORDER PATH AND BRIDGE FOR INSPECTION - ABOUT ONE MILE FROM CANAL HEAD. - Hurricane Irrigation Canal, State Route 15 Vicinity, Hurricane, Washington County, UT

152

Posterior semicircular canal nystagmus is conjugate and its axis is parallel to that of the canal.  

PubMed

A patient with a postoperative fistula of the left posterior semicircular canal is presented. Negative pressure in the external ear canal produced upbeat-torsional nystagmus, which was recorded in three dimensions using binocular scleral search coils. The nystagmus was conjugate, without skew deviation, and its trajectory corresponded to the anatomic axis of the left posterior canal. The current study helps validate Ewald's first law in humans: the axis of nystagmus should match the anatomic axis of the semicircular canal that generated it. This law is clinically useful in diagnosing pathology of the vestibular end-organ, such as benign paroxysmal positional vertigo or the superior semicircular canal dehiscence syndrome. PMID:10822450

Cremer, P D; Migliaccio, A A; Pohl, D V; Curthoys, I S; Davies, L; Yavor, R A; Halmagyi, G M

2000-05-23

153

The effect of width of facial canal in patients with idiopathic peripheral facial paralysis on the development of paralysis.  

PubMed

The aim of this prospective study is to investigate whether the possible stenosis due to anatomic variations of labyrinthine segment (LS), tympanic segment (TS) and mastoid segment (MS) of the facial canal in the temporal bone is a predisposing factor in the development of paralysis. 22 patients with idiopathic peripheral facial paralysis (IPFP) were included in the study. Multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) with 64 detectors was used for temporal bone imaging of the patients. Reconstruction images in axial, coronal and sagittal planes were created in workstation computers from the captured images. The diameters and lengths of LS, TS and MS of the facial canal were measured. The mean values of LD, ND and SL of LS were 1.31 ± 0.39, 0.91 ± 0.27, 4.17 ± 0.48 in patient group and 1.26 ± 0.29, 0.95 ± 0.21, 4.60 ± 1.36 in control group, respectively. The mean values of LD, ND and SL of TS were 1.11 ± 0.22, 0.90 ± 0.14, 12.63 ± 1.47 in patient group and 1.17 ± 0.23, 0.85 ± 0.24, 12.10 ± 1.79 in control group, respectively. The mean values of LD, ND and SL of MS were 1.80 ± 0.30, 1.44 ± 0.29 vs. 14.3 ± 1.90 in patient group 1.74 ± 0.38, 1.40 ± 0.29, 14.15 ± 2.16 in control group, respectively. The measurements of the parameters of all three segments in patient group and control group were similar. Similar results between patient and control group were obtained in this study investigating the effect of stenosis in facial canal in the development of IPFP. PMID:25015010

Eksi, Guldem; Akbay, Ercan; Bayarogullari, Hanifi; Cevik, Cengiz; Yengil, Erhan; Ozler, Gul Soylu

2014-07-12

154

Metoptic canal, duplication of the optic canal and Warwick’s foramen in human orbits.  

PubMed

The region of the optic strut is sometimes traversed by some minor canals whose incidence and general characteristics have never been studied. As such canals could be the route for vessels that could interfere in the surgery of the orbital apex, we undertook a detailed anatomical study on a vast collection of dry skulls. The examination of 943 dry adult skulls and 360 foetal skulls was carried out to precise the anatomy of canals in the optic strut area, their development and relationships with the optic canal. A canal traversing the optic strut was present in 8.54 % of the orbits. Based on diameter, position within the optic strut, and thickness of the bony plate separating it from the optic canal or from the superior orbital fissure, the canals piercing the optic strut were classified into four types, which include the well-known duplication of the optic canal, different aspects of the metoptic canal and a type of canal that to our knowledge has never been reported. Warwick’s foramen was found in 0.74 % of orbits. The area of the optic strut is the frequent site of canals joining the orbit with the middle cranial fossa. Some of them can host the ophthalmic artery; others could be run by minor vessels which, however, could be the source of annoying bleedings in surgical procedures. PMID:23959928

Bertelli, Eugenio

2014-01-01

155

The development of the Suez Canal  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides general background information relating to the physical characteristics and operations of the Suez Canal. In connection with the future development of the Canal, the research programme currently being undertaken by a British consortium is outlined, with particular reference to the traffic system presently operating.

J. D. Griffiths

1977-01-01

156

[Chemoradiotherapy and anal canal cancer].  

PubMed

Local control and sphincter preservation are the two challenges of anal canal cancer treatment. These tumors are radio- and chemo-sensitive and treatment moved from surgical approach, with abdominoperineal resection, to definitive radiation therapy with or without concurrent chemotherapy. Randomised trials proved the benefit of combined modality with chemoradiotherapy and of mitomycine C (MMC) compared with radiotherapy alone, with a toxic death rate of about 2%. Indications of chemoradiotherapy are locally advanced tumor T2 > or = 4 cm, T3-4 or N1-3 but the best modalities of combined treatment are still under debate. Standard chemotherapy is 5 flurouracile (5FU) + MMC, but cisplatinum (CDDP) is an effective and well tolerated substitute for MMC. Favourable results with CDDP-containing regimen in term of toxicity and carcinologic control have been reported in phase II and retrospective studies. Total radiation dose, overall duration of radiation therapy, duration of the gap and indications of additional boost are not clear, but it is demonstrated that overall duration of treatment should be as short as possible to improve the therapeutic radio. Phase II and III studies are ongoing, to evaluate the best chemotherapy regimen between 5FU+MMC and 5FU+CDDP, the benefit of neoadjuvant or maintenance chemotherapy and the interest of increased total dose. Next future could be the utilisation of oral 5FU. This article is a review of past randomised trials, phases II and retrospective study on radiochemotherapy of anal canal carcinoma. PMID:16396750

Ortholan, Cécile; François, Eric; Gérard, Jean-Pierre

2005-12-01

157

Type III apical transportation of root canal  

PubMed Central

Procedural accidents leading to complications such as canal transportation have been ascribed to inapt cleaning and shaping concepts. Canal transportation is an undesirable deviation from the natural canal path. Herewith a case of apical transportation of root canal resulting in endodontic retreatment failure and its management is presented. A healthy 21-year-old young male presented discomfort and swelling associated with painful endodontically retreated maxillary incisor. Radiograph revealed periradicular radiolucency involving underfilled 11 and overfilled 12. Insufficiently obturated 11 exhibited apical transportation of canal. This type III transportation was treated by periradicular surgery and repair using white mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA). Comfortable asymptomatic patient presented uneventful healing at third and fourth month recall visits. A decrease in the size of radiolucency in radiograph supported the clinical finding. In the present case, MTA is useful in repairing the transportation defect. The result of these procedures is predictable and successful. PMID:22557916

Mantri, Shiv P.; Kapur, Ravi; Gupta, Niharika A.; Kapur, Charu A.

2012-01-01

158

Clinical management of infected root canal dentin.  

PubMed

Several hundred different species of bacteria are present in the human intraoral environment. Bacterial penetration of root canal dentin occurs when bacteria invade the root canal system. These bacteria may constitute a reservoir from which root canal reinfection may occur during or after endodontic treatment. The learning objective of this article is to review endodontic microbiology, update readers on the role of bacteria in pulp and periapical disease, and discuss the principles of management of infected root canal dentin. Complete debridement, removal of microorganisms and affected dentin, and chemomechanical cleansing of the root canal are suggested as being the cornerstones of successful endodontic therapy, followed by intracanal medication to remove residual bacteria, when required. PMID:9242125

Love, R M

1996-08-01

159

Looking back at Love Canal  

SciTech Connect

The comprehensive environmental study which describes the results of a monitoring program conducted by EPA at Love Canal is evaluated by EPA's former study director. Attention is focused on the episode's history and the agency's study methods. The aim of the program was to constitute a study team, design a monitoring study, reprogram and reallocate the financial resources needed to conduct the study, and identify and employ contractors who would collect and analyze environmental samples. The agency was directed to ensure the quality of the data acquired from various environmental media and analyzed by numerous laboratories; to integrate, interpret, and report the data; and to assess, from an environmental perspective, the habitability of the area.

Deegan, J. Jr.

1987-04-01

160

How to bond to root canal dentin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bonding to root canal dentin may be difficult due to various factors: the structural characteristic of the root canal dentin, which is different from that of the coronal dentin; the presence of the organic tissue of the dental pulp inside the root canal, which has to be removed during the cleaning-shaping of the root canal system; the smear-layer resulted after mechanical instrumentation, which may interfere with the adhesion of the filling materials; the type of the irrigants used in the cleaning protocol; the type of the sealer and core material used in the obturation of the endodontic space; the type of the materials used for the restoration of the endodontically treated teeth. The influence of the cleaning protocol, of the root canal filling material, of the type of the adhesive system used in the restoration of the treated teeth and of the region of the root canal, on the adhesion of several filling and restorative materials to root canal dentin was evaluated in the push-out bond strength test on 1-mm thick slices of endodontically treated human teeth. The results showed that all these factors have a statistically significant influence on the push-out bond strength. Formation of resin tags between radicular dentin and the investigated materials was observed in some of the samples at SEM analysis.

Nica, Luminita; Todea, Carmen; Furtos, Gabriel; Baldea, Bogdan

2014-01-01

161

Anterior canal BPPV and apogeotropic posterior canal BPPV: two rare forms of vertical canalolithiasis.  

PubMed

Posterior canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is the most frequent form of BPPV. It is characterized by a paroxysmal positioning nystagmus evoked through Dix-Hallpike and Semont positioning tests. Anterior canal BPPV (AC) is more rare than posterior canal BPPV; it presents a prevalent down beating positioning nystagmus, with a torsional component clockwise for the left canal, counterclockwise for the right canal. Due to the possible lack of the torsional component, it is sometimes difficult to identify the affected ear. An apogeotropic variant of posterior BPPV (APC) has recently been described, characterised by a paroxysmal positional nystagmus in the opposite direction to the one evoked in posterior canal BPPV: the linear component is down-beating, the torsional component is clockwise for the right canal, counter-clockwise for the left canal, so that a contra-lateral anterior canal BPPV could be simulated. During a 16 month period, of 934 BPPV patients observed, the authors identified 23 (2.5%) cases of apogeotropic posterior canal BPPV and 11 (1.2%) cases of anterior canal BPPV, diagnosed using the specific oculomotor patterns described in the literature. Anterior canal BPPV was treated with the repositioning manoeuvre proposed by Yacovino, which does not require identification of the affected side, whereas apogeotropic posterior canal BPPV was treated with the Quick Liberatory Rotation manoeuvre for the typical posterior canal BPPV, since in the Dix-Hallpike position otoliths are in the same position if they come either from the ampullary arm or from the non-ampullary arm. The direct resolution of BPPV (one step therapy) was obtained in 12/34 patients, 8/23 patients with APC and 4/11 patients with AC; canalar conversion into typical posterior canal BPPV, later treated through Quick Liberatory Rotation (two-step therapy), was obtained in 19 patients,14/23 with APC and 5/11 with AC. Three patients were lost to follow-up. Considering the effects of therapeutic manoeuvres, the authors propose a grading system for diagnosis of AC and APC: "certain" when a canalar conversion in ipsilateral typical posterior canal BPPV is obtained; "probable" when APC or AC are directly resolved; "possible" when disease is not resolved and cerebral neuroimaging is negative for neurological diseases. Our results show that the oculomotor patterns proposed in the literature are effective in diagnosing APC and AC, and that APC is more frequent than AC. Both of these rare forms of vertical canal BPPV can be treated effectively with liberatory manoeuvres. PMID:24882928

Califano, L; Salafia, F; Mazzone, S; Melillo, M G; Califano, M

2014-06-01

162

131. FORKS DIVERSION, HIGH LINE AND LOW LINE CANALS, TWIN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

131. FORKS DIVERSION, HIGH LINE AND LOW LINE CANALS, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF HANSEN, IDAHO; INLET SIDE OF LOW LINE CANAL, WEST VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

163

158. Photocopy of transit book (taken from Twin Falls Canal ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

158. Photocopy of transit book (taken from Twin Falls Canal Company Transit Book #404T, Page 3, #46, Division One). START OF MAIN CANAL SURVEY, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

164

189. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

189. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. ROCK CREEK CROSSING, LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY, IDAHO; BLUEPRINT. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

165

149. TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL DIVERSION, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

149. TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL DIVERSION, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER DAM; CLOSE-UP OF MAIN CANAL GATES, SOUTH VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

166

177. Photocopy of Photograph, Twin Falls Canal Company, Bisbee Photo, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

177. Photocopy of Photograph, Twin Falls Canal Company, Bisbee Photo, September, 1912. Photographer unknown. COTTONWOOD FLUME, HIGH LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY, IDAHO; SOUTH VIEW FROM UPPER SIDE. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

167

28. VIEW FROM IMMEDIATELY DOWNSTREAM OF TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

28. VIEW FROM IMMEDIATELY DOWNSTREAM OF TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL HEADWORKS WITH CANAL BRIDGE IN DISTANCE. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

168

180. Photocopy of Photograph, Twin Falls Canal Company. E. Pettygro, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

180. Photocopy of Photograph, Twin Falls Canal Company. E. Pettygro, Photographer, date unknown. BLASTING TWIN FALLS CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY; BLASTING COTTONWOOD AREA TO REPLACE FLUME BY RUNNING HIGH LINE THROUGH SOLID ROCK. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

169

150. Photocopy of drawing (taken from Twin Falls Canal Company ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

150. Photocopy of drawing (taken from Twin Falls Canal Company Surveyor's Book #363, Page 42, entitled, 'Diversion Tunnels', located in Twin Falls Canal Company office, Twin Falls, Idaho). PLAN OF DIVERSION TUNNELS, MILNER DAM. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

170

154. Photocopy of transit book (taken from Twin Falls Canal ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

154. Photocopy of transit book (taken from Twin Falls Canal Company Surveyor's Transit Book #405T, Page 2, #46 Division One). STATEMENT OF SIGHT-SETTING FOR 1903 SURVEY TO ALIGN SOUTH SIDE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

171

123. MCMULLEN CREEK, HIGH LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

123. MCMULLEN CREEK, HIGH LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY, IDAHO; SOUTH VIEW OF THE CREEK EMPTYING INTO THE HIGH LINE CANAL. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

172

Laser scanning dental probe for endodontic root canal treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complications that arise during endodontic procedures pose serious threats to the long-term integrity and health of the tooth. Potential complexities of root canals include residual pulpal tissue, cracks, mesial-buccal 2 and accessory canals. In the case of a failed root canal, a successful apicoectomy can be jeopardized by isthmuses, accessory canals, and root microfracture. Confirming diagnosis using a small imaging

Molly A. B. Blank; Michal Friedrich; Jeffrey D. Hamilton; Peggy Lee; Joel Berg; Eric J. Seibel

2011-01-01

173

97. POINT SPILL, TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

97. POINT SPILL, TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY NORTHWEST OF MURTAUGH, IDAHO; OVERALL WEST VIEW FROM CANAL SIDE. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

174

91. CEDAR DRAW SPILL, HIGH LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

91. CEDAR DRAW SPILL, HIGH LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF FILER, IDAHO; NORTHEAST VIEW OF CANAL AND GATES. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

175

88. CEDAR DRAW SPILL, HIGH LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

88. CEDAR DRAW SPILL, HIGH LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF FILER, IDAHO; WEST VIEW OF CANAL AND GATES. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

176

94. CEDAR DRAW SPILL, LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

94. CEDAR DRAW SPILL, LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY SOUTH OF FILER, IDAHO; CLOSE-UP OF GATES FROM THE CANAL SIDE. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

177

89. CEDAR DRAW SPILL, HIGH LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

89. CEDAR DRAW SPILL, HIGH LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF FILER, IDAHO; OUTLET SIDE OF CANAL, SOUTHWEST VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

178

7. View north at back (canal side) of culvert inlet, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. View north at back (canal side) of culvert inlet, with canal bank completely removed. Background to foreground: back of inlet headwall with tops of high inlet barrels exposed; vertical transition wall between high inlet barrels and low, interior, inlet barrels; tops of low interior barrels; vertical heartening planks and low cutoff wall at site of former canal edge of canal bank; dewatered canal bed and plank sheathing on top of culvert barrels beneath canal bed. - Delaware & Raritan Canal, Ten Mile Run Culvert, 1.5 miles South of Blackwells Road, East Millstone, Somerset County, NJ

179

Laser irradiation of the semicircular canal: occlusion of the canal or duct.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of argon laser irradiation of the semicircular canals using computed tomography (CT) images and to examine the basis for laser treatment for benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV). CT images of the posterior canal were evaluated postoperatively in a patient with intractable BPPV, in whom the unilateral posterior and lateral semicircular canals were irradiated with an argon laser. In addition, bootstrap analysis of 20 patients with normal CT findings of the temporal bone was performed and previous experimentally obtained histologic findings were compared. Cross-sections of the posterior canals of 20 patients were found to show no difference in size between the right and left sides. The laser-irradiated posterior canal became narrower than that on the non-irradiated healthy side in our patient. There was a discrepancy between the CT images and experimentally obtained histologic findings that showed complete occlusion of the canal. CT images of a patient with severe vertigo demonstrated that argon laser irradiation to the blue-lined semicircular canals did not occlude the canal of the corresponding areas, while the canal of the guinea pig histologically showed complete obstruction with new bone after irradiation with the same energy (1.5 W, 0.5 s, spot size: around 200 ?m in diameter). The patient has been free from vertigo for 16 years. Marked constriction of the semicircular duct corresponding to the irradiated area appeared to be effective in treating intractable BPPV. PMID:22053860

Nomura, Yasuya; Kobayashi, Hitome

2012-01-01

180

8. VIEW SHOWING THE DEMOSSING OF GRAND CANAL LOCATION UNKNOWN. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. VIEW SHOWING THE DEMOSSING OF GRAND CANAL LOCATION UNKNOWN. AT TEAM OF HORSES ON OPPOSITE BANKS OF THE CANAL DRAG A CHAIN BETWEEN THEM ALONG THE BOTTOM OF THE CANAL, WHICH PULLS THE MOSS AND WEEDS LOOSE. THE PLANS THEN FLOAT DOWN THE CANAL AND ARE CAUGHT IN A SCREEN AND REMOVED. Photographer unknown, 1923 - Grand Canal, North side of Salt River, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

181

Flow Over Faka Union Canal Weir #1  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Freshwater flowing over the Faka Union Canal Weir #1 near Port of the Islands, Collier County, Florida. During cold weather, freshwater flows here can maintain a downstream salinity gradient that creates a warm water refuge for manatees. ...

2010-06-01

182

Superior semicircular canal dehiscence : auditory mechanisms  

E-print Network

Superior semicircular canal dehiscence (SCD) syndrome is a recently defined clinical disorder in which patients present to the clinic with vestibular symptoms, auditory symptoms, or both. Understanding the effect of SCD, ...

Songer, Jocelyn Evelyn

2006-01-01

183

Stenosis of the spinal canal in achondroplasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stenosis of the spinal canal is a very frequent finding in achondroplastic patients. It is secondary to abnormalities of endochondrial ossification, which is responsible for formation of the vertebral bone structures, and, subsequently, to bone degeneration.

L. Ferrante; M. Acqui; L. Mastronardi; P. Celli; A. Fortuna

1991-01-01

184

Root Canal Treatment from Start to Finish  

MedlinePLUS

... through the crown of the tooth to the pulp chamber. 3. Removing the Infected/Inflamed Tissue Special ... are used to clean the infection and unhealthy pulp out of the canals. Then they shape the ...

185

Disinfection of Contaminated Canals by Different Laser Wavelengths, while Performing Root Canal Therapy  

PubMed Central

Removal of smear layer and disinfection of canals are important objectives of teeth root canal cleaning. In order to achieve this purpose, rinsing substances, intra canal drugs as well as ultrasound are used. Today, use of laser to remove smear layer and to disinfect root canals has increasingly attracted the attentions. Till now different lasers such as CO2, Nd:YAG, Er:YAG, Er,Cr:YSGG have been used for debris and smear removal from the canals. Numerous studies have shown that Er:YAG is the most appropriate laser for intra canal debris and smear removal. In addition different laser wavelengths have been used directly or as an adjunctive to disinfect canals. Laser light can penetrate areas of canals where irrigating and disinfecting solutions cannot reach, like secondary canals and deep dentinal tubules and also can eliminate microorganisms. Different studies have confirmed the penetration of Nd:YAG laser in deep dentin and reduction of microorganisms penetration. But studies on comparison of antibacterial effects of Nd:YAG laser with sodium hypochlorite showed effectiveness of both, with a better effect for sodium hypochlorite. Studies performed in relation with anti-microbial effects of Diode laser with various parameters show that this laser can be effective in reducing intra canal bacterial count and penetration in the depth of 500 microns in dentin. In studies performed on Diode laser in combination with canal irrigating solutions such as sodium hypochlorite and oxygenated water better results were obtained. Although studies on disinfection by the Erbium laser family show that use of this laser alone can be effective in disinfecting canals, studies evaluating the disinfecting effects of this laser and different concentrations of sodium hypochlorite show that the latter alone is more effective in disinfecting canals. And better results were obtained when Erbium laser was used in combination with sodium hypochlorite irrigating solution in canals. Results of the aforementioned articles indicate that this laser is effective in combination with a rinsing solution such as sodium hypochlorite. Results from studies including several types of the different Er:YAG, Ho:YAG, Nd:YAG, Er,Cr:YSGG lasers in disinfecting canals showed that all wavelengths used in disinfection for different thicknesses of dentin were efficacious without damaging thermal effect. Considering that use of different lasers in canals can be accompanied with temperature increase which can sometimes lead to damages to teeth and surrounding tissues, thus the use of photochemical phenomenon for elimination of microorganisms have attracted attention of many researchers. Studies in this field imply the efficacy of this method in reducing canal bacterial count and recommend its use as an adjunctive after biomechanical preparation of canals. Results from performed studies show removal of intra canal debris and smear layer by different lasers and particularly the Erbium laser family. Furthermore various laser wavelengths, particularly of Diode and Nd:YAG lasers can be effective in reducing intra canal microbial count. Maximum effect is obtained when laser light is used in canals in combination with sodium hypochlorite irrigating substance in appropriate concentration. Therefore use of laser energy can improve success rate of root canal treatments.

Asnaashari, Mohammad; Safavi, Nassimeh

2013-01-01

186

Teaching canal hydraulics and control using a computer game or a scale model canal  

E-print Network

Teaching canal hydraulics and control using a computer game or a scale model canal Pierre-olivier.malaterre@cemagref.fr David C. ROGERS Address: Rogers Engineering Hydraulics, Inc. 2650 Tabor St, Lakewood CO 80215, USA Email by improving the hydraulic efficiency of irrigation schemes. Technical concepts involved in these modernization

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

187

Application of software for automated canal management (SacMan) to the WM lateral canal  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Simulation studies have demonstrated that automatic control of canals is more effective when feedforward scheduling, or routing of know demand changes, is combined with centralized, automatic, distant, downstream-water-level control. In practice, few canals use this approach. To help further develop...

188

77 FR 42644 - Safety Zone; Canal Fest of the Tonawandas, Erie Canal, Tonawanda, NY  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...the Captain of the Port Buffalo has determined that this...zone will encompass all waters of the Erie Canal, Tonawanda...the Captain of the Port Buffalo or his designated on-scene...zone will encompass all waters of the Erie Canal, Tonawanda...the Captain of the Port Buffalo or his designated...

2012-07-20

189

Surgical capping of superior semicircular canal dehiscence.  

PubMed

Surgical plugging and resurfacing are well established treatments of superior semicircular canal dehiscence, while capping with hydroxyapatite cement has been little discussed in literature. The aim of this study was to prove the efficacy of the capping technique. Charts of patients diagnosed with superior semicircular canal dehiscence were reviewed retrospectively. All patients answered the dizziness handicap inventory, a survey analyzing the impact of their symptoms on their quality of life. Capping of the dehiscent canal was performed via the middle fossa approach in all cases. Ten out of 22 patients diagnosed with superior semicircular canal dehiscence were treated with surgical capping, nine of which were included in this study. No major perioperative complications occurred. In 8 out of 9 (89%) patients, capping led to a satisfying reduction of the main symptoms. One patient underwent revision surgery 1 year after the initial intervention. Scores in the dizziness handicap inventory were lower in the surgically treated group than in the non-surgically treated group, but results were not statistically significant (P = 0.45). Overall, capping is a safe and efficient alternative to plugging and resurfacing of superior semicircular canal dehiscence. PMID:23640386

Mueller, S A; Vibert, D; Haeusler, R; Raabe, A; Caversaccio, M

2014-06-01

190

Malignant Melanoma of the External Auditory Canal  

PubMed Central

Primary malignant melanoma of the external auditory canal is rarely reported. Malignant melanoma of the ear is estimated to occur in 1-4% of all skin melanomas and about 7-20% of melanomas of the head and neck region. The pathophysiology of these tumours is different from other skin lesions because of their anatomical and functional characteristics. The case presented is of a 11 year old female child with malignant melanoma of the external auditory canal confined to the right side, who initially presented with right ear pain, bleeding, post auricular swelling and also a mass in the external auditory canal which was thought to be an aural polyp in the right ear. Excision of the tumour was accomplished by a radical mastoidectomy. It was confirmed to be malignant melanoma after histopathological examination and Immunohistochemistry. Despite all efforts, the patient succumbed to the disease after receiving three cycles of chemotherapy. Even though this malignancy is rarely found in the external auditory canal, it should be expanded into the differential diagnosis of an aural polyp and a post aural abscess. The incidence, symptoms, investigations, treatment and prognosis of malignant melanoma of the external auditory canal is discussed in this article. PMID:25302202

Kumar, Prasanna; Ravikumar, A; Joseph, Leena Dennis; Rajendiran, Swaminathan

2014-01-01

191

Preceramic irrigation canals in the Peruvian Andes.  

PubMed

One of the most important developments in the existence of human society was the successful shift from a subsistence economy based on foraging to one primarily based on food production derived from cultivated plants and domesticated animals. The shift to plant food production occurred in only a few independent centers around the world and involved a commitment to increased sedentism and social interaction and to permanent agricultural fields and canals. One center was Peru, where early civilization and food production were beginning to develop by at least 4,500 years ago. New archeological evidence points to 5,400- and possible 6,700-year-old small-scale gravity canals in a circumscribed valley of the western Andean foothills in northern Peru that are associated with farming on low terrace benches at the foot of alluvial fans in areas where the canals are drawn from hydraulically manageable small lateral streams. This evidence reveals early environmental manipulation and incipient food production in an artificially created wet agroecosystem rather than simply the intensive harvesting or gardening of plants in moist natural areas. This finding is different from previously conceived notions, which expected early canals in lower-elevated, broad coastal valleys. The evidence also points to communal organization of labor to construct and maintain the canals and to the scheduling of daily activities beyond individual households. The development of early organized irrigation farming was combined with a hunting and gathering economy to support an increase in the local population size. PMID:16284247

Dillehay, Tom D; Eling, Herbert H; Rossen, Jack

2005-11-22

192

46 CFR 69.7 - Vessels transiting the Panama and Suez Canals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...All vessels intending to transit the Suez Canal must be measured and certificated under the Arab Republic of Egypt Suez Canal Authority Rules of Navigation, part IV. (c) Panama Canal and Suez Canal tonnage certificates are in...

2011-10-01

193

46 CFR 69.7 - Vessels transiting the Panama and Suez Canals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...All vessels intending to transit the Suez Canal must be measured and certificated under the Arab Republic of Egypt Suez Canal Authority Rules of Navigation, part IV. (c) Panama Canal and Suez Canal tonnage certificates are in...

2013-10-01

194

46 CFR 69.7 - Vessels transiting the Panama and Suez Canals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...All vessels intending to transit the Suez Canal must be measured and certificated under the Arab Republic of Egypt Suez Canal Authority Rules of Navigation, part IV. (c) Panama Canal and Suez Canal tonnage certificates are in...

2012-10-01

195

46 CFR 69.7 - Vessels transiting the Panama and Suez Canals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...All vessels intending to transit the Suez Canal must be measured and certificated under the Arab Republic of Egypt Suez Canal Authority Rules of Navigation, part IV. (c) Panama Canal and Suez Canal tonnage certificates are in...

2010-10-01

196

On the mechanics of growing thin biological membranes  

PubMed Central

Despite their seemingly delicate appearance, thin biological membranes fulfill various crucial roles in the human body and can sustain substantial mechanical loads. Unlike engineering structures, biological membranes are able to grow and adapt to changes in their mechanical environment. Finite element modeling of biological growth holds the potential to better understand the interplay of membrane form and function and to reliably predict the effects of disease or medical intervention. However, standard continuum elements typically fail to represent thin biological membranes efficiently, accurately, and robustly. Moreover, continuum models are typically cumbersome to generate from surface-based medical imaging data. Here we propose a computational model for finite membrane growth using a classical midsurface representation compatible with standard shell elements. By assuming elastic incompressibility and membrane-only growth, the model a priori satisfies the zero-normal stress condition. To demonstrate its modular nature, we implement the membrane growth model into the general-purpose non-linear finite element package Abaqus/Standard using the concept of user subroutines. To probe efficiently and robustness, we simulate selected benchmark examples of growing biological membranes under different loading conditions. To demonstrate the clinical potential, we simulate the functional adaptation of a heart valve leaflet in ischemic cardiomyopathy. We believe that our novel approach will be widely applicable to simulate the adaptive chronic growth of thin biological structures including skin membranes, mucous membranes, fetal membranes, tympanic membranes, corneoscleral membranes, and heart valve membranes. Ultimately, our model can be used to identify diseased states, predict disease evolution, and guide the design of interventional or pharmaceutic therapies to arrest or revert disease progression. PMID:24563551

Rausch, Manuel K.; Kuhl, Ellen

2013-01-01

197

Atrioventricular canal defect in patients with RASopathies  

PubMed Central

Congenital heart defects affect 60-85% of patients with RASopathies. We analysed the clinical and molecular characteristics of atrioventricular canal defect in patients with mutations affecting genes coding for proteins with role in the RAS/MAPK pathway. Between 2002 and 2011, 101 patients with cardiac defect and a molecularly confirmed RASopathy were collected. Congenital heart defects within the spectrum of complete or partial (including cleft mitral valve) atrioventricular canal defect were diagnosed in 8/101 (8%) patients, including seven with a PTPN11 gene mutation, and one single subject with a RAF1 gene mutation. The only recurrent mutation was the missense PTPN11 c.124?A>G change (T42A) in PTPN11. Partial atrioventricular canal defect was found in six cases, complete in one, cleft mitral valve in one. In four subjects the defect was associated with other cardiac defects, including subvalvular aortic stenosis, mitral valve anomaly, pulmonary valve stenosis and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Maternal segregation of PTPN11 and RAF1 gene mutations occurred in two and one patients, respectively. Congenital heart defects in the affected relatives were discordant in the families with PTPN11 mutations, and concordant in that with RAF1 mutation. In conclusion, our data confirm previous reports indicating that atrioventricular canal defect represents a relatively common feature in Noonan syndrome. Among RASopathies, atrioventricular canal defect was observed to occur with higher prevalence among subjects with PTPN11 mutations, even though this association was not significant possibly because of low statistical power. Familial segregation of atrioventricular canal defect should be considered in the genetic counselling of families with RASopathies. PMID:22781091

Digilio, Maria Cristina; Romana Lepri, Francesca; Lisa Dentici, Maria; Henderson, Alex; Baban, Anwar; Cristina Roberti, Maria; Capolino, Rossella; Versacci, Paolo; Surace, Cecilia; Angioni, Adriano; Tartaglia, Marco; Marino, Bruno; Dallapiccola, Bruno

2013-01-01

198

32. VIEW OF TERMINUS OF GRAND CANAL, SHOWING TURNOUT GATES, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

32. VIEW OF TERMINUS OF GRAND CANAL, SHOWING TURNOUT GATES, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. WASTE WATER IS TURNED INTO THE BED OF NEW RIVER. Photographer: Mark Durben, April 1989 - Grand Canal, North side of Salt River, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

199

122. Jet Lowe, Photographer, July 1978. POWER CANAL LOOKING NORTH. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

122. Jet Lowe, Photographer, July 1978. POWER CANAL LOOKING NORTH. WOODEN LINING OF CANAL STILL VISIBLE NEXT TO ROCKS. - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

200

31. Floating original Ship Canal draw (in background) to University ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

31. Floating original Ship Canal draw (in background) to University Heights location. New Ship Canal draw in foreground. June 1906 photograph. - University Heights Bridge, Spanning Harlem River at 207th Street & West Harlem Road, New York, New York County, NY

201

Surgical endodontic management of infected lateral canals of maxillary incisors  

PubMed Central

This case report presents surgical endodontic management outcomes of maxillary incisors that were infected via the lateral canals. Two cases are presented in which endodontically-treated maxillary central incisors had sustained lateral canal infections. A surgical endodontic treatment was performed on both teeth. Flap elevation revealed vertical bone destruction along the root surface and infected lateral canals, and microscopy revealed that the lateral canals were the origin of the lesions. After the infected lateral canals were surgically managed, both teeth were asymptomatic and labial fistulas were resolved. There were no clinical or radiographic signs of surgical endodontic management failure at follow-up visits. This case report highlights the clinical significance and surgical endodontic management of infected lateral canal of maxillary incisor. It is important to be aware of root canal anatomy variability in maxillary incisors. Maxillary central incisors infected via the lateral canal can be successfully managed by surgical endodontic treatment.

2015-01-01

202

10. 'Y' CONNECTOR TO PICACHO RESERVOIR ON MAIN CANAL. VIEW ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. 'Y' CONNECTOR TO PICACHO RESERVOIR ON MAIN CANAL. VIEW LOOKING EAST FROM PICACHO RESERVOIR INLET CHANNEL - San Carlos Irrigation Project, Marin Canal, Amhurst-Hayden Dam to Picacho Reservoir, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

203

23. Photocopy of photograph (original print at Gage Canal Company ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

23. Photocopy of photograph (original print at Gage Canal Company Office), photographer unknown, ca. 1917. VIEW OF FLUME NO. 3 OF GAGE IRRIGATION CANAL AND NEW 66' REINFORCED CONCRETE PIPELINE - California Citrus Heritage Recording Project, Riverside, Riverside County, CA

204

MAIN CANAL HEADWORKS, FROM DOWNSTREAM (TO RIGHT), NOTE SAND AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

MAIN CANAL HEADWORKS, FROM DOWNSTREAM (TO RIGHT), NOTE SAND AND SILT SLUICE GATE FOR DIVERSION DAM ON LEFT, VIEW TO NORTHWEST - Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, Main Canal Headworks, Salmon Creek, Okanogan, Okanogan County, WA

205

25. VIEW OF GRAND CANAL, SHOWING PAPAGO FREEWAY REALIGNMENT, EAST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

25. VIEW OF GRAND CANAL, SHOWING PAPAGO FREEWAY REALIGNMENT, EAST OF 32ND STREET IN PHOENIX. Photographer: Kevin Kreisel-Coons, May 1990 - Grand Canal, North side of Salt River, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

206

55. VIEW OF WEST ENTRANCE BRIDGE CROSSING THE ARIZONA CANAL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

55. VIEW OF WEST ENTRANCE BRIDGE CROSSING THE ARIZONA CANAL AT THE ARIZONA BILTMORE, LOOKING EAST Photographer: Kevin Kriesel-Coons, May 1990 - Arizona Canal, North of Salt River, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

207

OVERALL VIEW OF CASCADE CANAL COMPANY CRIB DAM, LOOKING UPSTREAM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

OVERALL VIEW OF CASCADE CANAL COMPANY CRIB DAM, LOOKING UPSTREAM FROM DIRECTION OF KACHESS DAM. VIEW TO NORTH - Kachess Dam, 1904 Cascade Canal Company Crib Dam, Kachess River, 1.5 miles north of Interstate 90, Easton, Kittitas County, WA

208

77. ROOSEVELT POWER CANAL LOCATION MAP, WORK TO BE DONE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

77. ROOSEVELT POWER CANAL LOCATION MAP, WORK TO BE DONE BY CONTRACT Courtesy of Dept. of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation, Salt River Project - Roosevelt Power Canal & Diversion Dam, Parallels Salt River, Roosevelt, Gila County, AZ

209

1. LOOKING WEST ON LEHIGH CANAL, GRAPHITE MILL IN FOREGROUND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. LOOKING WEST ON LEHIGH CANAL, GRAPHITE MILL IN FOREGROUND - Pettinos Brothers Graphite Manufacturing Mill, On Sand Island, south side of Lehigh Canal, west of Hill-to-Hill Bridge, Bethlehem, Northampton County, PA

210

2. LOOKING DOWN THE LINED POWER CANAL AS IT WINDS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. LOOKING DOWN THE LINED POWER CANAL AS IT WINDS ITS WAY TOWARD THE CEMENT MILL Photographer: Walter J. Lubken, November 19, 1907 - Roosevelt Power Canal & Diversion Dam, Parallels Salt River, Roosevelt, Gila County, AZ

211

View east, view of full length of canal, west wall ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View east, view of full length of canal, west wall pileheads in foreground. - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad Freight & Rail Yard, Long Slip Canal, New Jersey Transit Hoboken Rail Yard, Hoboken, Hudson County, NJ

212

View north, north wall of canal, hoboken rail yard in ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View north, north wall of canal, hoboken rail yard in background. - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad Freight & Rail Yard, Long Slip Canal, New Jersey Transit Hoboken Rail Yard, Hoboken, Hudson County, NJ

213

View north, west (back) wall of canal, mu shed in ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View north, west (back) wall of canal, mu shed in background. - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad Freight & Rail Yard, Long Slip Canal, New Jersey Transit Hoboken Rail Yard, Hoboken, Hudson County, NJ

214

6. Tempe Crosscut Canal, looking west from Division Gates. Lateral ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. Tempe Crosscut Canal, looking west from Division Gates. Lateral at left is for local delivery of irrigation water. Photographer: Mark Durben, February 1989. Source: SRPA - Tempe Canal, South Side Salt River in Tempe, Mesa & Phoenix, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

215

7. REMAINS OF PLANK WALL WITHIN CANAL CONSTRUCTED TO PROTECT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. REMAINS OF PLANK WALL WITHIN CANAL CONSTRUCTED TO PROTECT OUTSIDE CANAL BANK, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. NOTE CROSS SUPPORT POLES EXTENDING TO HILLSIDE. - Snake River Ditch, Headgate on north bank of Snake River, Dillon, Summit County, CO

216

6. REMAINS OF PLANK WALL NAILED TO POSTS WITHIN CANAL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. REMAINS OF PLANK WALL NAILED TO POSTS WITHIN CANAL CONSTRUCTED TO PROTECT OUTSIDE CANAL BANK. VIEW IS TO THE WEST. - Snake River Ditch, Headgate on north bank of Snake River, Dillon, Summit County, CO

217

7. VIEW OF MAIN CANAL, LOOKING SOUTH, IMMEDIATELY DOWNSTREAM FROM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. VIEW OF MAIN CANAL, LOOKING SOUTH, IMMEDIATELY DOWNSTREAM FROM THE SNAKE RIVER VALLEY IRRIGATION DISTRICT, SECTION 34, T2N, R37E - Woodville Canal Company, West side of Snake River (River Mile 796), Woodville, Bingham County, ID

218

Triple antibiotic paste in root canal therapy  

PubMed Central

The success of the endodontic treatment depends on the microbial suppression in the root canal and periapical region. Endodontic instrumentation alone cannot achieve a sterile condition. With the advent of non-instrumentation endodontic treatment and lesion sterilization and tissue repair, local application of antibiotics has been investigated. Triple antibiotic paste (TAP) containing metronidazole, ciprofloxacin, and minocycline has been reported to be a successful regimen in controlling the root canal pathogen and in managing non-vital young permanent tooth. This paper reviews the existing literature on biocompatibility, efficiency, drawbacks of TAP in endodontic therapy and pulp revascularization. PMID:23066258

Vijayaraghavan, Rangasamy; Mathian, Veerabathran Mahesh; Sundaram, Alagappan Meenakshi; Karunakaran, Ramachandran; Vinodh, Selvaraj

2012-01-01

219

Triple antibiotic paste in root canal therapy.  

PubMed

The success of the endodontic treatment depends on the microbial suppression in the root canal and periapical region. Endodontic instrumentation alone cannot achieve a sterile condition. With the advent of non-instrumentation endodontic treatment and lesion sterilization and tissue repair, local application of antibiotics has been investigated. Triple antibiotic paste (TAP) containing metronidazole, ciprofloxacin, and minocycline has been reported to be a successful regimen in controlling the root canal pathogen and in managing non-vital young permanent tooth. This paper reviews the existing literature on biocompatibility, efficiency, drawbacks of TAP in endodontic therapy and pulp revascularization. PMID:23066258

Vijayaraghavan, Rangasamy; Mathian, Veerabathran Mahesh; Sundaram, Alagappan Meenakshi; Karunakaran, Ramachandran; Vinodh, Selvaraj

2012-08-01

220

21. VIEW OF NORTHERN BRANCH OF HIGHLINE CANAL, SECTION 1, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

21. VIEW OF NORTHERN BRANCH OF HIGHLINE CANAL, SECTION 1, T1S-R3E, SHOWING NON-PROJECT LAND, STILL DESERT, IN FOREGROUND AND CULTIVATED FIELDS OF THE SALT RIVER PROJECT BELOW THE CANAL, LOOKING NORTH. A SMALL PORTION OF NON-IRRIGABLE LAND BELOW THE CANAL IS SHOWN AT LEFT, March 1990 - Highline Canal & Pumping Station, South side of Salt River between Tempe, Phoenix & Mesa, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

221

13. VIEW OF WESTERN CANAL EAST OF CARRIAGE LANE IN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. VIEW OF WESTERN CANAL EAST OF CARRIAGE LANE IN TEMPE, SHOWING DROP STRUCTURE AND GROUNDWATER PUMP. THIS IS THE LAST OF FOUR PUMPS WHICH FEED DIRECTLY INTO THE CANAL BETWEEN ALMA SCHOOL ROAD AND PRICE ROAD. ON THIS DAY, ALL FOUR PUMPS, OPERATING AT FULL OUTPUT, HAVE CONSIDERABLY SWELLED THE FLOW TO THE CANAL. NOTE THE OLD FASHIONED BRICKWORK ON THE NORTH BANK. - Western Canal, South side of Salt River between Tempe, Phoenix & Mesa, Mesa, Maricopa County, AZ

222

14. VIEW OF WESTERN CANAL AT THE SALT RIVER PROJECT'S ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. VIEW OF WESTERN CANAL AT THE SALT RIVER PROJECT'S KYRENE STEAM POWER PLANT, TEMPE. THE WESTERN CANAL BEGINS TO TURN NORTH AT THIS POINT, AND DIVERTS WATER TO THE HIGHLINE PUMP PLANT AND THE KYRENE LATERAL. THE KYRENE PLANT INLET (LEFT-CENTER) ALSO DIVERTS CANAL WATER FOR PLANT OPERATION AND COOLING. - Western Canal, South side of Salt River between Tempe, Phoenix & Mesa, Mesa, Maricopa County, AZ

223

6. View southwest, culvert inlet with canal bank completely removed. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. View southwest, culvert inlet with canal bank completely removed. Left to right: back of headwall; tops of high inlet barrels; vertical transition wall between high inlet barrels and low, interior, inlet barrels; tops of low interior barrels; vertical heartening planks and low cutoff wall along former edge of canal bank; dewatered canal bed. - Delaware & Raritan Canal, Ten Mile Run Culvert, 1.5 miles South of Blackwells Road, East Millstone, Somerset County, NJ

224

Effects of Canals and Levees on Everglades Ecosystems  

E-print Network

-309 #12;Refuges and Sinks Canals provide habitat for dense populations of alligators, but these populations are dominated by adults. Nesting success in canals is negligible. Alligators that rely on canals may no longer construct and maintain alligator holes, which provide critical dry- season habitat

Mazzotti, Frank

225

Posterior semicircular canal dehiscence following endolymphatic sac surgery.  

PubMed

Posterior semicircular canal dehiscence is a rare otologic entity that presents with third window signs and symptoms. Petrous apex cholesteatoma, fibrous dysplasia, high riding jugular bulb, and eosinophilic granuloma have been reported to be associated with posterior semicircular canal dehiscence. Here we report a case of development of posterior semicircular canal dehiscence following an endolymphatic sac surgery for the first time. PMID:22689472

Kiumehr, Saman; Mahboubi, Hossein; Djalilian, Hamid R

2012-09-01

226

151. Photocopy of drawing (taken from Twin Falls Canal Company ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

151. Photocopy of drawing (taken from Twin Falls Canal Company Surveyor's Transit Book #363, Page 20). SURVEY PRINT SHOWING POINT SPILLWAY AND FIELD NOTES, TWIN FALLS COUNTY NORTHWEST OF MURTAUGH, IDAHO. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

227

137. TWIN FALLS SOUTH SIDE MAIN CANAL DIVERSION HEADGATES, TWIN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

137. TWIN FALLS SOUTH SIDE MAIN CANAL DIVERSION HEADGATES, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO; OVERALL VIEW OF MAIN HEADGATES, DAM IN BACKGROUND. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

228

194. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

194. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. PROFILE AND GATE PLAN, NORTH ISLAND CROSS SECTION OF DAM, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO; BLUEPRINT. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

229

195. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

195. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. PLAN OF CONSTRUCTION AREA PLANT, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO; BLUEPRINT. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

230

147. TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL DIVERSION, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

147. TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL DIVERSION, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO; VIEW OF MAIN HEADGATES, EAST VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

231

183. Photocopy of map (Twin Falls Canal Company). TOPOGRAPHICAL MAP ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

183. Photocopy of map (Twin Falls Canal Company). TOPOGRAPHICAL MAP OF MILNER DAM SITE, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO; MAP, LEFT SIDE ONLY. CROSS REFERENCE: ID-15-192. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

232

25. TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL HEADWORKS FROM UPSTREAM LOOKING TOWARD ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

25. TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL HEADWORKS FROM UPSTREAM LOOKING TOWARD THE WEST (DAM-TENDER RICHARD CARL ADJUSTING THE GATES TO ALLOW 3400 CFS THROUGH). - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

233

193. Photocopy of Photograph, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

193. Photocopy of Photograph, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. MILNER DAM PROFILE, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO; BLUEPRINT. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

234

187. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

187. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. TOPOGRAPHICAL MAP OF MILNER DAM LOCATION, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO; BLUEPRINT MAP. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

235

185. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

185. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. MILNER DAM CROSS SECTION PLAN, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO; BLUEPRINT. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

236

130. FORKS DIVERSION, HIGH LINE AND LOW LINE CANALS, TWIN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

130. FORKS DIVERSION, HIGH LINE AND LOW LINE CANALS, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF HANSEN, IDAHO; OUTLET SIDE OF THE HIGH LINE GATES, NORTH VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

237

157. Photocopy of drawing (taken from Twin Falls Canal Company ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

157. Photocopy of drawing (taken from Twin Falls Canal Company Field Book #360, Page 75, entitled, 'Clay-Seam Cut-Off.' Cross-Reference: ID-15-153). MILNER DAM SURVEY, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

238

141. TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL DIVERSION, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

141. TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL DIVERSION, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO; CLOSE-UP OF MAIN HEADGATES, RADIAL GATES INSIDE, SOUTHEAST VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

239

148. TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL DIVERSION, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

148. TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL DIVERSION, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER DAM; HEADGATES AT INLET, SOUTHWEST VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

240

155. Photocopy of transit book (taken from Twin Falls Canal ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

155. Photocopy of transit book (taken from Twin Falls Canal Company Surveyor's Transit Book #405T, Page 1, #46 Division One). STATEMENT RE: SURVEY ALIGNMENT 3/03, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

241

186. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

186. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. DRY CREEK RESERVOIR, CASSIA COUNTY (NOW TWIN FALLS COUNTY); MAP. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

242

191. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

191. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. SPILLWAY GATES, MILNER DAM, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO; BLUEPRINT. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

243

153. Photocopy of drawing (taken from Twin Falls Canal Company ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

153. Photocopy of drawing (taken from Twin Falls Canal Company Field Book #360, Page 74, entitled, 'Clay-Seam Cut-Off.' Cross-Reference: ID-15-157). MILNER DAM SURVEY, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

244

124. MCMULLEN CREEK HIGH LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

124. MCMULLEN CREEK HIGH LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY, IDAHO; OVERALL SOUTH VIEW OF DRAW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

245

190. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

190. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. GENERAL PLAN OF MILNER DAM TUNNELS, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO; BLUEPRINT. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

246

152. Photocopy of drawing (taken from Twin Falls Canal Company ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

152. Photocopy of drawing (taken from Twin Falls Canal Company Surveyor's Transit Book #363, Page 1). 1912 CONDITION REPORT OF MILNER DAM AREA, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

247

178. Photocopy of Photograph, Twin Falls Canal Company. C. R. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

178. Photocopy of Photograph, Twin Falls Canal Company. C. R. Savage, Photographer, March, 1905. FIRST FULL WATER OVER MILNER DAM, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO; SOUTHWEST VIEW OF SPILLWAY GATES. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

248

181. Photocopy of Photograph, Twin Falls Canal Company. Photographer and ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

181. Photocopy of Photograph, Twin Falls Canal Company. Photographer and date unknown. POINT SPILL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY; SOUTH VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

249

192. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

192. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. TOPOGRAPHICAL MAP (DAM DRAWN IN), MILNER SITE, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO; RIGHT SIDE OF MAP (LEFT ON ID-15-183). - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

250

182. Photocopy of Photograph, Twin Falls Canal Company. Photographer and ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

182. Photocopy of Photograph, Twin Falls Canal Company. Photographer and date unknown. MILNER DAM TUNNELS, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO; APPROACH TO TUNNELS. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

251

24. VIEW SHOWING WASTE GATES ON GRAND CANAL AT JUNCTION ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

24. VIEW SHOWING WASTE GATES ON GRAND CANAL AT JUNCTION WITH OLD CROSSCUT NE/4, Sec. 7, TIN, R4E; LOOKING WEST. OLD CROSSCUT CANAL ENTERS FROM RIGHT. WASTE GATE ON LEFT EMPTIES INTO SALT RIVER BED Photographer: Kevin Kreisel-Coons, May 1990 - Grand Canal, North side of Salt River, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

252

82. ROOSEVELT POWER CANAL, SUGGESTED ARRANGEMENT FOR ELECTRICAL OPERATION OF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

82. ROOSEVELT POWER CANAL, SUGGESTED ARRANGEMENT FOR ELECTRICAL OPERATION OF SLUICE GATES AND CANAL INTAKE GATES AT DIVERSION DAM Courtesy of Dept. of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation, Salt River Project, Arizona - Roosevelt Power Canal & Diversion Dam, Parallels Salt River, Roosevelt, Gila County, AZ

253

16. VIEW OF HIGHLINE CANAL PIPELINE OUTLET, SHOWING THE OUTLET, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

16. VIEW OF HIGHLINE CANAL PIPELINE OUTLET, SHOWING THE OUTLET, A GROUNDWATER PUMP (LEFT), AND THE SOUTH BRANCH OF THE CANAL (FOREGROUND), August 1989 - Highline Canal & Pumping Station, South side of Salt River between Tempe, Phoenix & Mesa, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

254

48. SUMMIT OF THE MORRIS CANAL, 914 FEET ABOVE MEAN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

48. SUMMIT OF THE MORRIS CANAL, 914 FEET ABOVE MEAN HIGH TIDE AT NEWARK, NEW JERSEY. TRACKS OF THE D, L & W RAILROAD CAN BE SEEN AT LEFT. EDGE OF THE LAKE HOPATCONG STATION IS ALSO VISIBLE AT LEFT. PASSENGERS AND FREIGHT COULD BE TRANSFERRED TO SMALL BOATS FOR TRANSPORT THROUGH THE FEEDER CANAL TO LAKE HOPATCONG. - Morris Canal, Phillipsburg, Warren County, NJ

255

Cigarette Smoking Increases the Risk of Root Canal Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few studies have investigated smoking as a risk factor for root canal treatment. We studied the effect of smoking on the incidence of root canal treatment, controlling for recognized risk factors, in 811 dentate male participants in the VA Dental Longitudinal Study. Participants were not VA patients. Follow-up ranged from 2 to 28 years. Root canal treatment was verified on

E. A. Krall; C. Abreu Sosa; C. Garcia; M. E. Nunn; D. J. Caplan; R. I. Garcia

2006-01-01

256

Cigarette Smoking Increases the Risk of Root Canal Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few studies have investigated smoking as a risk factor for root canal treatment. We studied the effect of smoking on the incidence of root canal treatment, controlling for recognized risk factors, in 811 dentate male participants in the VA Dental Longitudinal Study. Participants were not VA patients. Follow-up ranged from 2 to 28 years. Root canal treatment was verified on

E. A. Krall; C. Abreu Sosa; C. Garcia; M. E. Nunn; D. J. Caplan; R. I. Garcia

2010-01-01

257

111. ROCK CREEK SIPHON LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

111. ROCK CREEK SIPHON LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY IDAHO; OVERALL VIEW OF SIPHON, EAST VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

258

112. ROCK CREEK SIPHON LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

112. ROCK CREEK SIPHON LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY IDAHO; OUTLET SIDE, EAST VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

259

98. SHOESTRING, TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY NORTHWEST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

98. SHOESTRING, TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY NORTHWEST OF MURTAUGH, IDAHO; PROFILE VIEW, SOUTH. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

260

113. ROCK CREEK SIPHON LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

113. ROCK CREEK SIPHON LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY IDAHO; CLOSE-UP OF INLET SIDE OF SIPHON, NORTHWEST VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

261

96. CEDAR DRAW SPILL, LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

96. CEDAR DRAW SPILL, LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY SOUTH OF FILER, IDAHO; OUTLET SIDE OF CEDAR DRAW, WEST VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

262

93. ROCK CREEK SIPHON, LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

93. ROCK CREEK SIPHON, LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY SOUTH OF KIMBERLY, IDAHO; OVERALL NORTHEAST VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

263

90. CEDAR DRAW SPILL, HIGH LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

90. CEDAR DRAW SPILL, HIGH LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF FILER, IDAHO; CLOSE-UP OF GATES. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

264

99. POINT SPILL, TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

99. POINT SPILL, TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY NORTHWEST OF MURTAUGH, IDAHO; CLOSE-UP OF OUTLET SIDE OF GATES, SOUTH VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

265

110. ROCK CREEK SIPHON, LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

110. ROCK CREEK SIPHON, LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY, IDAHO; INLET SIDE WEST VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

266

95. CEDAR DRAW SPILL, LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

95. CEDAR DRAW SPILL, LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY SOUTH OF FILER, IDAHO; OVERALL VIEW LOOKING EAST. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

267

115. ROCK CREEK SIPHON LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

115. ROCK CREEK SIPHON LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY IDAHO; WEST VIEW OF SIPHON CROSSING ROCK CREEK. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

268

116. ROCK CREEK SIPHON LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

116. ROCK CREEK SIPHON LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY IDAHO; CLOSE-UP OF OUTLET, DIVERSION SPILL IN BACKGROUND, WEST VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

269

92. CEDAR DRAW SPILL, HIGH LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

92. CEDAR DRAW SPILL, HIGH LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY SOUTH OF FILER, IDAHO; CLOSE-UP OF OUTLET SIDE OF GATES, SOUTH VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

270

109. CEDAR DRAW SPILL, LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

109. CEDAR DRAW SPILL, LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF FILER, IDAHO; OVERALL VIEW LOOKING WEST. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

271

114. ROCK CREEK SIPHON LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

114. ROCK CREEK SIPHON LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY IDAHO; OVERALL VIEW, WEST OF INLET SIDE. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

272

Forecasting the Suez Canal traffic: a neural network analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the Suez Canal is the most important man-made waterway in the world, rivaled perhaps only by the Panama Canal, little research has been done into forecasting its traffic flows. This paper uses both univariate ARIMA (Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average) and Neural network models to forecast the maritime traffic flows in the Suez Canal which are expressed in tons. One

Mohamed M. Mostafa

2004-01-01

273

132. FORKS DIVERSION, HIGH LINE AND LOW LINE CANALS, TWIN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

132. FORKS DIVERSION, HIGH LINE AND LOW LINE CANALS, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF HANSEN, IDAHO; POWER GATES FOR HYDRO-ELECTRIC. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

274

70. GENERAL VIEW OF CANAL IN DOVER LOOKING EAST. WHAT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

70. GENERAL VIEW OF CANAL IN DOVER LOOKING EAST. WHAT APPEARS TO BE A SWING BRIDGE IS VISIBLE ACROSS CANAL ON RIGHT SIDE OF PHOTOGRAPH (NOTE THAT THIS MAY ALSO BE A LIFT BRIDGE WITH THE LIFT EQUIPMENT REMOVED). - Morris Canal, Phillipsburg, Warren County, NJ

275

Newer Root Canal Irrigants in Horizon: A Review  

PubMed Central

Sodium hypochloride is the most commonly used endodontic irrigant, despite limitations. None of the presently available root canal irrigants satisfy the requirements of ideal root canal irrigant. Newer root canal irrigants are studied for potential replacement of sodium hypochloride. This article reviews the potential irrigants with their advantages and limitations with their future in endodontic irrigation. PMID:22190936

Jaju, Sushma; Jaju, Prashant P.

2011-01-01

276

66. 'CANAL BOAT ENROUTE NEAR HACKETTSTOWN' READS THE PHOTOGRAPHS CAPTION. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

66. 'CANAL BOAT ENROUTE NEAR HACKETTSTOWN' READS THE PHOTOGRAPHS CAPTION. BOAT IS QUITE POSSIBLY APPROACHING LOCK 2 EAST FROM THE EAST DUE TO SIMILARITIES BETWEEN THIS AND THE PREVIOUS PHOTOGRAPH (I.E. TREES BORDERING THE LOCK AND THE CANAL TENDER'S HOUSE THAT IS VISIBLE TO RIGHT IN THIS PHOTOGRAPH). - Morris Canal, Phillipsburg, Warren County, NJ

277

Looking east at canal and R. Paul Smith Power Station. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Looking east at canal and R. Paul Smith Power Station. The dark trestle at right center carried the spur track to coal unloading facilities located in the space now occupied by the coal pile. - Potomac Edison Company, Chesapeake & Ohio Canal Bridge, Spanning C & O Canal South of U.S. 11, Williamsport, Washington County, MD

278

Resorption of mandibular canal wall in the edentulous aged population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Statement of problem. The mandibular canal wall may be affected by the progress of residual ridge resorption after tooth extraction. Little knowledge is available regarding the relationship of specific systemic factors and the resorption of the mandibular canal wall.Purpose. The purpose of this study was to assess the status of the mandibular canal in the edentulous mandible and to determine

Qiufei Xie; Juhani Wolf; Reijo Tilvis; Anja Ainamo

1997-01-01

279

31. MAIN CANAL Photographic copy of historic photo, December ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

31. MAIN CANAL - Photographic copy of historic photo, December 13, 1939 (original print in '1939 Annual Report of the Carlsbad Project,' located at the Carlsbad Irrigation District offices, Carlsbad, New Mexico) photographer unknown 'LINING MAIN CANAL AROUND GYP BEND' - Carlsbad Irrigation District, Main Canal, 4 miles North to 12 miles Southeast of Carlsbad, Carlsbad, Eddy County, NM

280

197. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls, Canal Company, date unknown. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

197. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls, Canal Company, date unknown. GATE STEMS AND LIFTING DEVICES, NO COUNTY; BLUEPRINT SKETCHES. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

281

Posterior Semicircular Canal Dehiscence Following Endolymphatic Sac Surgery  

PubMed Central

Posterior semicircular canal dehiscence is a rare otologic entity which presents with third window signs and symptoms. Petrous apex cholesteatoma, fibrous dysplasia, high riding jugular bulb, and eosinophilic granuloma have been reported to be associated with posterior semicircular canal dehiscence. Here we report a case of development of posterior semicircular canal dehiscence following an endolymaphatic sac surgery for the first time. PMID:22689472

Kiumehr, Saman; Mahboubi, Hossein; Djalilian, Hamid R.

2012-01-01

282

LOVE CANAL MONITORING PROGRAM. VOLUME 1  

EPA Science Inventory

This report summarizes the prime contractor activities during the monitoring phase of the Love Canal project. Since GCA Corporation was only responsible for data collection, no analytical results appear in this report. The program involved a multifaceted sampling and analytical e...

283

ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AT LOVE CANAL: VOLUME III  

EPA Science Inventory

During the summer and fall of 1980 the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conducted a comprehensive multimedia environmental monitoring program in the vicinity of the inactive hazardous wastes landfill known as Love Canal, located in Niagara Falls, New York. The studies c...

284

QUALITY ASSURANCE PLAN: LOVE CANAL STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

The four volumes in this set comprise the working guideline documents for the Love Canal Study. The documents were developed to direct both the prime contractor and subcontractors while performing for the Environmental Protection Agency. Detailed procedures for each analysis type...

285

ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AT LOVE CANAL: VOLUME I  

EPA Science Inventory

During the summer and fall of 1980 the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conducted a comprehensive multimedia environmental monitoring program in the vicinity of the inactive hazardous wastes landfill known as Love Canal, located in Niagara Falls, New York. The studies c...

286

Superior Semicircular Canal Dehiscence: Auditory Mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Superior semicircular canal dehiscence (SCD) syndrome aords a unique oppor- tunity to study a novel pathology in otolaryngology (rst dened in 1998) and the mechanisms by which it aects hearing. Patients with SCD syndrome present with a wide variety of symptoms: some present with vestibular symptoms (vertigo, oscillosp- sia, disequilibrium) others present with auditory symptoms (autophony, hyperacusis, low frequency conductive

Jocelyn Songer

2004-01-01

287

Aerial View of Faka Union Canal, Florida  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

This aerial view shows how Faka Union Canal (visible as a straight channel of water) connects the coastal environment, where manatees feed, to freshwater inlets. The Ten Thousand Islands region in the foreground supports sea grass beds where manatees feed. During cold winter months, manatees can swi...

288

HISTOPATHOLOGY OF THE TEMPORAL BONE IN A CASE OF SUPERIOR CANAL DEHISCENCE SYNDROME  

PubMed Central

Objectives To describe the histopathologic findings in the temporal bones of a patient with who had been diagnosed during life with superior canal dehiscence (SCD) syndrome. Methods The patient was diagnosed with SCD at the age of 59. She became a temporal bone donor, and died of unrelated causes at the age of 62. Both temporal bones were prepared in celloidin and examined by light microscopy. Results She developed bilateral aural fullness, pulsatile tinnitus and difficulty tolerating loud noises after minor head trauma at age 53. Symptoms were worse on the right. She also had valsalva-induced dizziness and eye movements, as well as sound-induced dizziness (more prominent on the right), consistent with SCD. Audiometry showed a small air bone gap of 10 dB in the right ear. VEMP testing showed an abnormally low threshold of 66 dB on the right, and CT scan showed dehiscence of the superior canal on the right. Histopathology of the right ear showed a 1.4 × 0.6 mm dehiscence of bone covering the superior canal. Dura was in direct contact with the endosteum and the membranous duct at the level of the dehiscence. No osteoclastic process was evident within the otic capsule bone surrounding the dehiscence. The left ear showed thin but intact bone over the superior canal. Both ears showed focal microdehiscences of the tegmen tympani and tegmen mastoideum. The auditory and vestibular sense organs on both sides were normal. No endolymphatic hydrops was observed. Conclusions The findings were consistent with the hypothesis put forth by Carey and colleagues that the SCD may arise from failure of postnasal bone development, and that minor trauma may disrupt thin bone or stable dura over the superior canal. PMID:22312921

Teixido, Michael; Kung, Brian; Rosowski, John J.; Merchant, Saumil N.

2013-01-01

289

Comparative Radiographic Assessment of Root Canal Obturation Quality: Manual Verses Rotary Canal Preparation Technique  

PubMed Central

Objective: To compare the technical quality of root canal obturation in relation to rotary and manual root canal preparation techniques. Study Design: Cross sectional, analytical study. Place and Duration of Study: The Aga Khan University Hospital Karachi from January till December 2011. Methodology: Data was retrospectively retrieved by periapical radiographs of 60 root canal treated molars for assessment of obturation quality. Data was divided into two groups, 30 radiographs in each group. Group 1 and 2 teeth were prepared with rotary and manual canal preparation technique respectively followed by obturartion with cold lateral condensation technique. Postobturation radiographs were assessed to evaluate technical quality of obturation in term of length, density and taper of root filling. Mann Whitney-U and Chi- square test was applied to compare the difference in technical quality of obturation between two canal preparation techniques. Results: Amongst Thirty molar prepared with rotary instruments, 27 had achieved acceptable length, 25 had adequate density and 27 had achieved adequate taper. Amongst 30 molars prepared manually, 18 had achieved acceptable length, 14 had adequate density and 12 had adequate taper. Conclusion: Radiographic technical quality of the obturation (length, density and taper) was better with rotary technique as compared to manual canal preparation technique. PMID:25018683

Robia, Ghafoor

2014-01-01

290

[The narrow lumbar canal: 53 operated cases (author's transl)].  

PubMed

These 53 operated patients were divided into 2 groups: 29 had an intermittent claudication as Verbiest first described it soon as 1949, whereas 24 had permanent radicular pain in legs as Epstein emphasized it. We think emulsified Duroliopaque myelography to be the best investigation to make sure the diagnosis and to forecast the operative tactics: we gave up Dimer X myelography which occasioned serious complications in 2 cases and gas myelography which seems to us inadequate to this radicular pathology. Total-Body Scanner is rather an elegant method but a discontinuous one. The radiographic and operative findings have shown the stenosis of the lumbar canal to be congenital in 5 cases, development in 20 cases, degenerative in 27 cases (with 15 pseudo-spondylolisthesis) and tabetic in one case. A disc herniation was found in 25 cases over 53. The extent of the bone resection has been in relation with clinical picture, myelography and mainly operative findings, aiming at a "cut-to-measure costum". In every case the initial laminectomy was made easier by trenching the thickened laminae on each side of the spinal process prior to remove it. Only soft disc hernations were removed; the dura was never opened; no vertebral fusion was performed; for 2 years we have tried to avoid the "laminectomy membrane" by interposing an autogenous fat and aponevrotic graft between the dura and the overlying paraspinal muscles. The operative results are satisfactory with 75% of excellent and good; they are much better in patients with intermittent claudication than in those with permanent radicular pain. It is a question of functional surgery in one case, of pain surgery in the other. The major trick seems to us to be that of the associated disc hernation with the risk of missing the narrow canal. PMID:547193

Rousseaux, P; Bernard, M H; Scherpereel, B; Guyot, J F

1979-01-01

291

Root canal sealers cause cytotoxicity and oxidative damage in hepatocytes.  

PubMed

Elutable substances and degradation products from root canal sealers may gain access to periodontal tissue in many ways. The aim of this study was to investigate damage and oxidative stress caused by treatment with root canal sealers in primary cultured rat hepatocytes. Four root canal sealers were used: Canals, Sealapex, AH 26, and AH Plus. Toxicity was detected by assessing lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage, and oxidative stress was determined by analysis of glutathione (GSH) levels. One-way analysis of variance was performed on the data. As the concentrations of sealer were increased, LDH leakage increased (p < 0.01). Increased GSH depletion accompanied LDH leakage increase. GSH levels were reduced to zero at a concentration of 0.05% for Canals and 0.10% for AH 26. These results confirmed the hypothesis that root canal sealers can cause cytotoxicity in hepatocytes. The Canals and AH 26 sealers can also cause oxidative stress in hepatocytes. PMID:11189045

Hunag, T H; Lii, C K; Kao, C T

2001-03-01

292

Age-Related Cochlear Cytokine Gene Expression in the BALB/cJ Mouse with Systemic versus Intra-tympanic Dosing of Steroid Drugs  

PubMed Central

Conclusion Age-related differences in the expression of inflammatory cytokines in the inner ear may contribute to the development of age-related hearing loss. Objectives Age-related hearing loss is characterized by tissue remodeling, ischemia, ion homeostasis, and inflammation. Steroid therapy is an otoprotective strategy that likely acts by reducing inflammation. We examined age-related changes in cytokine gene expression in the cochlea of the BALB/cJ mouse model of premature age-related hearing loss after systemic or intra-tympanic steroid delivery. Methods “Young” (2.5-3 months) and “Old” (5-9 months) mice were treated with dexamethasone or fludrocortisone administered either orally or intra-tympanically. Cytokine gene expression in cochlear RNA was analyzed using prefabricated cDNA arrays. Old groups were compared to Young to identify age-related changes. Results Down-regulation of a cytokine associated with bone remodeling (SPP1) was observed in the untreated Old group. Numerous genes were up- or down-regulated by more than two-fold by steroid treatment, including pro-inflammatory interleukins (IL-16) and anti-inflammatory cytokines. PMID:23768053

Tokarz, Sara A.; Pang, Jiaqing; Grosz, Anna; Kempton, J. Beth; Trune, Dennis R.; Pillers, De-Ann M.

2014-01-01

293

The Biology and Taxonomic Status of the Sunken Ear Frog (Rana tormotus Wu, 1977)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biology and taxonomic status of the sunken ear frog, Rana tormotus Wu, 1977, are reviewed and briefly discussed. This is a rare species restricted the mountain streams and rivers of Anhui and Zhejiang provinces in East China, and is characterized by a sunken tympanic membrane that forms an external ear canal, similar to that seen in birds. The male,

PIPENG LI; YUYAN LU

294

Guyon Canal: The Evolution of Clinical Anatomy.  

PubMed

Guyon canal refers to the ulnar tunnel at the wrist named for the French surgeon Jean Casimir Félix Guyon, who described this space in 1861. After Guyon's description, clinicians have focused their interest on symptoms caused by compression of structures occupying this canal (later named ulnar tunnel syndrome or Guyon syndrome). However, disagreement and confusion persisted over the correct anatomical boundaries and terminology used to describe the ulnar tunnel. Through anatomical investigation and evolving clinical case studies, the current understanding of the anatomy of the ulnar tunnel was established. This article examines the evolution of the anatomical description of the ulnar tunnel and its relevant clinical associations and casts light on the life and contributions of Guyon. PMID:25446410

Maroukis, Brianna L; Ogawa, Takeshi; Rehim, Shady A; Chung, Kevin C

2014-10-29

295

An alternative regimen for root canal disinfection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To compare the effect of a combination of 20% citric acid solution and photo-activated disinfection with the use of 20% citric acid and 2.25% sodium hypochlorite solutions on bacterial load on the dentine walls in prepared canals in vivo.Subjects and methods Sixty-four randomly selected cases were evaluated and allocated to one of two groups. In Group 1, after gaining

R Nichol; T M S Reid; G J Pearson; S J Bonsor

2006-01-01

296

Restoration of the root canal treated tooth.  

PubMed

When considering endodontically treated teeth, the quality of the restoration is important from the outset. It sheds light into possible causes of pulp necrosis or failure of endodontic treatment and influences the outcome of future endodontic treatment. A tooth undergoing endodontic treatment requires an effective coronal seal during and following completion of endodontic treatment. This paper discusses, using the available literature, the maintenance of optimal coronal seal and coronal integrity during and after root canal treatment. PMID:25613259

Eliyas, S; Jalili, J; Martin, N

2015-01-23

297

Membrane stabilizer  

SciTech Connect

A device is provided for stabilizing a flexible membrane secured within a frame, wherein a plurality of elongated arms are disposed radially from a central hub which penetrates the membrane, said arms imposing alternately against opposite sides of the membrane, thus warping and tensioning the membrane into a condition of improved stability. The membrane may be an opaque or translucent sheet or other material.

Mingenbach, William A. (P.O. Box 49, Taos, NM 87571)

1988-01-01

298

Electrical filtering in gerbil isolated type I semicircular canal hair cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

1. Membrane potential responses of dissociated gerbil type I semicircular canal hair cells to current injections in whole cell current-clamp have been measured. The input resistance of type I cells was 21.4 +/- 14.3 (SD) M omega, (n = 25). Around the zero-current potential (Vz = -66.6 +/- 9.3 mV, n = 25), pulsed current injections (from approximately -200 to 750 pA) produced only small-amplitude, pulse-like changes in membrane potential. 2. Injecting constant current to hyperpolarize the membrane to around -100 mV resulted in a approximately 10-fold increase in membrane resistance. Current pulses superimposed on this constant hyperpolarization produced larger and more complex membrane potential changes. Depolarizing currents > or = 200 pA caused a rapid transient peak voltage before a plateau. 3. Membrane voltage was able to faithfully follow sine-wave current injections around Vz over the range 1-1,000 Hz with < 25% attenuation at 1 kHz. A previously described K conductance, IKI, which is active at Vz, produces the low input resistance and frequency response. This was confirmed by pharmacologically blocking IKI. This conductance, present in type I cells but not type II hair cells, would appear to confer on type I cells a lower gain, but a much broader bandwidth at Vz, than seen in type II cells.

Rennie, K. J.; Ricci, A. J.; Correia, M. J.

1996-01-01

299

Endodontic management of a maxillary second premolar with an S-shaped root canal.  

PubMed

Complex and unusual root canal morphology is an often occurring phenomenon. Understanding the unusual root canal morphology contributes to success in endodontic treatment. One such variant root canal morphology is the 'S' shaped or bayonet shaped root canal. This case report discusses endodontic treatment of a maxillary second premolar with an 'S' shaped root canal. PMID:20351976

Reuben, Joseph; Velmurugan, Natanasabapathy; Vasanthi, Santhanam; Priya; Vijayalakshmi

2008-10-01

300

The differential genetic and environmental canalization of fitness components in Drosophila melanogaster  

Microsoft Academic Search

Canalization describes the process by which phenotypic variation is reduced by developmental mechanisms. A trait can be canalized against environmental or genetic perturbations. Stabilizing selelction should favor improved canalization, and the degree of a trait's canalization should be positively correlated with its impact on fitness. Here we report, for Drosophila melanogaster, measurements of environmen- tal canalization for five fitness components.

Stephen C. Stearns; Marcel Kaiser; Tadeusz J. Kawecki

1995-01-01

301

[Superior semicircular canal dehiscence as a cause of hearing loss].  

PubMed

Superior semicircular canal dehiscence can be the cause of hearing loss and vertigo. Typical findings are conductive hearing loss and hyperacusis to bone-conducted sounds. Also acute pressure- and sound-evoked vestibular symptoms may occur. We describe a middle-aged patient with a conductive hearing loss. A few basic examinations led to suspicion of superior canal dehiscence. Computerized tomographic (CT) scan revealed a pathologic third window in the superior semicircular canal. PMID:22612025

Anttinen, Juha; Saaranen, Lotta; Nikanne, Elina

2012-01-01

302

Flatness-based control of an irrigation canal using SCADA  

E-print Network

is the weir discharge coefficient. (a) (b) Figure 1: Irrigation canal. (a) shows the flow Q, water depth H] are widely used to describe water discharge in a canal. Since these equations are not easy to invert, we use-Venant equations for water discharge in a canal are named after Adhémar Jean- Claude Barré de Saint-Venant, who

303

82. CANAL WEST OF LOCK 12 EAST NEAR BOONTON. STORAGE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

82. CANAL WEST OF LOCK 12 EAST NEAR BOONTON. STORAGE BUILDING AND CHUTE ON LEFT SIDE OF CANAL MAY BE A COAL FACILITY. COAL WOULD BE UNLOADED FROM THE BOAT AND PASSED UP THE CHUTE INTO THE COAL STORAGE BIN. COAL COULD THEN BE LOADED INTO WAGONS FROM THE BOTTOM OF THE BIN ON THE OPPOSITE SIDE OF THE STRUCTURE WHEN NECESSARY. - Morris Canal, Phillipsburg, Warren County, NJ

304

PLANS AND SECTIONS. WEIR SPILLWAY. TEXAS HILL CANAL STA. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

PLANS AND SECTIONS. WEIR SPILLWAY. TEXAS HILL CANAL - STA. 132+82.15. TEXAS HILL CANAL AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM. United States Department of Interior, Bureau of Reclamation; Gila Project, Arizona, Wellton-Mohawk Division. Drawing No. 50-D-3200, dated February 7, 1955, Denver, Colorado - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Relift Station, Texas Hill Canal 2.5, Northern Terminus of Avenue 51 East, approximately .5 mile south of Union Pacific Railroad, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

305

9. EAST SIDE CANAL Photographic copy of historic photo, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. EAST SIDE CANAL - Photographic copy of historic photo, September 17, 1940 (original print in '1940 Annual Report of the Carlsbad Project,' located at the Carlsbad Irrigation District offices, Carlsbad, New Mexico) photographer unknown 'CCC ENROLLEES STARTING EXCAVATION FOR ROCK LINING DOWNSTREAM FROM STA. 22. EAST CANAL, LAT. #8' - Carlsbad Irrigation District, East Side Canal, 1 mile North to 2 miles East of Carlsbad, Carlsbad, Eddy County, NM

306

10. EAST SIDE CANAL Photographic copy of historic photo, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. EAST SIDE CANAL - Photographic copy of historic photo, December 3, 1940 (original print in '1940 Annual Report of the Carlsbad Project,' located at the Carlsbad Irrigation District offices, Carlsbad, New Mexico) photographer unknown 'LOOKING DOWN FROM STA. #22 LATERAL #8, EAST CANAL. AFTER CCC ENROLLEES FINISHED ROCK LINING' - Carlsbad Irrigation District, East Side Canal, 1 mile North to 2 miles East of Carlsbad, Carlsbad, Eddy County, NM

307

MAXILLARY FIRST PREMOLAR WITH THREE ROOT CANALS: A CASE REPORT  

PubMed Central

The maxillary first premolar is the most commonly bi- rooted tooth with occasional presentation of three roots system; it is a transitional tooth between incisors and molars. Although it usually has two canals, it may rarely have three and this third canal can easily be missed. Thus meticulous knowledge of tooth morphology, careful interpretation of angled radiographs, proper access cavity preparation and a detailed exploration of the interior of the tooth is needed to ensure a proper endodontic treatment. This article reports a rare finding of three canals in a maxillary first premolar with non well defined root outline radiographically during an elective root canal treatment. PMID:25161429

Sulaiman, A.O; Dosumu, O.O; Amedari, McKing

2013-01-01

308

12. VIEW OF WESTERN CANAL AT ALMA SCHOOL ROAD IN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. VIEW OF WESTERN CANAL AT ALMA SCHOOL ROAD IN MESA, THE LOCATION AT WHICH THE PECK, PINE AND WALLACE FEEDERS FORMERLY JOINED TO FORM THE WESTERN CANAL. THE PECK AND PINE FEEDERS, NOW KNOWN AS LATERAL 9 AND LATERAL 10, AND ALMOST ENTIRELY PIPED, STILL JOIN THE WESTERN CANAL AT THIS POINT, BUT AN EQUALLY IMPORTANT SOURCE OF SUPPLY IS THE NUMEROUS GROUNDWATER PUMPS LOCATED ON THE SYSTEM. - Western Canal, South side of Salt River between Tempe, Phoenix & Mesa, Mesa, Maricopa County, AZ

309

Computer simulation and capacity evaluation of Panama Canal alternatives  

SciTech Connect

The Operating Characteristics and Capacity Evaluation (OCCE) Study was one of the components of a group of studies of future alternatives to the Panama Canal, sponsored by a study commission formed by the governments of Panama, the US and Japan. The basic tool in the conduct of the study was the Waterway Analysis Model (WAM), developed originally by the US Army Corps of Engineers for use on the US inland waterway system and adapted under OCCE for study of Panama Canal alternatives. The study synthesized the many alternative plans for the Canal proposed historically into four basic groups: High-Rise Lock Canal, Low-Rise Lock Canal, Sea-Level Canal and Status Quo Canal. For economy, the sea-level cases were based on, essentially, a single-lane canal, in conjunction with the status quo canal. Hydraulic and navigation studies indicted that to achieve safe navigation, tide gates or locks would be required to control currents that would otherwise be generated by the differences in tides between the two oceans. The alternatives studied in detail are illustrated in the body of the paper.

Rosselli, A.T. [TAMS Consultants, Inc., New York, NY (United States); Bronzini, M.S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Center for Transportation Analysis; Weekly, D.A. [Army Corps of Engineers, Huntington, WV (United States). Navigation Planning Center

1994-12-31

310

20. 1934 aerial of Tempe Canal, Sections 9, 16, and ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

20. 1934 aerial of Tempe Canal, Sections 9, 16, and 17 (T1N R5E) (top of page is north). The Tempe Crosscut is seen as the dark line entering from top right, which turns north, then curves around the Chandler Falls powerhouse. The canal then curves slowly around to the southwest. The old Trunk Ditch is visible at the top of the curve, coming in from the northeast. A wasteway (top left) runs west from the canal to the Salt River. Photographer: Unknown, 1934. Source: SRP Cartographic Drafting - Tempe Canal, South Side Salt River in Tempe, Mesa & Phoenix, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

311

21. 1934 aerial of Tempe Canal, Sections 19 and 30 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

21. 1934 aerial of Tempe Canal, Sections 19 and 30 (T1N R5E) and Sections 24 and 25 (T1N R4E) (top of page is north). The main canal enters the picture at upper right and curves out of picture at lower right. The Hayden Branch (thin dark line) runs from top of picture to the southwest, then curves to the west. The Western Branch enters picture running parallel to main canal, then angles off to southwest. Photographer: Unknown, 1934. Source: SRP Cartographic Drafting - Tempe Canal, South Side Salt River in Tempe, Mesa & Phoenix, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

312

33 CFR 117.661 - Duluth Ship Canal (Duluth-Superior Harbor).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Duluth Ship Canal (Duluth-Superior Harbor). ...Requirements Minnesota § 117.661 Duluth Ship Canal (Duluth-Superior Harbor). The draw of the Duluth Ship Canal Aerial bridge,...

2014-07-01

313

75 FR 63086 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Duluth Ship Canal (Duluth-Superior Harbor).  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Duluth Ship Canal (Duluth- Superior Harbor). AGENCY...regulation governing the operation of the Duluth Ship Canal Aerial Bridge at Mile 0.1 over the Duluth Ship Canal, at Duluth, MN, for scheduled...

2010-10-14

314

78 FR 39591 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Lake Washington Ship Canal at Seattle, WA  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Operation Regulation; Lake Washington Ship Canal at Seattle, WA AGENCY: Coast Guard...3, all crossing the Lake Washington Ship Canal at Seattle, WA. The deviation is...3, all crossing the Lake Washington Ship Canal at Seattle, WA. The requested...

2013-07-02

315

Cancer Incidence among Former Love Canal Residents  

PubMed Central

Background The Love Canal was a rectangular 16-acre, 10-ft-deep chemical waste landfill situated in a residential neighborhood in Niagara Falls, New York. This seriously contaminated site came to public attention in 1978. Only one prior study examined cancer incidence in former residents of the Love Canal neighborhood (LC). Objective In this study we aimed to describe cancer incidence in former LC residents from 1979 to 1996 and to investigate whether it differs from that of New York State (NYS) and Niagara County (NC). Methods From 1978 to 1982, we interviewed 6,181 former residents, and 5,052 were eligible to be included in this study. In 1996, we identified 304 cancer diagnoses in this cohort using the NYS Cancer Registry. We compared LC cancer incidence with that of NYS and NC using standardized incidence ratios (SIRs), and we compared risks within the LC group by potential exposure to the landfill using survival analysis. Results SIRs were elevated for cancers of the bladder [SIRNYS = 1.44; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.91–2.16] and kidney (SIRNYS = 1.48; 95% CI, 0.76–2.58). Although CIs included 1.00, other studies have linked these cancers to chemicals similar to those found at Love Canal. We also found higher rates of bladder cancer among residents exposed as children, based on two cases. Conclusions In explaining these excess risks, the role of exposure to the landfill is unclear given such limitations as a relatively small and incomplete study cohort, imprecise exposure measurements, and the exclusion of cancers diagnosed before 1979. Given the relatively young age of the cohort, further surveillance is warranted. PMID:19672407

Gensburg, Lenore J.; Pantea, Cristian; Kielb, Christine; Fitzgerald, Edward; Stark, Alice; Kim, Nancy

2009-01-01

316

Cancer incidence in the Love Canal area  

SciTech Connect

Data from the New York Cancer Registry show no evidence for higher cancer rates associated with residence near the Love Canal toxic waste burial site in comparison with the entire state outside of New York City. Rates of liver cancer, lymphoma, and leukemia, which were selected for special attention, were not consistently elevated. Among the other cancers studied, a higher rate was noted only for respiratory cancer, but it was not consistent across age groups and appeared to be related to a high rate for the entire city of Niagara Falls. There was no evidence that the lung cancer rate was associated with the toxic wastes buried at the dump site.

Janerich, D.T.; Burnett, W.S.; Feck, G.; Hoff, M.; Nasca, P.; Polednak, A.P.; Greenwald, P.; Vianna, N.

1981-06-01

317

Root canal filling evaluation using optical coherence tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Endodontic therapy consists in cleaning and shaping the root canal system, removing organic debris and sealing the intra-canal space with permanent filling materials. The purpose of this study was to evaluate various root canal fillings in order to detect material defects, the marginal adaptation at the root canal walls and to assess the quality of the apical sealing. 21 extracted single-root canal human teeth were selected for this study. We instrumented all roots using NiTi rotary instruments. All canals were enlarged with a 6% taper size 30 GT instrument, 0,5 mm from the anatomical apex. The root canals were irrigated with 5% sodium hypochlorite, followed by 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). After the instrumentation was completed, the root canals were obturated using a thermoplasticizable polymer of polyesters. In order to assess the defects inside the filling material and the marginal fit to the root canal walls, the conebeam micro-computed tomography (CB?CT) was used first. After the CB?CT investigation, time domain optical coherence tomography working in en face mode (TDefOCT) was employed to evaluate the previous samples. The TDefOCT system was working at 1300 nm and was doubled by a confocal channel at 970 nm. The results obtained by CB?CT revealed no visible defects inside the root-canal fillings and at the interfaces with the root-canal walls. TDefOCT investigations permit to visualize a more complex stratificated structure at the interface filling material/dental hard tissue and in the apical region.

Negrutiu, Meda L.; Sinescu, Cosmin; Topala, Florin; Nica, Luminita; Ionita, Ciprian; Marcauteanu, Corina; Goguta, Luciana; Bradu, Adrian; Dobre, George; Rominu, Mihai; Podoleanu, Adrian Gh.

2010-04-01

318

Costimulation of the horizontal semicircular canal during skull vibrations in superior canal Dehiscence syndrome.  

PubMed

A sound- and pressure-induced vestibuloocular reflex (VOR) has been described as vertical and torsional in superior canal dehiscence (SCD), and the rotational axes of induced VOR have been assumed to fit with the axis of the affected superior semicircular canal (SC). However, it has been difficult to characterize the pattern of vibration-induced VOR (ViVOR). We aimed to characterize the pattern of ViVOR by comparing the intensity and the axis of ViVOR with several clinical parameters of SCD. Ten symptomatic SCD patients were recruited. SCD size and location were measured on a reformatted image in the plane of the SC. Unilateral vibratory stimulation (100 Hz) was applied to the mastoid surface. ViVOR were recorded using 3D videooculography. The median 3D velocity of ViVOR was measured and the 3D vector trajectory plotted for reference against the axes of the human semicircular canals. A correlation between the magnitude of ViVOR and the size of SCD was evaluated. We also compared the location of SCD with the vertical-to-torsional component ratio of the ViVOR. ViVOR were present in 7 patients; 6 patients showed a substantial horizontal component in the excitatory direction in addition to strong torsional and weak vertical components. The computed rotational axes of ViVOR were located mostly between the axes of the ipsilateral SC and horizontal canal (HC) with a variable deviation to the axis of the ipsilateral posterior canal (PC). The magnitude of ViVOR was not related to the size of the SCD. The vertical-to-torsional component ratio of ViVOR tended to decline as the dehiscence was closer to the common crus. In SCD, mastoid vibration may stimulate the affected-side HC and PC as well as the SC. SCD can be suspected when excitatory horizontal torsional ViVOR direct to the side of the auditory symptoms. PMID:24642669

Park, Joo Hyun; Kim, Hyo Jung; Kim, Ji-Soo; Koo, Ja-Won

2014-01-01

319

Management of mandibular first molar with four canals in mesial root  

PubMed Central

Successful root canal treatment depends on adequate cleaning, shaping, and filling of the root canal system. The presence of middle mesial (MM) root canal of mandibular molars has been reported by various authors. But incidence of four canals in mesial root of mandibular molar is very rare. The aim of this case report is to present and describe the identification and management of a mandibular first molar with four canals in the mesial root and single canal in the distal root. PMID:24082581

Subbiya, Arunajatesan; Kumar, Krishnamurthy Sathish; Vivekanandhan, Paramasivam; Prakash, Venkatachalam

2013-01-01

320

Decline in semicircular canal and otolith function with age  

PubMed Central

Objective To characterize the physiologic nature of the vestibular dysfunction that occurs with the normative aging process. Study design Cross-sectional study. Setting Tertiary care academic medical center. Patients Fifty individuals age 70 and above. Interventions Head thrust dynamic visual acuity testing (htDVA) and cervical and ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) testing. Main Outcome Measures Semicircular canal function measured by htDVA in each of the three semicircular canal planes, and saccular and utricular function measured by cVEMP and oVEMP testing, respectively. Results We observed significant declines in semicircular canal function in each of the canal planes as well as otolith function associated with aging. We found that individuals with impaired horizontal and superior semicircular canal function were likely to also have concomitant deficits in utricular but not saccular function. Overall, we noted that the prevalence of semicircular canal dysfunction was highest followed by saccular then utricular impairment, although we did observe individuals with isolated otolith deficits. Conclusions These data suggest an overall decline in semicircular canal as well as otolith function associated with aging, although the magnitude of impairment was greater for the semicircular canals than the otoliths in this elderly population. A better understanding of the specific vestibular deficits that occur with aging can inform the development of rational screening, vestibular rehabilitation and fall risk reduction strategies in older individuals. PMID:22699991

Agrawal, Yuri; Zuniga, M. Geraldine; Davalos-Bichara, Marcela; Schubert, Michael C.; Walston, Jeremy D.; Hughes, Jennifer; Carey, John P.

2012-01-01

321

Photocopy: Map of canal crossing Schoharie Creek, 1834 from Holmes ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Photocopy: Map of canal crossing Schoharie Creek, 1834 from Holmes Hutchinson MS Vol. 9, Plate 39. Manuscript and History Section, New York State Library, Albany, New York. - Erie Canal (Enlarged), Schoharie Creek Aqueduct, Spanning Schoharie Creek, Fort Hunter, Montgomery County, NY

322

63. CANAL BOAT IN CRADLE AT TOP OF PLANE. TO ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

63. CANAL BOAT IN CRADLE AT TOP OF PLANE. TO PASS OVER THE SUMMIT (THE HUMP OF LAND AT THE TOP OF PLANE TO HOLD BACK THE WATER AT THAT LEVEL), THE BOATS HAVE SEEN HINGED AND TWO CRADLES ARE USED TO CARRY THE BOAT UP THE PLANE. - Morris Canal, Phillipsburg, Warren County, NJ

323

REACTIVITY MEASUREMENT FACILITY, UNDER CONSTRUCTION OVER MTR CANAL IN BASEMENT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

REACTIVITY MEASUREMENT FACILITY, UNDER CONSTRUCTION OVER MTR CANAL IN BASEMENT OF MTR BUILDING, TRA-603. WOOD PLANKS REST ON CANAL WALL OBSERVABLE IN FOREGROUND. INL NEGATIVE NO. 11745. Unknown Photographer, 8/20/1954 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

324

Lateral line canal morphology and signal to noise ratio  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The lateral line system of fish is important for many behaviors, including spatial orientation, prey detection, shoaling, intra specific communication and entraining. The smallest sensory unit of the lateral line is the neuromast that occurs free standing on the skin and in fluid filled canals. With aid of the lateral line fish perceive minute water motions. In their natural habitat fish are not only faced with biotic water motion but also with the abiotic fluctuations caused by various inanimate sources. The detection of meaningful signals is crucial for survival, and therefore animals should be able to separate meaningful signals from noise. Fishes live in various habitats (e.g. in still water or in running water). Therefore it is not surprising that the number and distribution of neuromasts as well as canal dimension, canal shape and canal branching patterns differ among fish species. We studied how lateral line canal parameters influence the filter properties of lateral line canals. To do so we exposed artificial lateral line canals, equipped with artificial neuromasts (sensors), to the vortex street shed by a submerged cylinder and to air bubble noise. We found that certain canal parameters significantly can enhance the signal to noise ratio.

Klein, Adrian; Herzog, Hendrik; Bleckmann, Horst

2011-04-01

325

21. Photocopy of photograph (original print at Gage Canal Company ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

21. Photocopy of photograph (original print at Gage Canal Company Office), H. B. Wesner, photographer, date unknown. 'VIEWS OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA SCENERY. ARTESIAN WELLS, SAN BERNARDINO, CALIFORNIA. SUPPLYING THE GAGE CANAL OF RIVERSIDE.' - California Citrus Heritage Recording Project, Riverside, Riverside County, CA

326

Faka Union Canal Weir #1, Collier County, Florida  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

The Faka Union Canal Weir #1 (Collier County, Florida) helps create a downstream hydrological haven for manatees. During the cold winter months, the right flow conditions can maintain a salinity gradient known as a halocline that traps warm water near the bottom of the residential canals at Port of ...

2010-06-01

327

SEDIMENT IN ARROYO PASAJERO AND SAN LUIS CANAL  

E-print Network

. The floodwaters submerged neighboring farmland and a nearby military base. The flooding wiped out a tomato crop enter the San Luis Canal through inlet gates located near Gale Avenue. The amount of sediment entering the San Luis Canal through inlet gates should not be of any concern and should remain small compared

Julien, Pierre Y.

328

Genomic imprinting and methylation: epigenetic canalization and conflict  

E-print Network

Genomic imprinting and methylation: epigenetic canalization and conflict Jon F. Wilkins Society in these processes suggests mechanisms of epigenetic canalization, which might contribute to the stability of epigenetic inheri- tance. At the same time, the interactions that determine whether a particular modification

Wilkins, Jon F.

329

Convergence or reticulation? Mosaic evolution in the canalized American Amaryllidaceae  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Canalization is defined as the suppression of phenotypic variation, or, in the context of molecular evolution, genetic buffering that has evolved under natural selection in order to stabilize the phenotype. Very little is understood on the processes behind canalization, even in today’s genomic era....

330

21 CFR 872.3810 - Root canal post.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... A root canal post is a device made of austenitic alloys or alloys containing 75 percent or greater gold and metals of the platinum group intended to be cemented into the root canal of a tooth to stabilize and support a restoration. (b)...

2010-04-01

331

33 CFR 117.653 - St. Mary's Falls Canal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false St. Mary's Falls Canal. 117.653 Section 117.653 Navigation and Navigable...Specific Requirements Michigan § 117.653 St. Mary's Falls Canal. The draw of the International Railway bridge,...

2011-07-01

332

Bundling ecosystem services in the Panama Canal watershed  

E-print Network

Bundling ecosystem services in the Panama Canal watershed Silvio Simonit1 and Charles Perrings eco cover change in watersheds affects the supply of a number of ecosystem services, including water supply regulation through carbon sequestration. The Panama Canal watershed is currently being reforested to protect

333

The maximum shipping capacity of the Suez Canal  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers the determination of the maximum shipping capacity of the Suez canal. Initially, some assumptions are made in order to calculate the ‘theoretical’ maximum capacity in terms of ‘standard ships’. This last term defines ships which transit the Canal at a given speed and at a given time interval from the vessel ahead and astern. Data has been

J. D. Griffiths; Emtissal M. Hassan

1977-01-01

334

Salt Content and Water Budget of The Suez Canal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The water body in the Suez Canal is a combination of waters from differ- ent sources. Hence, its exact hydrographic structure is very difficult to define. Three main water masses are identified along the Canal on account of their salinity values: Levantine water mass I, the Suez Bay water mass II, and the Bitter Lake water mass IV, in addition

SELIM A. MORCOS; GIRGIS F. SOLIMAN

2001-01-01

335

CONCENTRATION OF NINE HEAVY METALS IN SUEZ CANAL WATERS, EGYPT  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentration of nine heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Ni, Cr, Co, Fe and Mn) in waters of the Suez Canal and in the nearby waters was measured seasonally during 1997 - 1998 in their dissolved (D) and particulate (P) forms. The results revealed that the northern part of the canal (at Port Said) recorded higher concentrations for most

EL SAMRA; ABD EL-AZIM

2005-01-01

336

33 CFR 117.589 - Cape Cod Canal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cape Cod Canal. 117.589 Section 117.589 Navigation and Navigable... Specific Requirements Massachusetts § 117.589 Cape Cod Canal. The draw of the Conrail railroad bridge, mile...

2011-07-01

337

33 CFR 117.589 - Cape Cod Canal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cape Cod Canal. 117.589 Section 117.589 Navigation and Navigable... Specific Requirements Massachusetts § 117.589 Cape Cod Canal. The draw of the Conrail railroad bridge, mile...

2013-07-01

338

33 CFR 117.589 - Cape Cod Canal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cape Cod Canal. 117.589 Section 117.589 Navigation and Navigable... Specific Requirements Massachusetts § 117.589 Cape Cod Canal. The draw of the Conrail railroad bridge, mile...

2012-07-01

339

33 CFR 117.589 - Cape Cod Canal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cape Cod Canal. 117.589 Section 117.589 Navigation and Navigable... Specific Requirements Massachusetts § 117.589 Cape Cod Canal. The draw of the Conrail railroad bridge, mile...

2014-07-01

340

Locomotor head movements and semicircular canal morphology in primates  

PubMed Central

Animal locomotion causes head rotations, which are detected by the semicircular canals of the inner ear. Morphologic features of the canals influence rotational sensitivity, and so it is hypothesized that locomotion and canal morphology are functionally related. Most prior research has compared subjective assessments of animal “agility” with a single determinant of rotational sensitivity: the mean canal radius of curvature (R). In fact, the paired variables of R and body mass are correlated with agility and have been used to infer locomotion in extinct species. To refine models of canal functional morphology and to improve locomotor inferences for extinct species, we compare 3D vector measurements of head rotation during locomotion with 3D vector measures of canal sensitivity. Contrary to the predictions of conventional models that are based upon R, we find that axes of rapid head rotation are not aligned with axes of either high or low sensitivity. Instead, animals with fast head rotations have similar sensitivities in all directions, which they achieve by orienting the three canals of each ear orthogonally (i.e., along planes at 90° angles to one another). The extent to which the canal configuration approaches orthogonality is correlated with rotational head speed independent of body mass and phylogeny, whereas R is not. PMID:23045679

Malinzak, Michael D.; Kay, Richard F.; Hullar, Timothy E.

2012-01-01

341

Santiam Canal: Water Quality through Urban and Rural Landscapes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Santiam Canal serves as the source of drinking water for Albany, OR. The canal passes through the city of Lebanon and through an agricultural landscape before passing through Albany where it joins the Willamette River. Water treatment personnel detected periods when additional chlorine was requ...

342

3. Lower end of the Old Crosscut Canal, aerial view ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. Lower end of the Old Crosscut Canal, aerial view to north. The Old Crosscut runs top left to lower right, west of meat packing plant and stockyards. Photographer unknown, c. 1939. Source: Pueblo Grande Museum Cultural Park. - Old Crosscut Canal, North Side of Salt River, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

343

PRELIMINARY RESULTS FOR DOWNSTREAM FEEDBACK CONTROL OF BRANCHING CANAL NETWORKS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Over the last 40 years researchers have made various efforts to develop automatic feedback controllers for irrigation canals. However, most of this work has concentrated on feedback controllers for single, in-line canals with no branches. In practice it would be desirable to automate an entire can...

344

C-shaped root canal configuration: A review of literature  

PubMed Central

The aim is to review and discuss the etiology, incidence, anatomic features, classification, diagnosis and management of the C-shaped canal configuration. C-shaped canal configuration is a variation that has a racial predilection and is commonly seen in mandibular second molars. The intricacies present in this variation of canal morphology can pose a challenge to the clinician during negotiation, debridement and obturation. Manual and electronic searches of literature were performed from 1979 to 2012, in Pub Med by crossing the keywords: C-shaped canals, mandibular second molar, mandibular first premolar, root canal morphology. Knowledge of the C-shaped canal configuration is essential to achieve success in endodontic therapy. Radiographic and clinical diagnoses can aid in identification and negotiation of the fan-shaped areas and intricacies of the C-shaped anatomy. Effective management of this anomalous canal configuration can be achieved with rotary and hand instrumentation assisted with sonics and ultrasonics. Modifications in the obturation techniques will ensure a 3-dimensional fill of the canal system and chamber retained restorations like amalgam or composites, serve as satisfactory post endodontic restorations. PMID:25125841

Fernandes, Marina; de Ataide, Ida; Wagle, Rahul

2014-01-01

345

29. VIEW OF GRAND CANAL, LOOKING WEST TOWARD BROPHY PREP ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

29. VIEW OF GRAND CANAL, LOOKING WEST TOWARD BROPHY PREP AND ST. FRANCIS CHURCH (compare this photograph with AZ-17-15, taken at the same spot in 1937). Photographer: Kevin Kreisel-Coons, May 1990 - Grand Canal, North side of Salt River, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

346

1. VIEW LOOKING NORTH FROM DEWATERED CANAL; HEADGATES AND INTAKE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. VIEW LOOKING NORTH FROM DEWATERED CANAL; HEADGATES AND INTAKE CHANNEL AT LEFT; GUARDLOCK AT CENTER; SHEET PILING THROUGH SITE OF TOWPATH AT RIGHT - Dundee Canal, Headgates, Guardlock & Uppermost Section, 250 feet northeast of Randolph Avenue, opposite & in line with East Clifton Avenue, Clifton, Passaic County, NJ

347

17. Photocopied August 1978. CANAL SECTION II, NEAR ASHMUN STREET, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

17. Photocopied August 1978. CANAL SECTION II, NEAR ASHMUN STREET, LOOKING WEST, DECEMBER 7, 1900. ONE OF THE CITY'S NEW BRIDGES OVER THE CANAL IS IN THE BACKGROUND. TEMPORARY DUMP TRACKS, DUMP TRAINS AND DUMP TRAIN LOCOMOTIVES, AND STEAM SHOVELS ARE ALL SHOWN IN OPERATION. (106) - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

348

67. CANAL TENDER'S HOUSE AT LOCK 2 EAST. DUE TO ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

67. CANAL TENDER'S HOUSE AT LOCK 2 EAST. DUE TO DETERIORATION OF THE BUILDINGS WALLS AND FOUNDATION, CABLES FROM AN INCLINED PLANE WERE WRAPPED AROUND THE HOUSE AND FASTENED TO PLANE RAILS PLACED ON OPPOSITE ENDS OF THE STRUCTURE. - Morris Canal, Phillipsburg, Warren County, NJ

349

7. DETAIL OF DECK TRUSS SPANNING CANAL. THIS DECK TRUSS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. DETAIL OF DECK TRUSS SPANNING CANAL. THIS DECK TRUSS WA ALSO ERECTED IN 1893 AS PART OF AN EXTENSIVE RECONSTRUCTION OF THE BRIDGE. LOOKING NORTHEAST FROM SOUTH SIDE OF CANAL. - Illinois Central Railroad, Illinois River Bridge, Spanning Illinois River, La Salle, La Salle County, IL

350

1. Drop Structure on the Arizona Crosscut Canal. Photographer unknown, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. Drop Structure on the Arizona Crosscut Canal. Photographer unknown, no date. Note that caption is incorrect: in relation to Camelback Mountain (rear), this can only be the Old Crosscut. Source: reprinted from the 13th Annual Report of the U.S. Geological Survey, 1893. - Old Crosscut Canal, North Side of Salt River, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

351

Photocopy of photograph (from Barge Canal contract 56, photo album ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Photocopy of photograph (from Barge Canal contract 56, photo album negative, 49, New York State Archives and Manuscripts), photographer unknown, 1912 View northwest, barge canal sluice around 5 combined, completed - Glens Falls Feeder, Sluice, Along south side of Glens Falls Feeder between locks 10 & 20, Hudson Falls, Washington County, NY

352

Photocopy of photograph (from Barge Canal contract 56, photo album ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Photocopy of photograph (from Barge Canal contract 56, photo album negative 26, New York State Archives and Manuscripts), photographer unknown, 1912 View northwest, barge canal sluice around 5 combined under construction - Glens Falls Feeder, Sluice, Along south side of Glens Falls Feeder between locks 10 & 20, Hudson Falls, Washington County, NY

353

10. CANAL CUT THROUGH SHALE BEDROCK ON PROMINENT POINT, LOOKING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. CANAL CUT THROUGH SHALE BEDROCK ON PROMINENT POINT, LOOKING NORTH-NORTHEAST. NOTE CONCRETE ABUTMENTS PROBABLY INSTALLED IN 1935 TO PREVENT WATER FROM ESCAPING THROUGH A CANAL BANK BREACH. - Snake River Ditch, Headgate on north bank of Snake River, Dillon, Summit County, CO

354

8. FLUME BOX Y, LOOKING NORTH. CANAL HEADING RIGHT FOLLOWS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. FLUME BOX Y, LOOKING NORTH. CANAL HEADING RIGHT FOLLOWS HILLSIDE INTO DRAINAGE; FLUME HEADING LEFT CROSSED GULCH ON A TRESTLE. NOTE CONCRETE ABUTMENTS NEAR TOP RIGHT INSTALLED IN 1935 TO PREVENT WATER FROM ESCAPING CANAL AT OLD TRESTLE ENTRANCE. - Snake River Ditch, Headgate on north bank of Snake River, Dillon, Summit County, CO

355

14. ANGULAR QUARTZITE ROCK REINFORCEMENT ON INTERIOR OF OUTSIDE CANAL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. ANGULAR QUARTZITE ROCK REINFORCEMENT ON INTERIOR OF OUTSIDE CANAL BANK, LOOKING SOUTH-SOUTHEAST. CANAL ROUTE VISIBLE ALONG HILLSIDE NEAR TOP LEFT. NOTE DILLON RESERVOIR, HIGHWAY 6, AND NEW RESIDENTIAL CONSTRUCTION AT RIGHT AND CENTER. - Snake River Ditch, Headgate on north bank of Snake River, Dillon, Summit County, CO

356

Update on Schlemm's Canal Based Procedures  

PubMed Central

Surgical options for glaucoma have expanded in recent years. This article provides an evidence-based update on the novel or emerging surgical techniques for the treatment of open-angle glaucoma that are based on the Schlemm's canal (SC). Canaloplasty is an ab externo approach and was developed as an alternative to traditional filtering surgeries. The Hydrus microstent (Ivantis Inc., Irvine, CA) is a so-called SC scaffold that directly bypasses the trabecular meshwork to drain aqueous humor into the SC, which it keeps dilated over approximately one quadrant. Canaloplasty has also been shown to lower intraocular pressure (IOP) by up to 40% and combined with cataract surgery. IOP was lowered 44% at 24 months while maintaining a favorable safety profile. The Hydrus device has been proposed as an adjunct to cataract extraction surgery. To date, no published evidence from clinical trials is available on its in vivo safety and efficacy. Schlemm's canal based glaucoma procedures show promise as alternative treatments to traditional glaucoma surgery. Surgeons must be comfortable with angle anatomy. A prerequisite for functionality of these techniques is the integrity of the distal outflow system. At present, however, it is not possible to conclude whether these novel procedures will be viable alternatives to standard filtering surgery over the long-term. PMID:25624672

Mansouri, Kaweh; Shaarawy, Tarek

2015-01-01

357

Update on Schlemm's Canal Based Procedures.  

PubMed

Surgical options for glaucoma have expanded in recent years. This article provides an evidence-based update on the novel or emerging surgical techniques for the treatment of open-angle glaucoma that are based on the Schlemm's canal (SC). Canaloplasty is an ab externo approach and was developed as an alternative to traditional filtering surgeries. The Hydrus microstent (Ivantis Inc., Irvine, CA) is a so-called SC scaffold that directly bypasses the trabecular meshwork to drain aqueous humor into the SC, which it keeps dilated over approximately one quadrant. Canaloplasty has also been shown to lower intraocular pressure (IOP) by up to 40% and combined with cataract surgery. IOP was lowered 44% at 24 months while maintaining a favorable safety profile. The Hydrus device has been proposed as an adjunct to cataract extraction surgery. To date, no published evidence from clinical trials is available on its in vivo safety and efficacy. Schlemm's canal based glaucoma procedures show promise as alternative treatments to traditional glaucoma surgery. Surgeons must be comfortable with angle anatomy. A prerequisite for functionality of these techniques is the integrity of the distal outflow system. At present, however, it is not possible to conclude whether these novel procedures will be viable alternatives to standard filtering surgery over the long-term. PMID:25624672

Mansouri, Kaweh; Shaarawy, Tarek

2015-01-01

358

Trumpet laminectomy microdecompression for lumbal canal stenosis.  

PubMed

Microsurgery techniques are useful innovations towards minimizing the insult of canal stenosis. Here, we describe the trumpet laminectomy microdecompression (TLM) technique, advantages and disadvantages. Sixty-two TLM patients with lumbar disc herniation, facet hypertrophy or yellow ligament or intracanal granulation tissue. The symptoms are low back pain, dysesthesia and severe pain on both legs. Spine levels operated Th11-S1; the patients who had trumpet-type fenestration, 62.9% had hypertrophy of the facet joint, 11.3% had intracanal granulation tissue, 79.1% had hypertrophy of the yellow ligament and 64.5% had disc herniation. The average of procedure duration was 68.9 min and intraoperative blood loss was 47.4 mL. Intraoperative complications were found in 3.2% of patients, with dural damage but without cerebrospinal fluid leakage. The TLM can be performed for all ages and all levels of spinal canal stenosis, without the complication of spondilolistesis. The TLM has a shorter duration, with minimal intraoperative blood loss. PMID:25346821

Henky, Jefri; Yasuda, Muneyoshi; Arifin, Muhammad Zafrullah; Takayasu, Masakazu; Faried, Ahmad

2014-10-01

359

Trumpet Laminectomy Microdecompression for Lumbal Canal Stenosis  

PubMed Central

Microsurgery techniques are useful innovations towards minimizing the insult of canal stenosis. Here, we describe the trumpet laminectomy microdecompression (TLM) technique, advantages and disadvantages. Sixty-two TLM patients with lumbar disc herniation, facet hypertrophy or yellow ligament or intracanal granulation tissue. The symptoms are low back pain, dysesthesia and severe pain on both legs. Spine levels operated Th11-S1; the patients who had trumpet-type fenestration, 62.9% had hypertrophy of the facet joint, 11.3% had intracanal granulation tissue, 79.1% had hypertrophy of the yellow ligament and 64.5% had disc herniation. The average of procedure duration was 68.9 min and intraoperative blood loss was 47.4 mL. Intraoperative complications were found in 3.2% of patients, with dural damage but without cerebrospinal fluid leakage. The TLM can be performed for all ages and all levels of spinal canal stenosis, without the complication of spondilolistesis. The TLM has a shorter duration, with minimal intraoperative blood loss. PMID:25346821

Yasuda, Muneyoshi; Arifin, Muhammad Zafrullah; Takayasu, Masakazu; Faried, Ahmad

2014-01-01

360

Retrieval of amalgam from the root canal space.  

PubMed

Removal of foreign objects from the root canal can be very frustrating. The use of a variety of instruments and techniques has been suggested for the retrieval of obstacles from root canals during endodontic treatment. This article describes a method for retrieving a large mass of amalgam restoration that was wedged into the root canal. The amalgam, which had served as the provisional restorative material during apexification of an immature ante rior tooth, was inadvertently pushed into the root canal. After the mass was bypassed, the amalgam was loosened with the aid of copious irrigation, chelation, and flotation. Hedstrom files twisted around the object allowed sufficient grip for its retrieval, enabling completion of the root canal treatment. PMID:16594364

Slutzky-Goldberg, Iris; Moshonov, Joshua

2006-04-01

361

Hidrocystoma of the external auditory canal: a case report  

PubMed Central

Background Apocrine hydrocystomas arising in the external auditory canal are very rare. In this report a clinical case of apocrine hydrocystoma located in the cartilaginous part of the external auditory canal is presented. Case presentation A 64-year-old Caucasian female patient presented with a solitary nodule, located in the outer part of the external ear canal after repeated episodes of external otitis. For diagnostic purposes, computerized tomography was used. The patient underwent an excisional biopsy of the mass via an intra-aural incision and the surgical specimen was sent for histopathologic examination. Conclusion An apocrine hidrocystoma inside the auricular canal is uncommon. It can cause recurrent external otitis and conductive hearing loss and should be treated with wide local excision and reconstruction of the external auditory canal for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. PMID:19161624

2009-01-01

362

Five root canals in peg lateral incisor with dens invaginatus: A case report with new nomenclature for the five canals  

PubMed Central

This case report describes endodontic treatment completed in a peg-shaped maxillary lateral incisor, with single root and five root canals of which, one is due to dens invaginatus. Cone beam computed tomogram scanning confirmed the unique morphology of the tooth. New nomenclature for the five canals is proposed. PMID:25125854

Jaikailash, Shanmugam; Kavitha, Mahendran; Ranjani, Muthukrishnan Sudharshana; Saravanan, Balasubramaniam

2014-01-01

363

Five root canals in peg lateral incisor with dens invaginatus: A case report with new nomenclature for the five canals.  

PubMed

This case report describes endodontic treatment completed in a peg-shaped maxillary lateral incisor, with single root and five root canals of which, one is due to dens invaginatus. Cone beam computed tomogram scanning confirmed the unique morphology of the tooth. New nomenclature for the five canals is proposed. PMID:25125854

Jaikailash, Shanmugam; Kavitha, Mahendran; Ranjani, Muthukrishnan Sudharshana; Saravanan, Balasubramaniam

2014-07-01

364

Horizontal Canal Type BPPV: Bilaterally Affected Case Treated with Canal Plugging and Lempert’s Maneuver  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 54-year-old woman complained of positional vertigo. During 3 months’ observation, the patient showed mostly geotropic or apogeotropic nystagmus due to right canalolithiasis or cupulolithiasis, however, she sometimes showed nystagmus which suggested left horizontal canalolithiasis. We suspected that she suffered from bilateral horizontal canal type benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) and performed Lempert’s maneuver for both directions, however, they were

Arata Horii; Takao Imai; Yasuo Mishiro; Yoshiko Yamaji; Kenji Mitani; Takayuki Kawashima; Takeshi Kubo

2003-01-01

365

Closing a chapter on Love Canal  

SciTech Connect

The toxic wastes that were dumped in the 1950s at Love Canal in New York and then seeped into groundwater and the basements of local residents in the late 1970s are to be finally incinerated, according to a plan recently announced by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). This last, five-year stage in the cleanup will entail the building of an incinerator for burning 35,000 cubic yards of dioxin-contaminated sediment dredged from creeks and sewers in the area at a cost of up to $31 million. The incinerated residue - which will be purified of detectable levels of dioxin, says EPA - will be returned to the site and spread several feet deep.

Not Available

1987-11-01

366

Love Canal: insurance coverage for environmental accidents  

SciTech Connect

The authors examine the standard insurance exclusionary clause developed by the Insurance Services Office in 1970 regarding injury and property damage from pollution, specifically, its genesis, its incorporation into New York state statutes, a brief history of Love Canal and its legacy of litigation, recent interpretations by US courts, and current developments. They conclude that, in every state where the courts have contended with the pollution exclusion clause in comprehensive general liability policy, judges have interpreted it from the perspective of the expectations and intentions of the insured. The exception to sudden and accidental pollution has, in effect, been interpreted coextensively with the definition of occurrence; that contamination was gradual is of no consequence to the availability of policy protection, the courts having defined sudden as unexpected, unintended, or unprepared for. In this respect, insurance for environmental accidents continues to cover the accidental conduct of the named insured. 25 references.

Hurwitz, S.; Kohane, D.D.

1983-07-01

367

Modeling and measurement of root canal using stereo digital radiography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Determining root canal length is a crucial step in success of root canal treatment. Root canal length is commonly estimated based on pre-operation intraoral radiography. 2D depiction of a 3D object is the primary source of error in this approach. Techniques based on impedance measurement are more accurate than radiographic approaches, but do not offer a method for depicting the shape of canal. In this study, we investigated a stererotactic approach for modeling and measurement of root canal of human dentition. A weakly perspective model approximated the projectional geometry. A series of computer-simulated objects was used to test accuracy of this model as the first step. The, to assess the clinical viability of such an approach, endodontic files inserted in the root canal phantoms were fixed on an adjustable platform between a radiographic cone and an image receptor. Parameters of projection matrix were computed based on the relative positions of image receptors, focal spot, and test objects. Rotating the specimen platform from 0 to 980 degrees at 5-degree intervals set relative angulations for stereo images. Root canal is defined as the intersection of two surfaces defined by each projection. Computation of error for length measurement indicates that for angulations greater than 40 degrees the error is within clinically acceptable ranges.

Analoui, Mostafa; Krisnamurthy, Satthya; Brown, Cecil

2000-04-01

368

Laser scanning dental probe for endodontic root canal treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Complications that arise during endodontic procedures pose serious threats to the long-term integrity and health of the tooth. Potential complexities of root canals include residual pulpal tissue, cracks, mesial-buccal 2 and accessory canals. In the case of a failed root canal, a successful apicoectomy can be jeopardized by isthmuses, accessory canals, and root microfracture. Confirming diagnosis using a small imaging probe would allow proper treatment and prevent retreatment of endodontic procedures. An ultrathin and flexible laser scanning endoscope of 1.2 to 1.6mm outer diameter was used in vitro to image extracted teeth with varied root configurations. Teeth were opened using a conventional bur and high speed drill. Imaging within the opened access cavity clarified the location of the roots where canal filing would initiate. Although radiographs are commonly used to determine the root canal size, position, and shape, the limited 2D image perspective leaves ambiguity that could be clarified if used in conjunction with a direct visual imaging tool. Direct visualization may avoid difficulties in locating the root canal and reduce the number of radiographs needed. A transillumination imaging device with the separated illumination and light collection functions rendered cracks visible in the prepared teeth that were otherwise indiscernible using reflected visible light. Our work demonstrates that a small diameter endoscope with high spatial resolution may significantly increase the efficiency and success of endodontic procedures.

Blank, Molly A. B.; Friedrich, Michal; Hamilton, Jeffrey D.; Lee, Peggy; Berg, Joel; Seibel, Eric J.

2011-03-01

369

Canal configuration of mandibular first premolars in an Egyptian population  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to investigate canal configuration of mandibular first premolars in an Egyptian population. Two hundred fifty human extracted mandibular first premolars were collected from Egyptian patients and a small hole in the center of the occlusal surface of each tooth was made perforating the roof of the pulp chamber. Teeth were decalcified by immersing in nitric acid and dehydrated in ascending concentrations of ethyl alcohol. A waterproof black ink was passively injected from the occlusal hole into pulp system and stained teeth were immersed in methyl salicylate solution for clearing. Standardized pictures of the cleared teeth were obtained and anatomical features of the root canal were observed. The average length of the mandibular first premolar teeth was 22.48 ± 1.74 mm, one-rooted teeth were 96.8% and the two-rooted were 3.2%. Vertucci Type I canal configuration represented the highest percentage (61.2%) followed by Type V (16.4%), Type IV (13.2%), Type II (5.6%) and Type III (2.8%). Vertucci Type VI canal configuration represented the lowest percentage (0.4%) and a complex configuration was found in one tooth. Accessory canals were detected in 22.8% and inter-canal connections were observed in 24.8% while 54% showed apical delta. Such knowledge is clinically useful for localization and negotiation of canals of mandibular first premolar, as well as their subsequent management in Egyptian population.

Alhadainy, Hatem A.

2012-01-01

370

Membrane tethering  

PubMed Central

Membrane trafficking depends on transport vesicles and carriers docking and fusing with the target organelle for the delivery of cargo. Membrane tethers and small guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases) mediate the docking of transport vesicles/carriers to enhance the efficiency of the subsequent SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor)-mediated fusion event with the target membrane bilayer. Different classes of membrane tethers and their specific intracellular location throughout the endomembrane system are now well defined. Recent biochemical and structural studies have led to a deeper understanding of the mechanism by which membrane tethers mediate docking of membrane carriers as well as an appreciation of the role of tethers in coordinating the correct SNARE complex and in regulating the organization of membrane compartments. This review will summarize the properties and roles of membrane tethers of both secretory and endocytic systems. PMID:25343031

Chia, Pei Zhi Cheryl

2014-01-01

371

Investigating Membranes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

While not organic in nature, quick-"growing" artificial membranes can be a profound visual aid when teaching students about cellular processes and the chemical nature of membranes. Students are often intrigued when they see biological and chemical concept

Gary McCallister

2009-09-01

372

Constricted Canals: A New Strategy to Overcome This Challenge  

PubMed Central

Negotiation of constricted canals can be a challenge during endodontic treatment. Over the years, several strategies have been presented in order to overcome the difficulties imposed by this anatomical feature. This paper presents three cases using a different protocol from that recommended by the manufacturer of the Protaper System in order to facilitate the negotiation of constricted canals. These cases suggest that the modified protocol shown is able to perform the shaping process with less resistance, reducing the risk of instrument separation and performing an effective process to reach the apical thirds in constricted canals. PMID:24900926

Silva, Emmanuel João Nogueira Leal; Vansan, Luiz Pascoal

2014-01-01

373

Endodontic Management of a Maxillary Molar with Three Mesiobuccal Canals  

PubMed Central

It is imperative that the clinician should have comprehensive knowledge about the normal anatomy and its variations of the teeth as the deviations from the usual are very common. An increased awareness of unusual anatomy and a better understanding of the root canal system guide the clinician in accurate diagnosis and treatment of such variations in order to achieve a successful endodontic outcome. The maxillary first molar has been shown to have a wide variation in respect to the number of canals specifically noted in the mesiobuccal root. The current case report shows the successful management of a maxillary molar in which the mesiobuccal root had three canals. PMID:25505997

Gundam, Sirisha; Maddu, Radhika; Gurram, Sindhura Reddy

2014-01-01

374

Canalplasty for congenital atresia of the external auditory canal.  

PubMed

Canalplasty for congenital atresia of the external auditory canal is associated with a high postoperative stenosis rate in the literature. The authors describe an original surgical and stenting technique that has been used systematically since 2000 in the paediatric otolaryngology department of Trousseau hospital in Paris. After minimal endaural canalplasty, possibly combined with lining of the external auditory canal by skin graft, a stent is sutured to the opening of the ear canal and left in place for 4 weeks. This stenting technique can be used for a shorter duration after tympanoplasty in children with behavioural disorders. PMID:23755961

Denoyelle, F; Leboulanger, N; Philippon, D; Loundon, N; Garabédian, E N

2013-12-01

375

Horizontal canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo in a fighter pilot  

PubMed Central

Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is the most common disorder of the peripheral vestibular system, characterized by intense, positional provoked vertigo. BPPV is thought to occur due to canalithiasis of the posterior semicircular canal. Recently, a new entity of BPPV, known as horizontal canal (HC)-BPPV, has been recognized. Although only 3 to 8% of BPPV is due to horizontal canal involvement, HC-BPPV is not rare. We present a case of a naval fighter pilot who had an incident of HC-BPPV on the ground. The pilot aeromedical evaluation and considerations are discussed. PMID:21716841

Xie, Su-Jiang; Wang, Jiang-Chang; Ding, Li; Sun, Xi-Qing

2011-01-01

376

Type II canal configuration and Type I Dens invaginatus  

PubMed Central

The prevalent notion about maxillary central incisor with normal external morphology is a tooth with single root and root canal. A case in which all four maxillary incisors were having Type II canal configurations (Vertucci's classification) is reported, in addition, the lateral incisors revealed dens invaginatus with a Type I pattern as suggested by Ohler's classification and a large periapical lesion was seen in relation to the right lateral incisor. The diagnosis was confirmed with the aid of spiral computed tomography (CT) and canals obturated. Nonsurgical healing of the lesion was assessed by reviewing the case at prefixed intervals of time. PMID:25125855

Liji, Mele Puthukudy; Chandrababu, Krishnankutty; Kumar, Maroli Ramesh; Jayashree, Santhadevi

2014-01-01

377

Type II canal configuration and Type I Dens invaginatus.  

PubMed

The prevalent notion about maxillary central incisor with normal external morphology is a tooth with single root and root canal. A case in which all four maxillary incisors were having Type II canal configurations (Vertucci's classification) is reported, in addition, the lateral incisors revealed dens invaginatus with a Type I pattern as suggested by Ohler's classification and a large periapical lesion was seen in relation to the right lateral incisor. The diagnosis was confirmed with the aid of spiral computed tomography (CT) and canals obturated. Nonsurgical healing of the lesion was assessed by reviewing the case at prefixed intervals of time. PMID:25125855

Liji, Mele Puthukudy; Chandrababu, Krishnankutty; Kumar, Maroli Ramesh; Jayashree, Santhadevi

2014-07-01

378

Cytogenetic findings in persons living near the Love Canal.  

PubMed

Cytogenetic analyses were performed on peripheral blood from 46 present or past residents of the area surrounding Love Canal, a former dump site for chemical wastes in Niagara Falls, NY. Participants included 17 persons in whom cytogenetic analyses had been performed in 1980 and 29 persons who had been living in 1978 in seven homes that directly adjoined the canal and in which environmental tests showed elevated levels of chemicals spreading from the canal. Frequencies of chromosomal aberrations and of sister chromatid exchange (SCE) did not differ significantly from control levels. For all participants, cigarette smoking was associated with an increase in sister chromatid exchange frequency. PMID:6700040

Heath, C W; Nadel, M R; Zack, M M; Chen, A T; Bender, M A; Preston, R J

1984-03-16

379

Cytogenetic findings in persons living near the Love Canal  

SciTech Connect

Cytogenetic analyses were performed on peripheral blood from 46 present or past residents of the areas surrounding Love Canal, a former dump site for chemical wastes in Niagara Falls, NY. Participants included 17 persons in whom cytogenetic analyses had been performed in 1980 and 29 persons who had been living in 1978 in seven homes that directly adjoined the canal and in which environmental tests showed elevated levels of chemicals spreading from the canal. Frequencies of chromosomal aberrations and of sister chromatid exchange (SCE) did not differ significantly from control levels. For all participants, cigarette smoking was associated with an increase in sister chromatid exchange frequency.

Heath, C.W. Jr.; Nadel, M.R.; Zack, M.M. Jr.; Chen, A.T.L.; Bender, M.A.; Preston, R.J.

1984-03-16

380

23. 1988 aerial of Tempe Canal, Sections 30 and 31 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

23. 1988 aerial of Tempe Canal, Sections 30 and 31 (T1N R5E) and Sections 25 and 36 (T1N R4E) (top of page is north). Tempe Canal cuts across top right of picture, then reenters at center right along the north side of the Superstition Freeway before turning south and crossing the freeway on a flume. White lines show the alignment of the Price Freeway. Also visible, upper left, is the Western Branch angling from the northeast toward McClintock Drive. Photographer: Unknown, 1988. Source: SRP Cartographic Drafting. - Tempe Canal, South Side Salt River in Tempe, Mesa & Phoenix, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

381

ROUTING DEMAND CHANGES TO USERS ON THE WM LATERAL CANAL WITH SACMAN  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Most canals have either long travel times or insufficient in-canal storage to operate on-demand. Thus, most flow changes must be routed through the canal. Volume compensation has been proposed as a method for easily applying feedforward control to irrigation canals. SacMan (Software for Automated Ca...

382

Exact boundary controllability of unsteady flows in a tree-like network of open canals  

E-print Network

Exact boundary controllability of unsteady flows in a tree-like network of open canals LI Ta establish the exact boundary controllability of unsteady flows in a tree-like network of open canals of open canals. The one-dimensional mathematical model of unsteady flows in an open canal was given

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

383

Activating membranes.  

PubMed

We present a general dynamical theory of a membrane coupled to an actin cortex containing polymerizing filaments with active stresses and currents, and demonstrate that active membrane dynamics [S. Ramaswamy et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 3494 (2000)] and spontaneous shape oscillations emerge from this description. We also consider membrane instabilities and patterns induced by the presence of filaments with polar orientational correlations in the tangent plane of the membrane. The dynamical features we predict should be seen in a variety of cellular contexts involving the dynamics of the membrane-cytoskeleton composite and cytoskeletal extracts coupled to synthetic vesicles. PMID:25014831

Maitra, Ananyo; Srivastava, Pragya; Rao, Madan; Ramaswamy, Sriram

2014-06-27

384

Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo with Simultaneous Involvement of Multiple Semicircular Canals  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) generally involves a single semicircular canal (single canal BPPV) but it has been reported that more than one semicircular canal on either the same or the opposite side can be involved in 6.8-20% of the cases (multiple canal BPPV). In this study, the clinical characteristics of multiple canal BPPV were analyzed and compared to those of single canal BPPV. Materials and Methods Retrospective analysis was performed on 1054 consecutive patients diagnosed with BPPV. Multiple canal BPPV was diagnosed when the combination of typical nystagmus was provoked by the Dix-Hallpike and supine head roll tests. Canalith repositioning maneuver was performed sequentially starting with the semicircular canal causing more severe nystagmus or symptoms. Clinical characteristics and the treatment course were statistically compared between single canal BPPV and multiple canal BPPV. Results Among the 1054 patients, single canal BPPV was diagnosed in 1005 patients (95.4%) while multiple canal BPPV was diagnosed in 49 patients (4.6%). BPPV involving semicircular canals on the same side was more common (79.6%) than BPPV with bilateral involvement. The most common combination of the involved canals was ipsilateral posterior and horizontal semicircular canals (63.3%). Multiple canal BPPV was significantly more associated with underlying otologic diseases, especially labyrinthitis. Multiple canal BPPV required more treatment sessions and longer duration of treatment to achieve resolution of nystagmus and symptoms. Conclusions As all cases of multiple canal BPPV were treated successfully although a longer duration of treatment and more treatment sessions were required compared to single canal BPPV, the results of our study could aid in making an accurate diagnosis and providing appropriate treatment of multiple canal BPPV.

Shim, Dae Bo; Song, Chang Eun; Jung, Eun Jung; Ko, Kyung Min; Park, Jin Woo

2014-01-01

385

Consumption of oxygen and blood flow during exercise and recovery phase evaluated by near-infrared spectroscopy and its relationship to skin forehead, quadriceps, tympanic, and rectal temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The availability of oxygen in the human vastus medialis muscle and the tympanic, skin forehead, quadriceps, and rectal temperatures has been investigated during exercise test and post-exercise with non-invasive near-infrared spectroscopy, infrared thermometer, and an array of four thermistors, respectively. During exercise time rectal temperature was not recorded, before exercise basal values were obtained, and after exercise all the data for two hours were recorded. The signals from near-infrared spectroscopy have been studied by analogy to forced vibration and viscously damped free vibration. Other models have been used to evaluate the temperatures. The time necessary for the reoxygenation signal to cross the baseline during the post exercise period was from 30 min to over 100 min. The peak of pH values was 5 min post-exercise and to arrive at basal levels needed 25 min to more than 40 min. The peak of rectal temperature starts around 20 - 30 min post-exercise remaining 25 - 40 min at the same value, starting to slip down slowly at variable intervals of several minutes requiring over two hours to arrive at basal levels. The data obtained by near-infrared spectroscopy and skin quadriceps, rectal temperatures confirm that the oxygen consumption remains after exercise in the muscle studied.

Verdaguer-Codina, Joan; Pujol, P.; Drobnic, F.; Galilea, P.; Riera, J.; Pons, V.; Banquells, M.; Ruiz, O.

1995-12-01

386

33 CFR 117.1051 - Lake Washington Ship Canal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Washington § 117.1051 Lake Washington Ship Canal. (a) When fog prevails by day or by night, the drawtender of each bridge listed in this section, after giving the acknowledging...

2011-07-01

387

33 CFR 117.653 - St. Mary's Falls Canal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Michigan § 117.653 St. Mary's Falls Canal. The draw of the International Railway bridge, mile 1.0 at Sault Ste....

2010-07-01

388

33 CFR 117.653 - St. Mary's Falls Canal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Michigan § 117.653 St. Mary's Falls Canal. The draw of the International Railway bridge, mile 1.0 at Sault Ste....

2013-07-01

389

33 CFR 117.653 - St. Mary's Falls Canal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Michigan § 117.653 St. Mary's Falls Canal. The draw of the International Railway bridge, mile 1.0 at Sault Ste....

2012-07-01

390

West Branch Pennsylvania Canal, Lock No. 34 Lock Keeper's House, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

West Branch Pennsylvania Canal, Lock No. 34 Lock Keeper's House, South of State Route 664 along North bank of West Branch of Susquehanna River, 2,000 feet East of Jay Street Bridge, Lock Haven, Clinton County, PA

391

Water infrastructure : hybridized architecture along the Arizona canal  

E-print Network

Due to budget issues, the Central Arizona Project (CAP) canal has been left exposed to the arid desert environment since its construction in the 1970s. As a result, 5% of the amount of water diverted from the Colorado River ...

Atwood, Alex (Wayne Alex)

2012-01-01

392

10. DETAIL OF UPSTREAM FACE OF NEW YORK CANAL HEADWORKS, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. DETAIL OF UPSTREAM FACE OF NEW YORK CANAL HEADWORKS, SHOWING GATE LIFTING GEARS (TOP), WORM GEAR SHAFTS (CENTER) AND SLIDE GATES (BOTTOM). VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Boise Project, Boise River Diversion Dam, Across Boise River, Boise, Ada County, ID

393

Transportation Center Seminar........ "The Panama Canal as Precursor"  

E-print Network

Transportation Center Seminar........ "The Panama Canal as Precursor" Aaron J. Gellman Professor of Transportation The Transportation Center & Kellogg School of Management Northwestern University; Advisory:30 pm Location: Transportation Center, Chambers Hall Lower Level, 600 Foster St., Evanston Professor

Bustamante, Fabián E.

394

Ulnar Nerve Compression at Guyon's Canal by an Arteriovenous Malformation  

PubMed Central

Guyon's canal at the wrist is not the common site of ulnar nerve compression. Ganglion, lipoma, anomalous tendon and muscles, trauma related to an occupation, arthritis, and carpal bone fracture can cause ulnar nerve compression at the wrist. However, ulnar nerve compression at Guyon's canal by vascular lesion is rare. Ulnar artery aneurysm, tortous ulnar artery, hemangioma, and thrombosis have been reported in the literature as vascular lesions. The authors experienced a case of ulnar nerve compression at Guyon's canal by an arteriovenous malformation (AVM) and the patient's symptom was improved after surgical resection. We can not easily predict vascular lesion as a cause of ulnar nerve compression at Guyon's canal. However, if there is not obvious etiology, we should consider vascular lesion as another possible etiology. PMID:19242575

Kim, Sung Soo; Kang, Hee In; Lee, Seung Jin

2009-01-01

395

155. Credit ER. Hand cleaning and trimming of Coleman canal ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

155. Credit ER. Hand cleaning and trimming of Coleman canal after excavation by steam shovel. (ER, v. 64 1911 p. 701). - Battle Creek Hydroelectric System, Battle Creek & Tributaries, Red Bluff, Tehama County, CA

396

4. INTERIOR OF ABANDONED SANTA ANA CANAL TUNNEL, SHOWING CEMENT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. INTERIOR OF ABANDONED SANTA ANA CANAL TUNNEL, SHOWING CEMENT TROUGH FLOOR AND UNFINISHED GRANITE ROOF. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, Abandoned Tunnel, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

397

Sunset over Mt. San Jacinto and the Coachella Canal  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

The Coachella Canal is an aqueduct that diverts water from the Colorado River to the Coachella Valley, making possible the extensive agriculture production that drives the economy in this arid region of the United States....

398

44. DETAIL OF WALL SHOWING 1914 CALENDAR (DEPICTING PANAMA CANAL), ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

44. DETAIL OF WALL SHOWING 1914 CALENDAR (DEPICTING PANAMA CANAL), PATTERN FOR NARROW GAUGE RR WHEEL, AND AD-LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - W. A. Young & Sons Foundry & Machine Shop, On Water Street along Monongahela River, Rices Landing, Greene County, PA

399

5. William Beardsley standing along canal section. Photographer James Dix ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. William Beardsley standing along canal section. Photographer James Dix Schuyler, 1903. Source: Schuyler report. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

400

9. FLUME BOX Y, LOOKING SOUTH. CANAL IN FOREGROUND FOLLOWS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. FLUME BOX Y, LOOKING SOUTH. CANAL IN FOREGROUND FOLLOWS HILLSIDE INTO DRAINAGE; FLUME HEADING TO RIGHT CROSSED GULCH ON A TRESTLE. - Snake River Ditch, Headgate on north bank of Snake River, Dillon, Summit County, CO

401

11. REMNANTS OF FLUME BOX WITHIN CANAL. NOTE THE UPRIGHT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. REMNANTS OF FLUME BOX WITHIN CANAL. NOTE THE UPRIGHT SIDE POSTS BOLTED TO BASE STRINGER AND HORIZONTAL BOARD SIDE WALLS. VIEW IS TO THE SOUTHEAST. - Snake River Ditch, Headgate on north bank of Snake River, Dillon, Summit County, CO

402

Heterochrony, modularity, and the functional evolution of the mechanosensory lateral line canal system of fishes  

PubMed Central

Background The canals of the mechanosensory lateral line system are components of the dermatocranium, and demonstrate phenotypic variation in bony fishes. Widened lateral line canals evolved convergently in a limited number of families of teleost fishes and it had been hypothesized that they evolved from narrow canals via heterochrony and explore modularity in the lateral line system. Two species of cichlids with different canal phenotypes were used to test a hypothesis of heterochrony. Histological material prepared from ontogenetic series of Aulonocara stuartgranti (widened canals) and Tramitichromis sp. (narrow canals) was analyzed using ANCOVA to determine rates of increase in canal diameter and neuromast size (length, width) and to compare the timing of onset of critical stages in canal morphogenesis (enclosure, ossification). Results A faster rate of increase in canal diameter and neuromast width (but not length), and a delay in onset of canal morphogenesis were found in Aulonocara relative to Tramitichromis. However, rates of increase in canal diameter and neuromast size among canals, among canal portions and among canals segments reveal similar trends within both species. Conclusion The evolution of widened lateral line canals is the result of dissociated heterochrony - acceleration in the rate of increase of both canal diameter and neuromast size, and delay in the onset of canal morphogenesis, in Aulonocara (widened canals) relative to Tramitichromis (narrow canals). Common rates of increase in canal diameter and neuromast size among canal portions in different dermatocranial bones and among canal segments reflect the absence of local heterochronies, and suggest modular integration among canals in each species. Thus, canal and neuromast morphology are more strongly influenced by their identities as features of the lateral line system than by the attributes of the dermatocranial bones in which the canals are found. Rate heterochrony manifested during the larval stage ensures that the widened canal phenotype, known to be associated with benthic prey detection in adult Aulonocara, is already present before feeding commences. Heterochrony can likely explain the convergent evolution of widened lateral line canals among diverse taxa. The lateral line system provides a valuable context for novel analyses of the relationship between developmental processes and the evolution of behaviorally and ecologically relevant phenotypes in fishes. PMID:24959342

2014-01-01

403

109. Photocopied August 1978. CANAL WALL REPAIR WORK, OCTOBER 4, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

109. Photocopied August 1978. CANAL WALL REPAIR WORK, OCTOBER 4, 1916. THE SAME COMPANY (THE FOUNDATION COMPANY) WHICH PLACED THE BUTTRESSES AT THE REAR OF THE POWER HOUSE ALSO MADE EXTENSIVE WALL REPAIRS FOR MICHIGAN NORTHERN. A PORTION OF THE MASONRY RETAINING WALL IN THE ROCK SECTION OF THE POWER CANAL IS BEING RECONSTRUCTED HERE.(816) - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

404

A review of potential tsunami impacts to the Suez Canal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Destructive tsunamis in the eastern Mediterranean and Red seas, induced by earthquakes and/or volcanic activity, pose potential hazards to docked seaport shipping and fixed harbor infrastructure as well as to in-transit international shipping within the Suez Canal. Potential vulnerabilities of the Suez Canal to possible tsunami impacts are reviewed by reference to geological, historical, archaeoseismological, and anecdotal data. Tsunami catalogues and databases compiled by earlier researchers are perused to estimate potential return periods for tsunami events that could affect directly the Suez Canal and its closely associated operational infrastructures. Analysis of these various records indicates a centurial return period, or multiples thereof, for long-wave repetition that could generally affect the Nile Delta. It is estimated that tsunami waves 2 m high would have a breaking length about 5 km down Canal whereas a 10 m wave break would occur about 1 km into the Canal. Should a tsunami strike the eastern flanks of the Nile Delta, it would damage Egypt's maritime infrastructure and multi-national commercial vessels and military ships then using the Canal.

Finkl, C.; Pelinovsky, E.

2012-04-01

405

Long-term cytotoxic effects of contemporary root canal sealers  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of root canal sealers on the cytotoxicity of 3T3 fibroblasts during a period of 5 weeks. Material and Methods: Fibroblasts (3T3, 1x105 cells per well) were incubated with elutes of fresh specimens from eight root canal sealers (AH Plus, Epiphany, Endomethasone N, EndoReZ, MTA Fillapex, Pulp Canal Sealer EWT, RoekoSeal and Sealapex) and with elutes of the same specimens for 5 succeeding weeks after immersing in simulated body fluid. The cytotoxicity of all root canal sealers was determined using the MTT assay. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey's test. Results: RoekoSeal was the only sealer that did not show any cytotoxic effects (p<0.05). All the other tested sealers exhibited severe toxicity initially (week 0). MTA Fillapex remained moderately cytotoxic after the end of experimental period. Toxicity of the other tested sealers decreased gradually over time. The evaluated root canal sealers presented varying degrees of cytotoxicity, mainly in fresh mode. Conclusions: RoekoSeal had no cytotoxic effect both freshly mixed and in the other tested time points. MTA Fillapex was associated with significantly less cell viability when compared to the other tested root canal sealers. PMID:23559111

da SILVA, Emmanuel João Nogueira Leal; SANTOS, Carolina Carvalho; ZAIA, Alexandre Augusto

2013-01-01

406

Micromotional studies of utricular and canal afferents  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The long-range goal of this research was to refine our understanding of the sensitivity of the vestibular components of the ear to very-low-amplitude motion, especially, the role of gravity in this sensitivity. We focused on the American bullfrog--a common animal subject for vestibular sensory research. Our principal experimental method was to apply precise, sinusoidal microrotational stimuli to an anesthetized animal subject, to record the resulting responses in an individual vestibular nerve fiber from the intact ear, and to use intracellular dye to trace the fiber and thus identify the vestibular sensor that gave rise to it. In this way, we were able to identify specific micromotional sensitivities and to associate those sensitivities definitely with specific sensors. Furthermore, by recording from nerve fibers after they leave the intact inner-ear cavity, we were able to achieve these identifications without interrupting the delicate micromechanics of the inner ear. We were especially concerned with the relative roles of the utricle and the anterior semicircular canal in the sensing of microrotational motion of the head about horizontal axes, and with the role of gravity in mediating that sensing process in the utricle. The functional characterization of individual nerve fibers was accomplished with a conventional analytical tool, the cycle histogram, in which the nerve impulse rate was plotted against the phase of the sinusoidal stimulus.

Lewis, Edwin R.

1989-01-01

407

Transmastoid Repair of Superior Semicircular Canal Dehiscence  

PubMed Central

Objective/Hypothesis?Superior semicircular canal (Sup SC) dehiscence syndrome is a rare condition, causing a variety of auditory and vestibular symptoms. The traditional surgical management is a middle cranial fossa, extradural approach to resurface the Sup SC. Recently, a transmastoid approach for plugging of the Sup SC has been developed. We present further data supporting the use of the transmastoid approach in preference to the middle fossa approach. Design?This is a retrospective multi-institutional case series. Method?We included 10 patients in this case series from two tertiary otology institutions. Sup SC dehiscence was confirmed by correlation of clinical symptoms with positive audiometric, vestibular evoked myogenic potential, and computed tomography findings. A transmastoid approach was used for plugging of the Sup SC. Either a single fenestration was created at the site of dehiscence or separate fenestrations sited ampullopetal and ampullofugal to the dehiscence. Results?All patients who underwent this procedure had good symptom control and hearing preservation postoperatively. Conclusion?In patients with adequate temporal bone pneumatization, the transmastoid approach provides a safe and effective alternative to the middle cranial fossa approach. This series has demonstrated excellent symptom control and preservation of hearing with the transmastoid approach. PMID:23904997

Zhao, Yi Chen; Somers, Thomas; van Dinther, Joost; Vanspauwen, Robby; Husseman, Jacob; Briggs, Robert

2012-01-01

408

The Influence of Canal Curvature on the Mechanical Efficacy of Root Canal Irrigation In Vitro Using Real-Time Imaging of Bioluminescent Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are no quantitative data on the mechanical effi- cacy of irrigation in the removal of bacteria from curved canals. This study quantitatively analyzed the effects of root canal curvature and preparation size on the me- chanical efficacy of irrigation using 33 mandibular sin- gle-rooted bicuspids allocated to groups according to root canal curvatures, group 1 (straight) 4 to 8

Donald Ngu; Christine Sedgley

409

The Influence of Canal Curvature on the Mechanical Efficacy of Root Canal Irrigation In Vitro Using Real-Time Imaging of Bioluminescent Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are no quantitative data on the mechanical efficacy of irrigation in the removal of bacteria from curved canals. This study quantitatively analyzed the effects of root canal curvature and preparation size on the mechanical efficacy of irrigation using 33 mandibular single-rooted bicuspids allocated to groups according to root canal curvatures, group 1 (straight) 4 to 8 degrees, group 2

Donald Nguy; Christine Sedgley

2006-01-01

410

Effect of pollution on phytoplankton in the Ashar Canal, a highly polluted canal of the Shatt al-Arab Estuary at Basrah, Iraq  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of pollution on the phytoplankton in the Ashar Canal was studied during March and June 1976. Higher temperatures were recorded in June. The canal water was more turbid than that of the adjoining Shatt al-Arab estuary due to high algal populations and sewage disposal. The chlorosity values were remarkably high in the canal, due to sewage disposal. The

Massoud A. H. Saad; Samir E. Antoine

1983-01-01

411

Multicomponent membranes  

DOEpatents

A multicomponent membrane which may be used for separating various components which are present in a fluid feed mixture comprises a mixture of a plasticizer such as a glycol and an organic polymer cast upon a porous organic polymer support. The membrane may be prepared by casting an emulsion or a solution of the plasticizer and polymer on the porous support, evaporating the solvent and recovering the membrane after curing.

Kulprathipanja, Santi (Hoffman Estates, IL); Kulkarni, Sudhir S. (Hoffman Estates, IL); Funk, Edward W. (Highland Park, IL)

1988-01-01

412

Charged Membranes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Teaching Resource provides three animated lessons that describe the storage and utilization of energy across plasma membranes. The “Na,K ATPase” animation explains how these pumps establish the electrochemical gradient that stores energy across plasma membranes. The “ATP synthesizing complexes” animation shows how these complexes transfer energy from the inner mitochondrial membrane to adenosine triphosphate (ATP). The “action potential” lesson explains how charged membranes are used to propagate signals along the axons of neurons. These animations serve as valuable resources for any collegiate-level course that describes these important factors. Courses that might employ them include introductory biology, biochemistry, biophysics, cell biology, pharmacology, and physiology.

Jack D. Thatcher (Lewisburg; West Virginia School of Osteopathic Medicine REV)

2013-04-16

413

Are the three canals equally susceptible to benign paroxysmal positional vertigo?  

PubMed

A prospective study of patients diagnosed with 'single-canal' benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) was performed. Demographic, etiological and prognostic differences between patients with posterior, horizontal and superior canal BPPV were studied. A total of 614 patients diagnosed in a period of 11 years and with a follow-up period of at least 1 year were included in the study. The posterior semicircular canal was affected in 543 casas (88.4%), the horizontal in 39 (6.4%) and the superior canal in 32 (5.2%). Final status at the end of the follow-up period was better in posterior canal BPPV (95% cure) than in horizontal or superior canal BPPV (87% cure in both cases). This may be explained by two facts: a poorer initial response to repositioning maneuvers in anterior canal BPPV than in BPPV involving the other two canals, and a poorer response to maneuvers in recurrences of horizontal canal BPPV. PMID:24080713

Soto-Varela, Andrés; Santos-Perez, Sofia; Rossi-Izquierdo, Marcos; Sanchez-Sellero, Ines

2013-01-01

414

A Closed-Flow Water Caloric System  

PubMed Central

This paper describes a new method and apparatus to induce nystagmus. Flow of fluid into the ear to induce nystagmus is eliminated by utilization of a closed-flow system. A probe adapted for insertion to a standardized depth into the ear, provides a flow-through path for nystagmus-inducing liquid while expanding in response to the pressurized liquid to conform to the contours of the external auditory canal and tympanic membrane. Thermal conductivity through the membrane-like probe material permits heat exchange between the flowing liquid, and the external auditory canal and/or tympanic membrane to induce nystagmus. At this time, the authors can state only that the quality of nystagmus produced is similar to that produced by current conventional methods. In the small number of patients tested, discomfort appeared to be almost negligible. The system appears to be a promising improvement dependent on the establishment of accurate parameters for diagnosis. ImagesFigure 1 PMID:875073

Foti, Thomas M.; Foti, George

1977-01-01

415

Water losses from irrigation canals evaluation: comparison among different methodologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The research investigates the field methodologies to evaluate water losses from canals, in order to find a reliable method to identify and quantify them. This study was conducted in five canal lines in Piedmont, north-western Italy, different for hydraulic, morphological, geological and hydrogeological contexts (De Luca et alii, 2012). At a regional scale, Piedmont network consists of several tens of thousands km of irrigation canals. The loss of water due to seepage from irrigation canals constitutes a substantial part of the usable water. Irrigation canals placed in natural soil or fine and coarse sediments are characterized by water losses ranging from 20 % to more than 50 %. These losses cause economic, hydrogeological and environmental consequences: water losses evaluation from irrigation canals in the basis for the sustainable water resource use and management. First, hydrogeological and hydrological characterisation of the study area and of the bottom of the irrigation canals was carried out for every investigated canal, in order to evaluate the relationships between groundwater and stream water (eg. piezometric and hydrogeochemical survey campaigns, infiltrometry tests, penetrometric tests and electrical tomographies, soil characterizations from the bottom of investigated canals). The canals seepage rates were subsequently estimated using different methodologies: empirical formulas, inflow-outflow tests and double tracer tests. The empirical formulas applied for the study underestimated the real amount of the losses probably due to the scarce number of the considered variables. Then the canals seepage rates were evaluated employing inflow-outflow tests, considered the best tool by several authors. This method allows the determination of seepage quantities measuring inflow and outflow of a canal test reach either by instruments. The canal discharge was evaluated using a current meter. This method, even if easy to apply and practical, is not efficient, especially for low canal discharge, because of the high instrumental error. A more rigorous method, based on the quantification of artificial tracers mass losses through exfiltration, was tested. This methodology is based on QUEST method (Rieckermann J. & Guier W., 2002; De Luca et alii, 2012). The used tracers were sodium chloride (NaCl), uranine and rhodamine WT. Uranine and rhodamine were detected by means of a fluorometer and NaCl thanks to a conductivimeter. In order to reduce the error of the NaCl detection, a multistage sampling in different parts of the cross section was applied, guaranteeing the contemporary water picking up. The results of these last tests were more accurate and in accordance with the aim of the research. References De Luca D. A., Comina C., Destefanis E., Marzano F., Carbotta G., Dino G., Passarella I., Masciocco L., Sambuelli L., Perotti L., Lasagna M., Clemente P., Bonetto S. (2012). Definizione di linee guida per la valutazione delle perdite dei canali irrigui. Convenzione scientifica tra Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra e Regione Piemonte - Direzione Agricoltura. Final Report. Rieckermann J., Gujer W. (2002) - Quantifying Exfiltration from Leaky Sewers with Artificial Tracers - Proceedings of the International Conference on "Sewer Operation and Maintenance. 2002", Bradford, UK.

Clemente, Paolo; De Luca, Domenico Antonio; Antonella Dino, Giovanna; Lasagna, Manuela

2013-04-01

416

Amphiphilic Membranes  

E-print Network

Contents: 1. Introduction 2. Amphiphilic molecules and the phases they form 3. Isolated membranes: the Helfrich hamiltonian 4. Vesicle shapes 5. Shape fluctuations in vesicles 6. Interacting fluid membranes 7. Conclusions A. Differential equations for vesicle shapes B. The Faddeev-Popov determinant C. One-loop calculation of the renormalization group D. The Liouville model

Luca Peliti

1995-01-17

417

Canal switch after canalith repositioning procedure for benign paroxysmal positional vertigo.  

PubMed

Canal switch is a complication following canalith repositioning procedure (CRP) for posterior canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV). Instead of being returned to the utricle, the loose otoconia migrate into the superior or horizontal semicircular canal. Patients remain symptomatic, and treatment can be ineffective unless the switch is recognized and additional repositioning maneuvers directed toward the appropriate semicircular canal are performed. This report provides the first videographic documentation of canal switch involving conversion of unilateral posterior semicircular canal BPPV to geotropic horizontal canalithiasis. PMID:22549695

Lin, Giant C; Basura, Gregory J; Wong, Hiu Tung; Heidenreich, Katherine D

2012-09-01

418

Morphogenesis of cartilage canals: experimental approach in the rat tibia.  

PubMed

This paper studies the participation of vessels in the canal morphogenesis. The proximal chondroepiphysis of the left tibia of 44 five-day-old rats was exposed and the vessels of the intercondylar fossae, near the attachment of cruciate ligaments, were cauterized. In addition to the vascular lesion this assay induced a perichondral lesion. However, the canal appeared and joined to the secondary ossification center. 36 tibiae of 4-day-old rats were removed under sterile conditions and cultured in a serum-free chemically defined medium. The cultures were carried out for as long as 15 days. A canal lumen structure was found on the first days of culture, and grew in depth to the central region of the chondroepiphysis during the culture. The secondary ossification center was not found. The vessels and mesenchymal cells observed in the control canal were not found in the culture. We suggest that the presence of vessels, perivascular cells or perichondrium does not appear to be necessary in canal morphogenesis. PMID:1781252

Delgado-Baeza, E; Giménez-Ribotta, M; Miralles-Flores, C; Nieto-Chaguaceda, A; Santos-Alvarez, I

1991-01-01

419

Mandibular first molar with six root canals: a rare entity.  

PubMed

Recently, there has been an ongoing trend of case reports that highlight the presence of more than four root canals in mandibular first molars. This tendency warns clinicians to be more prudent when dealing with mandibular first molars requiring endodontic treatment. Moreover, radiographic examination should be taken as a clue providing tool rather than as an absolute guide to anatomy and its associated aberrances. This case reports the successful non-surgical endodontic management of a mandibular first molar with six root canal systems with three canals in the mesial root and three in the distal root. The classification of root canal systems found in this case was Sert and Bayirli type XV in both the roots. After non-surgical endodontic treatment, the tooth was restored definitively with a resin composite core followed by porcelain fused to the metal crown. This case adds to the library of previously reported cases of mandibular first molars with six root canals and further emphasises on the importance of rare morphological deviations that may occur in the mandibular first molars. PMID:25082869

Hasan, Muhammad; Rahman, Munawar; Saad, Najeeb

2014-01-01

420

Slope restoration for a 100-year old canal  

SciTech Connect

Turlock Irrigation District (TID) is located in the northern portion of the fertile San Joaquin Valley of California. TID`s primary water supply is conveyed from the 100-year-old LaGrange Diversion Dam via their historic Upper Main Canal. The original canal was constructed by excavating into slate bedrock for the uphill (cut) bank, and constructing unmortared rock walls and rock fill for the downhill (fill) embankment; the excavation was then lined with concrete. Soil fill raises of the downhill embankment over the last 30 years have reduced the slope stability to unacceptable levels in the steepest embankment areas. In March of 1994, two surficial slides prompted investigation of the long term embankment stability in the Warehouse Slide Area. Based on results of analysis for various stabilization scenarios, TID chose a stabilization method which included: (1) excavation of an access bench below the existing canal, (2) installation of steel pipe piles through the existing rock fill and into the bedrock, (3) construction of a mechanically stabilized earth (MSE) retaining wall and (4) construction of a soil-cement canal roadway pavement. The design was chosen by the owner because of cost competitiveness compared to other design alternatives and because the construction sequence allowed uninterrupted use of the canal. By using local river cobble for the MSE wall facing material, TID met the desired 50-year design life of the repair while maintaining the area`s historic visual features.

Skaggs, R.L.; Lewis, S.W. [Condor Earth Technologies, Inc., Sonora, CA (United States); Liebersbach, D.C. [Turlock Irrigation District, CA (United States)] [and others

1995-12-31

421

Superior semicircular canal dehiscence syndrome by the superior petrosal sinus.  

PubMed

Thinning or dehiscence of the superior semicircular canal may occur on the middle cranial fossa floor or adjacent to the superior petrosal sinus (SPS). However, no symptomatic cases of superior canal dehiscence by SPS have been previously described. A 45-year-old woman presented with left-side pulsating tinnitus, autophony and disequilibrium. Examination showed conductive hearing loss and decreased threshold of vestibular evoked myogenic potential in the left side. Sound and vibration stimuli and positive pressure insufflations into the left ear evoked mainly torsional nystagmus instead of vertical-torsional nystagmus. High-resolution temporal bone CT revealed a dehiscence of the superior canal close to the common crus, which was encased by SPS. Symptoms and signs resolved after plugging the dehiscence through a middle fossa approach. Deep groove of SPS may cause superior canal dehiscence close to the common crus, and costimulation of the superior and posterior canals may explain the mainly torsional nystagmus induced by sound and vibration stimuli. PMID:20176603

Koo, Ja-Won; Hong, Sung Kwang; Kim, Dong-Kyu; Kim, Ji Soo

2010-04-01

422

28 / JOURNAL OF IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE ENGINEERING / JANUARY/FEBRUARY 2000 DESIGN OF MINIMUM SEEPAGE LOSS CANAL SECTIONS  

E-print Network

seep- age about 30­40% (Wachyan and Rushton 1987); seepage from a canal cannot be controlled completely. Significant seep- age losses do occur from a canal even if it is lined. Therefore, a canal cross section

Chahar, B. R.

423

Spatial orientation of semicircular canals and afferent sensitivity vectors in pigeons  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rotational head motion in vertebrates is detected by the semicircular canal system, whose innervating primary afferent fibers carry information about movement in specific head planes. The semicircular canals have been qualitatively examined over a number of years, and the canal planes have been quantitatively characterized in several animal species. The present study first determined the geometric relationship between individual semicircular canals and between the canals and the stereotactic head planes in pigeons. Stereotactic measurements of multiple points along the circumference of the bony canals were taken, and the measured points fitted with a three-dimensional planar surface. Direction normals to the plane's surface were calculated and used to define angles between semicircular canal pairs. Because of the unusual shape of the anterior semicircular canals in pigeons, two planes, a major and a minor, were fitted to the canal's course. Calculated angle values for all canals indicated that the horizontal and posterior semicircular canals are nearly orthogonal, but the anterior canals have substantial deviations from orthogonality with other canal planes. Next, the responses of the afferent fibers that innervate each of the semicircular canals to 0.5 Hz sinusoidal rotation about an earth-vertical axis were obtained. The head orientation relative to the rotation axis was systematically varied so that directions of maximum sensitivity for each canal afferent could be determined. These sensitivity vectors were then compared with the canal plane direction normals. The afferents that innervated specific semicircular canals formed homogeneous clusters of sensitivity vectors in different head planes. The horizontal and posterior afferents had average sensitivity vectors that were largely co-incident with the innervated canal plane direction normals. Anterior canal afferents, however, appeared to synthesize contributions from the major and minor plane components of the bony canal structure to produce a resultant sensitivity vector that was positioned between the canal planes. Calculated angles between the average canal afferent sensitivity vectors revealed that direction orthogonality is preserved at the afferent signal level, even though deviations from canal plane orthogonality exist.

Dickman, J. D.

1996-01-01

424

Tullio phenomenon in superior semicircular canal dehiscence syndrome.  

PubMed

Tullio phenomenon refers to eye movements induced by sound.(1) This unusual examination finding may be seen in superior semicircular canal dehiscence (SSCD) syndrome.(2) This disorder is due to absent bone over the superior semicircular canal (figure). Patients complain of dizziness triggered by loud sound, aural fullness, autophony, and pulsatile tinnitus. When Tullio phenomenon exists in SSCD syndrome, the patient develops a mixed vertical-torsional nystagmus in which the slow phase rotates up and away from the affected ear (video on the Neurology® Web site at Neurology.org). This pattern of nystagmus aligns in the plane of the dehiscent semicircular canal and is due to excitation of its afferent nerves. PMID:24638216

Basura, Gregory J; Cronin, Scott J; Heidenreich, Katherine D

2014-03-18

425

[Hyperostosis of the internal auditory canal : An incidental finding?  

PubMed

In contrast to the fairly common exostoses in the external auditory canal, hyperostoses and osteomas of the internal auditory canal are extremely rare. In this case report we present a patient with sudden right-sided sensorineural hearing loss, in whom imaging revealed hyperostosis with bilateral stenosis of the internal auditory canal. Whether the connection of such radiological findings with dysfunction of cranial nerves VII and VIII be causal or coincidental is controversially discussed in the literature. Therefore, the indication for surgical intervention should be considered with extreme caution. Despite examination of our radiology database comprising almost 1000 MRI/CT temporal bone investigations, we could find no other cases of hyperostosis of the petrous bone. This case thus represents a rare disease, which should be considered a differential diagnosis. PMID:25135374

Mastromonaco, P; Stöckli, S

2014-08-20

426

Morphological Examination of the Obturator Notch and Canal in Cervidae  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to investigate gross findings of the obturator notch (ON) and obturator canal (OC) in Cervidae. A total of 183 pelvic girdles from 26 species of deer were examined, and the obturator canal (OC) was classified into 4 types based on the degree of separation from the obturator foramen (OF). The deep ON was observed primarily in the subfamily Capreolinae (telemetacarpal deer). The small bony OC was frequently observed in Hydropotes inermis, Mazama gouazoubira and Ozotoceros bezoarticus. A canal without a tubercle or bony bridge structure was mainly observed in the subfamily Cervinae (plesiometacarpal deer). These results suggest that the deep ONs or the OCs separated by bony structures are more common in telemetacarpal rather than plesiometacarpal deer. PMID:24430657

TAE, Hyun-Jin; PARK, Byung-Yong; KIM, In-Shik; AHN, Dongchoon

2014-01-01

427

3. View of the mouth of George Washington's 'Potowmack' Canal ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. View of the mouth of George Washington's 'Potowmack' Canal at the Great Falls of the Potomac River. The view is taken from a rock in the Potomac River looking up into the Canal. Trees and dense growth now fill the old aperture which once permitted barges to come down the Ohio Valley onto the broad expanse of the Potomac River. This view, taken September 1, 1943, evidences the very low water then existing on the Potomac River, as is clearly shown by the water marks on the rocks on the left hand side of the photograph. That portion where the individual is standing, up to the height of his hat, is normally underwater. Deep in the sand at this spot was found a part of one of the old hand brought lock hinges which formerly swung the first lock gates ... - Potowmack Company: Great Falls Canal, Locks No. 3, 4, 5, Great Falls, Fairfax County, VA

428

Postpartum Vertigo and Superior Semicircular Canal Dehiscence Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background Superior semicircular canal dehiscence is a recently described cause of imbalance, hearing loss, and tinnitus. Symptoms may begin after abrupt changes in intracranial or middle ear pressure. Case This woman presented with a 6-year history of imbalance, hearing loss, and pulsatile tinnitus beginning when she was pushing during labor. A temporal bone computed tomography showed a dehiscence of the superior semicircular canal. Surgical repair of the dehiscenchrough the middle cranial fossa resulted in immediate resolution of the patient's symptoms, and she returned to full activity within 3 weeks. Conclusion Superior semicircular canal dehiscence is increasingly recognized as a cause of multiple otologic symptoms. Obstetricians and gynecologists with patients complaining about postpartum vertigo should inquire about symptom onset and focus their questions around events during the second stage of labor. Patients with symptoms of dehiscence should be referred to a neurotologist for management, including possible surgical repair. PMID:19622951

Jacqueline, Ogutha; Nathan C., Page; Timothy E., Hullar

2009-01-01

429

Crystalline Membranes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In certain aspects, the invention features methods for forming crystalline membranes (e.g., a membrane of a framework material, such as a zeolite) by inducing secondary growth in a layer of oriented seed crystals. The rate of growth of the seed crystals in the plane of the substrate is controlled to be comparable to the rate of growth out of the plane. As a result, a crystalline membrane can form a substantially continuous layer including grains of uniform crystallographic orientation that extend through the depth of the layer.

Tsapatsis, Michael (Inventor); Lai, Zhiping (Inventor)

2008-01-01

430

Assessment of amniotic and polyurethane membrane dressings in the treatment of burns  

Microsoft Academic Search

As allograft and xenografts are not available in Islamic countries, amniotic membrane seems to be an effective alternative in the management of deep burns. Its proven bioactivities and modest price suggest that it might be superior to synthetic dressings.Forty-six patients were enrolled in this randomized, controlled clinical trial conducted in the Burn Unit at Suez Canal University Hospital, Ismailia, Egypt.

O. A. Adly; A. M. Moghazy; A. H. Abbas; A. M. Ellabban; O. S. Ali; B. A. Mohamed

2010-01-01

431

Problems of drinking water treatment along Ismailia Canal Province, Egypt*  

PubMed Central

The present drinking water purification system in Egypt uses surface water as a raw water supply without a preliminary filtration process. On the other hand, chlorine gas is added as a disinfectant agent in two steps, pre- and post-chlorination. Due to these reasons most of water treatment plants suffer low filtering effectiveness and produce the trihalomethane (THM) species as a chlorination by-product. The Ismailia Canal represents the most distal downstream of the main Nile River. Thus its water contains all the proceeded pollutants discharged into the Nile. In addition, the downstream reaches of the canal act as an agricultural drain during the closing period of the High Dam gates in January and February every year. Moreover, the wide industrial zone along the upstream course of the canal enriches the canal water with high concentrations of heavy metals. The obtained results indicate that the canal gains up to 24.06×106 m3 of water from the surrounding shallow aquifer during the closing period of the High Dam gates, while during the rest of the year, the canal acts as an influent stream losing about 99.6×106 m3 of its water budget. The reduction of total organic carbon (TOC) and suspended particulate matters (SPMs) should be one of the central goals of any treatment plan to avoid the disinfectants by-products. The combination of sedimentation basins, gravel pre-filtration and slow sand filtration, and underground passage with microbiological oxidation-reduction and adsorption criteria showed good removal of parasites and bacteria and complete elimination of TOC, SPM and heavy metals. Moreover, it reduces the use of disinfectants chemicals and lowers the treatment costs. However, this purification system under the arid climate prevailing in Egypt should be tested and modified prior to application. PMID:18357626

Geriesh, Mohamed H.; Balke, Klaus-Dieter; El-Rayes, Ahmed E.

2008-01-01

432

Predicting Lumbar Central Canal Stenosis – A Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study  

PubMed Central

Background: Low back pain is a common complaint among adults, worldwide. Lumbar canal stenosis is frequently diagnosed as a cause for low back pain. In this study we evaluate morphometric measures using MRI sections to predict the occurrence of lumbar central canal stenosis. Settings and Design: One hundred and fifty four lumbar spinal MRI sagital and axial section images, 77 males and females each were evaluated from the Department of Radiology, Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore, Manipal University. The study design was a prospective study. Materials and Methods: Various measurements were taken and two constant ratios were calculated. The Canal Body Ratio and the Ratio between the area of the dural sac and the vertebral body was evaluated. Statistical analysis: Unpaired t-test analysis was conducted using SPSS software. Results: A canal body ratio less than 0.6 from L1 to L3 levels and less than 0.5 at L4 and L5 levels were found. The ratio between area of dural sac and vertebral body was found to be a constant at 0.2 at all levels. It was found that maximum central canal stenosis occurred at the L5 lumbar vertebral level in 15.6% males and 13% females. This was followed by stenosis at the L4 and L3 lumbar vertebral levels with 5.1% males having stenosis at both levels and 3.9% and 5.1% females in L4 and L3 lumbar levels respectively. Conclusion: These morphometrical findings of the lumbar vertebrae could be of use in evaluating the possible cases of lumbar canal stenosis.

Premchandran, Divya; Mahale, Ajith

2014-01-01

433

Development of an antibacterial root canal filling system containing MDPB.  

PubMed

An antibacterial monomer 12-methacryloyloxydodecylpyridinum bromide (MDPB)-containing experimental, chemically cured primer was prepared to develop a new resin-based root canal filling system. This study investigated the antibacterial effects of the MDPB-containing primer (experimental primer [EP]) against Enterococcus faecalis and assessed the in vitro bonding and sealing abilities of the filling system, consisting of EP and a Bis-GMA-based sealer resin. Antibacterial effects of EP were evaluated by contact with planktonic or adherent bacteria for 30 or 60 sec, and the viable bacterial number was counted. The antibacterial effects against E. faecalis in dentinal tubules were also assessed, according to a root canal infection model. Bonding and sealing abilities of the experimental filling system were examined by microtensile bond strength tests and leakage tests based on fluid filtration methods. Significantly greater reduction in viable bacteria in planktonic and adherent form was obtained by short-period contact with EP compared with the control primer (without MDPB) or with the proprietary (Epiphany) primer (p < .05). Significantly greater bactericidal effects of the EP inside the dentinal tubule of root, as opposed to the control primer or Epiphany primer, were confirmed according to a root canal infection model (p < .05), and 100% killing of E. faecalis could be obtained by the application of EP after irrigation with a 5% sodium hypochlorite solution. The experimental endodontic filling system demonstrated significantly greater bond strength to root dentin than Epiphany sealer system (Epiphany primer and Epiphany Root Canal Sealant; p < .05), showing formation of resin tags and a hybridized layer. Leakage tests clarified that the experimental system provided excellent sealing. This study confirmed that the MDPB-containing experimental antibacterial primer has the ability to effectively disinfect the root canal. Additionally, the experimental root canal filling system employing this primer and the Bis-GMA-based sealer resin is useful for achieving good sealing, suggesting its possible benefit for successful endodontic treatments. PMID:25192898

Kitagawa, R; Kitagawa, H; Izutani, N; Hirose, N; Hayashi, M; Imazato, S

2014-12-01

434

7. U.S. INDIAN IRRIGATION SERVICE BENCHMARK ON MAIN CANAL CHECK ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. U.S. INDIAN IRRIGATION SERVICE BENCHMARK ON MAIN CANAL CHECK STRUCTURE AT PIMA LATERAL TURNOUT - San Carlos Irrigation Project, Marin Canal, Amhurst-Hayden Dam to Picacho Reservoir, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

435

33 CFR 165.837 - Safety Zone; Invista Inc Facility Docks, Victoria Barge Canal, Victoria, Texas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Invista Inc Facility Docks, Victoria Barge Canal, Victoria, Texas. 165.837 Section 165.837 Navigation and Navigable...Invista Inc Facility Docks, Victoria Barge Canal, Victoria, Texas. (a) Location. The following area is a safety...

2014-07-01

436

33 CFR 165.837 - Safety Zone; Invista Inc Facility Docks, Victoria Barge Canal, Victoria, Texas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Invista Inc Facility Docks, Victoria Barge Canal, Victoria, Texas. 165.837 Section 165.837 Navigation and Navigable...Invista Inc Facility Docks, Victoria Barge Canal, Victoria, Texas. (a) Location. The following area is a safety...

2011-07-01

437

33 CFR 165.837 - Safety Zone; Invista Inc Facility Docks, Victoria Barge Canal, Victoria, Texas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Invista Inc Facility Docks, Victoria Barge Canal, Victoria, Texas. 165.837 Section 165.837 Navigation and Navigable...Invista Inc Facility Docks, Victoria Barge Canal, Victoria, Texas. (a) Location. The following area is a safety...

2013-07-01

438

33 CFR 165.837 - Safety Zone; Invista Inc Facility Docks, Victoria Barge Canal, Victoria, Texas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Invista Inc Facility Docks, Victoria Barge Canal, Victoria, Texas. 165.837 Section 165.837 Navigation and Navigable...Invista Inc Facility Docks, Victoria Barge Canal, Victoria, Texas. (a) Location. The following area is a safety...

2012-07-01

439

East Coast -Suez Canal 15 East Coast -Strait of Hormuz 24  

E-print Network

Bases Places Crossroads East Coast - Suez Canal 15 East Coast - Strait of Hormuz 24 East Coast deployed (Avg Last 90 Days) 8 Sep 14 ~190 ships #12;Bases Places Crossroads East Coast - Suez Canal 15 East

440

Repair of Posterior Semicircular Canal Dehiscence From a High Jugular Bulb  

PubMed Central

Objective To describe the clinical evaluation and operative management of posterior semicircular canal dehiscence caused by a high jugular bulb. Methods Retrospective case report. Results The patient had clinical and audiometric findings consistent with semicircular canal dehiscence and imaging demonstrating erosion of the posterior semicircular canal by a high jugular bulb. Resurfacing of the eroded canal provided resolution of vestibular symptoms without damage to the inner ear. Conclusions Dehiscence of the posterior semicircular canal can cause clinical and audiometric findings similar to those of superior semicircular canal dehiscence syndrome. Resurfacing of the area of dehiscence can be performed to successfully relieve the vestibular symptoms. In the case of dehiscence of the posterior canal from a high jugular bulb, resurfacing may offer advantages over canal plugging for definitive management. PMID:23697325

Gubbels, Samuel P.; Zhang, Qi; Lenkowski, Paul W.; Hansen, Marlan R.

2014-01-01

441

Sediment Inventory and Phosphorus Fractions for Water Conservation Area Canals in the Everglades  

E-print Network

Sediment Inventory and Phosphorus Fractions for Water Conservation Area Canals in the Everglades O in the Water Conservation Area (WCA) canals in the Ever- glades. A study was conducted to characterize

Florida, University of

442

Root Canal Morphology of Mandibular First Permanent Molars in an Indian Population  

PubMed Central

An in vitro study was performed to determine the number of roots, root canals per tooth, root canal configurations, and frequency of isthmi and apical deltas in mandibular first permanent molars in an Indian population. Hundred and fifty mandibular first permanent molars were collected and subjected to clearing technique. The cleared teeth were examined in a stereomicroscope under 7.5x magnifications. The canal configurations were categorized using Vertucci's classification. Overall 94.6% of the mandibular first molars had two roots, and 5.3% had extradistal roots (distolingual root). In addition, 64% of the specimens had three root canals, and 36% had four root canals. The most common canal configurations of mesial and distal roots were Vertucci type IV (54%) and type I (65.3%), respectively. Clinician should be aware of the complex root canal morphology of mandibular first molars among the Indian population before and during the root canal treatment. PMID:22287965

Chourasia, Hemant Ramesh; Meshram, Ganesh K.; Warhadpande, Manjusha; Dakshindas, Darshan

2012-01-01

443

Blends of canal surfaces from polyhedral medial transform representations  

PubMed Central

We present a new method for constructing G1 blending surfaces between an arbitrary number of canal surfaces. The topological relation of the canal surfaces is specified via a convex polyhedron and the design technique is based on a generalization of the medial surface transform. The resulting blend surface consists of trimmed envelopes of one- and two-parameter families of spheres. Blending the medial surface transform instead of the surface itself is shown to be a powerful and elegant approach for blend surface generation. The performance of our approach is demonstrated by several examples. PMID:22298912

Bastl, Bohumír; Jüttler, Bert; Lávi?ka, Miroslav; Schulz, Tino

2011-01-01

444

Blends of canal surfaces from polyhedral medial transform representations.  

PubMed

We present a new method for constructing [Formula: see text] blending surfaces between an arbitrary number of canal surfaces. The topological relation of the canal surfaces is specified via a convex polyhedron and the design technique is based on a generalization of the medial surface transform. The resulting blend surface consists of trimmed envelopes of one- and two-parameter families of spheres. Blending the medial surface transform instead of the surface itself is shown to be a powerful and elegant approach for blend surface generation. The performance of our approach is demonstrated by several examples. PMID:22298912

Bastl, Bohumír; Jüttler, Bert; Lávi?ka, Miroslav; Schulz, Tino

2011-11-01

445

Merkel cell carcinoma arising in the ear canal.  

PubMed

A case of rare tumor, Merkel cell carcinoma, located in the ear canal of a 25-year-old woman is presented. A polypoid tumor mass was extirpated, and tympanoplasty was done at the first operation, whereas at the second operation, all the bones of the ear canal were removed. Epitympanum and cavum were filled with tumor, and the tumor mass was removed in toto. The histopathology and immunohistochemical staining characteristics of tumor confirmed the presence of Merkel cell tumor. Postoperatively, radiation therapy to the tumor bed was completed. There was no clinical or radiographic evidence of recurrence or metastasis of Merkel cell tumor for 3 years. PMID:18387993

Petkovi?, Marija; Krstulja, Mira; Radic, Jelena; Zamolo, Gordana; Muhvi?, Damir; Lovasic, Ingrid; Kujundzic, Milodar; Franko, Artur

2008-07-01

446

Protein Equilibration through Somatic Ring Canals in Drosophila  

PubMed Central

Although intercellular bridges resulting from incomplete cytokinesis were discovered in somatic Drosophila tissues decades ago, the impact of these structures on intercellular communication and tissue biology is largely unknown. In this work, we demonstrate that the ~250 nm diameter somatic ring canals permit diffusion of cytoplasmic contents between connected cells and across mitotic clone boundaries, and enable the equilibration of protein between transcriptionally mosaic follicle cells in the Drosophila ovary. We obtained similar, though more restricted, results in the larval imaginal discs. Our work illustrates the lack of cytoplasmic autonomy in these tissues and suggests a role for somatic ring canals in promoting homogeneous protein expression within the tissue. PMID:23704373

McLean, Peter F.; Cooley, Lynn

2013-01-01

447

Evaluation of pre-fabricated root canal posts.  

PubMed

In this in vitro study, properties of a titanium alloy post recently introduced to the market (IntegraPost), were compared with those of a clinically proven stainless steel post (ParaPost). The IntegraPost has a unique, perforated, spherical head and a microknurled shank surface. The posts were tested for rigidity, for retention within the root canals of extracted teeth and for ability to retain composite resin cores. The two post types exhibited similar properties in core and root canal retention, however, the IntegraPost was significantly less rigid than the ParaPost. PMID:11350574

Hew, Y S; Purton, D G; Love, R M

2001-03-01

448

22. 1988 aerial of Tempe Canal, Sections 9, 16 and ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

22. 1988 aerial of Tempe Canal, Sections 9, 16 and 17 (T1N R5E) (left of page is north). Tempe Crosscut enters from center left. The Trunk Ditch right of way is visible just north of Mesa Country Club as a gray line running along the edge of a vacant lot. The Salt River bed is in the upper left corner. Photographer: Unknown, 1988. Source: SRP Cartographic Drafting - Tempe Canal, South Side Salt River in Tempe, Mesa & Phoenix, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

449

Bundling ecosystem services in the Panama Canal watershed.  

PubMed

Land cover change in watersheds affects the supply of a number of ecosystem services, including water supply, the production of timber and nontimber forest products, the provision of habitat for forest species, and climate regulation through carbon sequestration. The Panama Canal watershed is currently being reforested to protect the dry-season flows needed for Canal operations. Whether reforestation of the watershed is desirable depends on its impacts on all services. We develop a spatially explicit model to evaluate the implications of reforestation both for water flows and for other services. We find that reforestation does not necessarily increase water supply, but does increase carbon sequestration and timber production. PMID:23690598

Simonit, Silvio; Perrings, Charles

2013-06-01

450

Altered response of fibroblasts from human tympanosclerotic membrane to interacting mast cells: implication for tissue remodeling.  

PubMed

Several lines of evidence suggest that a tympanosclerotic (TMS) lesion often develops secondary to acute and chronic otitis media. Histological findings indicate that fibroblasts and inflammatory cells, including mast cells, play a key role in the tympanosclerotic plaque formation. However, details on the functional characteristics of tympanosclerotic fibroblasts (Fs(TMS)) are scanty. Therefore the aim of our study was to examine the activity of human fibroblasts from tympanosclerotic lesions and to evaluate the influence of stimulated by crosslinking of IgE receptor mast cells (HMC-1(Fc?RI)) on fibroblast functional behavior. We observed that fibroblasts from normal tympanic membrane (Fs(TM)) released less TNF-?, TGF-?1 and IL-6 compared to Fs(TMS). Fs(TMS) but not Fs(TM) upon interaction with HMC-1(Fc?RI) released increased quantities of TNF-? and TGF-?1. Exposing the fibroblast to HMC-1(Fc?RI) cells resulted in an increased synthesis of proteins including collagen. We noted that the COL2A1 transcript level increased ?5- and ?12-fold in Fs(TM) and Fs(TMS) co-cultured with HMC-1(Fc?RI), respectively. Both Fs(TM) and Fs(TMS) upon maintenance in the primary culture released significant quantities of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9). However, Fs(TMS) released ?5-fold more MMP-9 activity compared to the Fs(TM) cultures. The mast cell-induced release of TNF-?, TGF-?1 and MMP-9 sustained for a longer time in Fs(TMS) cultures compared to Fs(TM). Concluding, our data strongly indicate that increased fibroblast sensitivity to mast cell stimulation greatly contributes to the excessive fibrosis and pathological remodeling of the tympanic membrane. We postulate that the persistency of the Fs(TMS) activated state could be an important factor in the pathogenesis of tympanosclerosis. PMID:25310903

Pawelczyk, Tadeusz; Sakowicz-Burkiewicz, Monika; Wesserling, Martyna; Grden, Marzena; Kuczkowski, Jerzy

2014-12-01

451

Membrane Rafts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The main focus of this three part series is to explore the concept of "Membrane Rafts". In the first part, we will examine what is popularly understood by the term "Membrane Raft" and ask why this concept was proposed in the first place. With a focus on the study of the characteristics of a popular "raft-marker", a class of cell surface lipid-tethered proteins, the GPI-anchored proteins.

Satyajit 'Jitu' Mayor (Cellular Organisation and Signalling, National Centre for Biological Sciences, Bangalore, India;)

2007-05-01

452

Ex-Vivo Evaluation of X-Ray Horizontal Angle for Separating the Canals of Four-Canal First Mandibular Molars  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION: A variety of mesial and distal projections have been suggested for separating the canals in a multi-canaled root. But there is no general agreement on the best angulation for each tooth. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the X-ray horizontal angle for separating the canals of four-canal first mandibular molars. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty four-canaled mandibular molars were selected. After preparation of coronal access cavities, files were inserted into the root canals and the specimens were radiographed at 10, 15, 20, 25 degrees mesial and distal horizontal angulations. Apices and canals were evaluated. Chi-square test was used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: Although 10° and 15° mesial and distal angulations were best for the most obvious apices manifestation (P<0.001), it was found that 20° mesial angulation is significantly better than the other cone angulations (P<0.001) for separating the root canals. CONCLUSION: 20° mesial angulation improved detection of both the canals and canal terminus visibility. PMID:24265637

Haghani, Jahangir; Raoof, Maryam; Pourahmadi, Sadegh

2008-01-01

453

Treatment of Two Canals in All Mandibular Incisor Teeth in the Same Patient  

PubMed Central

The main reason for unfavourable outcome in endodontic treatment of mandibular incisor is the inability to detect the presence of second canal. Pain even after extirpation of complete pulp tissue from root canal of vital teeth is the main indication of hidden canals. The present case report is also on pain because of another neglected canal in all mandibular incisors in the same patient. PMID:25478246

Kokane, Vandana B.; Patil, Swapnil N.; Gunwal, Mohit K.; Kubde, Rajesh; Atre, Swaraj

2014-01-01

454

Partial Absence of Pleuropericardial Membranes in Tbx18- and Wt1-Deficient Mice  

PubMed Central

The pleuropericardial membranes are fibro-serous walls that separate the pericardial and pleural cavities and anchor the heart inside the mediastinum. Partial or complete absence of pleuropericardial membranes is a rare human disease, the etiology of which is poorly understood. As an attempt to better understand these defects, we wished to analyze the cellular and molecular mechanisms directing the separation of pericardial and pleural cavities by pleuropericardial membranes in the mouse. We found by histological analyses that both in Tbx18- and Wt1-deficient mice the pleural and pericardial cavities communicate due to a partial absence of the pleuropericardial membranes in the hilus region. We trace these defects to a persisting embryonic connection between these cavities, the pericardioperitoneal canals. Furthermore, we identify mesenchymal ridges in the sinus venosus region that tether the growing pleuropericardial membranes to the hilus of the lung, and thus, close the pericardioperitoneal canals. In Tbx18-deficient embryos these mesenchymal ridges are not established, whereas in Wt1-deficient embryos the final fusion process between these tissues and the body wall does not occur. We suggest that this fusion is an active rather than a passive process, and discuss the interrelation between closure of the pericardioperitoneal canals, lateral release of the pleuropericardial membranes from the lateral body wall, and sinus horn development. PMID:22984617

Norden, Julia; Grieskamp, Thomas; Christoffels, Vincent M.; Moorman, Antoon F. M.; Kispert, Andreas

2012-01-01

455

77 FR 15749 - Twin Lakes Canal Company; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Commission [Project No. 12486-007] Twin Lakes Canal Company; Notice of Preliminary...Competing Applications On March 8, 2012, Twin Lakes Canal Company filed an application...Applicant Contact: Mr. Clair Boesen, Twin Lakes Canal Company, P.O. Box...

2012-03-16

456

33 CFR 162.125 - Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Wisc.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... false Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Wisc. 162.125 Section 162.125...162.125 Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Wisc. (a) In the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal: (1) No vessel may exceed 5...

2014-07-01

457

33 CFR 165.1328 - Regulated Navigation Area; U.S. Navy submarines, Hood Canal, WA.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Regulated Navigation Area; U.S. Navy submarines, Hood Canal, WA. 165.1328 Section...Regulated Navigation Area; U.S. Navy submarines, Hood Canal, WA. (a) Location...Washington whenever any U.S. Navy submarine is operating in the Hood Canal and is being...

2012-07-01

458

33 CFR 165.1328 - Regulated Navigation Area; U.S. Navy submarines, Hood Canal, WA.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Regulated Navigation Area; U.S. Navy submarines, Hood Canal, WA. 165.1328 Section...Regulated Navigation Area; U.S. Navy submarines, Hood Canal, WA. (a) Location...Washington whenever any U.S. Navy submarine is operating in the Hood Canal and is being...

2011-07-01

459

33 CFR 165.1328 - Regulated Navigation Area; U.S. Navy submarines, Hood Canal, WA.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Regulated Navigation Area; U.S. Navy submarines, Hood Canal, WA. 165.1328 Section...Regulated Navigation Area; U.S. Navy submarines, Hood Canal, WA. (a) Location...Washington whenever any U.S. Navy submarine is operating in the Hood Canal and is being...

2014-07-01

460

33 CFR 165.1328 - Regulated Navigation Area; U.S. Navy submarines, Hood Canal, WA.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Regulated Navigation Area; U.S. Navy submarines, Hood Canal, WA. 165.1328 Section...Regulated Navigation Area; U.S. Navy submarines, Hood Canal, WA. (a) Location...Washington whenever any U.S. Navy submarine is operating in the Hood Canal and is being...

2013-07-01

461

78 FR 26249 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Lake Washington Ship Canal, Seattle, WA  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Operation Regulation; Lake Washington Ship Canal, Seattle, WA AGENCY: Coast Guard...Montlake Bridge across the Lake Washington Ship Canal, mile 5.2, at Seattle, WA...University Bridge across the Lake Washington Ship Canal, mile 4.3, at Seattle,...

2013-05-06

462

76 FR 69131 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Lake Washington Ship Canal, Seattle, WA  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Operation Regulation; Lake Washington Ship Canal, Seattle, WA AGENCY: Coast Guard...Railway Bridge across the Lake Washington Ship Canal, mile 0.1, at Seattle, WA...Bascule Bridge across the Lake Washington Ship Canal, mile 0.1, for vessel...

2011-11-08

463

77 FR 25079 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Lake Washington Ship Canal, Seattle, WA  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Operation Regulation; Lake Washington Ship Canal, Seattle, WA AGENCY: Coast Guard...Montlake Bridge across the Lake Washington Ship Canal, mile 5.2, at Seattle, WA...Montlake Bridge crosses the Lake Washington Ship Canal at mile 5.2 and while in the...

2012-04-27

464

77 FR 57019 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Lake Washington Ship Canal, Seattle, WA  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Operation Regulation; Lake Washington Ship Canal, Seattle, WA AGENCY: Coast Guard...Railway Bridge across the Lake Washington Ship Canal, mile 0.1, at Seattle, WA...Railway Bridge across the Lake Washington Ship Canal, mile 0.1 (Ballard-Salmon...

2012-09-17

465

77 FR 25590 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Lake Washington Ship Canal, Seattle, WA  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Operation Regulation; Lake Washington Ship Canal, Seattle, WA AGENCY: Coast Guard...University Bridge across the Lake Washington Ship Canal, mile 4.3, at Seattle, WA...University Bridge crosses the Lake Washington Ship Canal at mile 4.3 and while in the...

2012-05-01

466

78 FR 55214 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Lake Washington Ship Canal, Seattle, WA  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Operation Regulation; Lake Washington Ship Canal, Seattle, WA AGENCY: Coast Guard...Railway Bridge across the Lake Washington Ship Canal, mile 0.1, at Seattle, WA...Railway Bridge across the Lake Washington Ship Canal, mile 0.1 (Ballard-Salmon...

2013-09-10

467

DISTRIBUTION OF SIPHONOPHORES IN THE REGIONS ADJACENT TO THE SUEZ AND PANAMA CANALS  

E-print Network

observed in the Red Sea. New records at both sides of the Suez Canal which could be considered indicative in the regions adjacent to the Suez Canal may be in the adjacent oceanic regions. Thirty species of siphonophores of the regions adjacent to the Suez Canal (eastern Mediterranean and the Red Sea), as well as for the regions

468

A modelling study on hydrodynamics and pollutant dispersion in the Suez Canal  

Microsoft Academic Search

A considerable amount of international trade is transported in Egypt through the Suez Canal increasing public concern about hazardous safety. Through the canal, a relatively important flow of salt water enters the Mediterranean Sea, affecting its hydrologic deficit, and carrying algae and other non-swimmer species from the Red Sea. We are studying the hydrodynamics of the Suez Canal using both

J. M. Abril; M. M. Abdel-Aal

2000-01-01

469

Distributing flow mismatches in supply-constrained irrigation canals through feedback control  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The operation of main irrigation canals is complicated in situations where the operator does not have full control over the canal inflow, or where there are very long transmission distances from the point of supply, or both. Experienced operators are able to control the canal, but often supply error...

470

Endodontic Treatment of a Mandibular Second Premolar with Three Roots and Three Canals  

PubMed Central

Complex root canal system with atypical variations is a common finding among mandibular premolars. Endodontic treatment in these teeth may not be successful due to the failure to recognise and treat multiple canals. This paper presents endodontic treatment of a mandibular second premolar with three roots and three canals. PMID:25431692

Paul, Bonny; Dube, Kavita

2014-01-01

471

Freshwater and Saline Loads of Dissolved Inorganic Nitrogen to Hood Canal and Lynch Cove, Washington  

E-print Network

, Washington Prepared in cooperation with the Hood Canal Dissolved Oxygen Program Scientific Investigations, and Theresa D. Olsen Prepared in cooperation with the Hood Canal Dissolved Oxygen Program ScientificFreshwater and Saline Loads of Dissolved Inorganic Nitrogen to Hood Canal and Lynch Cove

472

IMPACT OF CANAL DESIGN LIMITATIONS ON WATER DELIVERY OPERATIONS AND AUTOMATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Irrigation canals are often designed for water transmission. The design engineer simply ensures that the canal will pass the maximum design discharge. However, irrigation canals frequently operated far below design capacity. Because demands and the distribution of flow at bifurcations (branch points...

473

33 CFR 165.1328 - Regulated Navigation Area; U.S. Navy submarines, Hood Canal, WA.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Regulated Navigation Area; U.S. Navy submarines, Hood Canal, WA. 165.1328 Section...Regulated Navigation Area; U.S. Navy submarines, Hood Canal, WA. (a) Location...Washington whenever any U.S. Navy submarine is operating in the Hood Canal and is being...

2010-07-01

474

Dynamics of canal response to head-shaking test in benign paroxysmal positional vertigo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusions. Time constant and maximum slow phase velocity (SPV) of head-shaking nystagmus (HSN) demonstrated a differential canal response to head shaking in 24% of patients with posterior canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV). We suggest that vestibular lithiasis has a limited contribution to the mechanism that generates HSN. Objective. To determine the canal response to head shaking in BPPV. Patients

JOSE A. LOPEZ-ESCAMEZ; Cristobal Zapata; MARIA I. MOLINA; MARIA J. PALMA

2007-01-01

475

Root and Canal Morphology of Mandibular Second Molar in an Iranian Population by Clearing Method  

PubMed Central

Statement of Problem: The knowledge of the pulp anatomy plays an important role in the success of endodontic treatments. Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine the root and canal morphology of the mandibular second molar teeth in an Iranian population. Material and Methods: One hundred intact human mandibular second molars were collected. The teeth were examined visually and the number of their roots were recorded. The teeth were covered using of lacquer. Access cavities were prepared and the pulp tissue was dissolved by sodium hypochlorite. The apices were covered with the glue and the root canals were injected with the methylene blue and were decalcified with 10% nitric acid, dehydrated with ascending concentrations of alcohol and rendered clear by immersion in methyl salicylate. The following remarks were evaluated: (i) number of root canals per tooth; (ii) number of canals per root; (iii) canal configuration in each root. Results: Of 100 examined teeth; 6% had one root, 89% had two roots, 2% had three roots and 3% had C-shaped roots. The teeth were classified based on the number of canals: 3 % had single canal, 6 % two canals, 54% three canals, 34% four canals, whilst 3 % had C-shaped roots. Based on the Vertucci classification, the most prevalent canal configuration in the mesial root was type II and in the distal root was type I. Conclusion : Iranian mandibular second molar teeth exhibit features which are similar to the average Jordanian, Caucasian and Burmese root and canal morphology. PMID:24724124

Zare Jahromi, M; Jafari Golestan, F; Mashhadi Esmaeil, M; MoouaviZahed, SH; Sarami, M

2013-01-01

476

On the Parameterization of Rational Ringed Surfaces and Rational Canal Surfaces  

E-print Network

On the Parameterization of Rational Ringed Surfaces and Rational Canal Surfaces Bohum´ir Bastl for rational ringed surfaces and rational canal surfaces. It is shown that these algorithms may generate any rational parameterization of a ringed (or canal) surface with the property that one family of parameter

Jüttler, Bert

477

[Acoustic and vestibular effects of superior semicircular canal dehiscence].  

PubMed

A dehiscence of the superior semicircular canal is associated with many middle and inner ear symptoms of varying specificity. Concerning the pathophysiology, the way in which these symptoms are connected to a postulated missing bony layer of the superior semicircular canal remains to be completely clarified. In particular, it is unclear why a bony dehiscence might induce symptoms at all; as shown by recent experimental investigations, the natural in vivo coverage of the superior semicircular canal by dura, cerebrospinal fluid and brain prevents changes in inner ear impedance. Diagnosis of superior semicircular canal dehiscence is currently based on a combination of different tests. While cranial computed tomography (with its limited visual resolution) has proven to be largely unsuitable, ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials (oVEMP) are considered an important component of diagnosis. In addition to symptomatic treatment, isolated cases also present the option of highly invasive surgical intervention. Although the majority of published case reports document positive clinical outcomes for operated patients, these procedures are associated with considerable perioperative risks. PMID:23948857

Luers, J-C; Hüttenbrink, K-B

2013-09-01

478

Physicochemical properties and interfacial adaptation of root canal sealers.  

PubMed

This study compared the physicochemical properties and interfacial adaptation to canal walls of Endo-CPM-Sealer, Sealapex and Activ GP with the well-established AH Plus sealer. The following analyses were performed: radiopacity, pH variation and solubility using samples of each material and scanning electron microscopy of root-filled bovine incisors to evaluate the interfacial adaptation. Data were analyzed by the parametric and no-parametric tests (?=0.05). All materials were in accordance with the ANSI/ADA requirements for radiopacity. Endo-CPM-Sealer presented the lowest radiopacity values and AH Plus was the most radiopaque sealer (p=0.0001). Except for ActiV GP, which was acidic, all other sealers had basic chemical nature and released hydroxyl ions. Regarding solubility, all materials met the ANSI/ADA recommendations, with no statistically significant difference between the sealers (p=0.0834). AH Plus presented the best adaptation to canal walls in the middle (p=0.0023) and apical (p=0.0012) thirds, while the sealers Activ GP and Endo-CPM-Sealer had poor adaptation to the canal walls. All sealers, except for ActiV GP, were alkaline and all of them fulfilled the ANSI/ADA requirements for radiopacity and solubility. Regarding the interfacial adaptation, AH Plus was superior to the others considering the adaptation to the bovine root canal walls. PMID:25517781

Cañadas, Piedad S; Berástegui, Ester; Gaton-Hernández, Patrícia; Silva, Léa A B; Leite, Giselle A; Silva, Roberto S

2014-10-01

479

The Western Maryland Rail Trail passes high above the canal ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

The Western Maryland Rail Trail passes high above the canal and behind the surviving remains of the Round Top cement works, milepost 120, looking northwest. - Western Maryland Railway, Cumberland Extension, Pearre to North Branch, from WM milepost 125 to 160, Pearre, Washington County, MD

480

NOTE / NOTE Primary longitudinal resin canals in lodgepole pine  

E-print Network

canals (RCs) in immature (expanding) and mature stems of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud lodgepole (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud. var. latifolia Engelm.), se retrouvent selon les nombres de : nombres de Fibonacci, canaux résinifères, pin lodgepole, Pinus contorta var. latifolia, phyllotaxie

Northern British Columbia, University of

481

Canalization-based vein formation in a growing leaf.  

PubMed

Vein formation is an important process in plant leaf development. The phytohormone auxin is known as the most important molecule for the control of venation patterning; and the canalization model, in which cells experiencing higher auxin flux differentiate into specific cells for auxin transportation, is widely accepted. To date, several mathematical models based on the canalization hypothesis have been proposed that have succeeded in reproducing vein patterns similar to those observed in actual leaves. However, most previous studies focused on patterning in fixed domains, and, in a few exceptional studies, limited tissue growth - such as cell proliferation at leaf margins and small deformations without large changes in cell number - were dealt with. Considering that, in actual leaf development, venation patterning occurs in an exponentially growing tissue, whether the canalization hypothesis still applies is an important issue to be addressed. In this study, we first show through a pilot simulation that the coupling of chemical dynamics for canalization and tissue growth as independent models cannot reproduce normal venation patterning. We then examine conditions sufficient for achieving normal patterning in a growing leaf by introducing various constraints on chemical dynamics, tissue growth, and cell mechanics; in doing so, we found that auxin flux- or differentiation-dependent modification of the cell cycle and elasticity of cell edges are essential. The predictions given by our simulation study will serve as guideposts in experiments aimed at finding the key factors for achieving normal venation patterning in developing plant leaves. PMID:24632445

Lee, Sang-Woo; Feugier, Francois Gabriel; Morishita, Yoshihiro

2014-07-21

482

Scanning x-ray microanalysis of root canal sealers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven commercially available root canal sealer powders were analyzed by scanning x-ray microanalysis to identify constituent elements in each. Analysis showed that strongly cytotoxic sealers in vitro contained lead or magnesium, while those materials which exhibited mild or moderate cytotoxicity in vitro contained bismuth, zinc, calcium, or silicone.

A. R. Mohammad; O. Younis; M. Siskin

1979-01-01

483

Sea-level Variation Along the Suez Canal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The variation of sea level at 11 stations distributed along the Suez Canal was studied during the period from 1980 to 1986. The ranges of variation in daily mean sea level at Port Said and Port Tawfik are about 60 and 120cm, respectively. The minimum range of daily variation is at Kantara (47cm).The fluctuations of the monthly mean sea level

F. M. Eid; S. H. Sharaf El-Din; K. A. Alam El-Din

1997-01-01

484

Biology of penaeid prawns in the Suez Canal lakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was made from January 1988 to March 1989 of the penaid prawns in the Great Bitter Lake and Lake Timsah located in the central part of the Suez Canal. Two species of Red Sea origin were investigated,Metapenaeus stebbingi andTrachypenaeus curvirostris; the former is by far the commoner. Both species displayed seasonal breeding over the period April to October,

A. A.-F. A. Gab-Alla; R. G. Hartnoll; A.-F. Ghobashy; S. Z. Mohammed

1990-01-01

485

Association of Burners with Cervical Canal and Foraminal Stenosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine whether the burner phenomenon is associated with cervical canal and foraminal stenosis in a scholastic population. Lateral cervical radiographs were reviewed for 64 athletes, 15 to 18 years of age, who had sustained at least one burner. Controls consisted of age-matched athletes who had sustained head or neck trauma without evidence of

John D. Kelly; David Aliquo; Michael R. Sitler; Charles Odgers; Ray A. Moyer

2000-01-01

486

Sonic Tracking Striped Bass in the Chesapeake and Delaware Canal  

Microsoft Academic Search

To observe striped bass, Morone saxatilis (Walbaum), migration through the Chesapeake and Delaware Canal, we placed ultrasonic transmitters in the stomachs of five adult bass and traced their movements for as long as 4 days and nights in the spring of 1971. Three bass were prespawning and 2 postspawning. The tags were Smith-Root SR-69B; the receiving equipment consisted of an

Ted S. Y. Koo; John S. Wilson

1972-01-01

487

Field calibration of submerged sluice gates in irrigation canals  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Four rectangular sluice gates were calibrated for submerged-flow conditions using nearly 16,000 field-measured data points on Canal B of the B-XII irrigation scheme in Lebrija, Spain. Water depth and gate opening values were measured using acoustic sensors at each of the gate structures, and the dat...

488

Effect of age, gender, and parity on anal canal pressures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The contribution of the resting anal canal pressure (RAP) and the maximal squeeze pressure (MSP) to the problem of fecal incontinence was assessed by comparing 143 incontinent patients to a control population of 157 healthy subjects. These parameters were determined using a multilumen continuously perfused catheter and a mechanized rapid pull-through technique. In 10 male volunteers both RAP and MSP

Sean M. McHugh; Nicholas E. Diamant

1987-01-01

489

Velarde and the Llano Canal: A Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In arid New Mexico, decisions about water have always been a particularly strong source of tension between local communities and the bureaucracy. In one revent case, the community of Velarde had successfully blocked plans for a diversion dam and canal which would have brought new water into the Espanola valley, but would also have destroyed…

Horvath, Rosemary

1976-01-01

490

QUALITY ASSURANCE PLAN: LOVE CANAL STUDY. APPENDIX A. SAMPLING PROCEDURES  

EPA Science Inventory

The four volumes in this set comprise the working guideline documents for the Love Canal Study. The documents were developed to direct both the prime contractor and subcontractors while performing for the Environmental Protection Agency. Detailed procedures for each analysis type...

491

QUALITY ASSURANCE PLAN: LOVE CANAL STUDY. APPENDIX B. ANALYTICAL PROCEDURES  

EPA Science Inventory

The four volumes in this set comprise the working guideline documents for the Love Canal Study. The documents were developed to direct both the prime contractor and subcontractors while performing for the Environmental Protection Agency. Detailed procedures for each analysis type...

492

ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AT LOVE CANAL: VOLUME II (PART 1)  

EPA Science Inventory

During the summer and fall of 1980 the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conducted a comprehensive multimedia environmental monitoring program in the vicinity of the inactive hazardous wastes landfill known as Love Canal, located in Niagara Falls, New York. The studies c...

493

Schlemm’s Canal under the Scanning Electron Microscope  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the aid of the scanning electron microscope using 4 eyes of Rhesus monkeys, 8 post mortemeyes and 1 freshly enucleated tumourous eye, the inner and outer wall of Schlemm’s canal were examined. At the inner wall of all eyes openings of up to a size of 2 ? were found which might correspond to the ‘pores’ described by Flocks

F. Hoffmann; L. Dumitrescu

1971-01-01

494

16. Photocopied August 1978. CANAL SECTION I, LOOKING EAST, AUGUST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

16. Photocopied August 1978. CANAL SECTION I, LOOKING EAST, AUGUST 21, 1900. NOTE THE DUMP TRAIN ENGINES PUSHING THE TRAIN OF DUMP CARS AWAY FROM THE STEAM SHOVEL. (62) - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

495

CRUISE THE WATERWAYS & CANALS OF from AMSTERDAM to BRUSSELS  

E-print Network

HOLLAND & BELGIUM CRUISE THE WATERWAYS & CANALS OF from AMSTERDAM to BRUSSELS All prices quoted and Belgium than by cruising their legendary waterways. Travel into the heart of one of Europe's most colorful of Bruges and the unrivaled charm of the important port city of Antwerp. INCLUDED FEATURES Accommodations

Toronto, University of

496

Mimamata and Love Canal: A Pollution Tale of Two Cities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a lesson plan about case studies of the environmental disasters of Minamata, Japan and Love Canal, New York. Compares how the legal cases were handled in two constitutional democracies. Provides six handouts that include maps, role descriptions for simulations, and student readings. (CFR)

Williams, Mary Louise

1993-01-01

497

76 FR 26182 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Hood Canal, WA  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...during the affected hours. Approximately, one half of all openings of the Hood Canal draw are for the passage of Navy ships, submarines, and other vessels in service to the Navy. The movement of vessels for national security purposes or emergencies...

2011-05-06

498

Horizontal and anterior canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is suspected when the patient complains of brief episodes of vertigo induced by changes in the head position. The direction of the positional nystagmus during the positional maneuvers is essential to affirm the canal involved. There is a consensus for the diagnosis of a PC-BPPV and HC-BPPV (geotropic and ageotropic form) as well as for

P. Bertholon; A. Oletski; C. Martin

2007-01-01

499

Pathological localization of so-called posterior canal BPPV  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveBased on the hypothesis that the origin of nystagmus is from the posterior canal (PC), the nystagmus in the head hanging and sitting position should be mirror images. To clarify the anatomical origin of positioning nystagmus in BPPV patients, we analyzed the positioning nystagmus of benign paroxysmal positioning vertigo (BPPV) patients three-dimensionally.

Toshiaki Yagi; Yasuo Koizumi; Maki Kimura; Mio Aoyagi

2006-01-01

500

Infected Hydrocoele of the Canal of Nuck in a Neonate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrocoele of the canal of Nuck is an uncommon presentation in the neonate and complications are rare. A 6-day-old girl presented with a right groin swelling from birth. The swelling remained static until age 3 days when it increased rapidly in size. There was no fever or gastrointestinal symptoms. Physical examination showed a large nontender mass extending from the right

Emmanuel A. Ameh; Ekundayo S. Garba

2003-01-01