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1

[Correlation between ear canal resonance and tympanic membrane impedance in relation to age and body mass and postmortem changes].  

PubMed

The human temporal bone preparation is an acknowledged model for research of the physical processes affecting the outer ear canal and eardrum. Changes affecting the oscillation and resonance behavior of the tympanic membrane and ear canal between death and temporal bone preparation presently exist in only a few studies. Since the influence of age and physique, as well as the width of ear canal on the ear canal resonance may be important, we prepared two separate studies to analyze these questions. The goal of our first test series involved children and was devised to determine if changes in the outer auditory canal resonances differed according to age. In so doing, canal resonance was recorded with a real ear measurement system. Further, we recorded middle ear pressure, impedance of the tympanic membrane, ear canal volume, height, weight and surface of the body, head and ear size. We found a significant decrease in the resonance frequency of the outer ear which was age-dependent and was 2.75 kHz in the 7-year-old child. In a separate study we wanted to know if results found in the postmortem temporal bone reflected in vivo relationships. A tympanometer and real ear measurement system was used to test the resonance behavior of the auditory canal as well as the vibration of the eardrum in dependence on temperature and the time after death for 9 h. We then proved the absence of significant changes in the auditory canal and eardrum oscillation in this time period before possible postmortem changes occurred. Our findings show that the method of bone preservation after its preparation is decisive for the validity of measurements in the isolated human temporal bone. PMID:9486378

Vitzthum, H G; Weimann, S; Scheinpflug, L; Vorwerk, U; Begall, K

1997-12-01

2

Tympanic membrane perforation with squamous epithelial ingrowth.  

PubMed

The squamous epithelium of the tympanic membrane and external auditory canal exhibits an inherent migration pattern to facilitate the exfoliation of keratinizing squamous cells as part of a natural cleansing mechanism. PMID:25181673

Blake, Danielle M; Vazquez, Alejandro; Tomovic, Senja; Jyung, Robert W

2014-08-01

3

Laser vibrometry for investigation of tympanic membrane implant materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The human tympanic membrane has reasonably good sound sensing properties. A destroyed tympanic membrane due to middle ear diseases or traumata may be repaired by different types of grafts. Middle ear surgery mostly uses autologous temporal fascia, cartilage, or cartilage perichondrium transplants. We have investigated the acoustical and mechanical properties of these materials and compared them with human tympanic membrane by constructing an ear canal model completed by an artificial tympanic membrane. Circular stretched human fascia, perichondrium, and cartilage preparations were exposed to static pressures up to 4 kPa and white noise sound pressure levels of 70 dB. The vibrational amplitudes and displacements due to static pressure of the graft material were measured by laser Doppler vibrometry and compared. The thin materials temporal fascia and perichondrium show similar amplitude frequency responses compared to the tympanic membrane for dynamic excitation. The displacement of these materials at static pressures above 4 kPA yields a higher compliance than tympanic membrane. The acoustical and mechanical properties of cartilage transplants change with the thickness of the slices. However, the thinner the cartilage slice combined with lower stability, the more similar is the frequency response with the intact tympanic membrane. The vibration amplitudes decrease more and more for layer thicknesses above 500 micrometers. Cartilage acts as an excellent transplant material which provides a better prognosis than different materials in cases of ventilation disorders with long-term middle ear pressure changes. Large cartilage slice transplants should not exceed layer thicknesses of 500 micrometer in order to prevent drawbacks to the transfer characteristics of the tympanic membrane.

Zahnert, Thomas; Kuster, Manfred; Vogel, Uwe; Hofmann, Gert; Huettenbrink, Karl-Bernd

1996-12-01

4

Prognosis and Outcome of the Tympanic Membrane Flap at Traumatic Tympanic Membrane Perforation Edge  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to retrospectively evaluate the prognosis and outcome of tympanic membrane perforations with a particular focus on the fate of the perforation edge flaps.Chart records of 329 patients with a single ear traumatic tympanic membrane perforation were retrieved and analyzed. Of these patients, 70 were left to heal spontaneously, 93 received gelatin sponge patching treatment and 114 were

Zheng-Cai Lou; Yun-Xing Hu; Yong-Mei Tang

2011-01-01

5

Extensive Tympanic Membrane Cholesteatoma with Marginal Perforation: An Unusual Case  

PubMed Central

The migration of squamous epithelium of external ear through a tympanic membrane perforation into the middle ear forms a cholesteatoma. But it is extremely a rare condition to observe extensive cholesteatoma on the medial surface of tympanic membrane with perforation. This condition is termed tympanic membrane cholesteatoma (TMC). We herein present an exceptional case of extensive TMC with marginal perforation. PMID:23956906

Sakalli, Erdal; Kaya, Deniz; Celikyurt, Cengiz; Erdurak, Selcuk Cem

2013-01-01

6

An evaluation of tympanometry, otoscopy and palpation for assessment of the canine tympanic membrane  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three techniques for the assessment of the integrity of the canine tympanic membrane were evaluated experimentally. Tympanometry, an objective technique, was shown to be very accurate for the evaluation of the integrity of the ear drum. Otoscopic examination by experienced personnel was shown to be moderately accurate under controlled conditions when the external ear canal was not inflammed. However, under

CJ Little

1989-01-01

7

A comparison of four infrared tympanic thermometers with tympanic membrane temperatures measured by thermocouples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  To compare measurements made with four infrared tympanic thermometers (Genius®, Thermopit®, Quickthermo®, and Thermoscan®)\\u000a with those recorded from thermocouples positioned in the contralateral ear.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Four tympanic thermometers were evaluated in 50 healthy volunteers (12 female and 38 male). Temperatures were measured, in\\u000a random order, at the right tympanic membrane four times and the highest temperature was considered to be the

Takashi Matsukawa; Makoto Ozaki; Kazuyuki Hanagata; Hironobu Iwashita; Takaharu Miyaji MO; Teruo Kumazawa

1996-01-01

8

Clinical Presentation and Conservative Management of Tympanic Membrane Perforation during Intrapartum Valsalva Maneuver  

PubMed Central

Background. Tympanic membrane perforation may occur when ear pressures are excessive, including valsalva maneuver associated with active labor and vaginal delivery. A pressure differential across the eardrum of about 5?psi can cause rupture; the increased intraabdominal pressure spikes repeatedly manifested by “pushing” during second-stage labor easily approach (and may exceed) this level. Material and Method. We describe a healthy 21-year old nulliparous patient admitted in active labor at 39-weeks' gestational age. Results. Blood appeared asymptomatically in the left ear canal at delivery during active, closed-glottis pushing. Otoscopic examination confirmed perforation of the left tympanic membrane. Complete resolution of the eardrum rupture was noted at postpartum check-up six weeks later. Conclusion. While the precise incidence of intrapartum tympanic membrane rupture is not known, it may be unrecognized without gross blood in the ear canal or subjective hearing loss following delivery. Only one prior published report on tympanic membrane perforation during delivery currently appears in the medical literature; this is the first English language description of the event. Since a vigorous and repetitive valsalva effort is common in normal vaginal delivery, clinicians should be aware of the potential for otic complications associated with the increased intraabdominal pressure characteristic of this technique. PMID:20204134

Baum, Jonathan D.; Rattigan, Meghan I.; Sills, Eric Scott; Walsh, Anthony P. H.

2010-01-01

9

Effects of different IR laser systems on the tympanic membrane  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lasers suitable for myringotomy are the erbium:YAG laser (2940 nm) and the carbon-dioxide laser (10600 nm). The study examines the laser-tissue interaction with tympanic membranes of guinea-pigs, horses and formalin-fixed human tympanic membranes and the effects demonstrated by light-microscopy and scanning-electron-microscopy. The minimum energy densities for a perforation with the erbium:YAG laser in guinea-pig ear drums and formalin-fixed human tympanic membranes are 8 J/cm2 and 16 J/cm2 respectively. There are no thermic side effects. With the carbon-dioxide laser thermic side effects only occur with energy transmission via silver halide polycrystalline fiber. The minimum power density for perforation is 400 W/cm2 (pulse duration 50 ms). With the microslad 719 micromanipulator (Sharplan, Israel, Tel Aviv), the minimum power densities for perforation of guinea-pig and horse eardrums and for formalin-fixed human tympanic membranes are 150 W/cm2, 300 W/cm2 and 600 W/cm2 (pulse duration: 50 ms) respectively. The minimum power density to achieve a perforation with the SwiftLaseTM 757 scanner (Sharplan, Israel, Tel Aviv), is 250 W/cm2 in guinea-pig eardrums (pulse duration: 100 ms). A prototype of a hand-held carbon-dioxide laser otoscope is suitable for performing laser myringotomies in formalin-fixed human tympanic membranes.

Sedlmaier, Benedikt W.; Bloedow, Alexander; Jovanovic, Sergije; Nagli, Lev; Eberle, Hans-Georg

1997-05-01

10

Correlating the site of tympanic membrane perforation with Hearing loss  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: It is recognized that the size of tympanic membrane(TM) perforation is proportional to the magnitude of hearing loss, however, there is no clear consensus on the effect of the location (site) of the perforation on the hearing loss. Hence the study is set to investigate the relationship between the location of perforation on TM and hearing loss. METHODS: A

Titus S Ibekwe; Onyekwere G Nwaorgu; Taiwo G Ijaduola

2009-01-01

11

Endoscopic optical coherence tomography for imaging the tympanic membrane  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an imaging modality that enables micrometer-scale contactless subsurface imaging of biological tissue. Endoscopy, as another imaging method, has the potential of imaging tubular organs and cavities and therefore has opened up several application areas not accessible before. The combination of OCT and endoscopy uses the advantages of both methods and consequently allows additional imaging of structures beneath surfaces inside cavities. Currently, visual investigations on the surface of the human tympanic membrane are possible but only with expert eyes. up to now, visual imaging of the outer ear up to the tympanic membrane can be carried out by an otoscope, an operating microscope or an endoscope. In contrast to these devices, endoscopy has the advantage of imaging the whole tympanic membrane with one view. The intention of this research is the development of an endoscopic optical coherence tomography (EOCT) device for imaging the tympanic membrane depth-resolved and structures behind it. Detection of fluids in the middle ear, which function as an indicator for otitis media, could help to avoid the application of antibiotics. It is possible to detect a congeries of fluids with the otoscope but the ambition is to the early detection by OCT. The developed scanner head allows imaging in working distances in the range from zero up to 5 mm with a field of view of 2 mm. In the next step, the scanner head should be improved to increase the working distance and the field of view.

Burkhardt, Anke; Walther, Julia; Cimalla, Peter; Bornitz, Matthias; Koch, Edmund

2011-06-01

12

Determinants of Hearing Loss in Perforations of the Tympanic Membrane  

PubMed Central

Background Although tympanic membrane perforations are common, there have been few systematic studies of the structural features determining the magnitude of the resulting conductive hearing loss. Our recent experimental and modeling studies predicted that the conductive hearing loss will increase with increasing perforation size, be independent of perforation location (contrary to popular otologic belief), and increase with decreasing size of the middle-ear and mastoid air space (an idea new to otology). Objective To test our predictions regarding determinants of conductive hearing loss in tympanic membrane perforations against clinical data gathered from patients. Study Design Prospective clinical study. Setting Tertiary referral center. Inclusion Criteria Patients with tympanic membrane perforations without other middle-ear disease. Main Outcome Measures Size and location of perforation; air-bone gap at 250, 500, 1,000, 2,000, and 4,000 Hz; and tympanometric estimate of volume of the middle-ear air spaces. Results Isolated tympanic membrane perforations in 62 ears from 56 patients met inclusion criteria. Air-bone gaps were largest at the lower frequencies and decreased as frequency increased. Air-bone gaps increased with perforation size at each frequency. Ears with small middle-ear volumes, ?4.3 ml (n = 23), had significantly larger air-bone gaps than ears with large middle-ear volumes, >4.3 ml (n = 39), except at 2,000 Hz. The mean air-bone gaps in ears with small volumes were 10 to 20 dB larger than in ears with large volumes. Perforations in anterior versus posterior quadrants showed no significant differences in air-bone gaps at any frequency, although anterior perforations had, on average, air-bone gaps that were smaller by 1 to 8 dB at lower frequencies. Conclusion The conductive hearing loss resulting from a tympanic membrane perforation is frequency-dependent, with the largest losses occurring at the lowest sound frequencies; increases as size of the perforation increases; varies inversely with volume of the middle-ear and mastoid air space (losses are larger in ears with small volumes); and does not vary appreciably with location of the perforation. Effects of location, if any, are small. PMID:16436981

Mehta, Ritvik P.; Rosowski, John J.; Voss, Susan E.; O'Neil, Ellen; Merchant, Saumil N.

2010-01-01

13

[A lidocaine base for surface anesthesia of the tympanic membrane].  

PubMed

An anatomical study was conducted to determine the effects of 10% lidocain base (dissolved in DMSO) on the structure of the tympanic membrane. Survival times ranged from 1 day to 3 months. Membranes were embedded in plastic and cut in semithin sections. Within 1 and 3 days mild swelling of the epithelium was seen; 1 month after treatment the connective tissue layers of the lamina propria were severely hyperplastic. 2 months after lidocain-Base application additional collagen fibres, loosely packed and less regularly, appeared in the submucosal connective tissue layer. However, normal appearance of the drums was noticeable after 3 months survival. PMID:3210864

Strutz, J; Zöllner, C

1988-07-01

14

Laser Doppler Vibrometry measurements of human cadaveric tympanic membrane vibration  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the feasibility of measuring tympanic membrane (TM) vibrations at multiple locations on the TM to differentiate normal eardrums from those with associated ossicular pathologies. Design Cadaveric human temporal bone study. Setting Basic science laboratory. Methods A mastoidectomy and facial recess approach was performed on four cadaveric temporal bones to obtain access to the ossicles without disrupting the TM. Ossicles were palpated to ensure normal mobility and an intact ossicular chain. Laser Doppler Vibrometry (LDV) measurements were then taken on all four TMs. LDV measurements were repeated on each TM following stapes footplate fixation, incudo-stapedial joint dislocation, and malleus head fixation. Main outcome measures LDV measurements of TM vibration at the umbo, the lateral process of the malleus, and in each of the four quadrants of the TM. Results The best signal-to-noise ratios were found between 2 and 4 kHz, at the umbo, the anterior superior quadrant, the anterior inferior quadrant, and the posterior inferior quadrant. Since our goal was to assess the ossicular chain, we selected the TM locations closest to the ossicular chain (the umbo and lateral process of the malleus) for further analysis. Differences could be seen between normals and the simulated ossicular pathologies, but values were not statistically significant. Conclusions LDV measurements are technically challenging and require optimization to obtain consistent measurements. This study demonstrates the potential of LDV to differentiate ossicular pathologies behind an intact tympanic membrane. Future studies will further characterize the clinical role of this diagnostic modality. PMID:23663748

2013-01-01

15

Lateralized Difference in Tympanic Membrane Temperature: Emotion and Hemispheric Activity  

PubMed Central

We review literature examining relationships between tympanic membrane temperature (TMT), affective/motivational orientation, and hemispheric activity. Lateralized differences in TMT might enable real-time monitoring of hemispheric activity in real-world conditions, and could serve as a corroborating marker of mental illnesses associated with specific affective dysregulation. We support the proposal that TMT holds potential for broadly indexing lateralized brain physiology during tasks demanding the processing and representation of emotional and/or motivational states, and for predicting trait-related affective/motivational orientations. The precise nature of the relationship between TMT and brain physiology, however, remains elusive. Indeed the limited extant research has sampled different participant populations and employed largely different procedures and measures, making for seemingly discrepant findings and implications. We propose, however, that many of these discrepancies can be resolved by considering how emotional states map onto motivational systems, and further examining how validated methods for inducing lateralized brain activity might affect TMT. PMID:23459831

Propper, Ruth E.; Brunye, Tad T.

2013-01-01

16

Correlating the site of tympanic membrane perforation with Hearing loss  

PubMed Central

Background It is recognized that the size of tympanic membrane(TM) perforation is proportional to the magnitude of hearing loss, however, there is no clear consensus on the effect of the location (site) of the perforation on the hearing loss. Hence the study is set to investigate the relationship between the location of perforation on TM and hearing loss. Methods A cross-sectional prospective study of consecutive adult patients with perforated TM conducted in the ENT clinic of University College Hospital Ibadan between January 1st 2005 and July 31st 2006. Instruments used for data collection/processing include questionnaires, video and micro-otoscopy, Pure tone audiometer, image J and SPSS packages. Results Sixty-two patients (22-males, 40-females), aged 16–75 years (mean = 35.4 +/- 4) with 77 perforated ear drums were studied and 15(24.2%) had bilateral TM perforations, 21 (33.9%) right unilateral and 26(41.9%) left unilateral. The locations of the TM perforations were 60(77.9%) central, 6(9.6%) antero-inferior, 4(5.2%) postero-inferior, 4(5.2%) antero-superior and 3(3.9%) postero-superior respectively with sizes ranging from 1.51%–89.05%, and corresponding hearing levels 30 dB – 80 dB (59% conductive and 41% mixed). Fifty-nine percent had pure conductive hearing loss and the rest mixed. Hearing losses (dBHL) increased with the size of perforations (P = 0.01, r = 0.05). Correlation of location of perforations with magnitude of hearing loss in acute TM perorations was (P = 0.244, r = 0.273) and for chronic perforations (p = 0.047 & r = 0.31). Conclusion The location of perforation on the tympanic membrane (TM) has no effect on the magnitude of hearing loss in acute TM perforations while it is significant in chronic ones. PMID:19121227

Ibekwe, Titus S; Nwaorgu, Onyekwere G; Ijaduola, Taiwo G

2009-01-01

17

Tympanic membrane retraction pocket staging: is it worthwhile?  

PubMed

Our objectives were to review all reported staging systems of tympanic membrane (TM) retraction pockets (RP) and to report their reliability and utility to our daily clinical practice in terms of follow-up and decision making in the management of RP. We aim to propose a new management algorithm of TMRPs. We conducted a thorough research on Ovid Medline, Pubmed and Cochrane databases for English and French languages studies published between 1963 and 2012 on the retraction pocket. Studies were excluded if it were a short comments, photo clinical cases, experimental studies or round table articles. Cholesteatoma was not included in keywords, since it is considered as an advanced pathological entity with different staging and management approaches. We included 60 of 756 articles that met our inclusion criteria. Sadé and Berco proposed the first staging system of RP in 1976, while the last one was described by Borgstein et al. in 2007. From 1976 to 2007, 12 different staging systems have been described for tympanic membrane retractions. There are three broad categories of TMRPs: localized retractions of the pars tensa, generalized retractions of the pars tensa (atelectasis) and retraction of the pars flaccida. Most of the described staging systems are useful for following up the evolution of retractions over time. However, no consensus was found concerning the decision making in its management. In conclusion, proper management of TMRPs requires a reproducible, easily applicable staging system with low inter- and intra-observer variability. We propose a management algorithm that considers the functional handicap of the patient rather than the topographic description of the TM. PMID:23892691

Alzahrani, Musaed; Saliba, Issam

2014-06-01

18

The effect of smooth muscle antagonists on the sound-induced motion of the tympanic membrane  

E-print Network

The pars tensa of the tympanic membrane is composed of three layers: an epidermal layer, a fibrous layer, and a mucosal layer. Recent studies (Kuijpers et al, 1999; Henson and Henson, 2000; Henson et al, 2005) suggest that ...

Graves, Amanda J. (Amanda Jean)

2005-01-01

19

Optoelectronic holographic otoscope for measurement of nano-displacements in tympanic membranes  

E-print Network

Current methodologies for characterizing tympanic membrane (TM) motion are usually limited to either average acoustic estimates (admittance or reflectance) or single-point mobility measurements, neither of which suffices ...

Rosowski, John J.

20

Effects of topical anesthetics on tympanic membrane structure.  

PubMed

Topical application of a local anesthetic agent can induce adequate insensibility to pain, and therefore can avoid the use of general anesthesia or invasive infiltration techniques for myringotomy or the insertion of a tympanostomy tube. A comparative study was conducted on a guinea pig animal model to determine the effects of three agents on the structure of the tympanic membrane: 5% tetracaine base dissolved in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), pure DMSO, and Bonain's solution. Survival times ranged from 1 day to 3 months. Following removal from the animals, membranes were embedded in Spurr and cut in semithin sections. Signs of mild or severe external otitis were frequent; to avoid non-specific results, infected specimens were not evaluated. Bonain's solution caused loss of the epidermis and mucosal epithelium within 1 day of treatment. The connective tissue layers of the drum were severely hyperplastic after a survival time of 1 month. Tetracaine base in DMSO caused a loss of epithelium and mucosal cells in 3 days. Regeneration started within 7 days and a restitution to integrity was seen after 3 months in drums treated with tetracaine base or DMSO alone. PMID:3348754

Strutz, J; Blessing, R; Zöllner, C

1988-01-01

21

Repair of the Tympanic Membrane with Urinary Bladder Matrix  

PubMed Central

Objectives/Hypothesis To test urinary bladder matrix (UBM) as a potential treatment for tympanic membrane (TM) healing and regeneration. Study Design This prospective pilot study was designed to provide both qualitative and semiquantitative assessment of temporal and spatial healing events in the chinchilla model of chronic TM perforations with and without UBM patching. Methods Bilateral myringotomies were performed and repeated as necessary to create subtotal perforations over an 8-week period. Myringoplasty was then performed, with left TMs serving as controls and right TMs receiving UBM patches. TMs were excised at 4 weeks, 8 weeks, and 12 weeks. Fixed tissue samples were characterized for gross morphology, then processed for microscopic evaluation. Results Chronic perforations were maintained with one or more repeated myringotomies. Although both control and patched TMs were thicker than native tissue, patched TMs were transparent and uniform in thickness without any inclusions. UBM patches were readily degraded and replaced by newly deposited and organized host tissue that recapitulated the native TM layers. Conclusions UBM scaffolds were an effective biological scaffold for TM closure and tissue remodeling, leading to thicker than normal anatomy but otherwise normal morphology. Future studies are required to determine functional and temporal outcomes as well as alternative patch orientations. The results show particular promise as a superior alternative means of reconstructing not only chronic TM perforations but also dimeric TMs associated with retraction pockets and atelectasis. PMID:19358244

Parekh, Aron; Mantle, Belinda; Banks, Juliane; Swarts, J. Douglas; Badylak, Stephen F.; Dohar, Joseph E.; Hebda, Patricia A.

2010-01-01

22

Preliminary Analyses of Tympanic-Membrane Motion from Holographic Measurements  

PubMed Central

Computer-aided, personal computer (PC) based, optoelectronic holography (OEH) was used to obtain preliminary measurements of the sound-induced displacement of the tympanic membrane (TM) of cadaver cats and chinchillas. Real-time time-averaged holograms, processed at video rates, were used to characterise the frequency dependence of TM displacements as tone frequency was swept from 400 Hz to 20 kHz. Stroboscopic holography was used at selected frequencies to measure, in full-field-of-view, displacements of the TM surface with nanometer resolution. These measurements enable the determination and the characterisation of inward and outward displacements of the TM. The time-averaged holographic data suggest standing wave patterns on the cat’s TM surface, which move from simple uni-modal or bi-modal patterns at low frequencies, through complicated multimodal patterns above 3 kHz, to highly ordered arrangements of displacement waves with tone frequencies above 15 kHz. The frequency boundaries of the different wave patterns are lower in chinchilla (simple patterns below 600 Hz, ordered patterns above 4 kHz) than cat. The stroboscopic holography measurements indicate wave-like motion patterns on the TM surface, where the number of wavelengths captured along sections of the TM increased with stimulus frequency with as many as 11 wavelengths visible on the chinchilla TM at 16 kHz. Counts of the visible number of wavelengths on TM sections with different sound stimulus frequency provided estimates of wave velocity along the TM surface that ranged from 5 m s?1 at frequencies below 8 kHz and increased to 25 m s?1 by 20 kHz. PMID:20209120

Furlong, C.; Rosowski, J. J.; Hulli, N.; Ravicz, M. E.

2009-01-01

23

Smooth muscle in the annulus fibrosus of the tympanic membrane in bats, rodents, insectivores, and humans.  

PubMed

The annulus fibrosus and its attachment to the bony tympanic ring were studied in a series of mammals. In the pallid bat, Antrozous pallidus, there is an extensive plexus of large interconnected blood sinuses in the part of the annulus that borders the tympanic bone. The spaces between the sinuses are packed with smooth muscle cells. Most of the cells have a predominately radial orientation; they extend from the bony tympanic sulcus to a dense collagenous matrix (apical zone) where radially oriented fibers of the pars tensa are confluent with the annulus. The muscles and vessels constitute a myovascular zone. A structurally similar myovascular zone is also present in the European hedgehog. In rodents, the annulus lacks the large interconnected blood sinuses but many small vessels are present. Smooth muscle is concentrated in the broad area of attachment of the annulus to the tympanic bone. In the gerbil, smooth muscle seems to be concentrated in the central part of the width of the annulus where it is attached to bone and radiates toward the tympanic membrane. In humans collections of radially oriented smooth muscle cells were found in several locations. The smooth muscle in all species studied appears to form a rim of contractile elements for the pars tensa. This arrangement suggests a role in controlling blood flow and/or creating and maintaining tension on the tympanic membrane. PMID:15668036

Henson, M M; Madden, V J; Rask-Andersen, H; Henson, O W

2005-02-01

24

Virtual biopsy of rat tympanic membrane using higher harmonic generation microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multiharmonic optical microscopy has been widely applied in biomedical research due to its unique capability to perform noninvasive studies of biomaterials. In this study, virtual biopsy based on back-propagating multiple optical harmonics, combining second and third harmonics, is applied in unfixed rat tympanic membrane. We show that third harmonic generation can provide morphologic information on the epithelial layers of rat tympanic membrane as well as radial collagen fibers in middle fibrous layers, and that second harmonic generation can provide information on both radial and circular collagen fibers in middle fibrous layers. Through third harmonic generation, the capillary and red blood cells in the middle fibrous layer are also noted. Additionally, the 3-D relationship to adjacent bony structures and spatial variations in thickness and curvature are obtained. Our study demonstrates the feasibility of using a noninvasive optical imaging system for comprehensive evaluation of the tympanic membrane.

Lee, Wen-Jeng; Lee, Chia-Fone; Chen, Szu-Yu; Chen, Yuh-Shyang; Sun, Chi-Kuang

2010-07-01

25

Experimental and modeling study of human tympanic membrane motion in the presence of middle ear liquid.  

PubMed

Vibration of the tympanic membrane (TM) has been measured at the umbo using laser Doppler vibrometry and analyzed with finite element (FE) models of the human ear. Recently, full-field TM surface motion has been reported using scanning laser Doppler vibrometry, holographic interferometry, and optical coherence tomography. Technologies for imaging human TM motion have the potential to lead to using a dedicated clinical diagnosis tool for identification of middle ear diseases. However, the effect of middle ear fluid (liquid) on TM surface motion is still not clear. In this study, a scanning laser Doppler vibrometer was used to measure the full-field surface motion of the TM from four human temporal bones. TM displacements were measured under normal and disease-mimicking conditions with different middle ear liquid levels over frequencies ranging from 0.2 to 8 kHz. An FE model of the human ear, including the ear canal, middle ear, and spiral cochlea was used to simulate the motion of the TM in normal and disease-mimicking conditions. The results from both experiments and FE model show that a simple deflection shape with one or two major displacement peak regions of the TM in normal ear was observed at low frequencies (1 kHz and below) while complicated ring-like pattern of the deflection shapes appeared at higher frequencies (4 kHz and above). The liquid in middle ear mainly affected TM deflection shapes at the frequencies higher than 1 kHz. PMID:25106467

Zhang, Xiangming; Guan, Xiying; Nakmali, Don; Palan, Vikrant; Pineda, Mario; Gan, Rong Z

2014-12-01

26

Finite element modeling of sound transmission with perforations of tympanic membrane  

PubMed Central

A three-dimensional finite element (FE) model of human ear with structures of the external ear canal, middle ear, and cochlea has been developed recently. In this paper, the FE model was used to predict the effect of tympanic membrane (TM) perforations on sound transmission through the middle ear. Two perforations were made in the posterior-inferior quadrant and inferior site of the TM in the model with areas of 1.33 and 0.82 mm2, respectively. These perforations were also created in human temporal bones with the same size and location. The vibrations of the TM (umbo) and stapes footplate were calculated from the model and measured from the temporal bones using laser Doppler vibrometers. The sound pressure in the middle ear cavity was derived from the model and measured from the bones. The results demonstrate that the TM perforations can be simulated in the FE model with geometrical visualization. The FE model provides reasonable predictions on effects of perforation size and location on middle ear transfer function. The middle ear structure-function relationship can be revealed with multi-field coupled FE analysis. PMID:19603881

Gan, Rong Z.; Cheng, Tao; Dai, Chenkai; Yang, Fan; Wood, Mark W.

2009-01-01

27

[Transmeatal controlled barohydrodynamic diagnosis of otitis media with perforation of the tympanic membrane].  

PubMed

The article presents a novel method of topical diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic otitis media purulenta with perforation in the tympanic membrane; describes indications and contraindications for the method application, its technique with use of two devices: otobarohydroscope and transmeatal catheter. The treatment was performed in a group of patients with acute otitis media purulenta at the stage of tympanic membrane perforation complicated with exudative serous mastoiditis. Transmeatal controlled barohydrodynamic therapy proved its high efficacy in topical diagnosis and therapy of patients with the above condition. PMID:18163091

Ageenko, I V

2007-01-01

28

CO2 Gas Exchange Across the Human Tympanic Membrane is not Appreciably Affected by Pathology  

PubMed Central

Background Past in vivo studies in humans showed that the tympanic membrane (TM) is permeable to physiological gases. Animal studies show that transTM CO2 conductance is increased by TM pathology. Objective Determine if transTM CO2 exchange in humans is affected by atrophic and sclerotic pathologies. Methods An ear canal (EC) probe (ECP) constructed from a custom-fitted acrylic body, a glass capillary tube enclosing an oil meniscus to maintain ambient ECP+EC pressure and a silica glass microtube linked to a mass spectrometer (MS) for measuring gas composition was hermetically sealed within the ear canal of the test ear. ECP+EC volume was measured and gas samples taken at 10 minute intervals for 1 hour. The fractional CO2 pressure measured in the ECP+EC for each sample was regressed on time and the slope of the function multiplied by the ECP+EC volume and divided by the estimated transTM CO2 gradient at the start of the experiment to yield transTM CO2 conductance (uL/min/Pa). Data were complete for 15 normal, 13 sclerotic and 9 atrophic TMs. Results The average (±std) transTM CO2 conductances were 1.76×10?4 ± 7.27×10?5, 2.26×10?4 ± 1.5×10?4 and 2.36×10?4 ± 1.14×10?4 uL/min/Pa/TM for the normal, sclerotic and atrophic TMs, respectively. A pairwise comparison of data for the normal and atrophic TMs under the directional hypothesis of a greater CO2 exchange rate for thinner TMs approached statistical significance (P=.07). A similar pairwise comparison for the sclerotic and normal TMs did not approach statistical significance (P=.28) Conclusion The effect of TM pathologies on CO2 conductance is limited. PMID:20809264

Yuksel, Sancak; Swarts, J. Douglas; Banks, Julianne; Doyle, William J.

2011-01-01

29

In Vivo Measurement of O2 and CO2 Gas Exchange Across the Human Tympanic Membrane  

PubMed Central

Background Gas exchange between the middle ear and adjacent compartments determines the trajectory of middle ear pressure change. Little information is available regarding the permeability of the tympanic membrane (TM) to physiological gases. Objective Determine in vivo if the human TM is permeable to O2 and CO2 at physiologic transTM pressure gradients. Methods An ear canal (EC) probe (ECP) constructed from a custom-fitted acrylic body, a glass capillary tube enclosing an oil meniscus to maintain ambient ECP+EC pressure and a silica glass microtube linked to a mass spectrometer (MS) for measuring gas composition was hermetically sealed within one ear canal of 15 adults. ECP+EC volume was measured and gas samples taken at 10 minute intervals for 1 hour. 1:100,000 epinephrine was applied topically to the ipsilateral TM to decrease blood flow and the experiment repeated. The MS recorded ECP+EC pressures of O2 (32 AMU) and CO2 (44 AMU) were regressed on time and the slope divided by the predicted transTM partial-pressure gradients to yield estimates of transTM O2 and CO2 conductance. Results Consistent with expectation for transTM gas exchange, ECP+EC O2 decreased and CO2 increased during the experiments. TransTM CO2 exchange was faster after application of the epinephrine suggesting an effect of perfusion on that estimate. The ratio of O2/CO2 conductances was approximately 5 which is not consistent with the TM acting primarily as a water or lipid barrier to diffusion. Conclusion The human TM is permeable to CO2 and O2 at physiologic pressure gradients. PMID:18728916

Yuksel, Sansak; Swarts, J. Douglas; Banks, Julianne; Seroky, James T.; Doyle, William J.

2009-01-01

30

Tympanic Membrane Temperature and Emotional Dispositions in Preschool-Aged Children: A Methodological Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tympanic membrane (TM) temperature asymmetry has been proposed as a phenotypic marker of vulnerability to negative emotionality in children. Little is known about the stability of TM temperatures or how readily one can obtain a reliable index of the phenotype. TM temperatures were collected from 3- to 5-year-old children (N=73) over 5 months…

Gunnar, Megan R.; Donzella, Bonny

2004-01-01

31

Temperament, Tympanum, and Temperature: Four Provisional Studies of the Biobehavioral Correlates of Tympanic Membrane Temperature Asymmetries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined associations between tympanic membrane (TM) temperature asymmetries and biobehavioral attributes of 4- to 8- year-old children. Found shared patterns of associations that linked TM temperature lateralities to individual differences in behavior and socioaffective difficulties. Found that warmer left TMs were associated with affectively…

Boyce, W. Thomas; Essex, Marilyn J.; Alkon, Abbey; Smider, Nancy A.; Pickrell, Tyler; Kagan, Jerome

2002-01-01

32

Tympanic Membrane Boundary Deformations Derived from Static Displacements Observed with Computerized Tomography in Human and Gerbil  

PubMed Central

The middle ear is too complex a system for its function to be fully understood with simple descriptive models. Realistic mathematical models must be used in which structural elements are represented by geometrically correct three-dimensional (3D) models with correct physical parameters and boundary conditions. In the past, the choice of boundary conditions could not be based on experimental evidence as no clear-cut data were available. We have, therefore, studied the deformation of the tympanic membrane (TM) at its boundaries using X-ray microscopic computed tomography in human and gerbil while static pressure was applied to the ear canal. The 3D models of the TM and its bony attachments were carefully made and used to measure the deformation of the TM with focus on the periphery and the manubrium attachment. For the pars flaccida of the gerbil, the boundary condition can, for the most part, be described as simply supported. For the human pars flaccida, the situation is more complicated: superiorly, the membrane contacts the underlying bone more and more when pushed further inward, and it gradually detaches from the wall when sucked outward. In gerbil, the attachment of the TM to the manubrium can be described as simply supported. In human, the manubrium is attached underneath the TM via the plica mallearis and the contact of the TM with the bone is indirect. For both human and gerbil, a simple boundary condition for the peripheral edge of the pars tensa is not appropriate due to the intricate structure at the edge: the TM thickens rapidly before continuing into the annulus fibrosis which finally makes contact with the bone. PMID:19834763

Gea, Stefan L. R.; Funnell, Robert W. J.; Dirckx, Joris J. J.; Maier, Hannes

2009-01-01

33

Experimental study of vibrations of gerbil tympanic membrane with closed middle ear cavity.  

PubMed

The purpose of the present work is to investigate the spatial vibration pattern of the gerbil tympanic membrane (TM) as a function of frequency. In vivo vibration measurements were done at several locations on the pars flaccida and pars tensa, and along the manubrium, on surgically exposed gerbil TMs with closed middle ear cavities. A laser Doppler vibrometer was used to measure motions in response to audio frequency sine sweeps in the ear canal. Data are presented for two different pars flaccida conditions: naturally flat and retracted into the middle ear cavity. Resonance of the flat pars flaccida causes a minimum and a shallow maximum in the displacement magnitude of the manubrium and pars tensa at low frequencies. Compared with a flat pars flaccida, a retracted pars flaccida has much lower displacement magnitudes at low frequencies and does not affect the responses of the other points. All manubrial and pars tensa points show a broad resonance in the range of 1.6 to 2 kHz. Above this resonance, the displacement magnitudes of manubrial points, including the umbo, roll off with substantial irregularities. The manubrial points show an increasing displacement magnitude from the lateral process toward the umbo. Above 5 kHz, phase differences between points along the manubrium start to become more evident, which may indicate flexing of the tip of the manubrium or a change in the vibration mode of the malleus. At low frequencies, points on the posterior side of the pars tensa tend to show larger displacements than those on the anterior side. The simple low-frequency vibration pattern of the pars tensa becomes more complex at higher frequencies, with the breakup occurring at between 1.8 and 2.8 kHz. These observations will be important for the development and validation of middle ear finite-element models for the gerbil. PMID:23624883

Maftoon, Nima; Funnell, W Robert J; Daniel, Sam J; Decraemer, Willem F

2013-08-01

34

[Eustachian tube function and middle ear pressure with adhesive tympanic membrane (author's transl)].  

PubMed

The function of the Eustachian tube and the corresponding middle ear pressure are significant factors in the etiology of adhesive ear drums as well as in the prognosis of a possible tympanoplasty. In 58 patients with adhesive tympanic membrane tubal function and middle ear pressure were determined by means of the air pressure equalization technique respectively by direct punction. Normal or only slightly impaired tubal function as well as the middle ear pressure was found in one third of the cases, whereas in the majority of the patients an impaired tubal function and underpressure in the middle ear was registrated. As a precondition for a successful tympanoplasty the ventilation of the middle ear must be improved in these cases. At present this is achieved by a polyethylene tube inserted in the tympanic membrane during the operation. PMID:139516

Koch, U; Opitz, H J; Pau, H W

1977-02-01

35

Repair of the wounded guinea pig tympanic membrane: organization of filamentous actin and spatial cellular reorganization.  

PubMed

Since the role of the epithelial cell in the repair of the wounded tympanic membrane is not well understood, the epithelial cell layers were examined using rhodamine phalloidin to localize F-actin in situ following a full-thickness traumatic perforation. The change in shape of the epithelial cells and the morphological changes in F-actin were characterized. The mucosal cells were remarkably resistant to wounding and their morphology and F-actin distribution remained unchanged. Within 24 hours following perforation, basal cells were prominently stained adjacent to the perforation, whereas the remainder of the drum showed fainter staining similar to non-wounded drums. The basal cells showed a minor shape change in the direction of movement of the surface keratin. By three days, the dense peripheral F-actin staining of basal cells was prominent throughout the entire drum. The suprabasal cells demonstrated a marked shape change by 24 hours following the injury. The normal cobblestone pattern disappeared and cells elongated and were aligned towards the perforation. This occurred first adjacent to the perforation, and by three days re-orientation was present over the entire tympanic membrane. A few fine stress fibers appeared in the suprabasal cells. Histological and electron microscopic evaluation of the areas away from the perforation did not, however, show inflammation or disruption. By one week these changes were resolving and by two weeks the drum, with the exception of the cells in the area of the healed perforation, had returned to normal. The results are discussed with respect to the role of the various cell types in the migratory aspect of tympanic membrane wound repair. PMID:3230607

Weinberger, J M; Hawke, M; Gotlieb, A I

1988-12-01

36

Treatment of tympanic membrane perforations with hyaluronan in an open pilot study of unselected patients.  

PubMed

Twenty-five unselected tympanic membrane (TM) perforations of varying size and duration, from one day to 10 years, were treated by local application of the glycosaminoglycan, hyaluronan, 1%. The treatment was well tolerated without any side-effects. Seventeen of the perforations were closed, though two drums were re-perforated. Four perforations not completely covered were markedly reduced in size. No effect of hyaluronan could be observed on moist perforations. The scar formed after treatment with hyaluronan 'normal' appearance. Hyaluronan treatment seems to be an alternative to myringoplasty when treating small and medium-sized dry perforations. PMID:3324631

Stenfors, L E

1987-01-01

37

Otomycosis with Perforated Tympanic Membrane: Self medication with Topical Antifungal Solution versus Medicated Ear Wick  

PubMed Central

Objectives In otomycosis with tympanic membrane perforation, many physicians prefer to insert an ear wick medicated with antimycotic cream. This needs multiple visits to the clinic and keeps the ear blocked for several days. Direct instillation of alcohol based antimycotic solution causes severe burning if it reaches the middle ear. In this work we compare patient’s self medication with clotrimazole antimycotic solution used on Q-tips with physician–inserted ear wicks; in terms of safety, efficacy and patient satisfaction. Study Design & Setting Prospective controlled study in ambulatory setting. Methodology Forty consecutive patients with otomycosis with tympanic membrane perforation were included in the study. Diagnosis of otomycosis was both clinical and with mycological culture. Mean pure tone average (PTA) in the involved ear was measured after cleaning fungal debris. Patients were then, randomized into two groups; Q-tip group patients (n=20) were taught to self-medicate their ears two times daily with the clotrimazole solution on suitable Q-tips for three weeks. In ear wick group (n=20), a gauze wick impregnated with clotrimazole cream was inserted in the ear. Wick was changed every third day for two more visits (one week overall). Patients were followed up for 3 months. Results After three weeks all patients in Q-tip group and ear wick group had relief of their ear itching and complete disappearance of fungal growth in the deep meatus and on the tympanic membrane. PTA was 22 ± 11dB in Q-tip group and 25 ± 12 dB in ear wick group; the difference was not statistically significant (p= 0.11). Patients in ear wick group had sense of ear blocking and wetness during period of treatment. Transient burning sensation was reported by 2 patients in Q-tip group. During three months, there was recurrence of otomycosis in 5 patients from ear wick group and no recurrence in Q-tip group (p=0.04). Conclusion Self medication with clotrimazole solution on Q-tips and physician inserted medicated wicks are equally safe in treating otomycosis with perforated tympanic membrane. However, self medication with antimycotic solution on Q-tips gives more patient satisfaction and less rate of otomycosis recurrence. PMID:23267306

Abou-halawa, A. S.; Khan, M. A.; AlRobaee, A. A.; Alzolibani, A. A.; AlShobaili, H. A.

2012-01-01

38

Vibration characteristics and function of atelectatic segments in the tympanic membrane in fresh human cadaveric temporal bones.  

PubMed

Dimeric segments are commonly encountered in otological practice. They may be associated with a mild conductive hearing loss and often coexist with other tympanic membrane and middle ear abnormalities. Some otologists have advocated surgical management but the consequences of dimeric segment stiffening, shielding or excision and grafting on acoustic transfer to the stapes footplate has been poorly explored. In this study, laser Doppler vibrometry was used to measure vibrations at the tympanic membrane and the stapes footplate in the fresh cadaveric human temporal bone. The dimeric segment vibrates more than the adjacent, thicker normal tympanic membrane. Shielding or excision and grafting of the dimeric segment with thicker and stiffer materials has little effect on displacement at the stapes footplate. PMID:15113296

Morris, D P; Bance, M; Van Wijhe, R G

2004-04-01

39

Animal models of chronic tympanic membrane perforation: in response to plasminogen initiates and potentiates the healing of acute and chronic tympanic membrane perforations in mice  

PubMed Central

Tympanic membrane perforations (TMP) are relatively common but are typically not treated in their acute stage, as most will heal spontaneously in 7–10 days. Those cases which fail to heal within 3 months are called chronic TMP which attract surgical intervention (e.g. myringoplasty), typically with a temporalis fascia autograft. New materials for the repair of chronic TMP are being developed to address deficiencies in the performance of autografts by undergoing evaluation in animal models prior to clinical study. However, there is currently a lack of ideal chronic TMP animal models available, hindering the development of new treatments. Various techniques and animal species have been investigated for the creation of chronic TMP with varied success. In the present commentary, we bring to the attention of readers the recent report by Shen et al. in Journal of Translational Medicine. The study reported the creation of a chronic TMP animal model in plasminogen gene deficient mice. However, the short observation time (9, 19 days), lack of success rate and the scarcity of solid evidence (e.g. otoscopic & histologic images) to confirm the chronicity of TMP warrant a more thorough discussion. PMID:24669846

2014-01-01

40

A computational method for the semi-automated quantitative analysis of tympanic membrane perforations and tympanosclerosis.  

PubMed

Tympanic membrane pathological findings such as perforations and tympanosclerotic plaques (along with conductive hearing loss and purulent drainage) are the most typical trademarks of either active or burned-out chronic otitis media. These findings are normally evaluated by an expert using visual subjective analysis. In this work, we present a computational semi-automated method to quantify these pathologies. We also present a validation study of the method using a subset of 39 cases randomly extracted from a set of more than 2000 cases (perforations and tympanosclerosis) of the Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre. The validation was performed using Ground Truth images, generated by experts, and has shown promising results. PMID:19643399

Comunello, Eros; Wangenheim, Aldo von; Junior, Vilson Heck; Dornelles, Cristina; Costa, Sady Selamen

2009-10-01

41

Scanning electron microscopy of tympanic membrane epithelium during in vitro migration.  

PubMed

The en masse locomotion in tissue culture of stratified squamous epithelium of the tympanic membrane and cholesteatoma is a unique feature of these epithelia. A scanning electron microscopy study of cultures was carried out to seek features of surface architecture that might throw light on this special activity. Differences from cultures of non-migratory stratified squamous epithelium include the following: numerous lamellae emanating from the top surface of cells at the leading edge, a ridge of spent leading edge cells behind that edge, a cap of keratin behind the latter and large balloon-like swelling of cells is prevalent in the trailing edge. It is suggested that differentiation of migrating stratified squamous epithelium in tissue culture is towards specialized cells active in migration as shown by the leading and trailing edge cells, as well as towards keratinization as shown by the keratin cap. PMID:2313786

Boxall, J D; Proops, D W; Michaels, L

1990-02-01

42

Factors affecting loss of tympanic membrane mobility in acute otitis media model of chinchilla.  

PubMed

Recently we reported that middle ear pressure (MEP), middle ear effusion (MEE), and ossicular changes each contribute to the loss of tympanic membrane (TM) mobility in a guinea pig model of acute otitis media (AOM) induced by Streptococcus pneumoniae (Guan and Gan, 2013). However, it is not clear how those factors vary along the course of the disease and whether those effects are reproducible in different species. In this study, a chinchilla AOM model was produced by transbullar injection of Haemophilus influenzae. Mobility of the TM at the umbo was measured by laser vibrometry in two treatment groups: 4 days (4D) and 8 days (8D) post inoculation. These time points represent relatively early and later phases of AOM. In each group, the vibration of the umbo was measured at three experimental stages: unopened, pressure-released, and effusion-removed ears. The effects of MEP and MEE and middle ear structural changes were quantified in each group by comparing the TM mobility at one stage with that of the previous stage. Our findings show that the factors affecting TM mobility do change with the disease time course. The MEP was the dominant contributor to reduction of TM mobility in 4D AOM ears, but showed little effect in 8D ears when MEE filled the tympanic cavity. MEE was the primary factor affecting TM mobility loss in 8D ears, but affected the 4D ears only at high frequencies. After the release of MEP and removal of MEE, residual loss of TM mobility was seen mainly at low frequencies in both 4D and 8D ears, and was associated with middle ear structural changes. Our findings establish that the factors contributing to TM mobility loss in the chinchilla ear were similar to those we reported previously for the guinea pig ears with AOM. Outcomes did not appear to differ between the two major bacterial species causing AOM in these animal models. PMID:24406734

Guan, Xiying; Chen, Yongzheng; Gan, Rong Z

2014-03-01

43

TGF-?/HA complex promotes tympanic membrane keratinocyte migration and proliferation via ErbB1 receptor  

SciTech Connect

Tympanic membrane perforations are common and represent a management challenge to clinicians. Current treatments for chronic perforations involve a graft surgery and require general anaesthesia, including associated costs and morbidities. Bioactive molecules (e.g. growth factors, cytokines) play an important role in promoting TM wound healing following perforation and the use of growth factors as a topical treatment for tympanic membrane perforations has been suggested as an alternative to surgery. However, the choice of bioactive molecules best suited to promote wound healing has yet to be identified. We investigated the effects of hyaluronic acid, vitronectin, TGF-?, IL-24 and their combinations on migration, proliferation and adhesion of cultured human tympanic membrane-derived keratinocytes (hTM), in addition to their possible mechanisms of action. We found that TGF-?, TGF-?/HA and TGF-?/IL-24 promoted wound healing by significantly increasing both migration and proliferation. TGF-? and/or HA treated cells showed comparable cell–cell adhesion whilst maintaining an epithelial cell phenotype. With the use of receptor binding inhibitors for ErbB1 (AG1478) and CD44 (BRIC235), we revealed that the activation of ErbB1 is required for TGF-?/HA-mediated migration and proliferation. These results suggest factors that may be incorporated into a tissue-engineered membrane or directly as topical treatment for tympanic membrane perforations and hence reduce the need for a surgery. - Highlights: ? TGF-?, TGF-?/HA and TGF-?/IL-24 improved hTM keratinocyte migration and proliferation. ? TGF-? and/or HA maintained epithelial cell phenotype. ? TGF-?/HA-mediated migration and proliferation requires activation of ErbB1 receptor.

Mei Teh, Bing, E-mail: bing.teh@earscience.org.au [Ear Sciences Centre, School of Surgery, The University of Western Australia, Nedlands, WA (Australia); Ear Science Institute Australia, Subiaco, WA (Australia); Department of Otolaryngology, Head, Neck and Skull Base Surgery, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Nedlands, WA (Australia); Redmond, Sharon L. [Ear Sciences Centre, School of Surgery, The University of Western Australia, Nedlands, WA (Australia); Ear Science Institute Australia, Subiaco, WA (Australia); Shen, Yi [Ear Sciences Centre, School of Surgery, The University of Western Australia, Nedlands, WA (Australia); Ear Science Institute Australia, Subiaco, WA (Australia); Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck, Ningbo Lihuili Hospital (Ningbo Medical Centre), Ningbo, Zhejiang (China); Atlas, Marcus D. [Ear Sciences Centre, School of Surgery, The University of Western Australia, Nedlands, WA (Australia); Ear Science Institute Australia, Subiaco, WA (Australia); Department of Otolaryngology, Head, Neck and Skull Base Surgery, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Nedlands, WA (Australia); Marano, Robert J.; Dilley, Rodney J. [Ear Sciences Centre, School of Surgery, The University of Western Australia, Nedlands, WA (Australia); Ear Science Institute Australia, Subiaco, WA (Australia)

2013-04-01

44

Wave motion on the surface of the human tympanic membrane: Holographic measurement and modeling analysis  

PubMed Central

Sound-induced motions of the surface of the tympanic membrane (TM) were measured using stroboscopic holography in cadaveric human temporal bones at frequencies between 0.2 and 18?kHz. The results are consistent with the combination of standing-wave-like modal motions and traveling-wave-like motions on the TM surface. The holographic techniques also quantified sound-induced displacements of the umbo of the malleus, as well as volume velocity of the TM. These measurements were combined with sound-pressure measurements near the TM to compute middle-ear input impedance and power reflectance at the TM. The results are generally consistent with other published data. A phenomenological model that behaved qualitatively like the data was used to quantify the relative magnitude and spatial frequencies of the modal and traveling-wave-like displacement components on the TM surface. This model suggests the modal magnitudes are generally larger than those of the putative traveling waves, and the computed wave speeds are much slower than wave speeds predicted by estimates of middle-ear delay. While the data are inconsistent with simple modal displacements of the TM, an alternate model based on the combination of modal motions in a lossy membrane can also explain these measurements without invoking traveling waves. PMID:23363110

Cheng, Jeffrey Tao; Hamade, Mohamad; Merchant, Saumil N.; Rosowski, John J.; Harrington, Ellery; Furlong, Cosme

2013-01-01

45

Optoelectronic holographic otoscope for measurement of nano-displacements in tympanic membranes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current methodologies for characterizing tympanic membrane (TM) motion are usually limited to either average acoustic estimates (admittance or reflectance) or single-point mobility measurements, neither of which suffices to characterize the detailed mechanical response of the TM to sound. Furthermore, while acoustic and single-point measurements may aid in diagnosing some middle-ear disorders, they are not always useful. Measurements of the motion of the entire TM surface can provide more information than these other techniques and may be superior for diagnosing pathology. We present advances in our development of a new compact optoelectronic holographic otoscope (OEHO) system for full field-of-view characterization of nanometer-scale sound-induced displacements of the TM surface at video rates. The OEHO system consists of a fiber optic subsystem, a compact otoscope head, and a high-speed image processing computer with advanced software for recording and processing holographic images coupled to a computer-controlled sound-stimulation and recording system. A prototype OEHO system is in use in a medical research environment to address basic science questions regarding TM function. The prototype provides real-time observation of sound-induced TM displacement patterns over a broad frequency range. Representative time-averaged and stroboscopic holographic interferometry results in animals and human cadaver samples are shown, and their potential utility is discussed.

Del Socorro Hernández-Montes, Maria; Furlong, Cosme; Rosowski, John J.; Hulli, Nesim; Harrington, Ellery; Cheng, Jeffrey Tao; Ravicz, Michael E.; Santoyo, Fernando Mendoza

2009-05-01

46

Digital holographic measurements of shape and three-dimensional sound-induced displacements of tympanic membrane  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Acoustically induced vibrations of the tympanic membrane (TM) play a primary role in the hearing process, in that these motions are the initial mechanical response of the ear to airborne sound. Characterization of the shape and three-dimensional (3-D) displacement patterns of the TM is a crucial step to a better understanding of the complicated mechanics of sound reception by the ear. Sound-induced 3-D displacements of the TM are estimated from shape and one-dimensional displacements measured in cadaveric chinchillas using a lensless dual-wavelength digital holography system (DWDHS). The DWDHS consists of laser delivery, optical head, and computing platform subsystems. Shape measurements are performed in double-exposure mode with the use of two wavelengths of a tunable laser, while nanometer-scale displacements are measured along a single sensitivity direction with a constant wavelength. Taking into consideration the geometrical and dimensional constrains imposed by the anatomy of the TM, we combine principles of thin-shell theory together with displacement measurements along a single sensitivity vector and TM surface shape to extract the three principal components of displacement in the full-field-of-view. We test, validate, and identify limitations of this approach via the application of finite element method to artificial geometries.

Khaleghi, Morteza; Lu, Weina; Dobrev, Ivo; Cheng, Jeffrey Tao; Furlong, Cosme; Rosowski, John J.

2013-10-01

47

Comparison of porcine acellular dermis and dura mater as natural scaffolds for bioengineering tympanic membranes.  

PubMed

Tympanic membrane (TM) perforation is a frequent cause of conductive hearing loss. The most popular surgical repair is autografting with temporalis fascia, although some disadvantages have been found with this method. Whether xenogeneous grafts produced by a tissue engineering approach could be used is unclear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the possibility of bioengineering TM using porcine acellular dermis and dura mater with TM fibroblasts and to compare the effects of these two natural scaffolds. Both of the materials were prepared by sequentially using Triton X-100, nuclease solution, and freeze-drying technique. Histologically, both had porous structures without any cellular components. After seeding with TM fibroblasts isolated from guinea pigs, it was found that both of the materials could be used as scaffolds for bioengineering TM in vitro. In the in vivo study, chronic TM perforation models were successfully established in guinea pigs. From gross and histological examinations, most of TM perforations were healed after grafting these two bioengineered TMs using an underlay technique. Furthermore, auditory brainstem response audiometry was applied to determine the auditory threshold in each group. Results showed that hearing in the dura mater group seemed to undergo faster recovery in the early stage but in the end, no differences were found between the two groups. Two kinds of materials without cell seeding were used as controls. Porcine acellular dermis and dura mater are suitable scaffolds for bioengineering TMs. PMID:19519275

Deng, Zhihong; Wu, Junjie; Qiu, Jianhua; Wang, Jinling; Tian, Yongsheng; Li, Yuan; Jin, Yan

2009-12-01

48

Digital holographic measurements of shape and 3D sound-induced displacements of Tympanic Membrane  

PubMed Central

Acoustically-induced vibrations of the Tympanic Membrane (TM) play a primary role in the hearing process, in that these motions are the initial mechanical response of the ear to airborne sound. Characterization of the shape and 3D displacement patterns of the TM is a crucial step to a better understanding of the complicated mechanics of sound reception by the ear. In this paper, shape and sound-induced 3D displacements of the TM in cadaveric chinchillas are measured by a lensless Dual-Wavelength Digital Holography system (DWDHS). The DWDHS consists of Laser Delivery (LD), Optical Head (OH), and Computing Platform (CP) subsystems. Shape measurements are performed in double-exposure mode and with the use of two wavelengths of a tunable laser while nanometer-scale displacements are measured along a single sensitivity direction and with a constant wavelength. In order to extract the three principal components of displacement in full-field-of-view, and taking into consideration the anatomical dimensions of the TM, we combine principles of thin-shell theory together with both, displacement measurements along the single sensitivity vector and TM surface shape. To computationally test this approach, Finite Element Methods (FEM) are applied to the study of artificial geometries. PMID:24790255

Lu, Weina; Dobrev, Ivo; Cheng, Jeffrey Tao; Furlong, Cosme; Rosowski, John J

2014-01-01

49

Tympanic membrane contour measurement with two source positions in digital holographic interferometry  

PubMed Central

The data acquisition from the shape of an object is a must to complete its quantitative displacement measurement analysis. Over the past years whole field of view optical non-invasive testing has been widely used in many areas, from industrial ones to, for instance, biomedical research topics. To measure the surface contour from the tympanic membrane (TM) of ex-vivo cats digital holographic interferometry (DHI) is used in combination with a two-illumination positions method: the shape is directly measured from the phase change between two source positions by means of a digital Fourier transform method. The TM shape data in conjunction with its displacement data renders a complete and accurate description of the TM deformation, a feature that no doubt will serve to better comprehend the hearing process. Acquiring knowledge from the tissue shape indicates a mechanical behavior and, indirectly, an alteration in the physiological structure due to middle ear diseases or damages in the tissue that can deteriorate sound transmission. The TM shape contour was successfully measured by using two source positions within DHI showing that the TM has a conical shape. Its maximum depth was found to be 2 mm, considering the umbo as the reference point with respect to the TM annulus plane, where the setup is arranged in such a manner that it is capable of measuring a height of up to 7 mm. PMID:23243570

Solis, Silvino M.; Hernandez-Montes, Maria del S.; Santoyo, Fernando M.

2012-01-01

50

The effect of topical estrogen on healing of chronic tympanic membrane perforations and hearing threshold  

PubMed Central

Background: Considering the presence of squamous epithelial cells and fibroblasts in the tympanic membrane (TM), topical estrogen application may influence the repair of TM perforations. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the healing effect of topical estrogen on chronic TM perforations and improvement in hearing threshold. Materials and Methods: Sixty patients were enrolled in a randomized clinical trial. Thirty patients were treated with paper patch and 30 with estrogen-impinged paper patch. Complete closure of the TM perforation and hearing threshold were evaluated in both groups. Chronic unilateral perforations of the TM involving less than 40% of the total area of the TM without active disease in the middle ear were selected. The margin of the perforation was chemically trimmed using 15% trichloroacetic acid and patching performed under an operating microscope. Microscopic examination was performed after 14 days and repeated after 30 days. Complete closure of the TM perforation was considered as successful repair. Hearing threshold was determined before the start of the trial and 30 days after treatment. Results: No significant difference was found between the two groups after 14 days in complete closure of the perforation (P = 0.310). After 30 days, patients treated with estrogen-impinged paper patch showed a significantly higher rate of closure of the perforation (63.4%) and improvement in hearing threshold (P = 0.017). Conclusion: Topical estrogen may have a healing effect on chronic TM perforations and improvement in hearing threshold. PMID:23914209

Barati, Behrouz; Abtahi, Seyyed Hamid Reza; Hashemi, Seyyed Mostafa; Okhovat, Seyyed Ahmad Reza; Poorqasemian, Mehdi; Tabrizi, Ali Goljanian

2013-01-01

51

Multiphoton microscopy imaging of collagen fiber layers and orientation in the tympanic membrane  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Greater understanding of tympanic membrane (TM) biomechanics has the potential to guide future advances in medical technology related to its surgical repair (myringoplasty). The pars tensa of the TM is a composite structure with two collagen fiber layers that provide the main scaffolding for the TM. The external layer is arranged in an approximately radial configuration, and the other is arranged in an approximately circumferential configuration. A more detailed knowledge of collagen fiber orientation and volume fraction could greatly improve existing mechanical simulations of the TM. To address this, we employed multiphoton microscopy (MPM) imaging of the TM in two modalities: second harmonic generation (SHG) and two-photon fluorescence (TPF). The unique spectral signature of SHG allows selective imaging of collagen fibers. TPF also produces images of fibrillar-type collagen but lacks the specificity of SHG. Both the SHG and TPF images show patterns of collagen organization in the TM that match expected results with respect to both orientation and size. Through MPM, we intend to accurately determine the collagen fiber layer thickness, density, and orientation as a function of radial position and quadrant location.

Jackson, R. P.; Chlebicki, C.; Krasieva, T. B.; Puria, S.

2008-02-01

52

Plasminogen initiates and potentiates the healing of acute and chronic tympanic membrane perforations in mice  

PubMed Central

Background Most tympanic membrane (TM) perforations heal spontaneously, but approximately 10-20% remain open as chronic TM perforations. Chronic perforations can lead to an impaired hearing ability and recurrent middle ear infections. Traditionally, these perforations must be surgically closed, which is costly and time consuming. Therefore, there is a need for simpler therapeutic strategies. Previous studies by us have shown that plasminogen (plg) is a potent pro-inflammatory regulator that accelerates cutaneous wound healing in mice. We have also shown that the healing of TM perforations is completely arrested in plg-deficient (plg-/-) mice and that these mice develop chronic TM perforations. In the present study, we investigated the therapeutic potential of local plg injection in acute and chronic TM perforation mice models. Methods Plg-/- mice and wild-type mice were subjected to standardized TM perforations followed by local injection of plg into the soft tissue surrounding the TM. TM perforations with chronic characteristics were induced by leaving TM perforations in plg-/- mice untreated for 9 days before treatment. The healing process was observed through otomicroscope and finally confirmed by immunostaining. The quality of TM healing was evaluated based on the morphology of the TM. Result Daily local injections of plg into the soft tissue surrounding the TM restored the ability to heal TM perforations in plg-/- mice in a dose-dependent manner, and potentiated the healing rate and quality in wild-type mice. A single local injection of plg initiated the healing of the chronic-like TM perforations in these mice, resulting in a closed TM with a continuous but rather thick outer keratinocyte layer. However, three plg injections led to a completely healed TM with a thin keratinizing squamous epithelium covering a connective tissue layer. Conclusion Our data suggests that plg is a promising drug candidate for the treatment of chronic TM perforations in humans. PMID:24393366

2014-01-01

53

Comparison of tympanic membrane grafting medial or lateral to malleus handle  

PubMed Central

Background: To compare two methods of tympanic membrane (TM) grafting when graft materials medial or lateral to malleus, this study have been done. Materials and Methods: In this clinical trial which was conducted in Alzahra and Kashani hospitals, between June 2010 and February 2012, 56 patients with chronic otitis media and perforated TM entered the study in two groups. The inclusion criteria consisted of patients who were at least 15-years-old without history of smoking, diabetes mellitus or autoimmune disease. Exclusion criteria of the study: No compliance for follow up, post-surgical ear trauma or any infective pathology that directly affects the ear. In Group A patients, the graft material is pierced in near central part of the graft and they lodged so that the malleus handle projects through the graft perforation. Group B had grafting in the lateral side of the malleus. Three month after surgery both groups examined and tested by audiometry. Success of surgery is defined as complete repair of TM, without lateralization, atelectasis, blunting or retraction pocket. Results: This study contained 28 patients in Group A and 28 in Group B. Overall success rate was 94.64% that was 96.42% in Group A, and 92.85% in Group B. Differences of air-bone gap in each group before and after surgery was 16.10 (±4.89) in Group A, and 15.78 (±3.40) in Group B. Improvement of hearing level was not significant between two surgical methods (P = 0.442). Conclusions: Both techniques (medial and lateral to malleus handle) of TM grafting are effective with success rates 96.42% and 92.85% respectively. PMID:24627864

Rogha, Mehrdad; Berjis, Nezamoddin; Taherinia, Ali; Eshaghian, Afrooz

2014-01-01

54

The usefulness of an earphone-type infrared tympanic thermometer during cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass: clinical report  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated the usefulness of a novel earphone-type infrared tympanic thermometer (IRT) during cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary\\u000a bypass. Tympanic membrane temperature (T\\u000a Tym) was monitored using the IRT inserted into the right ear canal of 12 adult patients (ASA III) who had been scheduled for\\u000a elective cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass under general anesthesia. Rectum (T\\u000a Rec) and nasopharyngeal temperatures

Taishi Masamune; Masanori Yamauchi; Keiichi Wada; Hironobu Iwashita; Katsumi Okuyama; Hirofumi Ino; Michiaki Yamakage; Tadahiko Ishiyama; Takashi Matsukawa

55

Comment on "Wave model of the cat tympanic membrane" [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 122(2), 918-931 (2007)].  

PubMed

The tympanic membrane model as developed by Parent and Allen [(2007). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 122(2), 918-931] is shown to have active, lossy, and non-reciprocal properties despite being described as lossless. These properties are traced back to its scattering junction formulations. Some impedance parameters are shown to have ambiguous values which complicate interpreting the physics of the model's internal wave propagation. Certain model parameters omitted from the original paper have been derived from the original computer simulation source code used by Parent and Allen. PMID:24815233

Serwy, Roger D

2014-05-01

56

Motion of the surface of the human tympanic membrane measured with stroboscopic holography  

PubMed Central

Sound-induced motion of the surface of the human tympanic membrane (TM) was studied by stroboscopic holographic interferometery, which measures the amplitude and phase of the displacement at each of about 40000 points on the surface of the TM. Measurements were made with tonal stimuli of 0.5, 1, 4 and 8 kHz. The magnitude and phase of the sinusoidal displacement of the TM at each driven frequency were derived from the fundamental Fourier component of the raw displacement data computed from stroboscopic holograms of the TM recorded at eight stimulus phases. The correlation between the Fourier estimates and measured motion data was generally above 0.9 over the entire TM surface. We used three data presentations: (i) Plots of the phasic displacements along a single chord across the surface of the TM, (ii) Phasic surface maps of the displacement of the entire TM surface, and (iii) Plots of the Fourier derived amplitude and phase-angle of the surface displacement along four diameter lines that define and bisect each of the four quadrants of the TM. These displays led to some common conclusions: At 0.5 and 1 kHz, the entire TM moved roughly in-phase with some small phase delay apparent between local areas of maximal displacement in the posterior half of the TM. At 4 and 8 kHz, the motion of the TM became more complicated with multiple local displacement maxima arranged in rings around the manubrium. The displacements at most of these maxima were roughly in-phase, while some moved out-of-phase. Superposed on this in- and out-of-phase behavior were significant cyclic variations in phase with location of less than 0.2 cycles or occasionally rapid half-cycle step-like changes in phase. The high frequency displacement amplitude and phase maps discovered in this study can not be explained by any single wave motion, but are consistent with a combination of low and higher order modal motions plus some small traveling-wave-like components. The observations of the dynamics of TM surface motion from this study will help us better understand the sound-receiving function of the TM and how it couples sound to the ossicular chain and inner ear. PMID:20034549

Cheng, Jeffrey Tao; Aarnisalo, Antti A.; Harrington, Ellery; Hernandez-Montes, Maria del Socorro; Furlong, Cosme; Merchant, Saumil N.; Rosowski, John J.

2010-01-01

57

How can the hooded seal dive to a depth of 1000 m without rupturing its tympanic membrane? A morphological and functional study.  

PubMed

Recent studies using a satellite-linked dive recorder have shown that the hooded seal (Cystophora cristata), a common Arctic pinniped, can dive to a depth of > 1000 m and stay submerged for close to 1 h. At these depths the water pressure reaches 100 atm, entailing obvious risk of serious damage to the hearing apparatus, mainly the tympanic membrane (TM) and middle ear (ME). We dissected and photodocumented the temporal bones of five newborn and three adult hooded seals in order to study the temporal bone structure and reveal its protective mechanisms for extreme pressure changes. Specimens were sectioned and stained for light microscopy. The thicknesses of the pars tensa and pars flaccida were found to average 60 and 180 microm, respectively. The ME cavity hosts a cavernous tissue of thin-walled vessels beneath the modified respiratory epithelium. The ME and external ear canal (EAC) volumes can be altered appreciably by filling/emptying the cavernous tissue with blood. The ossicles were fixed by contracting the tensor tympani and stapedius muscles simultaneously with complete occlusion of the EAC. According to Boyle's law, the volume of the gas-filled ME cavity at a depth of 1000 m is only 1% of its volume at the surface of the sea. Ascent from such a depth allows the gas in the ME cavity to expand, causing the TM to bulge laterally. This movement is counteracted by a reduction in the blood volume inside the cavernous sinuses, action in the tensor tympani and stapedius muscles and discharge of gas through the Eustachian tube. The presence of a firm, broad-based exostosis in the floor of the EAC lateral to the TM helps to obstruct the EAC. PMID:11678167

Stenfors, L E; Sadé, J; Hellström, S; Anniko, M

2001-09-01

58

Full-field transient vibrometry of the human tympanic membrane by local phase correlation and high-speed holography.  

PubMed

Understanding the human hearing process would be helped by quantification of the transient mechanical response of the human ear, including the human tympanic membrane (TM or eardrum). We propose a new hybrid high-speed holographic system (HHS) for acquisition and quantification of the full-field nanometer transient (i.e., >10 kHz) displacement of the human TM. We have optimized and implemented a 2 ţ 1 frame local correlation (LC) based phase sampling method in combination with a high-speed (i.e., >40 K fps) camera acquisition system. To our knowledge, there is currently no existing system that provides such capabilities for the study of the human TM. The LC sampling method has a displacement difference of <11 nm relative to measurements obtained by a four-phase step algorithm. Comparisons between our high-speed acquisition system and a laser Doppler vibrometer indicate differences of <10 ?s. The high temporal (i.e., >40 kHz) and spatial (i.e., >100 k data points) resolution of our HHS enables parallel measurements of all points on the surface of the TM, which allows quantification of spatially dependent motion parameters, such as modal frequencies and acoustic delays. Such capabilities could allow inferring local material properties across the surface of the TM. PMID:25191832

Dobrev, Ivo; Furlong, Cosme; Cheng, Jeffrey T; Rosowski, John J

2014-09-01

59

Simultaneous 3D imaging of sound-induced motions of the tympanic membrane and middle ear ossicles  

PubMed Central

Efficient transfer of sound by the middle ear ossicles is essential for hearing. Various pathologies can impede the transmission of sound and thereby cause conductive hearing loss. Differential diagnosis of ossicular disorders can be challenging since the ossicles are normally hidden behind the tympanic membrane (TM). Here we describe the use of a technique termed optical coherence tomography (OCT) vibrography to view the sound-induced motion of the TM and ossicles simultaneously. With this method, we were able to capture three-dimensional motion of the intact TM and ossicles of the chinchilla ear with nanometer-scale sensitivity at sound frequencies from 0.5 to 5 kHz. The vibration patterns of the TM were complex and highly frequency dependent with mean amplitudes of 70–120 nm at 100 dB sound pressure level. The TM motion was only marginally sensitive to stapes fixation and incus-stapes joint interruption; however, when additional information derived from the simultaneous measurement of ossicular motion was added, it was possible to clearly distinguish these different simulated pathologies. The technique may be applicable to clinical diagnosis in Otology and to basic research in audition and acoustics. PMID:23811181

Chang, Ernest W.; Cheng, Jeffrey T.; Roosli, Christof; Kobler, James B.; Rosowski, John J.; Yun, Seok Hyun

2013-01-01

60

A non-linear viscoelastic model for the tympanic membrane Hamid Motallebzadeh and Mathieu Charlebois  

E-print Network

, and an exponential time-dependent part, represented by a Prony series. The model output is compared membrane. In addition, a frequency-domain analysis is performed based on the obtained material parameters

Funnell, W. Robert J.

61

Dominance of Haemophilus influenzae in ear discharge from Indigenous Australian children with acute otitis media with tympanic membrane perforation  

PubMed Central

Background Indigenous Australian children living in remote communities experience high rates of acute otitis media with tympanic membrane perforation (AOMwiP). Otitis media in this population is associated with dense nasopharyngeal colonization of three primary otopathogens; Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Moraxella catarrhalis. Little is known about the relative abundance of these pathogens during infection. The objective of this study was to estimate the abundance and concordance of otopathogens in ear discharge and paired nasopharyngeal swabs from children with AOMwiP (discharge of not more than 6 weeks’ duration and perforation size <2%). Methods Culture and quantitative PCR (qPCR) estimation of H. influenzae, S. pneumoniae, M. catarrhalis and total bacterial load were performed on paired nasopharyngeal and ear discharge swabs from 55 Indigenous children with AOMwiP aged 3.5 – 45.6 months and resident in remote communities. Results By culture, H. influenzae, S. pneumoniae, and M. catarrhalis were detected in 80%, 84% and 91% of nasopharyngeal swabs, and 49%, 33% and 4% of ear discharge swabs, respectively. Using qPCR, H. influenzae, S. pneumoniae, and M. catarrhalis were detected in 82%, 82%, and 93% of nasopharyngeal swabs, and 89%, 41% and 18% of ear discharge swabs, respectively. Relative abundance of H. influenzae in ear discharge swabs was 0-68% of the total bacterial load (median 2.8%); whereas S. pneumoniae and M. catarrhalis relative abundances were consistently <2% of the total bacterial load. S. pneumoniae and M. catarrhalis abundances were significantly lower in ear discharge compared with nasopharyngeal swabs (p?=?0.001, p?

2013-01-01

62

Eustachian tube pressure equilibration. Temporal analysis of pressure changes based on direct physiological recordings with an intact tympanic membrane.  

PubMed

Eustachian tube function is important in pressure regulation of the middle ear. The efficacy or magnitude of pressure equilibration by tube openings should be determined by the gradient between middle ear and ambient pressure, but in theory also the duration of the tube opening may play a role. This study employed direct measurements of middle ear pressure in patients, who after parotidectomy had a catheter inserted into the mastoid with a pressure transducer connected. Thus, monitoring of the middle ear pressure in response to experimentally induced pressure changes could be performed under physiological conditions with an intact tympanic membrane. A set of six experiments was performed in four healthy subjects with different pressure deviations, where the counter-regulation was recorded over 10 min's time frames; a total of 75 events of tube openings were recorded. The transducer had a high accuracy of ±0.1 daPa, and data were sampled at 10 Hz, so that detailed parameters for each tube opening event could be obtained: the pressure change, the pressure gradient, and the duration of the opening were determined. The pressure changes in response to Eustachian tube openings showed significant positive correlation to the pressure gradient and ambient pressure (p < 0.001). However, the duration of the opening time was not related to the pressure gradient (p = 0.16), as well as the pressure change was also not related to the duration of the opening time (p = 0.34). This meant that the magnitude of a pressure equilibration during tube openings was only determined by the pressure gradient and not variations in the duration of the opening time. Additional correlations were investigated including the pressure change rate. In conclusion, under physiological conditions the opening of the Eustachian tube behaves similarly to a reflex mechanism with relative constant duration. Therefore, in order to equilibrate higher pressure gradients, series of Eustachian tube openings are needed, rather than the tube will open during a longer period of time. This article is part of a special issue entitled "MEMRO 2012". PMID:23347915

Gaihede, Michael; Padurariu, Simona; Jacobsen, Henrik; De Greef, Daniël; Dirckx, Joris J J

2013-07-01

63

Lesions in the external auditory canal.  

PubMed

The external auditory canal is an S- shaped osseo-cartilaginous structure that extends from the auricle to the tympanic membrane. Congenital, inflammatory, neoplastic, and traumatic lesions can affect the EAC. High-resolution CT is well suited for the evaluation of the temporal bone, which has a complex anatomy with multiple small structures. In this study, we describe the various lesions affecting the EAC. PMID:22223939

Chatra, Priyank S

2011-10-01

64

Lesions in the external auditory canal  

PubMed Central

The external auditory canal is an S- shaped osseo-cartilaginous structure that extends from the auricle to the tympanic membrane. Congenital, inflammatory, neoplastic, and traumatic lesions can affect the EAC. High-resolution CT is well suited for the evaluation of the temporal bone, which has a complex anatomy with multiple small structures. In this study, we describe the various lesions affecting the EAC. PMID:22223939

Chatra, Priyank S

2011-01-01

65

Equivalent Ear Canal Volumes in Children Pre- and Post-Tympanostomy Tube Insertion.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluation of preoperative and postoperative equivalent ear canal volume measures on 334 children (ages 6 weeks to 6.7 years) with chronic otitis media with effusion found that the determination could be made very accurately for children 4 years and older. Criterion values for tympanic membrane perforation and preoperative and postoperative…

Shanks, Janet E.; And Others

1992-01-01

66

Incomplete punctal canalization -a balloon variant of the external membrane: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Incomplete punctal canalization is an uncommon congenital disorder characterized by a dysgenetic punctum with membranes. External membranes, the most common type of incomplete punctal canalization are flat and overlie the punctum as a veil. We describe a newer variant of incomplete punctal canalization, its clinical profile, diagnostic criteria and management. Case presentation A 9-year-old Indian boy presented with watering of his right eye since birth. His right eye lower punctal area showed an avascular translucent elevation that appeared to have a smooth dome shape. An examination at high magnification showed the slopes of the dome gradually merging and contiguous with the tarsal conjunctiva. Based on a very high degree of suspicion, an impression of atypical external membrane variety of incomplete punctal canalization was made. Membranotomy was successful in the management of his condition. Conclusions A high degree of suspicion is the key point in the diagnosis of this variant, keeping in mind the other features described for incomplete punctal canalization- external membrane. It is possible that ballooning of these membranes may represent an evolutionary stage in the process of complete canalization and this could be the starting point for further dacryo-embryologic exploration and correlations. PMID:24716896

2014-01-01

67

An evaluation of tympanometric estimates of ear canal volume.  

PubMed

The accuracy of tympanometric estimates of ear canal volume was evaluated by testing the following two assumptions on which the procedure is based: (a) ear canal volume does not change when ear canal pressure is varied, and (b) an ear canal pressure of 200 daPa drives the impedance of the middle ear transmission system to infinity so the immittance measured at 200 daPa can be attributed to the ear canal volume alone. The first assumption was tested by measuring the changes in ear canal volume in eight normal subjects for ear canal pressures between +/- 400 daPa using a manometric procedure based on Boyle's gas law. The data did not support the first assumption. Ear canal volume changed by a mean of .113 ml over the +/- 400 daPa pressure range with slightly larger volume changes occurring for negative ear canal pressures than for positive ear canal pressures. Most of the volume change was attributed to movement of the probe and to movement of the cartilaginous walls of the ear canal. The second assumption was tested by comparing estimates of ear canal volume from susceptance tympanograms with a direct measurement of ear canal volume adjusted for changes in volume due to changes in ear canal pressure between +/- 400 daPa. These data failed to support the second assumption. All tympanometric estimates of ear canal volume were larger than the measured volumes. The largest error (39%) occurred for an ear canal pressure of 200 daPa at 220 Hz, whereas the smallest error (10%) occurred for an ear canal pressure of -400 daPa at 660 Hz. This latter susceptance value (-400 daPa at 660 Hz) divided by three is suggested to correct the 220-Hz tympanogram to the plane of the tympanic membrane. Finally, the effects of errors in estimating ear canal volume on static immittance and on tympanometry are discussed. PMID:7329051

Shanks, J E; Lilly, D J

1981-12-01

68

[Acquired postinflammatory stenosis of the external auditory canal].  

PubMed

There are only few publications about acquired postinflammatory stenosis of the auditory canal, its etiology, its progress and an adequate therapy. Chronic inflammatory processes of the ear canal, the tympanic membrane or the middle ear could lead to a replacement of the origin epithelium by fibrotic tissue and ends in a total obliteration of the ear canal. Lateral parts of the canal remain open and have the form of a blind-ending sac. Patients can suffer from severe conductive hearing loss. Treatment implies local therapy in the first stadium of the disease, then in the second one surgical removement of the fibrotic tissue is indicated before ear drum and bony canal are covered with skin graft. This technique results in stable, wide ears with good hearing. PMID:20387176

Reineke, U; Ebmeyer, J; Sudhoff, H

2010-04-01

69

Can general practitioners do the follow-ups after surgery with ventilation tubes in the tympanic membrane? Two years audiological data  

PubMed Central

Background A university hospital in Mid-Norway has modified their guidelines for follow-up after insertion of ventilation tubes (VTs) in the tympanic membrane, transferring the controls of the healthiest children to general practitioners (GPs). The aim of this study was to evaluate the implementation of these guidelines by exploring audiological outcome and subjective hearing complaints two years after surgery, assessing if follow-ups in general practice resulted in poorer outcome. Methods A retrospective observational study was performed at the university hospital and in general practice in Mid-Norway. Children below 18 years who underwent surgery with VTs between Nov 1st 2007 and Dec 31st 2008 (n?=?136) were invited to participate. Pure tone audiometry, speech audiometry and tympanometry were measured. A self-report questionnaire assessed subjective hearing, ear complaints and the location of follow-ups. This study includes enough patients to observe group differences in mean threshold (0.5–1–2–4 kHz) of 9 dB or more. Results There were no preoperative differences in audiometry or tympanometry between the children scheduled for follow-ups by GPs (n?=?23) or otolaryngologists (n?=?50). Two years after surgery there were no differences between the GP and otolaryngologist groups in improvement of mean hearing thresholds (12.8 vs 12.6 dB, p?=?0.9) or reduction of middle ears with effusion (78.0 vs 75.0%, p?=?0.9). We found no differences between the groups in terms of parental reports of child hearing or ear complaints. Conclusions Implementation of new clinical guidelines for follow-ups after insertion of VTs did not negatively affect audiological outcomes or subjective hearing complaints two years after surgery. PMID:24708658

2014-01-01

70

Computer-assisted time-averaged holograms of the motion of the surface of the mammalian tympanic membrane with sound stimuli of 0.4-25 kHz.  

PubMed

Time-averaged holograms describing the sound-induced motion of the tympanic membrane (TM) in cadaveric preparations from three mammalian species and one live ear were measured using opto-electronic holography. This technique allows rapid measurements of the magnitude of motion of the tympanic membrane surface at frequencies as high as 25 kHz. The holograms measured in response to low and middle-frequency sound stimuli are similar to previously reported time-averaged holograms. However, at higher frequencies (f>4 kHz), our holograms reveal unique TM surface displacement patterns that consist of highly-ordered arrangements of multiple local displacement magnitude maxima, each of which is surrounded by nodal areas of low displacement magnitude. These patterns are similar to modal patterns (two-dimensional standing waves) produced by either the interaction of surface waves traveling in multiple directions or the uniform stimulation of modes of motion that are determined by the structural properties and boundary conditions of the TM. From the ratio of the displacement magnitude peaks to nodal valleys in these apparent surface waves, we estimate a Standing Wave Ratio of at least 4 that is consistent with energy reflection coefficients at the TM boundaries of at least 0.35. It is also consistent with small losses within the uniformly stimulated modal surface waves. We also estimate possible TM surface wave speeds that vary with frequency and species from 20 to 65 m/s, consistent with other estimates in the literature. The presence of standing wave or modal phenomena has previously been intuited from measurements of TM function, but is ignored in some models of tympanic membrane function. Whether these standing waves result either from the interactions of multiple surface waves that travel along the membrane, or by uniformly excited modal displacement patterns of the entire TM surface is still to be determined. PMID:19328841

Rosowski, John J; Cheng, Jeffrey Tao; Ravicz, Michael E; Hulli, Nesim; Hernandez-Montes, Maria; Harrington, Ellery; Furlong, Cosme

2009-07-01

71

Computer-assisted time-averaged holograms of the motion of the surface of the mammalian tympanic membrane with sound stimuli of 0.4 to 25 kHz  

PubMed Central

Time-averaged holograms describing the sound-induced motion of the tympanic membrane (TM) in cadaveric preparations from three mammalian species and one live ear were measured using opto-electronic holography. This technique allows rapid measurements of the magnitude of motion of the tympanic membrane surface at frequencies as high as 25 kHz. The holograms measured in response to low and middle-frequency sound stimuli are similar to previously reported time-averaged holograms. However, at higher frequencies (f > 4 kHz), our holograms reveal unique TM surface displacement patterns that consist of highly-ordered arrangements of multiple local displacement magnitude maxima, each of which is surrounded by nodal areas of low displacement magnitude. These patterns are similar to modal patterns (two-dimensional standing waves) produced by either the interaction of surface waves traveling in multiple directions or the uniform stimulation of modes of motion that are determined by the structural properties and boundary conditions of the TM. From the ratio of the displacement magnitude peaks to nodal valleys in these apparent surface waves, we estimate a Standing Wave Ratio of at least 4 that is consistent with energy reflection coefficients at the TM boundaries of at least 0.35. It is also consistent with small losses within the uniformly stimulated modal surface waves. We also estimate possible TM surface wave speeds that vary with frequency and species from 20 to 65 m/s, consistent with other estimates in the literature. The presence of standing wave or modal phenomena has previously been intuited from measurements of TM function, but is ignored in some models of tympanic membrane function. Whether these standing waves result either from the interactions of multiple surface waves that travel along the membrane, or by uniformly excited modal displacement patterns of the entire TM surface is still to be determined. PMID:19328841

Rosowski, John J.; Cheng, Jeffrey Tao; Ravicz, Michael E.; Hulli, Nesim; Hernandez-Montes, Maria; Harrington, Ellery; Furlong, Cosme

2009-01-01

72

External auditory canal stenosis due to the use of powdered boric acid.  

PubMed

Acquired stenosis of the external auditory canal (EAC) may occur because of chronic external otitis, recurrent chronic catarrhal otitis media associated with tympanic membrane perforation, chronic dermatitis, tumors, and trauma. Stenosis occurs generally at the one-third bone part of the external auditory canal. In this article, we present 3 cases of acquired EAC stenosis due to the previous powdered boric acid application. Besides the presentation of surgical intervetions in these cases, we want to notify the physicians not to use or carefully use powdered boric acid because of the complication of EAC stenosis. PMID:25098584

Dündar, Riza; Soy, Fatih Kemal; Kulduk, Erkan; Muluk, Nuray Bayar; Cingi, Cemal

2014-09-01

73

Infrared thermometry: the reliability of tympanic and temporal artery readings for predicting brain temperature after severe traumatic brain injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: Temperature measurement is important during routine neurocritical care especially as differences between brain and systemic temperatures have been observed. The purpose of the study was to determine if infra-red temporal artery thermometry provides a better estimate of brain temperature than tympanic membrane temperature for patients with severe traumatic brain injury. METHODS: Brain parenchyma, tympanic membrane and temporal artery temperatures

Danielle Kirk; Timothy Rainey; Andy Vail; Charmaine Childs

2009-01-01

74

Virtual otoscopy for evaluating the inner ear with a fluid-filled tympanic cavity in dogs  

PubMed Central

The feasibility of virtual otoscopy (VO) imaging was evaluated in five dogs with experimentally induced otitis media, two control dogs, and two canine patients with otitis media. VO images of the tympanic cavity and ossicles were generated with commercially available software using raw computed tomography (CT) data. Eight out of 10 ears inoculated with pathogen exhibited obvious clinical signs associated with otitis externa. CT images revealed soft tissue density material occupying the tympanic bulla compatible with otitis media in three dogs with experimentally induced otitis media and two patients. No remarkable features were observed on the radiographs. Four different VO views (ear canal, tympanic bulla, eustachian tube, and ossicular chain) were created. Promontory, cochlea window, tympanic, and septum bulla as well as ossicles were easily and clearly distinguished except for the incus and stapes of the clinical patients. VO images were not more suitable than images created with conventional CT for accurately diagnosing otitis media in this study. However, it appears that VO could be more feasible for assessing the complex structure of the inner ear in dogs with fluid-filled tympanic cavities since fluid accumulation within the tympanic bulla did not affect the evaluation of bony tissue in the middle ear on VO images. PMID:23271184

Cho, Youngkwon; Jeong, Jimo; Lee, Haebeom; Kim, Minsu; Kim, Namsoo

2012-01-01

75

Numerical Analysis of the Influence of the Auditory External Canal Geometry on the Human Hearing Response  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the analysis and discussion about different effects of the external auditory canal (EAC) geometry on the response of the human hearing system. Simulation has been made by means of 3D finite element models which included EAC and a model of the ossicular-eardrum system. Different EAC geometries were constructed, coupled to a middle ear model validated in previous works. The EAC geometry is based on anatomical measurements taken from the literature. The relative position and orientation of the tympanic membrane and section reduction of the canal at the isthmus were studied and analyzed with a harmonic analysis. A sound pressure level of 90 dB was applied at the canal entrance and through fluid-structure coupling, the pressures in the umbo and the displacements of umbo and stapes footplate were measured in a frequency range from 100 Hz to 20000 Hz.

Caminos, Luis; Garcia-Gonzalez, Antonio; Gonzalez-Herrera, Antonio

2011-11-01

76

Vibration of the human tympanic membrane measured with OCT in a range between 0.4 kHz and 6.4 kHz on an ex vivo sample  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vibrations of the tympanic membrane (TM) play a key role for the transmission of sound to the inner ear. Today, there exist still problems in measuring the movement of the TM and there are unresolved issues in understanding the TM and its behavior. A non-invasive and contact-free in vivo investigation of the structure and the functional behavior of the TM would be a big step forward. In the presented study, the suitability of optical coherence tomography (OCT) for measuring the oscillation patterns of the TM in the frequency range covering the range of the human speech perception should be tested. For functional imaging a sound chirp was generated in the frequency range between 0.4 kHz - 6.4 kHz. To obtain the movement within a sufficient resolution, a grid of 25 x 25 measurement points was generated over the whole TM. The information of the oscillatory movement was encoded in the Doppler signal, provided by M-scans at several points of the TM. The frequency response functions of each frequency showed different oscillation patterns on the TM. The acquisition time of one single M-scan was only 8.5 ms and of the entire TM 5.3 s, emphasizing the potential of the method for future in vivo applications. Furthermore, the morphology was acquired with the same OCT-system, showing the feasibility for structural imaging and differentiation between typical regions of the TM. Thus, OCT was shown as a suitable method for the simultaneous measurement of the functional and structural behavior of the TM.

Burkhardt, Anke; Kirsten, Lars; Bornitz, Matthias; Zahnert, Thomas; Koch, Edmund

2013-06-01

77

Mechanics of a 'simple' ear: tympanal vibrations in noctuid moths.  

PubMed

Anatomically, the ears of moths are considered to be among the simplest ears found in animals. Microscanning laser vibrometry was used to examine the surface vibrations of the entire tympanal region of the ears of the noctuid moths Agrotis exclamationis, Noctua pronuba, Xestia c-nigrum and Xestia triangulum. During stimulation with ultrasound at intensities known to activate receptor neurones, the tympanum vibrates with maximum deflection amplitudes at the location where the receptor cells attach. In the reportedly heterogeneous tympana of noctuid moths, this attachment site is an opaque zone that is surrounded by a transparent, thinner cuticular region. In response to sound pressure, this region moves relatively little compared with the opaque zone. Thus, the deflections of the moth tympanic membrane are not those of a simple circular drum. The acoustic sensitivity of the ear of N. pronuba, as measured on the attachment site, is 100+/-14 nm Pa(-1) (N=10), corresponding to tympanal motion of a mere 200 pm at sound pressure levels near the neural threshold. PMID:17644678

Windmill, J F C; Fullard, J H; Robert, D

2007-08-01

78

[Cholesteatoma by osteoma of the external auditory canal].  

PubMed

Osteoma in the external auditory canal (EAC) is an uncommon benign tumor. The association of a cholesteatoma with an osteoma of EAC is extremely rare. We report a case of a 26-year-old woman with an osteoma of the left EAC that was complicated by a cholesteatoma in the EAC between the osteoma and left tympanic membrane. Surgical removal of the osteoma and cholesteatoma proved successful by postauricular approach. The follow up without recurrence is 24 months. Osteoma of the EAC is a solitary, unilateral, and slow-growing bony benign tumor. The foremost differential diagnosis is exostose that is multiple and bilateral. Cholesteatoma of the EAC is uncommon. Its basic pathogenesis is a chronic occlusion of the EAC. Surgical treatment avoids complications related to local aggressiveness of cholesteatoma. PMID:23393744

Maliki, O; Aderdour, L; Ziad, T; Nouri, H; Rouchdi, Y; Marrat, A; Raji, A

2012-01-01

79

Sound fields in generally shaped curved ear canals.  

PubMed

The sound field in the external ear can be subdivided into a distinctly three-dimensional part in front of pinna and concha, a fairly regular part in the core region of ear canals, and a less regular part in the drum coupling region near the tympanic membrane. The different parts of the sound field and their interaction have been studied using finite elements. A "pinna box" enclosing the pinna provides both a realistic coupling of the external space to the ear canal and the generation of sound. The sound field in the core region turns out to be not that regular as mostly assumed: near pressure minima and maxima "one-sided" isosurfaces (surfaces of equal pressure magnitude) occur, which are inconsistent with the notion of a middle axis, in principle. Nevertheless such isosurfaces can be seen as part of a "fundamental sound field," which is governed by the principle of minimum energy. Actually, the sound transformation through narrow ducts is little affected by one-sided isosurfaces in between. As expected, the beginning of the core region depends on frequency. If the full audio range up to 20 kHz is to be covered, a location in the first bend of the ear canal is found. PMID:19425657

Hudde, H; Schmidt, S

2009-05-01

80

Piezosurgery versus microdrill in intact canal wall mastoidectomy.  

PubMed

Piezosurgery is a recently developed system for cutting bone with microvibrations. The objectives of the present study were to report our experience with the piezoelectric device in the intact canal mastoidectomy, and to compare the results with traditional method by means of microdrill. A non-randomized controlled trial was undertaken on 60 intact canal wall mastoidectomy performed using the piezoelectric device (30 patients) or the microdrill (30 patients). Before 1 month and 1 year after surgery, all the patients underwent the following instrumental examinations: otomicroscopic evaluation of the tympanic membrane and external auditory duct, bone conduction threshold audiometry, tympanometry, transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions with linear click emission, distortion product otoacoustic emissions, auditory brainstem response (ABR) by MK 12-ABR screener with natus-ALGO2e (Amplifon, Milan, Italy), and electronystamographic recording. The piezoelectric device is proved to be effective in sclerotic and pneumatic mastoid, with an excellent control and without side effects on the adjacent structures of the middle and inner ear (lateral sinus, facial nerve, and/or dura mater). The operation time has been the same as compared with microdrill, and the average hospital stay was significantly (p < 0.05) shorter. Postoperatively, all patients had uneventful recovery with no evidence of audiovestibular deficit or side effects. Our experience highlights the safety of the piezoelectric device on the anatomic structures of the middle and inner ear, and demonstrates its efficiency in terms of cutting precision and healing process. PMID:20577753

Salami, Angelo; Mora, Renzo; Dellepiane, Massimo; Crippa, Barbara; Santomauro, Valentina; Guastini, Luca

2010-11-01

81

Effects of middle-ear disorders on power reflectance measured in cadaveric ear canals  

PubMed Central

Objective Reflectance measured in the ear canal offers a noninvasive method to monitor the acoustic properties of the middle ear, and few systematic measurements exist on the effects of various middle-ear disorders on the reflectance. This work utilizes a human cadaver-ear preparation and a mathematical middle-ear model to both measure and predict how power reflectance ? is affected by the middle-ear disorders of static middle-ear pressures, middle-ear fluid, fixed stapes, disarticulated incudo-stapedial joint, and tympanic-membrane perforations. Design ? was calculated from ear-canal pressure measurements made on human-cadaver ears in the normal condition and five states: (1) positive and negative pressure in the middle-ear cavity, (2) fluid-filled middle ear, (3) stapes fixed with dental cement, (4) incudo-stapedial joint disarticulated, and (5) tympanic-membrane perforations. The middle-ear model of Kringlebotn (1988) was modified to represent the middle-ear disorders. Model predictions are compared to measurements. Results For a given disorder, the general trends of the measurements and model were similar. The changes from normal in ?, induced by the simulated disorder, generally depend on frequency and the extent of the disorder (except for the disarticulation). Systematic changes in middle-ear static pressure (up to ± 300 daPa) resulted in systematic increases in ?. These affects were most pronounced for frequencies up to 1000 to 2000 Hz. Above about 2000 Hz there were some asymmetries in behavior between negative and positive pressures. Results with fluid in the middle-ear air space were highly dependent on the percentage of the air space that was filled. Changes in ? were minimal when a smaller fraction of the air space was filled with fluid, and as the air space was filled with more saline, ? increased at most frequencies. Fixation of the stapes generally resulted in a relatively small low-frequency increase in ?. Disarticulation of the incus with the stapes led to a consistent low-frequency decreases in ? with a distinctive minimum below 1000 Hz. Perforations of the tympanic membrane resulted in a decrease in ? for frequencies up to about 2000 Hz; at these lower frequencies, smaller perforations led to larger changes from normal as compared to larger perforations. Conclusions These preliminary measurements help assess the utility of power reflectance as a diagnostic tool for middle-ear disorders. In particular, the measurements document (1) the frequency ranges for which the changes are largest and (2) the extent of the changes from normal for a spectrum of middle-ear disorders. PMID:22037477

Merchant, Gabrielle R.; Horton, Nicholas J.

2011-01-01

82

The tympanal hearing organ of a fly: phylogenetic analysis of its morphological origins.  

PubMed

A key adaptation for any parasitoid insect is the sensory modality that it uses to locate its host insect. All members of the speciose family Tachinidae (Diptera) are parasitoids, but only flies of the tribe Ormiini use acoustic cues to find their hosts. Ormiine flies are parasitoids of various genera of crickets and katydids. Gravid females of one ormiine species, Ormia ochracea, hear the reproductive calling song of male field crickets and home in on those calls to locate their hosts. While many flies possess various kinds of "ears" to detect airborne sounds, only ormiine flies have been reported to possess true tympanal hearing organs. Such organs are well-known to occur in their cricket and katydid hosts. The ormiine ear is an evolutionary innovation within Diptera. Our objective was to trace the phylogenetic origins of the tympanal hearing organ among higher flies. Since the ormiine hearing organ is a complex organ within the prothorax, we examined possible precursor structures in the prothoraces of selected Diptera. We have uncovered a suite of characters that define the ormiine ear. These characters in the prothorax include a pair of prosternal tympanal membranes, a pair of chordotonal sensory organs, and modifications of the tracheal system. We have been able to identify and trace the presumptive homologs of these ormiine characters through selected species of related Diptera, using the method of outgroup comparison. PMID:8565055

Edgecomb, R S; Robert, D; Read, M P; Hoy, R R

1995-11-01

83

Studies from the psychological laboratory of the University of Chicago: The role of the tympanic mechanism in audition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Describes a case of a woman with good hearing in spite of thedestruction of the sound conducting mechanism of both ears. 36 yrsago, when she was 5 yrs old, scarlet fever left her with amiddle-ear discharge which ruptured both ear drums. In 1898operation was done removing the remnant of the tympanic membrane,the accumulation of cicatricial adhesions and the two longerossicles.

W. V. D. Bingham; James Rowland Angell

1907-01-01

84

Estimating the residual ear canal contribution to complex acoustic reflectance measurements using pole-zero fitting.  

PubMed

For diagnostic acoustic measurements of the middle ear, the residual ear canal (REC) between the probe and tympanic membrane (TM) is a significant source of non-pathological variability. Tympanometry measures the TM compliance as a function of canal static pressure, at a single frequency (226 Hz). Alternatively, wideband reflectance is measured at ambient pressure, over a large frequency range (0.2-6.0 kHz). To account for the REC effect, tympanometry assumes that the compliance tends to zero at large static pressures, which may not be a valid assumption (Rabinowitz, 1981), whereas reflectance assumes that the REC contributes a lossless delay. Previously, the authors developed a method to parameterize complex reflectance measurements using pole-zero fits, which may be factored into all-pass and minimum-phase components. The lossless all-pass component approximates the unknown REC delay, while the low-frequency TM compliance may be estimated from the minimum-phase component. Using this approach, we evaluate middle ear static pressure data from a controlled study of cadaver ears (Voss, 2012) and an in vivo study in which subjects were trained to induce negative middle ear pressure, as well as controlled syringe measurements. Our results indicate that the TM compliance is not zero at the static pressure extremes measured under tympanometry. PMID:25235524

Robinson, Sarah; Thompson, Suzanne; Allen, Jont

2014-04-01

85

Are intra-tympanically administered steroids effective in patients with sudden deafness? Implications for current clinical practice.  

PubMed

Over 60 years since its first report, sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) still represents an ill-explained condition, with potentially devastating effects for the quality of life of previously well patients. The present study critically reviewed the available evidence regarding the efficacy of intra-tympanic steroid administration in the treatment of SSNHL. Factors affecting that efficacy were also explored. The literature was systematically reviewed in Medline and other database sources until July 2011, and analyzed through critical analysis of pooled data. The study selection included multi-center prospective randomized control trials, prospective randomized comparative, prospective comparative and prospective studies, retrospective comparative and retrospective studies. The total number of analyzed studies was 43. Intra-tympanic steroids appear to be effective as primary (strength of recommendation A), or salvage treatment (strength of recommendation B) in SSNHL. It is difficult to draw definite conclusions regarding the efficacy of combination therapy. The identification of a time window for effective treatment in the former two approaches yields a grade C strength of recommendation. Primary intra-tympanic treatment is the most effective modality in terms of complete hearing recovery (34.4% cure rate). There is not enough evidence to attribute treatment failures to impaired permeability of the round window membrane. Most complications of intra-tympanic treatment are minor, temporary, and conservatively managed. Intra-tympanic steroids can theoretically provide a more organ-specific treatment in patients with SSNHL. The observation that they seem effective both as primary and salvage treatment modalities with a very low complication rate may have serious implications for current clinical practice. PMID:21853324

Vlastarakos, Petros V; Papacharalampous, George; Maragoudakis, Paul; Kampessis, George; Maroudias, Nicholas; Candiloros, Dimitrios; Nikolopoulos, Thomas P

2012-02-01

86

Optical fiber sensor for membrane submicrometer vibration measurement.  

PubMed

This paper presents an optical fiber sensor for membrane submicrometer vibration measurement. The sensor is designed ultimately for low-cost medical audiometric applications such as determining the mobility of the tympanic membrane stimulated by the tone. The sensing method is minimally invasive, and the sensing head does not contact the surface of the membrane. Measurements were performed on tympanic membrane phantoms. Deflections of a few nanometers were measured, and vibration maps of phantoms were taken. PMID:25321687

Prokopczuk, Krzysztof; Rozwadowski, Krzysztof; Aleksandra Starzy?ska, M D; Doma?ski, Andrzej W

2014-09-10

87

[Finite element modeling and simulation of the human tympanic membrane].  

PubMed

Besides a knowledge of material properties geometric properties are needed to investigate the mechanical behavior of the human eardrum. Although the geometry of the eardrum has been examined methodically, its composition has been described in the literature. The true surface geometry of a cadaver specimen of the human eardrum was examined under a laser-scanning microscope. Forty points (85 parameters) depicted the surface of this cadaver specimen and formed the basis for a finite shell model. Furthermore, the coupling with the malleus and its suspension was simulated. Additional geometric and material parameters were chosen from the available literature. Both static behavior and the influence of a parameter variation to modal behavior of the finite element model were tested. ANSYS 5.1 software was used for this study. PMID:9556711

Drescher, J; Schmidt, R; Hardtke, H J

1998-02-01

88

Canalization: what the flux?  

PubMed

Polarized transport of the hormone auxin plays crucial roles in many processes in plant development. A self-organizing pattern of auxin transport--canalization--is thought to be responsible for vascular patterning and shoot branching regulation in flowering plants. Mathematical modeling has demonstrated that membrane localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN)-family auxin efflux carriers in proportion to net auxin flux can plausibly explain canalization and possibly other auxin transport phenomena. Other plausible models have also been proposed, and there has recently been much interest in producing a unified model of all auxin transport phenomena. However, it is our opinion that lacunae in our understanding of auxin transport biology are now limiting progress in developing the next generation of models. Here we examine several key areas where significant experimental advances are necessary to address both biological and theoretical aspects of auxin transport, including the possibility of a unified transport model. PMID:24296041

Bennett, Tom; Hines, Genevičve; Leyser, Ottoline

2014-02-01

89

Effect of Otitis Media on Infrared Tympanic Thermometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to determine if temperature readings using a new tympanic thermometer are affected by otitis media. These readings were also compared to a rectal or oral temperature. Eighty-four children with unilateral suppurative or non-suppurative otitis media diagnosed clinically by their pediatricians were enrolled in the study. Temperatures were measured in both ears using the Thermoscan PRO-1 Instant

Barbara Kelly; David Alexander

1991-01-01

90

Investigation of a Novel Completely-In-The-Canal Direct-Drive Hearing Device: A Temporal Bone Study  

PubMed Central

Hypothesis Whether a prototype direct-drive hearing device (DHD) is effective in driving the tympanic membrane (TM) in a temporal bone specimen to enable it to potentially treat moderate to severe hearing loss. Background Patient satisfaction with air conduction hearing aids has been low due to sound distortion, occlusion effect, and feedback issues. Implantable hearing aids provide a higher quality sound, but require surgery for placement. The DHD was designed to combine the ability of driving the ossicular chain with placement in the external auditory canal. Methods DHD is a 3.5 mm wide device that could fit entirely into the bony ear canal and directly drive the TM rather than use a speaker. A cadaveric temporal bone was prepared. The device developed in our laboratory was coupled to the external surface of the TM and against the malleus. Frequency sweeps between 300 Hz to 12 kHz were performed in two different coupling methods at 104 and 120 dB, and the DHD was driven with various levels of current. Displacements of the posterior crus of the stapes were measured using a Laser Doppler Vibrometer. Results The DHD showed a linear frequency response from 300Hz to 12kHz. Placement against the malleus showed higher amplitudes and lower power requirements than when the device was placed on the TM. Conclusions DHD is a small completely-in-the-canal device that mechanically drives the TM. This novel device has a frequency output wider than most air conduction devices. Findings of the current study demonstrated that the DHD had the potential of being incorporated into a hearing aid in the future. PMID:23202151

Mahboubi, Hossein; Paulick, Peyton; Kiumehr, Saman; Merlo, Mark; Bachman, Mark; Djalilian, Hamid R.

2012-01-01

91

Estimation of Body Sites Temperatures From Tympanic Measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

For many years, measurement of body temperature in routine medical practice was limited to oral, rectal and axillary sites. Recent introduction of infrared non-contact thermometers for the auditory canal requires the establishing of temperature relationships between the ear and more traditional thermometry sites. Since an auditory canal is exposed to the environment, the infrared readings from it are influenced by

Jacob Fraden; Robert P. Lackey

1991-01-01

92

Sexual dimorphism in auditory mechanics: tympanal vibrations of Cicada orni.  

PubMed

In cicadas, the tympanum is anatomically intricate and employs complex vibrations as a mechanism for auditory frequency analysis. Using microscanning laser Doppler vibrometry, the tympanal mechanics of Cicada orni can be characterized in controlled acoustical conditions. The tympanum of C. orni moves following a simple drum-like motion, rather than the travelling wave found in a previous study of Cicadatra atra. There is a clear sexual dimorphism in the tympanal mechanics. The large male tympanum is unexpectedly insensitive to the dominant frequency of its own calling song, possibly a reflection of its dual purpose as a sound emitter and receiver. The small female tympanum appears to be mechanically sensitive to the dominant frequency of the male calling song and to high-frequency sound, a capacity never suspected before in these insects. This sexual dimorphism probably results from a set of selective pressures acting in divergent directions, which are linked to the different role of the sexes in sound reception and production. These discoveries serve to indicate that there is far more to be learnt about the development of the cicada ear, its biomechanics and evolution, and the cicada's acoustic behaviour. PMID:18626071

Sueur, Jérôme; Windmill, James F C; Robert, Daniel

2008-08-01

93

Semi-Circular Canals Anomalies//Idiopathic Scoliosis  

E-print Network

Thanks to a novel modelling programme to detect anomalies in the membranous semi circular canals (SSC) of idiopathic scoliosis (IS) we found severe anomalies mainly located in lateral SCC devoted to trunk rotation and lateral deviations. We also found a specific communication between the lateral and posterior canal involving the utricular chamber which is also highly suspected in scoliosis. Key points: - Membranous semi circular canals (SCC) modelling based on MRI revealed significant anomalies in IS patients compared to normal subjects. - Frequent aplasias located in the lateral canal were found in IS. - We also discovered a, never described, abnormal communication between lateral and posterior canal. - Lateral SCC is involved in trunk rotation and lateral deviation: these movements are frequently abnormal in IS. Supports: Fondation Yves Cotrel pour la recherche en pathologie rachidienne. Institut de France, Paris. SHFJ/CEA Orsay in the frame of the cooperation through IFR 49 INSERM/CNRS France.

Rousie, D L; Joly, O; Salvetti, P; Vasseur, J; Berthoz, A

2010-01-01

94

Die Pathogenese des Cholesteatoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of various skin tolerants to the postero-superior aspect of the external auditory canal of rabbits, with an intact ear drum and middle ear, produced cholesteatomas in the skin of the auditory canal and in the tympanic membrane, particularly in the pars flaccida. Application at the antero-inferior aspect of the tympanic membrane and insertion of gelfoam or histoacrylic in

E. Steinbach

1981-01-01

95

The Suez Canal  

Microsoft Academic Search

I NOTICE in your number of 4th inst. an article relating to the Suez Canal (by Mr. Login, C.E., late of the Ganges Canal), and shall be glad if you will allow me to make a few observations with reference to it.

Edw. Rae

1869-01-01

96

The Panama Canal  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Among all the engineering feats of the 20th century, the Panama Canal was certainly one of the greatest. The Panama Canal Authority (PCA) provides this home page, which contains a vast amount of information regarding the canal's origins and current affairs. Most visitors to the Web site will be mainly interested in the complete history of the canal. This begins with early plans by the Spanish in the 1500s, and documents all progress until the final completion in 1914. An impressive photo gallery includes historical pictures and panoramic views of four main locations, and a live camera shows the boat traffic in the canal at ten second intervals. Other resources such as maritime operations and news articles are also available.

97

Prolonged Sleep Deprivation and Continuous Exercise: Effects on Melatonin, Tympanic Temperature, and Cognitive Function  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to examine tympanic temperature, melatonin, and cognitive function during a 36-hour endurance event. Nine male and three female participants took part in a 36-hour sustained endurance event without sleep (N = 12, mean age = 31.8 ± 5.0 yrs). Participants were stopped for data collection at checkpoints throughout the 36-hour event. Tympanic temperature was assessed, a psychomotor vigilance test (PVT) was administered, and saliva samples were collected. Salivary melatonin was determined via immunoassay. During the 36 hours of competition, melatonin levels were negatively correlated with the day of the race (rs = ?0.277, P = 0.039) and positively associated with nighttime (rs = 0.316, P = 0.021). Significant main effects of tympanic temperature (P < 0.001), day of the competition (P = 0.018), and a tympanic temperature ? day of competition interaction (P < 0.001) were used to predict minor lapses in attention. No associations between melatonin levels and cognitive function were observed (P > 0.05). During the event tympanic temperature declined and was associated with an increase in lapses in attention. With sustained endurance events becoming more popular future research is warranted to evaluate the physiological impact of participation. PMID:25110695

Davis, Greggory R.; Etheredge, Corey E.; Marcus, Lena; Bellar, David

2014-01-01

98

Specialization for underwater hearing by the tympanic middle ear of the turtle, Trachemys scripta elegans.  

PubMed

Turtles, like other amphibious animals, face a trade-off between terrestrial and aquatic hearing. We used laser vibrometry and auditory brainstem responses to measure their sensitivity to vibration stimuli and to airborne versus underwater sound. Turtles are most sensitive to sound underwater, and their sensitivity depends on the large middle ear, which has a compliant tympanic disc attached to the columella. Behind the disc, the middle ear is a large air-filled cavity with a volume of approximately 0.5 ml and a resonance frequency of approximately 500 Hz underwater. Laser vibrometry measurements underwater showed peak vibrations at 500-600 Hz with a maximum of 300 µm s(-1) Pa(-1), approximately 100 times more than the surrounding water. In air, the auditory brainstem response audiogram showed a best sensitivity to sound of 300-500 Hz. Audiograms before and after removing the skin covering reveal that the cartilaginous tympanic disc shows unchanged sensitivity, indicating that the tympanic disc, and not the overlying skin, is the key sound receiver. If air and water thresholds are compared in terms of sound intensity, thresholds in water are approximately 20-30 dB lower than in air. Therefore, this tympanic ear is specialized for underwater hearing, most probably because sound-induced pulsations of the air in the middle ear cavity drive the tympanic disc. PMID:22438494

Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Brandt, Christian; Willis, Katie L; Christensen, Christian Bech; Ketten, Darlene; Edds-Walton, Peggy; Fay, Richard R; Madsen, Peter T; Carr, Catherine E

2012-07-22

99

Specialization for underwater hearing by the tympanic middle ear of the turtle, Trachemys scripta elegans  

PubMed Central

Turtles, like other amphibious animals, face a trade-off between terrestrial and aquatic hearing. We used laser vibrometry and auditory brainstem responses to measure their sensitivity to vibration stimuli and to airborne versus underwater sound. Turtles are most sensitive to sound underwater, and their sensitivity depends on the large middle ear, which has a compliant tympanic disc attached to the columella. Behind the disc, the middle ear is a large air-filled cavity with a volume of approximately 0.5 ml and a resonance frequency of approximately 500 Hz underwater. Laser vibrometry measurements underwater showed peak vibrations at 500–600 Hz with a maximum of 300 µm s?1 Pa?1, approximately 100 times more than the surrounding water. In air, the auditory brainstem response audiogram showed a best sensitivity to sound of 300–500 Hz. Audiograms before and after removing the skin covering reveal that the cartilaginous tympanic disc shows unchanged sensitivity, indicating that the tympanic disc, and not the overlying skin, is the key sound receiver. If air and water thresholds are compared in terms of sound intensity, thresholds in water are approximately 20–30 dB lower than in air. Therefore, this tympanic ear is specialized for underwater hearing, most probably because sound-induced pulsations of the air in the middle ear cavity drive the tympanic disc. PMID:22438494

Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Brandt, Christian; Willis, Katie L.; Christensen, Christian Bech; Ketten, Darlene; Edds-Walton, Peggy; Fay, Richard R.; Madsen, Peter T.; Carr, Catherine E.

2012-01-01

100

Tympanic thermometer performance validation by use of a body-temperature fixed point blackbody  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of infrared tympanic thermometers within the medical community (and more generically in the public domain) has recently grown rapidly, displacing more traditional forms of thermometry such as mercury-in-glass. Besides the obvious health concerns over mercury the increase in the use of tympanic thermometers is related to a number of factors such as their speed and relatively non-invasive method of operation. The calibration and testing of such devices is covered by a number of international standards (ASTM1, prEN2, JIS3) which specify the design of calibration blackbodies. However these calibration sources are impractical for day-to-day in-situ validation purposes. In addition several studies (e.g. Modell et al4, Craig et al5) have thrown doubt on the accuracy of tympanic thermometers in clinical use. With this in mind the NPL is developing a practical, portable and robust primary reference fixed point source for tympanic thermometer validation. The aim of this simple device is to give the clinician a rapid way of validating the performance of their tympanic thermometer, enabling the detection of mal-functioning thermometers and giving confidence in the measurement to the clinician (and patient!) at point of use. The reference fixed point operates at a temperature of 36.3 °C (97.3 °F) with a repeatability of approximately +/- 20 mK. The fixed-point design has taken into consideration the optical characteristics of tympanic thermometers enabling wide-angled field of view devices to be successfully tested. The overall uncertainty of the device is estimated to be is less than 0.1°C. The paper gives a description of the fixed point, its design and construction as well as the results to date of validation tests.

Machin, Graham; Simpson, Robert

2003-04-01

101

Building the Erie Canal  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson designed to enhance literacy skills, students look at how the construction of the Erie Canal brought about major changes within United States, particularly in New York City, upstate New York, and the Midwest.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2010-12-28

102

Distribution of Intact and Core Membrane Lipids of Archaeal Glycerol Dialkyl Glycerol Tetraethers among Size-Fractionated Particulate Organic Matter in Hood Canal, Puget Sound  

PubMed Central

There is great interest in the membrane lipids of archaea (glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers [GDGTs]) as tracers of archaeal biomass because of their utility as paleoproxies and because of the biogeochemical importance of archaea. While core GDGTs (formed by hydrolysis of polar head groups of intact GDGTs after cell death) are appropriate for paleostudies, they have also been used to trace archaeal populations. Also, despite the small size (0.2 by 0.7 ?m) of cultivated marine archaea, 0.7-?m glass-fiber filters (GFFs) are typically used to collect GDGTs from natural waters. We quantified both core and intact GDGTs in free-living (0.2- to 0.7-?m), suspended (0.7- to 60-?m), and aggregate (>60-?m) particle size fractions in Puget Sound (Washington State). On average, the free-living fraction contained 36% of total GDGTs, 90% of which were intact. The intermediate-size fraction contained 62% of GDGTs, and 29% of these were intact. The aggregate fraction contained 2% of the total GDGT pool, and 29% of these were intact. Our results demonstrate that intact GDGTs are largely in the free-living fraction. Because only intact GDGTs are present in living cells, protocols that target this size fraction and analyze the intact GDGT pool are necessary to track living populations in marine waters. Core GDGT enrichment in larger-size fractions indicates that archaeal biomass may quickly become attached or entrained in particles once the archaea are dead or dying. While the concentrations of the two pools were generally not correlated, the similar sizes of the core and intact GDGT pools suggest that core GDGTs are removed from the water column on timescales similar to those of cell replication, on timescales of days to weeks. PMID:22226949

Huguet, Carme; Truxal, Laura T.

2012-01-01

103

Panama Canal capacity analysis  

SciTech Connect

Predicting the transit capacities of the various Panama Canal alternatives required analyzing data on present Canal operations, adapting and extending an existing computer simulation model, performing simulation runs for each of the alternatives, and using the simulation model outputs to develop capacity estimates. These activities are summarized in this paper. A more complete account may be found in the project final report (TAMS 1993). Some of the material in this paper also appeared in a previously published paper (Rosselli, Bronzini, and Weekly 1994).

Bronzini, M.S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., Knoxville, TN (United States). Center for Transportation Analysis

1995-04-27

104

Acoustic relationships between tympanate moths and the Hawaiian hoary bat ( Lasiurus cinereus semotus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Certain moths possess tympanic organs (ears) that detect the echolocation signals of hunting, insectivorous bats. The auditory characteristics of these ears are matched to the acoustic features of the echolocation calls emitted by the moths' sympatric bat fauna. The two-celled ears of noctuoid moths from the Hawaiian island of Kauai, a site with only one species of bat (Lasiurus cinereus

James H. Fullard

1984-01-01

105

Main trajectories of nerves that traverse and surround the tympanic cavity in the rat  

PubMed Central

To guide surgery of nerves that traverse and surround the tympanic cavity in the rat, anatomical illustrations are required that are topographically correct. In this study, maps of this area are presented, extending from the superior cervical ganglion to the otic ganglion. They were derived from observations that were made during dissections using a ventral approach. Major blood vessels, bones, transected muscles of the tongue and neck and supra and infrahyoid muscles serve as landmarks in the illustrations. The course of the mandibular, facial, glossopharyngeal, vagus, accessory and hypoglossal nerves with their branches, and components of the sympathetic system, are shown and discussed with reference to data available in the literature. Discrepancies in this literature can be clarified and new data are presented on the trajectories of several nerves. The course of the tympanic nerve was established. This nerve originates from the glossopharyngeal nerve, enters the tympanic cavity, crosses the promontory, passes the tensor tympani muscle dorsally, and continues its route intracranially to the otic ganglion as the lesser petrosal nerve after intersecting with the greater petrosal nerve. Auricular branches of the glossopharyngeal and of the vagus nerve were noted. We also observed a pterygopalatine branch of the internal carotid nerve, that penetrates the tympanic cavity and courses across the promontory. PMID:11005717

WEIJNEN, J. A. W. M.; SURINK, S.; VERSTRALEN, M. J. M.; MOERKERKEN, A.; DE BREE, G. J.; BLEYS, R. L. A. W.

2000-01-01

106

Strategies to reduce feedlot cattle heat stress: Effects on tympanic temperature1,2,3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of different management strategies on body temperature of feedlot steers finished in the summer months. In Exp. 1, 24 crossbred steers were chosen to assess the effect of altered feed intake and feeding time on tympanic temperature (TT) response. Managed feeding (MF) treatments were applied for 22 d only and provided 1)

M. S. Davis; T. L. Mader; S. M. Holt; A. M. Parkhurst

107

54. View of junction of unlined canal and lined canal, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

54. View of junction of unlined canal and lined canal, looking southwest. Photo by Brian C. Morris, Puget Power, 1989. - Puget Sound Power & Light Company, White River Hydroelectric Project, 600 North River Avenue, Dieringer, Pierce County, WA

108

55. View of junction of unlined canal and lined canal, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

55. View of junction of unlined canal and lined canal, looking southwest. Photo by Brian C. Morris, Puget Power, 1989. - Puget Sound Power & Light Company, White River Hydroelectric Project, 600 North River Avenue, Dieringer, Pierce County, WA

109

56. View of lined canal looking east toward unlined canal, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

56. View of lined canal looking east toward unlined canal, from road bridge crossing lined canal. Photo by Brian C. Morris, Puget Power, 1989. - Puget Sound Power & Light Company, White River Hydroelectric Project, 600 North River Avenue, Dieringer, Pierce County, WA

110

The evolutionary genetics of canalization.  

PubMed

Evolutionary genetics has recently made enormous progress in understanding how genetic variation maps into phenotypic variation. However why some traits are phenotypically invariant despite apparent genetic and environmental changes has remained a major puzzle. In the 1940s, Conrad Hal Waddington coined the concept and term "canalization" to describe the robustness of phenotypes to perturbation; a similar concept was proposed by Waddington's contemporary Ivan Ivanovich Schmalhausen. This paper reviews what has been learned about canalization since Waddington. Canalization implies that a genotype's phenotype remains relatively invariant when individuals of a particular genotype are exposed to different environments (environmental canalization) or when individuals of the same single- or multilocus genotype differ in their genetic background (genetic canalization). Consequently, genetic canalization can be viewed as a particular kind of epistasis, and environmental canalization and phenotypic plasticity are two aspects of the same phenomenon. Canalization results in the accumulation of phenotypically cryptic genetic variation, which can be released after a "decanalizing" event. Thus, canalized genotypes maintain a cryptic potential for expressing particular phenotypes, which are only uncovered under particular decanalizing environmental or genetic conditions. Selection may then act on this newly released genetic variation. The accumulation of cryptic genetic variation by canalization may therefore increase evolvability at the population level by leading to phenotypic diversification under decanalizing conditions. On the other hand, under canalizing conditions, a major part of the segregating genetic variation may remain phenotypically cryptic; canalization may therefore, at least temporarily, constrain phenotypic evolution. Mechanistically, canalization can be understood in terms of transmission patterns, such as epistasis, pleiotropy, and genotype by environment interactions, and in terms of genetic redundancy, modularity, and emergent properties of gene networks and biochemical pathways. While different forms of selection can favor canalization, the requirements for its evolution are typically rather restrictive. Although there are several methods to detect canalization, there are still serious problems with unambiguously demonstrating canalization, particularly its adaptive value. PMID:16250465

Flatt, Thomas

2005-09-01

111

Root Canal Irrigants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Local wound debridement in the diseased pulp space is the main step in root canal treatment to prevent the tooth from being a source of infection. In this review article, the specifics of the pulpal microenvironment and the resulting requirements for irrigating solutions are spelled out. Sodium hypochlorite solutions are recommended as the main irrigants. This is because of their

Matthias Zehnder

2006-01-01

112

American Experience: Panama Canal  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Panama Canal was quite an undertaking of labor and engineering, and by the time it was completed on August 15th, 1914 the project had been underway (in some form) for well over two decades. Along the way, over 55,000 workers had been involved, 5,000 people had died during the project's duration, and over 350 million dollars had been spent. This riveting documentary looks at the history of this project, and visitors can watch the entire program here. The extra features provided here are real treats, and they can be found on the left-hand side of the page. Here visitors will find an interactive map of the Panama Canal region, along with a timeline, and an interview with the program's producer, Amanda Pollak. Also, the site includes articles on yellow fever, the workers, and the chief engineers of the Canal. Primary resources such as part of the canal record of 1907, suggestions for further reading, and teacher resources round out the site.

113

Ear-Canal Reflectance, Umbo Velocity and Tympanometry in Normal Hearing Adults  

PubMed Central

Objective This study compares measurements of ear-canal reflectance (ECR) to other objective measurements of middle-ear function including, audiometry, umbo velocity (VU), and tympanometry in a population of strictly defined normal hearing ears. Design Data were prospectively gathered from 58 ears of 29 normal hearing subjects, 16 female and 13 male, aged 22–64 years. Subjects met all of the following criteria to be considered as having normal hearing. (1) No history of significant middle-ear disease. (2) No history of otologic surgery. (3) Normal tympanic membrane (TM) on otoscopy. (4) Pure-tone audiometric thresholds of 20 dB HL or better for 0.25 – 8 kHz. (5) Air-bone gaps no greater than 15 dB at 0.25 kHz and 10 dB for 0.5 – 4 kHz. (6) Normal, type-A peaked tympanograms. (7) All subjects had two “normal” ears (as defined by these criteria). Measurements included pure-tone audiometry for 0.25 – 8 kHz, standard 226 Hz tympanometry, Ear canal reflectance(ECR) for 0.2 – 6 kHz at 60 dB SPL using the Mimosa Acoustics HearID system, and Umbo Velocity (VU ) for 0.3 – 6 kHz at 70–90 dB SPL using the HLV-1000 laser Doppler vibrometer (Polytec Inc). Results Mean power reflectance (|ECR|2) was near 1.0 at 0.2– 0.3 kHz, decreased to a broad minimum of 0.3 to 0.4 between 1 and 4 kHz, and then sharply increased to almost 0.8 by 6 kHz. The mean pressure reflectance phase angle (?ECR) plotted on a linear frequency scale showed a group delay of approximately 0.1 ms for 0.2 – 6 kHz. Small significant differences were observed in |ECR|2 at the lowest frequencies between right and left ears, and between males and females at 4 kHz. |ECR|2 decreased with age, but reached significance only at 1 kHz. Our ECR measurements were generally similar to previous published reports. Highly significant negative correlations were found between |ECR|2 and VU for frequencies below 1 kHz. Significant correlations were also found between the tympanometrically determined peak total compliance and |ECR|2 and The results suggest that middle-ear compliance VU at frequencies below 1 kHz. contributes significantly to the measured power reflectance and umbo velocity at frequencies below 1 kHz, but not at higher frequencies. Conclusions This study has established a database of objective measurements of middle ear function (ear-canal reflectance, umbo velocity, tympanometry) in a population of strictly defined normal hearing ears. The data will promote our understanding of normal middle ear function, and will serve as a control for comparison to similar measurements made in pathological ears. PMID:21857517

Rosowski, John J; Nakajima, Hideko H.; Hamade, Mohamad A.; Mafoud, Lorice; Merchant, Gabrielle R.; Halpin, Christopher F.; Merchant, Saumil N.

2011-01-01

114

An experimental study of tympanic-membrane and manubrium vibrations in F. Akache1,3  

E-print Network

.R.J. Funnell1,2,3 , S.J. Daniel1,3 1 McGill Auditory Sciences Laboratory, McGill University 2 Dept. BioMedical Research Meeting of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology, New Orleans, 2005. Accepted-ear structures are easily approachable and because rats are less expensive than other species used in middle

Funnell, W. Robert J.

115

Digital holographic otoscope for measurements of the human tympanic membrane in vivo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are developing an advanced computer-controlled digital optoelectronic holographic system (DOEHS) for diagnosing middle-ear conductive disorders and investigating the causes of failure of middle-ear surgical procedures. Our current DOEHS system can provide near real-time quantitative measurements of the sound-induced nano-meter scale motion of the eardrum. The DOEHS have been deployed and is currently being tested in clinical conditions, where it is being optimized for in-vivo measurements of patients. The stability of the measurement system during examination is crucial as the non-ideal clinical environment presents disturbances larger than the measured quantities from several domains - thermal, optical, electrical and mechanical. Examples include disturbances are due to heartbeat breathing, patients head's motion as well as environment induced mechanical disturbances (0.1-60Hz, 0.01-100 ?m). In this paper we focus on our current progress in the analysis and implementation of various acquisition strategies and algorithms for minimization of the measurement error due to mechanical disturbances in a clinic. We have also developed and implemented a versatile and modular otoscope head (OH) design providing a variety of capabilities for acoustic and displacement measurements of both post-mortem samples of varying sizes (1-12mm) as well as in-vivo examination of patients. The OH offers hybrid on-axis and off axis digital Furrier holographic setup for high resolution (?/35) 4 phase step measurements as well as fast (<0.1ms) single frame measurements for improved performance in the clinical environment. We also focus on the development of a mechatronic positioning system (MOP) for aiding in the localization of the TM in patients.

Dobrev, I.; Harrington, E. J.; Cheng, T.; Furlong, C.; Rosowski, J. J.

116

Comparison of different tympanic membrane reconstruction techniques in type I tympanoplasty.  

PubMed

The objective of the study was to assess the functional results after type I tympanoplasty with temporal muscle fascia, perichondrium/cartilage island and cartilage palisades. The records of 120 patients who underwent type I tympanoplasty operation between January 2003 and June 2007 were retrospectively reviewed. This study aimed to comprise a homogeneous group of patients to make the comparisons as accurate as possible. For this purpose, primary tympanoplasty cases with subtotal perforations, intact ossicular chain, dry ear for a period of at least 1 month, and normal middle ear mucosa were included in the study. Patients younger than 15 years of age and patients with cholesteatoma were excluded. Temporal muscle fascia was used in 67 (55.8%), perichondrium/cartilage island flap was used in 34 (28.3%), and cartilage palisades were used in 19 (15.8%) of the patients. Pre- and postoperative otoscopic examinations, pure-tone averages, and air-bone gaps were compared pre and postoperatively. Concerning all of the cases, the graft take rate was 85% (102/120). In the perichondrium/cartilage island flap group, the graft take rate was 97.7%, whereas the graft take rates for the fascia group and cartilage palisades group were 80.6 and 79.0%, respectively. In the perichondrium/cartilage island flap group, the pure-tone average was 36.36 dB, whereas the pure-tone averages for the fascia group and cartilage palisades group were 36.07 and 39.79 dB, preoperatively. The postoperative pure-tone averages were 24.54 dB fort he perichondrium/cartilage island flap group, 24.51 dB for the fascia group and 23.23 dB for the cartilage palisades group. Cartilage grafting is not only more enduring against infection and negative middle ear pressure but also it has low re-perforation rates on long-term follow-up. Thus, cartilage may be preferred more often for primary tympanoplasties with high graft rate and hearing improvement. PMID:21267588

Demirpehlivan, Inci Alkan; Onal, Kazim; Arslanoglu, Secil; Songu, Murat; Ciger, Ejder; Can, Nazan

2011-03-01

117

The response of tympanate moths to the echolocation calls of a substrate gleaning bat, Myotis evotis  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.Most studies examining interactions between insectivorous bats and tympanate prey use the echolocation calls of aerially-feeding bats in their analyses. We examined the auditory responses of noctuid (Eurois astricta) and notodontid (Pheosia rimosa) moth to the echolocation call characteristics of a gleaning insectivorous bat, Myotis evotis.2.While gleaning, M. Evotis used short duration (mean ± SD = 0.66 ± 0.28 ms,

Paul A. Faure; James H. Fullard; Robert M. R. Barclay

1990-01-01

118

ASTER Suez Canal  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the most important waterways in the world, the Suez Canal runs north to south across the Isthmus of Suez in northeastern Egypt. This image of the canal covers an area 36 kilometers (22 miles) wide and 60 kilometers (47 miles) long in three bands of the reflected visible and infrared wavelength region. It shows the northern part of the canal, with the Mediterranean Sea just visible in the upper right corner. The Suez Canal connects the Mediterranean Sea with the Gulf of Suez, an arm of the Red Sea. The artificial canal provides an important shortcut for ships operating between both European and American ports and ports located in southern Asia, eastern Africa, and Oceania. With a length of about 195 kilometers (121 miles) and a minimum channel width of 60 meters (197 feet), the Suez Canal is able to accommodate ships as large as 150,000 tons fully loaded. Because no locks interrupt traffic on this sea level waterway, the transit time only averages about 15 hours. ASTER acquired this scene on May 19, 2000.

Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high-resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface. Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high-resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.

The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Examples of applications include monitoring glacial advances and retreats, potentially active volcanoes, thermal pollution, and coral reef degradation; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; evaluating wetlands; mapping surface temperature of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

2000-01-01

119

Comparaison : canal gaussien et canal de Rayleigh Tse and Viswanath: Fundamentals of Wireless Communication 71  

E-print Network

Comparaison : canal gaussien et canal de Rayleigh Tse and Viswanath: Fundamentals of Wireless : canal gaussien et canal de Rayleigh Tse and Viswanath: Fundamentals of Wireless Communication 71 0 10 20;Comparaison : canal gaussien et canal de Rayleigh Tse and Viswanath: Fundamentals of Wireless Communication 71

Andriyanova, Iryna

120

REACTOR CANAL AFTER IT HAS BEEN TILED. WATER FILLS CANAL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

REACTOR CANAL AFTER IT HAS BEEN TILED. WATER FILLS CANAL PART WAY TO TOP. CAMERA FACES WEST. INL NEGATIVE NO. 3993-A. Unknown Photographer, 12/28/1951 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

121

Osmolarity and root canal antiseptics.  

PubMed

Antiseptics used in endodontics for disinfection purposes include root canal dressings and irrigants. Osmotic shock is known to cause the alteration of microbial cell viability and might have a role in the mechanism of action of root canal antiseptics. The aim of this review was to determine the role of osmolarity on the performance of antiseptics in root canal treatment. A literature search using the Medline electronic database was conducted up to 30 May 2013 using the following search terms and combinations: 'osmolarity AND root canal or endodontic or antiseptic or irrigation or irrigant or medication or dressing or biofilm; osmolality AND root canal or endodontic or antiseptic or irrigation or irrigant or medication or dressing or biofilm; osmotic AND root canal or endodontic or antiseptic or irrigation or irrigant or medication or dressing or biofilm; osmosis AND root canal or endodontic or antiseptic or irrigation or irrigant or medication or dressing or biofilm; sodium chloride AND root canal or endodontic or antiseptic or irrigation or irrigant or medication or dressing or biofilm'. Publications were included if the effects of osmolarity on the clinical performance of antiseptics in root canal treatment were stated, if preparations with different osmolarities values were compared and if they were published in English. A hand search of articles published online, 'in press' and 'early view', and in the reference list of the included papers was carried out following the same criteria. A total of 3274 publications were identified using the database, and three were included in the review. The evidence available in endodontics suggests a possible role for hyperosmotic root canal medicaments as disinfectants, and that there is no influence of osmolarity on the tissue dissolution capacity of sodium hypochlorite. There are insufficient data to obtain a sound conclusion regarding the role of hypo-osmosis in root canal disinfection, or osmosis in any further desirable ability. PMID:23889531

Rossi-Fedele, G; Guastalli, A R

2014-04-01

122

Discharge Algorithms for Canal Radial Gates.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Discharge algorithms for canal radial gates that can be applied to manual and/or automatic flow regulation of prototype canals or to mathematical model simulation of canal systems were developed through an extensive research program. Existing methods do n...

C. P. Buyalski

1983-01-01

123

Three-Dimensional Histomorphometry of the Normal and Early Glaucomatous Monkey Optic Nerve Head: Neural Canal and Subarachnoid Space Architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE. To delineate three dimensionally the neural canal landmarks—Bruch's membrane opening (BMO), anterior sclera canal opening (ASCO), anterior laminar insertion (ALI), posterior laminar insertion (PLI), and posterior scleral canal opening (PSCO)—and the anterior-most aspect of the sub- arachnoid space (ASAS), within digital three-dimensional (3-D) reconstructions of the monkey optic nerve head (ONH). METHODS. The trephinated ONH and peripapillary sclera from

J. Crawford Downs; Hongli Yang; Christopher Girkin; Lisandro Sakata; Anthony Bellezza; Hilary Thompson; Claude F. Burgoyne

2007-01-01

124

Hearing Outcomes According to the Types of Mastoidectomy: A Comparison between Canal Wall Up and Canal Wall Down Mastoidectomy  

PubMed Central

Objectives The aim of this study was to compare the hearing outcomes between canal wall up mastoidectmy (CWUM) and canal wall down mastoidectmy (CWDM). Methods One hundred seventy one chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) patients were enrolled in this retrospective study. The patients who underwent the second staged ossiculoplasty at least 6 months after mastoidectomy and who had an intact, well aerated tympanic cavity as well as intact mobile stapes at the time of operation were selected from the medical record. Based on the type of mastoid surgery, the patients were categorized into two groups: the CWUM (n=38) and CWDM groups (n=133). The hearing results of the CWUM and CWDM groups were compared using the pre- and post-operative air-bone gap (ABG) at 3 months after ossiculoplasty. Results The preoperative ABG in both groups (CWUM and CWDM) were 28.4±15.6 dB and 31.8±14.5 dB, respectively (P=0.18). Both groups didn't show any significant difference (10.9 dB vs. 13.5 dB, respectively) (P=0.21) for the postoperative ABG closure. The proportion of patients with an ABG less than 20 dB was 58.6% of the CWDM patients and 68.4% of the CWUM patients (P=0.25). Conclusion The type of mastoid surgery (CWUM and CWDM) did not affect the hearing results of CSOM patients. When choosing the type of mastoidectomy procedure for CSOM surgery, the hearing outcomes are basically the same for both types of procedure. PMID:21217961

Kim, Min-Beom; Choi, Jeesun; Lee, Jae Kwon; Park, Ju-Yeon; Chu, Hosuk; Cho, Yang-Sun; Hong, Sung Hwa

2010-01-01

125

173. CANAL TENDER OPERATING LOCK MACHINERY ON THE MORRIS CANAL. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

173. CANAL TENDER OPERATING LOCK MACHINERY ON THE MORRIS CANAL. AS THE LOCK TENDER TURNS THE CRANK, A SMALL COGGED WHEEL (PINION) ON THE CRANK TURNS A LARGER COGGED WHEEL, (MAIN GEAR). MAIN GEAR ENGAGES A COGGED BAR CALLED A TRAVELLER WHICH MOVES FORWARD OR BACK DEPENDING ON WHICH WAY THE CRANK IS TURNED. CONNECTED TO THE TRAVELLER ARE TO LONG RODS (GATE ARMS) WHICH IN TURN ARE CONNECTED TO THE GATE'S TOP BEAM (ONE FOR EACH GATE). AS THE TRAVELLER MOVES FORWARD THE GATE ARMS EXTEND PUSHING THE GATES OPEN. - Morris Canal, Phillipsburg, Warren County, NJ

126

Tympanic temperature in confined beef cattle exposed to excessive heat load  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Angus crossbred yearling steers ( n = 168) were used to evaluate effects on performance and tympanic temperature (TT) of feeding additional potassium and sodium to steers exposed to excessive heat load (maximum daily ambient temperature exceeded 32°C for three consecutive days) during seasonal summer conditions. Steers were assigned one of four treatments: (1) control; (2) potassium supplemented (diet containing 2.10% KHCO3); (3) sodium supplemented (diet containing 1.10% NaCl); or (4) potassium and sodium supplemented (diet containing 2.10% KHCO3 and 1.10% NaCl). Overall, additional KHCO3 at the 2% level or NaCl at the 1% level did not improve performance or heat stress tolerance with these diet formulations. However, the addition of KHCO3 did enhance water intake. Independent of treatment effects, TT of cattle displaying high, moderate, or low levels of stress suggest that cattle that do not adequately cool down at night are prone to achieving greater body temperatures during a subsequent hot day. Cattle that are prone to get hot but can cool at night can keep average tympanic temperatures at or near those of cattle that tend to consistently maintain lower peak and mean body temperatures. In addition, during cooler and moderately hot periods, cattle change TT in a stair-step or incremental pattern, while under hot conditions, average TT of group-fed cattle moves in conjunction with ambient conditions, indicating that thermoregulatory mechanisms are at or near maximum physiological capacity.

Mader, T. L.; Gaughan, J. B.; Johnson, L. J.; Hahn, G. L.

2010-11-01

127

21 CFR 874.1090 - Auditory impedance tester.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...auditory impedance tester is a device that is intended to change the air pressure in the external auditory canal and measure and graph the mobility characteristics of the tympanic membrane to evaluate the functional condition of the middle ear. The...

2013-04-01

128

21 CFR 874.1090 - Auditory impedance tester.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...auditory impedance tester is a device that is intended to change the air pressure in the external auditory canal and measure and graph the mobility characteristics of the tympanic membrane to evaluate the functional condition of the middle ear. The...

2012-04-01

129

Objectives -Eye and Ear these are special sensory systems, i.e., part of the nervous system  

E-print Network

external, middle, and inner ear parts of ear to know: pinna, external auditory meatus, tympanic membrane, mastoid sinus, eustacian canal (auditory tube), auditory ossicles (malleus, incus, and stapes), tensor

Houde, Peter

130

Social Saving of the Panama Canal  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the time when the Panama Canal was handed over to Panama, most people believed that the Canal was of little material worth to the United States. However, what was the value of this canal to the United States in the 1920s? We estimate the social savings generated by the Panama Canal for the United States in 1924 in order

William K. Hutchinson; Ricardo Ungo

2004-01-01

131

Nano-transfersomal ciprofloxacin loaded vesicles for non-invasive trans-tympanic ototopical delivery: in-vitro optimization, ex-vivo permeation studies, and in-vivo assessment.  

PubMed

Ciprofloxacin is a synthetic fluoroquinolone antibiotic that has been used for systemic treatment of otitis media in adults. It was approved for topical treatment of otorrhea in children with tympanostomy tubes. The aim of this work was to enhance the local non-invasive delivery of ciprofloxacin to the middle ear across an intact tympanic membrane (TM) in an attempt to treat acute otitis media (AOM) ototopically. In order to achieve this goal, ciprofloxacin nano-transfersomal vesicles were prepared by thin film hydration (TFH) technique, using several edge activators (EAs) of varying hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) values. A full factorial design was employed for the optimization of formulation variables using Design-Expert(®) software. The optimal formulation was subjected to stability testing, ex-vivo permeation studies (through ear skin and TM of rabbits), and in-vivo evaluation. Results revealed that the optimal formulation (composed of phospholipid and sodium cholate as an EA at a molar ratio of 5:1) exhibited enhanced ex-vivo drug flux through ear skin and TM when compared with the commercial product (Ciprocin(®) drops). It demonstrated a greater extent of in-vivo drug deposition in the TM of albino rabbits relative to Ciprocin(®). Consequently, transfersomes could be promising for the non-invasive trans-tympanic delivery of ciprofloxacin. PMID:24971692

Al-Mahallawi, Abdulaziz Mohsen; Khowessah, Omneya Mohammed; Shoukri, Raguia Ali

2014-09-10

132

Variation in aspects of the tympanic pneumatic system in a population of Allosaurus fragilis from the Morrison Formation (Upper Jurassic)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diverticula of the tympanic pneumatic system were present lateral to the basicranium in Allosaurus, as evidenced by depressions on the basicranium and the presence of pneumatic foramina. An examination of an ontogenetic series of basicrania of A. fragilis shows this system to exhibit both ontogenetic and individual variation. Anteriorly, diverticula initially invade the basipterygoid process and withdraw with age (ontogenetic

Daniel J. Chure; James H. Madsen Jr

1996-01-01

133

Characterization of the Bacterial Microflora of the Tympanic Cavity of Eastern Box Turtles With and Without Aural Abscesses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aerobic bacterial cultures of the tympanic cavity of the middle ear were performed in eight eastern box turtles (Terra- pene carolina carolina) with aural abscesses and 15 eastern box turtles without aural abscesses (controls) that were admitted to The Wildlife Center of Virginia, Virginia, USA during 2003. Twenty-two bacterial isolates were identified from 17 turtles including 10 gram-negative and 12

Priscilla H. Joyner; Justin D. Brown; Steven Holladay; Jonathan M. Sleeman

134

7. O'BRIAN CANAL After its bifurcation with the DenverHudson Canal, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. O'BRIAN CANAL After its bifurcation with the Denver-Hudson Canal, flowing into Barr Lake through a protected eagle nesting area - O'Brian Canal, South Platte River Drainage Area Northest of Denver, Brighton, Adams County, CO

135

Comparison of Canal Transportation and Changes in Canal Curvature of Two Nickel-Titanium Rotary Instruments  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionThe aim of this study was to compare the canal transportation and changes in canal curvature after canal preparation with 2 nickel-titanium (NiTi) rotary instruments, Twisted (TF) and K3 file systems.

Kariem M. El Batouty; Waleed E. Elmallah

2011-01-01

136

How the Ear Works  

MedlinePLUS

... the part you can see) opens into the ear canal. The eardrum (tympanic membrane) separates the ear canal from the middle ear. The middle ear contains ... funnel through the ear opening, down the external ear canal, and strike your eardrum, causing it to vibrate. ...

137

Corinth Canal, Greece  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Isthmus of Corinth has played a very important role in the history of Greece. It is the only land bridge between the country's north (Attica) and south (Peloponnese). It is a 6 km wide tongue of land separating the Gulf of Corinth from the Saronic Sea. Populations, armies and commodities have got to move through it. In the 6th century BCE, the Greeks built the Diolkos, a 10 meter-wide stone roadway to pull ships across the Isthmus on wooden cylinders and wheeled vehicles. In 1882, a canal was started and completed 11 years later. It is 6343 meters long, 25 meters wide, and 8 meters deep.

With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

Size: 25.3 by 37.7 kilometers (15.7 by 23.4 miles) Location: 37.9 degrees North latitude, 23 degrees East longitude Orientation: North at top Image Data: ASTER bands 3, 2, and 1 Original Data Resolution: 15 meters (49.2 feet) Dates Acquired: May 9, 2005

2006-01-01

138

1. DIVERSION GATE AT SPILLWAY, NORTH CANAL DAM (DIVERSION GATE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. DIVERSION GATE AT SPILLWAY, NORTH CANAL DAM (DIVERSION GATE FEEDING PIPE AT LOWER RIGHT), VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - North Canal Dam & Diversion Canals, Deschutes Reclamation & Irrigation Company Canal, Empire Boulevard vicinity, Bend, Deschutes County, OR

139

5 CFR 315.601 - Appointment of former employees of the Canal Zone Merit System or Panama Canal Employment System.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Canal Zone Merit System or Panama Canal Employment System. 315.601 Section 315...REGULATIONS CAREER AND CAREER-CONDITIONAL EMPLOYMENT Career or Career-Conditional Appointment...Canal Zone Merit System or Panama Canal Employment System. (a) Agency...

2011-01-01

140

5 CFR 315.601 - Appointment of former employees of the Canal Zone Merit System or Panama Canal Employment System.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Canal Zone Merit System or Panama Canal Employment System. 315.601 Section 315...REGULATIONS CAREER AND CAREER-CONDITIONAL EMPLOYMENT Career or Career-Conditional Appointment...Canal Zone Merit System or Panama Canal Employment System. (a) Agency...

2012-01-01

141

5 CFR 315.601 - Appointment of former employees of the Canal Zone Merit System or Panama Canal Employment System.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Canal Zone Merit System or Panama Canal Employment System. 315.601 Section 315...REGULATIONS CAREER AND CAREER-CONDITIONAL EMPLOYMENT Career or Career-Conditional Appointment...Canal Zone Merit System or Panama Canal Employment System. (a) Agency...

2010-01-01

142

5 CFR 315.601 - Appointment of former employees of the Canal Zone Merit System or Panama Canal Employment System.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Canal Zone Merit System or Panama Canal Employment System. 315.601 Section 315...REGULATIONS CAREER AND CAREER-CONDITIONAL EMPLOYMENT Career or Career-Conditional Appointment...Canal Zone Merit System or Panama Canal Employment System. (a) Agency...

2013-01-01

143

5 CFR 315.601 - Appointment of former employees of the Canal Zone Merit System or Panama Canal Employment System.  

...Canal Zone Merit System or Panama Canal Employment System. 315.601 Section 315...REGULATIONS CAREER AND CAREER-CONDITIONAL EMPLOYMENT Career or Career-Conditional Appointment...Canal Zone Merit System or Panama Canal Employment System. (a) Agency...

2014-01-01

144

An Electrokinetic Model of Transduction in the Semicircular Canal  

PubMed Central

Transduction in the semicircular canal was studied by focusing an infrared beam on either side of exposed ampullae from the posterior canals of Rana pipiens. The direction of fluid movement resulting from a stimulus was inferred by observing the polarity of the change in afferent impulse mean rate relative to the spontaneous value. On the basis of the accepted functional polarization of this receptor, the results indicate that fluid moved toward the warmer side of the ampulla. Convection and thermal reception were shown to be unlikely explanations for these results. Morover, cupular displacements toward the warmer side would not be expected. Because thermo-osmosis can cause fluid to move toward the warmer side in a gelatin membrane, the results can be interpreted as evidence that thermo-osmosis occurred in the gelatinous cupula and influenced the transduction mechanism. Thermo-osmosis of liquids appears to be due to an electric field that is set up in a charged membrane; hence, the hair cells might have detected an electric field that occurred in the cupula during thermo-osmosis. Electroreception might be an important link in the transduction of physiological stimuli also. Rotational stimuli could result in weak electric fields in the cupula by the mechanoelectric effect. Cupular displacements could be important for large stimuli, but extrapolations to threshold stimuli suggest displacements of angstrom amplitudes. Therefore, electroreception by the hair cells could be an explanation of the great sensitivity that has been observed in the semicircular canal and other labyrinthine receptors. PMID:5496906

O'Leary, Dennis P.

1970-01-01

145

Pathology and embryology of common atrioventricular canal  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on the terminology, classification, pathologic anatomy, embryology, and etiology of common atrioventricular (AV) canal. The designation common AV canal is preferred because it includes both the characteristic septal and leaflet defects; i.e. common AV canal is much more than an AV septal defect, as the cleft in the anterior mitral leaflet indicates. This cleft is indeed a

Richard Van Praagh; Silvio Litovsky

1999-01-01

146

A Population Genetic Theory of Canalization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Canalization is the suppression of phenotypic variation. Depending on thecauses of phenotypic variation one speaks either of genetic or environmentalcanalization. Genetic canalization describes insensitivity of a character to mutations,and the insensitivity to environmental factors is called environmentalcanalization. Genetic canalization is of interest because it influences the availabilityof heritable phenotypic variation to natural selection and is thus potentiallyimportant in...

Gunter P. Wagner; Ginger Booth

1997-01-01

147

Are intra-tympanically administered steroids effective in patients with sudden deafness? Implications for current clinical practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over 60 years since its first report, sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) still represents an ill-explained condition,\\u000a with potentially devastating effects for the quality of life of previously well patients. The present study critically reviewed\\u000a the available evidence regarding the efficacy of intra-tympanic steroid administration in the treatment of SSNHL. Factors\\u000a affecting that efficacy were also explored. The literature was systematically

Petros V. Vlastarakos; George Papacharalampous; Paul Maragoudakis; George Kampessis; Nicholas Maroudias; Dimitrios Candiloros; Thomas P. Nikolopoulos

148

Canal Superior Online Pas: Portugal  

E-print Network

:56 LUÍSREBELO: «AS MANIFESTA��EST�M TIDO POUCO OU NENHUM RESULTADO» Numa mini-entrevista ao Canal Superior, com NUMA MARATONA, MAS SEM CORRER? 27/12/201215:27 ONDE VAIS CONTAR AS DOZE BADALADAS? 26/12/201216:23 COOLTURA MAISRECENTES FESTIVALRESCALDO REGRESSAEMFEVEREIRO 2013-01-02 15:07:16 E SE PARTICIPASSES NUMA

Instituto de Sistemas e Robotica

149

Dupuytren's disease involving Guyon's canal.  

PubMed

Ectopic localization of Dupuytren's contracture is extremely rare. To the best of our knowledge, there have been only six cases reported in the literature. The authors present a case with Dupuytren's contracture involving Guyon's canal where the patient had limited wrist range of motion and ulnar neuropathy. PMID:24874274

Juvenspan, M; Schlur, C; Thomsen, L; Colom, A; Audren, J-L

2014-06-01

150

Anal canal duplication in infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Purpose: Anal canal duplication (ACD) is the most distal and the least frequent digestive duplication. A review of the English-language literature found 15 cases reported in the pediatric age group. Methods: A retrospective chart review was performed for our experience from 1999 to 2001 with 6 patients who presented with a midline postanal opening. Results: All of 6 patients were

Soon-Ok Choi; Woo-Hyun Park

2003-01-01

151

Artificial lateral line canal for hydrodynamic detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fish use their lateral line system to detect minute water motions. The lateral line consists of superficial neuromasts and canal neuromasts. The response properties of canal neuromasts differ from those of superficial ones. Here, we report the design, fabrication, and characterization of an artificial lateral line canal system. The characterization was done under various fluid conditions, including dipolar excitation and turbulent flow. The experimental results with dipole excitation match well with a mathematical model. Canal sensors also demonstrate significantly better noise immunity compared with superficial ones. Canal-type artificial lateral lines may become important for underwater flow sensing.

Yang, Yingchen; Klein, Adrian; Bleckmann, Horst; Liu, Chang

2011-07-01

152

Experimental model of tympanic colic (acute abdomen) in chinchillas (Chinchilla lanigera)  

PubMed Central

Digestive disorders caused by sudden changes in diet or inappropriate diet are among the most common disorders of the digestive system. Cecal or intestinal tympany, one consequence of inappropriate diet, is characterized by the accumulation of gases, marked distension of the cecum and colon and the induction of inflammatory processes. To know the effects of intestinal tympany on the enteric plexuses, we developed a method of experimental tympanic colic (TC) in the Chinchilla lanigera. This species was used in view of its susceptibility to TC. TC was induced with a diet rich in alfalfa associated with grain overload for two weeks. Physical and clinical examination including the von Frey test confirmed the diagnosis. The chinchillas with acute abdomen were treated with 1% ketoprofen and resumption of a balanced diet. Necropsy and histopathological analysis showed tympany-induced alterations mainly in the cecum and colon. After treatment, the control conditions were restored. The TC protocol is proposed as an experimental approach designed to aid the study of the effects of acute intestinal inflammation and obstruction caused by an inappropriate diet. PMID:25324875

Martinez-Pereira, Malcon Andrei; Franceschi, Raphaela da Cunha; Coelho, Barbara Paranhos; Funkler, Gustavo da Rosa

2014-01-01

153

Horizontal canal type BPPV: bilaterally affected case treated with canal plugging and Lempert's maneuver.  

PubMed

A 54-year-old woman complained of positional vertigo. During 3 months' observation, the patient showed mostly geotropic or apogeotropic nystagmus due to right canalolithiasis or cupulolithiasis, however, she sometimes showed nystagmus which suggested left horizontal canalolithiasis. We suspected that she suffered from bilateral horizontal canal type benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) and performed Lempert's maneuver for both directions, however, they were ineffective. She underwent canal plugging for right horizontal canal. After surgery she showed no positional nystagmus of right horizontal canal origin. However, apogeotropic nystagmus of the left horizontal canal origin was still observed. This nystagmus changed to geotropic nystagmus and finally disappeared following Lempert's maneuver for the left side. Bilateral horizontal canal BPPV is difficult to be resolved, probably because physical treatment for one side would move debris to the cupula in the other canal. Canal plugging combined with Lempert's maneuver to the other side is one treatment option for intractable bilateral horizontal canal BPPV. PMID:14981331

Horii, Arata; Imai, Takao; Mishiro, Yasuo; Yamaji, Yoshiko; Mitani, Kenji; Kawashima, Takayuki; Kubo, Takeshi

2003-01-01

154

75 FR 39632 - Regulated Navigation Area; Gulf Intracoastal Waterway, Inner Harbor Navigation Canal, Harvey...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Intracoastal Waterway, Inner Harbor Navigation Canal, Harvey Canal, Algiers Canal, New Orleans, LA; Correction ACTION: Interim rule...Intracoastal Waterway, Inner Harbor Navigation Canal, Harvey Canal, Algiers Canal, New Orleans, LA into the Code of Federal...

2010-07-12

155

Canal Superior Online Pas: Portugal  

E-print Network

Canal Superior Online País: Portugal Period.: Diária �mbito: Online Pag.: 1 de 2ID: 44064719 03:42 ROUPA EM SEGUNDA M�O? O FACEBOOK PODEAJUDAR Para os que passam ao lado das novas tecnologias, há uma novidade que vale a pena espreitar: as trocas e vendas no Facebook. Desde pequenos negócios até pessoas com

Instituto de Sistemas e Robotica

156

Seepage study of canals in Beaver Valley, Beaver County, Utah  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A study of the gains or losses of nine canals near Beaver, Utah, was made to aid in the water allocation of the canal systems. The canals included in this study are Manderfield Ditch, Last Chance Canal, Christiansen Ditch, Mammoth Canal, City Ditch, Owens Ditch, South Field Ditch, Patterson Ditch and Aberdare Canal. Four sets of seepage measurements were made during 1974, but flow was observed in all nine canals only during the set of measurements made in June. Adjustments for fluctuations in flow in the canals were made from information obtained from water-stage recorders operated at selected locations along the canals during the time of each seepage run.

Cruff, R.W.; Mower, R.W.

1976-01-01

157

Water quality modeling for the Kennet and Avon Canal, a navigational canal in an inland catchment  

E-print Network

The Kennet and Avon Canal in southern England is experiencing severe water quality problems caused by inorganic sediment and algae. These water quality problems are affecting the angling sport of fishermen downstream of the confluence of the canal...

Zeckoski, Rebecca

2010-10-12

158

Mechanized instrumentation of root canals oscillating systems.  

PubMed

Cleaning and shaping are important steps in the root canal treatment. Despite the technological advances in endodontics, K and Hedstroen files are still widely used. In an attempt to be more effective in preparing the root canals, faster and more cutting efficient kinematic, alloys and design alternatives utilizing mechanically oscillating or rotary files are proposed. Even with all these technological innovating alternatives, the preparation of root canals remains a challenge. PMID:23579914

Leonardo, Renato de Toledo; Puente, Carlos Garcia; Jaime, Alejandro; Jent, Carol

2013-01-01

159

Correcting for ear canal collapse during audiometry.  

PubMed

The hearing thresholds of 20 subjects with normal hearing and normal ear canals and two subjects with collapsible ear canals were measured at octave frequencies from 250 to 8000 Hz under standard transducers (TDH-39) fitted with standard cushions (MX-41/AR) and experimental cushions (Telephonics 266CIII). When correction factors based on normal threshold differences were applied, thresholds obtained under the experimental cushion reasonably approximated the actual hearing of individuals with collapsible canals. PMID:6628851

Rizzo, S R

1983-01-01

160

Canal Transportation after Root Canal Instrumentation: A Comparative Study with Computed Tomography  

Microsoft Academic Search

This in vitro study used computed tomography (CT) to compare the occurrence of canal transportation in the apical third of mesiobuccal canals in maxillary molars instrumented with 3 techniques. Sixty teeth were assigned to 3 groups (n = 20), and the root canals were instrumented as follows: Group 1, hand instrumentation with K-files; Group 2, K-files coupled to an oscillatory

Mateus Silveira Martins Hartmann; Fernando Branco Barletta; Vânia Regina Camargo Fontanella; José Roberto Vanni

2007-01-01

161

Body weight and tympanic temperature change in professional rugby league players during night and day games: a study in the field.  

PubMed

This study investigated the impact of day and night games in the professional rugby league on body weight and tympanic temperature change in participants. Twenty-five players contracted to an English Super League club had their pre- and postgame body weight and tympanic temperatures recorded during 10 games played during the official professional rugby league season, representing a total of 165 player appearances. The mean (+/-SD) ambient temperature and relative humidity was 12.3 degrees C (+/-6.0) and 83.3% (+/-11.4), respectively. Body weight was recorded using a set of calibrated Soehnle digital scales with players wearing underwear only and towel-dried of all sweat (postmatch). Tympanic temperature was recorded using a Braun ThermoScan Pro LT instant thermometer. Players were allowed to ingest fluid ad libitum throughout each match. Wet and dry bulb temperatures were recorded at the commencement and completion of each match. Significant changes in pregame to postgame body weight and tympanic temperature were found, but these were not influenced by the time of day that the game was played. The mean decrease in body weight was 0.86 kg (SE 0.085, p < 0.000), and the mean increase in tympanic temperature was 0.34 degrees C (SE 0.070, p < 0.000). No significant differences in body weight or tympanic temperature change were found between forwards and backs. Participation in the English professional rugby league can produce significant decreases in body weight and increases in body temperature that may lead to impaired performance. It is important for participants, coaches, and administrators to introduce strategies that will minimize the impact of environmental conditions on thermoregulation and ultimately player performance. PMID:12930188

Meir, Rudi; Brooks, Lyndon; Shield, Tony

2003-08-01

162

10. DETAIL, SOUTHEAST SPAN THROUGH CANAL, VIEW BLOCKED BY STEEL, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. DETAIL, SOUTHEAST SPAN THROUGH CANAL, VIEW BLOCKED BY STEEL, CLAD COUNTER WEIGHT, WATER SPAN RAISED OUT OF VIEW - Cape Cod Canal Lift Bridge, Spanning Cape Cod Canal, Buzzards Bay, Barnstable County, MA

163

Dundee Canal Industrial Historic District, Beginning at George Street in ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Dundee Canal Industrial Historic District, Beginning at George Street in Passaic & extending north along Dundee Canal approximately 1.2 miles to Canal headgates opposite East Clifton Avenue in Clifton, Passaic, Passaic County, NJ

164

Five Canalled and Three-Rooted Primary Second Mandibular Molar  

PubMed Central

A thorough knowledge of root canal anatomy and its variation is necessary for successful completion of root canal procedures. Morphological variations such as additional root canals in human deciduous dentition are rare. A mandibular second primary molar with more than four canals is an interesting example of anatomic variations, especially when three of these canals are located in the distal root. This case shows a rare anatomic configuration and points out the importance of looking for additional canals. PMID:25147744

Selvakumar, Haridoss; Kavitha, Swaminathan; Bharathan, Rajendran; Varghese, Jacob Sam

2014-01-01

165

Bacteroides buccae and related taxa in necrotic root canal infections.  

PubMed Central

Fifty-seven adults with apical periodontitis were examined for the presence of nonpigmented Bacteroides species in 62 infected root canals. Nonpigmented Bacteroides species were found in 35 canals. In four cases two nonpigmented Bacteroides species and in one case three nonpigmented Bacteroides species were found. Species belonging to the B. fragilis group were not isolated. The most frequently isolated species were B. buccae (15 strains), B. oris (12 strains), and B. oralis (7 strains). alpha-Fucosidase, beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase, and beta-xylosidase appeared to be useful in the identification of B. buccae and B. oris. Corroding Bacteroides species were not found; all corroding strains were identified as Wolinella recta. The occurrence of nonpigmented Bacteroides species was compared with the severity of the periapical infection. A total of 13 B. buccae strains were found in acute infections and only 2 strains were found in asymptomatic infections, whereas other nonpigmented Bacteroides species were present in acutely infected and asymptomatic teeth with nearly equal frequency. Ultrastructural study of 13 B. buccae strains showed that 8 strains had a crystalline proteinaceous surface layer (S-layer) outside the outer membrane, but all 13 strains had areas of crystalline protein throughout in the outer membrane. The results suggest that B. buccae may have a specific role in the development of an acute opportunistic infection. Images PMID:3782459

Haapasalo, M

1986-01-01

166

Lateralised vestibular hypofunction: Canal paresis and handedness  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this retrospective study it was found that 549 out of 1175 patients seen for vestibular assessment within an 8-year period within a district hospital service showed lateralised canal paresis as determined by caloric testing. It was found that there was a tendency for canal paresis, indicative of vestibular hypofunction, to be on the side of handedness. This bias showed

Anthony OBrien; Neil Gravill

2006-01-01

167

The development of the Suez Canal  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides general background information relating to the physical characteristics and operations of the Suez Canal. In connection with the future development of the Canal, the research programme currently being undertaken by a British consortium is outlined, with particular reference to the traffic system presently operating.

J. D. Griffiths

1977-01-01

168

Experiential canalization of behavioral development: Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Waddington's (1942) notion of canalization has been widely invoked in developmental psychology to conceptualize species-typical regularities in behavioral development as genetically determined. In contrast, a developmental systems view, such as the one described in the present article, sees the genes as only one component in a hierarchy of influences, all of which contribute to canalize behavioral development. A key issue

Gilbert Gottlieb

1991-01-01

169

Geomembranes for Canal Lining Geosynthetics 2009  

E-print Network

for this application including PVC, HDPE, LDPE, CSPE, and EPDM geomembranes. Frequently these geomembranes require for canal liners based on field test programs. The first such test program was started with a PVC test to evaluate the effectiveness of a range of canal lining alternatives. Traditionally, PVC geomembranes have

170

Experiential Canalization of Behavioral Development: Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Waddington’s (1942) notion of canalization has been widely invoked in developmental psychology to conceptualize species-typical regularities in behavioral development as genetically determined. In contrast, a developmental systems view, such as the one described in the present article, sees the genes as only one component in a hierarchy of influences, all of which contribute to canalize behavioral development. A key issue

Gilbert Gottlieb

1991-01-01

171

Polyacrylamide Transport in Water Delivery Canals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Linear, anionic polyacrylamide (PAM) is being considered in the western United States as a technology to reduce seepage in unlined water delivery canals. A broad laboratory and field testing program has been undertaken to understand the benefits and potential environmental impacts of PAM use. The ability to predict the fate and transport of PAM in water delivery canals could prove

L. Chen; J. Zhu; M. Young

2007-01-01

172

Type III apical transportation of root canal.  

PubMed

Procedural accidents leading to complications such as canal transportation have been ascribed to inapt cleaning and shaping concepts. Canal transportation is an undesirable deviation from the natural canal path. Herewith a case of apical transportation of root canal resulting in endodontic retreatment failure and its management is presented. A healthy 21-year-old young male presented discomfort and swelling associated with painful endodontically retreated maxillary incisor. Radiograph revealed periradicular radiolucency involving underfilled 11 and overfilled 12. Insufficiently obturated 11 exhibited apical transportation of canal. This type III transportation was treated by periradicular surgery and repair using white mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA). Comfortable asymptomatic patient presented uneventful healing at third and fourth month recall visits. A decrease in the size of radiolucency in radiograph supported the clinical finding. In the present case, MTA is useful in repairing the transportation defect. The result of these procedures is predictable and successful. PMID:22557916

Mantri, Shiv P; Kapur, Ravi; Gupta, Niharika A; Kapur, Charu A

2012-01-01

173

Contribution of the vertical semicircular canals to the caloric nystagmus.  

PubMed

Modulation of the caloric nystagmus in response to repositioning the plane of one vertical semicircular canal from gravitational horizontal to vertical during continuous caloric stimulation was used to measure the vertical canal's contribution to the nystagmus. The rationale was to examine the thermovective response from one vertical canal at a time, after a temperature gradient had been established across its two limbs. The nystagmus was measured and analysed in three dimensions using orthogonal head-referenced coordinates. The magnitude of each semicircular canal's contribution to the overall caloric response, the canal vector, was determined in non-orthogonal, contravariant semicircular canal plane coordinates. By using the canal plane reorientation technique and contravariant canal plane coordinates, we were able to measure the proportional thermovective response magnitude generated by each vertical canal during caloric stimulation. We found that the anterior canal contributed about one-third and the posterior canal about one-tenth as much as the lateral canal did to the overall caloric response magnitude when it was reoriented from horizontal to vertical. Comparison of the eye rotation axis before and after each vertical canal plane reorientation, with the geometry of the stimulated semicircular canals, also showed directional modulation of the caloric nystagmus by the vertical canal response. When one vertical canal plane was horizontal during caloric stimulation, the eye rotation axis aligned with the resultant of the other vertical canal and the lateral canal response axes. After vertical canal plane reorientation, the eye rotation axis realigned towards the resultant of the maximally stimulated vertical canal and the lateral canal, by 55.2+/-33.9 degrees (mean+/-SD) after anterior canal plane reorientation and by 32.3+/-21.2 degrees after posterior canal reorientation. PMID:9840495

Aw, S T; Haslwanter, T; Fetter, M; Heimberger, J; Todd, M J

1998-09-01

174

Influence of surgical plugging on horizontal semicircular canal mechanics and afferent response dynamics.  

PubMed

Mechanical occlusion of one or more of the semicircular canals is a surgical procedure performed clinically to treat certain vestibular disorders and used experimentally to assess individual contributions of separate canals and/or otoliths to vestibular neural pathways. The present experiments were designed to determine if semicircular canal afferent nerve modulation to angular head acceleration is blocked by occlusion of the endolymphatic duct, and if not, what mechanism(s) might account for a persistent afferent response. The perilymphatic space was opened to gain acute access to the horizontal canal (HC) in the oyster toadfish, Opsanus tau. Firing rate responses of HC afferents to sinusoidal whole-body rotation were recorded in the unoccluded control condition, during the process of duct occlusion, and in the plugged condition. The results show that complete occlusion of the duct did not block horizontal canal sensitivity; individual afferents often exhibited a robust firing rate modulation in response to whole-body rotation in the plugged condition. At high stimulus frequencies (about >8 Hz) the average sensitivity (afferent gain; spikes/s per degrees /s of head velocity) in the plugged condition was nearly equal to that observed for unoccluded controls in the same animals. At low stimulus frequencies (about <0.1 Hz), the average sensitivity in the plugged condition was attenuated by more than two orders of magnitude relative to unoccluded controls. The peak afferent firing rate for sinusoidal stimuli was phase advanced approximately 90 degrees in plugged canals relative to their control counterparts for stimulus frequencies approximately 0.1-2 Hz. Data indicate that afferents normally sensitive to angular velocity in the control condition became sensitive to angular acceleration in the plugged condition, whereas afferents sensitive to angular acceleration in the control condition became sensitive to the derivative of acceleration or angular jerk in the plugged condition. At higher frequencies (>8 Hz), the phase of afferents in the plugged condition became nearly equal, on average, to that observed in controls. A three-dimensional biomechanical model of the HC was developed to interpret the residual response in the plugged condition. Labyrinthine fluids were modeled as incompressible and Newtonian; the membranous duct, osseous canal and temporal bone were modeled as visco-elastic materials. The predicted attenuation and phase shift in cupular responses were in close agreement with the observed changes in afferent response dynamics after canal plugging. The model attributes the response of plugged canals to labyrinthine fluid pressure gradients that lead to membranous duct deformation, a spatial redistribution of labyrinthine fluids and cupular displacement. Validity of the model was established through its ability to predict: the relationship between plugged canal responses and unoccluded controls (present study), the relationship between afferent responses recorded during mechanical indentation of the membranous duct and physiological head rotation, the magnitude and phase of endolymphatic pressure generated during HC duct indentation, and previous model results for cupular gain and phase in the rigid-duct case. The same model was adjusted to conform to the morphology of the squirrel monkey and of the human to investigate the possible influence of canal plugging in primates. Membranous duct stiffness and perilymphatic cavity stiffness were identified as the most salient model parameters. Simulations indicate that canal plugging may be the most effective in relatively small species having small labyrinths, stiff round windows, and stiff bony perilymphatic enclosures. PMID:10444695

Rabbitt, R D; Boyle, R; Highstein, S M

1999-08-01

175

Anterior canal BPPV and apogeotropic posterior canal BPPV: two rare forms of vertical canalolithiasis.  

PubMed

Posterior canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is the most frequent form of BPPV. It is characterized by a paroxysmal positioning nystagmus evoked through Dix-Hallpike and Semont positioning tests. Anterior canal BPPV (AC) is more rare than posterior canal BPPV; it presents a prevalent down beating positioning nystagmus, with a torsional component clockwise for the left canal, counterclockwise for the right canal. Due to the possible lack of the torsional component, it is sometimes difficult to identify the affected ear. An apogeotropic variant of posterior BPPV (APC) has recently been described, characterised by a paroxysmal positional nystagmus in the opposite direction to the one evoked in posterior canal BPPV: the linear component is down-beating, the torsional component is clockwise for the right canal, counter-clockwise for the left canal, so that a contra-lateral anterior canal BPPV could be simulated. During a 16 month period, of 934 BPPV patients observed, the authors identified 23 (2.5%) cases of apogeotropic posterior canal BPPV and 11 (1.2%) cases of anterior canal BPPV, diagnosed using the specific oculomotor patterns described in the literature. Anterior canal BPPV was treated with the repositioning manoeuvre proposed by Yacovino, which does not require identification of the affected side, whereas apogeotropic posterior canal BPPV was treated with the Quick Liberatory Rotation manoeuvre for the typical posterior canal BPPV, since in the Dix-Hallpike position otoliths are in the same position if they come either from the ampullary arm or from the non-ampullary arm. The direct resolution of BPPV (one step therapy) was obtained in 12/34 patients, 8/23 patients with APC and 4/11 patients with AC; canalar conversion into typical posterior canal BPPV, later treated through Quick Liberatory Rotation (two-step therapy), was obtained in 19 patients,14/23 with APC and 5/11 with AC. Three patients were lost to follow-up. Considering the effects of therapeutic manoeuvres, the authors propose a grading system for diagnosis of AC and APC: "certain" when a canalar conversion in ipsilateral typical posterior canal BPPV is obtained; "probable" when APC or AC are directly resolved; "possible" when disease is not resolved and cerebral neuroimaging is negative for neurological diseases. Our results show that the oculomotor patterns proposed in the literature are effective in diagnosing APC and AC, and that APC is more frequent than AC. Both of these rare forms of vertical canal BPPV can be treated effectively with liberatory manoeuvres. PMID:24882928

Califano, L; Salafia, F; Mazzone, S; Melillo, M G; Califano, M

2014-06-01

176

6. VIEW SHOWING WOODEN FLUMES ACROSS MARICOPA CANAL. SUCH FLUMES ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. VIEW SHOWING WOODEN FLUMES ACROSS MARICOPA CANAL. SUCH FLUMES WERE USED TO CARRY WATER FROM ONE CANAL TO ANOTHER, BEFORE THE CANAL COMPANIES WERE BOUGHT BY THE GOVERNMENT, AND THE SYSTEM UNIFIED. Photographer unknown, no date - Grand Canal, North side of Salt River, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

177

103. CANAL AT THE ENTRANCE TO THE POMPTON FEEDER NEAR ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

103. CANAL AT THE ENTRANCE TO THE POMPTON FEEDER NEAR MOUNTAIN VIEW, NEW JERSEY. THE POMPTON FEEDER BOATS TO TRAVEL NORTH 4.26 MILES TO TO POMPTON AS WELL AS PROVIDING THE MAIN CANAL WITH WATER FROM GREENWOOD LAKE. A MODIFIED QUEEN POST TRUSS BRIDGE SPANS THE CANAL IN THE FOREGROUND. - Morris Canal, Phillipsburg, Warren County, NJ

178

131. FORKS DIVERSION, HIGH LINE AND LOW LINE CANALS, TWIN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

131. FORKS DIVERSION, HIGH LINE AND LOW LINE CANALS, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF HANSEN, IDAHO; INLET SIDE OF LOW LINE CANAL, WEST VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

179

136. FORKS DIVERSION, HIGH LINE AND LOW LINE CANALS, TWIN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

136. FORKS DIVERSION, HIGH LINE AND LOW LINE CANALS, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF HANSEN, IDAHO; HIGH LINE GATES FROM THE CANAL SIDE. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

180

3. Dundee Canal looking northwest from north of Dundee Textile ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. Dundee Canal looking northwest from north of Dundee Textile Company Mill - Dundee Canal Industrial Historic District, Beginning at George Street in Passaic & extending north along Dundee Canal approximately 1.2 miles to Canal headgates opposite East Clifton Avenue in Clifton, Passaic, Passaic County, NJ

181

Looking west at lift bridge, canal, and tow path, with ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Looking west at lift bridge, canal, and tow path, with U.S. Rt. 11 bridge in background. Remnant of spur track to R. Paul Smith Power Station is at left, and abandoned Western Maryland Railway right of way parallels canal at right. - Potomac Edison Company, Chesapeake & Ohio Canal Bridge, Spanning C & O Canal South of U.S. 11, Williamsport, Washington County, MD

182

A permanent mandibular second molar with seven root canal systems.  

PubMed

This case report illustrates the nonsurgical endodontic management of a seven-canaled mandibular second molar. The root canal configuration presented as four mesial and three distal canals. Identification of the canal system was made with the aid of magnification, ultrasonics, and multiple angulated radiographs. Postoperative examination at 18 months showed a clinically asymptomatic tooth with resolution of the periapical pathology. PMID:24634902

Kottoor, Jojo; Paul, Kuriachan Kottanathu; Mathew, Joy; George, Saira; Mathew, Jain; Roy, Arun

2014-05-01

183

158. Photocopy of transit book (taken from Twin Falls Canal ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

158. Photocopy of transit book (taken from Twin Falls Canal Company Transit Book #404T, Page 3, #46, Division One). START OF MAIN CANAL SURVEY, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

184

154. Photocopy of transit book (taken from Twin Falls Canal ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

154. Photocopy of transit book (taken from Twin Falls Canal Company Surveyor's Transit Book #405T, Page 2, #46 Division One). STATEMENT OF SIGHT-SETTING FOR 1903 SURVEY TO ALIGN SOUTH SIDE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

185

150. Photocopy of drawing (taken from Twin Falls Canal Company ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

150. Photocopy of drawing (taken from Twin Falls Canal Company Surveyor's Book #363, Page 42, entitled, 'Diversion Tunnels', located in Twin Falls Canal Company office, Twin Falls, Idaho). PLAN OF DIVERSION TUNNELS, MILNER DAM. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

186

7. View north at back (canal side) of culvert inlet, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. View north at back (canal side) of culvert inlet, with canal bank completely removed. Background to foreground: back of inlet headwall with tops of high inlet barrels exposed; vertical transition wall between high inlet barrels and low, interior, inlet barrels; tops of low interior barrels; vertical heartening planks and low cutoff wall at site of former canal edge of canal bank; dewatered canal bed and plank sheathing on top of culvert barrels beneath canal bed. - Delaware & Raritan Canal, Ten Mile Run Culvert, 1.5 miles South of Blackwells Road, East Millstone, Somerset County, NJ

187

Superior semicircular canal dehiscence : auditory mechanisms  

E-print Network

Superior semicircular canal dehiscence (SCD) syndrome is a recently defined clinical disorder in which patients present to the clinic with vestibular symptoms, auditory symptoms, or both. Understanding the effect of SCD, ...

Songer, Jocelyn Evelyn

2006-01-01

188

Root Canal Treatment from Start to Finish  

MedlinePLUS

... through the crown of the tooth to the pulp chamber. 3. Removing the Infected/Inflamed Tissue Special ... are used to clean the infection and unhealthy pulp out of the canals. Then they shape the ...

189

Flow Over Faka Union Canal Weir #1  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Freshwater flowing over the Faka Union Canal Weir #1 near Port of the Islands, Collier County, Florida. During cold weather, freshwater flows here can maintain a downstream salinity gradient that creates a warm water refuge for manatees. ...

2010-06-01

190

An Introduction to the Panama Canal Watershed  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Panama Canal Watershed is a hydrologically complex, ecologically diverse managed natural-artificial managed water resource system composed of many sub-basins, rivers, and dammed lakes extending across 2,982 km2 on both sides of the Panama Canal. The upper Río Chagres basin is the largest headwater unit in the watershed, occupying about one-third the total area but supplying almost half of the

Russell S. Harmon

191

Mechanics of the Panama Canal slides  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Dr. Becker visited the Canal Zone in 1913 as a geologist of the United States Geological Survey and since that time has given the problem the benefit of his study. His appointment as a member of the committee of the National Academy of Sciences has made it appropriate for his conclusions, based upon his personal observations and already reported in part to the Canal Commission, to be stated for the benefit of his associates and other American scientists and engineers.

Becker, George F.

1917-01-01

192

Surgical Anatomy of the Sacral Hiatus for Caudal Access to the Spinal Canal  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The sacral hiatus is used for access to the spinal canal in many neurosurgical and anesthesiologic procedures. The aim of\\u000a the present paper is to give a review of its anatomical characteristics relevant to permit correct and uncomplicated accesses.\\u000a The sacral hiatus is posteriorly closed by the superficial dorsal sacrococcygeal ligament (also called sacrococcygeal membrane)\\u000a which has to be pierced

Andrea Porzionato; Veronica Macchi; Anna Parenti; Raffaele De Caro

193

Teaching canal hydraulics and control using a computer game or a scale model canal  

E-print Network

Teaching canal hydraulics and control using a computer game or a scale model canal Pierre-olivier.malaterre@cemagref.fr David C. ROGERS Address: Rogers Engineering Hydraulics, Inc. 2650 Tabor St, Lakewood CO 80215, USA Email by improving the hydraulic efficiency of irrigation schemes. Technical concepts involved in these modernization

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

194

Seepage study of the Rocky Point Canal and the Grey Mountain-Pleasant Valley Canal systems, Duchesne County, Utah  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report describes the study of the Rocky Point Canal system in the vicinity of Duchesne and the Grey Mountain-Pleasant Valley Canal system between Duchesne and Myton, in the Uinta Basin, Duchesne County, Utah. The Rocky Point Canal diverts from the left bank of the Duchesne River about 4 mi north of Duchesne. This canal splits into the upper Rocky Point Canal and the lower Rocky Point Canal about 5.2 mi below its head. The Grey Mountain Canal diverts from the right bank of the Duchesne River about 6 mi east of Duchesne. At a point about 7.6 mi below the head, the Pleasant Valley Canal diverts from the right bank of the Grey Mountain Canal.

Cruff, R. W.; Hood, J. W.

1976-01-01

195

Malignant Melanoma of the External Auditory Canal  

PubMed Central

Primary malignant melanoma of the external auditory canal is rarely reported. Malignant melanoma of the ear is estimated to occur in 1-4% of all skin melanomas and about 7-20% of melanomas of the head and neck region. The pathophysiology of these tumours is different from other skin lesions because of their anatomical and functional characteristics. The case presented is of a 11 year old female child with malignant melanoma of the external auditory canal confined to the right side, who initially presented with right ear pain, bleeding, post auricular swelling and also a mass in the external auditory canal which was thought to be an aural polyp in the right ear. Excision of the tumour was accomplished by a radical mastoidectomy. It was confirmed to be malignant melanoma after histopathological examination and Immunohistochemistry. Despite all efforts, the patient succumbed to the disease after receiving three cycles of chemotherapy. Even though this malignancy is rarely found in the external auditory canal, it should be expanded into the differential diagnosis of an aural polyp and a post aural abscess. The incidence, symptoms, investigations, treatment and prognosis of malignant melanoma of the external auditory canal is discussed in this article. PMID:25302202

Kumar, Prasanna; Ravikumar, A; Joseph, Leena Dennis; Rajendiran, Swaminathan

2014-01-01

196

Low-frequency otolith and semicircular canal interactions after canal inactivation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During sustained constant velocity and low-frequency off-vertical axis rotations (OVAR), otolith signals contribute significantly to slow-phase eye velocity. The adaptive plasticity of these responses was investigated here after semicircular canal plugging. Inactivation of semicircular canals results in a highly compromised and deficient vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR). Based on the VOR enhancement hypothesis, one could expect an adaptive increase of otolith-borne angular velocity signals due to combined otolith/canal inputs after inactivation of the semicircular canals. Contrary to expectations, however, the steady-state slow-phase velocity during constant velocity OVAR decreased in amplitude over time. A similar progressive decrease in VOR gain was also observed during low-frequency off-vertical axis oscillations. This response deterioration was present in animals with either lateral or vertical semicircular canals inactivated and was limited to the plane(s) of the plugged canals. The results are consistent with the idea that the low-frequency otolith signals do not simply enhance VOR responses. Rather, the nervous system appears to correlate vestibular sensory information from the otoliths and the semicircular canals to generate an integral response to head motion.

Angelaki, D. E.; Merfeld, D. M.; Hess, B. J.

2000-01-01

197

46 CFR 69.7 - Vessels transiting the Panama and Suez Canals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...All vessels intending to transit the Suez Canal must be measured and certificated under the Arab Republic of Egypt Suez Canal Authority Rules of Navigation, part IV. (c) Panama Canal and Suez Canal tonnage certificates are in...

2010-10-01

198

46 CFR 69.7 - Vessels transiting the Panama and Suez Canals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...All vessels intending to transit the Suez Canal must be measured and certificated under the Arab Republic of Egypt Suez Canal Authority Rules of Navigation, part IV. (c) Panama Canal and Suez Canal tonnage certificates are in...

2012-10-01

199

46 CFR 69.7 - Vessels transiting the Panama and Suez Canals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...All vessels intending to transit the Suez Canal must be measured and certificated under the Arab Republic of Egypt Suez Canal Authority Rules of Navigation, part IV. (c) Panama Canal and Suez Canal tonnage certificates are in...

2011-10-01

200

46 CFR 69.7 - Vessels transiting the Panama and Suez Canals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...All vessels intending to transit the Suez Canal must be measured and certificated under the Arab Republic of Egypt Suez Canal Authority Rules of Navigation, part IV. (c) Panama Canal and Suez Canal tonnage certificates are in...

2013-10-01

201

2. SECONDARY DIVERSION GATE, NORTH/PILOT BUTTE CANAL, VIEW TO THE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. SECONDARY DIVERSION GATE, NORTH/PILOT BUTTE CANAL, VIEW TO THE SOUTHWEST. - North Canal Dam & Diversion Canals, North Canal, North Division Street & U.S. Highway 97 vicinity, Bend, Deschutes County, OR

202

Fallopian canal dehiscence at pediatric cholesteatoma surgery.  

PubMed

The objectives of the study were to investigate the characteristics of ears with dehiscence of the fallopian canal at the time of cholesteatoma surgery and the relationship between dehiscence and age, and to consider the reasons why the fallopian canal tends to be preserved in pediatric patients. This study included 37 ears with cholesteatoma in pediatric patients (mean age 9.2 years, age range 4-14 years) and 273 ears with cholesteatoma in non-pediatric patients (mean age 45 years, age range 15-84 years). Patients were treated between January 2006 and April 2012. All patients had undergone prior tympanoplasty under general anesthesia at our institution. Facial canal dehiscence was evaluated by inspection and through palpation by blunt picking after the pathological tissues had been removed. The size of fallopian canal dehiscence was not investigated in this study. The frequency of dehiscence of the fallopian canal according to the type of cholesteatoma and coexisting pathological conditions, including destruction of the stapes, presence of a labyrinthine fistula, and dural exposure, were compared between the pediatric and non-pediatric groups. The frequency of dehiscence in cases with destruction of the stapes was also compared between the pediatric and non-pediatric groups. Dehiscence of the fallopian canal occurred in 6 of 37 ears (16.8 %) in the pediatric group and 91 of 273 ears (33.3 %) in the non-pediatric group (p < 0.05). In congenital cholesteatoma, the frequency of dehiscence was lower in the pediatric group than in the non-pediatric group (p < 0.05). However, in other types of cholesteatoma there was no statistically difference between the two types of cholesteatoma. The frequency of the destruction of the stapes was higher in the pediatric group than in the non-pediatric group (43.2 vs. 16.5 %, p < 0.001). In patients with severe destruction of the stapes, the fallopian canal was preserved more frequently in the pediatric group than in the non-pediatric group (p < 0.05). The frequency of dehiscence of the fallopian canal at the time of cholesteatoma surgery was lower in the ears of pediatric patients than in the ears of non-pediatric patients. This is probably due to the difference in types of cholesteatoma between the two groups and other unknown mechanisms. PMID:24162771

Shinnabe, Akihiro; Yamamoto, Hiroki; Hara, Mariko; Hasegawa, Masayo; Matsuzawa, Shingo; Kanazawa, Hiromi; Yoshida, Naohiro; Iino, Yukiko

2014-11-01

203

On the mechanics of growing thin biological membranes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite their seemingly delicate appearance, thin biological membranes fulfill various crucial roles in the human body and can sustain substantial mechanical loads. Unlike engineering structures, biological membranes are able to grow and adapt to changes in their mechanical environment. Finite element modeling of biological growth holds the potential to better understand the interplay of membrane form and function and to reliably predict the effects of disease or medical intervention. However, standard continuum elements typically fail to represent thin biological membranes efficiently, accurately, and robustly. Moreover, continuum models are typically cumbersome to generate from surface-based medical imaging data. Here we propose a computational model for finite membrane growth using a classical midsurface representation compatible with standard shell elements. By assuming elastic incompressibility and membrane-only growth, the model a priori satisfies the zero-normal stress condition. To demonstrate its modular nature, we implement the membrane growth model into the general-purpose non-linear finite element package Abaqus/Standard using the concept of user subroutines. To probe efficiently and robustness, we simulate selected benchmark examples of growing biological membranes under different loading conditions. To demonstrate the clinical potential, we simulate the functional adaptation of a heart valve leaflet in ischemic cardiomyopathy. We believe that our novel approach will be widely applicable to simulate the adaptive chronic growth of thin biological structures including skin membranes, mucous membranes, fetal membranes, tympanic membranes, corneoscleral membranes, and heart valve membranes. Ultimately, our model can be used to identify diseased states, predict disease evolution, and guide the design of interventional or pharmaceutic therapies to arrest or revert disease progression.

Rausch, Manuel K.; Kuhl, Ellen

2014-02-01

204

5. VIEW SHOWING DREDGING OF ARIZONA CANAL NEAR THE GRANITE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. VIEW SHOWING DREDGING OF ARIZONA CANAL NEAR THE GRANITE REEF DAM. SOUTH INTAKE OF THE DAM IS IN THE BACKGROUND Photographer: Walter J. Lubken. March 1908 - Arizona Canal, North of Salt River, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

205

78. POWER CANAL DIVERSION DAM, EXISTING STRUCTURE Courtesy of Dept. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

78. POWER CANAL DIVERSION DAM, EXISTING STRUCTURE Courtesy of Dept. of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation, Salt River Project - Roosevelt Power Canal & Diversion Dam, Parallels Salt River, Roosevelt, Gila County, AZ

206

View east, view of full length of canal, west wall ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View east, view of full length of canal, west wall pileheads in foreground. - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad Freight & Rail Yard, Long Slip Canal, New Jersey Transit Hoboken Rail Yard, Hoboken, Hudson County, NJ

207

View north, north wall of canal, hoboken rail yard in ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View north, north wall of canal, hoboken rail yard in background. - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad Freight & Rail Yard, Long Slip Canal, New Jersey Transit Hoboken Rail Yard, Hoboken, Hudson County, NJ

208

View north, west (back) wall of canal, mu shed in ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View north, west (back) wall of canal, mu shed in background. - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad Freight & Rail Yard, Long Slip Canal, New Jersey Transit Hoboken Rail Yard, Hoboken, Hudson County, NJ

209

OVERALL VIEW OF CASCADE CANAL COMPANY CRIB DAM, LOOKING UPSTREAM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

OVERALL VIEW OF CASCADE CANAL COMPANY CRIB DAM, LOOKING UPSTREAM FROM DIRECTION OF KACHESS DAM. VIEW TO NORTH - Kachess Dam, 1904 Cascade Canal Company Crib Dam, Kachess River, 1.5 miles north of Interstate 90, Easton, Kittitas County, WA

210

1. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF THE IRRIGATION CANAL BRIDGE, LOOKING NORTHWESTERLY. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF THE IRRIGATION CANAL BRIDGE, LOOKING NORTHWESTERLY. - Washington Water Power Company Post Falls Power Plant, Irrigation Canal Bridge, West of intersection of Spokane & Fourth Streets, Post Falls, Kootenai County, ID

211

31. Floating original Ship Canal draw (in background) to University ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

31. Floating original Ship Canal draw (in background) to University Heights location. New Ship Canal draw in foreground. June 1906 photograph. - University Heights Bridge, Spanning Harlem River at 207th Street & West Harlem Road, New York, New York County, NY

212

58. View of lined canal looking west from road bridge ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

58. View of lined canal looking west from road bridge crossing lined canal. Photo by Brian C. Morris, Puget Power, 1989. - Puget Sound Power & Light Company, White River Hydroelectric Project, 600 North River Avenue, Dieringer, Pierce County, WA

213

14. VIEW OF WESTERN CANAL AT THE SALT RIVER PROJECT'S ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. VIEW OF WESTERN CANAL AT THE SALT RIVER PROJECT'S KYRENE STEAM POWER PLANT, TEMPE. THE WESTERN CANAL BEGINS TO TURN NORTH AT THIS POINT, AND DIVERTS WATER TO THE HIGHLINE PUMP PLANT AND THE KYRENE LATERAL. THE KYRENE PLANT INLET (LEFT-CENTER) ALSO DIVERTS CANAL WATER FOR PLANT OPERATION AND COOLING. - Western Canal, South side of Salt River between Tempe, Phoenix & Mesa, Mesa, Maricopa County, AZ

214

Matters of simulation of the semicircular canal system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A scale model of the human semicircular canal system was developed based on the theory of dynamic similitude. This enlarged model makes it convenient to conduct tests on the vestibular processes and dynamics in the semicircular canals. Tests revealed hydromechanical interaction between canals, with asymmetry of the conditions of movement of the endolymph in the canals in opposite directions. A type of vestibular reactions, occurring with angular oscillations of the head, was predicted and demonstrated using this model and human test subjects.

Gurfinkel, V. S.; Petukhov, S. V.

1977-01-01

215

Hydroxylapatite canal wall reconstruction in patients with otologic dilemmas.  

PubMed

Posterior canal wall reconstruction using porous hydroxylapatite (HA), Grote canal wall prosthesis (Richards), has been recommended for obliteration of troublesome "canal-wall-down" procedures. The same method has been utilized during the management of diverse otologic problems. The results obtained encourage the further utilization of this technique in the management of various otologic dilemmas. Indications for reconstruction of the posterior canal wall using HA are suggested. PMID:2178321

Lenis, A

1990-11-01

216

6. View southwest, culvert inlet with canal bank completely removed. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. View southwest, culvert inlet with canal bank completely removed. Left to right: back of headwall; tops of high inlet barrels; vertical transition wall between high inlet barrels and low, interior, inlet barrels; tops of low interior barrels; vertical heartening planks and low cutoff wall along former edge of canal bank; dewatered canal bed. - Delaware & Raritan Canal, Ten Mile Run Culvert, 1.5 miles South of Blackwells Road, East Millstone, Somerset County, NJ

217

Tympanic border cells are Wnt-responsive and can act as progenitors for postnatal mouse cochlear cells  

PubMed Central

Permanent hearing loss is caused by the irreversible damage of cochlear sensory hair cells and nonsensory supporting cells. In the postnatal cochlea, the sensory epithelium is terminally differentiated, whereas tympanic border cells (TBCs) beneath the sensory epithelium are proliferative. The functions of TBCs are poorly characterized. Using an Axin2lacZ Wnt reporter mouse, we found transient but robust Wnt signaling and proliferation in TBCs during the first 3 postnatal weeks, when the number of TBCs decreases. In vivo lineage tracing shows that a subset of hair cells and supporting cells is derived postnatally from Axin2-expressing TBCs. In cochlear explants, Wnt agonists stimulated the proliferation of TBCs, whereas Wnt inhibitors suppressed it. In addition, purified Axin2lacZ cells were clonogenic and self-renewing in culture in a Wnt-dependent manner, and were able to differentiate into hair cell-like and supporting cell-like cells. Taken together, our data indicate that Axin2-positive TBCs are Wnt responsive and can act as precursors to sensory epithelial cells in the postnatal cochlea. PMID:23444352

Jan, Taha Adnan; Chai, Renjie; Sayyid, Zahra Nabi; van Amerongen, Renee; Xia, Anping; Wang, Tian; Sinkkonen, Saku Tapani; Zeng, Yi Arial; Levin, Jared Ruben; Heller, Stefan; Nusse, Roel; Cheng, Alan Gi-Lun

2013-01-01

218

Looking east at canal and R. Paul Smith Power Station. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Looking east at canal and R. Paul Smith Power Station. The dark trestle at right center carried the spur track to coal unloading facilities located in the space now occupied by the coal pile. - Potomac Edison Company, Chesapeake & Ohio Canal Bridge, Spanning C & O Canal South of U.S. 11, Williamsport, Washington County, MD

219

Forecasting the Suez Canal traffic: a neural network analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the Suez Canal is the most important man-made waterway in the world, rivaled perhaps only by the Panama Canal, little research has been done into forecasting its traffic flows. This paper uses both univariate ARIMA (Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average) and Neural network models to forecast the maritime traffic flows in the Suez Canal which are expressed in tons. One

Mohamed M. Mostafa

2004-01-01

220

20. VIEW OF GRAND CANAL, SHOWING OLD ALIGNMENT, LOOKING EAST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

20. VIEW OF GRAND CANAL, SHOWING OLD ALIGNMENT, LOOKING EAST FROM SOUTH BANK NEAR SETTLING BASIN (see HAER Photograph No. AZ-30-17, Crosscut Hydro Plant). THE LARGE FOREGROUND PIPE CARRIED WATER ACROSS THE CANAL FROM THE SETTLING BASIN TO THE CROSSCUT STEAM PLANT. Photographer: Mark Durben, April 1989 - Grand Canal, North side of Salt River, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

221

19. Photocopied August 1978. CANAL SECTION I, LOOKING EAST, 1900, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

19. Photocopied August 1978. CANAL SECTION I, LOOKING EAST, 1900, WITH SEVERAL PARTIALLY SUBMERGED STEAM SHOVELS SHOWN IN THE FLOODED CANAL. ONE OF THE TEMPORARY BRIDGES CONSTRUCTED OVER THE CANAL RIGHT -OF-WAY IS VISIBLE IN THE BACKGROUND. (39) - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

222

Newer Root Canal Irrigants in Horizon: A Review  

PubMed Central

Sodium hypochloride is the most commonly used endodontic irrigant, despite limitations. None of the presently available root canal irrigants satisfy the requirements of ideal root canal irrigant. Newer root canal irrigants are studied for potential replacement of sodium hypochloride. This article reviews the potential irrigants with their advantages and limitations with their future in endodontic irrigation. PMID:22190936

Jaju, Sushma; Jaju, Prashant P.

2011-01-01

223

134. FORKS DIVERSION, HIGH LINE AND LOW LINE CANALS, TWIN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

134. FORKS DIVERSION, HIGH LINE AND LOW LINE CANALS, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF HANSEN, IDAHO; VIEW OF LOW LINE AND POWER GATES, WEST VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

224

132. FORKS DIVERSION, HIGH LINE AND LOW LINE CANALS, TWIN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

132. FORKS DIVERSION, HIGH LINE AND LOW LINE CANALS, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF HANSEN, IDAHO; POWER GATES FOR HYDRO-ELECTRIC. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

225

133. FORKS DIVERSION, HIGH LINE AND LOW LINE CANALS, TWIN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

133. FORKS DIVERSION, HIGH LINE AND LOW LINE CANALS, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF HANSEN, IDAHO; VIEW OF OUTLET SIDE OF LOW LINE GATES. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

226

130. FORKS DIVERSION, HIGH LINE AND LOW LINE CANALS, TWIN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

130. FORKS DIVERSION, HIGH LINE AND LOW LINE CANALS, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF HANSEN, IDAHO; OUTLET SIDE OF THE HIGH LINE GATES, NORTH VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

227

197. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls, Canal Company, date unknown. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

197. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls, Canal Company, date unknown. GATE STEMS AND LIFTING DEVICES, NO COUNTY; BLUEPRINT SKETCHES. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

228

Aquatic Vegetation in Irrigation Canals A Guide to Integrated Management  

E-print Network

Aquatic Vegetation in Irrigation Canals A Guide to Integrated Management #12;Aquatic Vegetation in Irrigation Canals A Guide to Integrated Management For: Oregon Department of Agriculture and U Southern Oregon University October 1999 #12;Aquatic Vegetation in Irrigation Canals A Guide to Integrated

229

70. GENERAL VIEW OF CANAL IN DOVER LOOKING EAST. WHAT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

70. GENERAL VIEW OF CANAL IN DOVER LOOKING EAST. WHAT APPEARS TO BE A SWING BRIDGE IS VISIBLE ACROSS CANAL ON RIGHT SIDE OF PHOTOGRAPH (NOTE THAT THIS MAY ALSO BE A LIFT BRIDGE WITH THE LIFT EQUIPMENT REMOVED). - Morris Canal, Phillipsburg, Warren County, NJ

230

5 CFR 550.714 - Panama Canal Commission employees.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Panama Canal Commission employees. 550.714...GENERAL) Severance Pay § 550.714 Panama Canal Commission employees. (a...employee separated from employment with the Panama Canal Commission as a result of the...

2010-01-01

231

4. Lower end of the Old Crosscut Canal, aerial overhead ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. Lower end of the Old Crosscut Canal, aerial overhead view. Old Crosscut runs top right to center, west of sheds and piles; Grand Canal runs lower right to center left. Note control gates on Grand, but no wasteway. Photographer unknown, 1952. Source: Pueblo Grande Museum cultural Park. - Old Crosscut Canal, North Side of Salt River, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

232

155. Photocopy of transit book (taken from Twin Falls Canal ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

155. Photocopy of transit book (taken from Twin Falls Canal Company Surveyor's Transit Book #405T, Page 1, #46 Division One). STATEMENT RE: SURVEY ALIGNMENT 3/03, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

233

151. Photocopy of drawing (taken from Twin Falls Canal Company ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

151. Photocopy of drawing (taken from Twin Falls Canal Company Surveyor's Transit Book #363, Page 20). SURVEY PRINT SHOWING POINT SPILLWAY AND FIELD NOTES, TWIN FALLS COUNTY NORTHWEST OF MURTAUGH, IDAHO. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

234

152. Photocopy of drawing (taken from Twin Falls Canal Company ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

152. Photocopy of drawing (taken from Twin Falls Canal Company Surveyor's Transit Book #363, Page 1). 1912 CONDITION REPORT OF MILNER DAM AREA, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

235

153. Photocopy of drawing (taken from Twin Falls Canal Company ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

153. Photocopy of drawing (taken from Twin Falls Canal Company Field Book #360, Page 74, entitled, 'Clay-Seam Cut-Off.' Cross-Reference: ID-15-157). MILNER DAM SURVEY, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

236

156. Photocopy of written record (taken from Twin Falls Canal ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

156. Photocopy of written record (taken from Twin Falls Canal Company, Low Line Book #1, pp.2,3). LOW LINE CONTRACTORS AND BORROW RECORD. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

237

History and expansion of the Panama Canal  

Microsoft Academic Search

PREFACE: 'The creation of the Panama Canal was far more than a vast, unprecedented feat of engineering. It was a profoundly important historic event and a sweeping human drama not unlike that of war. Apart from wars, it represented the largest, most costly single effort ever before mounted anywhere on earth. It held the world's attention over a span of

R. Frank Chiappetta; Tom Treleaven; Eduardo Nixon; John Dean Smith

1998-01-01

238

Aerial View of Faka Union Canal, Florida  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

This aerial view shows how Faka Union Canal (visible as a straight channel of water) connects the coastal environment, where manatees feed, to freshwater inlets. The Ten Thousand Islands region in the foreground supports sea grass beds where manatees feed. During cold winter months, manatees can swi...

2010-06-01

239

ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AT LOVE CANAL: VOLUME III  

EPA Science Inventory

During the summer and fall of 1980 the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conducted a comprehensive multimedia environmental monitoring program in the vicinity of the inactive hazardous wastes landfill known as Love Canal, located in Niagara Falls, New York. The studies c...

240

ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AT LOVE CANAL: VOLUME I  

EPA Science Inventory

During the summer and fall of 1980 the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conducted a comprehensive multimedia environmental monitoring program in the vicinity of the inactive hazardous wastes landfill known as Love Canal, located in Niagara Falls, New York. The studies c...

241

Congenital narrowing of the spinal canal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Further examples of congenital narrowing of the spinal canal in the lumbar and cervical regions are presented. It is implied that the condition is a nosological entity. Neurogenic intermittent claudication often accompanies the lumbar variety; the diagnosis in the cervical region is, however, radiological. The similarity to some of the features of achondroplasia is stressed. Symptoms are usually relieved by

D O Hancock

1967-01-01

242

QUALITY ASSURANCE PLAN: LOVE CANAL STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

The four volumes in this set comprise the working guideline documents for the Love Canal Study. The documents were developed to direct both the prime contractor and subcontractors while performing for the Environmental Protection Agency. Detailed procedures for each analysis type...

243

Effect of medications for root canal treatment on bonding to root canal dentin.  

PubMed

Use of resin-based restorative materials recently has become widely accepted for treatment of endodontically treated teeth. However, some solutions routinely used during endodontic treatment procedures may have an effect on bond strengths of adhesive materials to root canal dentin. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of various medications on microtensile bond strength to root canal dentin. Fourteen extracted human single-rooted teeth were used. The crowns and the pulp tissues were removed. The root canals were then instrumented and widened to the same size. The teeth were randomly divided into seven groups of two teeth each. The root canal dentin walls of the roots were treated with 5% sodium hypochloride (NaOCI), 3% hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), the combination of H2O2 and NaOCl, or 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate for 60 s; or calcium hydroxide or formocresol for 24 h. The teeth in control group were irrigated with water. The root canals were obturated using C&B Metabond. After 24 h of storage in distilled water, serial 1-mm-thick cross-sections were cut, and approximately 12 samples were obtained from each group. Microtensile bond strengths to root canal dentin were then measured by using an Instron machine. The data were recorded and expressed as MPa. The results indicated that NaOCI, H2O2, or a combination of NaOCl and H2O2 treatment decreased bond strength to root canal dentin significantly (p < 0.05). The teeth treated with chlorhexidine solution showed the highest bond strength values (p < 0.05). In conclusion, chlorhexidine is an appropriate irrigant solution for root canal treatment before adhesive post core applications. PMID:14977310

Erdemir, Ali; Ari, Hale; Güngüne?, Hakan; Belli, Sema

2004-02-01

244

CT detection of facial canal dehiscence and semicircular canal fistula: Comparison with surgical findings  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy of high resolution CT (HRCT) in the detection of facial canal dehiscence and semicircular canal fistula, the preoperative evaluation of both of which is clinically very important for ear surgery. We retrospectively reviewed the HRCT findings in 61 patients who underwent mastoidectomy at Yamagata University between 1989 and 1993. The HRCT images were obtained in the axial and semicoronal planes using 1 mm slice thickness and 1 mm intersection gap. In 46 (75%) of the 61 patients, the HRCT image-based assessment of the facial canal dehiscence coincided with the surgical findings. The data for the facial canal revealed sensitivity of 66% and specificity of 84%. For semicircular canal fistula. in 59 (97%) of the 61 patients, the HRCT image-based assessment and the surgical findings coincided. The image-based assessment in the remaining two patients, who both had massive cholesteatoma, was false-positive. HRCT is useful in the diagnosis of facial canal dehiscence and labyrinthine fistula, but its limitations should also be recognized. 12 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

Fuse, Takeo; Tada, Yuichiro; Aoyagi, Masaru; Sugai, Yukio [Yamagata Univ. School of Medicine (Japan)] [Yamagata Univ. School of Medicine (Japan)

1996-03-01

245

Dorello's Canal for Laymen: A Lego-Like Presentation.  

PubMed

Objective?Dorello's canal was first described by Gruber in 1859, and later by Dorello. Vail also described the anatomy of Dorello's canal. In the preceding century, Dorello's canal was clinically important, in understanding sixth nerve palsy and nowadays it is mostly important for skull base surgery. The understanding of the three dimensional anatomy, of this canal is very difficult to understand, and there is no simple explanation for its anatomy and its relationship with adjacent structures. We present a simple, Lego-like, presentation of Dorello's canal, in a stepwise manner. Materials and Methods?Dorello's canal was dissected in five formalin-fixed cadaver specimens (10 sides). The craniotomy was performed, while preserving the neural and vascular structures associated with the canal. A 3D model was created, to explain the canal's anatomy. Results?Using the petrous pyramid, the sixth nerve, the cavernous sinus, the trigeminal ganglion, the petorclival ligament and the posterior clinoid, the three-dimensional structure of Dorello's canal was defined. This simple representation aids in understanding the three dimensional relationship of Dorello's canal to its neighboring structures. Conclusion?Dorello's canal with its three dimensional structure and relationship to its neighboring anatomical structures could be reconstructed using a few anatomical building blocks. This method simplifies the understanding of this complex anatomical structure, and could be used for teaching purposes for aspiring neurosurgeons, and anatomy students. PMID:23730547

Ezer, Haim; Banerjee, Anirban Deep; Thakur, Jai Deep; Nanda, Anil

2012-06-01

246

Endodontic Management of a Maxillary First Molar with Two Palatal Canals and a Single Buccal Canal: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Thorough knowledge of root canal morphology is essential for the endodontic therapy. There are rare variations in canal number and configuration in maxillary molars, which could affect treatment outcome. This paper presents the endodontic management of a maxillary first molar with two palatal canals in one root (Vertucci type IV) and a single buccal canal. In this paper cone-beam computed tomography was made to asses this morphology. This paper is intended to reinforce clinician's awareness of the rare morphology of root canals. PMID:23304564

Atash biz Yeganeh, Leila; Adel, Mamak; Vahedi, Reza; Tofangchiha, Maryam

2012-01-01

247

Analysis of transients in a canal network  

Microsoft Academic Search

A generalised formulation of the mathematical model developed for the analysis of transients in a canal network, under subcritical\\u000a flow, with any realistic combination of control structures and their multiple operations, has been presented. The model accounts\\u000a for a large variety of control structures such as weirs, gates, notches etc. discharging under different conditions, namely\\u000a submerged and unsubmerged. A numerical

Rajeev Misra; M S Mohan Kumar; K Sridharan

1991-01-01

248

Implantation of the Semicircular Canals with Preservation of Hearing and Rotational Sensitivity: a vestibular neurostimulator suitable for clinical research  

PubMed Central

Hypothesis It is possible to implant a stimulating electrode array in the semicircular canals without damaging rotational sensitivity or hearing. The electrodes will evoke robust and precisely controlled eye-movements Background A number of groups are attempting to develop a neural prosthesis to ameliorate abnormal vestibular function. Animal studies demonstrate that electrodes near the canal ampullae can produce electrically-evoked eye movements. The target condition of these studies is typically bilateral vestibular hypofunction. Such a device could potentially be more widely useful clinically, and would have a simpler roadmap to regulatory approval if it produced minimal or no damage to the native vestibular and auditory systems. Methods An electrode array was designed for insertion into the bony semicircular canal adjacent to the membranous canal. It was designed to be sufficiently narrow so as to not compress the membranous canal. The arrays were manufactured by Cochlear Ltd and linked to a Nucleus Freedom receiver/stimulator. Seven behaviorally-trained rhesus macaques had arrays placed in two semicircular canals using a transmastoid approach and “soft-surgical” procedures borrowed from Hybrid cochlear implant surgery. Postoperative vestibulo-ocular reflex was measured in a rotary chair. Click-evoked auditory brainstem responses were also measured in the seven animals using the contralateral ear as a control. Results All animals had minimal postoperative vestibular signs and were eating within hours of surgery. Six out of six animals tested had normal postoperative sinusoidal gain. Six out of seven animals had symmetric postoperative velocity-step responses toward and away from the implanted ear. The one animal with significantly asymmetric velocity-step responses also had a significant sensorineural hearing loss. One control animal which underwent canal-plugging had substantial loss of the velocity-step response toward the canal-plugged ear. In five animals, intraoperative electrically-evoked vestibular compound action potential (ECAP) recordings facilitated electrode placement. Postoperatively, electrically evoked eye-movements were obtained from electrodes associated with an ECAP waveform. Hearing was largely preserved in six animals and lost in one animal. Conclusions It is possible to implant the vestibular system with prosthetic stimulating electrodes without loss of rotational sensitivity or hearing. Since electrically-evoked eye-movements can be reliably obtained with the assistance of intraoperative electrophysiology, it is appropriate to consider treatment of a variety of vestibular disorders using prosthetic electrical stimulation. Based on these findings, and others, a feasibility study for the treatment of human subjects with disabling Meniere’s disease has begun. PMID:22699989

Rubinstein, Jay T; Bierer, Steven; Kaneko, Chris; Ling, Leo; Nie, Kaibao; Oxford, Trey; Newlands, Shawn; Santos, Felipe; Risi, Frank; Abbas, Paul J; Phillips, James O

2012-01-01

249

82. CANAL WEST OF LOCK 12 EAST NEAR BOONTON. STORAGE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

82. CANAL WEST OF LOCK 12 EAST NEAR BOONTON. STORAGE BUILDING AND CHUTE ON LEFT SIDE OF CANAL MAY BE A COAL FACILITY. COAL WOULD BE UNLOADED FROM THE BOAT AND PASSED UP THE CHUTE INTO THE COAL STORAGE BIN. COAL COULD THEN BE LOADED INTO WAGONS FROM THE BOTTOM OF THE BIN ON THE OPPOSITE SIDE OF THE STRUCTURE WHEN NECESSARY. - Morris Canal, Phillipsburg, Warren County, NJ

250

Mandibular premolars with aberrant canal morphology: An endodontic challenge  

PubMed Central

Complete cleaning and shaping is the key to successful endodontic treatment. A thorough understanding of the internal anatomy and morphology of the root canal system is an important consideration when performing cleaning and shaping procedures. Mandibular premolars are one of the most difficult teeth to treat endodontically because of aberrant root canal anatomy. This article describes case series of mandibular premolars with variations in root canal anatomy treated successfully by conventional endodontic treatment.

Mittal, Sunandan; Kumar, Tarun; Mittal, Shifali; Sharma, Jyotika

2014-01-01

251

Effect of hypersaline cooling canals on aquifer salinization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The combined effect of salinity and temperature on density-driven convection was evaluated in this study for a large (28 km2) cooling canal system (CCS) at a thermoelectric power plant in south Florida, USA. A two-dimensional cross-section model\\u000a was used to evaluate the effects of hydraulic heterogeneities, cooling canal salinity, heat transport, and cooling canal geometry\\u000a on aquifer salinization and movement of

Joseph D. Hughes; Christian D. Langevin; Linzy Brakefield-Goswami

2010-01-01

252

Effect of hypersaline cooling canals on aquifer salinization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The combined effect of salinity and temperature on density-driven convection was evaluated in this study for a large (28 km2) cooling canal system (CCS) at a thermoelectric power plant in south Florida, USA. A two-dimensional cross-section model was used to evaluate the effects of hydraulic heterogeneities, cooling canal salinity, heat transport, and cooling canal geometry on aquifer salinization and movement

Joseph D. Hughes; Christian D. Langevin; Linzy Brakefield-Goswami

2010-01-01

253

GENERAL PLANS AND SECTIONS. WASTEWAY NO. 1. WELLTONMOHAWK CANAL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

GENERAL PLANS AND SECTIONS. WASTEWAY NO. 1. WELLTON-MOHAWK CANAL - STA. 99+23.50. United States Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation; Gila Project, Arizona, Wellton-Mohawk Division. Drawing No. 50-D-2422, dated January 19, 1949, Denver Colorado - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Wasteway No. 1, Wellton-Mohawk Canal, North side of Wellton-Mohawk Canal, bounded by Gila River to North & the Union Pacific Railroad & Gila Mountains to south, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

254

Lymphatic regulator PROX1 determines Schlemm's canal integrity and identity  

PubMed Central

Schlemm’s canal (SC) is a specialized vascular structure in the eye that functions to drain aqueous humor from the intraocular chamber into systemic circulation. Dysfunction of SC has been proposed to underlie increased aqueous humor outflow (AHO) resistance, which leads to elevated ocular pressure, a factor for glaucoma development in humans. Here, using lymphatic and blood vasculature reporter mice, we determined that SC, which originates from blood vessels during the postnatal period, acquires lymphatic identity through upregulation of prospero homeobox protein 1 (PROX1), the master regulator of lymphatic development. SC expressed lymphatic valve markers FOXC2 and integrin ?9 and exhibited continuous vascular endothelial–cadherin (VE-cadherin) junctions and basement membrane, similar to collecting lymphatics. SC notably lacked luminal valves and expression of the lymphatic endothelial cell markers podoplanin and lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor 1 (LYVE-1). Using an ocular puncture model, we determined that reduced AHO altered the fate of SC both during development and under pathologic conditions; however, alteration of VEGF-C/VEGFR3 signaling did not modulate SC integrity and identity. Intriguingly, PROX1 expression levels linearly correlated with SC functionality. For example, PROX1 expression was reduced or undetectable under pathogenic conditions and in deteriorated SCs. Collectively, our data indicate that PROX1 is an accurate and reliable biosensor of SC integrity and identity. PMID:25061877

Park, Dae-Young; Lee, Junyeop; Park, Intae; Choi, Dongwon; Lee, Sunju; Song, Sukhyun; Hwang, Yoonha; Hong, Ki Yong; Nakaoka, Yoshikazu; Makinen, Taija; Kim, Pilhan; Alitalo, Kari; Hong, Young-Kwon; Koh, Gou Young

2014-01-01

255

Membrane stabilizer  

DOEpatents

A device is provided for stabilizing a flexible membrane secured within a frame, wherein a plurality of elongated arms are disposed radially from a central hub which penetrates the membrane, said arms imposing alternately against opposite sides of the membrane, thus warping and tensioning the membrane into a condition of improved stability. The membrane may be an opaque or translucent sheet or other material. 10 figs.

Mingenbach, W.A.

1988-02-09

256

Fever Screening and Detection of Febrile Arrivals at an International Airport in Korea: Association among Self-reported Fever, Infrared Thermal Camera Scanning, and Tympanic Temperature  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this research was to measure fever prevalence and the effectiveness of a fever screening procedure in detecting febrile arrivals at an international airport in Korea. METHODS: Data were retrieved from arrivals’ health declaration forms and questionnaires for febrile arrivals at an international airport collected by a national quarantine station during the year 2012. Self-reported health declaration forms were returned by 355,887 arrivals (61% of the total arrivals). Of these, 608 symptomatic arrivals (0.2%) including 6 febrile arrivals were analyzed. RESULTS: Fever prevalence at an international airport in Korea was 0.002%. Self-reported fever was significantly positively associated with tympanic temperature (p<0.001). The difference between the thermal camera temperature (36.83°C) and tympanic (or ear) temperature (38.14°C) was not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: The findings imply that a procedure for mass detection of fever such as self-reported questionnaires and thermal camera scanning may serve as an effective tool for detecting febrile arrivals at quarantine stations. Future research can benefit from looking at the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of the entry screening system. PMID:25045577

Cho, Kyung Sook; Yoon, Jangho

2014-01-01

257

Age-Related Cochlear Cytokine Gene Expression in the BALB/cJ Mouse with Systemic versus Intra-tympanic Dosing of Steroid Drugs  

PubMed Central

Conclusion Age-related differences in the expression of inflammatory cytokines in the inner ear may contribute to the development of age-related hearing loss. Objectives Age-related hearing loss is characterized by tissue remodeling, ischemia, ion homeostasis, and inflammation. Steroid therapy is an otoprotective strategy that likely acts by reducing inflammation. We examined age-related changes in cytokine gene expression in the cochlea of the BALB/cJ mouse model of premature age-related hearing loss after systemic or intra-tympanic steroid delivery. Methods “Young” (2.5-3 months) and “Old” (5-9 months) mice were treated with dexamethasone or fludrocortisone administered either orally or intra-tympanically. Cytokine gene expression in cochlear RNA was analyzed using prefabricated cDNA arrays. Old groups were compared to Young to identify age-related changes. Results Down-regulation of a cytokine associated with bone remodeling (SPP1) was observed in the untreated Old group. Numerous genes were up- or down-regulated by more than two-fold by steroid treatment, including pro-inflammatory interleukins (IL-16) and anti-inflammatory cytokines. PMID:23768053

Tokarz, Sara A.; Pang, Jiaqing; Grosz, Anna; Kempton, J. Beth; Trune, Dennis R.; Pillers, De-Ann M.

2014-01-01

258

Inverse solution of ear-canal area function from reflectance  

PubMed Central

A number of acoustical applications require the transformation of acoustical quantities, such as impedance and pressure that are measured at the entrance of the ear canal, to quantities at the eardrum. This transformation often requires knowledge of the shape of the ear canal. Previous attempts to measure ear-canal area functions were either invasive, non-reproducible, or could only measure the area function up to a point mid-way along the canal. A method to determine the area function of the ear canal from measurements of acoustic impedance at the entrance of the ear canal is described. The method is based on a solution to the inverse problem in which measurements of impedance are used to calculate reflectance, which is then used to determine the area function of the canal. The mean ear-canal area function determined using this method is similar to mean ear-canal area functions measured by other researchers using different techniques. The advantage of the proposed method over previous methods is that it is non- invasive, fast, and reproducible. PMID:22225043

Rasetshwane, Daniel M.; Neely, Stephen T.

2011-01-01

259

Computer simulation and capacity evaluation of Panama Canal alternatives  

SciTech Connect

The Operating Characteristics and Capacity Evaluation (OCCE) Study was one of the components of a group of studies of future alternatives to the Panama Canal, sponsored by a study commission formed by the governments of Panama, the US and Japan. The basic tool in the conduct of the study was the Waterway Analysis Model (WAM), developed originally by the US Army Corps of Engineers for use on the US inland waterway system and adapted under OCCE for study of Panama Canal alternatives. The study synthesized the many alternative plans for the Canal proposed historically into four basic groups: High-Rise Lock Canal, Low-Rise Lock Canal, Sea-Level Canal and Status Quo Canal. For economy, the sea-level cases were based on, essentially, a single-lane canal, in conjunction with the status quo canal. Hydraulic and navigation studies indicted that to achieve safe navigation, tide gates or locks would be required to control currents that would otherwise be generated by the differences in tides between the two oceans. The alternatives studied in detail are illustrated in the body of the paper.

Rosselli, A.T. [TAMS Consultants, Inc., New York, NY (United States); Bronzini, M.S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Center for Transportation Analysis; Weekly, D.A. [Army Corps of Engineers, Huntington, WV (United States). Navigation Planning Center

1994-12-31

260

Implant placement above a bifurcated mandibular canal: a case report.  

PubMed

Accurate radiographic assessment of available bone dimension superior to the mandibular canal is essential to the favorable placement of dental implants. Panoramic and periapical radiography are the standard of care. They typically offer a clinically adequate interpretation of the canal topography. However, in about 1% of patients, the mandibular canal may bifurcate. This may or may not be seen on panoramic or periapical films. A case report is presented that uses complex motion tomography as an aid to proper implant placement above a bifurcated mandibular canal. PMID:12271563

Dario, Lawrence J

2002-01-01

261

12. VIEW OF WESTERN CANAL AT ALMA SCHOOL ROAD IN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. VIEW OF WESTERN CANAL AT ALMA SCHOOL ROAD IN MESA, THE LOCATION AT WHICH THE PECK, PINE AND WALLACE FEEDERS FORMERLY JOINED TO FORM THE WESTERN CANAL. THE PECK AND PINE FEEDERS, NOW KNOWN AS LATERAL 9 AND LATERAL 10, AND ALMOST ENTIRELY PIPED, STILL JOIN THE WESTERN CANAL AT THIS POINT, BUT AN EQUALLY IMPORTANT SOURCE OF SUPPLY IS THE NUMEROUS GROUNDWATER PUMPS LOCATED ON THE SYSTEM. - Western Canal, South side of Salt River between Tempe, Phoenix & Mesa, Mesa, Maricopa County, AZ

262

Root canal preparation with Endo-Eze AET: changes in root canal shape assessed by micro-computed tomography  

Microsoft Academic Search

PaqueF, Barbakow F, Peters OA. Root canal preparation with Endo-Eze AET: changes in root canal shape assessed by micro-computed tomography. International Endodontic Journal, 38, 456-464, 2005. Aim To evaluate the relative performance of Endo-Eze Anatomic Endodontic Technology (AET) stainless steel instruments when shaping maxillary molar root canals in vitro. Methodology Extracted human maxillary molars were scanned, before and after root

F. Paque ´; F. Barbakow; O. A. Peters

2005-01-01

263

ProTaper rotary root canal preparation: effects of canal anatomy on final shape analysed by micro CT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peters OA, Peters CI, Scho « nenberger K, Barbakow, F. ProTaper rotary root canal preparation: effects of canal anatomy on final shape analysed by micro CT. International Endodontic Journal, 36, 86^92, 2003. Aim To evaluate the relative performance of ProTaper nickel^titanium (Ni^Ti) instruments shaping root can- als of varying preoperative canal geometry. Methodology Extracted human maxillary molars were scanned, before

O. A. Peters; C. I. Peters; K. Schonenberger; F. Barbakow

2003-01-01

264

Assessing the accuracy of tympanometric evaluation of external auditory canal volume: a scientific study using an ear canal model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tympanometric evaluation is routinely used as part of the complete otological examination. During tympanometric examination,\\u000a evaluation of middle ear pressure and ear canal volume is undertaken. Little is reported in relation to the accuracy and precision\\u000a tympanometry evaluates external ear canal volume. This study examines the capability of the tympanometer to accurately evaluate\\u000a external auditory canal volume in both simple

A. Al-Hussaini; D. Owens; A. Tomkinson

265

Middle-ear dynamics before and after ossicular replacement  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanism of hearing involves conduction of mechanical vibrations along the ossicular chain to the inner ear. An acoustic wave is collected and transformed as it passes down the ear canal and impacts on the tympanic membrane (ear drum). The drum is connected to the inner-ear by three ossicle bones (malleus, incus, and stapes) in a complex arrangement, which serves

P. Ferris; P. J. Prendergast

2000-01-01

266

Middle-ear dynamics before and after ossicular replacementq  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanism of hearing involves conduction of mechanical vibrations along the ossicular chain to the inner ear. An acoustic wave is collected and transformed as it passes down the ear canal and impacts on the tympanic membrane (ear drum). The drum is connected to the inner-ear by three ossicle bones (malleus, incus, and stapes) in a complex arrangement, which serves

P. Ferris; P. J. Prendergast

2000-01-01

267

Root Canal Treatment of Mandibular Second Premolar with Three Separate Roots and Canals Using Spiral Computed Tomographic  

PubMed Central

Anatomic and internal morphology of a root canal system is more complex and differs for each individual tooth of which mandibular premolars have earned the reputation for having aberrant anatomy. The occurrence of three canals with three separate foramina in mandibular second premolars is very rare. A wider knowledge on both clinical and radiological anatomy especially spiral computed tomographic is absolutely essential for the success of endodontic treatment. These teeth may require skillful and special root canal special shaping and obturating techniques. This paper reports an unusual case of a mandibular second premolar with atypical canal pattern that was successfully treated endodontically. PMID:25101187

Hariharavel, V. P.; Kumar, A. Ashok; Ganesh, C.; Aravindhan, R.

2014-01-01

268

Water Environment Evolution along the China Grand Canal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The China Grand Canal is one of the earliest canals in the world, having lasted for nearly 3000 years. Even its section canals have a rich history, such as the North-South Grand Canal that was established during the Sui Dynasty, whereas the Beijing-Hangzhou Canal was excavated during the Yuan Dynasty and the east line of the South-to-North Water Diversion. As one of the longest in the world, the China Grand Canal's total length is over 3500 kilometers. This length includes the navigable, unnavigable, and underground sections. Making the best use of situations and according to local conditions, the Chinese people harmoniously constructed the Beijing-Hangzhou Canal with nature. Tens of millions of workers took nearly 3000 years to complete the great shipping system. Navigable sections still exist for up to 900 kilometers and the volume of freight traffic is approximately 300 million tons. The canal remains the main logistical channel of the North-to-South Coal Transportation, South-to-North Water Diversion, and resources circulation. To date, China is promoting the success of heritage application. Part of these efforts is the declaration of the China Grand Canal as a World Cultural Heritage by 2014. In addition, the east route of the South-to-North Water Transfer project is planned to be navigable by 2016. The ancient Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal will usher in the new ecological civilization and cultural revival along the canal. This paper presents technical methods of water environment evolution research on the river system, river, and water quality along the Beijing-Hangzhou Canal through the integration of historical literature and modern remote sensing image data. The study carried out water environment investigation and analysis along the Beijing-Hangzhou canal by using ETM, SPOT image data, and GPS measurement data. Spatial and temporal evolution characteristics and regulations of the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal regional water environment in the span of 3000 years were obtained. As a key national cultural relic, candidate of the world cultural heritage, and route of the South-to-North Water Diversion, the China Great Canal is a worthy subject of a study. Results presented in this paper therefore have high realistic significance.

Mao, F.; Wu, Y. X.; Yang, B. F.; Li, X. J.

2014-03-01

269

Drop weld thermal injuries to the middle ear.  

PubMed

Drop weld injuries to the tympanic membrane and middle ear caused by hot sparks or molten slag are a rare but significant injury. Steel workers and welders who are regularly exposed to flying sparks and molten metal slag are predisposed. This type of transtympanic thermal injury occurs when the slag literally drops into the external auditory canal and burns through the tympanic membrane. A spectrum of severity of injury occurs which includes chronic tympanic membrane perforation, chronic otorrhoea, facial nerve injury and deafness. Chronic tympanic membrane perforation is the most common sequelae and is perhaps one of the most challenging of all perforations to repair The combination of direct thermal injury and foreign body reaction results in continuing or recurrent suppuration. The foreign body reaction is due to the embedding of metal slag in the promontorial mucosa. We present a case of drop weld injury to the left tympanic membrane, resulting in chronic middle ear inflammation, otorrhoea and tympanic perforation. CAT scan clearly demonstrated a metallic promontorial foreign body with localised bone erosion. We emphasise the importance of removing these foreign bodies and recommend a cartilage reinforced underlay tympanoplasty technique to repair these perforations. Transtympanic thermal trauma is a preventable occupational injury, which is best, avoided by earplugs and increased awareness. PMID:20597421

Keogh, I J; Portmann, D

2009-01-01

270

76 FR 4574 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Oakland Inner Harbor Tidal Canal, Oakland/Alameda, CA, Schedule...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Regulations; Oakland Inner Harbor Tidal Canal, Oakland/Alameda...crossing the Oakland Inner Harbor Tidal Canal, between Oakland and...Regulation; Oakland Inner Harbor Tidal Canal, Oakland/Alameda...Federation, Hanson Aggregates, Power Engineering, Harbor Bay...

2011-01-26

271

19 CFR 148.3 - Customs treatment after transiting the Panama Canal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Customs treatment after transiting the Panama Canal. 148.3 Section 148.3 ...Customs treatment after transiting the Panama Canal. Passengers' baggage and...States from vessels which have transited the Panama Canal are subject to Customs...

2010-04-01

272

19 CFR 4.4 - Panama Canal; report of arrival required.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Panama Canal; report of arrival required...Arrival and Entry of Vessels § 4.4 Panama Canal; report of arrival required. Vessels which merely transit the Panama Canal without transacting any...

2010-04-01

273

75 FR 63086 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Duluth Ship Canal (Duluth-Superior Harbor).  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Duluth Ship Canal (Duluth- Superior Harbor). AGENCY...regulation governing the operation of the Duluth Ship Canal Aerial Bridge at Mile 0.1 over the Duluth Ship Canal, at Duluth, MN, for scheduled...

2010-10-14

274

78 FR 39591 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Lake Washington Ship Canal at Seattle, WA  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Operation Regulation; Lake Washington Ship Canal at Seattle, WA AGENCY: Coast Guard...3, all crossing the Lake Washington Ship Canal at Seattle, WA. The deviation is...3, all crossing the Lake Washington Ship Canal at Seattle, WA. The requested...

2013-07-02

275

Mathematical modeling of flows from canals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the hydrodynamic formulation, two-dimensional steady filtration in homogeneous isotropic ground from canals through a soil layer to the underlying highly permeable pressure water-bearing stratum is considered in the presence of the ground capillarity and evaporation from the free surface. To study filtration, a combined multiparametric boundary-value problem of the theory of analytical functions is formulated, which is solved using the P. Ya. Polubarinova-Kochina method and procedures of conformal mapping of regions of a special kind that are characteristic of the problems of subsurface hydromechanics. On the basis of this model an algorithm of calculating the capillary water spreading and the filtration discharge is developed for the situations where in water filtration from canals provision is made for the ground capillarity, evaporation from the free-surface of groundwater, and the additional pressure from the side of water of the underlying wellpermeable bed. With the aid of the obtained accurate analytical relations and numerical calculations a hydrodynamic analysis is made of the structure and character of specific features of the modeled process as well as of the effect of all physical parameters of the scheme on the filtration characteristics.

Bereslavskii, É. N.

2011-07-01

276

Benjamin Alcock (1801-?) and his canal.  

PubMed

Benjamin Alcock (1801-?) was a prominent anatomist from Ireland who is remembered most for his description of the pudendal canal. He was privileged to train under the great Irish anatomist, Abraham Colles. Following his training and several early teaching engagements, he was appointed as the first Professor of Anatomy and Physiology at Queen's College, Cork. He became a Fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland. After several years of teaching at Queen's College, Alcock was forced to resign after a dispute over the Anatomy Act of 1832, during which he conveyed his disapproval of participation in the procurement of corpses for the school. Several years after his resignation, he left for the United States and removed himself from the view of the profession. His anatomical contributions were published in The Cyclopaedia of Anatomy and Physiology. The description he gave of the sheath enclosing the pudendal nerve and internal pudendal vessels is his most famous contribution to the literature. He is remembered eponymously for Alcock's canal. This article's intent is to clearly and concisely depict the life and contribution of Benjamin Alcock. PMID:22488487

Oelhafen, Kim; Shayota, Brian J; Muhleman, Mitchel; Klaassen, Zachary; Tubbs, R Shane; Loukas, Marios

2013-09-01

277

Trumpet laminectomy microdecompression for lumbal canal stenosis.  

PubMed

Microsurgery techniques are useful innovations towards minimizing the insult of canal stenosis. Here, we describe the trumpet laminectomy microdecompression (TLM) technique, advantages and disadvantages. Sixty-two TLM patients with lumbar disc herniation, facet hypertrophy or yellow ligament or intracanal granulation tissue. The symptoms are low back pain, dysesthesia and severe pain on both legs. Spine levels operated Th11-S1; the patients who had trumpet-type fenestration, 62.9% had hypertrophy of the facet joint, 11.3% had intracanal granulation tissue, 79.1% had hypertrophy of the yellow ligament and 64.5% had disc herniation. The average of procedure duration was 68.9 min and intraoperative blood loss was 47.4 mL. Intraoperative complications were found in 3.2% of patients, with dural damage but without cerebrospinal fluid leakage. The TLM can be performed for all ages and all levels of spinal canal stenosis, without the complication of spondilolistesis. The TLM has a shorter duration, with minimal intraoperative blood loss. PMID:25346821

Henky, Jefri; Yasuda, Muneyoshi; Arifin, Muhammad Zafrullah; Takayasu, Masakazu; Faried, Ahmad

2014-10-01

278

Trumpet Laminectomy Microdecompression for Lumbal Canal Stenosis  

PubMed Central

Microsurgery techniques are useful innovations towards minimizing the insult of canal stenosis. Here, we describe the trumpet laminectomy microdecompression (TLM) technique, advantages and disadvantages. Sixty-two TLM patients with lumbar disc herniation, facet hypertrophy or yellow ligament or intracanal granulation tissue. The symptoms are low back pain, dysesthesia and severe pain on both legs. Spine levels operated Th11-S1; the patients who had trumpet-type fenestration, 62.9% had hypertrophy of the facet joint, 11.3% had intracanal granulation tissue, 79.1% had hypertrophy of the yellow ligament and 64.5% had disc herniation. The average of procedure duration was 68.9 min and intraoperative blood loss was 47.4 mL. Intraoperative complications were found in 3.2% of patients, with dural damage but without cerebrospinal fluid leakage. The TLM can be performed for all ages and all levels of spinal canal stenosis, without the complication of spondilolistesis. The TLM has a shorter duration, with minimal intraoperative blood loss. PMID:25346821

Yasuda, Muneyoshi; Arifin, Muhammad Zafrullah; Takayasu, Masakazu; Faried, Ahmad

2014-01-01

279

Spatial orientation of the angular vestibulo-ocular reflex (aVOR) after semicircular canal plugging and canal nerve section  

PubMed Central

We investigated spatial responses of the aVOR to small and large accelerations in six canal-plugged and lateral canal nerve-sectioned monkeys. The aim was to determine whether there was spatial adaptation after partial and complete loss of all inputs in a canal plane. Impulses of torques generated head thrusts of ?3,000°/s2. Smaller accelerations of ?300°/s2 initiated the steps of velocity (60°/s). Animals were rotated about a spatial vertical axis while upright (0°) or statically tilted fore-aft up to ±90°. Temporal aVOR yaw and roll gains were computed at every head orientation and were fit with a sinusoid to obtain the spatial gains and phases. Spatial gains peaked at ?0° for yaw and ?90° for roll in normal animals. After bilateral lateral canal nerve section, the spatial yaw and roll gains peaked when animals were tilted back ?50°, to bring the intact vertical canals in the plane of rotation. Yaw and roll gains were identical in the lateral canal nerve-sectioned monkeys tested with both low- and high-acceleration stimuli. The responses were close to normal for high-acceleration thrusts in canal-plugged animals, but were significantly reduced when these animals were given step stimuli. Thus, high accelerations adequately activated the plugged canals, whereas yaw and roll spatial aVOR gains were produced only by the intact vertical canals after total loss of lateral canal input. We conclude that there is no spatial adaptation of the aVOR even after complete loss of specific semicircular canal input. PMID:21340443

Dai, Mingjia; Raphan, Theodore; Suzuki, Jun-Ichi; Arai, Yasuko; Cohen, Bernard

2011-01-01

280

Decline in semicircular canal and otolith function with age  

PubMed Central

Objective To characterize the physiologic nature of the vestibular dysfunction that occurs with the normative aging process. Study design Cross-sectional study. Setting Tertiary care academic medical center. Patients Fifty individuals age 70 and above. Interventions Head thrust dynamic visual acuity testing (htDVA) and cervical and ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) testing. Main Outcome Measures Semicircular canal function measured by htDVA in each of the three semicircular canal planes, and saccular and utricular function measured by cVEMP and oVEMP testing, respectively. Results We observed significant declines in semicircular canal function in each of the canal planes as well as otolith function associated with aging. We found that individuals with impaired horizontal and superior semicircular canal function were likely to also have concomitant deficits in utricular but not saccular function. Overall, we noted that the prevalence of semicircular canal dysfunction was highest followed by saccular then utricular impairment, although we did observe individuals with isolated otolith deficits. Conclusions These data suggest an overall decline in semicircular canal as well as otolith function associated with aging, although the magnitude of impairment was greater for the semicircular canals than the otoliths in this elderly population. A better understanding of the specific vestibular deficits that occur with aging can inform the development of rational screening, vestibular rehabilitation and fall risk reduction strategies in older individuals. PMID:22699991

Agrawal, Yuri; Zuniga, M. Geraldine; Davalos-Bichara, Marcela; Schubert, Michael C.; Walston, Jeremy D.; Hughes, Jennifer; Carey, John P.

2012-01-01

281

CONCENTRATION OF NINE HEAVY METALS IN SUEZ CANAL WATERS, EGYPT  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentration of nine heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Ni, Cr, Co, Fe and Mn) in waters of the Suez Canal and in the nearby waters was measured seasonally during 1997 - 1998 in their dissolved (D) and particulate (P) forms. The results revealed that the northern part of the canal (at Port Said) recorded higher concentrations for most

EL SAMRA; ABD EL-AZIM

2005-01-01

282

The maximum shipping capacity of the Suez Canal  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers the determination of the maximum shipping capacity of the Suez canal. Initially, some assumptions are made in order to calculate the ‘theoretical’ maximum capacity in terms of ‘standard ships’. This last term defines ships which transit the Canal at a given speed and at a given time interval from the vessel ahead and astern. Data has been

J. D. Griffiths; Emtissal M. Hassan

1977-01-01

283

Salt Content and Water Budget of The Suez Canal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The water body in the Suez Canal is a combination of waters from differ- ent sources. Hence, its exact hydrographic structure is very difficult to define. Three main water masses are identified along the Canal on account of their salinity values: Levantine water mass I, the Suez Bay water mass II, and the Bitter Lake water mass IV, in addition

SELIM A. MORCOS; GIRGIS F. SOLIMAN

2001-01-01

284

3. GENERAL VIEW ACROSS CANAL PRISM TO TOWPATH BERM NORTH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. GENERAL VIEW ACROSS CANAL PRISM TO TOWPATH BERM NORTH OF THE SPILLWAY; VIEW TO WEST FROM ROUTE 146 EMBANKMENT. - Blackstone Canal Millbury Segment, Beginning northwest of State Route 146 & McCracken Road, running along west side of Route 146, Millbury, Worcester County, MA

285

2. GENERAL VIEW ACROSS CANAL PRISM TO TOWPATH BERM SOUTH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. GENERAL VIEW ACROSS CANAL PRISM TO TOWPATH BERM SOUTH OF THE SPILLWAY; VIEW TO SOUTHWEST FROM ROUTE 146 EMBANKMENT. - Blackstone Canal Millbury Segment, Beginning northwest of State Route 146 & McCracken Road, running along west side of Route 146, Millbury, Worcester County, MA

286

33 CFR 117.239 - Lewes and Rehoboth Canal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 false Lewes and Rehoboth Canal. 117.239 Section 117.239... Delaware § 117.239 Lewes and Rehoboth Canal. (a) The draw of the Savannah...the SR 14A Bridge, at mile 6.7, in Rehoboth shall open on signal if at least 24...

2010-07-01

287

Faka Union Canal Weir #1, Collier County, Florida  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

The Faka Union Canal Weir #1 (Collier County, Florida) helps create a downstream hydrological haven for manatees. During the cold winter months, the right flow conditions can maintain a salinity gradient known as a halocline that traps warm water near the bottom of the residential canals at Port of ...

2010-06-01

288

21. Photocopy of photograph (original print at Gage Canal Company ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

21. Photocopy of photograph (original print at Gage Canal Company Office), H. B. Wesner, photographer, date unknown. 'VIEWS OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA SCENERY. ARTESIAN WELLS, SAN BERNARDINO, CALIFORNIA. SUPPLYING THE GAGE CANAL OF RIVERSIDE.' - California Citrus Heritage Recording Project, Riverside, Riverside County, CA

289

33 CFR 117.769 - Black Rock Canal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Black Rock Canal. 117.769 Section 117.769 Navigation and Navigable...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New York § 117.769 Black Rock Canal. The draws of the Ferry Street bridge, mile...

2010-07-01

290

33 CFR 117.769 - Black Rock Canal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Black Rock Canal. 117.769 Section 117.769 Navigation and Navigable...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New York § 117.769 Black Rock Canal. The draws of the Ferry Street bridge, mile...

2011-07-01

291

33 CFR 117.769 - Black Rock Canal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Black Rock Canal. 117.769 Section 117.769 Navigation and Navigable...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New York § 117.769 Black Rock Canal. The draws of the Ferry Street bridge, mile...

2013-07-01

292

33 CFR 117.769 - Black Rock Canal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Black Rock Canal. 117.769 Section 117.769 Navigation and Navigable...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New York § 117.769 Black Rock Canal. The draws of the Ferry Street bridge, mile...

2012-07-01

293

33 CFR 117.769 - Black Rock Canal.  

...Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Black Rock Canal. 117.769 Section 117.769 Navigation and Navigable...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New York § 117.769 Black Rock Canal. The draws of the Ferry Street bridge, mile...

2014-07-01

294

Spinal Canal Block Caused by Central Disc Protrusion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Central disc protrusions are often misdiagnosed as other lesions, particularly those with block of spinal canal. Between October 1970 and February 1978 the author had 15 cases of spinal canal block due to central disc protrusions. Of these, 5 cases were i...

Z. Rongxun

1980-01-01

295

Flatness-based control of an irrigation canal using SCADA  

E-print Network

Flatness-based control of an irrigation canal using SCADA Tarek Rabbani, Simon Munier, David billion people, food production from agriculture must be raised to meet increasing demand. While irrigated. The majority of irrigation canals are managed manually, however, with large water losses leading to low water

296

Locomotor head movements and semicircular canal morphology in primates  

PubMed Central

Animal locomotion causes head rotations, which are detected by the semicircular canals of the inner ear. Morphologic features of the canals influence rotational sensitivity, and so it is hypothesized that locomotion and canal morphology are functionally related. Most prior research has compared subjective assessments of animal “agility” with a single determinant of rotational sensitivity: the mean canal radius of curvature (R). In fact, the paired variables of R and body mass are correlated with agility and have been used to infer locomotion in extinct species. To refine models of canal functional morphology and to improve locomotor inferences for extinct species, we compare 3D vector measurements of head rotation during locomotion with 3D vector measures of canal sensitivity. Contrary to the predictions of conventional models that are based upon R, we find that axes of rapid head rotation are not aligned with axes of either high or low sensitivity. Instead, animals with fast head rotations have similar sensitivities in all directions, which they achieve by orienting the three canals of each ear orthogonally (i.e., along planes at 90° angles to one another). The extent to which the canal configuration approaches orthogonality is correlated with rotational head speed independent of body mass and phylogeny, whereas R is not. PMID:23045679

Malinzak, Michael D.; Kay, Richard F.; Hullar, Timothy E.

2012-01-01

297

C-shaped root canal configuration: A review of literature.  

PubMed

The aim is to review and discuss the etiology, incidence, anatomic features, classification, diagnosis and management of the C-shaped canal configuration. C-shaped canal configuration is a variation that has a racial predilection and is commonly seen in mandibular second molars. The intricacies present in this variation of canal morphology can pose a challenge to the clinician during negotiation, debridement and obturation. Manual and electronic searches of literature were performed from 1979 to 2012, in Pub Med by crossing the keywords: C-shaped canals, mandibular second molar, mandibular first premolar, root canal morphology. Knowledge of the C-shaped canal configuration is essential to achieve success in endodontic therapy. Radiographic and clinical diagnoses can aid in identification and negotiation of the fan-shaped areas and intricacies of the C-shaped anatomy. Effective management of this anomalous canal configuration can be achieved with rotary and hand instrumentation assisted with sonics and ultrasonics. Modifications in the obturation techniques will ensure a 3-dimensional fill of the canal system and chamber retained restorations like amalgam or composites, serve as satisfactory post endodontic restorations. PMID:25125841

Fernandes, Marina; de Ataide, Ida; Wagle, Rahul

2014-07-01

298

3. Lower end of the Old Crosscut Canal, aerial view ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. Lower end of the Old Crosscut Canal, aerial view to north. The Old Crosscut runs top left to lower right, west of meat packing plant and stockyards. Photographer unknown, c. 1939. Source: Pueblo Grande Museum Cultural Park. - Old Crosscut Canal, North Side of Salt River, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

299

5. Lower end of the Old Crosscut Canal, circa 1977 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. Lower end of the Old Crosscut Canal, circa 1977 aerial view. The Old Crosscut runs from bottom right to join the Grand. Note lack of trees, and wasteway to the bed of the Salt River. Photographer unknown. Source: Pueblo Grande Museum Cultural Park. - Old Crosscut Canal, North Side of Salt River, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

300

7. SAND FILTERS, CANAL TO LEFT. CONCRETE OVERFLOW AREA TO ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. SAND FILTERS, CANAL TO LEFT. CONCRETE OVERFLOW AREA TO LEFT OF CANAL ORIGINALLY PLANNED AS A STORAGE LAKE. VIEW LOOKING DUE WEST OF HINDS COMPLEX IN BACKGROUND OF SAND FILTERS. - Hinds Pump Plant, East of Joshua Tree National Monument, 5 miles north of Route 10, Hayfield, Riverside County, CA

301

14. ANGULAR QUARTZITE ROCK REINFORCEMENT ON INTERIOR OF OUTSIDE CANAL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. ANGULAR QUARTZITE ROCK REINFORCEMENT ON INTERIOR OF OUTSIDE CANAL BANK, LOOKING SOUTH-SOUTHEAST. CANAL ROUTE VISIBLE ALONG HILLSIDE NEAR TOP LEFT. NOTE DILLON RESERVOIR, HIGHWAY 6, AND NEW RESIDENTIAL CONSTRUCTION AT RIGHT AND CENTER. - Snake River Ditch, Headgate on north bank of Snake River, Dillon, Summit County, CO

302

1. VIEW LOOKING NORTH FROM DEWATERED CANAL; HEADGATES AND INTAKE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. VIEW LOOKING NORTH FROM DEWATERED CANAL; HEADGATES AND INTAKE CHANNEL AT LEFT; GUARDLOCK AT CENTER; SHEET PILING THROUGH SITE OF TOWPATH AT RIGHT - Dundee Canal, Headgates, Guardlock & Uppermost Section, 250 feet northeast of Randolph Avenue, opposite & in line with East Clifton Avenue, Clifton, Passaic County, NJ

303

57. View of road bridge crossing lined canal from south ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

57. View of road bridge crossing lined canal from south side of lined canal, looking northeast. Photo by Brian C. Morris, Puget Power, 1989. - Puget Sound Power & Light Company, White River Hydroelectric Project, 600 North River Avenue, Dieringer, Pierce County, WA

304

Membrane tethering  

PubMed Central

Membrane trafficking depends on transport vesicles and carriers docking and fusing with the target organelle for the delivery of cargo. Membrane tethers and small guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases) mediate the docking of transport vesicles/carriers to enhance the efficiency of the subsequent SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor)-mediated fusion event with the target membrane bilayer. Different classes of membrane tethers and their specific intracellular location throughout the endomembrane system are now well defined. Recent biochemical and structural studies have led to a deeper understanding of the mechanism by which membrane tethers mediate docking of membrane carriers as well as an appreciation of the role of tethers in coordinating the correct SNARE complex and in regulating the organization of membrane compartments. This review will summarize the properties and roles of membrane tethers of both secretory and endocytic systems. PMID:25343031

Chia, Pei Zhi Cheryl

2014-01-01

305

Investigating Membranes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

While not organic in nature, quick-"growing" artificial membranes can be a profound visual aid when teaching students about cellular processes and the chemical nature of membranes. Students are often intrigued when they see biological and chemical concept

Mccallister, Gary; Zrelak, Yoshi

2009-09-01

306

Retrieval of amalgam from the root canal space.  

PubMed

Removal of foreign objects from the root canal can be very frustrating. The use of a variety of instruments and techniques has been suggested for the retrieval of obstacles from root canals during endodontic treatment. This article describes a method for retrieving a large mass of amalgam restoration that was wedged into the root canal. The amalgam, which had served as the provisional restorative material during apexification of an immature ante rior tooth, was inadvertently pushed into the root canal. After the mass was bypassed, the amalgam was loosened with the aid of copious irrigation, chelation, and flotation. Hedstrom files twisted around the object allowed sufficient grip for its retrieval, enabling completion of the root canal treatment. PMID:16594364

Slutzky-Goldberg, Iris; Moshonov, Joshua

2006-04-01

307

Activating membranes  

E-print Network

We present a general dynamical theory of a membrane coupled to an actin cortex containing polymerizing filaments with active stresses and currents, and demonstrate that active membrane dynamics [Phys. Rev. Lett \\textbf{84}, 3494 (2000)] and spontaneous shape oscillations emerge from this description. We also consider membrane instabilities and patterns induced by the presence of filaments with polar orientational correlations in the tangent plane of the membrane. The dynamical features we predict should be seen in a variety of cellular contexts involving the dynamics of the membrane-cytoskeleton composite and cytoskeletal extracts coupled to synthetic vesicles.

Ananyo Maitra; Pragya Srivastava; Madan Rao; Sriram Ramaswamy

2013-11-20

308

Activating Membranes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a general dynamical theory of a membrane coupled to an actin cortex containing polymerizing filaments with active stresses and currents, and demonstrate that active membrane dynamics [S. Ramaswamy et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 3494 (2000)] and spontaneous shape oscillations emerge from this description. We also consider membrane instabilities and patterns induced by the presence of filaments with polar orientational correlations in the tangent plane of the membrane. The dynamical features we predict should be seen in a variety of cellular contexts involving the dynamics of the membrane-cytoskeleton composite and cytoskeletal extracts coupled to synthetic vesicles.

Maitra, Ananyo; Srivastava, Pragya; Rao, Madan; Ramaswamy, Sriram

2014-06-01

309

Does temperature effect tympanometric evaluation of ear canal volume? A scientific study using an Ear Canal Model.  

PubMed

Tympanometric evaluation is a routine part of the complete otological examination. Although tympanometry when performed in standard conditions is known to accurately and precisely assess ear canal volume, the effects of variation in temperature have not been reported upon. This study examines the effect of temperature on the capability of the tympanometer to accurately evaluate external auditory canal volume in both simple and partially obstructed Ear Canal Models. An Ear Canal Model was designed using simple laboratory equipment including a 5 ml calibrated clinical syringe. This was attached to the sensing probe of a Kamplex tympanometer. Two basic trials were undertaken: (a) evaluation of the effect of temperature on the tympanometer in simple canal volume measurement and (b) assessing canal volume with partial canal occlusion. These studies were conducted at 0, 10, 20 and 30 °C in a Thermotron climatic chamber. 1,400 individual test scenarios were completed over the two arms of the study. At volumes of 1.4 cm(3) or below, tympanometry had a very high level of correlation (Spearman's ? = 1) with the actual volume present at all tested temperatures except 0 °C. There was no significant relationship between temperature and degree of error in ear canal volume measurement in both simple and partially occluded models. The ability of the Kamplex tympanometer to accurately and precisely assess ear canal volume in this scientific model in both simple and partially occluded scenarios up to a volume of 1.4 cm(3) is not effected by ambient temperature. These findings suggest the Kamplex tympanometer could be used as an effective objective tool in both laboratory and human models of the external auditory canal. PMID:23430082

Al-Hussaini, Ali; Owens, David; Tomkinson, Alun

2014-01-01

310

Dorello's Canal and Gruber's Ligament: Historical Perspective.  

PubMed

Wenzel Leopold Gruber and Primo Dorello were great anatomists and researchers during the 19th and 20th centuries. Their contributions to neuroanatomy-namely the Gruber's (petrosphenoidal) ligament and Dorello's canal, respectively-have come to be important structures in various approaches through the middle fossa. These structures have also helped provide us with an understanding of the mechanism of sixth nerve paresis in various pathological conditions, such as raised intracranial pressure and Gradenigo syndrome. Their numerous publications have stood as a reference to anatomical researchers. Gruber's description of internal mesogastric hernia and the Meckel-Gruber anastomosis are also widely known in medical literature. The following article is an attempt to reflect upon the life and works of Gruber and Dorello and the importance of their research. PMID:24294562

Ambekar, Sudheer; Sonig, Ashish; Nanda, Anil

2012-12-01

311

Incidence of nutrient canals in hypertensive patients: A radiographic study  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To determine if any correlation exists in the presence of nutrient canals in hypertensive patients and nonhypertensive patients, to compare the incidence of nutrient canals in different age groups, and also to compare the incidence of nutrient canals between dentulous and edentulous patients. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out on patients, who were divided into a control group comprising of healthy individuals, without history of hypertension and a study group of patients with the history of hypertension. The necessary information like age of the patient, presence or absence of hypertension, its duration, and blood pressure were recorded. An intraoral periapical radiograph of lower anterior region was made using bisecting angle technique and was interpreted. The presence or absence of nutrient canals, bone loss, and the levels of bone loss were recorded. The results so obtained were subjected to statistical analysis. Results: We found that the incidence of nutrient canals was statistically higher in the study group (55.2%) as compared to the control group (36.2%). The incidence of nutrient canals was also found to be increased with, the age till 60 years, amount of alveolar bone loss and in edentulous patients. Conclusion: Hypertension being one of the most commonly encountered medical problems in dental practice and many cases being undiagnosed, the presence of nutrient canal though not entirely indicative of hypertension, should increase the suspicion of the condition to be investigated further. PMID:24678218

Kumar, Vinod R.; Naik, Raghavendra Mahadev; Singh, Rajesh T.; Guruprasad, Yadavalli

2014-01-01

312

Canalization, genetic assimilation and preadaptation. A quantitative genetic model.  

PubMed Central

We propose a mathematical model to analyze the evolution of canalization for a trait under stabilizing selection, where each individual in the population is randomly exposed to different environmental conditions, independently of its genotype. Without canalization, our trait (primary phenotype) is affected by both genetic variation and environmental perturbations (morphogenic environment). Selection of the trait depends on individually varying environmental conditions (selecting environment). Assuming no plasticity initially, morphogenic effects are not correlated with the direction of selection in individual environments. Under quite plausible assumptions we show that natural selection favors a system of canalization that tends to repress deviations from the phenotype that is optimal in the most common selecting environment. However, many experimental results, dating back to Waddington and others, indicate that natural canalization systems may fail under extreme environments. While this can be explained as an impossibility of the system to cope with extreme morphogenic pressure, we show that a canalization system that tends to be inactivated in extreme environments is even more advantageous than rigid canalization. Moreover, once this adaptive canalization is established, the resulting evolution of primary phenotype enables substantial preadaptation to permanent environmental changes resembling extreme niches of the previous environment. PMID:9691063

Eshel, I; Matessi, C

1998-01-01

313

Feasibility and limitations of endoscopy in Guyon's canal  

PubMed Central

Introduction This retrospective report summarizes observations from eight operations where the endoscopically assisted approach was used to explore Guyon's canal syndromes of idiopathic aetiology. Aim To evaluate the feasibility and limitations of endoscopic Guyon's canal release performed from a distal forearm incision. Material and methods Eight charts and video records of eight ulnar tunnel syndrome patients presenting concomitant idiopathic Guyon's canal syndromes were retrospectively reviewed. In all cases endoscopically assisted explorations in Guyon's canals with simultaneous cubital tunnel releases were performed. Results In all of the patients the multiple tight bands of the superficial volar carpal ligament forming the canal roof were divided. Some of these bands crossing the nerve in its direct vicinity could have been responsible for the constriction. We were also able to divide the proximal segment of the canal floor. We have observed, however, that the proximal to distal endoscopic dissection jeopardizes the motor branch of the ulnar nerve; therefore, it should not be used to release the pisohamate ligament, or the hypothenar fascia. Conclusions Although all of the patients showed improvement, we cannot recommend this method in its current form. We are of the opinion that safe endoscopic Guyon's canal operations may require a different approach. PMID:25337162

Zdybek, Piotr

2014-01-01

314

Assessing the accuracy of tympanometric evaluation of external auditory canal volume: a scientific study using an ear canal model.  

PubMed

Tympanometric evaluation is routinely used as part of the complete otological examination. During tympanometric examination, evaluation of middle ear pressure and ear canal volume is undertaken. Little is reported in relation to the accuracy and precision tympanometry evaluates external ear canal volume. This study examines the capability of the tympanometer to accurately evaluate external auditory canal volume in both simple and partially obstructed ear canal models and assesses its capability to be used in studies examining the effectiveness of cerumolytics. An ear canal model was designed using simple laboratory equipment, including a 5 ml calibrated clinical syringe (Becton Dickinson, Spain). The ear canal model was attached to the sensing probe of a Kamplex tympanometer (Interacoustics, Denmark). Three basic trials were undertaken: evaluation of the tympanometer in simple canal volume measurement, evaluation of the tympanometer in assessing canal volume with partial canal occlusion at different positions within the model, and evaluation of the tympanometer in assessing canal volume with varying degrees of canal occlusion. 1,290 individual test scenarios were completed over the three arms of the study. At volumes of 1.4 cm(3) or below, a perfect relationship was noted between the actual and tympanometric volumes in the simple model (Spearman's ? = 1) with weakening degrees of agreement with increasing volume of the canal. Bland-Altman plotting confirmed the accuracy of this agreement. In the wax substitute models, tympanometry was observed to have a close relationship (Spearman's ? > 0.99) with the actual volume present with worsening error above a volume of 1.4 cm(3). Bland-Altman plotting and precision calculations provided evidence of accuracy. Size and position of the wax substitute had no statistical effect on results [Wilcoxon rank-sum test (WRST) p > 0.99], nor did degree of partial obstruction (WRST p > 0.99). The Kamplex tympanometer accurately and precisely assesses ear canal volume in the scientific model in both simple and partially occluded wax substitute scenarios up to a volume of 1.4 cm(3). These findings suggest that the Kamplex tympanometer could be used as an effective objective tool in evaluating the efficacy of topical cerumolytics in both laboratory and human models. PMID:21387187

Al-Hussaini, A; Owens, D; Tomkinson, A

2011-12-01

315

Minimal invasive transcaruncular optic canal decompression for traumatic optic neuropathy.  

PubMed

Abstract Traumatic optic neuropathy is a cause of loss of vision associated with head injuries. Treatment options include observation, steroids and decompression of the optic canal. We report a case where the optic canal decompression was performed using a transcaruncular approach under a regional block. The incision was made through the caruncle and the dissection was carried down to the periosteum down to the orbital apex where the optic nerve was seen exiting through the optic canal posterior to the posterior ethmoidal artery. The optic nerve was decompressed with good visualization. Hemostasis and wound closure was achieved using fibrin glue. Postoperatively visual acuity improved with minimal inflammation enabling early rehabilitation. PMID:25208226

Vaitheeswaran, Krishna; Kaur, Preetinder; Garg, Shalini

2014-12-01

316

Lines of principal curvature on canal surfaces in R3.  

PubMed

In this paper are determined the principal curvatures and principal curvature lines on canal surfaces which are the envelopes of families of spheres with variable radius and centers moving along a closed regular curve in R3. By means of a connection of the differential equations for these curvature lines and real Riccati equations, it is established that canal surfaces have at most two isolated periodic principal lines. Examples of canal surfaces with two simple and one double periodic principal lines are given. PMID:16936931

Garcia, Ronaldo; Llibre, Jaume; Sotomayor, Jorge

2006-09-01

317

FLOAT OPERATED RADIAL GATE INSTALLATION. WASTEWAY NO. 1. WELLTONMOHAWK CANAL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

FLOAT OPERATED RADIAL GATE INSTALLATION. WASTEWAY NO. 1. WELLTON-MOHAWK CANAL - STA. 99+23.50. United States Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation; Gila Project, Arizona, Wellton-Mohawk Division. Drawing No. 50-D-2497, dated March 8, 1949, Denver Colorado. Sheet 1 of 7 - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Wasteway No. 1, Wellton-Mohawk Canal, North side of Wellton-Mohawk Canal, bounded by Gila River to North & the Union Pacific Railroad & Gila Mountains to south, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

318

A Brief History of the Miami & Erie Canal at Andrew Schneider  

E-print Network

, and enhancing the financial development of the young United States. Encouraged by the progress of the Erie CanalA Brief History of the Miami & Erie Canal at Cincinnati Andrew Schneider 2010 All rights reserved #12;II. History of the Miami and Erie Canal in Cincinnati Dreams of a canal system that would cross

Maynard, J. Barry

319

Charged membranes.  

PubMed

This Teaching Resource provides three animated lessons that describe the storage and utilization of energy across plasma membranes. The "Na,K ATPase" animation explains how these pumps establish the electrochemical gradient that stores energy across plasma membranes. The "ATP synthesizing complexes" animation shows how these complexes transfer energy from the inner mitochondrial membrane to adenosine triphosphate (ATP). The "action potential" lesson explains how charged membranes are used to propagate signals along the axons of neurons. These animations serve as valuable resources for any collegiate-level course that describes these important factors. Courses that might employ them include introductory biology, biochemistry, biophysics, cell biology, pharmacology, and physiology. PMID:23592845

Thatcher, Jack D

2013-01-01

320

First Branchial Cleft Fistula Associated with External Auditory Canal Stenosis and Middle Ear Cholesteatoma  

PubMed Central

Introduction: First branchial cleft anomalies manifest with duplication of the external auditory canal. Case Report: This report features a rare case of microtia and congenital middle ear and canal cholesteatoma with first branchial fistula. External auditory canal stenosis was complicated by middle ear and external canal cholesteatoma, but branchial fistula, opening in the zygomatic root and a sinus in the helical root, may explain this feature. A canal wall down mastoidectomy with canaloplasty and wide meatoplasty was performed. The branchial cleft was excised through parotidectomy and facial nerve dissection. Conclusion: It should be considered that canal stenosis in such cases can induce cholesteatoma formation in the auditory canal and middle ear. PMID:25320705

Abdollahi fakhim, Shahin; Naderpoor, Masoud; Mousaviagdas, Mehrnoosh

2014-01-01

321

Original article Anaerobic bacteria isolated from the alimentary canals  

E-print Network

bee (Megachile rotundata) larvae under strict anaerobic conditions. In all 3 years of the study, small, Ascosphaera aggregata. © Inra/DIB/- AGIB/Elsevier, Paris Megachile rotundata / larvae / alimentary canals / anaerobic microflora 1. INTRODUCTION Alfalfa leafcutting bees (Megachile rotundata Fabricius

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

322

Transportation Center Seminar........ "The Panama Canal as Precursor"  

E-print Network

Transportation Center Seminar........ "The Panama Canal as Precursor" Aaron J. Gellman Professor of Transportation The Transportation Center & Kellogg School of Management Northwestern University; Advisory:30 pm Location: Transportation Center, Chambers Hall Lower Level, 600 Foster St., Evanston Professor

Bustamante, Fabián E.

323

[Angio-fibrolipoma in epidural space of the vertebral canal].  

PubMed

55-yera old patient with angio-fibro-lipoma of thoracic part of the vertebral canal was described. This rare, benign tumour was totally removed. Subsequently the neurological state of the patient improved. PMID:8084371

Majchrzak, H; Sikora, A; Majchrzak, R; Bierzy?ska-Macyszyn, G

1994-01-01

324

Water infrastructure : hybridized architecture along the Arizona canal  

E-print Network

Due to budget issues, the Central Arizona Project (CAP) canal has been left exposed to the arid desert environment since its construction in the 1970s. As a result, 5% of the amount of water diverted from the Colorado River ...

Atwood, Alex (Wayne Alex)

2012-01-01

325

Synergistic growth effect among bacteria recovered from root canal infections  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to determine the ecological relationships between bacterial species that colonize infected root canals. Root canal bacteria recovered from one patient with pulp canal necrosis were evaluated in vitro for synergistic and antagonistic activities determined by mono and co-culture growth kinetics and the production of bacteriocin-like substances using the double layer diffusion method. Peptostreptococcus prevotii triggered a significant increase of Fusobacterium nucleatum growth, while the former bacteria did not affect the growth of P. prevotii. The bacterial species did not produce antagonism activity against itself or against any of the other two species. Despite many studies have demonstrated the capability of root canal microorganisms to produce antagonistic substances, these in vitro experimental tests show the synergistic effect of P. prevotii on the growth of F. nucleatum. PMID:24031714

Moreira Junior, Gil; Ribeiro Sobrinho, Antonio Paulino; Bambirra, Bernardo Henrique Silva; Bambirra, Felipe Henrique Silva; Carvalho, Maria Auxiliadora Roque; Farias, Luiz Macedo; Nicoli, Jacques Robert; Moreira, Elizabeth Spangler

2011-01-01

326

10. DETAIL OF UPSTREAM FACE OF NEW YORK CANAL HEADWORKS, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. DETAIL OF UPSTREAM FACE OF NEW YORK CANAL HEADWORKS, SHOWING GATE LIFTING GEARS (TOP), WORM GEAR SHAFTS (CENTER) AND SLIDE GATES (BOTTOM). VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Boise Project, Boise River Diversion Dam, Across Boise River, Boise, Ada County, ID

327

New York State Canal System: Modern Freight-Way.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study demonstrates the benefits of waterborne freight logistics and makes the case for instituting container-onbarge service on the New York State Canal System. We summarize numerous studies comparing the energy requirements and environmental externa...

J. Belt

2010-01-01

328

9. VIEW OF LATERAL GATE ON CANAL NEAR DAM, LOOKING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. VIEW OF LATERAL GATE ON CANAL NEAR DAM, LOOKING SOUTHEAST - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Twin Pots Dam, Ashley National Forest, 10.1 miles North of Mountain Home, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

329

155. Credit ER. Hand cleaning and trimming of Coleman canal ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

155. Credit ER. Hand cleaning and trimming of Coleman canal after excavation by steam shovel. (ER, v. 64 1911 p. 701). - Battle Creek Hydroelectric System, Battle Creek & Tributaries, Red Bluff, Tehama County, CA

330

150. Credit ER. Building reinforced concrete portion of Coleman Canal ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

150. Credit ER. Building reinforced concrete portion of Coleman Canal inverted siphon #2. Longitudinal steel reinforcing rods are visible at bottom. (ER, v. 64 1911 p. 702). - Battle Creek Hydroelectric System, Battle Creek & Tributaries, Red Bluff, Tehama County, CA

331

19. VIEW OF EAST DRAINAGE CANAL FROM ELVERTA ROAD, FACING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

19. VIEW OF EAST DRAINAGE CANAL FROM ELVERTA ROAD, FACING SOUTH. - Reclamation District 1000, Northwest Sacramento County & southwest Sutter County, bisected by State Highway No. 99, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

332

20. VIEW OF EAST DRAINAGE CANAL FROM ELVERTA ROAD, FACING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

20. VIEW OF EAST DRAINAGE CANAL FROM ELVERTA ROAD, FACING NORTH. - Reclamation District 1000, Northwest Sacramento County & southwest Sutter County, bisected by State Highway No. 99, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

333

21. VIEW OF WEST DRAINAGE CANAL FROM POWERLINE ROAD, FACING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

21. VIEW OF WEST DRAINAGE CANAL FROM POWERLINE ROAD, FACING WEST. - Reclamation District 1000, Northwest Sacramento County & southwest Sutter County, bisected by State Highway No. 99, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

334

1. View looking across drainage canal showing ruins of drainage ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. View looking across drainage canal showing ruins of drainage wheel and Menge Pump, looking NE. - Laurel Valley Sugar Plantation, Drainage Plant, 2 Miles South of Thibodaux on State Route 308, Thibodaux, Lafourche Parish, LA

335

16. VIEW OF NATOMAS EAST MAIN DRAINAGE CANAL FROM NATOMAS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

16. VIEW OF NATOMAS EAST MAIN DRAINAGE CANAL FROM NATOMAS ROAD, SOUTH OF SANKEY, FACING SOUTH-SOUTHEAST. - Reclamation District 1000, Northwest Sacramento County & southwest Sutter County, bisected by State Highway No. 99, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

336

18. VIEW OF NORTH DRAINAGE CANAL FROM SANKEY ROAD, FACING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

18. VIEW OF NORTH DRAINAGE CANAL FROM SANKEY ROAD, FACING SOUTH. - Reclamation District 1000, Northwest Sacramento County & southwest Sutter County, bisected by State Highway No. 99, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

337

22. VIEW OF CANAL CONNECTING PUMP PLANT 3 AND WEST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

22. VIEW OF CANAL CONNECTING PUMP PLANT 3 AND WEST DRAINAGE, FACING EAST. - Reclamation District 1000, Northwest Sacramento County & southwest Sutter County, bisected by State Highway No. 99, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

338

15. VIEW OF NATOMAS EAST MAIN DRAINAGE CANAL FROM NATOMAS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. VIEW OF NATOMAS EAST MAIN DRAINAGE CANAL FROM NATOMAS ROAD, SOUTH OF RIEGO ROAD, FACING NORTH-NORTHWEST. - Reclamation District 1000, Northwest Sacramento County & southwest Sutter County, bisected by State Highway No. 99, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

339

West Branch Pennsylvania Canal, Lock No. 34 Lock Keeper's House, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

West Branch Pennsylvania Canal, Lock No. 34 Lock Keeper's House, South of State Route 664 along North bank of West Branch of Susquehanna River, 2,000 feet East of Jay Street Bridge, Lock Haven, Clinton County, PA

340

33 CFR 117.1051 - Lake Washington Ship Canal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Washington § 117.1051 Lake Washington Ship Canal. (a) When fog prevails by day or by night, the drawtender of each bridge listed in this section, after giving the acknowledging...

2011-07-01

341

33 CFR 117.1051 - Lake Washington Ship Canal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Washington § 117.1051 Lake Washington Ship Canal. (a) When fog prevails by day or by night, the drawtender of each bridge listed in this section, after giving the acknowledging...

2012-07-01

342

33 CFR 117.1051 - Lake Washington Ship Canal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Washington § 117.1051 Lake Washington Ship Canal. (a) When fog prevails by day or by night, the drawtender of each bridge listed in this section, after giving the acknowledging...

2013-07-01

343

3. General view, looking west towards lined canal. Photo by ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. General view, looking west towards lined canal. Photo by Jet Lowe, HAER, 1989. - Puget Sound Power & Light Company, White River Hydroelectric Project, 600 North River Avenue, Dieringer, Pierce County, WA

344

60. View of lined canal and hop barn, looking southwest. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

60. View of lined canal and hop barn, looking southwest. Photo by Robin Lee Tedder, Puget Power, 1989. - Puget Sound Power & Light Company, White River Hydroelectric Project, 600 North River Avenue, Dieringer, Pierce County, WA

345

49. View of unlined canal near inline stream gaging station, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

49. View of unlined canal near in-line stream gaging station, looking west. Photo by Robin Lee Tedder, Puget Power, 1989. - Puget Sound Power & Light Company, White River Hydroelectric Project, 600 North River Avenue, Dieringer, Pierce County, WA

346

59. View of lined canal east of bellmouth near hop ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

59. View of lined canal east of bellmouth near hop barn, looking southwest. Photo by Robin Lee Tedder, Puget Power, 1989. - Puget Sound Power & Light Company, White River Hydroelectric Project, 600 North River Avenue, Dieringer, Pierce County, WA

347

A Balanced Way of Teaching Semi-circular Canals?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizes research into how children perceive three-dimensional objects. Focuses on the difficulty that students have in appreciating how the orientation of the semicircular canals affects balance and space perception. (DDR)

Souter, N. T.

1998-01-01

348

Endometriosis in the canal of Nuck hydrocele: An unusual presentation  

PubMed Central

The authors describe an unusual rare presentation of endometriosis in a hydrocoele of the canal of Nuck. A 43-year-old lady presented with a swelling in her right groin associated with mild discomfort. Examination revealed a cystic swelling in the groin for which she underwent an exploration and excision of the swelling. Surgery revealed a hydrocele of the canal of Nuck which was confirmed histologically. The unusual presentation of endometriosis in the sac was confirmed immunocytochemically. PMID:22096756

Bagul, A.; Jones, S.; Dundas, S.; Aly, Emad H.

2011-01-01

349

The Building of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is one in a series that brings the important stories of historic places into the classrooms across the country. It could be used in units on the early industrial period of American history and in courses on geography or science and technology. It will help students realize the role canals played in western expansion and in the evolution of transportation by focusing on the construction of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal.

350

Investigation and Management of Malignant Anal-Canal Tumours  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tumours of the anal margin and canal are a rare but histologically diverse group of neoplasms. In the United States, anal-canal carcinoma accounts for 1.5% of digestive system cancers, with an estimated 3400 new cases diagnosed each year [1]. Despite its infrequency, insights into anal-cancer biology over the past 30 years have radically altered its management. In the past, chronic

Najjia N. Mahmoud; Robert D. Madoff

351

20. VIEW OF NORTH AND EAST ELEVATIONS. HERE, THE CANAL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

20. VIEW OF NORTH AND EAST ELEVATIONS. HERE, THE CANAL HAS BEEN DRAINED, ALLOWING A RARE VIEW OF THE HEADGATES. THE MILL'S NORTH BASEMENT WALL WAS CLOSED UP WITH CINDER BLOCK AFTER A STORM BROUGHT WATER POWER TO AN END IN 1970. Photographer: Louise Taft Cawood, July 1986 - Alexander's Grist Mill, Lock 37 on Ohio & Erie Canal, South of Cleveland, Valley View, Cuyahoga County, OH

352

Context view, looking southwest along the WelltonMohawk Canal. The wasteway ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Context view, looking southwest along the Wellton-Mohawk Canal. The wasteway is marked by the white posts on either side of the access road. The pipe across the canal safely carries storm runoff over the canal and is not part of Wasteway No. 1 - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Wasteway No. 1, Wellton-Mohawk Canal, North side of Wellton-Mohawk Canal, bounded by Gila River to North & the Union Pacific Railroad & Gila Mountains to south, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

353

Amphiphilic Membranes  

E-print Network

Contents: 1. Introduction 2. Amphiphilic molecules and the phases they form 3. Isolated membranes: the Helfrich hamiltonian 4. Vesicle shapes 5. Shape fluctuations in vesicles 6. Interacting fluid membranes 7. Conclusions A. Differential equations for vesicle shapes B. The Faddeev-Popov determinant C. One-loop calculation of the renormalization group D. The Liouville model

Luca Peliti

1995-01-17

354

Heterochrony, modularity, and the functional evolution of the mechanosensory lateral line canal system of fishes  

PubMed Central

Background The canals of the mechanosensory lateral line system are components of the dermatocranium, and demonstrate phenotypic variation in bony fishes. Widened lateral line canals evolved convergently in a limited number of families of teleost fishes and it had been hypothesized that they evolved from narrow canals via heterochrony and explore modularity in the lateral line system. Two species of cichlids with different canal phenotypes were used to test a hypothesis of heterochrony. Histological material prepared from ontogenetic series of Aulonocara stuartgranti (widened canals) and Tramitichromis sp. (narrow canals) was analyzed using ANCOVA to determine rates of increase in canal diameter and neuromast size (length, width) and to compare the timing of onset of critical stages in canal morphogenesis (enclosure, ossification). Results A faster rate of increase in canal diameter and neuromast width (but not length), and a delay in onset of canal morphogenesis were found in Aulonocara relative to Tramitichromis. However, rates of increase in canal diameter and neuromast size among canals, among canal portions and among canals segments reveal similar trends within both species. Conclusion The evolution of widened lateral line canals is the result of dissociated heterochrony - acceleration in the rate of increase of both canal diameter and neuromast size, and delay in the onset of canal morphogenesis, in Aulonocara (widened canals) relative to Tramitichromis (narrow canals). Common rates of increase in canal diameter and neuromast size among canal portions in different dermatocranial bones and among canal segments reflect the absence of local heterochronies, and suggest modular integration among canals in each species. Thus, canal and neuromast morphology are more strongly influenced by their identities as features of the lateral line system than by the attributes of the dermatocranial bones in which the canals are found. Rate heterochrony manifested during the larval stage ensures that the widened canal phenotype, known to be associated with benthic prey detection in adult Aulonocara, is already present before feeding commences. Heterochrony can likely explain the convergent evolution of widened lateral line canals among diverse taxa. The lateral line system provides a valuable context for novel analyses of the relationship between developmental processes and the evolution of behaviorally and ecologically relevant phenotypes in fishes. PMID:24959342

2014-01-01

355

Root canal preparation in endodontics: conventional versus laser methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conventional cleaning and shaping of root canal systems employs hand and/or rotary instrumentation to remove the contents of the canal and shape the canal to receive a filling material. With the advent of the Nd:YAG laser system another method of accomplishing proper cleaning and shaping is evaluated. Single rooted teeth were radiographed bucco- lingually and mesio-distally and were divided into 2 groups. The first group was accessed and the root canal systems cleaned and shaped with a step back technique utilizing hand files and gates glidden burs. At completion of the procedure the teeth were again radiographed at the same positions as those prior to the procedure. The teeth were split longitudinally and examined under scanning electron microscopy to assess cleaning. The second group of teeth were accessed, and cleaning and shaping was accomplished using the Nd:YAG laser in combination with hand files and rotary instruments. These teeth were subjected to the same analysis as those in the first group. The before and after radiographs of each group were subjected to image analysis to determine effectiveness of the two methods in shaping the canal systems. We will discuss the ability of Nd:YAG to clean and shape root canal spaces and remove smear layer and organic tissue remnants from those areas.

Goodis, Harold E.; White, Joel M.; Marshall, Sally J.; Marshall, Grayson W.; Moskowitz, Emrey

1992-06-01

356

A review of potential tsunami impacts to the Suez Canal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Destructive tsunamis in the eastern Mediterranean and Red seas, induced by earthquakes and/or volcanic activity, pose potential hazards to docked seaport shipping and fixed harbor infrastructure as well as to in-transit international shipping within the Suez Canal. Potential vulnerabilities of the Suez Canal to possible tsunami impacts are reviewed by reference to geological, historical, archaeoseismological, and anecdotal data. Tsunami catalogues and databases compiled by earlier researchers are perused to estimate potential return periods for tsunami events that could affect directly the Suez Canal and its closely associated operational infrastructures. Analysis of these various records indicates a centurial return period, or multiples thereof, for long-wave repetition that could generally affect the Nile Delta. It is estimated that tsunami waves 2 m high would have a breaking length about 5 km down Canal whereas a 10 m wave break would occur about 1 km into the Canal. Should a tsunami strike the eastern flanks of the Nile Delta, it would damage Egypt's maritime infrastructure and multi-national commercial vessels and military ships then using the Canal.

Finkl, C.; Pelinovsky, E.

2012-04-01

357

Effect of solvents on bonding to root canal dentin.  

PubMed

The long-term success of resin cementation of post/cores is likely increased with improvement in resin-root canal dentin bonding. The adverse effect of some irrigation constituents (NaOCl, H2O2) or medications (eugenol) on the bond strengths of resins to dentin have been reported. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of two gutta-percha solvents (chloroform versus halothane) on microtensile bond strength to root canal dentin. Thirty, extracted, human, single-rooted teeth were instrumented to a #70 file and randomly divided into 3 groups of 10 each. The root canals were treated with water, chloroform, or halothane for 60 s. All root canals were obturated using C&B Metabond. After 24 h of storage in distilled water, serial 1-mm-thick cross-sections were cut and trimmed. Microtensile bond strength to apical, middle, and coronal root canal dentin were measured using an Instron machine. Using pooled data, the results indicated that water-treated roots had significantly higher resin-dentin bond strengths compared with chloroform or halothane treatment groups (control: 23.9 MPa; chloroform: 18.3 MPa; halothane: 17 MPa; p < 0.05). Gutta-percha solvents have an adverse effect on bond strengths of adhesive cements to root canal dentin. PMID:15273642

Erdemir, Ali; Eldeniz, Ayce Unverdi; Belli, Sema; Pashley, David H

2004-08-01

358

Seismically observed seiching in the Panama Canal  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A large portion of the seismic noise spectrum is dominated by water wave energy coupled into the solid Earth. Distinct mechanisms of water wave induced ground motions are distinguished by their spectral content. For example, cultural noise is generally <1 s period, microseisms dominate the seismic spectrum from periods of 2 to 20 s, and the Earth's "hum" is in the range of 50 to 600 s. We show that in a large lake in the Panama Canal there is an additional source of long-period noise generated by standing water waves, seiches, induced by disturbances such as passing ships and wind pressure. We compare seismic waveforms to water level records and relate these observations to changes in local tilt and gravity due to an oscillating seiche. The methods and observations discussed in this paper provide a first step toward quantifying the impact of water inundation as recorded by seismometers. This type of quantified understanding of water inundation will help in future estimates of similar phenomena such as the seismic observations of tsunami impact. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

McNamara, D.E.; Ringler, A.T.; Hutt, C.R.; Gee, L.S.

2011-01-01

359

Effect of pollution on phytoplankton in the Ashar Canal, a highly polluted canal of the Shatt al-Arab Estuary at Basrah, Iraq  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of pollution on the phytoplankton in the Ashar Canal was studied during March and June 1976. Higher temperatures were recorded in June. The canal water was more turbid than that of the adjoining Shatt al-Arab estuary due to high algal populations and sewage disposal. The chlorosity values were remarkably high in the canal, due to sewage disposal. The

Massoud A. H. Saad; Samir E. Antoine

1983-01-01

360

Assessment of the wetting behavior of three different root canal sealers on root canal dentin  

PubMed Central

Aim: The objective of the present study was to evaluate and compare the wetting behavior of three different root canal sealers on the root canal dentin surface treated with irrigants and their combination. Materials and Methods: Decoronation and apical third resections of 27 extracted single-rooted human mandibular premolars were done. The roots were then split longitudinally into two halves, and randomly assigned into three treatment groups (n=18). The root dentin surfaces in Group1, Group 2 and Group 3 were treated with 17% ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid (EDTA), 3% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and combination of 17% EDTA and 3% NaOCl, respectively. Each group was subdivided into three subgroups of 6 specimens each, depending on the the sealer used, i.e. sub group A. zinc oxide (ZnOE), sub group B. AH plus, subgroup C. Guttaflow sealer, respectively. The contact angle was measured using First Ten Angstroms (FTA) 200 dynamic contact angle analyzer. Results: The contact angle values for AH Plus sealer were significantly lower when compared to the other two sealer groups. Conclusion: The wettability of AH Plus sealer on the root surface dentin was found to be better than Gutta-Flow and ZnOE sealer. PMID:22557805

Tummala, Muralidhar; Chandrasekhar, Veeramachaneni; Rashmi, A Shashi; Kundabala, M; Ballal, Vasudev

2012-01-01

361

Performance of a metal hydride store on the "Ross Barlow" hydrogen powered canal boat.  

PubMed

This project involved the conversion of a British Waterways maintenance craft to a canal boat, powered by a combination of a solid-state hydrogen store, Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell, lead-acid battery pack and a high-efficiency, permanent magnet (NdFeB) electric motor. These replaced the conventional diesel engine thus eliminating water, noise, local and general atmospheric pollution. The "Protium" project applies modern technologies to a traditional mode of transportation. The TiMn2-based metal hydride store exhibited excellent performance as an effective means of storing 4 kg of hydrogen with a suitable desorption flow rate and temperature adequate for the operation of a 1 kW PEM fuel cell in a water-based environment. PMID:22455080

Bevan, A I; Züttel, A; Book, D; Harris, I R

2011-01-01

362

Crystalline Membranes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In certain aspects, the invention features methods for forming crystalline membranes (e.g., a membrane of a framework material, such as a zeolite) by inducing secondary growth in a layer of oriented seed crystals. The rate of growth of the seed crystals in the plane of the substrate is controlled to be comparable to the rate of growth out of the plane. As a result, a crystalline membrane can form a substantially continuous layer including grains of uniform crystallographic orientation that extend through the depth of the layer.

Tsapatsis, Michael (Inventor); Lai, Zhiping (Inventor)

2008-01-01

363

Water losses from irrigation canals evaluation: comparison among different methodologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The research investigates the field methodologies to evaluate water losses from canals, in order to find a reliable method to identify and quantify them. This study was conducted in five canal lines in Piedmont, north-western Italy, different for hydraulic, morphological, geological and hydrogeological contexts (De Luca et alii, 2012). At a regional scale, Piedmont network consists of several tens of thousands km of irrigation canals. The loss of water due to seepage from irrigation canals constitutes a substantial part of the usable water. Irrigation canals placed in natural soil or fine and coarse sediments are characterized by water losses ranging from 20 % to more than 50 %. These losses cause economic, hydrogeological and environmental consequences: water losses evaluation from irrigation canals in the basis for the sustainable water resource use and management. First, hydrogeological and hydrological characterisation of the study area and of the bottom of the irrigation canals was carried out for every investigated canal, in order to evaluate the relationships between groundwater and stream water (eg. piezometric and hydrogeochemical survey campaigns, infiltrometry tests, penetrometric tests and electrical tomographies, soil characterizations from the bottom of investigated canals). The canals seepage rates were subsequently estimated using different methodologies: empirical formulas, inflow-outflow tests and double tracer tests. The empirical formulas applied for the study underestimated the real amount of the losses probably due to the scarce number of the considered variables. Then the canals seepage rates were evaluated employing inflow-outflow tests, considered the best tool by several authors. This method allows the determination of seepage quantities measuring inflow and outflow of a canal test reach either by instruments. The canal discharge was evaluated using a current meter. This method, even if easy to apply and practical, is not efficient, especially for low canal discharge, because of the high instrumental error. A more rigorous method, based on the quantification of artificial tracers mass losses through exfiltration, was tested. This methodology is based on QUEST method (Rieckermann J. & Guier W., 2002; De Luca et alii, 2012). The used tracers were sodium chloride (NaCl), uranine and rhodamine WT. Uranine and rhodamine were detected by means of a fluorometer and NaCl thanks to a conductivimeter. In order to reduce the error of the NaCl detection, a multistage sampling in different parts of the cross section was applied, guaranteeing the contemporary water picking up. The results of these last tests were more accurate and in accordance with the aim of the research. References De Luca D. A., Comina C., Destefanis E., Marzano F., Carbotta G., Dino G., Passarella I., Masciocco L., Sambuelli L., Perotti L., Lasagna M., Clemente P., Bonetto S. (2012). Definizione di linee guida per la valutazione delle perdite dei canali irrigui. Convenzione scientifica tra Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra e Regione Piemonte - Direzione Agricoltura. Final Report. Rieckermann J., Gujer W. (2002) - Quantifying Exfiltration from Leaky Sewers with Artificial Tracers - Proceedings of the International Conference on "Sewer Operation and Maintenance. 2002", Bradford, UK.

Clemente, Paolo; De Luca, Domenico Antonio; Antonella Dino, Giovanna; Lasagna, Manuela

2013-04-01

364

Transport pathways in the lower reaches of Hood Canal  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 2003, studies revealed that the waters in the lower reaches of Hood Canal in Washington State had very low dissolved-oxygen concentrations, low enough to cause some fish kills between June and October of that year. In order to determine the transport patterns and the persistence of the low oxygen level in this portion of the canal, the U. S. Geological Survey deployed two instrumented platforms on the seabed near the head of the canal that measured currents over the whole water column, water level, near-bed temperature, salinity and oxygen for 2 months in the fall of 2004. Tidal currents, the dominant current component in the canal, flowed primarily along the canal axis and had speeds of 15-20 cm/s. There was also a persistent internal seiche that caused currents to flow along the canal axis with speeds of a few cm/s. The seiche, which had a period of a few days, caused currents in the surface layer to flow in an opposite direction to currents in water depths deeper than 15 m. A pool of warmer, saltier and more oxygenated water moved past the measurement sites toward the head of the canal with a speed of 1 cm/s. CTD measurements taken near the 2 measurement sites during the deployment indicated that this more oxygenated layer of water extended from the bed to the thermocline. Oxygen data from the tripods showed that this water remained in the region until at least the end of October 2004, when the tripods were recovered.

Noble, Marlene A.; Gartner, Anne L.; Paulson, Anthony J.; Xu, Jingping; Josberger, Edward G.; Curran, Christopher

2006-01-01

365

Cartilage palisades in type 3 tympanoplasty: functional and hearing results.  

PubMed

To evaluate the functional and hearing outcomes using full thickness broad cartilage palisades for tympanic membrane reconstruction in type 3 tympanoplasty with titanium prostheses. The retrospective study performed at a tertiary referral institute included 30 patients with posterior mesotympanic retraction pockets or tympanic membrane perforations requiring tympanic membrane and type 3 ossicular reconstruction. Patients with disease extending beyond the aditus requiring canal wall down mastoidectomy were excluded. Disease removal from posterior mesotympanic and epitympanic recesses was confirmed using angled endoscopy and ossicular reconstruction was performed using titanium partial or total ossicular replacement prostheses. Tympanic membrane reconstruction was done, with or without attic reconstruction, using full thickness broad cartilage palisades harvested from the tragus with perichondrium attached laterally. Patients were assessed at 24 and 48 weeks for graft status and any evidence of implant extrusion. Hearing evaluation was done using subjective assessment and pure tone audiometry. In total, 27 out of 30 patients had intact and completely healed grafts at 48 weeks postoperatively (a success rate of 90 %) showing full union and epithelialization of palisades, and with three patients displaying small defects. The mean pure tone air bone gap pre- and postoperatively was 32.4 and 8.8 dB, respectively, with most patients reporting satisfactory postoperative hearing. No evidence of implant extrusion was found in the 48-week period. Tympanic membrane reconstruction using full thickness palisades of tragal cartilage provides good functional and hearing outcomes in type 3 tympanoplasty with titanium prostheses. PMID:25032120

Vashishth, Ashish; Mathur, Neeraj Narayan; Verma, Deepak

2014-09-01

366

Charged Membranes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Teaching Resource provides three animated lessons that describe the storage and utilization of energy across plasma membranes. The “Na,K ATPase” animation explains how these pumps establish the electrochemical gradient that stores energy across plasma membranes. The “ATP synthesizing complexes” animation shows how these complexes transfer energy from the inner mitochondrial membrane to adenosine triphosphate (ATP). The “action potential” lesson explains how charged membranes are used to propagate signals along the axons of neurons. These animations serve as valuable resources for any collegiate-level course that describes these important factors. Courses that might employ them include introductory biology, biochemistry, biophysics, cell biology, pharmacology, and physiology.

Jack D. Thatcher (Lewisburg;West Virginia School of Osteopathic Medicine REV)

2013-04-16

367

Membrane Proteins A membrane protein is a  

E-print Network

Membrane Proteins A membrane protein is a protein molecule that is attached to, or associated with the membrane of a cell or an organelle. More than half of all proteins interact with membranes. #12;Membrane Proteins - Func2on Biological membranes consist of a phospholipid bilayer and a variety of proteins

Cavanagh, John

368

Membrane Rafts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The main focus of this three part series is to explore the concept of "Membrane Rafts". In the first part, we will examine what is popularly understood by the term "Membrane Raft" and ask why this concept was proposed in the first place. With a focus on the study of the characteristics of a popular "raft-marker", a class of cell surface lipid-tethered proteins, the GPI-anchored proteins.

Satyajit 'Jitu' Mayor (Cellular Organisation and Signalling, National Centre for Biological Sciences, Bangalore, India;)

2007-05-01

369

Computed tomography review of tarsal canal anatomy with reference to the fitting of sinus tarsi implants in the tarsal canal.  

PubMed

Sinus tarsi implants are used in the treatment of symptomatic hyperpronating flexible flatfeet in children. Although some implants are inserted only into the sinus tarsi, others occupy both the sinus tarsi and the tarsal canal. The stem that is anchored in the tarsal canal depends on interference fit for the initial resistance to slippage. The first part of this computed tomography anatomic study in children was aimed at finding and measuring the dimensions in the narrowest point in the canal that provided the interference fit. The second part of the study assessed the possibility of the implant being loaded with axial body weight in the tarsal canal. All foot computed tomography scans performed consecutively at Birmingham Children's Hospital from January 2008 to December 2011 were reviewed to assess the tarsal canal dimensions on the sagittal views. A total of 52 scans fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The average age was 12.7 years. The narrowest mean anteroposterior diameter of the canal was 7.3 ± 1.12 (range 5.2 to 10.0) mm. The narrowest mean superoinferior diameter was 9.2 ± 1.32 (range 6.3 to 12.7) mm. A total of 50 patients had the narrowest dimension in the anteroposterior plane. A positive linear correlation was found between the anteroposterior diameter and the superoinferior distance (r = 0.51, p < .01). We have concluded that the stem of an arthroereisis implant extending into the tarsal canal is unlikely to be constantly bearing body weight, because it obtains an interference grip in the anteroposterior direction in almost all patients and not in the superoinferior line of axial body weight. PMID:24160719

Bali, Navi; Theivendran, Kanthan; Prem, Hari

2013-01-01

370

Vertical and torsional VOR in posterior canal occlusion.  

PubMed

The vertical and torsional vestibulo-ocular reflexes (VOR) were investigated in 3 patients with surgical occlusion of the posterior semicircular canal and 1 patient with singular neurectomy, for treatment of refractory paroxysmal positional vertigo. Stimuli comprised sinusoidal oscillation in the coronal ("roll") and sagittal ("pitch") plane as well as in two oblique planes intermediate between pitch in order to stimulate left anterior + right posterior (LARP) and right anterior + left posterior (RALP) canal pairs separately. One case with left side BPPV was investigated pre and post-operatively. Depression of the vertical and torsional VOR gain was seen 1 week postoperatively when the occluded canal was placed in the optimal plane for stimulation at 1 week postoperatively and subsequently gradually recovered. Recordings in other planes suggested that the contralateral posterior canal was also hypofunctioning, a finding which may explain some residual gait unsteadiness in this case. The other 3 cases who were investigated postoperatively all showed a decrease in downward VOR gain in the "on' direction of the operated canal. The data indicate the specificity of the test procedure and underline the prognostic value of comprehensive pre-operative vestibular assessment. PMID:8749162

Kanayama, R; Bronstein, A M; Gresty, M A; Brookes, G B

1995-01-01

371

Labyrinthine artery aneurysm as an internal auditory canal mass.  

PubMed

We present the first case report of a labyrinthine artery aneurysm masquerading as an internal auditory canal tumor. A 72-year-old woman presented with sudden onset right facial paralysis, facial pain, hearing loss, and vertigo. She demonstrated dense right-sided facial paralysis involving all branches of the facial nerve, left beating horizontal nystagmus, and anacusis of the right ear. Magnetic resonance imaging with contrast demonstrated a 6?×?7?mm peripherally enhancing lesion with lack of central uptake filling the right internal auditory canal. The patient elected to proceed with translabyrinthine approach to the internal auditory canal for definitive resection of the mass as well as to decompress the neural structures of the internal auditory canal in an attempt to recover neural function, particularly of the facial nerve. Intraoperatively, the internal auditory canal mass was resected with minimal difficulty, with intraoperative dissection notable for brisk bleeding at the medial base of the tumor just as the tumor was dissected off its medial fibrous attachments. Final pathology of the resected mass revealed a blood vessel with mucinous degeneration of the medial layer of the vessel wall, with immunohistochemical staining confirming the presence and structure of aneurysmal blood vessel. PMID:25083386

Diaz, Rodney C; Konia, Thomas; Brunberg, James

2014-08-01

372

Homosexuality as a Consequence of Epigenetically Canalized Sexual Development Author(s): William R. Rice, Urban Friberg and Sergey Gavrilets  

E-print Network

Homosexuality as a Consequence of Epigenetically Canalized Sexual Development Author(s): William R;HOMOSEXUALITY AS A CONSEQUENCE OF EPIGENETICALLY CANALIZED SEXUAL DEVELOPMENT William R. Rice Department homosexuality, androgen signaling, canalization, epigenetic, gonad-trait-discordance, Jost paradigm abstract

Gavrilets, Sergey

373

Morphological Examination of the Obturator Notch and Canal in Cervidae  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to investigate gross findings of the obturator notch (ON) and obturator canal (OC) in Cervidae. A total of 183 pelvic girdles from 26 species of deer were examined, and the obturator canal (OC) was classified into 4 types based on the degree of separation from the obturator foramen (OF). The deep ON was observed primarily in the subfamily Capreolinae (telemetacarpal deer). The small bony OC was frequently observed in Hydropotes inermis, Mazama gouazoubira and Ozotoceros bezoarticus. A canal without a tubercle or bony bridge structure was mainly observed in the subfamily Cervinae (plesiometacarpal deer). These results suggest that the deep ONs or the OCs separated by bony structures are more common in telemetacarpal rather than plesiometacarpal deer. PMID:24430657

TAE, Hyun-Jin; PARK, Byung-Yong; KIM, In-Shik; AHN, Dongchoon

2014-01-01

374

3. View of the mouth of George Washington's 'Potowmack' Canal ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. View of the mouth of George Washington's 'Potowmack' Canal at the Great Falls of the Potomac River. The view is taken from a rock in the Potomac River looking up into the Canal. Trees and dense growth now fill the old aperture which once permitted barges to come down the Ohio Valley onto the broad expanse of the Potomac River. This view, taken September 1, 1943, evidences the very low water then existing on the Potomac River, as is clearly shown by the water marks on the rocks on the left hand side of the photograph. That portion where the individual is standing, up to the height of his hat, is normally underwater. Deep in the sand at this spot was found a part of one of the old hand brought lock hinges which formerly swung the first lock gates ... - Potowmack Company: Great Falls Canal, Locks No. 3, 4, 5, Great Falls, Fairfax County, VA

375

Temporal Bone Fracture Causing Superior Semicircular Canal Dehiscence  

PubMed Central

Importance. Superior semicircular canal dehiscence (SCD) is a third window lesion of the inner ear causing symptoms of vertigo, autophony, tinnitus, and hearing loss. A “two-hit” hypothesis has traditionally been proposed, whereby thinly developed bone overlying the superior canal is disrupted by a sudden change in intracranial pressure. Although the symptoms of SCD may be precipitated by head injury, no previous reports have described a temporal bone fracture directly causing SCD. Observations. Two patients sustained temporal bone fractures after closed head trauma, and developed unilateral otologic symptoms consistent with SCD. In each instance, computed tomography imaging revealed fractures extending through the bony roof of the superior semicircular canal. Conclusions and Relevance. Temporal bone fractures, which are largely treated nonoperatively, have not previously been reported to cause SCD. As it is a potentially treatable entity, SCD resulting from temporal bone fracture must be recognized as a possibility and diagnosed promptly if present. PMID:25295207

Peng, Kevin A.; Yang, Isaac; Gopen, Quinton

2014-01-01

376

Morphological examination of the obturator notch and canal in cervidae.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate gross findings of the obturator notch (ON) and obturator canal (OC) in Cervidae. A total of 183 pelvic girdles from 26 species of deer were examined, and the obturator canal (OC) was classified into 4 types based on the degree of separation from the obturator foramen (OF). The deep ON was observed primarily in the subfamily Capreolinae (telemetacarpal deer). The small bony OC was frequently observed in Hydropotes inermis, Mazama gouazoubira and Ozotoceros bezoarticus. A canal without a tubercle or bony bridge structure was mainly observed in the subfamily Cervinae (plesiometacarpal deer). These results suggest that the deep ONs or the OCs separated by bony structures are more common in telemetacarpal rather than plesiometacarpal deer. PMID:24430657

Tae, Hyun-Jin; Park, Byung-Yong; Kim, In-Shik; Ahn, Dongchoon

2014-05-01

377

Problems of drinking water treatment along Ismailia Canal Province, Egypt*  

PubMed Central

The present drinking water purification system in Egypt uses surface water as a raw water supply without a preliminary filtration process. On the other hand, chlorine gas is added as a disinfectant agent in two steps, pre- and post-chlorination. Due to these reasons most of water treatment plants suffer low filtering effectiveness and produce the trihalomethane (THM) species as a chlorination by-product. The Ismailia Canal represents the most distal downstream of the main Nile River. Thus its water contains all the proceeded pollutants discharged into the Nile. In addition, the downstream reaches of the canal act as an agricultural drain during the closing period of the High Dam gates in January and February every year. Moreover, the wide industrial zone along the upstream course of the canal enriches the canal water with high concentrations of heavy metals. The obtained results indicate that the canal gains up to 24.06×106 m3 of water from the surrounding shallow aquifer during the closing period of the High Dam gates, while during the rest of the year, the canal acts as an influent stream losing about 99.6×106 m3 of its water budget. The reduction of total organic carbon (TOC) and suspended particulate matters (SPMs) should be one of the central goals of any treatment plan to avoid the disinfectants by-products. The combination of sedimentation basins, gravel pre-filtration and slow sand filtration, and underground passage with microbiological oxidation-reduction and adsorption criteria showed good removal of parasites and bacteria and complete elimination of TOC, SPM and heavy metals. Moreover, it reduces the use of disinfectants chemicals and lowers the treatment costs. However, this purification system under the arid climate prevailing in Egypt should be tested and modified prior to application. PMID:18357626

Geriesh, Mohamed H.; Balke, Klaus-Dieter; El-Rayes, Ahmed E.

2008-01-01

378

Problems of drinking water treatment along Ismailia Canal Province, Egypt.  

PubMed

The present drinking water purification system in Egypt uses surface water as a raw water supply without a preliminary filtration process. On the other hand, chlorine gas is added as a disinfectant agent in two steps, pre- and post-chlorination. Due to these reasons most of water treatment plants suffer low filtering effectiveness and produce the trihalomethane (THM) species as a chlorination by-product. The Ismailia Canal represents the most distal downstream of the main Nile River. Thus its water contains all the proceeded pollutants discharged into the Nile. In addition, the downstream reaches of the canal act as an agricultural drain during the closing period of the High Dam gates in January and February every year. Moreover, the wide industrial zone along the upstream course of the canal enriches the canal water with high concentrations of heavy metals. The obtained results indicate that the canal gains up to 24.06x10(6) m3 of water from the surrounding shallow aquifer during the closing period of the High Dam gates, while during the rest of the year, the canal acts as an influent stream losing about 99.6x10(6) m3 of its water budget. The reduction of total organic carbon (TOC) and suspended particulate matters (SPMs) should be one of the central goals of any treatment plan to avoid the disinfectants by-products. The combination of sedimentation basins, gravel pre-filtration and slow sand filtration, and underground passage with microbiological oxidation-reduction and adsorption criteria showed good removal of parasites and bacteria and complete elimination of TOC, SPM and heavy metals. Moreover, it reduces the use of disinfectants chemicals and lowers the treatment costs. However, this purification system under the arid climate prevailing in Egypt should be tested and modified prior to application. PMID:18357626

Geriesh, Mohamed H; Balke, Klaus-Dieter; El-Rayes, Ahmed E

2008-03-01

379

Assessment of amniotic and polyurethane membrane dressings in the treatment of burns  

Microsoft Academic Search

As allograft and xenografts are not available in Islamic countries, amniotic membrane seems to be an effective alternative in the management of deep burns. Its proven bioactivities and modest price suggest that it might be superior to synthetic dressings.Forty-six patients were enrolled in this randomized, controlled clinical trial conducted in the Burn Unit at Suez Canal University Hospital, Ismailia, Egypt.

O. A. Adly; A. M. Moghazy; A. H. Abbas; A. M. Ellabban; O. S. Ali; B. A. Mohamed

2010-01-01

380

Root canal obturation of primary teeth: disposable injection technique.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to outline a simple, cost-effective technique for obturation of primary tooth root canals. A total of 75 primary teeth were treated in 52 subjects by the technique discussed, i.e. injecting plastic flowable material into the root canals after desired preparation, using disposable needle and syringe. All the patients were followed up for 3 years and 6 months, with no clinical or radiologic evidence of pathology or need for untimely extraction. In conclusion, the technique described is simple, economical, can be used with almost all filling materials used for the purpose, and is easy to master with minimal chances of failure. PMID:22565512

Bhandari, S K; Prajapati, U

2012-01-01

381

Mobile tumours in the lumbar spinal canal: a diagnostic problem  

PubMed Central

In two cases of mobile tumours in the lumbar spinal canal there was difficulty and delay in clinical and radiologic diagnosis because the early symptoms did not correspond to any particular dermatome. Myelography and computed tomography (CT) are the initial diagnostic procedures used in most institutions, even where magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is available. The purpose of these 2 case reports is to remind clinicians that it is possible for certain tumours attached to the roots in the lumbar spinal canal to migrate, because the roots tend to be redundant or lax. Multilevel search is essential in neuroradiologic studies for early diagnostic confirmation of mobile tumours. PMID:9030087

Varughese, George; Mazagri, Rida

1997-01-01

382

Bundling ecosystem services in the Panama Canal watershed  

PubMed Central

Land cover change in watersheds affects the supply of a number of ecosystem services, including water supply, the production of timber and nontimber forest products, the provision of habitat for forest species, and climate regulation through carbon sequestration. The Panama Canal watershed is currently being reforested to protect the dry-season flows needed for Canal operations. Whether reforestation of the watershed is desirable depends on its impacts on all services. We develop a spatially explicit model to evaluate the implications of reforestation both for water flows and for other services. We find that reforestation does not necessarily increase water supply, but does increase carbon sequestration and timber production. PMID:23690598

Simonit, Silvio; Perrings, Charles

2013-01-01

383

Carcinoma of the anal canal: radiation or radiation plus chemotherapy  

SciTech Connect

An editorial is presented which discusses the treatment of carcinoma of the anal canal. Following the initial report of the successful preoperative use of combined chemotherapy and radiation by Nigro in 1974, several centers have confirmed the effectiveness of such combinations either as preoperative or as definitive treatment of anal carcinomas, and many patients are now being referred for radiation therapy. The article by Cantril in this issue describe the successful treatment of anal carcinomas by radiation alone, and raises the important issue of whether radiation plus chemotherapy is more effective treatment than radiation alone for squamous or cloacogenic carcinomas arising in the anal canal or perianal area. Several studies are cited.

Cummings, B.J.

1983-09-01

384

East Coast -Suez Canal 15 East Coast -Strait of Hormuz 24  

E-print Network

Bases Places Crossroads East Coast - Suez Canal 15 East Coast - Strait of Hormuz 24 East Coast deployed (Avg Last 90 Days) 8 Sep 14 ~190 ships #12;Bases Places Crossroads East Coast - Suez Canal 15 East

385

Thermal Imaging of Canals for Remote Detection of Leaks: Evaluation in the United Irrigation District  

E-print Network

This report summarizes our initial analysis of the potential of thermal imaging for detecting leaking canals and pipelines. Thermal imagery (video format) was obtained during a fly over of a portion of the main canal of United Irrigation District...

Huang, Yanbo; Fipps, Guy

386

33 CFR 117.1093 - Milwaukee, Menomonee, and Kinnickinnic Rivers and South Menomonee and Burnham Canals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Milwaukee, Menomonee, and Kinnickinnic Rivers and South Menomonee and Burnham Canals...Milwaukee, Menomonee, and Kinnickinnic Rivers and South Menomonee and Burnham Canals...draws of bridges across the Milwaukee River operate as follows: (1) The...

2010-07-01

387

33 CFR 117.1093 - Milwaukee, Menomonee, and Kinnickinnic Rivers and South Menomonee and Burnham Canals.  

...Milwaukee, Menomonee, and Kinnickinnic Rivers and South Menomonee and Burnham Canals...Milwaukee, Menomonee, and Kinnickinnic Rivers and South Menomonee and Burnham Canals...draws of bridges across the Milwaukee River operate as follows: (1) The...

2014-07-01

388

WelltonMohawk Irrigation System, Wasteway No. 1, WelltonMohawk Canal, North side ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Wasteway No. 1, Wellton-Mohawk Canal, North side of Wellton-Mohawk Canal, bounded by Gila River to North & the Union Pacific Railroad & Gila Mountains to south, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

389

Sediment Inventory and Phosphorus Fractions for Water Conservation Area Canals in the Everglades  

E-print Network

Sediment Inventory and Phosphorus Fractions for Water Conservation Area Canals in the Everglades O in the Water Conservation Area (WCA) canals in the Ever- glades. A study was conducted to characterize

Florida, University of

390

Development of the lateral line canal system through a bone remodeling process in zebrafish.  

PubMed

The lateral line system of teleost fish is composed of mechanosensory receptors (neuromasts), comprising superficial receptors and others embedded in canals running under the skin. Canal diameter and size of the canal neuromasts are correlated with increasing body size, thus providing a very simple system to investigate mechanisms underlying the coordination between organ growth and body size. Here, we examine the development of the trunk lateral line canal system in zebrafish. We demonstrated that trunk canals originate from scales through a bone remodeling process, which we suggest is essential for the normal growth of canals and canal neuromasts. Moreover, we found that lateral line cells are required for the formation of canals, suggesting the existence of mutual interactions between the sensory system and surrounding connective tissues. PMID:24836859

Wada, Hironori; Iwasaki, Miki; Kawakami, Koichi

2014-08-01

391

C H A P T E R 8 Canalization, Cryptic Variation,  

E-print Network

. Reaction Norm of the Mean (RxNM) Definition of Canalization 137 V. The Variation Approach to Canalization categories of variation were the targets of evolutionary forces. These opposing views diverged further during

Dworkin, Ian

392

75 FR 20918 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Duluth Ship Canal, Duluth, MN  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Duluth Ship Canal, Duluth, MN AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of temporary deviation...Bridge across the Duluth Ship Canal, mile 0.25, at Duluth, MN. This deviation will test a change to the drawbridge...

2010-04-22

393

76 FR 11332 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Duluth Ship Canal, Duluth-Superior Harbor, MN  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Operation Regulation; Duluth Ship Canal, Duluth- Superior Harbor, MN AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Final rule...Operation Regulation; Duluth Ship Canal, Duluth-Superior Harbor, MN. in the Federal Register (75 FR 76324). We received two...

2011-03-02

394

33 CFR 117.1093 - Milwaukee, Menomonee, and Kinnickinnic Rivers and South Menomonee and Burnham Canals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...The draws of bridges across the Menomonee River and South Menomonee Canal operate...Plankinton Avenue bridge across the Menomonee River, mile 1.08, shall open on...all other bridges across the Menomonee River and South Menomonee Canal...

2011-07-01

395

33 CFR 117.1093 - Milwaukee, Menomonee, and Kinnickinnic Rivers and South Menomonee and Burnham Canals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...The draws of bridges across the Menomonee River and South Menomonee Canal operate...Plankinton Avenue bridge across the Menomonee River, mile 1.08, shall open on...all other bridges across the Menomonee River and South Menomonee Canal...

2012-07-01

396

33 CFR 117.1093 - Milwaukee, Menomonee, and Kinnickinnic Rivers and South Menomonee and Burnham Canals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...The draws of bridges across the Menomonee River and South Menomonee Canal operate...Plankinton Avenue bridge across the Menomonee River, mile 1.08, shall open on...all other bridges across the Menomonee River and South Menomonee Canal...

2013-07-01

397

Influence of root canal dressings and sealers on repair of apical periodontitis after endodontic treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. The objective of this study was to evaluate the histopathologic response of periapical tissues after root canal treatment of necrotic dog teeth with chronic apical periodontitis by using 2 calcium hydroxide-based root canal dressings and 2 root canal sealers. Study Design. Seventy-eight root canals were instrumented by using 5.25% sodium hypochlorite as the irrigating solution, after which a calcium

Fábio Luiz Camargo Villela Berbert; Mário Roberto Leonardo; Léa Assed Bezerra Silva; Mário Tanomaru Filho; Clóvis Monteiro Bramante

2002-01-01

398

Using a hydraulic model to prioritize secondary canal maintenance inputs: results from Punjab, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

A computer-based hydraulic model,RAJBAH, was used to assess the utility of such models to assist and support canal system managers in planning and targeting maintenance activities on secondary canals. The work was conducted on Lagar distributary, a secondary channel off-taking from Upper Gugera Branch canal, Lower Chenab Canal system, Punjab, Pakistan. Measured discharges of off-takes and water levels along the

Muhammad Nawazbhutta; Bagh Ali Shahid; Edward J. Van Der Velde

1996-01-01

399

The Shaping Effects of Three Nickel-Titanium Rotary Instruments in Simulated S-Shaped Canals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to compare the shaping effects of three nickel-titanium rotary instruments, ProTaper, K3, and RaCe, with emphasis on canal transportation. Simulated canals with an S-shaped curvature in clear resin blocks were prepared with a torque-control, low-speed engine. Canals were prepared using the crown-down technique to the size of #30. Canal aberrations were assessed by comparing

Y. Yoshimine; M. Ono; A. Akamine

2005-01-01

400

Fatbag Membrane  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Although oil and water do not normally mix, oil contaminants in waterways can be measured using a special membrane nicknamed a "fatbag." The fatbags absorb many fat-soluble chemicals from the water at a known rate, so they can be used to estimate the concentration of such chemicals....

2010-07-20

401

Membrane magic  

SciTech Connect

The Kansas Power and Light Co.'s La Cyne generating station has found success with membrane filtration water pretreatment technology. The article recounts the process followed in late 2004 to install a Pall Aria 4 microfilter in Unit 1 makeup water system at the plant to produce cleaner water for reverse osmosis feed. 2 figs., 2 photos.

Buecker, B. [Kansas City Power and Light Co. (United States)

2005-09-01

402

DISTRIBUTION OF SIPHONOPHORES IN THE REGIONS ADJACENT TO THE SUEZ AND PANAMA CANALS  

E-print Network

observed in the Red Sea. New records at both sides of the Suez Canal which could be considered indicative in the regions adjacent to the Suez Canal may be in the adjacent oceanic regions. Thirty species of siphonophores of the regions adjacent to the Suez Canal (eastern Mediterranean and the Red Sea), as well as for the regions

403

A modelling study on hydrodynamics and pollutant dispersion in the Suez Canal  

Microsoft Academic Search

A considerable amount of international trade is transported in Egypt through the Suez Canal increasing public concern about hazardous safety. Through the canal, a relatively important flow of salt water enters the Mediterranean Sea, affecting its hydrologic deficit, and carrying algae and other non-swimmer species from the Red Sea. We are studying the hydrodynamics of the Suez Canal using both

J. M. Abril; M. M. Abdel-Aal

2000-01-01

404

The Ohio & Erie Canal: Catalyst of Economic Development for Ohio. Teaching with Historic Places.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the 19th century, canal boats pulled along by mules carried much cargo. The canal boat was the family business, their livelihood, and their home. In Ohio, these boats glided gracefully along the Ohio and Erie Canal, heavily laden with lumber on its way north to Lake Erie where it was transferred to a lake freighter and sent to Buffalo (New…

Ayers, Deborah

405

75 FR 29693 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Oakland Inner Harbor Tidal Canal, Oakland/Alameda, CA, Schedule...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...drafts. The Oakland Inner Harbor Tidal Canal is a lateral extension...for the Oakland Inner Harbor Tidal Canal. In addition to the existing...or on the distribution of power and responsibilities between...117.181 Oakland Inner Harbor Tidal Canal. The draws of the...

2010-05-27

406

33 CFR 162.175 - Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, New York.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, New York. ...NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.175 Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, New York. In the Black Rock Canal and Lock, no vessel may exceed 6...

2013-07-01

407

33 CFR 162.175 - Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, New York.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, New York. ...NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.175 Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, New York. In the Black Rock Canal and Lock, no vessel may exceed 6...

2011-07-01

408

33 CFR 162.175 - Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, New York.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, New York. ...NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.175 Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, New York. In the Black Rock Canal and Lock, no vessel may exceed 6...

2010-07-01

409

33 CFR 162.175 - Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, New York.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, New York. ...NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.175 Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, New York. In the Black Rock Canal and Lock, no vessel may exceed 6...

2014-07-01

410

33 CFR 162.175 - Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, New York.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, New York. ...NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.175 Black Rock Canal and Lock at Buffalo, New York. In the Black Rock Canal and Lock, no vessel may exceed 6...

2012-07-01

411

Freshwater and Saline Loads of Dissolved Inorganic Nitrogen to Hood Canal and Lynch Cove, Washington  

E-print Network

, Washington Prepared in cooperation with the Hood Canal Dissolved Oxygen Program Scientific Investigations, and Theresa D. Olsen Prepared in cooperation with the Hood Canal Dissolved Oxygen Program ScientificFreshwater and Saline Loads of Dissolved Inorganic Nitrogen to Hood Canal and Lynch Cove

412

Endodontic Treatment of a Mandibular Second Premolar with Three Roots and Three Canals  

PubMed Central

Complex root canal system with atypical variations is a common finding among mandibular premolars. Endodontic treatment in these teeth may not be successful due to the failure to recognise and treat multiple canals. This paper presents endodontic treatment of a mandibular second premolar with three roots and three canals.

Paul, Bonny; Dube, Kavita

2014-01-01

413

PLASTICITY AND CANALIZATION OF INSECT REPRODUCTION: TESTING ALTERNATIVE MODELS OF LIFE HISTORY TRANSITIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Life histories may show phases of both plasticity and canalization in response to feeding rate. Models for life history canalization and plasticity postulate a threshold for initiation of canalized developmental events. Some models postulate adaptive plasticity, whereas others postulate nonadaptive plasticity that results from environmental modulation of fixed development. These models have been tested by changing feeding rate at various

Steven A. Juliano; Jennifer R. Olson; Ebony G. Murrell; John D. Hatle

2004-01-01

414

Hydrologic Modeling of a Canal-Irrigated Agricultural Watershed with Irrigation Best Management  

E-print Network

Case Study Hydrologic Modeling of a Canal-Irrigated Agricultural Watershed with Irrigation Best Management Practices: Case Study N. Kannan1 ; J. Jeong2 ; and R. Srinivasan3 Abstract: Simulating irrigation canal-irrigated watersheds. The existing approaches to modeling canal irrigation use situation

415

A non-iterative cascaded predictive control approach for control of irrigation canals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Irrigation canals transport water from water sources (such as large rivers and lakes) to water users (such as farmers). Irrigation canals are typically very large in nature, covering vast geographical areas, and involving a significant number of control actuators, such as pumps, gates, and locks. The control of such canals is aimed at guaranteeing the adequate delivery of water with

Rudy R. Negenborn; Akin Sahin; Zofia Lukszo; Bart De Schutter; Manfred Morari

2009-01-01

416

78 FR 55214 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Lake Washington Ship Canal, Seattle, WA  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Operation Regulation; Lake Washington Ship Canal, Seattle, WA AGENCY: Coast Guard...Railway Bridge across the Lake Washington Ship Canal, mile 0.1, at Seattle, WA...Railway Bridge across the Lake Washington Ship Canal, mile 0.1 (Ballard-Salmon...

2013-09-10

417

76 FR 28309 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Sturgeon Bay, WI  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Sturgeon Bay, WI AGENCY: Coast...Street Bridges across the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, at miles 4.3 and 4.17, respectively...Register. Basis and Purpose The Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal is approximately 8.6 miles...

2011-05-17

418

77 FR 33307 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Lake Washington Ship Canal, Seattle, WA  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Operation Regulation; Lake Washington Ship Canal, Seattle, WA AGENCY: Coast Guard...Montlake Bridge across the Lake Washington Ship Canal, mile 5.2, at Seattle, WA...Montlake Bridge crosses the Lake Washington Ship Canal at mile 5.2 and while in the...

2012-06-06

419

78 FR 26249 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Lake Washington Ship Canal, Seattle, WA  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Operation Regulation; Lake Washington Ship Canal, Seattle, WA AGENCY: Coast Guard...Montlake Bridge across the Lake Washington Ship Canal, mile 5.2, at Seattle, WA...University Bridge across the Lake Washington Ship Canal, mile 4.3, at Seattle,...

2013-05-06

420

Long-Term Monitoring of the HPC Carenton Canal Bridge.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report contains long-term monitoring data collection and analysis of the first fully high performance concrete (HPC) bridge in Louisiana, the Charenton Canal Bridge. The design of this bridge started in 1997, and it was built and opened to traffic in ...

W. Alaywan

2011-01-01

421

Dynamic Visual Acuity during Passive Head Thrusts in Canal Planes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We sought to determine whether the dynamic visual acuity (DVA) test, which has been used to measure the function of the two horizontal semicircular canals (SCCs), could be adapted to measure the individual function of all six SCCs using transient, rapid, unpredictable head rotation stimuli (head thrusts) in the direction of maximum sensitivity of each SCC. We examined head-thrust DVA

Michael C. Schubert; Americo A. Migliaccio; Charles C. Della Santina

2006-01-01

422

Sea-level Variation Along the Suez Canal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The variation of sea level at 11 stations distributed along the Suez Canal was studied during the period from 1980 to 1986. The ranges of variation in daily mean sea level at Port Said and Port Tawfik are about 60 and 120cm, respectively. The minimum range of daily variation is at Kantara (47cm).The fluctuations of the monthly mean sea level

F. M. Eid; S. H. Sharaf El-Din; K. A. Alam El-Din

1997-01-01

423

Biology of penaeid prawns in the Suez Canal lakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was made from January 1988 to March 1989 of the penaid prawns in the Great Bitter Lake and Lake Timsah located in the central part of the Suez Canal. Two species of Red Sea origin were investigated,Metapenaeus stebbingi andTrachypenaeus curvirostris; the former is by far the commoner. Both species displayed seasonal breeding over the period April to October,

A. A.-F. A. Gab-Alla; R. G. Hartnoll; A.-F. Ghobashy; S. Z. Mohammed

1990-01-01

424

Henry Hudson Bridge over Harlem River Shipping Canal at confluence ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Henry Hudson Bridge over Harlem River Shipping Canal at confluence with Hudson River, from Isham Park, view northeast. Inwood Hill Park on left, Spuyten Duyvil Shorefront Park on right, Palisades Interstate Park in background. - Henry Hudson Parkway, Extending 11.2 miles from West 72nd Street to Bronx-Westchester border, New York, New York County, NY

425

ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AT LOVE CANAL: VOLUME II (PART 1)  

EPA Science Inventory

During the summer and fall of 1980 the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conducted a comprehensive multimedia environmental monitoring program in the vicinity of the inactive hazardous wastes landfill known as Love Canal, located in Niagara Falls, New York. The studies c...

426

Recipe for Disaster: Motherhood and Citizenship at Love Canal  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1978, approximately 900 families living in the LaSalle neighborhood of Niagara Falls, New York discovered that over 22,000 tons of toxic chemicals were buried in their midst. In response residents formed the Love Canal Homeowners' Association, which demanded state aid in relocating families, and neighborhood women became the organization's most visible leaders. While the group's protests and use of

Amy M. Hay

2009-01-01

427

Radiographic Localization of the Mental Foramen and Mandibular Canal  

PubMed Central

Objective: Accurately localizing the mental foramen and mandibular canal is important when administering local anesthesia and performing surgery; therefore, knowing the normal range of the possible locations is essential. Our purpose was to assess the location of the mental foramen and mandibular canal in an Iranian population using panoramic radiography. Materials and Methods: Standard panoramic radiographies were performed. The positions of 100 mental foramens were evaluated. The distances from the center of the mental foramen to the superior and inferior borders of the mandible and to the apexes of the first and second premolar were measured. The distance of the mental foramens from the mandibular midline and the diameter of the mandibular canal in the mental foramen connection were also measured. Results: Among 100 mental foramens, 6% were positioned under the first premolar, 24% were between the first and second premolars, 67% were under the second premolar, and the remaining 3% were behind the second premolar. The mean distance from the mental foramen to the mandibular midline was 27.77±3.20 mm. The mean diameter of the mandibular canal in the mental foramen connection was 3.09±0.69mm. Conclusion: The mental foramen was near the second premolar and the inferior border of the mandible. This information can be used to perform safer mental nerve blocks in surgical interventions. PMID:24910651

Afkhami, Farzaneh; Haraji, Afshin; Boostani, Hamid Reza

2013-01-01

428

Stenosis of the lumbar vertebral canal and sciatica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Stenosis of the vertebral canal is a form of compressive stenosis in contrast to transport stenosis of vessels or other channels. The concept, definition and pathomorphological properties are discussed. As it is a form of compressive stenosis, the diagnosis is based on measurements of diameters rather than of cross-sectional surfaces. The biomechanical action of compressive stenosis is compression of

H. Verbiest

1980-01-01

429

Canalization-based vein formation in a growing leaf.  

PubMed

Vein formation is an important process in plant leaf development. The phytohormone auxin is known as the most important molecule for the control of venation patterning; and the canalization model, in which cells experiencing higher auxin flux differentiate into specific cells for auxin transportation, is widely accepted. To date, several mathematical models based on the canalization hypothesis have been proposed that have succeeded in reproducing vein patterns similar to those observed in actual leaves. However, most previous studies focused on patterning in fixed domains, and, in a few exceptional studies, limited tissue growth - such as cell proliferation at leaf margins and small deformations without large changes in cell number - were dealt with. Considering that, in actual leaf development, venation patterning occurs in an exponentially growing tissue, whether the canalization hypothesis still applies is an important issue to be addressed. In this study, we first show through a pilot simulation that the coupling of chemical dynamics for canalization and tissue growth as independent models cannot reproduce normal venation patterning. We then examine conditions sufficient for achieving normal patterning in a growing leaf by introducing various constraints on chemical dynamics, tissue growth, and cell mechanics; in doing so, we found that auxin flux- or differentiation-dependent modification of the cell cycle and elasticity of cell edges are essential. The predictions given by our simulation study will serve as guideposts in experiments aimed at finding the key factors for achieving normal venation patterning in developing plant leaves. PMID:24632445

Lee, Sang-Woo; Feugier, Francois Gabriel; Morishita, Yoshihiro

2014-07-21

430

Circulation Characteristics of Puget Sound Related to Understanding Hood Canal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hood Canal has relatively weak circulation compared to other parts of Puget Sound. Replenishment of bottom water results entirely from flow over the entrance sill. It probably occurs less frequently than in the other basins, and contributes to greater stagnation of bottom water. There have been relatively few long- term current meter observations making it difficult to determine the replacement

Glenn A. Cannon

431

THE GLANDS OF THE ANAL CANAL IN MAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interest in the existence and function of the glands of the anal region of man has existed for a long time. Today there are almost no differences of opinion about the glands located in the circumanal area. Less consistent are the investi- gative results on the glands of the anal canal proper, particularly those of the zona columnaris. Some authors

JOHN A. EGLITIS; IRMA EGLITIS

432

Effect of age, gender, and parity on anal canal pressures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The contribution of the resting anal canal pressure (RAP) and the maximal squeeze pressure (MSP) to the problem of fecal incontinence was assessed by comparing 143 incontinent patients to a control population of 157 healthy subjects. These parameters were determined using a multilumen continuously perfused catheter and a mechanized rapid pull-through technique. In 10 male volunteers both RAP and MSP

Sean M. McHugh; Nicholas E. Diamant

1987-01-01

433

33 CFR 117.589 - Cape Cod Canal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... § 117.589 Cape Cod Canal. The draw of the Conrail railroad bridge, mile...shall operate as follows: (a) The draw is normally in the fully open position...maintenance. No signal is required if the draw is in the fully open position....

2010-07-01

434

76 FR 21253 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Company Canal, Lockport, LA  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the operating schedule of the vertical lift span bridge across Company Canal at...clearance of the bridge is 5 feet above Mean High Water in the closed-to-navigation...33 CFR 117.438(a), the vertical lift span of the bridge currently opens...

2011-04-15

435

Environmental Assessment: A Canal Fish Screen Project, Klamath County, Oregon.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Bureau of Reclamation proposes to construct and operate a fish screen at the inlet of the A Canal, a feature of the Klamath Project, from Upper Klamath Lake. The fish screen project would include construction of trash rack structure, a fish screen, a ...

2002-01-01

436

Panama Canal One of the Greatest Engineering Feats of the  

E-print Network

- raising or lowering the ship. #12;Panama Canal Locks Gate flaps: 65 feet wide & 7 feet thick The flaps have to withstand significant amounts of water pressure Gate height: ranges from 47 feet to 82 feet Large motors built into the brick walls open and close gates. Each chamber is 1,000 feet long, 110 feet

Provancher, William

437

Clinical evaluation, medical management and outcome of atrioventricular canal defects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relative effects of interatrial shunting, interventricular shunting and atrioventricular valve function will determine the general course of patients with atrioventricular canal defects. This report reviews the natural history, medical management and current outcome of this group of patients. The overall long-term survival of patients with primum atrial septal defect following repair was found to match that of the general

Howard D. Apfel; Welton M. Gersony

1999-01-01

438

Ohio Canals. Student Guide and Teacher Guide. OEAGLS Investigation 15.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relationships of Ohio's canals to drainage patterns, population centers, commerce and population growth are the focus of this unit for secondary school classes. Presented are both a student workbook and teacher's guide. Included in the latter are a materials list, objectives, suggested instructional approaches, evaluation items, and a key to…

Mayer, Victor J.; Pigman, Frank

439

Velarde and the Llano Canal: A Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In arid New Mexico, decisions about water have always been a particularly strong source of tension between local communities and the bureaucracy. In one revent case, the community of Velarde had successfully blocked plans for a diversion dam and canal which would have brought new water into the Espanola valley, but would also have destroyed…

Horvath, Rosemary

1976-01-01

440

An Unusual Mishap during Root Canal Access in Retreatment Case  

PubMed Central

Varieties of objects have been introduced into the root canal system accidentally or intentionally; removal of these objects necessitates the success of the treatment. This paper explains an unusual bur fracture during nonsurgical endodontic treatment and its removal by ultrasonic energy with ease and without the removal of extra large amount of root dentin. PMID:23082257

Hampanna Malur, Manjunath; Krishna, Akash; Sapna, D. V.

2012-01-01

441

An Unusual Mishap during Root Canal Access in Retreatment Case.  

PubMed

Varieties of objects have been introduced into the root canal system accidentally or intentionally; removal of these objects necessitates the success of the treatment. This paper explains an unusual bur fracture during nonsurgical endodontic treatment and its removal by ultrasonic energy with ease and without the removal of extra large amount of root dentin. PMID:23082257

Hampanna Malur, Manjunath; Krishna, Akash; Sapna, D V

2012-01-01

442

Bundling ecosystem services in the Panama Canal watershed  

E-print Network

Bundling ecosystem services in the Panama Canal watershed Silvio Simonit1 and Charles Perrings eco cover change in watersheds affects the supply of a number of ecosystem services, including water supply ecosystem services, including timber production, habitat provision, and macroclimatic regulation through

443

75 FR 45477 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Company Canal, Bourg, LA  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Navigation Canal. Small vessels may pass under the bridge while in the closed-to-navigation position provided caution is exercised. In an emergency, the bridge can be returned to operation with a 36 hour notice. Due to prior experience and...

2010-08-03

444

31. General view, looking west, of concretelined canal. To the ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

31. General view, looking west, of concrete-lined canal. To the right is the warehouse and lunchroom building and the lumber storage shed. Photo by Jet Lowe, HAER, 1989. - Puget Sound Power & Light Company, White River Hydroelectric Project, 600 North River Avenue, Dieringer, Pierce County, WA

445

QUALITY ASSURANCE PLAN: LOVE CANAL STUDY. APPENDIX A. SAMPLING PROCEDURES  

EPA Science Inventory

The four volumes in this set comprise the working guideline documents for the Love Canal Study. The documents were developed to direct both the prime contractor and subcontractors while performing for the Environmental Protection Agency. Detailed procedures for each analysis type...

446

QUALITY ASSURANCE PLAN: LOVE CANAL STUDY. APPENDIX B. ANALYTICAL PROCEDURES  

EPA Science Inventory

The four volumes in this set comprise the working guideline documents for the Love Canal Study. The documents were developed to direct both the prime contractor and subcontractors while performing for the Environmental Protection Agency. Detailed procedures for each analysis type...

447

Nonsurgical Endodontic Retreatment of Maxillary Second Molar with Two Palatal Root Canals: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Successful endodontic treatment requires thorough knowledge regarding each root canal system of any tooth and probability of extra canals should be considered. Second maxillary molar with two palatal root canals is not frequent and its incidence reported in literatures is about 0.4–2%. The present case report describes non-surgical retreatment of maxillary second mo-lar with two palatal root canals. Radiographic interpretation is difficult in this region; so, very careful examination of pulpal space and using supportive devices such as loupe and operating microscope is recommended to discover any unusual anat-omic features like extra canals. PMID:22991641

Eskandarinezhad, Mahsa; Ghasemi, Negin

2012-01-01

448

Water quality and urban runoff in selected canal communities along the Texas coast  

E-print Network

-83 in, Bayou, Vista (I). Temperature, Salinity, and COnductivity Profile of Canal H-83 in Bayou Vista (2). Temperature, Salinity, and Conductivity of Canal H-83 in Bayou Vista (3) Temperature, Salinity, and Conductivity Profile of Canal H-84... in this report. As for the canal communities per se, there have been some data collected. Most of the work has been on the effect of existing canal commun~ ties on mari ne life and the ensui ng increase or decrease i n productivity and species diversification...

Messenger, Allen Lester

2012-06-07

449

The effects of a by-pass canal upon the marine animals occurring in the cooling canal system of the P. H. Robinson Generating Station  

E-print Network

in 1971 51 16 Abundance of Paiaeinonetes or~?io ar. d P, ~ruioarts at seine stations IS and DS in relation to average temperatures in the discharge canal in 1971 INTRO DU CTI ON The thermo-electric generating industry in this country is faced with a... GALVESTON GAV OS STUPY AREA BP PH. ROBINSON G E NE R AT I N G STATION IS DiCKINSON BAYOU FIQTJRE I. --Map of study area showing trawl stations 4 and 5 (intake canal) 6 and 7 (discnarge canal) and BP (by-pass canal), and seine st tions IS (in ake...

French, Johnny Duane

2012-06-07

450

The Guyon’s canal in perspective: 3-T MRI assessment of the normal anatomy, the anatomical variations and the Guyon’s canal syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purposes  (1) To revisit the anatomical boundaries of the canal, its contents and its two channels, (2) to describe the anatomical variations\\u000a of the canal’s borders and the variations of its contents, and (3) to discuss the clinical relevance of the Guyon’s canal\\u000a syndrome.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Two hundred and fifty MR wrists examinations were reviewed. MR spin echo T1-weighted axial slices were used

Claude Pierre-Jerome; Valeria Moncayo; Michael R. Terk

451

Endodontic retreatment of a mandibular first molar with five root canal systems: an important clinical lesson.  

PubMed

The objective of root canal treatment is to perform complete debridement of the root canals and subsequent obturation to facilitate healing of periapical pathosis. However, this process becomes complicated with the presence of additional root canal systems. The purpose of the present article is to report successful non-surgical retreatment of a mandibular first molar with five canals. This case report discusses the clinical management of a previously root filled mandibular firstmolar with two missed canal systems; distolingual and an additional mesial canal known as the middle mesial canal. The post-treatment radiographs show successful obturation to length in all canals. The middle mesial canal was found to be associated with mesiolingual canal and categorised as confluent. The configuration of canals in the mesial root was type XV, based on the classification given by Sert and Bayirli. This case report highlights the importance of knowledge and its application in the management of abnormal anatomic variants which play a crucial role in the success of endodontic retreatment. PMID:24654237

Hasan, Muhammad; Umer, Fahad

2014-01-01

452

Semicircular canal dehiscence in HR multislice computed tomography: distribution, frequency, and clinical relevance.  

PubMed

The literature about bony defects in the semicircular canal system is highly inconsistent. Therefore, we analyzed a series of 700 high-resolution multislice CT examinations of the temporal bone for semicircular canal dehiscencies. An unselected group of ENT patients with different clinical symptoms and variable age was chosen. We found semicircular canal dehiscence in 9.6% of temporal bones, superior semicircular canal was affected mostly (8%), less common posterior semicircular canal (1.2%); only in 3 cases (0.4%), lateral semicircular canal showed dehiscence. In 60% of SSC dehiscence, we registered bilateral manifestation. The so-called "third mobile window" in semicircular canal dehiscence causes a great variety of clinical symptoms like vertigo, nystagmus, oscillopsies, hearing loss, tinnitus and autophonia. Comparison with anatomic studies shows that CT examination implies the risk of considerable overestimation; this fact emphasizes the important role of clinical and neurophysiological testing. PMID:21739095

Stimmer, H; Hamann, K F; Zeiter, S; Naumann, A; Rummeny, E J

2012-02-01

453

Distance, Trade, and Income The 1967 to 1975 Closing of the Suez Canal as a Natural Experiment  

E-print Network

Distance, Trade, and Income ­ The 1967 to 1975 Closing of the Suez Canal as a Natural Experiment, the closing of the Suez canal in 1967 and its reopening in 1975, to examine the effect of distance on trade. On June 5, 1967, at the beginning of the Six Day War, Egypt closed the Suez canal. The canal remained

Lotko, William

454

Presence of Two Distal and One Mesial Root Canals in Mandibular Second Molars: Report of Four Cases  

PubMed Central

Most mandibular second molars have one and two canals in distal and mesial roots, respectively. This report represents four cases of mandibular second molars with a single mesial and two distal root canals with two different canal configurations. After access cavity preparation, two teeth had one distal and two mesial orifices, whereas in the two other teeth one mesial and two distal orifices were found. In the teeth with two mesial canal orifices, the distal root canal and one of root canals with a mesial orifice joined together in the apical part of the root, whereas in the two other teeth with one mesial and two distal canal orifices, three separate canals each with a different apical foramen were detected. Dental practitioners should be aware that despite higher prevalence of one distal and two mesial root canals, the mandibular second molars may also have one mesial and two distal root canals. PMID:25031600

Parirokh, Masoud; V. Abbott, Paul; Yosefi, Mohammad Hosein; Hosseini, Hamid Reza

2014-01-01

455

Repair of Temporal Bone Encephalocele following Canal Wall Down Mastoidectomy  

PubMed Central

We report a rare case of a temporal bone encephalocele after a canal wall down mastoidectomy performed to treat chronic otitis media with cholesteatoma. The patient was treated successfully via an intracranial approach. An enhanced layer-by-layer repair of the encephalocele and skull base deficit was achieved from intradurally to extradurally, using temporalis fascia, nasal septum cartilage, and artificial dural graft. After a 22-month follow-up period the patient remains symptom free and no recurrence is noted. PMID:25328738

Magras, Ioannis; Kouskouras, Konstantinos

2014-01-01

456

22. CLOSEUP VIEW OF A CANAL SPILLWAY LOCATED NORTHWEST OF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

22. CLOSE-UP VIEW OF A CANAL SPILLWAY LOCATED NORTHWEST OF THE POWER PLANT. THE BRICK ARCH IN THE FOREGROUND IS A POSSIBLE REMNANT OF THE RAILROAD THAT USED TO BE LOCATED ON THE NORTHEAST SIDE OF THE FOUNDATIONS THAT THE POWER PLANT SITS UPON. - Potomac Power Plant, On West Virginia Shore of Potomac River, about 1 mile upriver from confluence with Shenandoah River, Harpers Ferry, Jefferson County, WV

457

Combined therapy for cancer of the anal canal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nineteen patients with squamous-cell cancer of the anal canal have been treated with combined chemotherapy and radiation therapy,\\u000a followed by appropriate surgery. The authors are convinced that the combined therapy is effective enough to avoid abdominoperineal\\u000a resection if disappearance of the lesion is proven by adequate examination and biopsy. Although they believe cancers 5 cm\\u000a or less in maximum diameter

Norman D. Nigro; V. K. Vaitkevicius; T. Buroker; G. T. Bradley; B. Considine

1981-01-01

458

PLAN AND SECTION. WELLTONMOHAWK PUMPING PLANT NO. 1 WELLTONMOHAWK CANAL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

PLAN AND SECTION. WELLTON-MOHAWK PUMPING PLANT NO. 1 WELLTON-MOHAWK CANAL - STA. 452+32. United States Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation; Gila Project, Arizona, Wellton-Mohawk Division. Drawing No. 50-D-2368, dated June 30, 1948, Denver, Colorado. - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Pumping Plant No. 1, Bounded by Gila River & Union Pacific Railroad, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

459

DISCHARGE PIPES. WELLTONMOHAWK PUMPING PLANT NO. 1 WELLTONMOHAWK CANAL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

DISCHARGE PIPES. WELLTON-MOHAWK PUMPING PLANT NO. 1 WELLTON-MOHAWK CANAL - STA. 452+32.00. United States Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation; Gila Project, Arizona, Wellton-Mohawk Division. Drawing No. 50-D-2370, dated November 30, 1948, Denver, Colorado. - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Pumping Plant No. 1, Bounded by Gila River & Union Pacific Railroad, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

460

Prevalence of Apical Periodontitis in Root Canal–Treated Teeth From an Urban French Population: Influence of the Quality of Root Canal Fillings and Coronal Restorations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This cross-sectional study determined the prevalence of apical periodontitis in 1035 root canal–treated teeth from adult French patients and investigated the influence of the quality of canal fillings and coronal restorations on the periradicular status. Periapical radiographs were used for analyses, and teeth were classified as healthy or diseased according to the periapical index scoring system. Overall, the prevalence of

Paula B. L. Tavares; Eric Bonte; Tchilalo Boukpessi; José F. Siqueira Jr.; Jean-Jacques Lasfargues

2009-01-01

461

Treponema diversity in root canals with endodontic failure  

PubMed Central

Objective: This study sought to investigate the prevalence of eight oral Treponemas (Treponema denticola, T. amylovorum, T. maltophilum, T. medium, T. pectinovorum, T. socranskii, T. vicentii and T. lecithinolyticum) in teeth with endodontic treatment failure and periapical lesion. Methods: Samples were taken from 40 root canals presenting endodontic failure and periapical lesion. DNA extraction was performed and Nested-PCR technique was used for the detection of Treponema species using specific primers. Results: Treponemas was detected in 56.5% of the samples analyzed (22/39). Individual root canals yielded a maximum of 6 target Treponema species. T. denticola (30.8%) and T. maltophilum (30.8%) were the most frequently detected species followed by T. medium (20.5%), T. socranskii (20.5%), T. pectinovorum (17.9%) and T. vicentii (17.9%). Positive association was verified between T. denticola and T. maltophilum such as T. medium (P<.05). T. lecithinolyticum was positively associated with intraradicular post (P<.05). Conclusion: The present study revealed that a wide variety of Treponema species plays a role in persistent/secondary infection turning the root canal microbiota even more complex than previously described by endodontic literature. PMID:23408792

Nobrega, Leticia M. M.; Delboni, Maraisa G.; Martinho, Frederico C.; Zaia, Alexandre A; Ferraz, Caio C. R.; Gomes, Brenda P. F. A.

2013-01-01

462

Prototype neural semicircular canal prosthesis using patterned electrical stimulation.  

PubMed

The design of a prototype semicircular canal prosthesis is presented along with preliminary results. This device measures angular velocity of the head (+/-500 degrees/s) using a piezoelectric vibrating gyroscope. With a digital filter this velocity is filtered to match the dynamic characteristics of the semicircular canals, which are the physiological rotation sensors of the vestibular system. This digitally filtered signal is used to modulate the pulse rate of electrical stimulation. The pulse rate is varied between 50 and 250 Hz via a sigmoidal lookup table relating pulse rate to angular velocity; the steady-state rate is 150 Hz. A current source utilizes these timing pulses to deliver charge balanced, cathodic-first, biphasic, current pulses to the nerves innervating the semicircular canal via platinum electrodes. Power is supplied via lithium batteries. dc/dc converters are used to generate regulated +/-5 V supplies from the batteries. All of the components are contained in a small, lightweight, Nylon box measuring roughly 43 mm x 31 mm x 25 mm, which can be mounted on the top of an animal's head. This device has been tested in guinea pigs having surgically implanted platinum electrodes, and the results show that the prosthesis can provide a rotational cue to the nervous system. PMID:10925955

Gong, W; Merfeld, D M

2000-05-01

463

Cyst of the Canal of Nuck in Pediatric Patients  

PubMed Central

Background: Cyst of the canal of Nuck is a rare cause of inguinal swelling in female infants and children. Aim: The purpose of this study is to discuss the clinical, radiological, and histopathological findings, differential diagnosis, and surgical treatment of this disease in the light of our experience. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in six children who were operated on with cyst of the canal of Nuck at the pediatric surgery clinic in July 1998-March 2013. All information was collected from patient's files and computer records retrospectively. Results: Patients were between the ages of 1 and 12 years. Size of the cysts has varied between 23 mm and 55.2 mm. In all cases, cyst was on the right side. In physical examination while five cases had palpable, well-circumscribed, mobile and painless mass, in one case the mass was immobile. In one patient, the mass was reducible; in the other 5 patients the mass was non-reducible. First patient was operated immediately with the early diagnosis of incarcerated inguinal hernia, the second one was operated under elective conditions with early diagnosis of inguinal hernia and it was diagnosed during operation, and in the last 4 patients pre-operative true diagnosis was possible. Conclusions: As clinical findings of the cyst of the canal of Nuck are variable, pre-operative true diagnosis can only be related to increasing experience. PMID:23923108

Akkoyun, Ibrahim; Kucukosmanoglu, Ilknur; Yalinkilinc, Ertugrul

2013-01-01

464

Functional Implications of Ubiquitous Semicircular Canal Non-Orthogonality in Mammals  

PubMed Central

The ‘canonical model’ of semicircular canal orientation in mammals assumes that 1) the three ipsilateral canals of an inner ear exist in orthogonal planes (i.e., orthogonality), 2) corresponding left and right canal pairs have equivalent angles (i.e., angle symmetry), and 3) contralateral synergistic canals occupy parallel planes (i.e., coplanarity). However, descriptions of vestibular anatomy that quantify semicircular canal orientation in single species often diverge substantially from this model. Data for primates further suggest that semicircular canal orthogonality varies predictably with the angular head velocities encountered in locomotion. These observations raise the possibility that orthogonality, symmetry, and coplanarity are misleading descriptors of semicircular canal orientation in mammals, and that deviations from these norms could have significant functional consequences. Here we critically assess the canonical model of semicircular canal orientation using high-resolution X-ray computed tomography scans of 39 mammal species. We find that substantial deviations from orthogonality, angle symmetry, and coplanarity are the rule for the mammals in our comparative sample. Furthermore, the degree to which the semicircular canals of a given species deviate from orthogonality is negatively correlated with estimated vestibular sensitivity. We conclude that the available comparative morphometric data do not support the canonical model and that its overemphasis as a heuristic generalization obscures a large amount of functionally relevant variation in semicircular canal orientation between species. PMID:24260256

Berlin, Jeri C.; Kirk, E. Christopher; Rowe, Timothy B.

2013-01-01

465

Identification of possible factors impacting dental students' ability to locate MB2 canals in maxillary molars.  

PubMed

This study examined the effect of the access size and straight-line path of access on third-year dental students' ability to locate a second mesiobuccal (MB2) canal in maxillary first and second molars. One hundred and six third-year dental students at one Faculty of Dentistry performed simulated root canal treatment with the aid of 2x magnification loupes on extracted teeth. A postgraduate endodontic student subsequently made a reasonable search for an untreated MB2 canal with the aid of a dental operating microscope. The mesiobuccal roots were then sectioned horizontally for determination of the canal configuration. The dental students were able to treat an MB2 canal in 15.8 percent of the teeth, but this was not associated with satisfactory access criteria. The postgraduate endodontic student identified an MB2 canal in 54.7 percent of the remaining tooth samples excluding those where the MB2 canal was found by the dental students; this represented 94.3 percent of those teeth confirmed by horizontal sectioning of the root to have an MB2 canal. The postgraduate student troughed, on average, 2.6 mm before negotiating the MB2 canal. As satisfactory access criteria and straight-line path of access did not correlate with the dental students' ability to find a second mesiobuccal canal, this result has important implications for educational goals with respect to endodontic treatment of maxillary molar teeth. PMID:24789839

Park, Ellen; Chehroudi, Babak; Coil, Jeffrey M

2014-05-01

466

Comparing the Fracture Rate of Hero 642, FlexMaster and Mtwo in the Simulated Canals  

PubMed Central

Introduction: File fracture is one of the main procedural mishaps in endodontic treatment. The aim of this in vitro study was to compare the fracture rate of three NiTi rotary systems; Hero 642, Mtwo and FlexMaster in artificial canals. Methods and Materials: In this study, bovine long bone was used. After primary preparation of bones, longitudinal sections with 4-cm diameter were cut and encoded. Subsequently, semicircular sections were prepared. A total number of 500 canals were created in the same way; the upper 3 mm of the canals were initially prepared with orifice shapers and then canals were filed with FlexMaster files sizes 25/0.02 and 25/0.04 to 13 mm of canal length. The prepared canals were assigned into 3 groups of the following systems: Hero 642, Mtwo and FlexMaster. Six selected instruments were used from each system; the files were applied 13 mm along the canals for 10 sec with manufacturer’s suggested speed and torque. The number of the canals prepared by each file before its separation was recorded; finally the data was analyzed with ANOVA test. Results: Mean number of prepared canals in Mtwo, FlexMaster and Hero groups before file separation was 15, 25 and 32, respectively. Conclusion: Results of this study showed that the number of prepared canals by Hero 642 was more than FlexMaster and Mtwo systems. PMID:24688579

Labaf, Hosein; Haghgoo, Roza; Nazarimoghadam, Kiumars; Mohamadibasir, Mahshid

2014-01-01

467

Perception Mechanisms of Bone-Conducted Ultrasound Assessed by Acoustic Characteristics in the External Auditory Meatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acoustic fields\\/vibrations in the external auditory meatus (ear canal) and tympanic membrane (TM) under bone-conducted ultrasonic stimulation were measured to elucidate the contributions of the osseotympanic and inertial routes to bone-conducted ultrasonic (BCU) perception. Evidence showing nonlinear distortions, especially the generation of audible subharmonics in the outer and middle ear, was examined. In the results, we did not find any

Kazuhito Ito; Seiji Nakagawa

2010-01-01

468

Anion permselective membrane  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The efforts on the synthesis of polymer anion redox membranes were mainly concentrated in two areas, membrane development and membrane fabrication. Membrane development covered the preparation and evaluation of experimental membranes systems with improved resistance stability and/or lower permeability. Membrane fabrication covered the laboratory scale production of prime candidate membranes in quantities of up to two hundred and sizes up to 18 inches x 18 inches (46 cm x 46 cm). These small (10 in x 11 in) and medium sized membranes were mainly for assembly into multicell units. Improvements in processing procedures and techniques for preparing such membrane sets lifted yields to over 90 percent.

Hodgdon, R. B.; Waite, W. A.

1980-01-01

469

Effects of stochastic noise on the evolution of canalization (Invited Paper)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Canalization is a form of network robustness found in genetic regulatory networks that results in a reduction of the variation of phenotypic expression relative to the complexity of the genome. Recently, it was discovered that canalization can evolve in a complex network through a self-organization of node (gene) behavior resulting from a competition of a network's nodes that selects for a diversity of behavior [K.E. Bassler, C. Lee, and Y. Lee, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 038101 (2004)]. Previously, this "self-organized" mechanism for the evolution of canalization has been studied only in deterministic model systems. This paper considers the effects of stochastic noise in the signals exchanged between nodes on the self-organized evolution of canalization. We find that small levels of stochastic noise increase the amount of canalization produced. At higher levels of noise, the amount of canalization produced levels off and reaches a maximum value, before it reduces at large levels of noise.

Bassler, Kevin E.; Liu, Min

2005-05-01

470

Biomechanical strain as a trigger for pore formation in Schlemm's canal endothelial cells.  

PubMed

The bulk of aqueous humor passing through the conventional outflow pathway must cross the inner wall endothelium of Schlemm's canal (SC), likely through micron-sized transendothelial pores. SC pore density is reduced in glaucoma, possibly contributing to obstructed aqueous humor outflow and elevated intraocular pressure (IOP). Little is known about the mechanisms of pore formation; however, pores are often observed near dome-like cellular outpouchings known as giant vacuoles (GVs) where significant biomechanical strain acts on SC cells. We hypothesize that biomechanical strain triggers pore formation in SC cells. To test this hypothesis, primary human SC cells were isolated from three non-glaucomatous donors (aged 34, 44 and 68), and seeded on collagen-coated elastic membranes held within a membrane stretching device. Membranes were then exposed to 0%, 10% or 20% equibiaxial strain, and the cells were aldehyde-fixed 5 min after the onset of strain. Each membrane contained 3-4 separate monolayers of SC cells as replicates (N = 34 total monolayers), and pores were assessed by scanning electron microscopy in 12 randomly selected regions (?65,000 ?m(2) per monolayer). Pores were identified and counted by four independent masked observers. Pore density increased with strain in all three cell lines (p < 0.010), increasing from 87 ± 36 pores/mm(2) at 0% strain to 342 ± 71 at 10% strain; two of the three cell lines showed no additional increase in pore density beyond 10% strain. Transcellular "I-pores" and paracellular "B-pores" both increased with strain (p < 0.038), however B-pores represented the majority (76%) of pores. Pore diameter, in contrast, appeared unaffected by strain (p = 0.25), having a mean diameter of 0.40 ?m for I-pores (N = 79 pores) and 0.67 ?m for B-pores (N = 350 pores). Pore formation appears to be a mechanosensitive process that is triggered by biomechanical strain, suggesting that SC cells have the ability to modulate local pore density and filtration characteristics of the inner wall endothelium based on local biomechanical cues. The molecular mechanisms of pore formation and how they become altered in glaucoma may be studied in vitro using stretched SC cells. PMID:25128579

Braakman, Sietse T; Pedrigi, Ryan M; Read, A Thomas; Smith, James A E; Stamer, W Daniel; Ethier, C Ross; Overby, Darryl R

2014-10-01

471

Anomaly of the facial canal in a Mondini malformation with recurrent meningitis  

SciTech Connect

A patient with recurrent meningitis and congenital hearing loss was evaluated with tomography and metrizamide cisternography. Tomography showed an aberrant first portion of the facial nerve canal, while on cisternography, communication between the internal auditory canal and the dilated labyrinthine remnant was evident. The authors describe the radiographic findings and their significance and propose a mechanism for the formation of the anomalous facial nerve canal.

Curtin, H.D. (Eye and Ear Hospital, Pittsburgh, PA); Vignaud, J.; Bar, D.

1982-07-01

472

Changes in the leachability of metals from dredged canal sediments during drying and oxidation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The behaviour of metals in canal sediments after their disposal to land has important implications for the environmental management of canal dredgings. The leaching behaviour of trace metals was investigated in a laboratory-based experiment using sediment from a canal in the UK (139 mg Zn kg?1dry sediment, 1.1 mg Cd, kg?1dry sediment 31.5 mg Cr kg?1dry sediment, 20.6 mg Cu

S. R. Stephens; B. J. Alloway; A. Parker; J. E. Carter; M. E. Hodson

2001-01-01

473

Maximisation Perceptuelle de la Qualit de Transmission JPWL via un Canal MIMO Raliste  

E-print Network

Maximisation Perceptuelle de la Qualité de Transmission JPWL via un Canal MIMO Réaliste J.ABOT 1 ,M transmission d'images JPWL (ISO/IEC 15444-11) à travers un canal sans fil réaliste capable d'assurer la meilleure Qualité de Service. Afin d'exploiter la diversité du canal, nous considérons un schéma MIMO

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

474

Transmission robuste de vido base ondelette travers un canal MIMO C. Perrine1  

E-print Network

Transmission robuste de vidéo basée ondelette à travers un canal MIMO J. Abot1 C. Perrine1 C hiérarchisation en transmission à travers un canal MIMO incluant une possibilité de précodage diagonal. La codeur pour s'adapter aux contraintes apportées par le canal de transmission et non les subir. Ainsi, il

Paris-Sud XI, Université de