Sample records for canal tympanic membrane

  1. The Effect of Ear Canal Orientation on Tympanic Membrane Motion and the Sound Field Near the Tympanic Membrane.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jeffrey Tao; Ravicz, Michael; Guignard, Jérémie; Furlong, Cosme; Rosowski, John J

    2015-08-01

    The contribution of human ear canal orientation to tympanic membrane (TM) surface motion and sound pressure distribution near the TM surface is investigated by using an artificial ear canal (aEC) similar in dimensions to the natural human ear canal. The aEC replaced the bony ear canal of cadaveric human temporal bones. The radial orientation of the aEC relative to the manubrium of the TM was varied. Tones of 0.2 to 18.4 kHz delivered through the aEC induced surface motions of the TM that were quantified using stroboscopic holography; the distribution of sound in the plane of the tympanic ring P TR was measured with a probe tube microphone. The results suggest that the ear canal orientation has no substantial effect on TM surface motions, but P TR at frequencies above 10 kHz is influenced by the ear canal orientation. The complex TM surface motion patterns observed at frequencies above a few kilohertz are not correlated with simpler variations in P TR distribution at the same frequencies, suggesting that the complex sound-induced TM motions are more related to the TM mechanical properties, shape, and boundary conditions rather than to spatial variations in the acoustic stimulus. PMID:25910607

  2. Hemangioma of the Tympanic Membrane: A Case and a Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Mevio, Emilio; Cazzaniga, Marco; Mullace, Mauro; Paolotti, Donatella

    2012-01-01

    Hemangiomas of the external auditory canal, involving the posterior bony canal and the adjacent tympanic membrane, although rare, are considered a specific disease entity of the human external auditory canal. Hemangiomas of the tympanic membrane and/or external auditory canal are rare entities; there are 16 previous case reports in the literature. It is a benign vascular tumor. It generally occurs in males in the sixth decade of life. Total surgical excision with or without tympanic membrane grafting appears to be effective in the removal of this benign neoplasm. The authors present a case and a review of the literature discussing diagnostic and surgical approaches. PMID:23243539

  3. Does Crying Turn Tympanic Membranes Red?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Loren G. Yamamoto; Ryan N. Sumida; Stephen S. Yano; D. Christian Derauf; Paul E. Martin; Paul J. Eakin

    2005-01-01

    The diagnosis of acute otitis media is based on several clinical factors. One of these factors is the color of the tympanic membrane (TM). Crying can cause flushing and hyperemia of the face. The purpose of this study is to determine whether crying affects the color of tympanic membranes. Infants and toddlers (age 30 months or less) evaluated in an

  4. Embryonic stem cells enhance the healing of tympanic membrane perforations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Magnus von Unge; Joris J. J Dirckx; N. Petri Olivius

    2003-01-01

    Objective: Tympanic membrane perforations may cause hearing impairment and otorhea. It is a common indication for ear surgery. The aim of the study was to test whether stem cells may enhance the healing of fresh tympanic membrane perforations. Methods: In a first assay, the status of the tympanic membrane at 5 days after myringotomy was tested in five Mongolian gerbils

  5. Development of a tympanic membrane model for laser myringotomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedlmaier, Benedikt W.; Bloedow, Alexander; Jovanovic, Sergije

    1997-05-01

    This study investigates guinea-pig and horse tympanic membranes, sheep dura and chicken eggshell membranes in terms of thickness, histology and tissue interaction with the carbon-dioxide and the erbium:YAG laser. Comparison with formalin-fixed human tympanic membranes as reference structure has provided a suitable model for further research in laser myringotomy. The horse tympanic membrane seems to meet our demands regarding the three parameters mentioned above.

  6. Traumatic Tympanic Membrane perforation: An aetiological profile

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Traumatic perforation of the tympanic membrane may be due to direct or indirect source. The aim of the study is to profile the various aetiologies of traumatic tympanic membrane perforation in Ilorin, north central Nigeria. A retrospective review of 64 patients seen at the University of Ilorin Teaching hospital, Ilorin, Nigeria over a ten year period (January 1998 to Dec 2007) with history of traumatic tympanic membrane perforation from various causes, these also included multiply injured patients with bleeding from middle ear as part of their presentations. The data retrieved included the biodata, the clinical presentations, source of injury, the clinical findings and the treatment outcome. The data were entered into an SPSS version 11 computer soft ware and analyzed descriptively. Findings Sixty four (64) ears were analysed, Age range 6 months to 50 yrs, mean age of 29.2 yrs 7.9% of them were ?5 years, 29.7% between 21-34 years, and 37.7% were 35 years and above. The male to female ratio was 2.5:1.0. Commonest aetiology was from slaps, then road traffic injury (RTI) in 35.9% and 23.5%, Majority of the slap injury were from fights (30.5%), security agents, senior students and cultists at schools (17.4% each). Sudden hearing loss was a typical presentation (95.3%), majority of the patient defaulted from follow up once the symptoms of bleeding and pain subsided. Only 7.8% had neomembrane formation on follow up Conclusion Traumatic perforation of the tympanic membrane is an uncommon injury that is under-reported, there is the need to educate on alternative punitive measure among students and security agents, unskilled removal of foreign body, early identification, evaluation and referral of patients reduces the attendant morbidity. PMID:19930586

  7. Uniform epidermal cell proliferation in the mouse tympanic membrane.

    PubMed

    Brown, W R; Weinberger, J M; Hawke, M

    1987-12-01

    Autoradiographic studies in mice showed epidermal cell proliferation to be dispersed over the whole tympanic membrane with no specific proliferative center. This strengthens the concept that net migration of the superficial layer of the stratum corneum across the tympanic membrane is the result of random insertion of cells into a pavement-like layer of corneocytes. We also found the cell proliferation rate in tympanic epidermis to be the same as that for dorsal epidermis in both normal mouse skin and the hyperproliferative epidermis of asebia mice. There was no indication of more rapid migration in tympanic epidermis in asebia as a result of the increased proliferation rate but rather increased thickness of the tympanic epidermis. There were also unusual circular mounds of epidermal cells in all asebia tympana, apparently due to localized hyperproliferation. PMID:3694743

  8. Scaffolds for Tympanic Membrane Regeneration in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yi; Redmond, Sharon Leanne; Teh, Bing Mei; Yan, Sheng; Wang, Yan; Zhou, Lin; Budgeon, Charley A.; Eikelboom, Robert Henry; Atlas, Marcus David; Dilley, Rodney James

    2013-01-01

    Tympanic membrane (TM) perforations lead to significant hearing loss and result in possible infection of the middle ear. Myringoplasty is commonly performed to repair chronic perforations. Although various grafts and materials have been used to promote TM regeneration, all have associated limitations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and feasibility of two graft materials, silk fibroin scaffold (SFS) and porcine-derived acellular collagen type I/III scaffold (ACS), compared with two commonly used graft materials (paper patch and Gelfoam) for the promotion of TM regeneration. These scaffolds were implanted using on-lay myringoplasty in an acute TM perforation rat model. Surface morphology of the scaffolds was observed with scanning electron microscopy. The morphology of the TM was assessed at various time points postimplantation using otoscopy, light and electron microscopy, and functional outcomes by auditory brainstem responses. We found that SFS and ACS significantly accelerated the TM perforation closure, obtained optimal TM thickness, and resulted in better trilaminar morphology with well-organized collagen fibers and early restoration of hearing. However, paper patch and Gelfoam lost their scaffold function in the early stages and showed an inflammatory response, which may have contributed to delayed healing. This study indicates that compared with paper patch and Gelfoam, SFS and ACS are more effective in promoting an early TM regeneration and an improved hearing, suggesting that these scaffolds may be potential substitutes for clinical use. PMID:23092139

  9. PATTERN OF TYMPANIC MEMBRANE PERFORATION IN IBADAN: A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Olowookere, S.A; Ibekwe, T.S; Adeosun, A.A.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Tympanic membrane perforations vary in size, shape and position. The degree of conductive deafness varies with the size and position of the tympanic membrane perforation. Objective: This study is to determine the pattern and causes of tympanic membrane perforation. Method: Hospital based study at the ENT Clinic, UCH, Ibadan. Consecutive patients seen during the period of study with ear symptoms were interviewed and examined by ENT surgeons. This information was entered into computer and analyzed using SPSS v 11. Result: Thirty-three (13.5%) of the 244 patients were found to have tympanic membrane perforation. Fifteen (45.5%) patients were new while 18 (54.5%) were follow up patients. There were 13 (39.4%) males and 20 (60.6%) females. The type of perforation seen were central 57.6%, subtotal 33.3%, total 6.1%, marginal 3.0%. The sides affected were left ear 45.5%, right ear 15.2%, and both ears 39.4%. The causes found were chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) 90.9%, acute suppurative otitis media (ASOM) 6.1%, and trauma to the affected ear 3.0%. CSOM was the cause of tympanic membrane perforation seen in children. Conclusion: There is need for early diagnosis and treatment of all cases of tympanic membrane perforation and proper education of parents and guardians on proper method of ear care and early referral. There is also need to train all healthcare workers especially primary health care providers on how to manage these cases. PMID:25161451

  10. Two cases of congenital cholesteatoma of the tympanic membrane.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Hideki; Satake, Kenichi; Takahashi, Masahiro; Horiuchi, Choichi; Tsukuda, Mamoru

    2012-03-01

    Congenital cholesteatoma of the tympanic membrane is rare, and lesions without a history of otitis media or any other adverse events involving the tympanic membrane are extremely rare. We report two cases of this lesion; one was a 3-year-old girl who underwent removal of a cholesteatoma using retroauricular approach and a partial myringoplasty with an underlay technique, and the other was a 2-year-old girl in whom a cholesteatoma was enucleated without grafting. This disease is thought to be of embryonic origin. PMID:23449401

  11. Endoscopic optical coherence tomography for imaging the tympanic membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkhardt, Anke; Walther, Julia; Cimalla, Peter; Bornitz, Matthias; Koch, Edmund

    2011-06-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an imaging modality that enables micrometer-scale contactless subsurface imaging of biological tissue. Endoscopy, as another imaging method, has the potential of imaging tubular organs and cavities and therefore has opened up several application areas not accessible before. The combination of OCT and endoscopy uses the advantages of both methods and consequently allows additional imaging of structures beneath surfaces inside cavities. Currently, visual investigations on the surface of the human tympanic membrane are possible but only with expert eyes. up to now, visual imaging of the outer ear up to the tympanic membrane can be carried out by an otoscope, an operating microscope or an endoscope. In contrast to these devices, endoscopy has the advantage of imaging the whole tympanic membrane with one view. The intention of this research is the development of an endoscopic optical coherence tomography (EOCT) device for imaging the tympanic membrane depth-resolved and structures behind it. Detection of fluids in the middle ear, which function as an indicator for otitis media, could help to avoid the application of antibiotics. It is possible to detect a congeries of fluids with the otoscope but the ambition is to the early detection by OCT. The developed scanner head allows imaging in working distances in the range from zero up to 5 mm with a field of view of 2 mm. In the next step, the scanner head should be improved to increase the working distance and the field of view.

  12. Determinants of Conductive Hearing Loss in Tympanic Membrane Perforation

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hanaro; Hong, Seung No; Kim, Hyo Sang; Han, Jae Joon; Chung, Juyong; Seo, Myung-Whan; Oh, Seung-Ha; Chang, Sun-O

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Tympanic membrane perforations are common, but there have been few studies of the factors determining the extent of the resulting conductive hearing loss. The aims of this study were to determine whether the size of tympanic membrane perforation, pneumatization of middle ear & mastoid cavity, and location of perforation were correlated with air-bone gap (ABG) of patients. Methods Forty-two patients who underwent tympanoplasty type I or myringoplasty were included and preoperative audiometry were analyzed. Digital image processing was applied in computed tomography for the estimation of middle ear & mastoid pneumatization volume and tympanic membrane photograph for the evaluation of perforation size and location. Results Preoperative mean ABG increased with perforation size (P=0.018), and correlated inversely with the middle ear & mastoid volume (P=0.005). However, perforations in anterior versus posterior locations showed no significant differences in mean ABG (P=0.924). Conclusion The degree of conductive hearing loss resulting from a tympanic membrane perforation would be expected with the size of perforation and pneumatization of middle ear and mastoid.

  13. Vibration analysis of the tympanic membrane with a ventilation tube and a perforation by holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeta, Manabu; Kawakami, Shinichiro; Ogawara, Toshiaki; Masuda, Yu

    1991-08-01

    For severe otitis media with effusion, insertion of a ventilation tube is performed for the purpose of ventilation of the middle ear cavity and normalization of the eustachian tubular function and middle ear mucosa. The ventilation tube is left in place for as long as several months or even a few years. However, the influence of the indwelling tube on vibration of the tympanic membrane is unknown. Therefore, the authors observed the influence by means of time-averaged holography using human tympanic membranes. The following results were obtained. After insertion of a ventilation tube, vibration pattern of the tympanic membrane was not obviously changed, but the vibration amplitude of the tympanic membrane was decreased, especially at 500 Hz. Generally speaking, the change caused by insertion of a ventilation tube was very small. Also, the vibration pattern of perforated tympanic membrane was not changed, but the vibration amplitude of perforated tympanic membrane was decreased at the low frequency area.

  14. A novel opto-electromagnetic actuator coupled to the tympanic membrane.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chia-Fone; Shih, Chih-Hua; Yu, Jen-Fang; Chen, Jyh-Horng; Chou, Yuan-Fang; Liu, Tien-Chen

    2008-12-01

    A new type of electromagnetic vibration transducer designed to be placed onto the tympanic membrane was developed. The actuator consisted of two photodiodes, two permanent magnets, an aluminum ring, two opposing wound coils, a latex membrane and a Provil Novo membrane. An optic probe was designed to allow sound and light signals to enter the ear canal, thereby preventing the acoustic occlusion effect of traditional ear molds. Two light-emitting diodes were used for carrying the input signals. The corresponding photodiodes were used for receiving the light signals and generating currents in the actuator. The opto-electromagnetic vibration actuator was fabricated and tested using a Laser Doppler vibrometer. The actuator showed displacements of vibration between 30 and 1 nm from 300 to 6500Hz and reduced in amplitude at higher frequencies. The average gain of the actuator with 140microA on the umbo displacement was about 20 dB relative to 87 dBA at the distance of 6cm from the tympanic membrane and 0microA in actuator. PMID:18995856

  15. Auditory information processing in stridulating grasshoppers: tympanic membrane vibrations and neurophysiology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Hedwig; J. Meyer

    1994-01-01

    During stridulation in the gomphocerine grasshopper Omocestus viridulus the leg movements, sound pattern and either summed auditory nerve activity or single interneuron activity were recorded. Simultaneous laser interferometric and vibrometric measurements of the displacement and velocity of the tympanic membrane were performed at the pyriform vesicle (d-receptor group). Slow displacements of the tympanic membrane occur in phase with the ventilatory

  16. Localization and proliferation of lymphatic vessels in the tympanic membrane in normal state and regeneration

    SciTech Connect

    Miyashita, Takenori, E-mail: takenori@med.kagawa-u.ac.jp [Department of Otolaryngology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, Kagawa 761-0793 (Japan)] [Department of Otolaryngology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, Kagawa 761-0793 (Japan); Burford, James L. [Department of Physiology and Biophysics and Department of Medicine, Zilkha Neurogenetic Institute, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90033 (United States)] [Department of Physiology and Biophysics and Department of Medicine, Zilkha Neurogenetic Institute, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90033 (United States); Hong, Young-Kwon [Department of Surgery and Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90033 (United States)] [Department of Surgery and Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90033 (United States); Gevorgyan, Haykanush; Lam, Lisa [Department of Physiology and Biophysics and Department of Medicine, Zilkha Neurogenetic Institute, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90033 (United States)] [Department of Physiology and Biophysics and Department of Medicine, Zilkha Neurogenetic Institute, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90033 (United States); Mori, Nozomu [Department of Otolaryngology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, Kagawa 761-0793 (Japan)] [Department of Otolaryngology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, Kagawa 761-0793 (Japan); Peti-Peterdi, Janos [Department of Physiology and Biophysics and Department of Medicine, Zilkha Neurogenetic Institute, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90033 (United States)] [Department of Physiology and Biophysics and Department of Medicine, Zilkha Neurogenetic Institute, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90033 (United States)

    2013-10-25

    Highlights: •We newly developed the whole-mount imaging method of the tympanic membrane. •Lymphatic vessel loops were localized around the malleus handle and annulus tympanicus. •In regeneration, abundant lymphatic vessels were observed in the pars tensa. •Site-specific lymphatic vessels may play an important role in the tympanic membrane. -- Abstract: We clarified the localization of lymphatic vessels in the tympanic membrane and proliferation of lymphatic vessels during regeneration after perforation of the tympanic membrane by using whole-mount imaging of the tympanic membrane of Prox1 GFP mice. In the pars tensa, lymphatic vessel loops surrounded the malleus handle and annulus tympanicus. Apart from these locations, lymphatic vessel loops were not observed in the pars tensa in the normal tympanic membrane. Lymphatic vessel loops surrounding the malleus handle were connected to the lymphatic vessel loops in the pars flaccida and around the tensor tympani muscle. Many lymphatic vessel loops were detected in the pars flaccida. After perforation of the tympanic membrane, abundant lymphatic regeneration was observed in the pars tensa, and these regenerated lymphatic vessels extended from the lymphatic vessels surrounding the malleus at day 7. These results suggest that site-specific lymphatic vessels play an important role in the tympanic membrane.

  17. Exchange rates of gases across the tympanic membrane in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Doyle, W J; Alper, C M; Seroky, J T; Karnavas, W J

    1998-07-01

    The exchange rates of CO2 and He across the tympanic membrane were estimated in 5 monkeys. For these experiments, the monkey was anesthetized and one arm of a polyethylene "T" tube was introduced into the external canal of the test ear and sealed to the ambient environment with wax. One arm of the T tube was attached to a pressure transducer and the other to an argon gas source via a valve. Silica tubing sealed within the probe provided periodic gas samples for composition analysis by an online mass spectrometer. Prior to each experiment, the probe was washed with Argon. In 5 experiments the probe was sealed within the external canal of animals with physiological middle ear gas compositions, and in 5 experiments the probe was sealed within the external canal of animals whose middle ears were partially washed with He. The gas in the probe was sampled and analyzed at 10-min intervals for up to 4 h. The results documented a significant increase in the percentage composition of CO2 but not He in the experiments conducted with physiological middle ear gas compositions, and increases in both He and CO2 in the experiments conducted after the middle ear was washed with He. Estimated, average exchange constants for He and CO2 were 0.0005 microl/min/mmHg and 0.0103 microl/min/mmHg, respectively. Using data from previous experiments, the relative trans-mucosal to trans-tympanic membrane gas exchange rates in monkeys are estimated to be in the order of 10:1 for inert gases and 180:1 for chemically active gases. PMID:9726685

  18. Laser Doppler Vibrometry measurements of human cadaveric tympanic membrane vibration

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the feasibility of measuring tympanic membrane (TM) vibrations at multiple locations on the TM to differentiate normal eardrums from those with associated ossicular pathologies. Design Cadaveric human temporal bone study. Setting Basic science laboratory. Methods A mastoidectomy and facial recess approach was performed on four cadaveric temporal bones to obtain access to the ossicles without disrupting the TM. Ossicles were palpated to ensure normal mobility and an intact ossicular chain. Laser Doppler Vibrometry (LDV) measurements were then taken on all four TMs. LDV measurements were repeated on each TM following stapes footplate fixation, incudo-stapedial joint dislocation, and malleus head fixation. Main outcome measures LDV measurements of TM vibration at the umbo, the lateral process of the malleus, and in each of the four quadrants of the TM. Results The best signal-to-noise ratios were found between 2 and 4 kHz, at the umbo, the anterior superior quadrant, the anterior inferior quadrant, and the posterior inferior quadrant. Since our goal was to assess the ossicular chain, we selected the TM locations closest to the ossicular chain (the umbo and lateral process of the malleus) for further analysis. Differences could be seen between normals and the simulated ossicular pathologies, but values were not statistically significant. Conclusions LDV measurements are technically challenging and require optimization to obtain consistent measurements. This study demonstrates the potential of LDV to differentiate ossicular pathologies behind an intact tympanic membrane. Future studies will further characterize the clinical role of this diagnostic modality. PMID:23663748

  19. Clinical Outcomes of Silk Patch in Acute Tympanic Membrane Perforation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jun Ho; Lee, Joong Seob; Kim, Dong-Kyu

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The silk patch is a thin transparent patch that is produced from silk fibroin. In this study, we investigated the treatment effects of the silk patch in patients with traumatic tympanic membrane perforation (TTMP). Methods The closure rate, otorrhea rate, and closure time in all patients and the closure time in successful patients were compared between the paper patch and silk patch groups. Results Demographic data (gender, site, age, traumatic duration, preoperative air-bone gap, and perforation size and location) were not significantly different between the two groups. The closure rate and otorrhea rate were not significantly different between the two groups. However, the closure time was different between the two groups (closure time of all patients, P=0.031; closure time of successful patients, P=0.037). Conclusion The silk patch which has transparent, elastic, adhesive, and hyper-keratinizing properties results in a more efficient closure time than the paper patch in the treatment of TTMP patients. We therefore believe that the silk patch should be recommended for the treatment of acute tympanic membrane perforation.

  20. Latent progenitor cells as potential regulators for tympanic membrane regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seung Won; Kim, Jangho; Seonwoo, Hoon; Jang, Kyung-Jin; Kim, Yeon Ju; Lim, Hye Jin; Lim, Ki-Taek; Tian, Chunjie; Chung, Jong Hoon; Choung, Yun-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Tympanic membrane (TM) perforation, in particular chronic otitis media, is one of the most common clinical problems in the world and can present with sensorineural healing loss. Here, we explored an approach for TM regeneration where the latent progenitor or stem cells within TM epithelial layers may play an important regulatory role. We showed that potential TM stem cells present highly positive staining for epithelial stem cell markers in all areas of normal TM tissue. Additionally, they are present at high levels in perforated TMs, especially in proximity to the holes, regardless of acute or chronic status, suggesting that TM stem cells may be a potential factor for TM regeneration. Our study suggests that latent TM stem cells could be potential regulators of regeneration, which provides a new insight into this clinically important process and a potential target for new therapies for chronic otitis media and other eardrum injuries. PMID:26100219

  1. Latent progenitor cells as potential regulators for tympanic membrane regeneration.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seung Won; Kim, Jangho; Seonwoo, Hoon; Jang, Kyung-Jin; Kim, Yeon Ju; Lim, Hye Jin; Lim, Ki-Taek; Tian, Chunjie; Chung, Jong Hoon; Choung, Yun-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Tympanic membrane (TM) perforation, in particular chronic otitis media, is one of the most common clinical problems in the world and can present with sensorineural healing loss. Here, we explored an approach for TM regeneration where the latent progenitor or stem cells within TM epithelial layers may play an important regulatory role. We showed that potential TM stem cells present highly positive staining for epithelial stem cell markers in all areas of normal TM tissue. Additionally, they are present at high levels in perforated TMs, especially in proximity to the holes, regardless of acute or chronic status, suggesting that TM stem cells may be a potential factor for TM regeneration. Our study suggests that latent TM stem cells could be potential regulators of regeneration, which provides a new insight into this clinically important process and a potential target for new therapies for chronic otitis media and other eardrum injuries. PMID:26100219

  2. Measurement of hearing loss due to perforated tympanic membrane using image processing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sardesai, Neha; Sardesai, Ravindra; Chang, Chein-I.

    2014-05-01

    The tympanic membrane (ear drum) is a thin tissue film that is stretched between the outer and middle ear. Sound waves travel from outside the ear, and strike the tympanic membrane resulting in its vibration. These vibrations amplify the sound waves and transmit them to the ossicles (auditory bones). The magnitude of amplification is directly proportional to vibrating area of tympanic membrane. Hence a perforation in this membrane would result in hearing loss. Pure-tone audiometry is the traditional procedure used to detect the amount of hearing loss in a patient. However, it is lengthy and less efficient, as it largely depends on the response of the patient to sound intensity and frequency of pure-tones. We present a relatively more efficient approach to determine hearing loss due to perforated tympanic membrane using image processing techniques. We describe an algorithm that uses unsharp masking to sharpen images of the perforations as well as the tympanic membrane. Then, it converts the image into a binary image using thresholding. A median filter is applied to get rid of the noise component in the image. The ratio of the area of perforation and total area of tympanic membrane will define the percentage of hearing loss. Our approach will eliminate the error introduced due to patient dependency as in the traditional method.

  3. Fabrication of Tissue Engineered Tympanic Membrane Patches Using Computer-Aided Design and Injection Molding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Morgan E. Hott; Cliff A. Megerian; Rich Beane; Lawrence J. Bonassar

    2004-01-01

    Objectives\\/Hypothesis: The goal of the current study was to use computer-aided design and injection molding technologies to tissue engineer precisely shaped cartilage in the shape of butterfly tympanic membrane patches out of chondrocyte-seeded cal- cium alginate gels. Methods: Molds were designed on SolidWorks 2000 and built out of acrylonitrile buta- diene styrene (ABS) using fused deposition modeling (FDM). Tympanic membrane

  4. Experimental measurement of tympanic membrane response for finite element model validation of a human middle ear.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Tae-Soo; Baek, Moo-Jin; Lee, Dooho

    2013-01-01

    The middle ear consists of a tympanic membrane, ligaments, tendons, and three ossicles. An important function of the tympanic membrane is to deliver exterior sound stimulus to the ossicles and inner ear. In this study, the responses of the tympanic membrane in a human ear were measured and compared with those of a finite element model of the middle ear. A laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV) was used to measure the dynamic responses of the tympanic membrane, which had the measurement point on the cone of light of the tympanic membrane. The measured subjects were five Korean male adults and a cadaver. The tympanic membranes were stimulated using pure-tone sine waves at 18 center frequencies of one-third octave band over a frequency range of 200 Hz ~10 kHz with 60 and 80 dB sound pressure levels. The measured responses were converted into the umbo displacement transfer function (UDTF) with a linearity assumption. The measured UDTFs were compared with the calculated UDTFs using a finite element model for the Korean human middle ear. The finite element model of the middle ear consists of three ossicles, a tympanic membrane, ligaments, and tendons. In the finite element model, the umbo displacements were calculated under a unit sound pressure on the tympanic membrane. The UDTF of the finite element model exhibited good agreement with that of the experimental one in low frequency range, whereas in higher frequency band, the two response functions deviated from each other, which demonstrates that the finite element model should be updated with more accurate material properties and/or a frequency dependent material model. PMID:24171153

  5. New Data on the Motion of the Normal and Reconstructed Tympanic Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Rosowski, JJ; Cheng, JT; Merchant, SN; Harrington, E; Furlong, C

    2011-01-01

    Hypothesis The sound-induced motion of the tympanic membrane has features that are most consistent with modal responses to a uniform stimulus. Background Conceptual models of the coupling of tympanic-membrane motion to the ossicular chain can be classified as either modal responses to a uniform stimulation of the entire membrane, or traveling wave models in which sound energy is captured at the membrane’s rim and travels along the surface to the umbo. The stroboscopic holography technique we employ can separate strongly modal or traveling-wave dominated motions of the tympanic membrane surface. Methods We use computer-aided opto-electronic holography with stroboscopic illumination to measure the magnitude and phase of the sound-induced motion of over 40000 points on the surface of the tympanic membrane in cadaveric human temporal bones. Our techniques are sensitive to motions of the membrane as small as 0.01 microns, and allow determinations of membrane displacement at frequencies as large as 20 kHz. Results We report clear signs of both modal tympanic membrane responses and traveling waves on the human tympanic membrane. Modal responses are seen throughout the frequency range, while the traveling waves are most apparent between 2 and 8 kHz. In general, the magnitudes of the traveling waves are small compared to the modal magnitudes. Conclusion Much of the motion of the tympanic membrane is well approximated by modal motions of the TM surface. This conclusion has implications for ear drum pathology and its treatment. PMID:21956597

  6. Optical-fiber-coupled inferometric measurement of tympanic membrane temperature: a new diagnostic tool for acute otitis media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeRowe, Ari; Ophir, Eyal; Sade, Sharon; Fishman, Gadi; Ophir, Dov; Grankin, Mila; Katzir, Abraham

    1998-07-01

    A novel infrared (IR) transparent optical fiber coupled to a hand held otoscope and a radiometer was constructed and used to measure the temperatures of the tympanic membrane (TM) and to distinguish between diseased and healthy middle ears. A greater temperature difference between TM readings was found when Acute Otitis Media (AOM) existed in one of the ears examined. This supports the hypothesis that acute inflammation of the middle ear will result in elevated local temperature when measured in such a way that the reading is taken only from the TM without interference of the external canal. The use of an optical fiber enabled temperature measurements of the TM with high spatial resolution eliminating the external ear canal interference. A small patient population was examined and the initial results were statistically significant. In the hands of the primary care physician, this tool would prevent misdiagnosis of AOM preventing indiscriminate use of antibiotics and avoiding complications by early diagnosis.

  7. Static versus dynamic gerbil tympanic membrane elasticity: derivation of the complex modulus.

    PubMed

    Aernouts, Jef; Dirckx, Joris J J

    2012-07-01

    An accurate estimation of tympanic membrane stiffness is important for realistic modelling of middle ear mechanics. Tympanic membrane stiffness has been investigated extensively under either quasi-static or dynamic loading conditions. It is known that biological tissues are sensitive to strain rate. Therefore, in this work, the mechanical behaviour of the tympanic membrane was studied under both quasi-static and dynamic loading conditions. Experiments were performed on the pars tensa of four gerbil tympanic membranes. A custom-built indentation apparatus was used to perform in situ tissue indentations and testing was done applying both quasi-static and dynamic sinusoidal indentations up to 8.2 Hz. The unloaded shape of the tympanic membrane was measured and used to create specimen-specific finite element models to simulate the experiments. The frequency dependent Young's modulus of each specimen was then estimated by an inverse analysis in which the error between experimental and simulated indentation data was optimised for each indentation frequency separately. Using an 8 ?m central region thickness, we found Young's moduli between 71 and 106 MPa (n = 4) at 0.2 Hz indentation frequency. A standard linear viscoelastic model and a viscoelastic model with a continuous relaxation spectrum were used to derive a complex modulus in the frequency domain. Due to experimental limitations, the indentation frequency upper limit was 8.2 Hz. The average relative modulus increase in this domain was 14% and the increase was the strongest below 6 Hz. PMID:22038402

  8. Smooth muscle in the annulus fibrosus of the tympanic membrane in bats, rodents, insectivores, and humans.

    PubMed

    Henson, M M; Madden, V J; Rask-Andersen, H; Henson, O W

    2005-02-01

    The annulus fibrosus and its attachment to the bony tympanic ring were studied in a series of mammals. In the pallid bat, Antrozous pallidus, there is an extensive plexus of large interconnected blood sinuses in the part of the annulus that borders the tympanic bone. The spaces between the sinuses are packed with smooth muscle cells. Most of the cells have a predominately radial orientation; they extend from the bony tympanic sulcus to a dense collagenous matrix (apical zone) where radially oriented fibers of the pars tensa are confluent with the annulus. The muscles and vessels constitute a myovascular zone. A structurally similar myovascular zone is also present in the European hedgehog. In rodents, the annulus lacks the large interconnected blood sinuses but many small vessels are present. Smooth muscle is concentrated in the broad area of attachment of the annulus to the tympanic bone. In the gerbil, smooth muscle seems to be concentrated in the central part of the width of the annulus where it is attached to bone and radiates toward the tympanic membrane. In humans collections of radially oriented smooth muscle cells were found in several locations. The smooth muscle in all species studied appears to form a rim of contractile elements for the pars tensa. This arrangement suggests a role in controlling blood flow and/or creating and maintaining tension on the tympanic membrane. PMID:15668036

  9. Comparative histology of the tympanic membrane and its relationship to cholesteatoma.

    PubMed

    Chole, R A; Kodama, K

    1989-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether anatomic differences in the tympanic membranes of various species could explain differences in the propensity to form aural cholesteatomas and retraction pockets. Tympanic membranes from humans, dogs, cats, rabbits, guinea pigs, rats, gerbils, and mice were examined histologically. The pars flaccida and pars tensa varied greatly among the species studied. The guinea pig's pars flaccida was very small and had a thin lamina propria. In contrast, the lamina propria of the rabbit and cat pars flaccida were thick. The amount of collagen, elastin, mast cells, and macrophages varied widely. The human and gerbilline tympanic membranes were anatomically dissimilar; for example, the human pars flaccida and pars tensa contained more and denser collagen than did those of the gerbil. The presence of macrophages or mast cells did not correlate with the propensity to develop cholesteatomas. Therefore, anatomic differences among these species do not explain why some develop aural cholesteatomas and others do not. PMID:2478069

  10. Transfer function for vital infrasound pressures between the carotid artery and the tympanic membrane.

    PubMed

    Furihata, Kenji; Yamashita, Masato

    2013-02-01

    While occupational injury is associated with numerous individual and work-related risk factors, including long working hours and short sleep duration, the complex mechanisms causing such injuries are not yet fully understood. The relationship between the infrasound pressures of the tympanic membrane [ear canal pressure (ECP)], detected using an earplug embedded with a low-frequency microphone, and the carotid artery [carotid artery pressure (CAP)], detected using a stethoscope fitted with the same microphone, can be quantitatively characterized using systems analysis. The transfer functions of 40 normal workers (19 to 57 years old) were characterized, involving the analysis of 446 data points. The ECP waveform exhibits a pulsatile character with a slow respiratory component, which is superimposed on a biphasic recording that is synchronous with the cardiac cycle. The respiratory ECP waveform correlates with the instantaneous heart rate. The results also revealed that various fatigue-related risk factors may affect the mean magnitudes of the measured pressures and the delay transfer functions between CAP and ECP in the study population; these factors include systolic blood pressure, salivary amylase activity, age, sleep duration, postural changes, chronic fatigue, and pulse rate. PMID:23363133

  11. External and middle ear sound pressure distribution and acoustic coupling to the tympanic membrane

    PubMed Central

    Bergevin, Christopher; Olson, Elizabeth S.

    2014-01-01

    Sound energy is conveyed to the inner ear by the diaphanous, cone-shaped tympanic membrane (TM). The TM moves in a complex manner and transmits sound signals to the inner ear with high fidelity, pressure gain, and a short delay. Miniaturized sensors allowing high spatial resolution in small spaces and sensitivity to high frequencies were used to explore how pressure drives the TM. Salient findings are: (1) A substantial pressure drop exists across the TM, and varies in frequency from ?10 to 30 dB. It thus appears reasonable to approximate the drive to the TM as being defined solely by the pressure in the ear canal (EC) close to the TM. (2) Within the middle ear cavity (MEC), spatial variations in sound pressure could vary by more than 20?dB, and the MEC pressure at certain locations/frequencies was as large as in the EC. (3) Spatial variations in pressure along the TM surface on the EC-side were typically less than 5?dB up to 50?kHz. Larger surface variations were observed on the MEC-side. PMID:24606269

  12. Experimental and modeling study of human tympanic membrane motion in the presence of middle ear liquid.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiangming; Guan, Xiying; Nakmali, Don; Palan, Vikrant; Pineda, Mario; Gan, Rong Z

    2014-12-01

    Vibration of the tympanic membrane (TM) has been measured at the umbo using laser Doppler vibrometry and analyzed with finite element (FE) models of the human ear. Recently, full-field TM surface motion has been reported using scanning laser Doppler vibrometry, holographic interferometry, and optical coherence tomography. Technologies for imaging human TM motion have the potential to lead to using a dedicated clinical diagnosis tool for identification of middle ear diseases. However, the effect of middle ear fluid (liquid) on TM surface motion is still not clear. In this study, a scanning laser Doppler vibrometer was used to measure the full-field surface motion of the TM from four human temporal bones. TM displacements were measured under normal and disease-mimicking conditions with different middle ear liquid levels over frequencies ranging from 0.2 to 8 kHz. An FE model of the human ear, including the ear canal, middle ear, and spiral cochlea was used to simulate the motion of the TM in normal and disease-mimicking conditions. The results from both experiments and FE model show that a simple deflection shape with one or two major displacement peak regions of the TM in normal ear was observed at low frequencies (1 kHz and below) while complicated ring-like pattern of the deflection shapes appeared at higher frequencies (4 kHz and above). The liquid in middle ear mainly affected TM deflection shapes at the frequencies higher than 1 kHz. PMID:25106467

  13. Middle-ear function with tympanic-membrane perforations. II. A simple model

    E-print Network

    Allen, Jont

    Middle-ear function with tympanic-membrane perforations. II. A simple model Susan E. Vossa) Picker-Peabody Laboratory of Auditory Physiology and Department of Otolaryngology, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary and Department of Otolaryngology, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Boston, Massachusetts 02114; Speech

  14. Temperature effects on the tympanal membrane and auditory receptor neurons in the locust.

    PubMed

    Eberhard, Monika J B; Gordon, Shira D; Windmill, James F C; Ronacher, Bernhard

    2014-09-01

    Poikilothermic animals are affected by variations in environmental temperature, as the basic properties of nerve cells and muscles are altered. Nevertheless, insect sensory systems, such as the auditory system, need to function effectively over a wide range of temperatures, as sudden changes of up to 10 °C or more are common. We investigated the performance of auditory receptor neurons and properties of the tympanal membrane of Locusta migratoria in response to temperature changes. Intracellular recordings of receptors at two temperatures (21 and 28 °C) revealed a moderate increase in spike rate with a mean Q10 of 1.4. With rising temperature, the spike rate-intensity-functions exhibited small decreases in thresholds and expansions of the dynamic range, while spike durations decreased. Tympanal membrane displacement, investigated using microscanning laser vibrometry, exhibited a small temperature effect, with a Q10 of 1.2. These findings suggest that locusts are affected by shifts in temperature at the periphery of the auditory pathway, but the effects on spike rate, sensitivity, and tympanal membrane displacement are small. Robust encoding of acoustic signals by only slightly temperature-dependent receptor neurons and almost temperature-independent tympanal membrane properties might enable locusts and grasshoppers to reliably identify sounds in spite of changes of their body temperature. PMID:25048563

  15. Electric shock ear torture: a rare cause of tympanic membrane perforation and mixed hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Barber, Brittany; Côté, David W J; Liu, Richard

    2011-06-01

    Summary of case report findings: Picana (electric shock torture) is a globally used form of torture. This is the first documented case of picana applied to the tympanic membrane. Two other types of ear torture have been documented, including picana of the helix and telefono. Several types of head and neck torture are applied globally. PMID:21518635

  16. Experimental study of vibrations of gerbil tympanic membrane with closed middle ear cavity.

    PubMed

    Maftoon, Nima; Funnell, W Robert J; Daniel, Sam J; Decraemer, Willem F

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of the present work is to investigate the spatial vibration pattern of the gerbil tympanic membrane (TM) as a function of frequency. In vivo vibration measurements were done at several locations on the pars flaccida and pars tensa, and along the manubrium, on surgically exposed gerbil TMs with closed middle ear cavities. A laser Doppler vibrometer was used to measure motions in response to audio frequency sine sweeps in the ear canal. Data are presented for two different pars flaccida conditions: naturally flat and retracted into the middle ear cavity. Resonance of the flat pars flaccida causes a minimum and a shallow maximum in the displacement magnitude of the manubrium and pars tensa at low frequencies. Compared with a flat pars flaccida, a retracted pars flaccida has much lower displacement magnitudes at low frequencies and does not affect the responses of the other points. All manubrial and pars tensa points show a broad resonance in the range of 1.6 to 2 kHz. Above this resonance, the displacement magnitudes of manubrial points, including the umbo, roll off with substantial irregularities. The manubrial points show an increasing displacement magnitude from the lateral process toward the umbo. Above 5 kHz, phase differences between points along the manubrium start to become more evident, which may indicate flexing of the tip of the manubrium or a change in the vibration mode of the malleus. At low frequencies, points on the posterior side of the pars tensa tend to show larger displacements than those on the anterior side. The simple low-frequency vibration pattern of the pars tensa becomes more complex at higher frequencies, with the breakup occurring at between 1.8 and 2.8 kHz. These observations will be important for the development and validation of middle ear finite-element models for the gerbil. PMID:23624883

  17. Measurements of three-dimensional shape and sound-induced motion of the chinchilla tympanic membrane

    PubMed Central

    Rosowski, John J; Dobrev, Ivo; Khaleghi, Morteza; Lu, Weina; Cheng, Jeffrey Tao; Harrington, Ellery; Furlong, Cosme

    2013-01-01

    Opto-electronic computer holographic measurements were made of the tympanic membrane (TM) in cadaveric chinchillas. Measurements with two laser wavelengths were used to compute the 3D-shape of the TM. Single laser wavelength measurements locked to eight distinct phases of a tonal stimulus were used to determine the magnitude and the relative phase of the surface displacements. These measurements were made at over 250,000 points on the TM surface. The measured motions contained spatial phase variations consistent with relatively low-order (large spatial frequency) modal motions and smaller magnitude higher-order (smaller spatial frequency) motions that appear to travel, but may also be explained by losses within the membrane. The measurement of shape and thin shell theory allowed us to separate the measured motions into those components orthogonal to the plane of the tympanic ring, and those components within the plane of the tympanic ring based on the 3D-shape. The predicted in-plane motion components are generally smaller than the out-of-plane perpendicular component of motion. Since the derivation of in-plane and out-of plane depended primarily on the membrane shape, the relative sizes of the predicted motion components did not vary with frequency. PMID:23247058

  18. Viscoelastic properties of the human tympanic membrane studied with stroboscopic holography and finite element modeling.

    PubMed

    De Greef, Daniel; Aernouts, Jef; Aerts, Johan; Cheng, Jeffrey Tao; Horwitz, Rachelle; Rosowski, John J; Dirckx, Joris J J

    2014-06-01

    A new anatomically-accurate Finite Element (FE) model of the tympanic membrane (TM) and malleus was combined with measurements of the sound-induced motion of the TM surface and the bony manubrium, in an isolated TM-malleus preparation. Using the results, we were able to address two issues related to how sound is coupled to the ossicular chain: (i) Estimate the viscous damping within the tympanic membrane itself, the presence of which may help smooth the broadband response of a potentially highly resonant TM, and (ii) Investigate the function of a peculiar feature of human middle-ear anatomy, the thin mucosal epithelial fold that couples the mid part of the human manubrium to the TM. Sound induced motions of the surface of ex vivo human eardrums and mallei were measured with stroboscopic holography, which yields maps of the amplitude and phase of the displacement of the entire membrane surface at selected frequencies. The results of these measurements were similar, but not identical to measurements made in intact ears. The holography measurements were complemented by laser-Doppler vibrometer measurements of sound-induced umbo velocity, which were made with fine-frequency resolution. Comparisons of these measurements to predictions from a new anatomically accurate FE model with varied membrane characteristics suggest the TM contains viscous elements, which provide relatively low damping, and that the epithelial fold that connects the central section of the human manubrium to the TM only loosely couples the TM to the manubrium. The laser-Doppler measurements in two preparations also suggested the presence of significant variation in the complex modulus of the TM between specimens. Some animations illustrating the model results are available at our website (www.uantwerp.be/en/rg/bimef/downloads/tympanic-membrane-motion). PMID:24657621

  19. Investigation of the human tympanic membrane oscillation ex vivo by Doppler optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Burkhardt, Anke; Kirsten, Lars; Bornitz, Matthias; Zahnert, Thomas; Koch, Edmund

    2014-06-01

    Investigations of the tympanic membrane (TM) can have an important impact on understanding the sound conduction in the ear and can therefore support the diagnosis and treatment of diseases in the middle ear. High-speed Doppler optical coherence tomography (OCT) has the potential to describe the oscillatory behaviour of the TM surface in a phase-sensitive manner and additionally allows acquiring a three-dimensional image of the underlying structure. With repeated sound stimuli from 0.4 kHz to 6.4 kHz, the whole TM can be set in vibration and the spatially resolved frequency response functions (FRFs) of the tympanic membrane can be recorded. Typical points, such as the umbo or the manubrium of malleus, can be studied separately as well as the TM surface with all stationary and wave-like vibrations. Thus, the OCT methodology can be a promising technique to distinguish between normal and pathological TMs and support the differentiation between ossicular and membrane diseases. PMID:23225692

  20. Magnetically driven middle ear ossicles for optical measurement of vibrations in an ear with opened tympanic membrane.

    PubMed

    Peacock, J; von Unge, M; Dirckx, J

    2013-12-01

    Vibrations of the middle ear ossicles are easily measured by means of laser vibrometry. However, laser vibrometry requires free visual access to the object under investigation, and acquiring free visual access to the ossicles through the ear canal requires the removal of the tympanic membrane (TM), with the result that the ossicles can no longer be stimulated acoustically. To overcome this, we devised a new setup in which the ossicles can be driven magnetically. After measuring the response of the TM to an acoustic signal, we then remove it and attach a small magnet to the exposed manubrium (a part of the most lateral auditory ossicle, the malleus, which is normally attached to the TM). An electromagnetic excitation coil is then used to drive the magnet, and the output to the coil adjusted until the vibration of the manubrium, as measured by the vibrometer, matches that measured in response to the acoustic signal. Such a setup may have uses in research on middle ear mechanics, such as the measurement of nonlinearities in their response, as well as applications in the diagnosis of middle ear conditions such as the fixation of the ossicles by otosclerosis or in chronic otitis media. We describe our setup and discuss the viability of our method and its future clinical potential by presenting some measurements on an artificially fixated ear. PMID:24387412

  1. Magnetically driven middle ear ossicles for optical measurement of vibrations in an ear with opened tympanic membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peacock, J.; von Unge, M.; Dirckx, J.

    2013-12-01

    Vibrations of the middle ear ossicles are easily measured by means of laser vibrometry. However, laser vibrometry requires free visual access to the object under investigation, and acquiring free visual access to the ossicles through the ear canal requires the removal of the tympanic membrane (TM), with the result that the ossicles can no longer be stimulated acoustically. To overcome this, we devised a new setup in which the ossicles can be driven magnetically. After measuring the response of the TM to an acoustic signal, we then remove it and attach a small magnet to the exposed manubrium (a part of the most lateral auditory ossicle, the malleus, which is normally attached to the TM). An electromagnetic excitation coil is then used to drive the magnet, and the output to the coil adjusted until the vibration of the manubrium, as measured by the vibrometer, matches that measured in response to the acoustic signal. Such a setup may have uses in research on middle ear mechanics, such as the measurement of nonlinearities in their response, as well as applications in the diagnosis of middle ear conditions such as the fixation of the ossicles by otosclerosis or in chronic otitis media. We describe our setup and discuss the viability of our method and its future clinical potential by presenting some measurements on an artificially fixated ear.

  2. Animal models of chronic tympanic membrane perforation: in response to plasminogen initiates and potentiates the healing of acute and chronic tympanic membrane perforations in mice

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Tympanic membrane perforations (TMP) are relatively common but are typically not treated in their acute stage, as most will heal spontaneously in 7–10 days. Those cases which fail to heal within 3 months are called chronic TMP which attract surgical intervention (e.g. myringoplasty), typically with a temporalis fascia autograft. New materials for the repair of chronic TMP are being developed to address deficiencies in the performance of autografts by undergoing evaluation in animal models prior to clinical study. However, there is currently a lack of ideal chronic TMP animal models available, hindering the development of new treatments. Various techniques and animal species have been investigated for the creation of chronic TMP with varied success. In the present commentary, we bring to the attention of readers the recent report by Shen et al. in Journal of Translational Medicine. The study reported the creation of a chronic TMP animal model in plasminogen gene deficient mice. However, the short observation time (9, 19 days), lack of success rate and the scarcity of solid evidence (e.g. otoscopic & histologic images) to confirm the chronicity of TMP warrant a more thorough discussion. PMID:24669846

  3. Exogenous Heparin, Topically Administered, Aids the Remodelling of Connective Tissue in the Healing of Experimental Tympanic Membrane Perforations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sten Hellström; Odd Spandow

    1994-01-01

    Heparin, in concentrations of 250, 2,500 and 25,000 IU, was applied topically to the edge of tympanic membrane (TM) perforations, standardized in size, once daily until the perforation had closed. At 2 months, the animals were killed and the TMs subjected to otomicroscopic and light microscopic studies. The day that closure of the TM perforations was complete (median 8 days)

  4. High-Speed Video Observation of Tympanic Membrane Rupture in Guinea Pigs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koike, Takuji; Wada, Hiroshi; Ito, Fumiaki; Takayama, Kazuyoshi; Kobayashi, Toshimitsu

    In this study, the tympanic membrane (TM) of the guinea pig was exposed to a blast wave generated by micro-explosion of 10mg silver azide, and the time history of TM rupture was recorded using a high-speed video camera. The relationship between the process of TM rupture and the peak pressure of the blast wave was then examined. The critical value which caused the TM rupture was found to be 192dB SPL (79.6kPa), and when this level of pressure was applied to the TM, tears were immediately caused in the radial direction, although they did not subsequently expand. When pressures above 195dB SPL (112kPa) were applied to the TM, it suffered a perforation, and this perforation continued to expand for several milliseconds, even after disappearance of the pressure change caused by the blast wave.

  5. Dosimetry of He-Ne laser radiation on specimens of human tympanic membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foth, Hans-Jochen; Huthoff, Christian; Gauer, Axel; Baker, Antonio; Stasche, Norbert; Hoermann, Karl

    1994-02-01

    The clinical application of a laser-Doppler-vibrometry for recording the motion of the tympanic membrane is relying on the harmlessness of the used He-Ne-laser beam. Even when the daily experience tells that an intensity of 1 mW focused onto the skin introduces no obvious thermal effects, focusing this beam down to a waist of a diameter of 40 micrometers , as it is done in this case, raises up the density of power to 80 W/cm2. Safety rules postulate a maximum radiation time at this density of less than 10 ms sec, which is much too short to perform any measurement. Therefore the threshold and the degree of thermal effects have been investigated histomorphologically.

  6. Sound-induced tympanal membrane motion in bushcrickets and its relationship to sensory output.

    PubMed

    Hummel, Jennifer; Kössl, Manfred; Nowotny, Manuela

    2011-11-01

    In the auditory system of bushcrickets, sound can reach the receptors via two different paths: (i) by acting on the outside of the tympana situated on both sides of each foreleg or (ii) through the acoustic trachea that opens at a spiracle on the thorax. While the spiracle is considered to be the main point of sound entry for higher audio and ultrasonic frequencies, the role of the tympana is still unclear. The tympana border the air-filled acoustic trachea as well as the fluid-filled haemolymph channel containing the receptor organs. To understand their role during sound transduction, the sound-induced neuronal response of the hearing organ was recorded in combination with measurement of tympanal membrane motion using laser-Doppler vibrometry. For far-field stimulation, the frequency of the most sensitive hearing (?16 kHz) matched the frequency of a pronounced maximum of tympanal membrane vibration. A second maximum of tympanum motion at lower frequencies (?7 kHz) was correlated with an increased nerve activity at higher intensities (>70 dB sound pressure level, SPL). These correlations support the hypothesis of functional coupling between tympanum motion and nerve activity. When sound stimuli were applied locally, through either the tympanum or the spiracle, significant differences between tympanum motion and nerve activity were found. These discrepancies show that tympanum motion and neuronal response are not coupled directly and that there is no linear relationship with the applied SPL. Taken together, these data verify a functional, albeit indirect, coupling of tympanum motion and sensory cell activity for one of the pronounced vibration maxima, which appears to represent a resonance frequency of the tympanum. PMID:21993788

  7. Diagnostic Utility of Laser-Doppler Vibrometry in Conductive Hearing Loss with Normal Tympanic Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Rosowski, John J.; Mehta, Ritvik P.; Merchant, Saumil N.

    2006-01-01

    Hypothesis It was hypothesized that laser-Doppler vibrometry measurements of umbo velocity in aerated middle ears with conductive loss can differentiate ossicular interruptions, stapes fixations, and mallear fixations. More generally, we hypothesize that laser-Doppler vibrometry measurements of umbo velocity can give information about how differences in the impedance that the ossicles work against affect middle-ear function. Background Laser-Doppler vibrometry is a well-established research tool for exploring middle-ear function. The authors wished to investigate its potential as a clinical tool for differential diagnosis of the cause of conductive hearing loss. Methods Laser-Doppler vibrometry was used to investigate the relationship between the sound-induced velocity of the tympanic membrane at the umbo and the cause of conductive hearing loss when the tympanic membrane was normal and the middle ear was aerated. The results of measurements in 17 adult ears before exploratory tympanotomy were compared with the surgically determined cause of the hearing loss. The authors also measured the motion of the umbo in 10 patients who had undergone successful small-fenestra stapedectomy procedures. In all the studied ears, pure-tone audiograms were measured at the time of laser-Doppler vibrometry testing. Results There were clear statistical differences between the umbo velocity in normal ears and in ears with different ossicular pathologic conditions. There was also a clear separation of the results between ears with ossicular interruptions and ossicular fixation. The pattern of laser-Doppler vibrometry measurements in poststapedectomy ears approximated the pattern in ears with ossicular interruptions. Conclusion Comparison of laser-Doppler vibrometry results and audiometry may be a sensitive and selective indicator of ossicular pathologic conditions as well as a useful tool for investigating middle ear function. PMID:12621328

  8. Factors Affecting Loss of Tympanic Membrane Mobility in Acute Otitis Media Model of Chinchilla

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Xiying; Chen, Yongzheng; Gan, Rong Z.

    2014-01-01

    Recently we reported that middle ear pressure (MEP), middle ear effusion (MEE), and ossicular changes each contribute to the loss of tympanic membrane (TM) mobility in a guinea pig model of acute otitis media (AOM) induced by S. pneumoniae (Guan and Gan, 2013). However, it is not clear how those factors vary along the course of the disease and whether those effects are reproducible in different species. In this study, a chinchilla AOM model was produced by transbullar injection of Haemophilus influenzae. Mobility of the TM at the umbo was measured by laser vibrometry in two treatment groups: 4 days (4D) and 8 days (8D) post inoculation. These time points represent relatively early and later phases of AOM. In each group, the vibration of the umbo was measured at three experimental stages: unopened, pressure-released, and effusion-removed ears. The effects of MEP and MEE and middle ear structural changes were quantified in each group by comparing the TM mobility at one stage with that of the previous stage. Our findings show that the factors affecting TM mobility do change with the disease time course. The MEP was the dominant contributor to reduction of TM mobility in 4D AOM ears, but showed little effect in 8D ears when MEE filled the tympanic cavity. MEE was the primary factor affecting TM mobility loss in 8D ears, but affected the 4D ears only at high frequencies. After the release of MEP and removal of MEE, residual loss of TM mobility was seen mainly at low frequencies in both 4D and 8D ears, and was associated with middle ear structural changes. Our findings establish that the factors contributing to TM mobility loss in the chinchilla ear were similar to those we reported previously for the guinea pig ears with AOM. Outcomes did not appear to differ between the two major bacterial species causing AOM in these animal models. PMID:24406734

  9. Factors affecting loss of tympanic membrane mobility in acute otitis media model of chinchilla.

    PubMed

    Guan, Xiying; Chen, Yongzheng; Gan, Rong Z

    2014-03-01

    Recently we reported that middle ear pressure (MEP), middle ear effusion (MEE), and ossicular changes each contribute to the loss of tympanic membrane (TM) mobility in a guinea pig model of acute otitis media (AOM) induced by Streptococcus pneumoniae (Guan and Gan, 2013). However, it is not clear how those factors vary along the course of the disease and whether those effects are reproducible in different species. In this study, a chinchilla AOM model was produced by transbullar injection of Haemophilus influenzae. Mobility of the TM at the umbo was measured by laser vibrometry in two treatment groups: 4 days (4D) and 8 days (8D) post inoculation. These time points represent relatively early and later phases of AOM. In each group, the vibration of the umbo was measured at three experimental stages: unopened, pressure-released, and effusion-removed ears. The effects of MEP and MEE and middle ear structural changes were quantified in each group by comparing the TM mobility at one stage with that of the previous stage. Our findings show that the factors affecting TM mobility do change with the disease time course. The MEP was the dominant contributor to reduction of TM mobility in 4D AOM ears, but showed little effect in 8D ears when MEE filled the tympanic cavity. MEE was the primary factor affecting TM mobility loss in 8D ears, but affected the 4D ears only at high frequencies. After the release of MEP and removal of MEE, residual loss of TM mobility was seen mainly at low frequencies in both 4D and 8D ears, and was associated with middle ear structural changes. Our findings establish that the factors contributing to TM mobility loss in the chinchilla ear were similar to those we reported previously for the guinea pig ears with AOM. Outcomes did not appear to differ between the two major bacterial species causing AOM in these animal models. PMID:24406734

  10. TGF-?/HA complex promotes tympanic membrane keratinocyte migration and proliferation via ErbB1 receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Mei Teh, Bing, E-mail: bing.teh@earscience.org.au [Ear Sciences Centre, School of Surgery, The University of Western Australia, Nedlands, WA (Australia); Ear Science Institute Australia, Subiaco, WA (Australia); Department of Otolaryngology, Head, Neck and Skull Base Surgery, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Nedlands, WA (Australia); Redmond, Sharon L. [Ear Sciences Centre, School of Surgery, The University of Western Australia, Nedlands, WA (Australia); Ear Science Institute Australia, Subiaco, WA (Australia); Shen, Yi [Ear Sciences Centre, School of Surgery, The University of Western Australia, Nedlands, WA (Australia); Ear Science Institute Australia, Subiaco, WA (Australia); Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck, Ningbo Lihuili Hospital (Ningbo Medical Centre), Ningbo, Zhejiang (China); Atlas, Marcus D. [Ear Sciences Centre, School of Surgery, The University of Western Australia, Nedlands, WA (Australia); Ear Science Institute Australia, Subiaco, WA (Australia); Department of Otolaryngology, Head, Neck and Skull Base Surgery, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Nedlands, WA (Australia); Marano, Robert J.; Dilley, Rodney J. [Ear Sciences Centre, School of Surgery, The University of Western Australia, Nedlands, WA (Australia); Ear Science Institute Australia, Subiaco, WA (Australia)

    2013-04-01

    Tympanic membrane perforations are common and represent a management challenge to clinicians. Current treatments for chronic perforations involve a graft surgery and require general anaesthesia, including associated costs and morbidities. Bioactive molecules (e.g. growth factors, cytokines) play an important role in promoting TM wound healing following perforation and the use of growth factors as a topical treatment for tympanic membrane perforations has been suggested as an alternative to surgery. However, the choice of bioactive molecules best suited to promote wound healing has yet to be identified. We investigated the effects of hyaluronic acid, vitronectin, TGF-?, IL-24 and their combinations on migration, proliferation and adhesion of cultured human tympanic membrane-derived keratinocytes (hTM), in addition to their possible mechanisms of action. We found that TGF-?, TGF-?/HA and TGF-?/IL-24 promoted wound healing by significantly increasing both migration and proliferation. TGF-? and/or HA treated cells showed comparable cell–cell adhesion whilst maintaining an epithelial cell phenotype. With the use of receptor binding inhibitors for ErbB1 (AG1478) and CD44 (BRIC235), we revealed that the activation of ErbB1 is required for TGF-?/HA-mediated migration and proliferation. These results suggest factors that may be incorporated into a tissue-engineered membrane or directly as topical treatment for tympanic membrane perforations and hence reduce the need for a surgery. - Highlights: ? TGF-?, TGF-?/HA and TGF-?/IL-24 improved hTM keratinocyte migration and proliferation. ? TGF-? and/or HA maintained epithelial cell phenotype. ? TGF-?/HA-mediated migration and proliferation requires activation of ErbB1 receptor.

  11. Wave motion on the surface of the human tympanic membrane: Holographic measurement and modeling analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Jeffrey Tao; Hamade, Mohamad; Merchant, Saumil N.; Rosowski, John J.; Harrington, Ellery; Furlong, Cosme

    2013-01-01

    Sound-induced motions of the surface of the tympanic membrane (TM) were measured using stroboscopic holography in cadaveric human temporal bones at frequencies between 0.2 and 18?kHz. The results are consistent with the combination of standing-wave-like modal motions and traveling-wave-like motions on the TM surface. The holographic techniques also quantified sound-induced displacements of the umbo of the malleus, as well as volume velocity of the TM. These measurements were combined with sound-pressure measurements near the TM to compute middle-ear input impedance and power reflectance at the TM. The results are generally consistent with other published data. A phenomenological model that behaved qualitatively like the data was used to quantify the relative magnitude and spatial frequencies of the modal and traveling-wave-like displacement components on the TM surface. This model suggests the modal magnitudes are generally larger than those of the putative traveling waves, and the computed wave speeds are much slower than wave speeds predicted by estimates of middle-ear delay. While the data are inconsistent with simple modal displacements of the TM, an alternate model based on the combination of modal motions in a lossy membrane can also explain these measurements without invoking traveling waves. PMID:23363110

  12. Measuring the motion of the human tympanic membrane by laser Doppler vibrometry: basic principles and technical aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foth, Hans-Jochen; Huthoff, Christian; Stasche, Norbert; Hoermann, Karl

    1994-02-01

    Under hearing conditions, the amplitude of the motion of the human tympanic membrane is in the range of several tens of nanometers. To measure motions of this size by a touchfree method is a domain of laser technology. Here laser-Doppler-vibrometry was chosen because of its sensitivity in detecting small amplitudes and the clear information about the detected point on the tympanic membrane. Care was taken to develop the method for a clinically acceptable procedure for hearing diagnosis. The first realization by sinus wave excitation was found to be very time consuming. A measuring time of less than a minute was obtained by white noise excitation, fast Fourier transformation and choosing the umbo as the detection point. Meanwhile the setup is used for in vivo measurements.

  13. Repair of subtotal tympanic membrane perforation by ultrathin cartilage shield: evaluation of take rate and hearing result.

    PubMed

    Mokbel, Khaled M; Thabet, El-Saeed M

    2013-01-01

    Our aim is to evaluate the function and take rate of 0.2 mm thickness cartilage shield for repair of subtotal tympanic membrane perforation by comparing it with full thickness cartilage and temporalis fascia. Repair of tympanic membrane was done in 85 patients with unilateral chronic otitis media with subtotal perforation. The patients were classified into three groups: group 'A' where 0.2 mm thickness cartilage graft was used, group 'B' repaired with full thickness cartilage graft and group 'C' where temporalis fascia graft was used. Over the follow-up period, we found that the graft take was complete with both partial and complete thickness cartilage grafts while it was not complete in fascia cases. On the other hand, there was marked improvement in hearing in cases repaired by fascia and partial thickness grafts as compared to hearing results of full thickness grafts. We concluded that 0.2 mm partial thickness cartilage graft is optimal in reconstruction of subtotal tympanic membrane perforation because it is excellent to obtain high take rate with good hearing results. PMID:22210476

  14. Regeneration of Chronic Tympanic Membrane Perforation Using an EGF-Releasing Chitosan Patch

    PubMed Central

    Seonwoo, Hoon; Kim, Seung Won; Kim, Jangho; Chunjie, Tian; Lim, Ki Taek; Kim, Yeon Ju; Pandey, Shambhavi; Choung, Pill-Hoon

    2013-01-01

    Most chronic tympanic membrane (TM) perforations require surgical interventions such as tympanoplasty because, unlike with acute perforations, it is very difficult for the perforations to heal spontaneously. The purpose of this study was to develop novel therapeutic techniques and scaffolds that release growth factors to treat chronic TM perforations. We evaluated the cell proliferation effects of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) on in vitro cultures of TM cells using an MTT assay. They both showed similar efficacy, so we used EGF because of its lower cost. We then constructed an EGF-releasing chitosan patch scaffold (EGF-CPS) based on previous studies. We analyzed its toxicity and strength, and we studied it using scanning electron microscopy. EGF was released from the EGF-CPS for 8 weeks in an in vitro system. In animal studies, the EGF group, which was treated with EGF-CPS, showed healing in 56.5% of the animals (13/23), while the control group, which did not receive any treatment, revealed 20.8% healing (4/24) (p=0.04). Transmission electron microscopic studies of regenerated eardrums in the EGF group showed much greater preservation of histological features, and TMs of the EGF group were thinner than spontaneously healed TMs. In conclusion, this novel EGF-CPS can be used as a nonsurgical intervention technique for treatment of chronic TM perforations. PMID:23627815

  15. Digital holographic measurements of shape and 3D sound-induced displacements of Tympanic Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Weina; Dobrev, Ivo; Cheng, Jeffrey Tao; Furlong, Cosme; Rosowski, John J

    2014-01-01

    Acoustically-induced vibrations of the Tympanic Membrane (TM) play a primary role in the hearing process, in that these motions are the initial mechanical response of the ear to airborne sound. Characterization of the shape and 3D displacement patterns of the TM is a crucial step to a better understanding of the complicated mechanics of sound reception by the ear. In this paper, shape and sound-induced 3D displacements of the TM in cadaveric chinchillas are measured by a lensless Dual-Wavelength Digital Holography system (DWDHS). The DWDHS consists of Laser Delivery (LD), Optical Head (OH), and Computing Platform (CP) subsystems. Shape measurements are performed in double-exposure mode and with the use of two wavelengths of a tunable laser while nanometer-scale displacements are measured along a single sensitivity direction and with a constant wavelength. In order to extract the three principal components of displacement in full-field-of-view, and taking into consideration the anatomical dimensions of the TM, we combine principles of thin-shell theory together with both, displacement measurements along the single sensitivity vector and TM surface shape. To computationally test this approach, Finite Element Methods (FEM) are applied to the study of artificial geometries. PMID:24790255

  16. Surface strain-field determination of tympanic membrane using 3D-digital holographic interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez-Montes, María del S.; Mendoza Santoyo, Fernando; Muñoz, Silvino; Perez, Carlos; de la Torre, Manuel; Flores, Mauricio; Alvarez, Luis

    2015-08-01

    In order to increase the understanding of soft tissues mechanical properties, 3D Digital Holographic Interferometry (3D-DHI) was used to quantify the strain-field on a cat tympanic membrane (TM) surface. The experiments were carried out applying a constant sound-stimuli pressure of 90 dB SPL (0.632 Pa) on the TM at 1.2 kHz. The technique allows the accurate acquisition of the micro-displacement data along the x, y and z directions, which is a must for a full characterization of the tissue mechanical behavior under load, and for the calculation of the strain-field in situ. The displacements repeatability in z direction shows a standard deviation of 0.062 ?m at 95% confidence level. In order to realize the full 3D characterization correctly the contour of the TM surface was measured employing the optically non-contact two-illumination positions contouring method. The x, y and z displacements combined with the TM contour data allow the evaluation its strain-field by spatially differentiating the u(m,n), v(m,n), and w(m,n) deformation components. The accurate and correct determination of the TM strain-field leads to describing its elasticity, which is an important parameter needed to improve ear biomechanics studies, audition processes and TM mobility in both experimental measurements and theoretical analysis of ear functionality and its modeling.

  17. Dynamic Properties of Tympanic Membrane in a Chinchilla Otitis Media Model Measured With Acoustic Loading.

    PubMed

    Yokell, Zachary; Wang, Xuelin; Gan, Rong Z

    2015-08-01

    Otitis media is the most common infectious disease in young children, which results in changes in the thickness and mechanical properties of the tympanic membrane (TM) and induces hearing loss. However, there are no published data for the dynamic properties of the TM in otitis media ears, and it is unclear how the mechanical property changes are related to TM thickness variation. This paper reports a study of the measurement of the dynamic properties of the TM in a chinchilla acute otitis media (AOM) model using acoustic loading and laser Doppler vibrometry (LDV). AOM was created through transbullar injection of Haemophilus influenzae into the middle ear, and AOM samples were prepared 4 days after inoculation. Vibration of the TM specimen induced by acoustic loading was measured via LDV over a frequency range of 0.1-8?kHz. The experiment was then simulated in a finite element (FE) model, and the inverse-problem solving method was used to determine the complex modulus in the frequency domain. Results from 12 ears (six control and six AOM) show that the storage modulus of the TM from AOM ears was on average 53% higher than that of control ears, while the loss factor was 17.3% higher in control ears than in AOM ears at low-frequency (f?

  18. Infrared tympanic thermometer can accurately measure the body temperature in children in an emergency room setting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hasan Kocoglu; Sitki Goksu; Memet Isik; Zekeriya Akturk; Yildirim A. Bayazit

    Objectie: The objective in this study was to compare the accuracy of the tympanic membrane infrared thermometer with the other conventional temperature measurement options. Methods: One hundred and ten randomly selected pediatric patients who admitted to our emergency room were included in the study. Each child underwent simultaneous temperature measurement via rectum, axilla, and external auditory canal. The rectal and

  19. Full-field transient vibrometry of the human tympanic membrane by local phase correlation and high-speed holography.

    PubMed

    Dobrev, Ivo; Furlong, Cosme; Cheng, Jeffrey T; Rosowski, John J

    2014-09-01

    Understanding the human hearing process would be helped by quantification of the transient mechanical response of the human ear, including the human tympanic membrane (TM or eardrum). We propose a new hybrid high-speed holographic system (HHS) for acquisition and quantification of the full-field nanometer transient (i.e., >10 kHz) displacement of the human TM. We have optimized and implemented a 2 þ 1 frame local correlation (LC) based phase sampling method in combination with a high-speed (i.e., >40 K fps) camera acquisition system. To our knowledge, there is currently no existing system that provides such capabilities for the study of the human TM. The LC sampling method has a displacement difference of <11 nm relative to measurements obtained by a four-phase step algorithm. Comparisons between our high-speed acquisition system and a laser Doppler vibrometer indicate differences of <10 ?s. The high temporal (i.e., >40 kHz) and spatial (i.e., >100 k data points) resolution of our HHS enables parallel measurements of all points on the surface of the TM, which allows quantification of spatially dependent motion parameters, such as modal frequencies and acoustic delays. Such capabilities could allow inferring local material properties across the surface of the TM. PMID:25191832

  20. Simultaneous 3D imaging of sound-induced motions of the tympanic membrane and middle ear ossicles

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Ernest W.; Cheng, Jeffrey T.; Röösli, Christof; Kobler, James B.; Rosowski, John J.; Yun, Seok Hyun

    2013-01-01

    Efficient transfer of sound by the middle ear ossicles is essential for hearing. Various pathologies can impede the transmission of sound and thereby cause conductive hearing loss. Differential diagnosis of ossicular disorders can be challenging since the ossicles are normally hidden behind the tympanic membrane (TM). Here we describe the use of a technique termed optical coherence tomography (OCT) vibrography to view the sound-induced motion of the TM and ossicles simultaneously. With this method, we were able to capture three-dimensional motion of the intact TM and ossicles of the chinchilla ear with nanometer-scale sensitivity at sound frequencies from 0.5 to 5 kHz. The vibration patterns of the TM were complex and highly frequency dependent with mean amplitudes of 70–120 nm at 100 dB sound pressure level. The TM motion was only marginally sensitive to stapes fixation and incus-stapes joint interruption; however, when additional information derived from the simultaneous measurement of ossicular motion was added, it was possible to clearly distinguish these different simulated pathologies. The technique may be applicable to clinical diagnosis in Otology and to basic research in audition and acoustics. PMID:23811181

  1. A non-linear viscoelastic model for the tympanic membrane Hamid Motallebzadeh and Mathieu Charlebois

    E-print Network

    Funnell, W. Robert J.

    membrane. In addition, a frequency-domain analysis is performed based on the obtained material parameters, and an exponential time-dependent part, represented by a Prony series. The model output is compared correspond to the pressurization involved in tympanometry. VC 2013 Acoustical Society of America. [http

  2. Dominance of Haemophilus influenzae in ear discharge from Indigenous Australian children with acute otitis media with tympanic membrane perforation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Indigenous Australian children living in remote communities experience high rates of acute otitis media with tympanic membrane perforation (AOMwiP). Otitis media in this population is associated with dense nasopharyngeal colonization of three primary otopathogens; Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Moraxella catarrhalis. Little is known about the relative abundance of these pathogens during infection. The objective of this study was to estimate the abundance and concordance of otopathogens in ear discharge and paired nasopharyngeal swabs from children with AOMwiP (discharge of not more than 6 weeks’ duration and perforation size <2%). Methods Culture and quantitative PCR (qPCR) estimation of H. influenzae, S. pneumoniae, M. catarrhalis and total bacterial load were performed on paired nasopharyngeal and ear discharge swabs from 55 Indigenous children with AOMwiP aged 3.5 – 45.6 months and resident in remote communities. Results By culture, H. influenzae, S. pneumoniae, and M. catarrhalis were detected in 80%, 84% and 91% of nasopharyngeal swabs, and 49%, 33% and 4% of ear discharge swabs, respectively. Using qPCR, H. influenzae, S. pneumoniae, and M. catarrhalis were detected in 82%, 82%, and 93% of nasopharyngeal swabs, and 89%, 41% and 18% of ear discharge swabs, respectively. Relative abundance of H. influenzae in ear discharge swabs was 0-68% of the total bacterial load (median 2.8%); whereas S. pneumoniae and M. catarrhalis relative abundances were consistently <2% of the total bacterial load. S. pneumoniae and M. catarrhalis abundances were significantly lower in ear discharge compared with nasopharyngeal swabs (p?=?0.001, p?

  3. Equivalent Ear Canal Volumes in Children Pre- and Post-Tympanostomy Tube Insertion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanks, Janet E.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Evaluation of preoperative and postoperative equivalent ear canal volume measures on 334 children (ages 6 weeks to 6.7 years) with chronic otitis media with effusion found that the determination could be made very accurately for children 4 years and older. Criterion values for tympanic membrane perforation and preoperative and postoperative…

  4. Improved tympanic thermometer based on a fiber optic infrared radiometer and an otoscope and its use as a new diagnostic tool for acute otitis media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fishman, Gadi; DeRowe, Ari; Ophir, Eyal; Scharf, Vered; Shabtai, Abraham; Ophir, Dov; Katzir, Abraham

    1999-06-01

    Clinical diagnosis of acute otitis media (AOM) in children is not easy. It was assumed that there is a difference ?T between the Tympanic Membrane (TM) temperatures in the two ears in unilateral AOM and that an accurate measurement of ?T may improve the diagnosis accuracy. An IR transmitting fiber, made of AgClBr, was coupled into a hand held otoscope and was used for the non-contact (radiometric) measurements of TT, the TM temperature. Experiments were carried out, first, on a laboratory model that simulated the human ear, including an artificial tympanic membrane and an artificial ear canal. Measurements carried out using commercially available tympanic thermometers shown that the temperature Tc of the ear canal affected the results. Tc did not affect the fiberoptic radiometer, and this device accurately measured the true temperature, TT of the tympanic membrane. A prospective blinded sampling of the TM temperature was then performed on 48 children with suspected AOM. The mean temperature difference between the ears, for children with unilateral AOM was ?T = (0.68 +/- 0.27)°C. For children with bilateral AOM it was ?T = (0.14+/-0.10)°C (p<0.001). It was demonstrated that afor unilateral AOM the difference ?T was proportional to the systemic temperature. In conclusion, the fiberoptic interferometric measurements of the TM can be a useful non-invasive diagnostic tool for AOM, when combined with other data.

  5. [The emergency plastic reconstruction of the tympanic membrane defects of post-traumatic and iatrogenic etiology with the application of the nanostructured bioplastic material].

    PubMed

    Zabirov, R A; Kar'kaeva, S M; Shchetinin, V N; Akimov, A V

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to estimate the effectiveness of the application of the nanostructured bioplastic material for the plastic reconstruction of tympanic defects of post-traumatic and iatrogenic etiology. The authors report the results of the emergency plastic reconstruction of tympanic defects of post-traumatic and iatrogenic nature with the application of the nanostructured bioplastic material (giamatrix). The analysis of the results of the study prfovidd definitive evidence of the effectiveness of plastic reconstruction of tympanic defects with the application of the nanostructured bioplastic material. PMID:25588474

  6. Canals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkleman, Michael

    1974-01-01

    In the mid-1800's, the canal system in the U.S. was thriving. But, by the end of that century, roads and railways had replaced these commercial thoroughfares. Renewed interest in the abandoned canals is now resulting in renovation and ecological site development in Pennsylvania and New Jersey. (MA)

  7. Can general practitioners do the follow-ups after surgery with ventilation tubes in the tympanic membrane? Two years audiological data

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A university hospital in Mid-Norway has modified their guidelines for follow-up after insertion of ventilation tubes (VTs) in the tympanic membrane, transferring the controls of the healthiest children to general practitioners (GPs). The aim of this study was to evaluate the implementation of these guidelines by exploring audiological outcome and subjective hearing complaints two years after surgery, assessing if follow-ups in general practice resulted in poorer outcome. Methods A retrospective observational study was performed at the university hospital and in general practice in Mid-Norway. Children below 18 years who underwent surgery with VTs between Nov 1st 2007 and Dec 31st 2008 (n?=?136) were invited to participate. Pure tone audiometry, speech audiometry and tympanometry were measured. A self-report questionnaire assessed subjective hearing, ear complaints and the location of follow-ups. This study includes enough patients to observe group differences in mean threshold (0.5–1–2–4 kHz) of 9 dB or more. Results There were no preoperative differences in audiometry or tympanometry between the children scheduled for follow-ups by GPs (n?=?23) or otolaryngologists (n?=?50). Two years after surgery there were no differences between the GP and otolaryngologist groups in improvement of mean hearing thresholds (12.8 vs 12.6 dB, p?=?0.9) or reduction of middle ears with effusion (78.0 vs 75.0%, p?=?0.9). We found no differences between the groups in terms of parental reports of child hearing or ear complaints. Conclusions Implementation of new clinical guidelines for follow-ups after insertion of VTs did not negatively affect audiological outcomes or subjective hearing complaints two years after surgery. PMID:24708658

  8. Conductive hearing loss induced by experimental middle-ear effusion in a chinchilla model reveals impaired tympanic membrane-coupled ossicular chain movement.

    PubMed

    Thornton, Jennifer L; Chevallier, Keely M; Koka, Kanthaiah; Gabbard, Sandra A; Tollin, Daniel J; Tollin, Daniel

    2013-08-01

    Otitis media with effusion (OME) occurs when fluid collects in the middle-ear space behind the tympanic membrane (TM). As a result of this effusion, sounds can become attenuated by as much as 30-40 dB, causing a conductive hearing loss (CHL). However, the exact mechanical cause of the hearing loss remains unclear. Possible causes can include altered compliance of the TM, inefficient movement of the ossicular chain, decreased compliance of the oval window-stapes footplate complex, or altered input to the oval and round window due to conduction of sound energy through middle-ear fluid. Here, we studied the contribution of TM motion and umbo velocity to a CHL caused by middle-ear effusion. Using the chinchilla as an animal model, umbo velocity (V U) and cochlear microphonic (CM) responses were measured simultaneously using sinusoidal tone pip stimuli (125 Hz-12 kHz) before and after filling the middle ear with different volumes (0.5-2.0 mL) of silicone oil (viscosity, 3.5 Poise). Concurrent increases in CM thresholds and decreases in umbo velocity were noted after the middle ear was filled with 1.0 mL or more of fluid. Across animals, completely filling the middle ear with fluid caused 20-40-dB increases in CM thresholds and 15-35-dB attenuations in umbo velocity. Clinic-standard 226-Hz tympanometry was insensitive to fluid-associated changes in CM thresholds until virtually the entire middle-ear cavity had been filled (approximately >1.5 mL). The changes in umbo velocity, CM thresholds, and tympanometry due to experimentally induced OME suggest CHL arises primarily as a result of impaired TM mobility and TM-coupled umbo motion plus additional mechanisms within the middle ear. PMID:23615802

  9. External auditory canal stenosis due to the use of powdered boric acid.

    PubMed

    Dündar, Riza; Soy, Fatih Kemal; Kulduk, Erkan; Muluk, Nuray Bayar; Cingi, Cemal

    2014-09-01

    Acquired stenosis of the external auditory canal (EAC) may occur because of chronic external otitis, recurrent chronic catarrhal otitis media associated with tympanic membrane perforation, chronic dermatitis, tumors, and trauma. Stenosis occurs generally at the one-third bone part of the external auditory canal. In this article, we present 3 cases of acquired EAC stenosis due to the previous powdered boric acid application. Besides the presentation of surgical intervetions in these cases, we want to notify the physicians not to use or carefully use powdered boric acid because of the complication of EAC stenosis. PMID:25098584

  10. Leg movement and hearing: biophysics and electrophysiology of the tympanal organ in Locusta migratoria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Lang; N. Elsner

    1994-01-01

    1.The oscillations of the tympanal membrane of Locusta migratoria were analysed by combined laser vibrometry and interferometry. Simultaneously the activity in the tympanal nerve was recorded extracellularly. The animal was stimulated by sound pulses and one of the hindlegs was passively moved in a sinusoidal manner simulating stridulation. These stimuli were applied separately and in combination.2.Sound stimulation elicited high-frequency membrane

  11. [The assessment of the ventilation function of the eustachian tubes after shunting of the tympanic cavity].

    PubMed

    Magomedov, M M; Levina, Iu V; Nikitkin, A Iu

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to study specific features of the eustachian tube after the insertion of the shunt into the tympanic membrane and to measure the pressure necessary to ensure passive opening of the tube in the patients presenting with exudative otitis medium (EOM). The study included 87 patients with this pathology who underwent shunting of the tympanic cavity following a course of conservative treatment. Threshold audimetry and acoustic impedancemetry were performed in all the patients to estimate the patency of the eustachian tube with the perforated tympanic membrane. It is concluded that the shunting of the tympanic cavity resulted in markedly disturbed dynamic function of the Eustachian tube in the majority of the patients (59%) regardless of the severity of hearing impairment. PMID:23715483

  12. Sound pressure distribution within natural and artificial human ear canals: forward stimulation.

    PubMed

    Ravicz, Michael E; Tao Cheng, Jeffrey; Rosowski, John J

    2014-12-01

    This work is part of a study of the interaction of sound pressure in the ear canal (EC) with tympanic membrane (TM) surface displacement. Sound pressures were measured with 0.5-2?mm spacing at three locations within the shortened natural EC or an artificial EC in human temporal bones: near the TM surface, within the tympanic ring plane, and in a plane transverse to the long axis of the EC. Sound pressure was also measured at 2-mm intervals along the long EC axis. The sound field is described well by the size and direction of planar sound pressure gradients, the location and orientation of standing-wave nodal lines, and the location of longitudinal standing waves along the EC axis. Standing-wave nodal lines perpendicular to the long EC axis are present on the TM surface >11-16?kHz in the natural or artificial EC. The range of sound pressures was larger in the tympanic ring plane than at the TM surface or in the transverse EC plane. Longitudinal standing-wave patterns were stretched. The tympanic-ring sound field is a useful approximation of the TM sound field, and the artificial EC approximates the natural EC. PMID:25480061

  13. Endoscopic Transcanal Removal of Symptomatic External Auditory Canal Exostoses

    PubMed Central

    Kozin, Elliott D.; Remenschneider, Aaron K.; Shah, Parth; Reardon, Edward; Lee, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    Exostoses are bony outgrowths of the external auditory canal (EAC) that can lead to cerumen entrapment, recurrent infections, and conductive hearing loss. When surgical removal is indicated, a drill or osteotome may be used via a post-auricular, endaural, or transcanal approach. Studies suggest that exostoses removed by transcanal osteotome results in decreased morbidity when compared to open, drilled approaches; however, inadvertent injury to the facial nerve or inner ear is a theoretical concern given the restrictive geometry of the EAC and challenges of visualizing the tip of the chisel through the microscope. The endoscope provides superior visualization of the canal and tympanic membrane compared to the microscope. We sought to demonstrate the efficacy and safety of endoscopic exostosis surgery with an osteotome. We find that the endoscope provides improved wide angled views without blind spots. There were no intraoperative complications. Endoscopic canaloplasty for exostoses may be readily applied. PMID:25459316

  14. Sensory transduction at the frog semicircular canal: how hair cell membrane potential controls junctional transmission

    PubMed Central

    Martini, Marta; Canella, Rita; Rubbini, Gemma; Fesce, Riccardo; Rossi, Maria Lisa

    2015-01-01

    At the frog semicircular canals, the afferent fibers display high spontaneous activity (mEPSPs), due to transmitter release from hair cells. mEPSP and spike frequencies are modulated by stimulation that activates the hair cell receptor conductance. The relation between receptor current and transmitter release cannot be studied at the intact semicircular canal. To circumvent the problem, we combined patch-clamp recordings at the isolated hair cell and electrophysiological recordings at the cytoneural junction in the intact preparation. At isolated hair cells, the K channel blocker tetraethylammonium (TEA) is shown to block a fraction of total voltage-dependent K-conductance (IKD) that depends on TEA concentration but not on membrane potential (Vm). Considering the bioelectric properties of the hair cell, as previously characterized by this lab, a fixed fractional block of IKD is shown to induce a relatively fixed shift in Vm, provided it lies in the range ?30 to ?10 mV. The same concentrations of TEA were applied to the intact labyrinth while recording from single afferent fibers of the posterior canal, at rest and during mechanical stimulation. At the peak of stimulation, TEA produced increases in mEPSP rate that were linearly related to the shifts produced by the same TEA concentrations (0.1–3 mM) in hair cell Vm (0.7–5 mV), with a slope of 29.8 Hz/mV. The membrane potential of the hair cell is not linearly related to receptor conductance, so that the slope of quantal release vs. receptor conductance depends on the prevailing Vm (19.8 Hz/nS at ?20 mV; 11 Hz/nS at ?10 mV). Changes in mEPSP peak size were negligible at rest as well as during stimulation. Since ample spatial summation of mEPSPs occurs at the afferent terminal and threshold-governed spike firing is intrinsically nonlinear, the observed increases in mEPSP frequency, though not very large, may suffice to trigger afferent spike discharge.

  15. Vibration of the human tympanic membrane measured with OCT in a range between 0.4 kHz and 6.4 kHz on an ex vivo sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkhardt, Anke; Kirsten, Lars; Bornitz, Matthias; Zahnert, Thomas; Koch, Edmund

    2013-06-01

    Vibrations of the tympanic membrane (TM) play a key role for the transmission of sound to the inner ear. Today, there exist still problems in measuring the movement of the TM and there are unresolved issues in understanding the TM and its behavior. A non-invasive and contact-free in vivo investigation of the structure and the functional behavior of the TM would be a big step forward. In the presented study, the suitability of optical coherence tomography (OCT) for measuring the oscillation patterns of the TM in the frequency range covering the range of the human speech perception should be tested. For functional imaging a sound chirp was generated in the frequency range between 0.4 kHz - 6.4 kHz. To obtain the movement within a sufficient resolution, a grid of 25 x 25 measurement points was generated over the whole TM. The information of the oscillatory movement was encoded in the Doppler signal, provided by M-scans at several points of the TM. The frequency response functions of each frequency showed different oscillation patterns on the TM. The acquisition time of one single M-scan was only 8.5 ms and of the entire TM 5.3 s, emphasizing the potential of the method for future in vivo applications. Furthermore, the morphology was acquired with the same OCT-system, showing the feasibility for structural imaging and differentiation between typical regions of the TM. Thus, OCT was shown as a suitable method for the simultaneous measurement of the functional and structural behavior of the TM.

  16. Comparison of Ear-Canal Reflectance and Umbo Velocity in Patients with Conductive Hearing Loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merchant, Gabrielle R.; Nakajima, Hideko H.; Pisano, Dominic V.; Röösli, Christof; Hamade, Mohamad A.; Mafoud, Lorice; Halpin, Christopher F.; Merchant, Saumil N.; Rosowski, John J.

    2011-11-01

    Patients who present at hearing clinics with a conductive hearing loss (CHL) in the presence of an intact, healthy tympanic membrane create a unique challenge for otologists. While patient counseling, treatment options, and outcome vary with differing middle-ear pathologies, a non-invasive diagnostic that can differentiate between these pathologies does not currently exist. We evaluated the clinical utility and diagnostic accuracy of two non-invasive measures of middle-ear mechanics: ear-canal reflectance (ECR) and umbo velocity (VU).

  17. Mechanics of a 'simple' ear: tympanal vibrations in noctuid moths.

    PubMed

    Windmill, J F C; Fullard, J H; Robert, D

    2007-08-01

    Anatomically, the ears of moths are considered to be among the simplest ears found in animals. Microscanning laser vibrometry was used to examine the surface vibrations of the entire tympanal region of the ears of the noctuid moths Agrotis exclamationis, Noctua pronuba, Xestia c-nigrum and Xestia triangulum. During stimulation with ultrasound at intensities known to activate receptor neurones, the tympanum vibrates with maximum deflection amplitudes at the location where the receptor cells attach. In the reportedly heterogeneous tympana of noctuid moths, this attachment site is an opaque zone that is surrounded by a transparent, thinner cuticular region. In response to sound pressure, this region moves relatively little compared with the opaque zone. Thus, the deflections of the moth tympanic membrane are not those of a simple circular drum. The acoustic sensitivity of the ear of N. pronuba, as measured on the attachment site, is 100+/-14 nm Pa(-1) (N=10), corresponding to tympanal motion of a mere 200 pm at sound pressure levels near the neural threshold. PMID:17644678

  18. Three-dimensional study of the facial canal using microcomputed tomography for improved anatomical comprehension.

    PubMed

    Shin, Kang-Jae; Gil, Young-Chun; Lee, Ju-Young; Kim, Jeong-Nam; Song, Wu-Chul; Koh, Ki-Seok

    2014-10-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the various dimensions of the normal facial canal and to identify the spatial relationships between the facial canal and its adjacent structures using microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) imaging and three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction. The petrous parts of 54 temporal bones were scanned using micro-CT with a slice thickness of 35 ?m. The serial micro-CT images were used to reconstruct 3D volumes of the facial canal and the bony labyrinth with the aid of computer software. These volumes were used to measure 31 dimensions of the facial canal and its spatial relationships with adjacent structures. The length of the meatal segment, the tympanic segment, and the mastoid segment were significantly larger in males than in females (p?canal were immediately lateral to the meatal foramen in the labyrinthine segment and the midpoint of the tympanic segment. The distance between the origin of the canal for the chorda tympani nerve and midpoint of the stylomastoid foramen was 35.3% of the length of the mastoid segment, and the angle between the tympanic segment and the lateral semicircular canal was 16.3°. The angle between the mastoid segment and the canal for the chorda tympani nerve could be classified into two groups: <180° and >180°. These findings represent supplemental data for improving the detailed understanding of the facial canal anatomy. PMID:24990524

  19. Root canal

    MedlinePLUS

    A root canal is a dental procedure to remove dead or dying nerve tissue and bacteria from inside a tooth. ... A root canal is done if you have an infection that affects the nerve in the root of a tooth. ...

  20. The role of the chinchilla pinna and ear canal in electrophysiological measures of hearing thresholds.

    PubMed

    Murphy, W J; Davis, R R

    1998-04-01

    Measurements of the acoustic transfer function (ATF) of the pinnae of 8 chinchillas were compared with the auditory-evoked potential (AEP) thresholds of 16 chinchillas measured in free field and with insert earphones. The ATF was measured in anesthetized chinchillas in a far-field condition in a semi-anechoic room using a logarithmic frequency sweep from 100 Hz to 20 kHz. Probe microphone measurements were collected with the probe opening at the tympanic membrane and in the same approximate position with the chinchilla removed from the sound field. For each animal's acoustic transfer function, the average of five in-the-ear and three free-field measurements were determined. The ATF exhibited a 5-dB passive gain at about 1 kHz and a broad resonance between 2.5 and 6 kHz of about a 10-dB gain. AEP thresholds were obtained from monaural chronically implanted chinchillas at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 8 kHz using first free-field and then insert earphone stimuli. The free-field sound pressure was measured with a microphone in the approximate position of the chinchilla's head. The earphone sound pressures were measured with a probe microphone positioned near the tympanic membrane. The free-field AEP hearing thresholds exhibited +10-dB gain at 4 kHz compared to the insert earphone AEP thresholds. The agreement between the ATF and AEP derived transfer function suggested that the threshold differences at 4 kHz between the two testing configurations can be accounted for by the pinna and ear canal gain. PMID:9566318

  1. Effects of the intensity of masking noise on ear canal recorded low-frequency cochlear microphonic waveforms in normal hearing subjects.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ming

    2014-07-01

    Compared to auditory brainstem responses (ABRs), cochlear microphonics (CMs) may be more appropriate to serve as a supplement to the test of otoacoustic emissions (OAEs). Researchers have shown that low-frequency CMs from the apical cochlea are measurable at the tympanic membrane using high-pass masking noise. Our objective is to study the effect of such noise at different intensities on low-frequency CMs recorded at the ear canal, which is not completely known. Six components were involved in this CM measurement including an ear canal electrode (1), a relatively long and low-frequency toneburst (2), and high-pass masking noise at different intensities (3). The rest components include statistical analysis based on multiple human subjects (4), curve modeling based on amplitudes of CM waveforms (CMWs) and noise intensity (5), and a technique based on electrocochleography (ECochG or ECoG) (6). Results show that low-frequency CMWs appeared clearly. The CMW amplitude decreased with an increase in noise level. It decreased first slowly, then faster, and finally slowly again. In conclusion, when masked with high-pass noise, the low-frequency CMs are measurable at the human ear canal. Such noise reduces the low-frequency CM amplitude. The reduction is noise-intensity dependent but not completely linear. The reduction may be caused by the excited basal cochlea which the low-frequency has to travel and pass through. Although not completely clear, six mechanisms related to such reduction are discussed. PMID:24793117

  2. CANAL AUTOMATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Canals have been used to distribute water for irrigation for several millennia. The practices gradually evolved from a shovel to open gaps in a berm to fixed structures to movable structures such as gates. Regulation of water in canals is still by manual labor in most parts of the world. A few hydra...

  3. Tympanal mechanics and neural responses in the ears of a noctuid moth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ter Hofstede, Hannah M.; Goerlitz, Holger R.; Montealegre-Z, Fernando; Robert, Daniel; Holderied, Marc W.

    2011-12-01

    Ears evolved in many groups of moths to detect the echolocation calls of predatory bats. Although the neurophysiology of bat detection has been intensively studied in moths for decades, the relationship between sound-induced movement of the noctuid tympanic membrane and action potentials in the auditory sensory cells (A1 and A2) has received little attention. Using laser Doppler vibrometry, we measured the velocity and displacement of the tympanum in response to pure tone pulses for moths that were intact or prepared for neural recording. When recording from the auditory nerve, the displacement of the tympanum at the neural threshold remained constant across frequencies, whereas velocity varied with frequency. This suggests that the key biophysical parameter for triggering action potentials in the sensory cells of noctuid moths is tympanum displacement, not velocity. The validity of studies on the neurophysiology of moth hearing rests on the assumption that the dissection and recording procedures do not affect the biomechanics of the ear. There were no consistent differences in tympanal velocity or displacement when moths were intact or prepared for neural recordings for sound levels close to neural threshold, indicating that this and other neurophysiological studies provide good estimates of what intact moths hear at threshold.

  4. Tympanal mechanics and neural responses in the ears of a noctuid moth.

    PubMed

    ter Hofstede, Hannah M; Goerlitz, Holger R; Montealegre-Z, Fernando; Robert, Daniel; Holderied, Marc W

    2011-12-01

    Ears evolved in many groups of moths to detect the echolocation calls of predatory bats. Although the neurophysiology of bat detection has been intensively studied in moths for decades, the relationship between sound-induced movement of the noctuid tympanic membrane and action potentials in the auditory sensory cells (A1 and A2) has received little attention. Using laser Doppler vibrometry, we measured the velocity and displacement of the tympanum in response to pure tone pulses for moths that were intact or prepared for neural recording. When recording from the auditory nerve, the displacement of the tympanum at the neural threshold remained constant across frequencies, whereas velocity varied with frequency. This suggests that the key biophysical parameter for triggering action potentials in the sensory cells of noctuid moths is tympanum displacement, not velocity. The validity of studies on the neurophysiology of moth hearing rests on the assumption that the dissection and recording procedures do not affect the biomechanics of the ear. There were no consistent differences in tympanal velocity or displacement when moths were intact or prepared for neural recordings for sound levels close to neural threshold, indicating that this and other neurophysiological studies provide good estimates of what intact moths hear at threshold. PMID:21989514

  5. Mechanical tuning of the moth ear: distortion-product otoacoustic emissions and tympanal vibrations.

    PubMed

    Mora, Emanuel C; Cobo-Cuan, Ariadna; Macías-Escrivá, Frank; Pérez, Martha; Nowotny, Manuela; Kössl, Manfred

    2013-10-15

    The mechanical tuning of the ear in the moth Empyreuma pugione was investigated by distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE) and laser Doppler vibrometry (LDV). DPOAE audiograms were assessed using a novel protocol that may be advantageous for non-invasive auditory studies in insects. To evoke DPOAE, two-tone stimuli within frequency and level ranges that generated a large matrix of values (960 frequency-level combinations) were used to examine the acoustic space in which the moth tympanum shows its best mechanical and acoustical responses. The DPOAE tuning curve derived from the response matrix resembles that obtained previously by electrophysiology, and is V-shaped and tuned to frequencies between 25 and 45 kHz with low Q10dB values of 1.21±0.26. In addition, while using a comparable stimulation regime, mechanical distortion in the displacement of the moth's tympanal membrane at the stigma was recorded with a laser Doppler vibrometer. The corresponding mechanical vibration audiograms were compared with DPOAE audiograms. Both types of audiograms have comparable shape, but most of the mechanical response fields are shifted towards lower frequencies. We showed for the first time in moths that DPOAE have a pronounced analogy in the vibration of the tympanic membrane where they may originate. Our work supports previous studies that point to the stigma (and the internally associated transduction machinery) as an important place of sound amplification in the moth ear, but also suggests a complex mechanical role for the rest of the transparent zone. PMID:23868848

  6. Mechanical basis of otoacoustic emissions in tympanal hearing organs.

    PubMed

    Möckel, Doreen; Nowotny, Manuela; Kössl, Manfred

    2014-07-01

    Tympanal hearing organs of insects emit distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs), which in mammals are used as indicator for nonlinear cochlear amplification, and which are highly vulnerable to manipulations interfering with the animal's physiological state. Although in previous studies, evidence was provided for the involvement of auditory mechanoreceptors, the source of DPOAE generation and possible active mechanisms in tympanal organs remained unknown. Using laser Doppler vibrometry in the locust ear, we show that DPOAEs mechanically emerge at the tympanum region where the auditory mechanoreceptors are attached. Those emission-coupled vibrations differed remarkably from tympanum waves evoked by external pure tones of the same frequency, in terms of wave propagation, energy distribution, and location of amplitude maxima. Selective inactivation of the auditory receptor cells by mechanical lesions did not affect the tympanum's response to external pure tones, but abolished the emission's displacement amplitude peak. These findings provide evidence that tympanal auditory receptors, comparable to the situation in mammals, comprise the required nonlinear response characteristics, which during two-tone stimulation lead to additional, highly localized deflections of the tympanum. PMID:24817310

  7. Completely-in-the-canal magnet-drive hearing device: a temporal bone study.

    PubMed

    Mahboubi, Hossein; Malley, Melinda J D; Paulick, Peyton; Merlo, Mark W; Bachman, Mark; Djalilian, Hamid R

    2013-03-01

    The magnet-drive hearing device (MHD) is a small completely-in-the-canal hearing aid prototype that drives the tympanic membrane (TM) through a magnetic interface. A cadaveric temporal bone was prepared. The MHD was coupled to a nickel-epoxy pellet glued to the umbo. Frequency sweeps between 0.3 and 10 kHz were performed, and the MHD was driven with various levels of current. Displacements of the posterior crus of the stapes were measured using a laser Doppler vibrometer and compared with sound-induced displacements. The MHD had a linear frequency response and low total harmonic distortion. The pellet placement altered the stapes movements; however, the changes were statistically insignificant. Inputs of 100 and 300 mV produced displacements equivalent to those of the natural sound at 70- and 80-dB sound pressure level, respectively. The coupling of this novel device using a magnetic interface to the umbo had a frequency output wider than air conduction devices, and its actuator was effective in driving the TM. PMID:23264118

  8. 68. CANAL PLAN 5 EAST. CANAL BED IS VISIBLE WHILE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    68. CANAL PLAN 5 EAST. CANAL BED IS VISIBLE WHILE FOOT OF CANAL IS UNDERGOING MAINTAINANCE. NOTE HOW LARGE AMOUNTS OF DIRT ARE HAULED FROM PLACE TO PLACE USING A CANAL BOAT AND CRADLE. - Morris Canal, Phillipsburg, Warren County, NJ

  9. 496. Phys. Lett A., (2006) A.G.Ramm, The shape of the ear canal The shape of the ear canal #+

    E-print Network

    2006-01-01

    496. Phys. Lett A., (2006) A.G.Ramm, The shape of the ear canal 1 #12; The shape of the ear canal@math.ksu.edu Abstract It is proved that the measurement of the acoustic pressure on the ear membrane allows one to determine the shape of the ear canal uniquely. 1 Introduction Consider a bounded domain D # R n , n = 3

  10. 2. CANAL BOAT ENTERING THE DELAWARE CANAL FROM OF THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. CANAL BOAT ENTERING THE DELAWARE CANAL FROM OF THE LEHIGH RIVER. BOATS COULD BE FERRIED ACROSS THE DELAWARE RIVER TO THE MORRIS CANAL BY A CABLE SUPPORTED TROLLEY. - Morris Canal, Phillipsburg, Warren County, NJ

  11. 1. VIEW OF CANAL STATION COMPLEX FROM CANAL STREET, FACING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW OF CANAL STATION COMPLEX FROM CANAL STREET, FACING NORTH. - New Orleans City Railroad Company, Canal Station, Square 365, bounded by Canal, North Dupre, Iberville, & North White Streets, New Orleans, Orleans Parish, LA

  12. 17. Junction of old Crosscut Canal with Grand Canal, view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Junction of old Crosscut Canal with Grand Canal, view to north; Crosscut enters from upper right, control gates of Grand Canal at left. - Old Crosscut Canal, North Side of Salt River, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  13. 27. VIEW OF TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL HEADGATE WITH CANAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. VIEW OF TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL HEADGATE WITH CANAL BRIDGE IN DISTANCE; LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  14. Specialization for underwater hearing by the tympanic middle ear of the turtle, Trachemys scripta elegans

    PubMed Central

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Brandt, Christian; Willis, Katie L.; Christensen, Christian Bech; Ketten, Darlene; Edds-Walton, Peggy; Fay, Richard R.; Madsen, Peter T.; Carr, Catherine E.

    2012-01-01

    Turtles, like other amphibious animals, face a trade-off between terrestrial and aquatic hearing. We used laser vibrometry and auditory brainstem responses to measure their sensitivity to vibration stimuli and to airborne versus underwater sound. Turtles are most sensitive to sound underwater, and their sensitivity depends on the large middle ear, which has a compliant tympanic disc attached to the columella. Behind the disc, the middle ear is a large air-filled cavity with a volume of approximately 0.5 ml and a resonance frequency of approximately 500 Hz underwater. Laser vibrometry measurements underwater showed peak vibrations at 500–600 Hz with a maximum of 300 µm s?1 Pa?1, approximately 100 times more than the surrounding water. In air, the auditory brainstem response audiogram showed a best sensitivity to sound of 300–500 Hz. Audiograms before and after removing the skin covering reveal that the cartilaginous tympanic disc shows unchanged sensitivity, indicating that the tympanic disc, and not the overlying skin, is the key sound receiver. If air and water thresholds are compared in terms of sound intensity, thresholds in water are approximately 20–30 dB lower than in air. Therefore, this tympanic ear is specialized for underwater hearing, most probably because sound-induced pulsations of the air in the middle ear cavity drive the tympanic disc. PMID:22438494

  15. Root canal irrigants

    PubMed Central

    Kandaswamy, Deivanayagam; Venkateshbabu, Nagendrababu

    2010-01-01

    Successful root canal therapy relies on the combination of proper instrumentation, irrigation, and obturation of the root canal. Of these three essential steps of root canal therapy, irrigation of the root canal is the most important determinant in the healing of the periapical tissues. The primary endodontic treatment goal must thus be to optimize root canal disinfection and to prevent reinfection. In this review of the literature, various irrigants and the interactions between irrigants are discussed. We performed a Medline search for English-language papers published untill July 2010. The keywords used were ‘root canal irrigants’ and ‘endodontic irrigants.’ The reference lists of each article were manually checked for additional articles of relevance. PMID:21217955

  16. 14. Junction of the Tempe Canal and Western Canal, looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Junction of the Tempe Canal and Western Canal, looking north. Photographer: Mark Durben, February 1989. Source: SRPA - Tempe Canal, South Side Salt River in Tempe, Mesa & Phoenix, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  17. 14. MAIN CANAL CANAL CHECKGATES, JUST BELOW DARK CANYON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. MAIN CANAL - CANAL CHECKGATES, JUST BELOW DARK CANYON SIPHON, VIEW TO NORTHEAST - Carlsbad Irrigation District, Main Canal, 4 miles North to 12 miles Southeast of Carlsbad, Carlsbad, Eddy County, NM

  18. Bitter Root Irrigation district canal, looking east, typical section (canal ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Bitter Root Irrigation district canal, looking east, typical section (canal full) - Bitter Root Irrigation Project, Bitter Root Irrigation Canal, Heading at Rock Creek Diversion Dam, West of U.S. Highway 93, Darby, Ravalli County, MT

  19. 56. CROSS SECTIONS OF CANAL AND TUNNELS. POWER CANAL, SALT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    56. CROSS SECTIONS OF CANAL AND TUNNELS. POWER CANAL, SALT RIVER RESERVOIR Courtesy of U.S.G.S., Reclamation Service - Roosevelt Power Canal & Diversion Dam, Parallels Salt River, Roosevelt, Gila County, AZ

  20. 6. O'BRIAN CANAL/DENVERHUDSON CANAL BIFURCATION POINT The O'Brian Canal is ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. O'BRIAN CANAL/DENVER-HUDSON CANAL BIFURCATION POINT The O'Brian Canal is flowing to the left; the Denver-Hudson Canal is flowing to the right - O'Brian Canal, South Platte River Drainage Area Northest of Denver, Brighton, Adams County, CO

  1. Strategies to reduce feedlot cattle heat stress: Effects on tympanic temperature1,2,3

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. S. Davis; T. L. Mader; S. M. Holt; A. M. Parkhurst

    Three experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of different management strategies on body temperature of feedlot steers finished in the summer months. In Exp. 1, 24 crossbred steers were chosen to assess the effect of altered feed intake and feeding time on tympanic temperature (TT) response. Managed feeding (MF) treatments were applied for 22 d only and provided 1)

  2. Main trajectories of nerves that traverse and surround the tympanic cavity in the rat

    PubMed Central

    WEIJNEN, J. A. W. M.; SURINK, S.; VERSTRALEN, M. J. M.; MOERKERKEN, A.; DE BREE, G. J.; BLEYS, R. L. A. W.

    2000-01-01

    To guide surgery of nerves that traverse and surround the tympanic cavity in the rat, anatomical illustrations are required that are topographically correct. In this study, maps of this area are presented, extending from the superior cervical ganglion to the otic ganglion. They were derived from observations that were made during dissections using a ventral approach. Major blood vessels, bones, transected muscles of the tongue and neck and supra and infrahyoid muscles serve as landmarks in the illustrations. The course of the mandibular, facial, glossopharyngeal, vagus, accessory and hypoglossal nerves with their branches, and components of the sympathetic system, are shown and discussed with reference to data available in the literature. Discrepancies in this literature can be clarified and new data are presented on the trajectories of several nerves. The course of the tympanic nerve was established. This nerve originates from the glossopharyngeal nerve, enters the tympanic cavity, crosses the promontory, passes the tensor tympani muscle dorsally, and continues its route intracranially to the otic ganglion as the lesser petrosal nerve after intersecting with the greater petrosal nerve. Auricular branches of the glossopharyngeal and of the vagus nerve were noted. We also observed a pterygopalatine branch of the internal carotid nerve, that penetrates the tympanic cavity and courses across the promontory. PMID:11005717

  3. The Suez Canal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edw. Rae

    1869-01-01

    I NOTICE in your number of 4th inst. an article relating to the Suez Canal (by Mr. Login, C.E., late of the Ganges Canal), and shall be glad if you will allow me to make a few observations with reference to it.

  4. The auditory system of non-calling grasshoppers (Melanoplinae: Podismini) and the evolutionary regression of their tympanal ears

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerlind U. C. Lehmann; Sandra Berger; Johannes Strauß; Arne W. Lehmann; Hans-Joachim Pflüger

    2010-01-01

    Reduction of tympanal hearing organs is repeatedly found amongst insects and is associated with weakened selection for hearing.\\u000a There is also an associated wing reduction, since flight is no longer required to evade bats. Wing reduction may also affect\\u000a sound production. Here, the auditory system in four silent grasshopper species belonging to the Podismini is investigated.\\u000a In this group, tympanal

  5. [The results of primary tympanoplasty of extended tympanic defects in the patients presenting with chronic mesotympanitis].

    PubMed

    Khorov, O G; Plavski?, D M

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to estimate the results of primary tympanoplasty of extended tympanic defects in the patients presenting with chronic mesotympanitis. The results of the surgical treatment of 68 patients with chronic suppurative otitis media (mesotympanitis) by primary tympanoplasty of extended tympanic defects. Tympanoplasty was performed with the use of a 0.2-0.3 mm cartilage plate from which a number of fragments mobile relative to one another were formed by an original method. Good clinical and anatomical results were obtained in 90.4% of the treated patients within 24 months after surgery. Moreover, the number of patients with socially adequate hearing increased up to 86.5% during the same period. The bone-air interval was reduced from 30 to 10 dB at all observation time-points. PMID:23528466

  6. Panama Canal capacity analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Bronzini, M.S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., Knoxville, TN (United States). Center for Transportation Analysis

    1995-04-27

    Predicting the transit capacities of the various Panama Canal alternatives required analyzing data on present Canal operations, adapting and extending an existing computer simulation model, performing simulation runs for each of the alternatives, and using the simulation model outputs to develop capacity estimates. These activities are summarized in this paper. A more complete account may be found in the project final report (TAMS 1993). Some of the material in this paper also appeared in a previously published paper (Rosselli, Bronzini, and Weekly 1994).

  7. COMPARISON OF EAR-CANAL REFLECTANCE AND UMBO VELOCITY IN PATIENTS WITH CONDUCTIVE HEARING LOSS: A PRELIMINARY STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Nakajima, Hideko H.; Pisano, Dominic V.; Roosli, Christof; Hamade, Mohamad A.; Merchant, Gabrielle R.; Mahfoud, Lorice; Halpin, Christopher F.; Rosowski, John J.; Merchant, Saumil N.

    2011-01-01

    Objective The goal of the present study was to investigate the clinical utility of measurements of ear-canal reflectance (ECR) in a population of patients with conductive hearing loss in the presence of an intact, healthy tympanic membrane (TM) and an aerated middle ear. We also sought to compare the diagnostic accuracy of umbo velocity (VU) measurements and measurements of ECR in the same group of patients. Design This prospective study comprised 31 adult patients with conductive hearing loss, of which 14 had surgically-confirmed stapes fixation due to otosclerosis, 6 had surgically-confirmed ossicular discontinuity, and 11 had CT- and VEMP-confirmed superior semicircular canal dehiscence (SCD). Measurements on all 31 ears included pure-tone audiometry for 0.25 – 8 kHz, ECR for 0.2 – 6 kHz using the Mimosa Acoustics HearID system, and VU for 0.3 – 6 kHz using the HLV-1000 laser Doppler vibrometer (Polytec Inc). We analyzed power reflectance |ECR|2 as well as the absorbance level = 10×log10(1?|ECR|2). All measurements were made prior to any surgical intervention. The VU and ECR data were plotted against normative data obtained in a companion study of 58 strictly defined normal ears (Rosowski et al. 2011). Results Small increases in |ECR|2 at low-to-mid frequencies (400–1000 Hz) were observed in cases with stapes fixation, while narrow-band decreases were seen for both SCD and ossicular discontinuity. The SCD and ossicular discontinuity differed in that the SCD had smaller decreases at mid-frequency (~1000 Hz), while ossicular discontinuity had larger decreases at lower frequencies (500–800 Hz). SCD tended to have less air-bone gap at high frequencies (1–4 kHz) compared to stapes fixation and ossicular discontinuity. The |ECR|2 measurements, in conjunction with audiometry, could successfully separate 28 of the 31 cases into the three pathologies. By comparison, VU measurements, in conjunction with audiometry, could successfully separate various pathologies in 29 of 31 cases. Conclusions The combination of |ECR|2 with audiometry showed clinical utility in the differential diagnosis of conductive hearing loss in the presence of an intact TM and an aerated middle ear, and appears to be of similar sensitivity and specificity to measurements of VU plus audiometry. Additional research is needed to expand upon these promising preliminary results. PMID:21857516

  8. A Tympanal Insect Ear Exploits a Critical Oscillator for Active Amplification and Tuning

    PubMed Central

    Mhatre, Natasha; Robert, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Summary A dominant theme of acoustic communication is the partitioning of acoustic space into exclusive, species-specific niches to enable efficient information transfer. In insects, acoustic niche partitioning is achieved through auditory frequency filtering, brought about by the mechanical properties of their ears [1]. The tuning of the antennal ears of mosquitoes [2] and flies [3], however, arises from active amplification, a process similar to that at work in the mammalian cochlea [4]. Yet, the presence of active amplification in the other type of insect ears—tympanal ears—has remained uncertain [5]. Here we demonstrate the presence of active amplification and adaptive tuning in the tympanal ear of a phylogenetically basal insect, a tree cricket. We also show that the tree cricket exploits critical oscillator-like mechanics, enabling high auditory sensitivity and tuning to conspecific songs. These findings imply that sophisticated auditory mechanisms may have appeared even earlier in the evolution of hearing and acoustic communication than currently appreciated. Our findings also raise the possibility that frequency discrimination and directional hearing in tympanal systems may rely on physiological nonlinearities, in addition to mechanical properties, effectively lifting some of the physical constraints placed on insects by their small size [6] and prompting an extensive reexamination of invertebrate audition. PMID:24076240

  9. Cortical Representation of Tympanic Membrane Movements due to Pressure Variation: An fMRI Study

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    in the homunculus of the somatosensory cortex (S1). We investigated the somatosensory representation of the middle, the somatosensory homunculus was first described by Penfield (Penfield and Rasmussen 1950). The human cortical map or the face (Nihashi, et al. 2002). To date, the somatosensory homunculus lacks a defined area corresponding

  10. Ear-Canal Reflectance, Umbo Velocity and Tympanometry in Normal Hearing Adults

    PubMed Central

    Rosowski, John J; Nakajima, Hideko H.; Hamade, Mohamad A.; Mafoud, Lorice; Merchant, Gabrielle R.; Halpin, Christopher F.; Merchant, Saumil N.

    2011-01-01

    Objective This study compares measurements of ear-canal reflectance (ECR) to other objective measurements of middle-ear function including, audiometry, umbo velocity (VU), and tympanometry in a population of strictly defined normal hearing ears. Design Data were prospectively gathered from 58 ears of 29 normal hearing subjects, 16 female and 13 male, aged 22–64 years. Subjects met all of the following criteria to be considered as having normal hearing. (1) No history of significant middle-ear disease. (2) No history of otologic surgery. (3) Normal tympanic membrane (TM) on otoscopy. (4) Pure-tone audiometric thresholds of 20 dB HL or better for 0.25 – 8 kHz. (5) Air-bone gaps no greater than 15 dB at 0.25 kHz and 10 dB for 0.5 – 4 kHz. (6) Normal, type-A peaked tympanograms. (7) All subjects had two “normal” ears (as defined by these criteria). Measurements included pure-tone audiometry for 0.25 – 8 kHz, standard 226 Hz tympanometry, Ear canal reflectance(ECR) for 0.2 – 6 kHz at 60 dB SPL using the Mimosa Acoustics HearID system, and Umbo Velocity (VU ) for 0.3 – 6 kHz at 70–90 dB SPL using the HLV-1000 laser Doppler vibrometer (Polytec Inc). Results Mean power reflectance (|ECR|2) was near 1.0 at 0.2– 0.3 kHz, decreased to a broad minimum of 0.3 to 0.4 between 1 and 4 kHz, and then sharply increased to almost 0.8 by 6 kHz. The mean pressure reflectance phase angle (?ECR) plotted on a linear frequency scale showed a group delay of approximately 0.1 ms for 0.2 – 6 kHz. Small significant differences were observed in |ECR|2 at the lowest frequencies between right and left ears, and between males and females at 4 kHz. |ECR|2 decreased with age, but reached significance only at 1 kHz. Our ECR measurements were generally similar to previous published reports. Highly significant negative correlations were found between |ECR|2 and VU for frequencies below 1 kHz. Significant correlations were also found between the tympanometrically determined peak total compliance and |ECR|2 and The results suggest that middle-ear compliance VU at frequencies below 1 kHz. contributes significantly to the measured power reflectance and umbo velocity at frequencies below 1 kHz, but not at higher frequencies. Conclusions This study has established a database of objective measurements of middle ear function (ear-canal reflectance, umbo velocity, tympanometry) in a population of strictly defined normal hearing ears. The data will promote our understanding of normal middle ear function, and will serve as a control for comparison to similar measurements made in pathological ears. PMID:21857517

  11. High computed tomographic correlations between carotid canal dehiscence and high jugular bulb in the middle ear.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chih-Hung; Shi, Zheng-Ping; Liu, Dai-Wei; Wang, Hsing-Won; Huang, Bor-Rong; Chen, Hsin-Chien

    2011-01-01

    Both carotid canal dehiscence (CCD) and high jugular bulb (HJB) are thought to increase the potential for disastrous consequences during middle ear surgery. Clinical co-presentation of these two great vessel variants has not yet been described. This study aims to determine the relationship between CCD and HJB based on a computed tomographic (CT) temporal bone evaluation. High-resolution CT scans of 408 temporal bones obtained from 208 adults were recruited. Carotid canal integrity, jugular bulb position, petrous apex pneumatization and the minimal thickness of the carotid canal wall (TCW) facing the tympanic cavity were examined and measured for the incidence of CCD and/or HJB. Other variables including gender, age, laterality and the presence of otitis media or mastoiditis were also collected for analysis. CCD was found in 28 ears (6.9%); 19 of these were found to also have HJB (67.9%). The presence of CCD was significantly correlated with HJB presentation. The minimal TCW in HJB ears was significantly thinner than that of normally positioned jugular bulbs. Moreover, after controlling for other candidate variables, the independent factors of age (younger or older than 50 years) and jugular bulb position (high vs. normal) were found to predict the presence of CCD. In conclusion, HJB tends to coexist with a thinner carotid canal wall. This finding emphasizes the need to be watchful for the coexistence of these two great vessel anomalies when surgeons encounter an aged patient presenting either CCD or HJB during middle ear surgery. PMID:20606423

  12. Important Factors for the Hearing Loss Caused by the Triple Semicircular Canal Occlusion in Guinea Pigs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shankai Yin; Dongzhen Yu; Zhengnong Chen; Zhenyu Cao; Jian Wang

    2007-01-01

    Hypothesis: Dynamic recording of the auditory brainstem response is helpful in verifying harmful procedure(s) to hear- ing during triple semicircular canal occlusion (TSCO) surgery. The damage to the membranous semicircular labyrinth is the single major contributor to hearing loss caused by TSCO. Background: Posterior semicircular canal occlusion has been recognized as an efficient method of eliminating vertigo with- out causing

  13. Codage de Canal : Performances de systmes cods

    E-print Network

    Rioul, Olivier

    Codage de Canal : Performances de systèmes codés Olivier Rioul TELECOM ParisTech Dept. Comelec continus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 1.3.1 Canal gaussien réel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 1.3.2 Canal gaussien complexe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 1.3.3 Canal de Rayleigh

  14. The Semicircular Canal Microphonic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rabbitt, R. D.; Boyle, R.; Highstein, S. M.; Dalton, Bonnie P. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Present experiments were designed to quantify the alternating current (AC) component of the semicircular canal microphonic for angular motion stimulation as a function of stimulus frequency and amplitude. The oyster toadfish, Opsanus tau, was used as the experimental model. Calibrated mechanical indentation of the horizontal canal duct was used as a stimulus to generate hair-cell and afferent responses reproducing those present during head rotation. Sensitivity to polarization of the endolymph DC voltage re: perilymph was also investigated. Modulation of endolymph voltage was recorded using conventional glass electrodes and lock-in amplification over the frequency range 0.2-80 Hz. Access to the endolymph for inserting voltage recording and current passing electrodes was obtained by sectioning the anterior canal at its apex and isolating the cut ends in air. For sinusoidal stimulation below approx.10 Hz, the horizontal semicircular canal AC microphonic was nearly independent of stimulus frequency and equal to approximately 4 microV per micron indent (equivalent to approx. 1 microV per deg/s). A saturating nonlinearity decreasing the microphonic gain was present for stimuli exceeding approx.3 micron indent (approx. 12 deg/s angular velocity). The phase was not sensitive to the saturating nonlinearity. The microphonic exhibited a resonance near 30Hz consistent with basolateral current hair cell resonance observed previously in voltage-clamp records from semicircular canal hair cells. The magnitude and phase of the microphonic exhibited sensitivity to endolymphatic polarization consistent with electro-chemical reversal of hair cell transduction currents.

  15. 23. VIEW OF GRAND CANAL, SHOWING NEW ALIGNMENT CANAL ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. VIEW OF GRAND CANAL, SHOWING NEW ALIGNMENT CANAL ON RIGHT. THIS PHOTO WAS TAKEN FROM APPROXIMATELY THE SAME SPOT AS THE PREVIOUS PHOTOGRAPH (AZ-17-22). Photographer: Kevin Kreisel-Coons, May 1990 - Grand Canal, North side of Salt River, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  16. Panama and the Canal

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The University of Florida's George A. Smathers Libraries and the Panama Canal Museum have worked together to create this engaging digital collection that tells the story of Panama and the Canal Zone. The collection contains 158 items, including newspaper clippings, illustrations, stock shares, and more. The Leonard Carpenter Panama Canal Collection contains a mix of photos of dredging work, military personnel, and a U.S. Navy dirigible. Another smaller collection contains items from the Government Documents Department, such as annual reports, maps, and Congressional hearing transcripts. Visitors can search the entire collection by keyword, and they shouldn't miss the 1754 maps of Panama and the surrounding region by Jacques Nicolas Bellin.

  17. Canal Superior Online Pas: Portugal

    E-print Network

    Instituto de Sistemas e Robotica

    Canal Superior Online País: Portugal Period.: Diária Âmbito: Online Pag.: 1 de 3ID: 44493807 30-10-2012 | Canal Superior Informação Online PROGRAMAS INFORMAÇÃO AGENDA PESQUISA LOGIN/REGISTO EMISSÃO INFORMAÇÃO serão os mais afetados perante o cenário de reduções previsto pelo OE 2013. #12;Canal Superior Online

  18. Canal Superior Online Pas: Portugal

    E-print Network

    Instituto de Sistemas e Robotica

    Canal Superior Online País: Portugal Period.: Diária Âmbito: Online Pag.: 1 de 4ID: 40921956 24-03-2012 | Canal Superior Informação Online PROGRAMAS INFORMAÇÃO AGENDA LOGIN/REGISTO INFORMAÇÃO PROGRAMAS DE manifestantes à porta da reitoria. #12;Canal Superior Online País: Portugal Period.: Diária Âmbito: Online Pag

  19. Canal Superior Online Pas: Portugal

    E-print Network

    Instituto de Sistemas e Robotica

    Canal Superior Online País: Portugal Period.: Diária Âmbito: Online Pag.: 1 de 2ID: 44327911 19-10-2012 | Canal Superior Informação Online PROGRAMAS INFORMAÇÃO AGENDA PESQUISA LOGIN/REGISTO EMISSÃO INFORMAÇÃO no topo das preferências da «fuga de cérebros» em Portugal. #12;Canal Superior Online País: Portugal

  20. Canal Superior Online Pas: Portugal

    E-print Network

    Instituto de Sistemas e Robotica

    Canal Superior Online País: Portugal Period.: Diária Âmbito: Online Pag.: 1 de 3ID: 41197251 10-04-2012 | Canal Superior Informação Online PROGRAMAS INFORMAÇÃO AGENDA LOGIN/REGISTO INFORMAÇÃO NOTÍCIAS» do mundo dos rapazes falou com o Canal Superior. COOLTURA 09/04/2012 12:33 INDIELISBOAREGRESSA

  1. Canal Superior Online Pas: Portugal

    E-print Network

    Instituto de Sistemas e Robotica

    Canal Superior Online País: Portugal Period.: Diária Âmbito: Online Pag.: 1 de 3ID: 45533397 07-01-2013 | Canal Superior Informação Online PROGRAMAS INFORMAÇÃO AGENDA PESQUISA LOGIN/REGISTO EMISSÃO INFORMAÇÃO:56 LUÍSREBELO: «AS MANIFESTAÇÕESTÊM TIDO POUCO OU NENHUM RESULTADO» Numa mini-entrevista ao Canal Superior, com

  2. Root Canal Irrigants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthias Zehnder

    2006-01-01

    Local wound debridement in the diseased pulp space is the main step in root canal treatment to prevent the tooth from being a source of infection. In this review article, the specifics of the pulpal microenvironment and the resulting requirements for irrigating solutions are spelled out. Sodium hypochlorite solutions are recommended as the main irrigants. This is because of their

  3. American Experience: Panama Canal

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Panama Canal was quite an undertaking of labor and engineering, and by the time it was completed on August 15th, 1914 the project had been underway (in some form) for well over two decades. Along the way, over 55,000 workers had been involved, 5,000 people had died during the project's duration, and over 350 million dollars had been spent. This riveting documentary looks at the history of this project, and visitors can watch the entire program here. The extra features provided here are real treats, and they can be found on the left-hand side of the page. Here visitors will find an interactive map of the Panama Canal region, along with a timeline, and an interview with the program's producer, Amanda Pollak. Also, the site includes articles on yellow fever, the workers, and the chief engineers of the Canal. Primary resources such as part of the canal record of 1907, suggestions for further reading, and teacher resources round out the site.

  4. Nano-transfersomal ciprofloxacin loaded vesicles for non-invasive trans-tympanic ototopical delivery: in-vitro optimization, ex-vivo permeation studies, and in-vivo assessment.

    PubMed

    Al-Mahallawi, Abdulaziz Mohsen; Khowessah, Omneya Mohammed; Shoukri, Raguia Ali

    2014-09-10

    Ciprofloxacin is a synthetic fluoroquinolone antibiotic that has been used for systemic treatment of otitis media in adults. It was approved for topical treatment of otorrhea in children with tympanostomy tubes. The aim of this work was to enhance the local non-invasive delivery of ciprofloxacin to the middle ear across an intact tympanic membrane (TM) in an attempt to treat acute otitis media (AOM) ototopically. In order to achieve this goal, ciprofloxacin nano-transfersomal vesicles were prepared by thin film hydration (TFH) technique, using several edge activators (EAs) of varying hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) values. A full factorial design was employed for the optimization of formulation variables using Design-Expert(®) software. The optimal formulation was subjected to stability testing, ex-vivo permeation studies (through ear skin and TM of rabbits), and in-vivo evaluation. Results revealed that the optimal formulation (composed of phospholipid and sodium cholate as an EA at a molar ratio of 5:1) exhibited enhanced ex-vivo drug flux through ear skin and TM when compared with the commercial product (Ciprocin(®) drops). It demonstrated a greater extent of in-vivo drug deposition in the TM of albino rabbits relative to Ciprocin(®). Consequently, transfersomes could be promising for the non-invasive trans-tympanic delivery of ciprofloxacin. PMID:24971692

  5. Variation in aspects of the tympanic pneumatic system in a population of Allosaurus fragilis from the Morrison Formation (Upper Jurassic)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel J. Chure; James H. Madsen Jr

    1996-01-01

    Diverticula of the tympanic pneumatic system were present lateral to the basicranium in Allosaurus, as evidenced by depressions on the basicranium and the presence of pneumatic foramina. An examination of an ontogenetic series of basicrania of A. fragilis shows this system to exhibit both ontogenetic and individual variation. Anteriorly, diverticula initially invade the basipterygoid process and withdraw with age (ontogenetic

  6. Distributed control at Love canal

    SciTech Connect

    McPherson, G.; Rider, G.J.; Sadowski, B.; Moore, M.

    1994-09-01

    Love Canal is known worldwide as the site of one of the worst non-nuclear environmental disasters in modern history. For 12 years, a Niagara Falls, New York chemical company used the canal bed as a chemical dump. This article discusses the computerized control of equipment used to remove the toxic materials from the ground under Love Canal, and how the minimization of maintenance is reducing maintenance costs and increasing operator safety.

  7. Wetland Loss: Digging of Canals

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This activity has students build a model canal and perform experiments with it to illustrate the destruction of wetlands, resulting from the digging of canals for oil and gas exploration in the coastal wetlands and cypress logging in the swamps. Older students will examine topographic maps of the area in which they live to identify natural and constructed canals in the wetlands, and find older maps to compare the area of wetlands before and after major canals were built. Students can also research the relationship between channel building, subsidence and salt-water intrusion, and wetland loss in both fresh and salt-water wetlands across the United States.

  8. Hearing Outcomes According to the Types of Mastoidectomy: A Comparison between Canal Wall Up and Canal Wall Down Mastoidectomy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min-Beom; Choi, Jeesun; Lee, Jae Kwon; Park, Ju-Yeon; Chu, Hosuk; Cho, Yang-Sun; Hong, Sung Hwa

    2010-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to compare the hearing outcomes between canal wall up mastoidectmy (CWUM) and canal wall down mastoidectmy (CWDM). Methods One hundred seventy one chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) patients were enrolled in this retrospective study. The patients who underwent the second staged ossiculoplasty at least 6 months after mastoidectomy and who had an intact, well aerated tympanic cavity as well as intact mobile stapes at the time of operation were selected from the medical record. Based on the type of mastoid surgery, the patients were categorized into two groups: the CWUM (n=38) and CWDM groups (n=133). The hearing results of the CWUM and CWDM groups were compared using the pre- and post-operative air-bone gap (ABG) at 3 months after ossiculoplasty. Results The preoperative ABG in both groups (CWUM and CWDM) were 28.4±15.6 dB and 31.8±14.5 dB, respectively (P=0.18). Both groups didn't show any significant difference (10.9 dB vs. 13.5 dB, respectively) (P=0.21) for the postoperative ABG closure. The proportion of patients with an ABG less than 20 dB was 58.6% of the CWDM patients and 68.4% of the CWUM patients (P=0.25). Conclusion The type of mastoid surgery (CWUM and CWDM) did not affect the hearing results of CSOM patients. When choosing the type of mastoidectomy procedure for CSOM surgery, the hearing outcomes are basically the same for both types of procedure. PMID:21217961

  9. 15. ROUTE OF CANAL NORTHWEST OF THE DILLON CEMETERY. CANAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. ROUTE OF CANAL NORTHWEST OF THE DILLON CEMETERY. CANAL PASSES BELOW HILLSIDE IN FOREGROUND, THROUGH THE LOWER EDGE OF THE TREES ON LEFT, ON FAR SIDE OF SMALL VALLEY JUST RIGHT OF CENTER, AND AROUND THE PROMINENT POINT ON THE RIGHT. VIEW IS TO THE EAST-SOUTHEAST. - Snake River Ditch, Headgate on north bank of Snake River, Dillon, Summit County, CO

  10. ASTER Suez Canal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    One of the most important waterways in the world, the Suez Canal runs north to south across the Isthmus of Suez in northeastern Egypt. This image of the canal covers an area 36 kilometers (22 miles) wide and 60 kilometers (47 miles) long in three bands of the reflected visible and infrared wavelength region. It shows the northern part of the canal, with the Mediterranean Sea just visible in the upper right corner. The Suez Canal connects the Mediterranean Sea with the Gulf of Suez, an arm of the Red Sea. The artificial canal provides an important shortcut for ships operating between both European and American ports and ports located in southern Asia, eastern Africa, and Oceania. With a length of about 195 kilometers (121 miles) and a minimum channel width of 60 meters (197 feet), the Suez Canal is able to accommodate ships as large as 150,000 tons fully loaded. Because no locks interrupt traffic on this sea level waterway, the transit time only averages about 15 hours. ASTER acquired this scene on May 19, 2000.

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high-resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface. Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high-resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Examples of applications include monitoring glacial advances and retreats, potentially active volcanoes, thermal pollution, and coral reef degradation; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; evaluating wetlands; mapping surface temperature of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

  11. 13. VIEW OF EXISTING GRAND CANAL COURT PEDESTRIAN BRIDGE OVER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. VIEW OF EXISTING GRAND CANAL COURT PEDESTRIAN BRIDGE OVER CARROLL CANAL, LOOKING WEST TOWARD GRAND CANAL FROM NORTH SIDE OF CARROLL CANAL - Venice Canals, Community of Venice, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  12. 4. STONE BUILDER'S PLATE CANAL GATES, AND DIVERSION SPILLWAYS. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. STONE BUILDER'S PLATE CANAL GATES, AND DIVERSION SPILLWAYS. - Canal Road Bridge, Canal Road spanning Delaware Canal Diversion, Locks 22 & 23 in Delaware Canal State Park in Williams Township, Raubsville, Northampton County, PA

  13. Subscríbase a los canales RSS

    Cancer.gov

    Los canales de RSS (Really Simple Syndication) ofrecen una manera fácil para que usted pueda mantenerse al día con noticias e información del NCI. La información que a usted le interesa se le envía directamente una vez se subscriba. Los canales de RSS

  14. Basic concepts of the bovine teat canal.

    PubMed

    Paulrud, C O

    2005-04-01

    The bovine teat canal is highly specialized in its unique function of preventing both leakage of milk and entry of bacteria and thereby plays a major role in the defence of the udder against mastitis. The teat canal is a longitudinally folded cylinder-shaped body opening, covered with approximately the same type of epithelia as the normal skin and surrounded with a net-like integrated musculoelastic system facilitating its opening and closure. During milking, dead, flattened, enucleated squamae (cellular detritus) are sloughed from the teat canal surface and are continually replaced by inner cells differentiating outwards. The epidermis is characterized by a polarized pattern of epithelial growth and differentiation, with a single layer of proliferating keratinocytes and multiple overlying differentiated layers. Morphologically, the cells transit from the basal layers on the basement membrane of the dermis through stratum corneum before they finally end up as the keratin of the teat canal. The majority of the epidermal protein synthesizing machinery is devoted to making keratin. This is reflected in the fact that keratins are the major structural proteins, constituting up to 85% of a fully differentiated keratinocyte. Epidermal keratin is a 40-70 kDa alpha-helical coiled-coil dimer of the intermediate filament family that, among other marker proteins, characterizes each stage of keratinocyte differentiation. Studies of skin fragility disorders show that the primary role of keratins in epidermal cells is to reinforce them so that they do not lyse upon physical pressure and to provide cells with subtly different properties of resistance and plasticity to equip the epithelial cells for the physical stress of each particular body site. Epithelial cell specialization for function also depends, however, on the lipid composition and organization and on the epidermal architecture. Epidermal architecture depends on epidermal turnover time, which in turn depends on cell number as well as the proliferative condition. Both in vitro and in vivo studies have implicated calcium as a major modulator of epidermal differentiation. Calcium is a factor known to enhance differentiation and promote expression of the differentiation-specific keratin genes. In animals and humans, both topical and systemic retinoids produce acanthosis, hypergranulosis and a relative (but not absolute) decrease in the thickness of the stratum corneum. Despite a high degree of epithelial specialization, we expect a somewhat similar immunological functional importance in the teat canal epithelia as in other stratified squamous keratinized type epithelia. PMID:15736856

  15. 5 CFR 315.601 - Appointment of former employees of the Canal Zone Merit System or Panama Canal Employment System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...the Canal Zone Merit System or Panama Canal Employment System. 315.601...the Canal Zone Merit System or Panama Canal Employment System. (a) Agency...March 31, 1982, or under the Panama Canal Employment System, which...

  16. Biomechanical modeling of semicircular canals for fabricating a biomimetic vestibular system.

    PubMed

    Ciaravella, G; Laschi, C; Dario, P

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a biomechanical model of the semicircular canals of the human vestibular system and the design of a 3D biomimetic structure that mimics the biological system. Starting from anatomical and physiological data, mechanical and structural parameters have been identified and a mathematical model has been formulated, by considering the semicircular organ as a canal filled by a liquid. The mathematical and mechanical models were used to simulate the behavior of the semicircular canals under known conditions of angular velocity and acceleration along three axes. Furthermore, the membrane inside the semicircular canals was simulated to understand what the mechanical properties of the membrane are and if polymeric materials can reproduce the mechanical characteristics of the biological organ. The results obtained from the model allow to design a biomimetic organ, as a part of a biomimetic vestibular system, by following this biomechatronic approach. PMID:17946066

  17. 173. CANAL TENDER OPERATING LOCK MACHINERY ON THE MORRIS CANAL. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    173. CANAL TENDER OPERATING LOCK MACHINERY ON THE MORRIS CANAL. AS THE LOCK TENDER TURNS THE CRANK, A SMALL COGGED WHEEL (PINION) ON THE CRANK TURNS A LARGER COGGED WHEEL, (MAIN GEAR). MAIN GEAR ENGAGES A COGGED BAR CALLED A TRAVELLER WHICH MOVES FORWARD OR BACK DEPENDING ON WHICH WAY THE CRANK IS TURNED. CONNECTED TO THE TRAVELLER ARE TO LONG RODS (GATE ARMS) WHICH IN TURN ARE CONNECTED TO THE GATE'S TOP BEAM (ONE FOR EACH GATE). AS THE TRAVELLER MOVES FORWARD THE GATE ARMS EXTEND PUSHING THE GATES OPEN. - Morris Canal, Phillipsburg, Warren County, NJ

  18. A New Variant of Posterior Canal Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo: A Nonampullary or Common Crus Canalolithiasis

    PubMed Central

    Yetiser, Sertac

    2015-01-01

    Clockwise or counterclockwise, rotational, upbeating nystagmus is seen in patients with posterior canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo during left or right head-hanging test, respectively. Rotating of nystagmus in opposite direction to the ear tested or even reversal of initial positioning rotational nystagmus is not usual and has never been reported before. We propose a new variant of posterior canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo due to unusual behavior and location of the otoliths inside the membranous labyrinth. Unexpected rotational direction may lead to confusion about the site. The examiner should be aware of this abnormal or atypical variant of posterior canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo. PMID:26114003

  19. Method for Constructing Standardized Simulated Root Canals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulz-Bongert, Udo; Weine, Franklin S.

    1990-01-01

    The construction of visual and manipulative aids, clear resin blocks with root-canal-like spaces, for simulation of root canals is explained. Time, materials, and techniques are discussed. The method allows for comparison of canals, creation of any configuration of canals, and easy presentation during instruction. (MSE)

  20. TS219 CODAGE CANAL Benot ESCRIG

    E-print Network

    Benoît, Escrig

    1 TS219 CODAGE CANAL Benoît ESCRIG ENSEIRB-MATMECA/IRIT 29/08/2011 Codage Canal-BE 1 Bibliographie numériques. Introduction, Ed. Masson, 1996. 29/08/2011 Codage Canal-BE 2 Plan du cours 1. Introduction 2. Codes en blocs linéaires 3. Codes convolutifs 4. Combinaisons de codes 29/08/2011 Codage Canal-BE 3 Plan

  1. Peripheral Canal Design and Implementation Options

    E-print Network

    Pasternack, Gregory B.

    Peripheral Canal Design and Implementation Options Technical Appendix G Jay R. Lund July 2008, an alternative often referred to as a peripheral canal. A peripheral canal or some form of other upstream with a peripheral canal, and the long time frame for making and revisiting these decisions. Several important

  2. 38. James River and Kanawha Canal Locks. The canal, which ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. James River and Kanawha Canal Locks. The canal, which operated between 1835 to 1880, serves as the focal point of the area's interpretation. The Battery Creek Lock was reconstructed between 1961 and 1965. Severe flooding in 1985 damaged the lock gates which were reconstructed in 1987-88. The view is to the south. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  3. Tympanic temperature is not suited to indicate selective brain cooling in humans: a re-evaluation of the thermophysiological basics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eckhart Simon

    2007-01-01

    Selective brain cooling in humans, with venous blood returning from the head surface as the relevant heat sink, was proposed\\u000a more than two decades ago as a mechanism protecting the brain against damage in hyperthermic conditions. Brain cooling was\\u000a inferred from decreases of tympanic temperature under the premise that it reflected brain temperature closely, even in conditions\\u000a of external head

  4. Ultrasonic cleaning of root canals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verhaagen, Bram; Boutsioukis, Christos; Jiang, Lei-Meng; Macedo, Ricardo; van der Sluis, Luc; Versluis, Michel

    2011-11-01

    A crucial step during a dental root canal treatment is irrigation, where an antimicrobial fluid is injected into the root canal system to eradicate all bacteria. Agitation of the fluid using an ultrasonically vibrating miniature file has shown significant improvement in cleaning efficacy over conventional syringe irrigation. However, the physical mechanisms underlying the cleaning process, being acoustic streaming, cavitation or chemical activity, and combinations thereof, are not fully understood. High-speed imaging allows us to visualize the flow pattern and cavitation in a root canal model at microscopic scales, at timescales relevant to the cleaning processes (microseconds). MicroPIV measurements of the induced acoustic streaming are coupled to the oscillation characteristics of the file as simulated numerically and measured with a laser vibrometer. The results give new insight into the role of acoustic streaming and the importance of the confinement for the cleaning of root canals.

  5. Limitations of navigation through Nubaria canal, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Samuel, Magdy G

    2014-03-01

    Alexandria port is the main Egyptian port at the Mediterranean Sea. It is connected to the Nile River through Nubaria canal, which is a main irrigation canal. The canal was designed to irrigate eight hundred thousand acres of agricultural lands, along its course which extends 100 km. The canal has three barrages and four locks to control the flow and allow light navigation by some small barges. Recently, it was decided to improve the locks located on the canal. More than 40 million US$ was invested in these projects. This decision was taken to allow larger barges and increase the transported capacity through the canal. On the other hand, navigation through canals and restricted shallow waterways is affected by several parameters related to both the channel and the vessel. Navigation lane width as well as vessel speed and maneuverability are affected by both the channel and vessel dimensions. Moreover, vessel dimensions and speed will affect the canal stability. In Egypt, there are no guide rules for navigation through narrow and shallow canals such Nubaria. This situation threatens the canal stability and safety of navigation through it. This paper discussed the characteristics of Nubaria canal and the guide rules for navigation in shallow restricted water ways. Dimensions limitation for barges navigating through Nubaria canal is presented. New safe operation rules for navigation in Nubaria canal are also presented. Moreover, the implication of navigation through locks on canal discharge is estimated. PMID:25685482

  6. Lock No. 1 St. Lucie Canal. Sector gates, verticals & ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Lock No. 1- St. Lucie Canal. Sector gates, verticals & diagonals-canal side, upper gate. - St. Lucie Canal, St. Lucie Lock No. 1, St. Lucie, Cross State Canal, Okeechobee Intracoastal Waterway, Stuart, Martin County, FL

  7. 32. VIEW OF TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL FROM VICINITY OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. VIEW OF TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL FROM VICINITY OF PROPOSED POWER CANAL, LOOKING UPSTREAM. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  8. 19. VIEW OF PEDESTRIAN BRIDGE OVER GRAND CANAL LOCATED SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. VIEW OF PEDESTRIAN BRIDGE OVER GRAND CANAL LOCATED SOUTH OF SHERMAN CANAL, LOOKING NORTH FROM THE EAST SIDE OF GRAND CANAL - Venice Canals, Community of Venice, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  9. 23. VIEW OF PREEXISTING LINNIE CANAL COURT PEDESTRIAN BRIDGE OVER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. VIEW OF PRE-EXISTING LINNIE CANAL COURT PEDESTRIAN BRIDGE OVER EASTERN CANAL, LOOKING SOUTH FROM THE EAST SIDE OF EASTERN CANAL - Venice Canals, Community of Venice, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  10. 24. VIEW OF EXISTING LINNIE CANAL COURT PEDESTRIAN BRIDGE OVER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. VIEW OF EXISTING LINNIE CANAL COURT PEDESTRIAN BRIDGE OVER EASTERN CANAL, LOOKING NORTH FROM THE EAST SIDE OF EASTERN CANAL - Venice Canals, Community of Venice, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  11. Depolarization canals and interstellar turbulence

    E-print Network

    Andrew Fletcher; Anvar Shukurov

    2006-04-20

    Recent radio polarization observations have revealed a plethora of unexpected features in the polarized Galactic radio background that arise from propagation effects in the random (turbulent) interstellar medium. The canals are especially striking among them, a random network of very dark, narrow regions clearly visible in many directions against a bright polarized Galactic synchrotron background. There are no obvious physical structures in the ISM that may have caused the canals, and so they have been called Faraday ghosts. They evidently carry information about interstellar turbulence but only now is it becoming clear how this information can be extracted. Two theories for the origin of the canals have been proposed; both attribute the canals to Faraday rotation, but one invokes strong gradients in Faraday rotation in the sky plane (specifically, in a foreground Faraday screen) and the other only relies on line-of-sight effects (differential Faraday rotation). In this review we discuss the physical nature of the canals and how they can be used to explore statistical properties of interstellar turbulence. This opens studies of magnetized interstellar turbulence to new methods of analysis, such as contour statistics and related techniques of computational geometry and topology. In particular, we can hope to measure such elusive quantities as the Taylor microscale and the effective magnetic Reynolds number of interstellar MHD turbulence.

  12. 5 CFR 315.601 - Appointment of former employees of the Canal Zone Merit System or Panama Canal Employment System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Canal Zone Merit System or Panama Canal Employment System. 315.601 Section 315...REGULATIONS CAREER AND CAREER-CONDITIONAL EMPLOYMENT Career or Career-Conditional Appointment...Canal Zone Merit System or Panama Canal Employment System. (a) Agency...

  13. Hydroxyapatite canal wall reconstruction\\/mastoid obliteration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SCOTT ALLEN ESTREM; GARY HIGHFILL

    1999-01-01

    The controversy regarding removal of the posterior external canal wall during mastoid surgery spans many decades. There are inherent advantages and disadvantages to either removing or not removing the canal wall. The operation must be tailored to the patient and his or her unique situation. We describe our experience with external canal wall reconstruction and mastoid obliteration with hydroxyapatite in

  14. Root canal sealers induce cytotoxicity and necrosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tsui-Hsien Huang; Shinn-Jyh Ding; Ting-Zen Hsu; Zen-Dar Lee; Chia-Tze Kao

    2004-01-01

    There are three types of the root canal sealers commonly used in clinical applications. They are calcium hydroxide base (Sealapex), zinc oxide–eugenol base (Canals), and epoxy-resin base (AH Plus). Elutable substances and degradation products from root canal sealers may gain access to periodontal tissue in a number of ways. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the biologic

  15. Status Review of Lynn Canal Herring

    E-print Network

    #12;i Status Review of Lynn Canal Herring (Clupea pallasii) Mark G. Carls Chairman, editor the status of Lynn Canal herring and to determine if Lynn Canal herring are a distinct population segment of Pacific herring as defined by the Endangered Species Act. To accomplish this goal, the National Marine

  16. 33 CFR 117.444 - Falgout Canal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Falgout Canal. 117.444 Section 117.444 Navigation...Requirements Louisiana § 117.444 Falgout Canal. The draw of the LA 315 bridge across Falgout Canal, mile 3.1, shall open on...

  17. 33 CFR 117.444 - Falgout Canal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Falgout Canal. 117.444 Section 117.444 Navigation...Requirements Louisiana § 117.444 Falgout Canal. The draw of the LA 315 bridge across Falgout Canal, mile 3.1, shall open on...

  18. 33 CFR 117.1045 - Hood Canal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hood Canal. 117.1045 Section 117.1045 ...Requirements Washington § 117.1045 Hood Canal. The draw of the Washington State...requested. (b) The draw of the Hood Canal Bridge, mile 5.0, need not...

  19. 33 CFR 117.444 - Falgout Canal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Falgout Canal. 117.444 Section 117.444 Navigation...Requirements Louisiana § 117.444 Falgout Canal. The draw of the LA 315 bridge across Falgout Canal, mile 3.1, shall open on...

  20. 33 CFR 117.1045 - Hood Canal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hood Canal. 117.1045 Section 117.1045 ...Requirements Washington § 117.1045 Hood Canal. The draw of the Washington State...requested. (b) The draw of the Hood Canal Bridge, mile 5.0, need not...

  1. 33 CFR 117.444 - Falgout Canal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Falgout Canal. 117.444 Section 117.444 Navigation...Requirements Louisiana § 117.444 Falgout Canal. The draw of the LA 315 bridge across Falgout Canal, mile 3.1, shall open on...

  2. 33 CFR 117.444 - Falgout Canal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Falgout Canal. 117.444 Section 117.444 Navigation...Requirements Louisiana § 117.444 Falgout Canal. The draw of the LA 315 bridge across Falgout Canal, mile 3.1, shall open on...

  3. 33 CFR 117.1045 - Hood Canal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hood Canal. 117.1045 Section 117.1045 ...Requirements Washington § 117.1045 Hood Canal. The draw of the Washington State...requested. (b) The draw of the Hood Canal Bridge, mile 5.0, need not...

  4. The O'Neill grading system for evaluation of the tympanic membrane: A practical approach for clinical hyperbaric patients.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Owen J; Weitzner, Erica D

    2015-01-01

    Eustachian tube dysfunction (ETD) and middle ear barotrauma (MEB) are the two most common complications of clinical hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) treatment. The current grading system, the Teed's Classification, was first described in 1944 with modifications to this system over the years, but none are specific for the evaluation and treatment of patients undergoing clinical HBO2 therapy. Currently, the standard of care is a baseline otoscopic examination performed prior to starting HBO2 therapy. Repeat otoscopy is required for patients having ETD, pain or other symptoms during the compression and/or decompression phase of the treatment. Results from these examinations are used to determine the proper course of treatment for the ETD or MEB. The Teed's classification was not intended to correlate with the consistency of diagnosis, the clinical approach to relieving symptoms or the treatment of the inflicted trauma. It is not a practical tool for the modern hyperbaric team. We describe a newer grading system, the O'Neill Grading System (OGS), which allows simple, practical and consistent classification of ETD and MEB by all members of the clinical hyperbaric medicine team. Based on the O'Neill Grade assigned, evidence supported suggestions for appropriate actions and medical interventions are offered. PMID:26152108

  5. Small Tympanic Membrane Perforations in the Inferior Quadrants Do Not Impact the Manubrium Vibration in Guinea Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiuling; Dai, Yanhong; Zhang, Shuyi; She, Wandong; Du, Xiaoping; Shui, Xiuji

    2012-01-01

    Background It has been believed that location of the perforation has a significant impact on hearing loss. However, recent studies have demonstrated that the perforation sites had no impact on hearing loss. We measured the velocity and pattern of the manubrium vibration in guinea pigs with intact and perforated eardrum using a laser Doppler vibrometer in order to determine the effects of different location perforations on the middle ear transfer functions. Methods Two bullas from 2 guinea pigs were used to determine stability of the umbo velocities, and 12 bullas from six guinea pigs to determine the effects of different location perforations on sound transmission. The manubrium velocity was measured at three points on the manubrium in the frequencies of 0.5–8 kHz before and after a perforation was made. The sites of perforations were in anterior-inferior (AI) quadrants of left ears and posterior-inferior (PI) quadrants of right ears. Results The manubrium vibration velocity losses were noticed in the perforated ears only below 1.5 kHz. The maximum velocity loss was about 7 dB at 500 Hz with the PI perforation. No significant difference in the velocity loss was found between AI and PI perforations. The average ratio of short process velocity to the umbo velocity was approximately 0.5 at all frequencies. No significant differences were found before and after perforation at all frequencies (p>0.05) except 7 kHz (p?=?0.004) for both AI and PI perforations. Conclusions The manubrium vibration velocity losses from eardrum perforation were frequency-dependent and the largest losses occur at low frequencies. Manubrium velocity losses caused by small acute inferior perforations in guinea pigs have no significant impact on middle ear sound transmission at any frequency tested. The manubrium vibration axis may be perpendicular to the manubrium below 8 kHz in guinea pigs. PMID:22238584

  6. Further studies on the ring canal system of the ovarian cystocytes of Drosophila melanogaster

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth A. Koch; Robert C. King

    1969-01-01

    An ultrastructural study was made of the ring canal system which connects the sister ovarian cystocytes that arise in the germaria of wild type Drosophila melanogaster females. It was discovered that during an oogonial mitosis both chromosomes and spindle are enclosed by a multilayered, perforated membrane system derived (at least in part) from the nuclear envelope. The cytokinesis of stem

  7. Tumors of the ear canal.

    PubMed

    Rogers, K S

    1988-07-01

    This discussion will focus on the clinical presentation, diagnostic evaluation, expected biologic behavior, and therapeutic options for tumours of the ear canal in the dog and cat. Particular emphasis will be placed on neoplasia of the ceruminous glands, squamous cell carcinoma, and non-neoplastic mass lesions. PMID:3264960

  8. 75 FR 39632 - Regulated Navigation Area; Gulf Intracoastal Waterway, Inner Harbor Navigation Canal, Harvey...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-12

    ...Intracoastal Waterway, Inner Harbor Navigation Canal, Harvey Canal, Algiers Canal, New Orleans, LA; Correction ACTION: Interim rule...Intracoastal Waterway, Inner Harbor Navigation Canal, Harvey Canal, Algiers Canal, New Orleans, LA into the Code of Federal...

  9. CANAL MORPHOLOGY OF MAXILLARY MOLARS: Clinical Observations of Canal Configurations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John J. Stropko

    An examination of 1732 conventionally treated maxillary molars was made in an attempt to deter-mine the percentage of MB2 canals that could be located routinely. The teeth examined were 1096 first molars, 611 second molars, and 25 third mo-lars. The results were recorded on a modified computer program over an 8-yr period of time. An in-teresting trend was noted. The

  10. Canals in Milky Way radio polarization maps

    E-print Network

    Andrew Fletcher; Anvar Shukurov

    2006-07-03

    Narrow depolarized canals are common in maps of the polarized synchrotron emission of the Milky Way. Two physical effects that can produce these canals have been identified: the presence of Faraday rotation measure ($\\RM$) gradients in a foreground screen and the cumulative cancellation of polarization known as differential Faraday rotation. We show that the behaviour of the Stokes parameters $Q$ and $U$ in the vicinity of a canal can be used to identify its origin. In the case of canals produced by a Faraday screen we demonstrate that, if the polarization angle changes by $90\\degr$ across the canal, as is observed in all fields to-date, the gradients in $\\RM$ must be discontinuous. Shocks are an obvious source of such discontinuities and we derive a relation of the expected mean separation of canals to the abundance and Mach number of supernova driven shocks, and compare this with recent observations by \\citet{Haverkorn03}. We also predict the existence of less common canals with polarization angle changes other than $90\\degr$. Differential Faraday rotation can produce canals in a uniform magneto-ionic medium, but as the emitting layer becomes less uniform the canals will disappear. We show that for moderate differences in emissivity in a two-layer medium, of up to 1/2, and for Faraday depth fluctuations of standard deviation $\\lesssim 1 \\mathrm{rad}$, canals produced by differential rotation will still be visible.

  11. Photodynamic therapy: An adjunct to conventional root canal disinfection strategies.

    PubMed

    Singh, Shipra; Nagpal, Rajni; Manuja, Naveen; Tyagi, Sashi Prabha

    2014-11-17

    Although chemical-based root canal disinfectants are important to reduce microbial loads and remove infected smear layer from root dentin, they have only a limited ability to eliminate biofilm bacteria, especially from root complexities. This paper explores the novel photodynamic therapy (PDT) for antimicrobial disinfection of root canals. The combination of an effective photosensitizer, the appropriate wavelength of light and ambient oxygen is the key factor in PDT. PDT uses a specific wavelength of light to activate a non-toxic dye (photosensitizer), leading to the formation of reactive oxygen species. These reactive oxygen molecules can damage bacterial proteins, membrane lipids and nucleic acids, which promote bacterial cell death. In, addition PDT may enhance cross-linking of collagen fibrils in the dentin matrix and thereby improving dentin stability. The concept of PDT is plausible and could foster new therapy concepts for endodontics. The available knowledge should enable and encourage steps forward into more clinical-oriented research and development. This article discusses PDT as related to root canal disinfection, including its components, mechanism of action, reviews the current endodontic literature and also highlights the shortcomings and advancements in PDT techniques. PMID:25404404

  12. Otitis interna, media, and externa with destruction of the left tympanic bulla and subluxation and septic arthritis of the left temporomandibular joint in an alpaca (Vicugna pacos)

    PubMed Central

    Galvan, Noe; Middleton, John R.; Cook, Cristi; Britt, Lisa G.; Kuroki, Keiichi

    2013-01-01

    A 1.5-year-old, 37.7 kg, female alpaca was evaluated for a 2-week history of weight loss, left ear droop, and deviation of the rostral mandible to the right. Antemortem radiography and postmortem examination revealed otitis interna, media, and externa, destruction of the left tympanic bulla, and subluxation and septic arthritis of the left temporomandibular joint. PMID:23997267

  13. Algae control for hydrogeneration canals

    SciTech Connect

    Grahovac, P.

    1997-02-16

    The purpose of this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) was to assess and develop control practices for nuisance algae growth in power canal that delivers water to hydro-generation facilities. This growth results in expenditures related not only to lost generation but also labor and materials costs associated with implementing remediation procedures. On an industry-wide basis these costs associated with nuisance algal growth are estimated to be several million dollars per year.

  14. An In Vitro Model to Investigate Filling of Lateral Canals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mauro Venturi; Carlo Prati; Lorenzo Breschi

    Aims of this work were to examine lateral canals in extracted teeth, to propose a new technique to produce artificial lateral canals, and to compare two obturation techniques. Cleared roots were examined to record measure and shape of lateral canals. Artificial lateral canals were prepared on human demineralized teeth before final clearing. Specimens were divided in two groups: canals of

  15. 179. Photocopy of Photograph, Twin Falls Canal Company, Bisbee Photo, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    179. Photocopy of Photograph, Twin Falls Canal Company, Bisbee Photo, September, 1912. Photographer unknown. VIEW OF LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY; VIEW OF LOW LINE CANAL IN PETE LINK'S FIELD. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  16. 11. VIEW SHOWING THE HEAD OF THE WESTERN CANAL ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. VIEW SHOWING THE HEAD OF THE WESTERN CANAL ON THE CONSOLIDATED CANAL, LOOKING WEST ACROSS THE CONSOLIDATED CANAL. AT THIS POINT, THE WESTERN CANAL IS A LITTLE LARGER THAN A LATERAL DITCH - Western Canal, South side of Salt River between Tempe, Phoenix & Mesa, Mesa, Maricopa County, AZ

  17. 160. Photocopy of drawing (taken from Twin Falls Canal Company ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    160. Photocopy of drawing (taken from Twin Falls Canal Company Field Book #361 #86, page 1). SCALE DRAWING, CANAL HEADGATES AND CANAL SURVEY, 'A' LINE. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  18. Meningiomas of the Internal Auditory Canal

    PubMed Central

    Magliulo, Giuseppe; Zardo, Francesco; Bertin, Serena; D'Amico, Raffaello; Savastano, Vincenzo

    2002-01-01

    Meningiomas represent 3 to 12% of the tumors that involve the cerebellopontine angle and internal auditory canal (IAC). Intracanalicular meningiomas, however, are rare. Only 10 well-documented cases have been reported in the English literature. The differential diagnosis includes acoustic neuromas, facial nerve neuromas, hemangiomas, lipomas, and meningiomas. We report two new cases of intracanalicular meningioma. Both patients had unilateral tinnitus. In case 1, the patient also experienced sensorineural hearing loss with unilateral tinnitus. In case 1, the lesion appeared hyperintense on T1-weighted and hypointense on T2-weighted magnetic resonance images. In case 2, the patient had an enhancing lesion in the right IAC. The tumors were moderately cellular, and meningeal whorls and meningothelial inclusions were present. Immunohistochemical staining revealed the tumors to be positive for epithelial membrane antigen (EMA) and negative for S-100 protein. The radiologic findings that help distinguish a meningioma from other lesions are reviewed. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5 PMID:17167637

  19. Root canal filling using Resilon: a review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. J. Shanahan; H. F. Duncan

    2011-01-01

    Root canal treatment is achieved by chemo-mechanical debridement of the root canal system followed by filling. The filling material 'entombs' residual bacteria and acts as a barrier which prevents the entrance of oral microorganisms and reinfection of the root canal system through microleakage. However, filling with contemporary root filling materials such as gutta-percha offers limited long-term resistance to microorganisms; as

  20. 5 CFR 315.601 - Appointment of former employees of the Canal Zone Merit System or Panama Canal Employment System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...employees of the Canal Zone Merit System or Panama Canal Employment System. 315.601...employees of the Canal Zone Merit System or Panama Canal Employment System. (a) Agency...before March 31, 1982, or under the Panama Canal Employment System, which...

  1. 5 CFR 315.601 - Appointment of former employees of the Canal Zone Merit System or Panama Canal Employment System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...employees of the Canal Zone Merit System or Panama Canal Employment System. 315.601...employees of the Canal Zone Merit System or Panama Canal Employment System. (a) Agency...before March 31, 1982, or under the Panama Canal Employment System, which...

  2. 5 CFR 315.601 - Appointment of former employees of the Canal Zone Merit System or Panama Canal Employment System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...employees of the Canal Zone Merit System or Panama Canal Employment System. 315.601...employees of the Canal Zone Merit System or Panama Canal Employment System. (a) Agency...before March 31, 1982, or under the Panama Canal Employment System, which...

  3. OBLIQUE VIEW OF SOUTHEAST SIDE OF 2195 SOUTHWEST CANAL STREET, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW OF SOUTHEAST SIDE OF 2195 SOUTHWEST CANAL STREET, VIEW TOWARDS NORTH - St. Lucie Canal, Lock No. 1, Attendant's Quarters, St. Lucie, Cross State Canal, Okeechobee Intracoastal Waterway, Stuart, Martin County, FL

  4. OBLIQUE VIEW OF NORTHWEST SIDE OF 2195 SOUTHWEST CANAL STREET, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW OF NORTHWEST SIDE OF 2195 SOUTHWEST CANAL STREET, VIEW TOWARDS SOUTHEAST - St. Lucie Canal, Lock No. 1, Attendant's Quarters, St. Lucie, Cross State Canal, Okeechobee Intracoastal Waterway, Stuart, Martin County, FL

  5. 5. Division Gates of the Consolidated Canal, looking northeast. The ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Division Gates of the Consolidated Canal, looking northeast. The Tempe Canal heads here (left). Photographer: Mark Durben, February 1989. Source: SRPA - Tempe Canal, South Side Salt River in Tempe, Mesa & Phoenix, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  6. Dundee Canal Industrial Historic District, Beginning at George Street in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Dundee Canal Industrial Historic District, Beginning at George Street in Passaic & extending north along Dundee Canal approximately 1.2 miles to Canal headgates opposite East Clifton Avenue in Clifton, Passaic, Passaic County, NJ

  7. 10. DETAIL, SOUTHEAST SPAN THROUGH CANAL, VIEW BLOCKED BY STEEL, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. DETAIL, SOUTHEAST SPAN THROUGH CANAL, VIEW BLOCKED BY STEEL, CLAD COUNTER WEIGHT, WATER SPAN RAISED OUT OF VIEW - Cape Cod Canal Lift Bridge, Spanning Cape Cod Canal, Buzzards Bay, Barnstable County, MA

  8. 11. 'Y' CONNECTOR TO PICACHO RESERVOIR ON MAIN CANAL. VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. 'Y' CONNECTOR TO PICACHO RESERVOIR ON MAIN CANAL. VIEW LOOKING WEST FROM MAIN CANAL - San Carlos Irrigation Project, Marin Canal, Amhurst-Hayden Dam to Picacho Reservoir, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

  9. 5 CFR 550.714 - Panama Canal Commission employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Panama Canal Commission employees. 550... Severance Pay § 550.714 Panama Canal Commission employees. (a...separated from employment with the Panama Canal Commission as a result of...

  10. 5 CFR 550.714 - Panama Canal Commission employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Panama Canal Commission employees. 550... Severance Pay § 550.714 Panama Canal Commission employees. (a...separated from employment with the Panama Canal Commission as a result of...

  11. Lock No. 1 St. Lucie Canal. Guide & connecting walls, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Lock No. 1- St. Lucie Canal. Guide & connecting walls, connecting walls - St. Lucie Canal, St. Lucie Lock No. 1, St. Lucie, Cross State Canal, Okeechobee Intracoastal Waterway, Stuart, Martin County, FL

  12. 77 FR 3608 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Boudreaux Canal, Chauvin, LA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-25

    ...Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Boudreaux Canal, Chauvin, LA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS...Route 56 swing bridge across Boudreaux Canal, mile 0.1, near Chauvin, Terrebonne...the swing span bridge across Boudreaux Canal, mile 0.1, at Chauvin,...

  13. 3. August, 1971. VIEW ALONG CANAL SHOWING BORDER PATH AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. August, 1971. VIEW ALONG CANAL SHOWING BORDER PATH AND BRIDGE FOR INSPECTION - ABOUT ONE MILE FROM CANAL HEAD. - Hurricane Irrigation Canal, State Route 15 Vicinity, Hurricane, Washington County, UT

  14. 63. PLANS FOR PROPOSED HISTORICAL CANAL SECTION AND PUBLIC BOAT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    63. PLANS FOR PROPOSED HISTORICAL CANAL SECTION AND PUBLIC BOAT LAUNCH RAMP Plan Sheet D-29976, Venice Canals Rehabilitation, Sheet 25 of 26 (delineated by Manuel Bartolome, November 1991) - Venice Canals, Community of Venice, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  15. A Comparative Study of Three Different Root Canal Curvature Measurement Techniques and Measuring the Canal Access Angle in Curved Canals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mahir Günday; Hesna Sazak; Yýldýz Garip

    2005-01-01

    In the first part of this study the Schneider (S), Weine (W), and Long-Axis (LA) techniques are used for comparing the measurement of canal curvature. One hundred mandibular first and second molar teeth were selected. Radiographs were taken after inserting size 10 K-files into the mesiobuccal root canals. The radiographic findings were digitized on a computer, and the three different

  16. Modeling the eardrum as a string with distributed force.

    PubMed

    Goll, Erich; Dalhoff, Ernst

    2011-09-01

    In this paper, an analytical model of the tympanic membrane is introduced where the two-dimensional tympanic membrane is reduced to a one-dimensional string. It is intended to bridge the gap between lumped-element models and finite-element models. In contrast to known lumped-element models, the model takes the distributed effect of the sound field on the tympanic membrane into account. Compared to finite-element models, it retains the advantage of a low number of parameters. The model is adjusted to forward and reverse transfer functions of the guinea-pig middle ear. Although the fitting to experimental data is not perfect, important conclusions can be drawn. For instance, the model shows that the delay of surface waves on the tympanic membrane can be different from the signal transmission delay of the tympanic membrane. In a similar vein, the standing wave ratio on the tympanic membrane and within the ear canal can considerably differ. Further, the model shows that even in a low-loss tympanic membrane the effective area, which commonly is associated with the transformer ratio in a lumped-element and some hybrid circuit models, not only is frequency-dependent, but also different for forward and reverse transduction. PMID:21895086

  17. Canal transportation after root canal instrumentation: a comparative study with computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Mateus Silveira Martins; Barletta, Fernando Branco; Camargo Fontanella, Vânia Regina; Vanni, José Roberto

    2007-08-01

    This in vitro study used computed tomography (CT) to compare the occurrence of canal transportation in the apical third of mesiobuccal canals in maxillary molars instrumented with 3 techniques. Sixty teeth were assigned to 3 groups (n = 20), and the root canals were instrumented as follows: Group 1, hand instrumentation with K-files; Group 2, K-files coupled to an oscillatory system powered by an electric engine; Group 3, ProTaper NiTi rotary system powered by an electric engine. To compare the canal transportation produced by the different techniques, preinstrumentation and postinstrumentation 3-dimensional CT images were obtained from root cross-sections of the region located 3 mm short of the apical foramen of each root canal. The CT scans were exported to Adobe Photoshop software, and the initial and final images were superimposed to detect the root canal wall differences between them. Canal transportation was measured by the distance between the prepared canal center and the anatomic canal center. The manual technique produced lesser canal transportation (0.10 mm) than the oscillatory and rotary techniques (0.37 and 0.22 mm, respectively); this difference was statistically significant (P=.021). All studied techniques produced canal transportation. PMID:17878083

  18. CANAL AUTOMATION SYSTEM DEMONSTRATION AT MSIDD

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new canal automation system, known as SACMAN (Software for Automating Canal MANagement), has been developed at the U.S. Water Conservation Laboratory in cooperation with Automata, Inc. through a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement. SACMAN works with a commercial Supervisory Control And ...

  19. The development of the Suez Canal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. D. Griffiths

    1977-01-01

    This paper provides general background information relating to the physical characteristics and operations of the Suez Canal. In connection with the future development of the Canal, the research programme currently being undertaken by a British consortium is outlined, with particular reference to the traffic system presently operating.

  20. 33 CFR 117.438 - Company Canal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Company Canal. 117.438 Section 117.438 Navigation and Navigable... Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.438 Company Canal. (a) The draw of the LA1 bridge, mile 0.4...

  1. 33 CFR 117.438 - Company Canal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Company Canal. 117.438 Section 117.438 Navigation and Navigable... Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.438 Company Canal. (a) The draw of the LA1 bridge, mile 0.4...

  2. 33 CFR 117.445 - Franklin Canal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Franklin Canal. 117.445 Section 117.445 Navigation and Navigable... Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.445 Franklin Canal. The draw of the Chatsworth Bridge, mile 4.8...

  3. 33 CFR 117.453 - Houma Canal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Houma Canal. 117.453 Section 117.453 Navigation and Navigable...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.453 Houma Canal. The draw of the S3197 bridge, mile 1.7 at Houma,...

  4. 33 CFR 117.787 - Gowanus Canal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Gowanus Canal. 117.787 Section 117.787 Navigation and Navigable...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New York § 117.787 Gowanus Canal. The draws of the Ninth Street Bridge, mile...

  5. 33 CFR 117.787 - Gowanus Canal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Gowanus Canal. 117.787 Section 117.787 Navigation and Navigable...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New York § 117.787 Gowanus Canal. The draws of the Ninth Street Bridge, mile...

  6. 33 CFR 117.285 - Grand Canal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Grand Canal. 117.285 Section 117.285 Navigation and Navigable...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.285 Grand Canal. (a) The draw of the Lansing Island bridge,...

  7. 33 CFR 117.438 - Company Canal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Company Canal. 117.438 Section 117.438 Navigation and Navigable... Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.438 Company Canal. (a) The draw of the LA1 bridge, mile 0.4...

  8. 33 CFR 117.285 - Grand Canal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Grand Canal. 117.285 Section 117.285 Navigation and Navigable...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.285 Grand Canal. (a) The draw of the Lansing Island bridge,...

  9. Technology, the Potomac Canal, and National Unity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Clair W.

    1989-01-01

    Illustrates the relationship between the technology of canal building and the development of national unity prior to the Revolutionary War. Examines George Washington's efforts to build the Potomac canal. Encourages students to consider the interrelationships among technology, resources, politics, and leadership. Includes two student handouts and…

  10. 33 CFR 117.285 - Grand Canal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Grand Canal. 117.285 Section 117.285 Navigation and Navigable...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.285 Grand Canal. (a) The draw of the Lansing Island bridge,...

  11. 33 CFR 117.787 - Gowanus Canal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Gowanus Canal. 117.787 Section 117.787 Navigation and Navigable...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New York § 117.787 Gowanus Canal. The draws of the Ninth Street Bridge, mile...

  12. 33 CFR 117.445 - Franklin Canal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Franklin Canal. 117.445 Section 117.445 Navigation and Navigable... Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.445 Franklin Canal. The draw of the Chatsworth Bridge, mile 4.8...

  13. 33 CFR 117.445 - Franklin Canal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Franklin Canal. 117.445 Section 117.445 Navigation and Navigable... Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.445 Franklin Canal. The draw of the Chatsworth Bridge, mile 4.8...

  14. 33 CFR 117.453 - Houma Canal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Houma Canal. 117.453 Section 117.453 Navigation and Navigable...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.453 Houma Canal. The draw of the S3197 bridge, mile 1.7 at Houma,...

  15. 33 CFR 117.453 - Houma Canal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Houma Canal. 117.453 Section 117.453 Navigation and Navigable...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.453 Houma Canal. The draw of the S3197 bridge, mile 1.7 at Houma,...

  16. 33 CFR 117.438 - Company Canal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Company Canal. 117.438 Section 117.438 Navigation and Navigable... Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.438 Company Canal. (a) The draw of the S1 bridge, mile 0.4...

  17. 33 CFR 117.787 - Gowanus Canal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Gowanus Canal. 117.787 Section 117.787 Navigation and Navigable...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New York § 117.787 Gowanus Canal. The draws of the Ninth Street Bridge, mile...

  18. 33 CFR 117.453 - Houma Canal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Houma Canal. 117.453 Section 117.453 Navigation and Navigable...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.453 Houma Canal. The draw of the S3197 bridge, mile 1.7 at Houma,...

  19. 33 CFR 117.285 - Grand Canal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grand Canal. 117.285 Section 117.285 Navigation and Navigable...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.285 Grand Canal. (a) The draw of the Lansing Island bridge,...

  20. 33 CFR 117.445 - Franklin Canal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Franklin Canal. 117.445 Section 117.445 Navigation and Navigable... Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.445 Franklin Canal. The draw of the Chatsworth Bridge, mile 4.8...

  1. 33 CFR 117.285 - Grand Canal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Grand Canal. 117.285 Section 117.285 Navigation and Navigable...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.285 Grand Canal. (a) The draw of the Lansing Island bridge,...

  2. 33 CFR 117.438 - Company Canal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Company Canal. 117.438 Section 117.438 Navigation and Navigable... Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.438 Company Canal. (a) The draw of the LA1 bridge, mile 0.4...

  3. 33 CFR 117.453 - Houma Canal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Houma Canal. 117.453 Section 117.453 Navigation and Navigable...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.453 Houma Canal. The draw of the S3197 bridge, mile 1.7 at Houma,...

  4. 33 CFR 117.445 - Franklin Canal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Franklin Canal. 117.445 Section 117.445 Navigation and Navigable... Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.445 Franklin Canal. The draw of the Chatsworth Bridge, mile 4.8...

  5. Rapid Identification and Enumeration of Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria in Urban Canals by Microcolony-Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takehiko Kenzaka; Nobuyasu Yamaguchi; Fuangfa Utrarachkij; Orasa Suthienkul; Masao Nasu

    2006-01-01

    The abundance and phylogenetic composition of antibiotic resistant bacteria in canals of metropolitan Bangkok, Thailand, were investigated using a microcolony method and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Cells were directly trapped from aquatic samples onto polycarbonate membranes and incubated for 24 hr on selective agar containing antibiotics. Individual antibiotic resistant bacterial microcolonies samples were classified on the filter using FISH

  6. How to bond to root canal dentin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nica, Luminita; Todea, Carmen; Furtos, Gabriel; Baldea, Bogdan

    2014-01-01

    Bonding to root canal dentin may be difficult due to various factors: the structural characteristic of the root canal dentin, which is different from that of the coronal dentin; the presence of the organic tissue of the dental pulp inside the root canal, which has to be removed during the cleaning-shaping of the root canal system; the smear-layer resulted after mechanical instrumentation, which may interfere with the adhesion of the filling materials; the type of the irrigants used in the cleaning protocol; the type of the sealer and core material used in the obturation of the endodontic space; the type of the materials used for the restoration of the endodontically treated teeth. The influence of the cleaning protocol, of the root canal filling material, of the type of the adhesive system used in the restoration of the treated teeth and of the region of the root canal, on the adhesion of several filling and restorative materials to root canal dentin was evaluated in the push-out bond strength test on 1-mm thick slices of endodontically treated human teeth. The results showed that all these factors have a statistically significant influence on the push-out bond strength. Formation of resin tags between radicular dentin and the investigated materials was observed in some of the samples at SEM analysis.

  7. 6. VIEW SHOWING WOODEN FLUMES ACROSS MARICOPA CANAL. SUCH FLUMES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW SHOWING WOODEN FLUMES ACROSS MARICOPA CANAL. SUCH FLUMES WERE USED TO CARRY WATER FROM ONE CANAL TO ANOTHER, BEFORE THE CANAL COMPANIES WERE BOUGHT BY THE GOVERNMENT, AND THE SYSTEM UNIFIED. Photographer unknown, no date - Grand Canal, North side of Salt River, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  8. SEDIMENTATION OF THE PANAMA CANAL RESERVOIR: COSMOGENIC NUCLIDE

    E-print Network

    Nichols, Kyle K.

    SEDIMENTATION OF THE PANAMA CANAL RESERVOIR: COSMOGENIC NUCLIDE ESTIMATES OF BACKGROUND SEDIMENT, Livermore, CA 94550 The Panama Canal is an engineering marvel. Vital to the operation of the canal, the reservoir to the Panama Canal. In addition to water, the headwater basins supply sediment that reduces

  9. 88. CEDAR DRAW SPILL, HIGH LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    88. CEDAR DRAW SPILL, HIGH LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF FILER, IDAHO; WEST VIEW OF CANAL AND GATES. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  10. 91. CEDAR DRAW SPILL, HIGH LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    91. CEDAR DRAW SPILL, HIGH LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF FILER, IDAHO; NORTHEAST VIEW OF CANAL AND GATES. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  11. 89. CEDAR DRAW SPILL, HIGH LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    89. CEDAR DRAW SPILL, HIGH LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF FILER, IDAHO; OUTLET SIDE OF CANAL, SOUTHWEST VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  12. 94. CEDAR DRAW SPILL, LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    94. CEDAR DRAW SPILL, LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY SOUTH OF FILER, IDAHO; CLOSE-UP OF GATES FROM THE CANAL SIDE. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  13. 158. Photocopy of transit book (taken from Twin Falls Canal ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    158. Photocopy of transit book (taken from Twin Falls Canal Company Transit Book #404T, Page 3, #46, Division One). START OF MAIN CANAL SURVEY, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  14. 189. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    189. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. ROCK CREEK CROSSING, LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY, IDAHO; BLUEPRINT. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  15. 131. FORKS DIVERSION, HIGH LINE AND LOW LINE CANALS, TWIN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    131. FORKS DIVERSION, HIGH LINE AND LOW LINE CANALS, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF HANSEN, IDAHO; INLET SIDE OF LOW LINE CANAL, WEST VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  16. 149. TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL DIVERSION, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    149. TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL DIVERSION, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER DAM; CLOSE-UP OF MAIN CANAL GATES, SOUTH VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  17. 28. VIEW FROM IMMEDIATELY DOWNSTREAM OF TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. VIEW FROM IMMEDIATELY DOWNSTREAM OF TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL HEADWORKS WITH CANAL BRIDGE IN DISTANCE. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  18. 123. MCMULLEN CREEK, HIGH LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    123. MCMULLEN CREEK, HIGH LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY, IDAHO; SOUTH VIEW OF THE CREEK EMPTYING INTO THE HIGH LINE CANAL. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  19. 150. Photocopy of drawing (taken from Twin Falls Canal Company ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    150. Photocopy of drawing (taken from Twin Falls Canal Company Surveyor's Book #363, Page 42, entitled, 'Diversion Tunnels', located in Twin Falls Canal Company office, Twin Falls, Idaho). PLAN OF DIVERSION TUNNELS, MILNER DAM. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  20. 136. FORKS DIVERSION, HIGH LINE AND LOW LINE CANALS, TWIN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    136. FORKS DIVERSION, HIGH LINE AND LOW LINE CANALS, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF HANSEN, IDAHO; HIGH LINE GATES FROM THE CANAL SIDE. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  1. 180. Photocopy of Photograph, Twin Falls Canal Company. E. Pettygro, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    180. Photocopy of Photograph, Twin Falls Canal Company. E. Pettygro, Photographer, date unknown. BLASTING TWIN FALLS CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY; BLASTING COTTONWOOD AREA TO REPLACE FLUME BY RUNNING HIGH LINE THROUGH SOLID ROCK. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  2. 97. POINT SPILL, TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    97. POINT SPILL, TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY NORTHWEST OF MURTAUGH, IDAHO; OVERALL WEST VIEW FROM CANAL SIDE. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  3. 2. View looking northeast; Dundee Canal headgates and guardlock in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. View looking northeast; Dundee Canal headgates and guardlock in foreground, Dundee Dam and Passaic River in background - Dundee Canal Industrial Historic District, Beginning at George Street in Passaic & extending north along Dundee Canal approximately 1.2 miles to Canal headgates opposite East Clifton Avenue in Clifton, Passaic, Passaic County, NJ

  4. 177. Photocopy of Photograph, Twin Falls Canal Company, Bisbee Photo, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    177. Photocopy of Photograph, Twin Falls Canal Company, Bisbee Photo, September, 1912. Photographer unknown. COTTONWOOD FLUME, HIGH LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY, IDAHO; SOUTH VIEW FROM UPPER SIDE. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  5. 103. CANAL AT THE ENTRANCE TO THE POMPTON FEEDER NEAR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    103. CANAL AT THE ENTRANCE TO THE POMPTON FEEDER NEAR MOUNTAIN VIEW, NEW JERSEY. THE POMPTON FEEDER BOATS TO TRAVEL NORTH 4.26 MILES TO TO POMPTON AS WELL AS PROVIDING THE MAIN CANAL WITH WATER FROM GREENWOOD LAKE. A MODIFIED QUEEN POST TRUSS BRIDGE SPANS THE CANAL IN THE FOREGROUND. - Morris Canal, Phillipsburg, Warren County, NJ

  6. Looking west at lift bridge, canal, and tow path, with ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking west at lift bridge, canal, and tow path, with U.S. Rt. 11 bridge in background. Remnant of spur track to R. Paul Smith Power Station is at left, and abandoned Western Maryland Railway right of way parallels canal at right. - Potomac Edison Company, Chesapeake & Ohio Canal Bridge, Spanning C & O Canal South of U.S. 11, Williamsport, Washington County, MD

  7. Analytic and Algebraic Properties of Canal Zhiqiang Xu a 1

    E-print Network

    Xu, Zhiqiang

    Analytic and Algebraic Properties of Canal Surfaces Zhiqiang Xu a 1 Renzhong Feng b Jia-guang Sun c m(t) is a canal surface with m(t) as the spine curve and r(t) as the radii function. This concept the principle geometric features of canal surfaces. In particular, a sufficient condition of canal surfaces

  8. Canal de Propagation 3me anne Tlcom-Rseaux

    E-print Network

    Dobigeon, Nicolas

    1 Canal de Propagation 3ème année Télécom-Réseaux 2007-2008 Martial COULON #12;2 #12;3 Chap. I VHF/UHF Pico-Cellules : qques m, haut débit. #12;5 I.2. Définition du Canal Radio Mobile · Canal de ( entre 100km et 1mm) Canal montant (Reverse Channel ou Uplink Channel) Mobiles vers BS Transmissions

  9. Coexistence de Protocoles `a Retransmissions Incrementales pour un Canal Cognitif

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Coexistence de Protocoles `a Retransmissions Incr´ementales pour un Canal Cognitif Romain TAJAN secondaire impl´ementant tous deux des syst`emes `a Retransmissions Incr´ementales (IR) sur un canal cognitif and expected throughput for both primary and secondary. 1 Introduction Le canal cognitif [2] est un canal dans

  10. 44. CROSS SECTION OF GRAND CANAL (not to scale, but ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. CROSS SECTION OF GRAND CANAL (not to scale, but representative of all six canals) Plan Sheet D-29976, Venice Canals Rehabilitation, Sheet No. 7 of 26 (delineated by T. Wu and E. Lee, March 1991) - Venice Canals, Community of Venice, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  11. On the mechanics of growing thin biological membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rausch, Manuel K.; Kuhl, Ellen

    2014-02-01

    Despite their seemingly delicate appearance, thin biological membranes fulfill various crucial roles in the human body and can sustain substantial mechanical loads. Unlike engineering structures, biological membranes are able to grow and adapt to changes in their mechanical environment. Finite element modeling of biological growth holds the potential to better understand the interplay of membrane form and function and to reliably predict the effects of disease or medical intervention. However, standard continuum elements typically fail to represent thin biological membranes efficiently, accurately, and robustly. Moreover, continuum models are typically cumbersome to generate from surface-based medical imaging data. Here we propose a computational model for finite membrane growth using a classical midsurface representation compatible with standard shell elements. By assuming elastic incompressibility and membrane-only growth, the model a priori satisfies the zero-normal stress condition. To demonstrate its modular nature, we implement the membrane growth model into the general-purpose non-linear finite element package Abaqus/Standard using the concept of user subroutines. To probe efficiently and robustness, we simulate selected benchmark examples of growing biological membranes under different loading conditions. To demonstrate the clinical potential, we simulate the functional adaptation of a heart valve leaflet in ischemic cardiomyopathy. We believe that our novel approach will be widely applicable to simulate the adaptive chronic growth of thin biological structures including skin membranes, mucous membranes, fetal membranes, tympanic membranes, corneoscleral membranes, and heart valve membranes. Ultimately, our model can be used to identify diseased states, predict disease evolution, and guide the design of interventional or pharmaceutic therapies to arrest or revert disease progression.

  12. On the mechanics of growing thin biological membranes

    PubMed Central

    Rausch, Manuel K.; Kuhl, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Despite their seemingly delicate appearance, thin biological membranes fulfill various crucial roles in the human body and can sustain substantial mechanical loads. Unlike engineering structures, biological membranes are able to grow and adapt to changes in their mechanical environment. Finite element modeling of biological growth holds the potential to better understand the interplay of membrane form and function and to reliably predict the effects of disease or medical intervention. However, standard continuum elements typically fail to represent thin biological membranes efficiently, accurately, and robustly. Moreover, continuum models are typically cumbersome to generate from surface-based medical imaging data. Here we propose a computational model for finite membrane growth using a classical midsurface representation compatible with standard shell elements. By assuming elastic incompressibility and membrane-only growth, the model a priori satisfies the zero-normal stress condition. To demonstrate its modular nature, we implement the membrane growth model into the general-purpose non-linear finite element package Abaqus/Standard using the concept of user subroutines. To probe efficiently and robustness, we simulate selected benchmark examples of growing biological membranes under different loading conditions. To demonstrate the clinical potential, we simulate the functional adaptation of a heart valve leaflet in ischemic cardiomyopathy. We believe that our novel approach will be widely applicable to simulate the adaptive chronic growth of thin biological structures including skin membranes, mucous membranes, fetal membranes, tympanic membranes, corneoscleral membranes, and heart valve membranes. Ultimately, our model can be used to identify diseased states, predict disease evolution, and guide the design of interventional or pharmaceutic therapies to arrest or revert disease progression. PMID:24563551

  13. [Bilateral external auditory canal cholesteatoma - a case report].

    PubMed

    Roszkowska, Anna; Morawska-Kochman, Monika; Kubacka, Marzena; Dorobisz, Karolina; Kr?cicki, Tomasz

    2015-06-22

    The external auditory canal cholesteatoma is a rare and difficult to diagnose disease. Symptoms are similar to the external ear canal inflammation and can be masked by retained cerumen. In the article we described a case of 22 year old, mentally impairment women with bilateral otorrhea, in the past treated for external ear canal inflammation. The otoscopic examination showed bilateral congenital auditory canal stenosis, with masses obstructing ear canals. Imaging and histopathologic studies revealed bilateral external ear canal cholesteatoma. The patient was qualified for surgery, which, together with a guardian, did not consent. Presented case indicates the necessity for widening the diagnostic of recurrent external ear canal inflammation. PMID:26098654

  14. 7. View north at back (canal side) of culvert inlet, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. View north at back (canal side) of culvert inlet, with canal bank completely removed. Background to foreground: back of inlet headwall with tops of high inlet barrels exposed; vertical transition wall between high inlet barrels and low, interior, inlet barrels; tops of low interior barrels; vertical heartening planks and low cutoff wall at site of former canal edge of canal bank; dewatered canal bed and plank sheathing on top of culvert barrels beneath canal bed. - Delaware & Raritan Canal, Ten Mile Run Culvert, 1.5 miles South of Blackwells Road, East Millstone, Somerset County, NJ

  15. 8. VIEW SHOWING THE DEMOSSING OF GRAND CANAL LOCATION UNKNOWN. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW SHOWING THE DEMOSSING OF GRAND CANAL LOCATION UNKNOWN. AT TEAM OF HORSES ON OPPOSITE BANKS OF THE CANAL DRAG A CHAIN BETWEEN THEM ALONG THE BOTTOM OF THE CANAL, WHICH PULLS THE MOSS AND WEEDS LOOSE. THE PLANS THEN FLOAT DOWN THE CANAL AND ARE CAUGHT IN A SCREEN AND REMOVED. Photographer unknown, 1923 - Grand Canal, North side of Salt River, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  16. Validity of infrared tympanic temperature for the evaluation of heat strain while wearing impermeable protective clothing in hot environments.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joo-Young; Nakao, Kouhei; Takahashi, Naoki; Son, Su-Young; Bakri, Ilham; Tochihara, Yutaka

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the validity of infrared tympanic temperature (IR T(ty)) as a thermal index to evaluate the heat strain of workers in hot environments, in comparison with rectal temperatures at various depths (T(re-4, -8, and -16) for 4, 8 and 16 cm from the anal sphincter). Eight males underwent twelve experimental conditions: two activities (rest and exercise) × three clothing levels [Control, HDPE (high-density polyethylene coverall) and PVC (polyvinyl chloride coverall) condition] × two air temperatures (25 and 32? with 50%RH). The results showed that 1) in the conditions with most heat strain (HDPE or PVC condition at 32?), IR T(ty) was equal to or even higher than T(re); 2) during exercise, physiological strain index (PSI) using IR T(ty) did not underestimate PSI-values using T(re-16), and overestimated those PSI-values from T(re-16) in HDPE and PVC conditions at 32?; 3) during exercise, the relationships between IR T(ty) and heart and total sweat rate were stronger than those between T(re-16) and heart and total sweat rate. These results indicated that IR T(ty) is valid as a thermal index to evaluate the heat strain of workers wearing impermeable protective coveralls in hot environments. However, the application of IR T(ty) is limited only for strenuous works wearing encapsulated personal protective clothing with a hood in heat. PMID:22020015

  17. Mechanics of the Panama Canal slides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Becker, George F.

    1917-01-01

    Dr. Becker visited the Canal Zone in 1913 as a geologist of the United States Geological Survey and since that time has given the problem the benefit of his study. His appointment as a member of the committee of the National Academy of Sciences has made it appropriate for his conclusions, based upon his personal observations and already reported in part to the Canal Commission, to be stated for the benefit of his associates and other American scientists and engineers.

  18. Endodontic management of middle mesial canal of the mandibular molar.

    PubMed

    Sundaresh, K J; Srinivasan, Raghu; Mallikarjuna, Rachappa; Rajalbandi, Sandeep

    2013-01-01

    Thorough knowledge of root canal morphology and unusual anatomy of the tooth is critical for successful endodontic treatment. Although the most common configuration is two roots and three root canals, mandibular molars might have many different combinations. In the literature, it is less described about three mesial canals and two distal canals in mandibular second molars, indicating a rare anatomical configuration. A case of unusual root canal morphology is presented to demonstrate anatomical variations in mandibular molars. Endodontic therapy was performed in a mandibular second molar with five separate canals, three mesial and two distal. This report points out the importance of looking for additional canals and unusual canal morphology, because knowledge of their existence might occasionally enable clinicians to treat a case successfully that otherwise might have ended in failure. In conclusion, every attempt should be made to find and treat all root canals of a tooth. PMID:23349182

  19. Endodontic management of middle mesial canal of the mandibular molar

    PubMed Central

    Sundaresh, K J; Srinivasan, Raghu; Mallikarjuna, Rachappa; Rajalbandi, Sandeep

    2013-01-01

    Thorough knowledge of root canal morphology and unusual anatomy of the tooth is critical for successful endodontic treatment. Although the most common configuration is two roots and three root canals, mandibular molars might have many different combinations. In the literature, it is less described about three mesial canals and two distal canals in mandibular second molars, indicating a rare anatomical configuration. A case of unusual root canal morphology is presented to demonstrate anatomical variations in mandibular molars. Endodontic therapy was performed in a mandibular second molar with five separate canals, three mesial and two distal. This report points out the importance of looking for additional canals and unusual canal morphology, because knowledge of their existence might occasionally enable clinicians to treat a case successfully that otherwise might have ended in failure. In conclusion, every attempt should be made to find and treat all root canals of a tooth. PMID:23349182

  20. Teaching canal hydraulics and control using a computer game or a scale model canal

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Teaching canal hydraulics and control using a computer game or a scale model canal Pierre-olivier.malaterre@cemagref.fr David C. ROGERS Address: Rogers Engineering Hydraulics, Inc. 2650 Tabor St, Lakewood CO 80215, USA Email by improving the hydraulic efficiency of irrigation schemes. Technical concepts involved in these modernization

  1. Canal length evaluation of curved canals by direct digital or conventional radiography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ali Mentes; Nimet Gencoglu

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare the accuracy of a digital radiograph imaging system (DDR) with conventional radiography for the purpose of estimating endodontic file lengths in curved canals of mandibular molars. Study Design: Sixty extracted human mandibular molars with root curvatures ranging from 5° to 52° were mounted in plastic blocks. Canal length was estimated by

  2. 46 CFR 69.7 - Vessels transiting the Panama and Suez Canals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...All vessels intending to transit the Suez Canal must be measured and certificated under the Arab Republic of Egypt Suez Canal Authority Rules of Navigation, part IV. (c) Panama Canal and Suez Canal tonnage certificates are in...

  3. 46 CFR 69.7 - Vessels transiting the Panama and Suez Canals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...All vessels intending to transit the Suez Canal must be measured and certificated under the Arab Republic of Egypt Suez Canal Authority Rules of Navigation, part IV. (c) Panama Canal and Suez Canal tonnage certificates are in...

  4. 46 CFR 69.7 - Vessels transiting the Panama and Suez Canals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...All vessels intending to transit the Suez Canal must be measured and certificated under the Arab Republic of Egypt Suez Canal Authority Rules of Navigation, part IV. (c) Panama Canal and Suez Canal tonnage certificates are in...

  5. 46 CFR 69.7 - Vessels transiting the Panama and Suez Canals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...All vessels intending to transit the Suez Canal must be measured and certificated under the Arab Republic of Egypt Suez Canal Authority Rules of Navigation, part IV. (c) Panama Canal and Suez Canal tonnage certificates are in...

  6. 46 CFR 69.7 - Vessels transiting the Panama and Suez Canals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...All vessels intending to transit the Suez Canal must be measured and certificated under the Arab Republic of Egypt Suez Canal Authority Rules of Navigation, part IV. (c) Panama Canal and Suez Canal tonnage certificates are in...

  7. Prenatal morphogenesis of the human incisive canal.

    PubMed

    Radlanski, R J; Emmerich, S; Renz, H

    2004-07-01

    The literature describing the formation of the incisive canal is very bizarre. The fusion of the primary and secondary palatal processes leads to formation of a triangular seam, which erroneously has been taken for the future incisive canal. If so, the nasopalatine (incisive) nerve and its accompanying vessels were to run through the primary oronasal cavity, which is not compatible with our biological experience. This study was undertaken to shed light on this region of fusion. We focus on the formation of the incisive canal; the neighboring nasopalatine ducts, which are a transient formation, are mentioned where present. A series of seven horizontal cross-sections of human embryos and fetuses from the 7th to the 24th week of pregnancy (between 25 and 225 mm CRL, crown-rump-length) were examined histologically and partly reconstructed in 3D applying the software analySIS (Soft Imaging Systems, Münster, Germany). The incisive canal did not develop at the junction of the primary and the secondary palate, but within the primary palate rostral to that location. The nasopalatine nerve and the nasopalatine artery are structures that exist before ossification starts in the area of the future incisive canal. The neighboring nasopalatine ducts were found in regions laterally and anterolaterally of the nasopalatine nerve, and it was mostly separated from it by bone. In advanced stages of development, the nasopalatine duct only existed as single epithelial remnants and was prone to obliteration. PMID:15293047

  8. Malignant Melanoma of the External Auditory Canal

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Prasanna; Ravikumar, A; Joseph, Leena Dennis; Rajendiran, Swaminathan

    2014-01-01

    Primary malignant melanoma of the external auditory canal is rarely reported. Malignant melanoma of the ear is estimated to occur in 1-4% of all skin melanomas and about 7-20% of melanomas of the head and neck region. The pathophysiology of these tumours is different from other skin lesions because of their anatomical and functional characteristics. The case presented is of a 11 year old female child with malignant melanoma of the external auditory canal confined to the right side, who initially presented with right ear pain, bleeding, post auricular swelling and also a mass in the external auditory canal which was thought to be an aural polyp in the right ear. Excision of the tumour was accomplished by a radical mastoidectomy. It was confirmed to be malignant melanoma after histopathological examination and Immunohistochemistry. Despite all efforts, the patient succumbed to the disease after receiving three cycles of chemotherapy. Even though this malignancy is rarely found in the external auditory canal, it should be expanded into the differential diagnosis of an aural polyp and a post aural abscess. The incidence, symptoms, investigations, treatment and prognosis of malignant melanoma of the external auditory canal is discussed in this article. PMID:25302202

  9. Membrane stabilizer

    DOEpatents

    Mingenbach, William A. (P.O. Box 49, Taos, NM 87571)

    1988-01-01

    A device is provided for stabilizing a flexible membrane secured within a frame, wherein a plurality of elongated arms are disposed radially from a central hub which penetrates the membrane, said arms imposing alternately against opposite sides of the membrane, thus warping and tensioning the membrane into a condition of improved stability. The membrane may be an opaque or translucent sheet or other material.

  10. exchange membranes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Michaels; J. Vermeulen; R. D. Sanderson; D. G. Bessarabov

    The chemical modification of the surface of ion-exchange membranes (SPE, solid polymer electrolytes) provides new possibilities for applications of SPE-based membrane catalytic systems (1). Surface modification can considerably influence the surface properties of the membrane. In the case of catalyst deposition on the modified membrane, the profile of the catalyst particles within the membrane and their size can be alternated

  11. Root canal debridement: an online study guide.

    PubMed

    2008-05-01

    The Editorial Board of the Journal of Endodontics has developed a literature-based study guide of topical areas related to endodontics. This study guide is intended to give the reader a focused review of the essential endodontic literature and does not cite all possible articles related to each topic. Although citing all articles would be comprehensive, it would defeat the idea of a study guide. This section will present root canal debridement including subdivisions on canal access, canal debridement, orifice enlargement and preflaring, crown-down technique, balanced force, nickel titanium and other shape memory alloys, rotary engine-driven techniques, endodontic instruments, irrigation, electronic apex locators, sonics/ultrasonics, smear layer, and intracanal medicaments. PMID:18457698

  12. 32. VIEW OF TERMINUS OF GRAND CANAL, SHOWING TURNOUT GATES, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. VIEW OF TERMINUS OF GRAND CANAL, SHOWING TURNOUT GATES, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. WASTE WATER IS TURNED INTO THE BED OF NEW RIVER. Photographer: Mark Durben, April 1989 - Grand Canal, North side of Salt River, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  13. 15. VIEW OF GRAND CANAL, LOOKING WEST TOWARD BROPHY SCHOOL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. VIEW OF GRAND CANAL, LOOKING WEST TOWARD BROPHY SCHOOL AND ST. FRANCIS CHURCH, NEAR CENTRAL AVENUE IN PHOENIX Photographer unknown, 1937 - Grand Canal, North side of Salt River, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  14. 10. Tempe Canal, looking south from Apache Boulevard, showing new ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Tempe Canal, looking south from Apache Boulevard, showing new apartments and old farm silos. Photographer: Mark Durben, February 1989. Source: SRPA - Tempe Canal, South Side Salt River in Tempe, Mesa & Phoenix, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  15. 25. VIEW OF GRAND CANAL, SHOWING PAPAGO FREEWAY REALIGNMENT, EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. VIEW OF GRAND CANAL, SHOWING PAPAGO FREEWAY REALIGNMENT, EAST OF 32ND STREET IN PHOENIX. Photographer: Kevin Kreisel-Coons, May 1990 - Grand Canal, North side of Salt River, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  16. 4. VIEW SHOWING CONCRETE ARCH BRIDGE ACROSS GRAND CANAL LOCATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW SHOWING CONCRETE ARCH BRIDGE ACROSS GRAND CANAL LOCATION UNKNOWN. NOTE WOODEN FLUME IN FOREGROUND. Photographer: Walter J. Lubken, February 5, 1909 - Grand Canal, North side of Salt River, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  17. 26. VIEW OF THE PEDESTRIAN BRIDGE CROSSING GRAND CANAL AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. VIEW OF THE PEDESTRIAN BRIDGE CROSSING GRAND CANAL AT 30TH STREET IN PHOENIX, LOOKING WEST, Photographer: Mark Durben, April 1989 - Grand Canal, North side of Salt River, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  18. 19. VIEW OF GRAND CANAL, SHOWING NEW ALIGNMENT, LOOKING NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. VIEW OF GRAND CANAL, SHOWING NEW ALIGNMENT, LOOKING NORTH TOWARD CROSSCUT HYDRO PLANT ROOF WITH FOUR CUPOLAS VISIBLE. Photographer: Mark Durben, May 1990 - Grand Canal, North side of Salt River, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  19. 6. Tempe Crosscut Canal, looking west from Division Gates. Lateral ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Tempe Crosscut Canal, looking west from Division Gates. Lateral at left is for local delivery of irrigation water. Photographer: Mark Durben, February 1989. Source: SRPA - Tempe Canal, South Side Salt River in Tempe, Mesa & Phoenix, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  20. 21. VIEW OF GRAND CANAL, SHOWING OLD ALIGNMENT, LOOKING WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. VIEW OF GRAND CANAL, SHOWING OLD ALIGNMENT, LOOKING WEST LOCATION UNKNOWN. THE WIDE DRY BED OF THE SALT RIVER SPANS THE BACKGROUND. Photographer: Mark Durben, April 1989 - Grand Canal, North side of Salt River, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  1. 12. MAIN CANAL SPILLWAY AND WASTEWAY NO. 2, JUST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. MAIN CANAL - SPILLWAY AND WASTEWAY NO. 2, JUST ABOVE DARK CANYON SIPHON. VIEW TO SOUTH - Carlsbad Irrigation District, Main Canal, 4 miles North to 12 miles Southeast of Carlsbad, Carlsbad, Eddy County, NM

  2. 77. ROOSEVELT POWER CANAL LOCATION MAP, WORK TO BE DONE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    77. ROOSEVELT POWER CANAL LOCATION MAP, WORK TO BE DONE BY CONTRACT Courtesy of Dept. of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation, Salt River Project - Roosevelt Power Canal & Diversion Dam, Parallels Salt River, Roosevelt, Gila County, AZ

  3. Bitter Root Irrigation district canal, looking east, typical section and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Bitter Root Irrigation district canal, looking east, typical section and crossing - Bitter Root Irrigation Project, Bitter Root Irrigation Canal, Heading at Rock Creek Diversion Dam, West of U.S. Highway 93, Darby, Ravalli County, MT

  4. 12. VIEW OF GAGE IRRIGATION CANAL AT HILLTOP DRIVE AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. VIEW OF GAGE IRRIGATION CANAL AT HILLTOP DRIVE AND BARTON ROAD SHOWING BEGINNING OF SIPHON, DATED '1952' - Gage Irrigation Canal, Running from Santa Ana River to Arlington Heights, Riverside, Riverside County, CA

  5. 7. VIEW OF ARIZONA CANAL ABOVE EVERGREEN, SHOWING LACK OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW OF ARIZONA CANAL ABOVE EVERGREEN, SHOWING LACK OF SILT. OLD TOOTH MARKS OF DRAGLINE BUCKET MADE IN 1909 CALICHE BOTTOM WERE STILL VISIBLE Photographer: unknown. February 1938 - Arizona Canal, North of Salt River, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  6. 10. 'Y' CONNECTOR TO PICACHO RESERVOIR ON MAIN CANAL. VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. 'Y' CONNECTOR TO PICACHO RESERVOIR ON MAIN CANAL. VIEW LOOKING EAST FROM PICACHO RESERVOIR INLET CHANNEL - San Carlos Irrigation Project, Marin Canal, Amhurst-Hayden Dam to Picacho Reservoir, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

  7. 6. REMAINS OF PLANK WALL NAILED TO POSTS WITHIN CANAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. REMAINS OF PLANK WALL NAILED TO POSTS WITHIN CANAL CONSTRUCTED TO PROTECT OUTSIDE CANAL BANK. VIEW IS TO THE WEST. - Snake River Ditch, Headgate on north bank of Snake River, Dillon, Summit County, CO

  8. 7. REMAINS OF PLANK WALL WITHIN CANAL CONSTRUCTED TO PROTECT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. REMAINS OF PLANK WALL WITHIN CANAL CONSTRUCTED TO PROTECT OUTSIDE CANAL BANK, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. NOTE CROSS SUPPORT POLES EXTENDING TO HILLSIDE. - Snake River Ditch, Headgate on north bank of Snake River, Dillon, Summit County, CO

  9. 7. VIEW OF MAIN CANAL, LOOKING SOUTH, IMMEDIATELY DOWNSTREAM FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW OF MAIN CANAL, LOOKING SOUTH, IMMEDIATELY DOWNSTREAM FROM THE SNAKE RIVER VALLEY IRRIGATION DISTRICT, SECTION 34, T2N, R37E - Woodville Canal Company, West side of Snake River (River Mile 796), Woodville, Bingham County, ID

  10. OVERALL VIEW OF CASCADE CANAL COMPANY CRIB DAM, LOOKING UPSTREAM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERALL VIEW OF CASCADE CANAL COMPANY CRIB DAM, LOOKING UPSTREAM FROM DIRECTION OF KACHESS DAM. VIEW TO NORTH - Kachess Dam, 1904 Cascade Canal Company Crib Dam, Kachess River, 1.5 miles north of Interstate 90, Easton, Kittitas County, WA

  11. 2. LOOKING ACROSS THE CANAL AT CASSEDY'S STORE. STRUCTURE WAS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. LOOKING ACROSS THE CANAL AT CASSEDY'S STORE. STRUCTURE WAS BUILT SO THAT LOADING AND UNLOADING OF GOODS DIRECTLY FROM THE BOATS COULD BE ACCOMPLISHED. - Morris Canal, Cassedy's Store, Waterloo, Sussex County, NJ

  12. MAIN CANAL HEADWORKS, FROM DOWNSTREAM (TO RIGHT), NOTE SAND AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MAIN CANAL HEADWORKS, FROM DOWNSTREAM (TO RIGHT), NOTE SAND AND SILT SLUICE GATE FOR DIVERSION DAM ON LEFT, VIEW TO NORTHWEST - Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, Main Canal Headworks, Salmon Creek, Okanogan, Okanogan County, WA

  13. 5. SCRAPERS AT WORK ON THE POWER CANAL, TWO MILES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. SCRAPERS AT WORK ON THE POWER CANAL, TWO MILES EAST OF LIVINGSTONE, ARIZONA Photographer: Walter J. Lubken, August 1, 1904 - Roosevelt Power Canal & Diversion Dam, Parallels Salt River, Roosevelt, Gila County, AZ

  14. 53. LAYOUT OF POWER CANAL LINE, LIST OF STRUCTURES Courtesy ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. LAYOUT OF POWER CANAL LINE, LIST OF STRUCTURES Courtesy of Reclamation Service, Salt River Project, Arizona - Roosevelt Power Canal & Diversion Dam, Parallels Salt River, Roosevelt, Gila County, AZ

  15. 54. PLAT OF POWER CANAL NO. 1, SHOWING LOCATION OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    54. PLAT OF POWER CANAL NO. 1, SHOWING LOCATION OF STRUCTURES, ETC. Courtesy of the Dept. of the Interior, U. S. Reclamation Service, Salt River Project, Arizona - Roosevelt Power Canal & Diversion Dam, Parallels Salt River, Roosevelt, Gila County, AZ

  16. 60. ROOSEVELT POWER CANAL, FLUME AT STA. 973 Courtesy of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    60. ROOSEVELT POWER CANAL, FLUME AT STA. 973 Courtesy of Dept. of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation, Salt River Project, Arizona - Roosevelt Power Canal & Diversion Dam, Parallels Salt River, Roosevelt, Gila County, AZ

  17. 78. POWER CANAL DIVERSION DAM, EXISTING STRUCTURE Courtesy of Dept. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    78. POWER CANAL DIVERSION DAM, EXISTING STRUCTURE Courtesy of Dept. of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation, Salt River Project - Roosevelt Power Canal & Diversion Dam, Parallels Salt River, Roosevelt, Gila County, AZ

  18. 76. CONDENSED PROFILE OF ROOSEVELT POWER CANAL Courtesy of Dept. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    76. CONDENSED PROFILE OF ROOSEVELT POWER CANAL Courtesy of Dept. of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation, Salt River Project, Arizona - Roosevelt Power Canal & Diversion Dam, Parallels Salt River, Roosevelt, Gila County, AZ

  19. 9. LOOKING EAST UP THE POWER CANAL SHOWING A WOODEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. LOOKING EAST UP THE POWER CANAL SHOWING A WOODEN FLUME, CUT AND COVER AND TUNNEL NO. 10 Photographer: Walter J. Lubken, February 21, 1906 - Roosevelt Power Canal & Diversion Dam, Parallels Salt River, Roosevelt, Gila County, AZ

  20. 59. PLANS FOR HEADGATE INSTALLATION IN GRAND CANAL AT WASHINGTON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    59. PLANS FOR HEADGATE INSTALLATION IN GRAND CANAL AT WASHINGTON STREET Plan Sheet D-13360, Sheet No. 15 of 20 (delineated by D. Hee, May 1957) - Venice Canals, Community of Venice, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  1. Surgical endodontic management of infected lateral canals of maxillary incisors

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This case report presents surgical endodontic management outcomes of maxillary incisors that were infected via the lateral canals. Two cases are presented in which endodontically-treated maxillary central incisors had sustained lateral canal infections. A surgical endodontic treatment was performed on both teeth. Flap elevation revealed vertical bone destruction along the root surface and infected lateral canals, and microscopy revealed that the lateral canals were the origin of the lesions. After the infected lateral canals were surgically managed, both teeth were asymptomatic and labial fistulas were resolved. There were no clinical or radiographic signs of surgical endodontic management failure at follow-up visits. This case report highlights the clinical significance and surgical endodontic management of infected lateral canal of maxillary incisor. It is important to be aware of root canal anatomy variability in maxillary incisors. Maxillary central incisors infected via the lateral canal can be successfully managed by surgical endodontic treatment. PMID:25671217

  2. 47. PLANS FOR EXISTING THREESPAN PEDESTRIAN BRIDGE OVER GRAND CANAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    47. PLANS FOR EXISTING THREE-SPAN PEDESTRIAN BRIDGE OVER GRAND CANAL AT 25TH AVENUE Plan Sheet D-5117 (delineated by R. H. Bacon, April 1939) - Venice Canals, Community of Venice, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  3. 80. ROOSEVELT POWER CANAL, REHABILITATION, CROSS DRAINAGE FLUME FLUME ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    80. ROOSEVELT POWER CANAL, REHABILITATION, CROSS DRAINAGE FLUME - FLUME DETAILS Courtesy of Dept. of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation, Salt River Project - Roosevelt Power Canal & Diversion Dam, Parallels Salt River, Roosevelt, Gila County, AZ

  4. 81. ROOSEVELT POWER CANAL, REHABILITATION, CROSS DRAINAGE FLUMES CENTER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    81. ROOSEVELT POWER CANAL, REHABILITATION, CROSS DRAINAGE FLUMES - CENTER BENT DETAILS Courtesy of Dept. of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation, Salt River Project, Arizona - Roosevelt Power Canal & Diversion Dam, Parallels Salt River, Roosevelt, Gila County, AZ

  5. 79. ROOSEVELT POWER CANAL, REHABILITATION, CROSS DRAINAGE FLUME LONGITUDINAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    79. ROOSEVELT POWER CANAL, REHABILITATION, CROSS DRAINAGE FLUME - LONGITUDINAL SECTIONS Courtesy of Dept. of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation, Salt River Project, Arizona - Roosevelt Power Canal & Diversion Dam, Parallels Salt River, Roosevelt, Gila County, AZ

  6. 31. Floating original Ship Canal draw (in background) to University ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. Floating original Ship Canal draw (in background) to University Heights location. New Ship Canal draw in foreground. June 1906 photograph. - University Heights Bridge, Spanning Harlem River at 207th Street & West Harlem Road, New York, New York County, NY

  7. Matters of simulation of the semicircular canal system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurfinkel, V. S.; Petukhov, S. V.

    1977-01-01

    A scale model of the human semicircular canal system was developed based on the theory of dynamic similitude. This enlarged model makes it convenient to conduct tests on the vestibular processes and dynamics in the semicircular canals. Tests revealed hydromechanical interaction between canals, with asymmetry of the conditions of movement of the endolymph in the canals in opposite directions. A type of vestibular reactions, occurring with angular oscillations of the head, was predicted and demonstrated using this model and human test subjects.

  8. 28. MAIN CANAL Photographic copy of historic photo, July ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. MAIN CANAL - Photographic copy of historic photo, July 18, 1906 (original print located at the Carlsbad Irrigation District offices, Carlsbad, New Mexico) J.J. Lubken, photographer 'LOOKING SOUTH FROM STATION 413, ON THE MAIN CANAL, SHOWING THE REMODLING SIC OF THE OLD PECOS VALLEY IRRIGATING CANAL' - Carlsbad Irrigation District, Main Canal, 4 miles North to 12 miles Southeast of Carlsbad, Carlsbad, Eddy County, NM

  9. 13. VIEW OF WESTERN CANAL EAST OF CARRIAGE LANE IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. VIEW OF WESTERN CANAL EAST OF CARRIAGE LANE IN TEMPE, SHOWING DROP STRUCTURE AND GROUNDWATER PUMP. THIS IS THE LAST OF FOUR PUMPS WHICH FEED DIRECTLY INTO THE CANAL BETWEEN ALMA SCHOOL ROAD AND PRICE ROAD. ON THIS DAY, ALL FOUR PUMPS, OPERATING AT FULL OUTPUT, HAVE CONSIDERABLY SWELLED THE FLOW TO THE CANAL. NOTE THE OLD FASHIONED BRICKWORK ON THE NORTH BANK. - Western Canal, South side of Salt River between Tempe, Phoenix & Mesa, Mesa, Maricopa County, AZ

  10. 6. View southwest, culvert inlet with canal bank completely removed. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. View southwest, culvert inlet with canal bank completely removed. Left to right: back of headwall; tops of high inlet barrels; vertical transition wall between high inlet barrels and low, interior, inlet barrels; tops of low interior barrels; vertical heartening planks and low cutoff wall along former edge of canal bank; dewatered canal bed. - Delaware & Raritan Canal, Ten Mile Run Culvert, 1.5 miles South of Blackwells Road, East Millstone, Somerset County, NJ

  11. Information et Codage Leon V : Codage de canal

    E-print Network

    Rioul, Olivier

    Information et Codage Exercices Leçon V : Codage de canal Ghaya Rekaya-Ben Othman Oct. 2006 On rappelle que la capacité d'un canal sans mémoire est C(P) = max p(x) {I(X ,Y ) | E(N(X )) P)} I Capacité d'un canal BSC On considère le canal binaire symétrique (sans mémoire) de paramètre p (voir figure), on se

  12. HISTOPATHOLOGY OF THE TEMPORAL BONE IN A CASE OF SUPERIOR CANAL DEHISCENCE SYNDROME

    PubMed Central

    Teixido, Michael; Kung, Brian; Rosowski, John J.; Merchant, Saumil N.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To describe the histopathologic findings in the temporal bones of a patient with who had been diagnosed during life with superior canal dehiscence (SCD) syndrome. Methods The patient was diagnosed with SCD at the age of 59. She became a temporal bone donor, and died of unrelated causes at the age of 62. Both temporal bones were prepared in celloidin and examined by light microscopy. Results She developed bilateral aural fullness, pulsatile tinnitus and difficulty tolerating loud noises after minor head trauma at age 53. Symptoms were worse on the right. She also had valsalva-induced dizziness and eye movements, as well as sound-induced dizziness (more prominent on the right), consistent with SCD. Audiometry showed a small air bone gap of 10 dB in the right ear. VEMP testing showed an abnormally low threshold of 66 dB on the right, and CT scan showed dehiscence of the superior canal on the right. Histopathology of the right ear showed a 1.4 × 0.6 mm dehiscence of bone covering the superior canal. Dura was in direct contact with the endosteum and the membranous duct at the level of the dehiscence. No osteoclastic process was evident within the otic capsule bone surrounding the dehiscence. The left ear showed thin but intact bone over the superior canal. Both ears showed focal microdehiscences of the tegmen tympani and tegmen mastoideum. The auditory and vestibular sense organs on both sides were normal. No endolymphatic hydrops was observed. Conclusions The findings were consistent with the hypothesis put forth by Carey and colleagues that the SCD may arise from failure of postnasal bone development, and that minor trauma may disrupt thin bone or stable dura over the superior canal. PMID:22312921

  13. 1. MAP OF THE OHIO CANAL, INCLUDING LOCK #37 (14 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. MAP OF THE OHIO CANAL, INCLUDING LOCK #37 (14 MILE LOCK). MADE UNDER THE DIRECTION OF THE BOARD OF PUBLIC WORKS, DECEMBER 1912. SCALE 80'=1'. PROPERTY OF AMERICAN STEEL AND WIRE COMPANY, CLEVELAND, OHIO. - Ohio & Erie Canal, Lock No. 37, At Canal & Fitzwater Roads, Valley View, Cuyahoga County, OH

  14. 6. MAP OF THE OHIO CANAL INCLUDING LOCK #39. MADE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. MAP OF THE OHIO CANAL INCLUDING LOCK #39. MADE UNDER THE DIRECTION OF THE BOARD OF PUBLIC WORKS, DECEMBER 1912. SCALE:80'=l'. PROPERTY OF AMERICAN STEEL AND WIRE COMPANY, CLEVELAND, OHIO. - Ohio & Erie Canal, Lock No. 39, West side of Canal Road, 3400 feet north of Stone Road, Valley View, Cuyahoga County, OH

  15. 4. MAP OF THE OHIO CANAL, INCLUDING LOCK #38 (12 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. MAP OF THE OHIO CANAL, INCLUDING LOCK #38 (12 MILE LOCK) AND TINKERS CREEK. MADE UNDER THE DIRECTION OF THE BOARD OF PUBLIC WORKS, DECEMBER 1912. SCALE: 80'=1'. PROPERTY OF THE AMERICAN STEEL & WIRE COMPANY, CLEVELAND, OHIO. - Ohio & Erie Canal, Lock No. 38, Canal & Hillside Roads, Valley View, Cuyahoga County, OH

  16. 11. Tempe Canal, looking north from the Superstition Freeway at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Tempe Canal, looking north from the Superstition Freeway at the point where the canal turns west toward the Superstition flume. Equipment in center is beginning excavation for the pipe headworks. Photographer: Mark Durben, February 1989. Source: SRPA - Tempe Canal, South Side Salt River in Tempe, Mesa & Phoenix, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  17. 20. VIEW OF GRAND CANAL, SHOWING OLD ALIGNMENT, LOOKING EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. VIEW OF GRAND CANAL, SHOWING OLD ALIGNMENT, LOOKING EAST FROM SOUTH BANK NEAR SETTLING BASIN (see HAER Photograph No. AZ-30-17, Crosscut Hydro Plant). THE LARGE FOREGROUND PIPE CARRIED WATER ACROSS THE CANAL FROM THE SETTLING BASIN TO THE CROSSCUT STEAM PLANT. Photographer: Mark Durben, April 1989 - Grand Canal, North side of Salt River, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  18. 13. Tempe Canal along Price Road, looking north from Baseline ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Tempe Canal along Price Road, looking north from Baseline Road. This is the section of the canal which will be piped. Photographer: Mark Durben, February 1989. Source: SRPA - Tempe Canal, South Side Salt River in Tempe, Mesa & Phoenix, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  19. 30. MAIN CANAL Photographic copy of historic photo, January ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. MAIN CANAL - Photographic copy of historic photo, January 29, 1907 (original print filed in Record Group 115, National Archives, Washington, D.C.) W.J.Lubken, photographer 'CHECK GATES ON SOUTHERN CANAL, STA.118, JUST ABOVE THE ENTRANCE END OF DARK CANYON PRESSURE PIPE' - Carlsbad Irrigation District, Main Canal, 4 miles North to 12 miles Southeast of Carlsbad, Carlsbad, Eddy County, NM

  20. 31. MAIN CANAL Photographic copy of historic photo, December ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. MAIN CANAL - Photographic copy of historic photo, December 13, 1939 (original print in '1939 Annual Report of the Carlsbad Project,' located at the Carlsbad Irrigation District offices, Carlsbad, New Mexico) photographer unknown 'LINING MAIN CANAL AROUND GYP BEND' - Carlsbad Irrigation District, Main Canal, 4 miles North to 12 miles Southeast of Carlsbad, Carlsbad, Eddy County, NM

  1. Love Canal and the limits of scientific proof

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Levine

    2009-01-01

    Love Canal became the worldwide symbol of the legal, medical and political problems of toxic waste disposal. Moreover, Love Canal demonstrated once again that science does not exist in a social vacuum. The problems at Love Canal involved scientists in two decision-making contexts, administrative and judicial. Administratively, politicians and other government officials had to decide what to do for the

  2. 14. VIEW OF GAGE IRRIGATION CANAL AT HILLTOP DRIVE AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. VIEW OF GAGE IRRIGATION CANAL AT HILLTOP DRIVE AND BARTON ROAD, SHOWING OLD ROUTE OF CANAL VIADUCT ACROSS BARTON ROAD. SIPHON NOW GOES UNDER ROAD AND EMERGES AT RIGHT REAR BELOW TWO TELEPHONE POLES (SEE CA-120-15) - Gage Irrigation Canal, Running from Santa Ana River to Arlington Heights, Riverside, Riverside County, CA

  3. Aquatic Vegetation in Irrigation Canals A Guide to Integrated Management

    E-print Network

    Aquatic Vegetation in Irrigation Canals A Guide to Integrated Management #12;Aquatic Vegetation in Irrigation Canals A Guide to Integrated Management For: Oregon Department of Agriculture and U Southern Oregon University October 1999 #12;Aquatic Vegetation in Irrigation Canals A Guide to Integrated

  4. 187. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    187. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. TOPOGRAPHICAL MAP OF MILNER DAM LOCATION, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO; BLUEPRINT MAP. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  5. 183. Photocopy of map (Twin Falls Canal Company). TOPOGRAPHICAL MAP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    183. Photocopy of map (Twin Falls Canal Company). TOPOGRAPHICAL MAP OF MILNER DAM SITE, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO; MAP, LEFT SIDE ONLY. CROSS REFERENCE: ID-15-192. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  6. 192. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    192. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. TOPOGRAPHICAL MAP (DAM DRAWN IN), MILNER SITE, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO; RIGHT SIDE OF MAP (LEFT ON ID-15-183). - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  7. 5 CFR 550.714 - Panama Canal Commission employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Panama Canal Commission employees. 550.714...GENERAL) Severance Pay § 550.714 Panama Canal Commission employees. (a...employee separated from employment with the Panama Canal Commission as a result of the...

  8. Transportation Center Seminar........ "The Panama Canal as Precursor"

    E-print Network

    Bustamante, Fabián E.

    Transportation Center Seminar........ "The Panama Canal as Precursor" Aaron J. Gellman Professor Committee Member, Panama Canal Authority Thursday ­May 24, 2012 4:00 - 5:00 pm Refreshments available at 3 Gellman will provide an overview of the Panama Canal Expansion Project. He will also discuss various

  9. Water Locks and the Panama Canal Civil Engineering

    E-print Network

    Provancher, William

    Water Locks and the Panama Canal Civil Engineering Objective · This lesson teaches students about civilization-changing engineering design: locks. The Panama Canal is a historical and impressive engineering feat. Discussing the Panama Canal and other lock systems (specifically the Columbia River System

  10. 5 CFR 550.714 - Panama Canal Commission employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Panama Canal Commission employees. 550.714...GENERAL) Severance Pay § 550.714 Panama Canal Commission employees. (a...employee separated from employment with the Panama Canal Commission as a result of the...

  11. 5 CFR 550.714 - Panama Canal Commission employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Panama Canal Commission employees. 550.714...GENERAL) Severance Pay § 550.714 Panama Canal Commission employees. (a...employee separated from employment with the Panama Canal Commission as a result of the...

  12. 19. Photocopied August 1978. CANAL SECTION I, LOOKING EAST, 1900, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Photocopied August 1978. CANAL SECTION I, LOOKING EAST, 1900, WITH SEVERAL PARTIALLY SUBMERGED STEAM SHOVELS SHOWN IN THE FLOODED CANAL. ONE OF THE TEMPORARY BRIDGES CONSTRUCTED OVER THE CANAL RIGHT -OF-WAY IS VISIBLE IN THE BACKGROUND. (39) - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

  13. 197. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls, Canal Company, date unknown. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    197. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls, Canal Company, date unknown. GATE STEMS AND LIFTING DEVICES, NO COUNTY; BLUEPRINT SKETCHES. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  14. 198. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    198. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. SEGREGATION OF PUBLIC LAND, LINCOLN AND CASSIA COUNTIES; MAP. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  15. 82. ROOSEVELT POWER CANAL, SUGGESTED ARRANGEMENT FOR ELECTRICAL OPERATION OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    82. ROOSEVELT POWER CANAL, SUGGESTED ARRANGEMENT FOR ELECTRICAL OPERATION OF SLUICE GATES AND CANAL INTAKE GATES AT DIVERSION DAM Courtesy of Dept. of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation, Salt River Project, Arizona - Roosevelt Power Canal & Diversion Dam, Parallels Salt River, Roosevelt, Gila County, AZ

  16. 95. CEDAR DRAW SPILL, LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    95. CEDAR DRAW SPILL, LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY SOUTH OF FILER, IDAHO; OVERALL VIEW LOOKING EAST. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  17. 124. MCMULLEN CREEK HIGH LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    124. MCMULLEN CREEK HIGH LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY, IDAHO; OVERALL SOUTH VIEW OF DRAW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  18. 109. CEDAR DRAW SPILL, LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    109. CEDAR DRAW SPILL, LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF FILER, IDAHO; OVERALL VIEW LOOKING WEST. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  19. 92. CEDAR DRAW SPILL, HIGH LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    92. CEDAR DRAW SPILL, HIGH LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY SOUTH OF FILER, IDAHO; CLOSE-UP OF OUTLET SIDE OF GATES, SOUTH VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  20. 96. CEDAR DRAW SPILL, LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    96. CEDAR DRAW SPILL, LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY SOUTH OF FILER, IDAHO; OUTLET SIDE OF CEDAR DRAW, WEST VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  1. 90. CEDAR DRAW SPILL, HIGH LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    90. CEDAR DRAW SPILL, HIGH LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF FILER, IDAHO; CLOSE-UP OF GATES. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  2. 48. SUMMIT OF THE MORRIS CANAL, 914 FEET ABOVE MEAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. SUMMIT OF THE MORRIS CANAL, 914 FEET ABOVE MEAN HIGH TIDE AT NEWARK, NEW JERSEY. TRACKS OF THE D, L & W RAILROAD CAN BE SEEN AT LEFT. EDGE OF THE LAKE HOPATCONG STATION IS ALSO VISIBLE AT LEFT. PASSENGERS AND FREIGHT COULD BE TRANSFERRED TO SMALL BOATS FOR TRANSPORT THROUGH THE FEEDER CANAL TO LAKE HOPATCONG. - Morris Canal, Phillipsburg, Warren County, NJ

  3. Forecasting the Suez Canal traffic: a neural network analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohamed M. Mostafa

    2004-01-01

    Although the Suez Canal is the most important man-made waterway in the world, rivaled perhaps only by the Panama Canal, little research has been done into forecasting its traffic flows. This paper uses both univariate ARIMA (Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average) and Neural network models to forecast the maritime traffic flows in the Suez Canal which are expressed in tons. One

  4. 16. VIEW OF HIGHLINE CANAL PIPELINE OUTLET, SHOWING THE OUTLET, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. VIEW OF HIGHLINE CANAL PIPELINE OUTLET, SHOWING THE OUTLET, A GROUNDWATER PUMP (LEFT), AND THE SOUTH BRANCH OF THE CANAL (FOREGROUND), August 1989 - Highline Canal & Pumping Station, South side of Salt River between Tempe, Phoenix & Mesa, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  5. 155. Photocopy of transit book (taken from Twin Falls Canal ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    155. Photocopy of transit book (taken from Twin Falls Canal Company Surveyor's Transit Book #405T, Page 1, #46 Division One). STATEMENT RE: SURVEY ALIGNMENT 3/03, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  6. Water-level difference controller for main canals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The operation of main irrigation canals is complicated in situations where the operator does not have full control over the canal inflow, or where there are very long transmission distances from the point of supply, or both. Experienced operators are able to control the canal, but often supply error...

  7. 33 CFR 117.653 - St. Mary's Falls Canal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false St. Mary's Falls Canal. 117.653 Section 117.653 Navigation...Michigan § 117.653 St. Mary's Falls Canal. The draw of the International...unless the vessel is moored at either canal pier awaiting its turn to take...

  8. 33 CFR 117.455 - Houma Navigation Canal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Houma Navigation Canal. 117.455 Section 117.455 Navigation... Louisiana § 117.455 Houma Navigation Canal. The draw of SR 661 (Houma Nav Canal) bridge, mile 36.0, at Houma,...

  9. 33 CFR 117.273 - Canaveral Barge Canal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Canaveral Barge Canal. 117.273 Section 117.273 Navigation...Florida § 117.273 Canaveral Barge Canal. (a) The drawspan of the Christa...mile 1.0, across the Canaveral Barge Canal need only open daily for...

  10. Flatness-based control of an irrigation canal using SCADA

    E-print Network

    Flatness-based control of an irrigation canal using SCADA Tarek Rabbani, Simon Munier, David. The majority of irrigation canals are managed manually, however, with large water losses leading to low water efficient management of irrigation canals that convey water from a source, generally a dam or reservoir

  11. Optimal Design of Parabolic Canal Section Bhagu R. Chahar1

    E-print Network

    Chahar, B. R.

    Optimal Design of Parabolic Canal Section Bhagu R. Chahar1 Abstract: Optimal design equations for a parabolic canal section are presented in this paper. The design equations for a minimum earthwork cost section and a minimum cost lined section are in explicit form and result in optimal dimensions of a canal

  12. 33 CFR 117.653 - St. Mary's Falls Canal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false St. Mary's Falls Canal. 117.653 Section 117.653 Navigation...Michigan § 117.653 St. Mary's Falls Canal. The draw of the International...unless the vessel is moored at either canal pier awaiting its turn to take...

  13. La segmentation du canal pididymaire chez la souris : tude ultrastructurale

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    La segmentation du canal épididymaire chez la souris : étude ultrastructurale Lydia SORANZO J, corps, queue) du canal épididymaire et la structure microscopique (Hamil- ton, 1975 ; Ramos et Dym, 1977 étude ultrastructurale systématique a été réalisée sur la longueur du canal chez la sou- ris, espèce

  14. 33 CFR 117.455 - Houma Navigation Canal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Houma Navigation Canal. 117.455 Section 117.455 Navigation... Louisiana § 117.455 Houma Navigation Canal. The draw of SR 661 (Houma Nav Canal) bridge, mile 36.0, at Houma,...

  15. 78 FR 58458 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Quogue Canal, Southampton, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-24

    ...Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Quogue Canal, Southampton, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard...Quogue Bridge, mile 1.1, across Quogue Canal, at Southampton, New York. This temporary...Quogue Bridge, mile 1.1, across Quogue Canal may keep one lift span in the closed...

  16. Neandertal birth canal shape and the evolution of human childbirth

    E-print Network

    Dever, Jennifer A.

    Neandertal birth canal shape and the evolution of human childbirth Timothy D. Weavera,b,1 and Jean the situation in great apes, human neonates are about the same size as the birth canal, making passage difficult mother's birth canal) distinguishes humans not only from great apes, but also from lesser apes

  17. 33 CFR 117.455 - Houma Navigation Canal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Houma Navigation Canal. 117.455 Section 117.455 Navigation... Louisiana § 117.455 Houma Navigation Canal. The draw of SR 661 (Houma Nav Canal) bridge, mile 36.0, at Houma,...

  18. 33 CFR 117.455 - Houma Navigation Canal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Houma Navigation Canal. 117.455 Section 117.455 Navigation... Louisiana § 117.455 Houma Navigation Canal. The draw of SR 661 (Houma Nav Canal) bridge, mile 36.0, at Houma,...

  19. Spontaneous Tegmen Defect and Semicircular Canal Dehiscence: Same Etiopathogenic Entity?

    E-print Network

    Spontaneous Tegmen Defect and Semicircular Canal Dehiscence: Same Etiopathogenic Entity? *Tarik El) with semicircular canal dehiscences (SCCDs) and to postulate a novel etiopatho- genic hypothesis of these pathologic data were analyzed. Results: Twenty-three patients matched the inclusion criteria. Semicircular canal

  20. 33 CFR 117.273 - Canaveral Barge Canal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Canaveral Barge Canal. 117.273 Section 117.273 Navigation...Florida § 117.273 Canaveral Barge Canal. (a) The drawspan of the Christa...mile 1.0, across the Canaveral Barge Canal need only open daily for...

  1. 33 CFR 117.653 - St. Mary's Falls Canal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false St. Mary's Falls Canal. 117.653 Section 117.653 Navigation...Michigan § 117.653 St. Mary's Falls Canal. The draw of the International...unless the vessel is moored at either canal pier awaiting its turn to take...

  2. 33 CFR 117.273 - Canaveral Barge Canal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Canaveral Barge Canal. 117.273 Section 117.273 Navigation...Florida § 117.273 Canaveral Barge Canal. (a) The drawspan of the Christa...mile 1.0, across the Canaveral Barge Canal need only open daily for...

  3. 33 CFR 117.653 - St. Mary's Falls Canal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false St. Mary's Falls Canal. 117.653 Section 117.653 Navigation...Michigan § 117.653 St. Mary's Falls Canal. The draw of the International...unless the vessel is moored at either canal pier awaiting its turn to take...

  4. 33 CFR 117.273 - Canaveral Barge Canal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Canaveral Barge Canal. 117.273 Section 117.273 Navigation...Florida § 117.273 Canaveral Barge Canal. (a) The drawspan of the Christa...mile 1.0, across the Canaveral Barge Canal need only open daily for...

  5. 33 CFR 117.273 - Canaveral Barge Canal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Canaveral Barge Canal. 117.273 Section 117.273 Navigation...Florida § 117.273 Canaveral Barge Canal. (a) The drawspan of the Christa...mile 1.0, across the Canaveral Barge Canal need only open daily for...

  6. 33 CFR 117.455 - Houma Navigation Canal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Houma Navigation Canal. 117.455 Section 117.455 Navigation... Louisiana § 117.455 Houma Navigation Canal. The draw of SR 661 (Houma Nav Canal) bridge, mile 36.0, at Houma,...

  7. Optimal Design of Transmission Canal Prabhata K. Swamee1

    E-print Network

    Chahar, B. R.

    Optimal Design of Transmission Canal Prabhata K. Swamee1 ; Govinda C. Mishra2 ; and Bhagu R. Chahar3 Abstract: This paper presents design equations for the least-cost canal sections considering and evaporation from irrigation canals of triangular, rectangular, and trapezoidal shapes passing through

  8. Hearing results in pediatric patients after canal-wall-up and canal-wall-down mastoid surgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    TERRENCE P. MURPHY; DONNA LYNN WALLIS

    1998-01-01

    Hearing results were studied in pediatric patients after canal-wall-up and canal-wall-down mastoid surgery in a private practice setting. A retrospective chart review was performed on 69 patients who underwent surgery from 1991-1995. Twenty-six patients underwent canal-wall-up mastoidectomies, and 43 patients underwent canal-wall-down mastoidectomies. Various types of ossicular reconstruction were performed in patients in both groups. Hearing was evaluated for preoperative

  9. The Quality of Root Canal Preparation and Root Canal Obturation in Canals Treated with Rotary versus Self-adjusting Files: A Three-dimensional Micro-computed Tomographic Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zvi Metzger; Raviv Zary; Raphaela Cohen; Ehud Teperovich; Frank Paqué

    2010-01-01

    AimThe study was designed to quantitatively evaluate the quality of root canal preparation and root canal obturation in canals treated with either rotary or self adjusting files, using three-dimensional micro–computed tomographic (CT) analysis.

  10. Fetal and early post-natal mineralization of the tympanic bulla in fin whales may reveal a Hitherto undiscovered evolutionary trait.

    PubMed

    Cozzi, Bruno; Podestà, Michela; Mazzariol, Sandro; Zotti, Alessandro

    2012-01-01

    The evolution of the cetacean skeleton followed a path that differentiated this group from other terrestrial mammals about 50 million years ago [1], and debate is still going on about the relationships between Cetacea and Artiodactyla [2], [3], [4]. Some skeletal traits of the basilosaurids (the more advanced forms of Archaeocetes), such as the expansion of the peribullary air sinuses, dental modification and vertebral size uniformity [5] are maintained and further emphasized also in contemporary odontocetes and mysticetes. Using Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry here we report that the deposition of bone mineral in fetal and newborn specimens of the fin whale Balaenoptera physalus is remarkably higher in the bulla tympanica than in the adjacent basal skull or in the rest of the skeleton. Ossification of the tympanic bulla in fetal Artiodactyla (bovine, hippopotamus) is minimal, becomes sensible after birth and then progresses during growth, contrarily to the precocious mineralization that we observed in fin whales. Given the importance of the ear bones for the precise identification of phylogenetic relationship in therian evolution [6], this feature may indicate a specific evolutionary trait of fin whales and possibly other cetacean species or families. Early mineralization of the tympanic bulla allows immediate sound conduction in the aquatic medium and consequently holds potential importance for mother-calf relationship and postnatal survival. PMID:22615912

  11. Drop weld thermal injuries to the middle ear.

    PubMed

    Keogh, I J; Portmann, D

    2009-01-01

    Drop weld injuries to the tympanic membrane and middle ear caused by hot sparks or molten slag are a rare but significant injury. Steel workers and welders who are regularly exposed to flying sparks and molten metal slag are predisposed. This type of transtympanic thermal injury occurs when the slag literally drops into the external auditory canal and burns through the tympanic membrane. A spectrum of severity of injury occurs which includes chronic tympanic membrane perforation, chronic otorrhoea, facial nerve injury and deafness. Chronic tympanic membrane perforation is the most common sequelae and is perhaps one of the most challenging of all perforations to repair The combination of direct thermal injury and foreign body reaction results in continuing or recurrent suppuration. The foreign body reaction is due to the embedding of metal slag in the promontorial mucosa. We present a case of drop weld injury to the left tympanic membrane, resulting in chronic middle ear inflammation, otorrhoea and tympanic perforation. CAT scan clearly demonstrated a metallic promontorial foreign body with localised bone erosion. We emphasise the importance of removing these foreign bodies and recommend a cartilage reinforced underlay tympanoplasty technique to repair these perforations. Transtympanic thermal trauma is a preventable occupational injury, which is best, avoided by earplugs and increased awareness. PMID:20597421

  12. Aerial View of Faka Union Canal, Florida

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    This aerial view shows how Faka Union Canal (visible as a straight channel of water) connects the coastal environment, where manatees feed, to freshwater inlets. The Ten Thousand Islands region in the foreground supports sea grass beds where manatees feed. During cold winter months, manatees can swi...

  13. LOVE CANAL MONITORING PROGRAM. VOLUME 1

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes the prime contractor activities during the monitoring phase of the Love Canal project. Since GCA Corporation was only responsible for data collection, no analytical results appear in this report. The program involved a multifaceted sampling and analytical e...

  14. ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AT LOVE CANAL: VOLUME III

    EPA Science Inventory

    During the summer and fall of 1980 the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conducted a comprehensive multimedia environmental monitoring program in the vicinity of the inactive hazardous wastes landfill known as Love Canal, located in Niagara Falls, New York. The studies c...

  15. QUALITY ASSURANCE PLAN: LOVE CANAL STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The four volumes in this set comprise the working guideline documents for the Love Canal Study. The documents were developed to direct both the prime contractor and subcontractors while performing for the Environmental Protection Agency. Detailed procedures for each analysis type...

  16. ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AT LOVE CANAL: VOLUME I

    EPA Science Inventory

    During the summer and fall of 1980 the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conducted a comprehensive multimedia environmental monitoring program in the vicinity of the inactive hazardous wastes landfill known as Love Canal, located in Niagara Falls, New York. The studies c...

  17. The Panama Canal and Social Justice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilde, Margaret D., Ed.

    The booklet, designed to explore the issues of international justice in the context of the Gospel, reviews relations between the United States and Panama. It includes background materials and a study guide for parish leaders and other educators. The central question pertaining to the Panama Canal concerns the rights of the United States according…

  18. APPLICATION OF CANAL AUTOMATION IN CENTRAL ARIZONA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Central Arizona Irrigation and Drainage District (CAIDD) and the Maricopa Stanfield Irrigation and Drainage District (MSIDD) were constructed in the late 1980s with the promise of automatic control. All check structures on main and lateral canals were equipped with motorized gates, RTUs, radios,...

  19. Adaptation of Asynchronously Communicating Carlos Canal1

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Adaptation of Asynchronously Communicating Software Carlos Canal1 and Gwen Sala¨un2 1 University of Malaga, Spain 2 University of Grenoble Alpes, Inria, LIG, CNRS, France Abstract. Software adaptation techniques aim at generating new com- ponents called adapters, which make a set of services work correctly to

  20. Canal Wall Reconstruction Tympanomastoidectomy with Mastoid Obliteration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruce J. Gantz; Eric P. Wilkinson; Marlan R. Hansen

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: This study was designed to evaluate the authors' experience with canal wall reconstruc- tion (CWR) tympanomastoidectomy with mastoid obliteration in the treatment of chronic otitis media with cholesteatoma. Study Design: Institutional re- view board approved retrospective case review. Meth- ods: Retrospective review was performed of all pa- tients undergoing CWR tympanomastoidectomy with mastoid obliteration from 1997 to 2004. Data

  1. Superior Semicircular Canal Dehiscence: Auditory Mechanisms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jocelyn Songer

    2004-01-01

    Superior semicircular canal dehiscence (SCD) syndrome aords a unique oppor- tunity to study a novel pathology in otolaryngology (rst dened in 1998) and the mechanisms by which it aects hearing. Patients with SCD syndrome present with a wide variety of symptoms: some present with vestibular symptoms (vertigo, oscillosp- sia, disequilibrium) others present with auditory symptoms (autophony, hyperacusis, low frequency conductive

  2. Koebner phenomenon of the ear canal skin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Young; M. Murphy; J. Fitzgibbon; P. O'Sullivan

    2009-01-01

    The Koebner phenomenon originally described the appearance of psoriatic lesions in the uninvolved skin of patients with psoriasis as a consequence of trauma. We describe a case of concurrent lichen planus and sarcoidosis in the auditory canal, which represents an unusual manifestation of the Koebner phenomenon. This is the first case of concurrent lichen planus and sarcoidosis in the head

  3. Portage Bay Lake Washington Ship Canal

    E-print Network

    Washington at Seattle, University of - Department of Physics, Electroweak Interaction Research Group

    Drumheller Fountain Portage Bay Lake Washington Ship Canal 4041 Denny Field IMA Tennis Courts IMA Microscopic Market, UW Medicine at South Lake Union The Nook, McMahon Hall RESTAURANTS & CAFÉS The 8, McMahon Hall (Cashless) By George, Odegaard Undergraduate Library Café 815 Mercer, UW Medicine at South Lake

  4. IDENTIFICATION OF POOL CHARACTERISTICS OF IRRIGATION CANALS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the Western part of the United States of America, more and more irrigation canal networks are being modernized, which often includes some form of real-time automatic water level control. This real-time control consists of water level measurements that are communicated to a controller. The control...

  5. DIRECT MEASUREMENTS OF INTERVESSEL PIT MEMBRANE HYDRAULIC RESISTANCE IN TWO ANGIOSPERM TREE SPECIES

    E-print Network

    Holbrook, N. Michele

    and Ulmus americana. The area-specific resistance of pit membranes (rmem) was higher than modeled The hydraulic resistance of pit membranes was measured directly in earlywood vessels of Fraxinus americana and 2.56 3 103 MPaÁsÁmÀ1 for Ulmus. The calculated resistance of pit canals was three orders

  6. CT detection of facial canal dehiscence and semicircular canal fistula: Comparison with surgical findings

    SciTech Connect

    Fuse, Takeo; Tada, Yuichiro; Aoyagi, Masaru; Sugai, Yukio [Yamagata Univ. School of Medicine (Japan)] [Yamagata Univ. School of Medicine (Japan)

    1996-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy of high resolution CT (HRCT) in the detection of facial canal dehiscence and semicircular canal fistula, the preoperative evaluation of both of which is clinically very important for ear surgery. We retrospectively reviewed the HRCT findings in 61 patients who underwent mastoidectomy at Yamagata University between 1989 and 1993. The HRCT images were obtained in the axial and semicoronal planes using 1 mm slice thickness and 1 mm intersection gap. In 46 (75%) of the 61 patients, the HRCT image-based assessment of the facial canal dehiscence coincided with the surgical findings. The data for the facial canal revealed sensitivity of 66% and specificity of 84%. For semicircular canal fistula. in 59 (97%) of the 61 patients, the HRCT image-based assessment and the surgical findings coincided. The image-based assessment in the remaining two patients, who both had massive cholesteatoma, was false-positive. HRCT is useful in the diagnosis of facial canal dehiscence and labyrinthine fistula, but its limitations should also be recognized. 12 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  7. Comparison of the rheological properties of four root canal sealers.

    PubMed

    Chang, Seok Woo; Lee, Young-Kyu; Zhu, Qiang; Shon, Won Jun; Lee, Woo Cheol; Kum, Kee Yeon; Baek, Seung Ho; Lee, In Bog; Lim, Bum-Soon; Bae, Kwang Shik

    2015-03-01

    The flowability of a root canal sealer is clinically important because it improves the penetration of the sealer into the complex root canal system. The purpose of this study was to compare the flowabilities of four root canal sealers, measured using the simple press method (ISO 6876), and their viscosities, measured using a strain-controlled rheometer. A newly developed, calcium phosphate-based root canal sealer (Capseal) and three commercial root canal sealers (AH Plus, Sealapex and Pulp Canal Sealer EWT) were used in this study. The flowabilities of the four root canal sealers were measured using the simple press method (n=5) and their viscosities were measured using a strain-controlled rheometer (n=5). The correlation between these two values was statistically analysed using Spearman's correlation test. The flow diameters and the viscosities of the root canal sealers were strongly negatively correlated (?=-0.8618). The viscosity of Pulp Canal Sealer EWT was the lowest and increased in the following order: AH Pluscanal sealers showed characteristic time- and temperature-dependent changes in their rheological properties. The viscosities measured using the strain-controlled rheometer were more precise than the flowabilities measured using the simple press method, suggesting that the rheometer can accurately measure the rheological properties of root canal sealers. PMID:25059248

  8. Liquid membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Araki, T. (Kyoto Inst. of Tech. (Japan)); Tsukube, H. (Okayama Univ. (Japan))

    1990-01-01

    This work describes newer applications of liquid membrane systems which contain molecular and/or ion recognizing carrier compounds and the related characteristic membrane materials. It focuses on the current knowledge about chemistry, biology and related technology of liquid membranes. It reviews the most recent advances in design and characteristics of synthetic liquid membrane transport. Up-to-date topics in the analytical and separation science, plus biomimetic membrane technology are discussed.

  9. Acoustic–structural coupled finite element analysis for sound transmission in human ear—Pressure distributions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rong Z. Gan; Qunli Sun; Bin Feng; Mark W. Wood

    2006-01-01

    A three-dimensional (3D) finite element (FE) model of human ear with accurate structural geometry of the external ear canal, tympanic membrane (TM), ossicles, middle ear suspensory ligaments, and middle ear cavity has been recently reported by our group. In present study, this 3D FE model was modified to include acoustic–structural interfaces for coupled analysis from the ear canal through the

  10. Water quality of the Boca Raton canal system and effects of the Hillsboro Canal inflow, southeastern Florida, 1990-91

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKenzie, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    The City of Boca Raton in southeastern Palm Beach County, Florida, is an urban residential area that has sustained a constant population growth with subsequent increase in water use. The Boca Raton network of canals is controlled to provide for drainage of excess water, to maintain proper coastal ground-water levels to prevent saltwater intrusion, and to recharge the surficial aquifer system from which the city withdraws potable water. Most of the water supplied to the Boca Raton canal system and the surficial aquifer system, other than rainfall and runoff, is pumped from the Hillsboro Canal. The Biscayne aquifer, principal hydrogeologic unit of the surficial aquifer system, is highly permeable and there is a close relation between water levels in the canals and the aquifer. The amount of water supplied by seepage from the conservation areas is unknown. Because the Hillsboro Canal flows from Lake Okeechobee and Water Conservation Areas 1 and 2, which are places of more highly mineralized ground water and surface water, the canal is a possible source of contamination. Water samples were collected at 10 canal sites during wet and dry seasons and analyzed for major inorganic ions and related characteristics, nutrients, and trace elements. All concentrations were generally within or less than the drinking-water standards established by the Florida Department of Environmental Protection. The high concentrations of sodium and chloride that were detected in samples from the Boca Raton canal system are probably from the more mineralized water of the Hillsboro Canal. Other water-quality data, gathered from various sources from 1982 through 1991, did not indicate any significant changes nor trends. The effects of the Hillsboro Canal on the water quality of the Boca Raton canal system are indicated by increased concentrations of sodium, chloride, dissolved solids, and total organic carbon. Concentrations of the constituents in the canal water generally decrease with distance from the Hillsboro Canal pumping station and are the result of dilution by receiving canal waters.

  11. Semicircular Canal Geometry, Afferent Sensitivity And Animal Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Hullar, Timothy A.

    2008-01-01

    The geometry of the semicircular canals has been used in evolutionary studies to predict the behaviors of extinct animals. These predictions have relied on an assumption that the responses of the canals can be determined from their dimensions, and that an organism’s behavior can be determined from these responses. However, the relationship between a canal’s sensitivity and its size is not well known. An intraspecies comparison among canal responses in each of three species (cat, squirrel monkey, and pigeon) was undertaken to evaluate various models of canal function and determine how their dimensions may be related to afferent physiology. All models predicted the responses of the cat afferents, but the models performed less well for squirrel monkey and pigeon. Possible causes for this discrepancy include incorrectly assuming that afferent responses accurately represent canal function, or errors in current biophysical models of the canals. These findings leave open the question as to how reliably canal anatomy can be used to estimate afferent responses and how closely afferent responses are related to behavior. Other labyrinthine features—such as orientation of the horizontal canal, which is reliably held near earth-horizontal across many species—may be better to use when extrapolating the posture and related behavior of extinct animals from labyrinthine morphology. PMID:16550591

  12. Neoplasms of Anal Canal and Perianal Skin

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, Daniel; Beddy, David; Dozois, Eric J.

    2011-01-01

    Tumors of the anus and perianal skin are rare. Their presentation can vary and often mimics common benign anal pathology, thereby delaying diagnosis and appropriate and timely treatment. The anatomy of this region is complex because it represents the progressive transition from the digestive system to the skin with many different co-existing types of cells and tissues. Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal is the most frequent tumor found in the anal and perianal region. Less-frequent lesions include Bowen's and Paget's disease, basal cell carcinoma, melanoma, and adenocarcinoma. This article aims to review the clinical presentation, diagnostic evaluation, and treatment options for neoplasms of the anal canal and perianal skin. PMID:22379406

  13. Simulation of acid water movement in canals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Truong, To; Tat Dac, Nguyen; Ngoc Phienc, Huynh

    1996-05-01

    An attempt to tackle the problem of the propagation of acid water in canals is described, and a mathematical model to simulate the acid water movement is developed, in which the jurbanite equilibrium is found to prevail. The processes of settling owing to sedimentation, precipitation and redissolution have been considered in the modelling. Data available from Tan Thanh, in the Plain of Reeds of the Mekong Delta in Viet Nam, are used as a case study.

  14. Membrane tethering.

    PubMed

    Chia, Pei Zhi Cheryl; Gleeson, Paul A

    2014-01-01

    Membrane trafficking depends on transport vesicles and carriers docking and fusing with the target organelle for the delivery of cargo. Membrane tethers and small guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases) mediate the docking of transport vesicles/carriers to enhance the efficiency of the subsequent SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor)-mediated fusion event with the target membrane bilayer. Different classes of membrane tethers and their specific intracellular location throughout the endomembrane system are now well defined. Recent biochemical and structural studies have led to a deeper understanding of the mechanism by which membrane tethers mediate docking of membrane carriers as well as an appreciation of the role of tethers in coordinating the correct SNARE complex and in regulating the organization of membrane compartments. This review will summarize the properties and roles of membrane tethers of both secretory and endocytic systems. PMID:25343031

  15. A Brief History of the Miami & Erie Canal at Andrew Schneider

    E-print Network

    Maynard, J. Barry

    A Brief History of the Miami & Erie Canal at Cincinnati Andrew Schneider 2010 All rights reserved #12;II. History of the Miami and Erie Canal in Cincinnati Dreams of a canal system that would cross. This proposal passed and the Miami and Erie Canal and Ohio and Erie Canal were constructed simultaneously under

  16. Backfilling canals to mitigate Wetland dredging in Louisiana coastal marshes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neill, Christopher; Turner, R. Eugene

    1987-11-01

    Returning canal spoil banks into canals, or backfilling, is used in Louisiana marshes to mitigate damage caused by dredging for oil and gas extraction. We evaluated 33 canals backfilled through July 1984 to assess the success of habitat restoration. We determined restoration success by examining canal depth, vegetation recolonization, and regraded spoil bank soils after backfilling. Restoration success depended on: marsh type, canal location, canal age, marsh soil characteristics, the presence or absence of a plug at the canal mouth, whether mitigation was on- or off-site, and dredge operator performance. Backfilling reduced median canal depth from 2.4 to 1.1 m, restored marsh vegetation on the backfilled spoil bank, but did not restore emergent marsh vegetation in the canal because of the lack of sufficient spoil material to fill the canal and time. Median percentage of cover of marsh vegetation on the canal spoil banks was 51.6%. Median percentage of cover in the canal was 0.7%. The organic matter and water content of spoil bank soils were restored to values intermediate between spoil bank levels and predredging marsh conditions. The average percentage of cover of marsh vegetation on backfilled spoil banks was highest in intermediate marshes (68.6%) and lowest in fresh (34.7%) and salt marshes (33.9%). Average canal depth was greatest in intermediate marshes (1.50 m) and least in fresh marshes (0.85 m). Canals backfilled in the Chenier Plain of western Louisiana were shallower (average depth = 0.61 m) than in the eastern Deltaic Plain (mean depth range = 1.08 to 1.30 m), probably because of differences in sediment type, lower subsidence rate, and lower tidal exchange in the Chenier Plain. Canals backfilled in marshes with more organic soils were deeper, probably as a result of greater loss of spoil volume caused by oxidation of soil organic matter. Canals ten or more years old at the time of backfilling had shallower depths after backfilling. Depths varied widely among canals backfilled within ten years of dredging. Canal size showed no relationship to canal depth or amount of vegetation reestablished. Plugged canals contained more marsh reestablished in the canal and much greater chance of colonization by submerged aquatic vegetation compared with unplugged canals. Dredge operator skill was important in leveling spoil banks to allow vegetation reestablishment. Wide variation in dredge performance led to differing success of vegetation restoration. Complete reestablishment of the vegetation was not a necessary condition for successful restoration. In addition to providing vegetation reestablishment, backfilling canals resulted in shallow water areas with higher habitat value for benthos, fish, and waterfowl than unfilled canals. Spoil bank removal also may help restore water flow patterns over the marsh surface. Increased backfilling for wetland mitigation and restoration is recommended.

  17. Root canal filling evaluation using optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negrutiu, Meda L.; Sinescu, Cosmin; Hughes, Michael; Bradu, Adrian; Todea, Carmen; Balabuc, Cosmin I.; Filip, Laura M.; Podoleanu, Adrian Gh.

    2008-04-01

    The root canal fillings are destined to seal the root canal especially in the apical areea. Invasive techniques are known which are used to assess the quality of the seal. These lead to the destruction of the probes and often no conclusion could be drawn in respect to the existence of any microleakage in the investigated areas of interest. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a relatively novel non-invasive imaging technique which presents potential in assessing the microleakage of the apical area in the root canal fillings with micron depth resolution. 3D reconstruction allows a complete view with obvious display of gaps in the apical root canal filling. For this study, 30 monoradicular teeth were prepared by conventional and rotative methods. Afterwards, root canal fillings were produced in each tooth. The images obtained show some microleakage in all the investigated root canal fillings. The advantages of the OCT method consist in non-invasiveness and high resolution.

  18. Efficacy of 3 Techniques in Removing Root Canal Filling Material

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emre Bodrumlu; Özgür Uzun; Özgür Topuz; Mustafa Semiz

    Objective: Retreatment of a root canal in the case of infection requires complete removal of previous filling material. This study evaluated the efficacy of 3 techniques in removing laterally compacted Resilon\\/Epiphany and gutta-percha\\/AH Plus from straight and curved canals during retreatment. Materials and Methods: Extracted human teeth (90 maxillary anterior teeth with single, straight root canals and 90 mandibular molars

  19. 9. EAST SIDE CANAL Photographic copy of historic photo, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. EAST SIDE CANAL - Photographic copy of historic photo, September 17, 1940 (original print in '1940 Annual Report of the Carlsbad Project,' located at the Carlsbad Irrigation District offices, Carlsbad, New Mexico) photographer unknown 'CCC ENROLLEES STARTING EXCAVATION FOR ROCK LINING DOWNSTREAM FROM STA. 22. EAST CANAL, LAT. #8' - Carlsbad Irrigation District, East Side Canal, 1 mile North to 2 miles East of Carlsbad, Carlsbad, Eddy County, NM

  20. 10. EAST SIDE CANAL Photographic copy of historic photo, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. EAST SIDE CANAL - Photographic copy of historic photo, December 3, 1940 (original print in '1940 Annual Report of the Carlsbad Project,' located at the Carlsbad Irrigation District offices, Carlsbad, New Mexico) photographer unknown 'LOOKING DOWN FROM STA. #22 LATERAL #8, EAST CANAL. AFTER CCC ENROLLEES FINISHED ROCK LINING' - Carlsbad Irrigation District, East Side Canal, 1 mile North to 2 miles East of Carlsbad, Carlsbad, Eddy County, NM

  1. GENERAL PLANS AND SECTIONS. WASTEWAY NO. 1. WELLTONMOHAWK CANAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL PLANS AND SECTIONS. WASTEWAY NO. 1. WELLTON-MOHAWK CANAL - STA. 99+23.50. United States Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation; Gila Project, Arizona, Wellton-Mohawk Division. Drawing No. 50-D-2422, dated January 19, 1949, Denver Colorado - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Wasteway No. 1, Wellton-Mohawk Canal, North side of Wellton-Mohawk Canal, bounded by Gila River to North & the Union Pacific Railroad & Gila Mountains to south, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  2. Efficiency of a transtympanic approach to the round window membrane using a microendoscope.

    PubMed

    Hiraumi, Harukazu; Nakagawa, Takayuki; Ito, Juichi

    2009-03-01

    There has been increasing interest in cochlear drug delivery through the round window membrane (RWM). However, placing drugs on the RWM is difficult because of anatomical barriers. We examined the efficacy of a microendoscope for a transtympanic approach to the RWM. We evaluated the visibility of the RWM using four approaches: transtympanic microendoscopic, transtympanic microscopic, transmastoid microendoscopic, and transmastoid microscopic in ten human temporal bones. For the transtympanic approach, we made a fenestration (2 x 1 mm) in the postero-inferior quadrant of the tympanic membrane. For the transmastoid approach, conventional posterior hypotympanotomy was performed. The transtympanic microendoscopic approach enabled visualization of the RWM in all specimens, whereas the transtympanic microscopic approach only permitted visualization in three specimens. Through the transmastoid approach, the RWM was visible in all specimens using either a microendoscope or a microscope. The transtympanic microendoscopic approach can be utilized for cochlear drug delivery through the RWM. PMID:18642015

  3. Computer simulation and capacity evaluation of Panama Canal alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Rosselli, A.T. [TAMS Consultants, Inc., New York, NY (United States); Bronzini, M.S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Center for Transportation Analysis; Weekly, D.A. [Army Corps of Engineers, Huntington, WV (United States). Navigation Planning Center

    1994-12-31

    The Operating Characteristics and Capacity Evaluation (OCCE) Study was one of the components of a group of studies of future alternatives to the Panama Canal, sponsored by a study commission formed by the governments of Panama, the US and Japan. The basic tool in the conduct of the study was the Waterway Analysis Model (WAM), developed originally by the US Army Corps of Engineers for use on the US inland waterway system and adapted under OCCE for study of Panama Canal alternatives. The study synthesized the many alternative plans for the Canal proposed historically into four basic groups: High-Rise Lock Canal, Low-Rise Lock Canal, Sea-Level Canal and Status Quo Canal. For economy, the sea-level cases were based on, essentially, a single-lane canal, in conjunction with the status quo canal. Hydraulic and navigation studies indicted that to achieve safe navigation, tide gates or locks would be required to control currents that would otherwise be generated by the differences in tides between the two oceans. The alternatives studied in detail are illustrated in the body of the paper.

  4. 12. VIEW OF WESTERN CANAL AT ALMA SCHOOL ROAD IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. VIEW OF WESTERN CANAL AT ALMA SCHOOL ROAD IN MESA, THE LOCATION AT WHICH THE PECK, PINE AND WALLACE FEEDERS FORMERLY JOINED TO FORM THE WESTERN CANAL. THE PECK AND PINE FEEDERS, NOW KNOWN AS LATERAL 9 AND LATERAL 10, AND ALMOST ENTIRELY PIPED, STILL JOIN THE WESTERN CANAL AT THIS POINT, BUT AN EQUALLY IMPORTANT SOURCE OF SUPPLY IS THE NUMEROUS GROUNDWATER PUMPS LOCATED ON THE SYSTEM. - Western Canal, South side of Salt River between Tempe, Phoenix & Mesa, Mesa, Maricopa County, AZ

  5. Ecto-ATPase activity sites in vestibular tissues: an ultracytochemical study in frog semicircular canals.

    PubMed

    Gioglio, Luciana; Russo, Giancarlo; Polimeni, Mariarosa; Prigioni, Ivo

    2003-02-01

    The present study describes the localization and distribution of putative ecto-nucleoside-triphosphate-diphosphohydrolases in the frog semicircular canals. These enzymes provide the terminating mechanism of adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) signalling. The localization of the ATP hydrolysis was mapped ultracytochemically using a one-step cerium citrate reaction. Electron-dense precipitates, indicating ecto-adenosine-triphosphatase (ecto-ATPase) activity, were found at the outer surface of plasma membranes of crista hair cells and supporting cells of the sensory epithelium, transitional cells and undifferentiated cells of the ampullar wall and dark cells constituting the secretory epithelium. Non-sensory cells of the ampulla usually exhibited reaction deposits at the level of both apical and basolateral membranes coming into contact with the endolymph and the perilymph respectively, while cells constituting the sensory epithelium showed evident differences in relation to their position. Hair cells and supporting cells of the peripheral regions exhibited clear reaction products both at the level of apical and basolateral membranes, while those of the isthmus region showed abundant reactivity only at the level of their apical membranes. Of particular interest was the observation that hair cell stereocilia exhibited an abundant ecto-ATPase activity, thus suggesting a possible colocalization of enzymatic sites with purinergic receptors and mechanotransduction channels. This strategic expression of ecto-ATPase sites could provide a rapid mechanism of ATP removal able to rapidly restore the sensitivity of transduction channels. In conclusion, the widespread distribution of ecto-ATPase sites at the level of sensory and non-sensory cells of the frog semicircular canals suggests that ATP may have a key role in controlling vestibular function. PMID:12583876

  6. Root canal preparation with Endo-Eze AET: changes in root canal shape assessed by micro-computed tomography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Paque ´; F. Barbakow; O. A. Peters

    2005-01-01

    PaqueF, Barbakow F, Peters OA. Root canal preparation with Endo-Eze AET: changes in root canal shape assessed by micro-computed tomography. International Endodontic Journal, 38, 456-464, 2005. Aim To evaluate the relative performance of Endo-Eze Anatomic Endodontic Technology (AET) stainless steel instruments when shaping maxillary molar root canals in vitro. Methodology Extracted human maxillary molars were scanned, before and after root

  7. A BRIEF HISTORY OF EXPRESS CANAL BOATS Around 1830, when the canal passage boat services were well established, a proprietor of

    E-print Network

    Wirosoetisno, Djoko

    A BRIEF HISTORY OF EXPRESS CANAL BOATS Around 1830, when the canal passage boat services were well his alarm when the boat rose up onto its bow wave and shot off along the canal at high speed. John,290 passenger trips in one year. The "Illustrated History of British Canals" by Charles Hadfield shows a tenfold

  8. 19 CFR 4.4 - Panama Canal; report of arrival required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Panama Canal; report of arrival required...Arrival and Entry of Vessels § 4.4 Panama Canal; report of arrival required. Vessels which merely transit the Panama Canal without transacting any...

  9. 19 CFR 4.4 - Panama Canal; report of arrival required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Panama Canal; report of arrival required...Arrival and Entry of Vessels § 4.4 Panama Canal; report of arrival required. Vessels which merely transit the Panama Canal without transacting any...

  10. 19 CFR 148.3 - Customs treatment after transiting the Panama Canal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Customs treatment after transiting the Panama Canal. 148.3 Section 148.3 ...Customs treatment after transiting the Panama Canal. Passengers' baggage and...States from vessels which have transited the Panama Canal are subject to Customs...

  11. 19 CFR 148.3 - Customs treatment after transiting the Panama Canal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Customs treatment after transiting the Panama Canal. 148.3 Section 148.3 ...Customs treatment after transiting the Panama Canal. Passengers' baggage and...States from vessels which have transited the Panama Canal are subject to Customs...

  12. 19 CFR 4.4 - Panama Canal; report of arrival required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Panama Canal; report of arrival required...Arrival and Entry of Vessels § 4.4 Panama Canal; report of arrival required. Vessels which merely transit the Panama Canal without transacting any...

  13. 19 CFR 148.3 - Customs treatment after transiting the Panama Canal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Customs treatment after transiting the Panama Canal. 148.3 Section 148.3 ...Customs treatment after transiting the Panama Canal. Passengers' baggage and...States from vessels which have transited the Panama Canal are subject to Customs...

  14. 19 CFR 4.4 - Panama Canal; report of arrival required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Panama Canal; report of arrival required...and Entry of Vessels § 4.4 Panama Canal; report of arrival required. Vessels which merely transit the Panama Canal without transacting any...

  15. 19 CFR 4.4 - Panama Canal; report of arrival required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Panama Canal; report of arrival required...and Entry of Vessels § 4.4 Panama Canal; report of arrival required. Vessels which merely transit the Panama Canal without transacting any...

  16. 19 CFR 148.3 - Customs treatment after transiting the Panama Canal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Customs treatment after transiting the Panama Canal. 148.3 Section 148.3...Customs treatment after transiting the Panama Canal. Passengers' baggage and...vessels which have transited the Panama Canal are subject to Customs...

  17. 19 CFR 148.3 - Customs treatment after transiting the Panama Canal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Customs treatment after transiting the Panama Canal. 148.3 Section 148.3...Customs treatment after transiting the Panama Canal. Passengers' baggage and...vessels which have transited the Panama Canal are subject to Customs...

  18. 76 FR 70349 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Albemarle and Chesapeake Canal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-14

    ...Intracoastal Waterway, Albemarle and Chesapeake Canal, Chesapeake, VA AGENCY: Coast Guard...Intracoastal Waterway, Albemarle and Chesapeake Canal, mile 12.0, at Chesapeake (Great Bridge...Intracoastal Waterway, Albemarle and Chesapeake Canal mile 12.0, at Chesapeake (Great...

  19. 75 FR 41520 - Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park Advisory Commission; Notice of Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-16

    ...National Park Service Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park Advisory Commission...that a meeting of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park Advisory Commission...Superintendent, Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park, is...

  20. 76 FR 28950 - Lynn Canal/Icy Straits Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-19

    ...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Lynn Canal/Icy Straits Resource Advisory Committee...SUMMARY: The Lynn Canal/Icy Straits Resource Advisory Committee...teleconference. Send written comments to Lynn Canal/Icy Straits Resource Advisory...

  1. 75 FR 65376 - Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park Advisory Commission; Notice of Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-22

    ...National Park Service Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park Advisory Commission...that a meeting of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park Advisory Commission...Superintendent, Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park, 1850 Dual...

  2. 75 FR 17158 - Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park Advisory Commission; Notice of Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-05

    ...National Park Service Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park Advisory Commission...that a meeting of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park Advisory Commission...Superintendent, Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park, 1850 Dual...

  3. 75 FR 4844 - Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park Advisory Commission; Notice of Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-29

    ...National Park Service Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park Advisory Commission...that a meeting of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park Advisory Commission...Superintendent, Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park, 1850 Dual...

  4. 33 CFR 117.661 - Duluth Ship Canal (Duluth-Superior Harbor).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 2010-07-01 false Duluth Ship Canal (Duluth-Superior Harbor). 117... Minnesota § 117.661 Duluth Ship Canal (Duluth-Superior Harbor). The draw of the Duluth Ship Canal bridge, mile 0.1 at Duluth,...

  5. 76 FR 21330 - Lynn Canal/Icy Straits Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-15

    ...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Lynn Canal/Icy Straits Resource Advisory Committee...SUMMARY: The Lynn Canal/Icy Straits Resource Advisory Committee...Alaska. Send written comments to Lynn Canal/Icy Straits Resource Advisory...

  6. 75 FR 63086 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Duluth Ship Canal (Duluth-Superior Harbor).

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-14

    ...Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Duluth Ship Canal (Duluth- Superior Harbor). AGENCY...regulation governing the operation of the Duluth Ship Canal Aerial Bridge at Mile 0.1 over the Duluth Ship Canal, at Duluth, MN, for scheduled...

  7. 76 FR 34145 - Safety Zone, Barrier Testing Operations, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Romeoville, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-13

    ...Testing Operations, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Romeoville, IL AGENCY: Coast...safety zone on the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal (CSSC) near Romeoville, IL. This...Testing Operations, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Romeoville, IL. (a)...

  8. Removal of a cholesteatoma in a dog, using a caudal auricular approach.

    PubMed

    Davidson, E B; Brodie, H A; Breznock, E M

    1997-12-15

    A new surgical method for treating cholesteatoma in dogs is described. Although rarely reported in dogs, cholesteatomas may be more common than previously believed. Complete excision of a cholesteatoma is associated with low recurrence and good long-term prognosis. Surgical intervention, with total ear canal ablation and lateral bulla osteotomy, has been recommended in dogs with tumors of the middle ear; however, this technique often results in conductive hearing loss. Through a caudal auricular approach to the tympanic bulla, we were able to preserve the external ear canal, reconstruct the auditory ossicles, and graft the tympanic membrane. Results of brain stem auditory-evoked response tests in the dog revealed intact conduction potentials. A caudal auricular approach to the tympanic bulla is technically possible, preserves normal appearance, and may maintain, or even improve, hearing conduction of affected ears in dogs. PMID:9412682

  9. Influence of Different Root Canal–Filling Materials on the Mechanical Properties of Root Canal Dentin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicola M. Grande; Gianluca Plotino; Luca Lavorgna; Pietro Ioppolo; Rossella Bedini; Cornelis H. Pameijer; Francesco Somma

    2007-01-01

    The aims of this study were to compare Resilon (Resilon Research LLC, Madison, CT) in conjunction with either a bonding (Epiphany; Pentron Clinical Technologies, Wallingford, CT) or a nonbonding endodontic sealer (Pulp Canal Sealer; Kerr Corporation, Orange, CA) to EndoRez (Ultradent Products Inc, South Jordan, UT) and gutta-percha with regards to the physical properties and flexural stress in standardized dentin

  10. Canalers and Conservationists: The Projected Cross-Florida Canal. Instructional Activities Series IA/S-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernald, Edward A.

    This activity is one of a series of 17 teacher-developed instructional activities for geography at the secondary-grade level described in SO 009 140. This activity investigates environmental quality employing the problem-solving technique. Using a map which shows the proposed route of the cross-Florida barge canal as a focal point, the teacher…

  11. Root canal filling evaluation using optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negrutiu, Meda L.; Sinescu, Cosmin; Topala, Florin; Nica, Luminita; Ionita, Ciprian; Marcauteanu, Corina; Goguta, Luciana; Bradu, Adrian; Dobre, George; Rominu, Mihai; Podoleanu, Adrian Gh.

    2010-04-01

    Endodontic therapy consists in cleaning and shaping the root canal system, removing organic debris and sealing the intra-canal space with permanent filling materials. The purpose of this study was to evaluate various root canal fillings in order to detect material defects, the marginal adaptation at the root canal walls and to assess the quality of the apical sealing. 21 extracted single-root canal human teeth were selected for this study. We instrumented all roots using NiTi rotary instruments. All canals were enlarged with a 6% taper size 30 GT instrument, 0,5 mm from the anatomical apex. The root canals were irrigated with 5% sodium hypochlorite, followed by 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). After the instrumentation was completed, the root canals were obturated using a thermoplasticizable polymer of polyesters. In order to assess the defects inside the filling material and the marginal fit to the root canal walls, the conebeam micro-computed tomography (CB?CT) was used first. After the CB?CT investigation, time domain optical coherence tomography working in en face mode (TDefOCT) was employed to evaluate the previous samples. The TDefOCT system was working at 1300 nm and was doubled by a confocal channel at 970 nm. The results obtained by CB?CT revealed no visible defects inside the root-canal fillings and at the interfaces with the root-canal walls. TDefOCT investigations permit to visualize a more complex stratificated structure at the interface filling material/dental hard tissue and in the apical region.

  12. Functional physiology of the semicircular canal ampulla.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, M

    2001-12-01

    Physiology of the semicircular canal (sc) was studied by applying different manipulations to the isolated frog sc. Function of the cupula was investigated by mapping out the mechanical sensitivity on the cupular surface and by removing and replacing the cupula. The cupula was found to be most essential for effective activation of sc receptors. Responses of sc receptors to direct temperature change were studied. The sc nerve discharge increased and decreased due to cool and warm temperature change respectively. This suggests a possibility of direct temperature effect as one of the mechanisms of caloric response. PMID:12101356

  13. [Characterization of bilateral superior canal dehiscence].

    PubMed

    Boleas Aguirre, María Soledad; Migliaccio, Americo; Carey, John

    2007-11-01

    In the superior canal dehiscence syndrome, patients can have sound- or pressure-induced vertigo and oscillopsia. They may also present conductive hearing loss or higher than normal bone conduction thresholds. Clinical manifestations are due to the effect of a third mobile window in the inner ear created by the dehiscence. Diagnosis is based on clinical manifestations, vertical and rotatory nystagmus induced by sound and pressure reflecting SSC stimulation, reduced threshold and increased amplitude of vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMP) and temporal bone CT scan images showing the SSC dehiscence. Characteristic eye movements can be recorded with the scleral search coil technique. PMID:17999910

  14. Spatial orientation of the angular vestibulo-ocular reflex (aVOR) after semicircular canal plugging and canal nerve section

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Mingjia; Raphan, Theodore; Suzuki, Jun-Ichi; Arai, Yasuko; Cohen, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    We investigated spatial responses of the aVOR to small and large accelerations in six canal-plugged and lateral canal nerve-sectioned monkeys. The aim was to determine whether there was spatial adaptation after partial and complete loss of all inputs in a canal plane. Impulses of torques generated head thrusts of ?3,000°/s2. Smaller accelerations of ?300°/s2 initiated the steps of velocity (60°/s). Animals were rotated about a spatial vertical axis while upright (0°) or statically tilted fore-aft up to ±90°. Temporal aVOR yaw and roll gains were computed at every head orientation and were fit with a sinusoid to obtain the spatial gains and phases. Spatial gains peaked at ?0° for yaw and ?90° for roll in normal animals. After bilateral lateral canal nerve section, the spatial yaw and roll gains peaked when animals were tilted back ?50°, to bring the intact vertical canals in the plane of rotation. Yaw and roll gains were identical in the lateral canal nerve-sectioned monkeys tested with both low- and high-acceleration stimuli. The responses were close to normal for high-acceleration thrusts in canal-plugged animals, but were significantly reduced when these animals were given step stimuli. Thus, high accelerations adequately activated the plugged canals, whereas yaw and roll spatial aVOR gains were produced only by the intact vertical canals after total loss of lateral canal input. We conclude that there is no spatial adaptation of the aVOR even after complete loss of specific semicircular canal input. PMID:21340443

  15. 3. Lower end of the Old Crosscut Canal, aerial view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Lower end of the Old Crosscut Canal, aerial view to north. The Old Crosscut runs top left to lower right, west of meat packing plant and stockyards. Photographer unknown, c. 1939. Source: Pueblo Grande Museum Cultural Park. - Old Crosscut Canal, North Side of Salt River, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  16. Decline in semicircular canal and otolith function with age

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Yuri; Zuniga, M. Geraldine; Davalos-Bichara, Marcela; Schubert, Michael C.; Walston, Jeremy D.; Hughes, Jennifer; Carey, John P.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To characterize the physiologic nature of the vestibular dysfunction that occurs with the normative aging process. Study design Cross-sectional study. Setting Tertiary care academic medical center. Patients Fifty individuals age 70 and above. Interventions Head thrust dynamic visual acuity testing (htDVA) and cervical and ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) testing. Main Outcome Measures Semicircular canal function measured by htDVA in each of the three semicircular canal planes, and saccular and utricular function measured by cVEMP and oVEMP testing, respectively. Results We observed significant declines in semicircular canal function in each of the canal planes as well as otolith function associated with aging. We found that individuals with impaired horizontal and superior semicircular canal function were likely to also have concomitant deficits in utricular but not saccular function. Overall, we noted that the prevalence of semicircular canal dysfunction was highest followed by saccular then utricular impairment, although we did observe individuals with isolated otolith deficits. Conclusions These data suggest an overall decline in semicircular canal as well as otolith function associated with aging, although the magnitude of impairment was greater for the semicircular canals than the otoliths in this elderly population. A better understanding of the specific vestibular deficits that occur with aging can inform the development of rational screening, vestibular rehabilitation and fall risk reduction strategies in older individuals. PMID:22699991

  17. 29. VIEW OF GRAND CANAL, LOOKING WEST TOWARD BROPHY PREP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. VIEW OF GRAND CANAL, LOOKING WEST TOWARD BROPHY PREP AND ST. FRANCIS CHURCH (compare this photograph with AZ-17-15, taken at the same spot in 1937). Photographer: Kevin Kreisel-Coons, May 1990 - Grand Canal, North side of Salt River, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  18. 22. VIEW OF GRAND CANAL, SHOWING OLD ALIGNMENT, LOOKING WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. VIEW OF GRAND CANAL, SHOWING OLD ALIGNMENT, LOOKING WEST FROM BELOW THE SETTLING BASIN (see HAER Photograph No. AZ-30-17, Crosscut Hydro Plant). Photographer: Mark Durben, April 1989 - Grand Canal, North side of Salt River, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  19. 67. CANAL TENDER'S HOUSE AT LOCK 2 EAST. DUE TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    67. CANAL TENDER'S HOUSE AT LOCK 2 EAST. DUE TO DETERIORATION OF THE BUILDINGS WALLS AND FOUNDATION, CABLES FROM AN INCLINED PLANE WERE WRAPPED AROUND THE HOUSE AND FASTENED TO PLANE RAILS PLACED ON OPPOSITE ENDS OF THE STRUCTURE. - Morris Canal, Phillipsburg, Warren County, NJ

  20. Improving the accuracy of canal seepage detection through geospatial techniques

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Muhammad Arshad

    2008-01-01

    With climatic change, many western states in the United States are experiencing drought conditions. Numerous irrigation districts are losing significant amount of water from their canal systems due to leakage. Every year, on the average 2 million acres of prime cropland in the US is lost to soil erosion, waterlogging and salinity. Lining of canals could save enormous amount of

  1. 35. MAIN CANAL Photographic copy of construction drawing c1907 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. MAIN CANAL - Photographic copy of construction drawing c1907 (from Record Group 115, Box17, Denver Branch of the National Archives, Denver) SPILLWAY ABOVE DARK CANYON SIPHON - Carlsbad Irrigation District, Main Canal, 4 miles North to 12 miles Southeast of Carlsbad, Carlsbad, Eddy County, NM

  2. 34. MAIN CANAL Photographic copy of construction drawing c1907 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. MAIN CANAL - Photographic copy of construction drawing c1907 (from Record Group 115, Box 17, Denver Branch of the National Archives, Denver) CHECK GATES ABOVE DARK CANYON SIPHON - Carlsbad Irrigation District, Main Canal, 4 miles North to 12 miles Southeast of Carlsbad, Carlsbad, Eddy County, NM

  3. 36. MAIN CANAL Photographic copy of construction drawing dated ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. MAIN CANAL - Photographic copy of construction drawing dated 1907 (from Record Group 115, Box 17, Denver Branch of the National Archives, Denver) WASTE GATES ABOVE DARK CANYON SIPHON - Carlsbad Irrigation District, Main Canal, 4 miles North to 12 miles Southeast of Carlsbad, Carlsbad, Eddy County, NM

  4. Faka Union Canal Weir #1, Collier County, Florida

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    The Faka Union Canal Weir #1 (Collier County, Florida) helps create a downstream hydrological haven for manatees. During the cold winter months, the right flow conditions can maintain a salinity gradient known as a halocline that traps warm water near the bottom of the residential canals at Port of ...

  5. Financial Failure? The Real Returns to the Blackstone Canal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jill Dupree

    2000-01-01

    The Blackstone Canal opened in 1828, ran from Worcester, MA to Providence, RI, ceased operation in 1848, and is widely held to be a financial failure, returning $4.10 in dividends on an original investment of $100.00. Yet, the canal is attributed with stimulating the economic success of Worcester and the valley of the Blackstone River, once considered the hardest working

  6. Convergence or reticulation? Mosaic evolution in the canalized American Amaryllidaceae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Canalization is defined as the suppression of phenotypic variation, or, in the context of molecular evolution, genetic buffering that has evolved under natural selection in order to stabilize the phenotype. Very little is understood on the processes behind canalization, even in today’s genomic era....

  7. Panama Canal One of the Greatest Engineering Feats of the

    E-print Network

    Provancher, William

    Panama Canal One of the Greatest Engineering Feats of the 20th Century #12;Panama Problem So, what's the Panama Problem? Treacherous trip around Cape Horn, the southernmost tip of South America Countless number;History - The French Attempt February 1, 1881 - France begins work on Panama Canal French Plan: dig

  8. 7. DETAIL OF DECK TRUSS SPANNING CANAL. THIS DECK TRUSS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. DETAIL OF DECK TRUSS SPANNING CANAL. THIS DECK TRUSS WA ALSO ERECTED IN 1893 AS PART OF AN EXTENSIVE RECONSTRUCTION OF THE BRIDGE. LOOKING NORTHEAST FROM SOUTH SIDE OF CANAL. - Illinois Central Railroad, Illinois River Bridge, Spanning Illinois River, La Salle, La Salle County, IL

  9. 62. VIEW SHOWING END OF THE ARIZONA CANAL AT SKUNK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    62. VIEW SHOWING END OF THE ARIZONA CANAL AT SKUNK CREEK, LOOKING WEST. DEMOSSING STATION IS LEFT OF CENTER AND DRAIN GATES ARE RIGHT OF CENTER Photographer: James Eastwood, July 1990 - Arizona Canal, North of Salt River, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  10. VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST, LOCK 35 IS ON THE RIGHT. CANAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST, LOCK 35 IS ON THE RIGHT. CANAL WORKERS ARE CLEANING TRASH GRATES TO LOCK 35 WATER INLET. ENTRANCE TO OLD LOCK 71 ON LEFT. NOTE THE SEDIMENT BUILD UP IN THE ENTRANCE CHANNEL TO OLD LOCK 71. - New York State Barge Canal, Lockport Locks, Richmond Avenue, Lockport, Niagara County, NY

  11. 10. CANAL CUT THROUGH SHALE BEDROCK ON PROMINENT POINT, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. CANAL CUT THROUGH SHALE BEDROCK ON PROMINENT POINT, LOOKING NORTH-NORTHEAST. NOTE CONCRETE ABUTMENTS PROBABLY INSTALLED IN 1935 TO PREVENT WATER FROM ESCAPING THROUGH A CANAL BANK BREACH. - Snake River Ditch, Headgate on north bank of Snake River, Dillon, Summit County, CO

  12. 8. FLUME BOX Y, LOOKING NORTH. CANAL HEADING RIGHT FOLLOWS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. FLUME BOX Y, LOOKING NORTH. CANAL HEADING RIGHT FOLLOWS HILLSIDE INTO DRAINAGE; FLUME HEADING LEFT CROSSED GULCH ON A TRESTLE. NOTE CONCRETE ABUTMENTS NEAR TOP RIGHT INSTALLED IN 1935 TO PREVENT WATER FROM ESCAPING CANAL AT OLD TRESTLE ENTRANCE. - Snake River Ditch, Headgate on north bank of Snake River, Dillon, Summit County, CO

  13. 14. ANGULAR QUARTZITE ROCK REINFORCEMENT ON INTERIOR OF OUTSIDE CANAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. ANGULAR QUARTZITE ROCK REINFORCEMENT ON INTERIOR OF OUTSIDE CANAL BANK, LOOKING SOUTH-SOUTHEAST. CANAL ROUTE VISIBLE ALONG HILLSIDE NEAR TOP LEFT. NOTE DILLON RESERVOIR, HIGHWAY 6, AND NEW RESIDENTIAL CONSTRUCTION AT RIGHT AND CENTER. - Snake River Ditch, Headgate on north bank of Snake River, Dillon, Summit County, CO

  14. 1. VIEW LOOKING NORTH FROM DEWATERED CANAL; HEADGATES AND INTAKE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW LOOKING NORTH FROM DEWATERED CANAL; HEADGATES AND INTAKE CHANNEL AT LEFT; GUARDLOCK AT CENTER; SHEET PILING THROUGH SITE OF TOWPATH AT RIGHT - Dundee Canal, Headgates, Guardlock & Uppermost Section, 250 feet northeast of Randolph Avenue, opposite & in line with East Clifton Avenue, Clifton, Passaic County, NJ

  15. 7. SAND FILTERS, CANAL TO LEFT. CONCRETE OVERFLOW AREA TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. SAND FILTERS, CANAL TO LEFT. CONCRETE OVERFLOW AREA TO LEFT OF CANAL ORIGINALLY PLANNED AS A STORAGE LAKE. VIEW LOOKING DUE WEST OF HINDS COMPLEX IN BACKGROUND OF SAND FILTERS. - Hinds Pump Plant, East of Joshua Tree National Monument, 5 miles north of Route 10, Hayfield, Riverside County, CA

  16. Original article Variation in the position of resin canals

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    the crown; and b), trees with marginal resin canals in the lower part of the crown followed in the rest of their crown. The frequency of the 2 types of tree varies between species and hybrids and also and provenances, 2 types of adult tree were dis- tinguished: a) trees with marginal resin canals throughout

  17. Estimating Canal Pool Resonance with Auto Tune Variation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Integrator-Delay (ID) model is commonly used to model canal pools which do not exhibit resonance behavior. Simple step tests are often used to estimate ID model parameters; namely, delay time and backwater surface area. These step tests change the canal inflow at the upstream end of the pool and...

  18. REACTIVITY MEASUREMENT FACILITY, UNDER CONSTRUCTION OVER MTR CANAL IN BASEMENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    REACTIVITY MEASUREMENT FACILITY, UNDER CONSTRUCTION OVER MTR CANAL IN BASEMENT OF MTR BUILDING, TRA-603. WOOD PLANKS REST ON CANAL WALL OBSERVABLE IN FOREGROUND. INL NEGATIVE NO. 11745. Unknown Photographer, 8/20/1954 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  19. Anatomo-radiological study of the Superior Semicircular Canal Dehiscence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Crovetto; J. Whyte; O. M. Rodriguez; I. Lecumberri; C. Martinez; J. Eléxpuru

    2010-01-01

    IntroductionThe main purpose of this study is to determine the radiological incidence of Superior (SSCD) and Posterior Semicircular Canal Dehiscence (PSCD) and to compare radiologic SSCD to the incidence of this condition on cadaver specimen. We have also analysed the relation between the ossification state of the semicircular canals and the degree of mastoid pneumatization and integrity of Tegmen Tympani.

  20. Carpal Canal Pressures after Volar Plating of Distal Radius Fractures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. A. FULLER; M. BARRETT; R. K. MARBURGER; R. HIRSCH

    2006-01-01

    Elevated pressures within the carpal canal are known to occur after distal radius fractures. Controversy exists regarding prophylactic carpal tunnel release after open reduction with internal fixation of distal radius fractures. The purpose of this study was to determine the tissue pressures within the carpal canal after volar plating of distal radius fractures. This study was a prospective, observational, IRB

  1. Locomotor head movements and semicircular canal morphology in primates

    PubMed Central

    Malinzak, Michael D.; Kay, Richard F.; Hullar, Timothy E.

    2012-01-01

    Animal locomotion causes head rotations, which are detected by the semicircular canals of the inner ear. Morphologic features of the canals influence rotational sensitivity, and so it is hypothesized that locomotion and canal morphology are functionally related. Most prior research has compared subjective assessments of animal “agility” with a single determinant of rotational sensitivity: the mean canal radius of curvature (R). In fact, the paired variables of R and body mass are correlated with agility and have been used to infer locomotion in extinct species. To refine models of canal functional morphology and to improve locomotor inferences for extinct species, we compare 3D vector measurements of head rotation during locomotion with 3D vector measures of canal sensitivity. Contrary to the predictions of conventional models that are based upon R, we find that axes of rapid head rotation are not aligned with axes of either high or low sensitivity. Instead, animals with fast head rotations have similar sensitivities in all directions, which they achieve by orienting the three canals of each ear orthogonally (i.e., along planes at 90° angles to one another). The extent to which the canal configuration approaches orthogonality is correlated with rotational head speed independent of body mass and phylogeny, whereas R is not. PMID:23045679

  2. 1. Drop Structure on the Arizona Crosscut Canal. Photographer unknown, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Drop Structure on the Arizona Crosscut Canal. Photographer unknown, no date. Note that caption is incorrect: in relation to Camelback Mountain (rear), this can only be the Old Crosscut. Source: reprinted from the 13th Annual Report of the U.S. Geological Survey, 1893. - Old Crosscut Canal, North Side of Salt River, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  3. Salt Content and Water Budget of The Suez Canal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SELIM A. MORCOS; GIRGIS F. SOLIMAN

    2001-01-01

    The water body in the Suez Canal is a combination of waters from differ- ent sources. Hence, its exact hydrographic structure is very difficult to define. Three main water masses are identified along the Canal on account of their salinity values: Levantine water mass I, the Suez Bay water mass II, and the Bitter Lake water mass IV, in addition

  4. The maximum shipping capacity of the Suez Canal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. D. Griffiths; Emtissal M. Hassan

    1977-01-01

    This paper considers the determination of the maximum shipping capacity of the Suez canal. Initially, some assumptions are made in order to calculate the ‘theoretical’ maximum capacity in terms of ‘standard ships’. This last term defines ships which transit the Canal at a given speed and at a given time interval from the vessel ahead and astern. Data has been

  5. CONCENTRATION OF NINE HEAVY METALS IN SUEZ CANAL WATERS, EGYPT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    EL SAMRA; ABD EL-AZIM

    2005-01-01

    The concentration of nine heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Ni, Cr, Co, Fe and Mn) in waters of the Suez Canal and in the nearby waters was measured seasonally during 1997 - 1998 in their dissolved (D) and particulate (P) forms. The results revealed that the northern part of the canal (at Port Said) recorded higher concentrations for most

  6. MTR CANAL IS FILLED WITH WATER. MAN STANDS ON MOVABLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR CANAL IS FILLED WITH WATER. MAN STANDS ON MOVABLE BRIDGE. NOTE CHAINS AND HOOK AT LEFT. THIS SECTION OF CANAL PROJECTED EAST BEYOND THE SITE OF THE MTR BUILDING. INL NEGATIVE NO. 6003. Unknown Photographer, 6/16/1952 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  7. Optimizing Indicator Choosing for Canal Control System and Simulation Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One Key problem for canal system control is how to select appropriate performance indicators and how to tune the controller with these indicators. A canal system is a multi-input and multi-output (MIMO) system. The judging of control performance can be extremely complicated. In this paper, frequentl...

  8. 63. CANAL BOAT IN CRADLE AT TOP OF PLANE. TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    63. CANAL BOAT IN CRADLE AT TOP OF PLANE. TO PASS OVER THE SUMMIT (THE HUMP OF LAND AT THE TOP OF PLANE TO HOLD BACK THE WATER AT THAT LEVEL), THE BOATS HAVE SEEN HINGED AND TWO CRADLES ARE USED TO CARRY THE BOAT UP THE PLANE. - Morris Canal, Phillipsburg, Warren County, NJ

  9. 33 CFR 117.589 - Cape Cod Canal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cape Cod Canal. 117.589 Section 117.589 Navigation and Navigable...Specific Requirements Massachusetts § 117.589 Cape Cod Canal. The draw of the Conrail railroad bridge, mile 0.7...

  10. 33 CFR 117.235 - Chesapeake and Delaware Canal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Chesapeake and Delaware Canal. 117.235 Section 117.235 Navigation and Navigable...Requirements Delaware § 117.235 Chesapeake and Delaware Canal. The draw of the Conrail bridge, mile 7.7,...

  11. 33 CFR 117.181 - Oakland Inner Harbor Tidal Canal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Oakland Inner Harbor Tidal Canal. 117.181 Section 117.181 Navigation and Navigable...Requirements California § 117.181 Oakland Inner Harbor Tidal Canal. The draws of the Alameda County highway...

  12. 33 CFR 117.586 - Annisquam River and Blynman Canal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Annisquam River and Blynman Canal. 117.586 Section 117.586 Navigation and Navigable... Massachusetts § 117.586 Annisquam River and Blynman Canal. The draw of the Blynman (SR127) Bridge shall...

  13. 33 CFR 117.239 - Lewes and Rehoboth Canal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lewes and Rehoboth Canal. 117.239 Section 117.239 Navigation and Navigable...Specific Requirements Delaware § 117.239 Lewes and Rehoboth Canal. (a) The draw of the Savannah Road/SR 18...

  14. 33 CFR 117.586 - Annisquam River and Blynman Canal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Annisquam River and Blynman Canal. 117.586 Section 117.586 Navigation and Navigable... Massachusetts § 117.586 Annisquam River and Blynman Canal. The draw of the Blynman (SR127) Bridge shall...

  15. PRELIMINARY RESULTS FOR DOWNSTREAM FEEDBACK CONTROL OF BRANCHING CANAL NETWORKS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over the last 40 years researchers have made various efforts to develop automatic feedback controllers for irrigation canals. However, most of this work has concentrated on feedback controllers for single, in-line canals with no branches. In practice it would be desirable to automate an entire can...

  16. 33 CFR 117.239 - Lewes and Rehoboth Canal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lewes and Rehoboth Canal. 117.239 Section 117.239 Navigation and Navigable...Specific Requirements Delaware § 117.239 Lewes and Rehoboth Canal. (a) The draw of the Savannah Road/SR 18...

  17. 33 CFR 117.181 - Oakland Inner Harbor Tidal Canal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Oakland Inner Harbor Tidal Canal. 117.181 Section 117.181 Navigation and Navigable...Requirements California § 117.181 Oakland Inner Harbor Tidal Canal. The draws of the Alameda County highway...

  18. 33 CFR 117.1051 - Lake Washington Ship Canal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lake Washington Ship Canal. 117.1051 Section 117.1051 Navigation and Navigable...Requirements Washington § 117.1051 Lake Washington Ship Canal. (a) When fog prevails by day or by night, the...

  19. 33 CFR 117.159 - Grant Line Canal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Grant Line Canal. 117.159 Section 117.159 Navigation and Navigable...Specific Requirements California § 117.159 Grant Line Canal. The draw of the San Joaquin County highway bridge,...

  20. 33 CFR 117.235 - Chesapeake and Delaware Canal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Chesapeake and Delaware Canal. 117.235 Section 117.235 Navigation and Navigable...Requirements Delaware § 117.235 Chesapeake and Delaware Canal. The draw of the Conrail bridge, mile 7.7,...

  1. 33 CFR 117.1051 - Lake Washington Ship Canal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lake Washington Ship Canal. 117.1051 Section 117.1051 Navigation and Navigable...Requirements Washington § 117.1051 Lake Washington Ship Canal. (a) When fog prevails by day or by night, the...

  2. RCRA closure of the Building 3001 Storage Canal

    SciTech Connect

    Etheridge, J.T.; Thompson, W.T.

    1992-09-01

    The 3001 Storage Canal is located under portions of Buildings 3001 and 3019 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and has a capacity of approximately 62,000 gallons of water. The term canal has historically been used to identify this structure, however, the canal is an in-ground reinforced concrete structure satisfying the regulatory definition of a tank. From 1943 through 1963, the canal in Building 3001 was designed to be an integral part of the system for handling irradiated fuel from the Oak Ridge Graphite Reactor. Because one of the main initial purposes of the reactor was to produce plutonium for the chemical processing pilot plant in Building 3019, the canal was designed to be the connecting link between the reactor and the pilot plant. During the war years, natural uranium slugs were irradiated in the reactor and then pushed out of the graphite matrix into the system of diversion plates and chutes which directed the fuel into the deep pit of the canal. After shutdown of the reactor, the canal was no longer needed for its designed purpose. Since 1964, the canal has only been used to store radioisotopes and irradiated samples under a water pool for radiation protection. This report describes closure alternatives.

  3. 33 CFR 117.495 - Superior Oil Canal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Superior Oil Canal. 117.495 Section 117.495 Navigation and Navigable...Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.495 Superior Oil Canal. The draw of the S82 bridge, mile 6.3, in...

  4. 33 CFR 117.849 - Muskingum River (Zanesville Canal).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Muskingum River (Zanesville Canal). 117.849 Section 117.849 Navigation and Navigable...Requirements Ohio § 117.849 Muskingum River (Zanesville Canal). The draw of the Conrail bridge, mile 77.1 at...

  5. 33 CFR 117.495 - Superior Oil Canal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Superior Oil Canal. 117.495 Section 117.495 Navigation and Navigable...Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.495 Superior Oil Canal. The draw of the S82 bridge, mile 6.3, in...

  6. 33 CFR 117.181 - Oakland Inner Harbor Tidal Canal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Oakland Inner Harbor Tidal Canal. 117.181 Section 117.181 Navigation and Navigable...Requirements California § 117.181 Oakland Inner Harbor Tidal Canal. The draws of the Alameda County highway...

  7. 33 CFR 117.586 - Annisquam River and Blynman Canal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Annisquam River and Blynman Canal. 117.586 Section 117.586 Navigation and Navigable... Massachusetts § 117.586 Annisquam River and Blynman Canal. The draw of the Blynman (SR127) Bridge shall...

  8. 33 CFR 117.159 - Grant Line Canal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Grant Line Canal. 117.159 Section 117.159 Navigation and Navigable...Specific Requirements California § 117.159 Grant Line Canal. The draw of the San Joaquin County highway bridge,...

  9. 33 CFR 117.849 - Muskingum River (Zanesville Canal).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Muskingum River (Zanesville Canal). 117.849 Section 117.849 Navigation and Navigable...Requirements Ohio § 117.849 Muskingum River (Zanesville Canal). The draw of the Conrail bridge, mile 77.1 at...

  10. 33 CFR 117.849 - Muskingum River (Zanesville Canal).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Muskingum River (Zanesville Canal). 117.849 Section 117.849 Navigation and Navigable...Requirements Ohio § 117.849 Muskingum River (Zanesville Canal). The draw of the Conrail bridge, mile 77.1 at...

  11. 33 CFR 117.495 - Superior Oil Canal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Superior Oil Canal. 117.495 Section 117.495 Navigation and Navigable...Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.495 Superior Oil Canal. The draw of the S82 bridge, mile 6.3, in...

  12. 33 CFR 117.239 - Lewes and Rehoboth Canal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lewes and Rehoboth Canal. 117.239 Section 117.239 Navigation and Navigable...Specific Requirements Delaware § 117.239 Lewes and Rehoboth Canal. (a) The draw of the Savannah Road/SR 18...

  13. 33 CFR 117.239 - Lewes and Rehoboth Canal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lewes and Rehoboth Canal. 117.239 Section 117.239 Navigation and Navigable...Specific Requirements Delaware § 117.239 Lewes and Rehoboth Canal. (a) The draw of the Savannah Road/SR 18...

  14. 33 CFR 117.589 - Cape Cod Canal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cape Cod Canal. 117.589 Section 117.589 Navigation and Navigable...Specific Requirements Massachusetts § 117.589 Cape Cod Canal. The draw of the Conrail railroad bridge, mile 0.7...

  15. 33 CFR 117.235 - Chesapeake and Delaware Canal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Chesapeake and Delaware Canal. 117.235 Section 117.235 Navigation and Navigable...Requirements Delaware § 117.235 Chesapeake and Delaware Canal. The draw of the Conrail bridge, mile 7.7,...

  16. 33 CFR 117.589 - Cape Cod Canal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cape Cod Canal. 117.589 Section 117.589 Navigation and Navigable...Specific Requirements Massachusetts § 117.589 Cape Cod Canal. The draw of the Conrail railroad bridge, mile 0.7...

  17. 33 CFR 117.239 - Lewes and Rehoboth Canal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lewes and Rehoboth Canal. 117.239 Section 117.239 Navigation and Navigable...Specific Requirements Delaware § 117.239 Lewes and Rehoboth Canal. (a) The draw of the Savannah Road/SR 18...

  18. 33 CFR 117.159 - Grant Line Canal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Grant Line Canal. 117.159 Section 117.159 Navigation and Navigable...Specific Requirements California § 117.159 Grant Line Canal. The draw of the San Joaquin County highway bridge,...

  19. 33 CFR 117.849 - Muskingum River (Zanesville Canal).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Muskingum River (Zanesville Canal). 117.849 Section 117.849 Navigation and Navigable...Requirements Ohio § 117.849 Muskingum River (Zanesville Canal). The draw of the Conrail bridge, mile 77.1 at...

  20. 33 CFR 117.589 - Cape Cod Canal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cape Cod Canal. 117.589 Section 117.589 Navigation and Navigable...Specific Requirements Massachusetts § 117.589 Cape Cod Canal. The draw of the Conrail railroad bridge, mile 0.7...