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1

Membranous band between the tympanic membrane and the external auditory canal.  

PubMed

Two cases of a membranous band between the tympanic membrane and the external auditory canal are presented. These characteristic structures are rare, but observed in several first branchial cleft anomalies. Neither patient presented with an infection. In Case 1, an eleven-year-old girl has this structure in her right ear. In Case 2, a thirteen-year-old boy has this structure in his left ear. Both patients demonstrated slight air-bone gaps in the affected ear with a pure-tone audiometric test, due to limited vibrations of the tympanic membrane. PMID:24525023

Kimitsuki, Takashi

2014-04-01

2

Development of the stratified squamous epithelium of the human tympanic membrane and external canal: the origin of auditory epithelial migration.  

PubMed

The development of the stratified squamous epithelium of the tympanic membrane and external canal was studied in 167 embryonic, fetal, and postnatal human ears. It originates as a tube derived from the epithelium of the fundus of the primary external canal (zone 1). The tube is composed of a thin, flat epithelium on the medial side (zone 2), continuous with a thicker one (zone 3) on the lateral side; zone 3 thereafter merges with the external epithelium of the primary external canal (zone 4). Proliferative activity, as indicated by a thickened epithelium, with rete ridges in later fetal life, is present mainly in zones 1 and 3. Cornification at 18 weeks gestation is followed by clearing of keratinous debris to the exterior. Subsequently the canal widens, zone 1 now covering the pars flaccida region, a tongue-shaped area passing inferiorly from it and a part of the postero-superior deep canal adjacent to it; zone 2 covers the pars tensa and zone 3 most of the deep external canal. On the basis of the original embryonic growth, migratory epithelial movement throughout life is postulated to be generated in zone 1 by mitotic interposition and then to pass to zone 2. It then moves en masse through to zone 3, where unilateral progression by mitotic means takes the epithelium up to the cartilaginous canal. Such a pathway is approximately that seen in the marked, living eardrum and canal. PMID:2756906

Michaels, L; Soucek, S

1989-04-01

3

[Tympanic membrane perforation ].  

PubMed

Tympanic membrane perforation may be caused by, e.g., trauma or acute or chronic middle ear infection. Perforation causes conductive hearing loss. Since it predisposes to infections, it is important to keep the ear dry. In most cases traumatic perforations heal spontaneously. Perforations caused by acute middle ear infections are treated with antibiotics. Chronic perforation due to chronic middle ear infection or cholesteatoma will usually not heal without surgery. Most perforation cases can be taken care of in primary care. ENT consultation is needed when alarming signs, such as continuous pain, vertigo or facial paralysis exist, or if the perforation persists. PMID:24822331

Sinkkonen, Saku T; Jero, Jussi; Aarnisalo, Antti A

2014-01-01

4

Three-dimensional acoustic waves in the ear canal and their interaction with the tympanic membrane.  

PubMed

The long and slender geometry of the ear canal supports an infinite number of cross-sectional acoustic modes. The lower mode(s) travel along the length of the ear canal, while the higher modes are trapped near the ends of the canal. Many of these waves are introduced as a result of the complex vibrational shape of the eardrum. A three-dimensional mathematical model of the ear canal is formulated that includes this acoustic interaction. The coupled system is solved using matched asymptotic expansions that take advantage of the small slenderness ratio. This solution in the ear canal is in the form of a series of modes, the first being the plane-wave solution. As an illustrative example, the analysis is applied to a geometry that partially represents the ear canal and eardrum of a cat. The results indicate that the plane-wave solution is supplemented by multidimensional trapped modes at low frequencies and by a limited number of traveling waves at high frequencies. The magnitude of these higher modes generally increases with frequency and can significantly influence the acoustic coupling of the ear. PMID:3356812

Rabbitt, R D; Holmes, M H

1988-03-01

5

Isolated primary squamous cell carcinoma of the tympanic membrane  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Primary squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the tympanic membrane is exceptionally rare. We describe the history, investigation and management of this disease. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 68-year-old woman presented with a three month history of intermittent otorrhoea and external ear canal (EAC) pruritus. Otoscopy revealed a polypoidal granular nodule, confined to the posterior aspect of the tympanic membrane. Examination under anaesthesia (EUA) confirmed that the lesion was confined to the tympanic membrane, with a surrounding rim of normal drum. Biopsies were consistent with well differentiated SCC. DISCUSSION Following discussion at multi-disciplinary team meeting for treatment planning, the patient underwent lateral temporal bone resection with ipsilateral superficial parotidectomy and selective neck dissection. Post-operative histology confirmed an SCC confined to the tympanic membrane. CONCLUSION SCC of the tympanic membrane is an extremely rare condition. As with early temporal bone SCC, surgical resection with adjacent structure clearance remains the primary treatment modality. PMID:23123413

Wijaya, Clifton; Leonard, David S.; Kinsella, John B.; McShane, Donald P.

2012-01-01

6

Laser vibrometry for investigation of tympanic membrane implant materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The human tympanic membrane has reasonably good sound sensing properties. A destroyed tympanic membrane due to middle ear diseases or traumata may be repaired by different types of grafts. Middle ear surgery mostly uses autologous temporal fascia, cartilage, or cartilage perichondrium transplants. We have investigated the acoustical and mechanical properties of these materials and compared them with human tympanic membrane by constructing an ear canal model completed by an artificial tympanic membrane. Circular stretched human fascia, perichondrium, and cartilage preparations were exposed to static pressures up to 4 kPa and white noise sound pressure levels of 70 dB. The vibrational amplitudes and displacements due to static pressure of the graft material were measured by laser Doppler vibrometry and compared. The thin materials temporal fascia and perichondrium show similar amplitude frequency responses compared to the tympanic membrane for dynamic excitation. The displacement of these materials at static pressures above 4 kPA yields a higher compliance than tympanic membrane. The acoustical and mechanical properties of cartilage transplants change with the thickness of the slices. However, the thinner the cartilage slice combined with lower stability, the more similar is the frequency response with the intact tympanic membrane. The vibration amplitudes decrease more and more for layer thicknesses above 500 micrometers. Cartilage acts as an excellent transplant material which provides a better prognosis than different materials in cases of ventilation disorders with long-term middle ear pressure changes. Large cartilage slice transplants should not exceed layer thicknesses of 500 micrometer in order to prevent drawbacks to the transfer characteristics of the tympanic membrane.

Zahnert, Thomas; Kuster, Manfred; Vogel, Uwe; Hofmann, Gert; Huettenbrink, Karl-Bernd

1996-12-01

7

Epithelial migration on the canine tympanic membrane.  

PubMed

Epithelial migration (EM) is a process that serves as a self-cleaning and repair mechanism for the ear canal and tympanic membrane (TM). Epithelial migration has been evaluated in humans and several other species, but not in dogs. The objective of this study was to determine the rate and pattern of EM on the TM in clinically normal laboratory dogs. Eighteen dogs were anaesthetized, and three drops of waterproof drawing ink were placed on two sites of the pars tensa (PT) and one on the pars flaccida (PF). Images were recorded with a video otoscope and digital capture system. Each dog was evaluated and images were recorded every 6-8 days for four evaluations. Migration pattern analysis and EM rate calculation were performed with image-processing software. Descriptive statistics for EM rate (mean, SD, 95% confidence interval) were calculated for all ink-drop locations on the TM (PT1, PT2 and PF) at each time point. No significant differences in the mean EM rates were identified between right and left ears of the fox hounds breeds (beagle or fox hound), or locations PT1 and PT2. The mean overall EM rates (± SD) were 96.4 (± 43.1) and 225.4 (± 128.1) ?m/day for the PT and PF, respectively. All ink drops moved outwards, the majority in a radial direction, from the original location to the periphery of the TM. The ink-drop placement method used in this study can be used in future studies to determine the EM rate of the canine TM. PMID:21535257

Tabacca, Natalie E; Cole, Lynette K; Hillier, Andrew; Rajala-Schultz, Päivi J

2011-12-01

8

Development of a tympanic membrane model for laser myringotomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigates guinea-pig and horse tympanic membranes, sheep dura and chicken eggshell membranes in terms of thickness, histology and tissue interaction with the carbon-dioxide and the erbium:YAG laser. Comparison with formalin-fixed human tympanic membranes as reference structure has provided a suitable model for further research in laser myringotomy. The horse tympanic membrane seems to meet our demands regarding the three parameters mentioned above.

Sedlmaier, Benedikt W.; Bloedow, Alexander; Jovanovic, Sergije

1997-05-01

9

The morphology of central tympanic membrane perforations.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to assess the extent of conductive hearing loss in relation to different sizes and sites of simple central tympanic membrane perforations. Total 100 cases attending ENT OPD, BPKIHS during period of April 2003 to Mar 2004 without any discrimination of sex, race and religion were taken for the cross sectional prospective study. Dry, clean central tympanic membrane perforations due to various causes like chronic suppurative otitis media-tubotympanic, post acute suppurative otitis media residual perforations or simple traumatic perforations with conductive hearing loss and without preexisting hearing loss were clinicoaudiologically evaluated and analyzed. Hearing loss was found to be directly proportional to the size of perforation irrespective of their cause, which was statistically significant. Hearing loss in the study was found to range from negligible to 53dB. Overall, perforations involving posterioinferior quadrant were found to have maximum hearing loss. PMID:18298012

Nepal, A; Bhandary, S; Mishra, S C; Singh, I; Kumar, P

2007-12-01

10

[Extrameatal myringoplasty in the treatment of tympanic membrane perforations].  

PubMed

The clinical analysis of the patients after tympanic membrane reconstruction with the temporal muscle fascia has been conducted. The total number of 145 patients, operated at the Otosurgery Department Medical University of Lodz, was divided into 2 Groups. Group 1 (n = 75) patients with chronic otitis media (central perforation and mobile ossicular chain). The preoperative mean conductive hearing deficit of 20 dB was observed in all evaluated patients. After surgery a satisfactory hearing improvement was observed in 90% of the patients. Group 2 (n = 70) patients with the reconstructed postero-superior part of the tympanic membrance and if necessary external auditory canal wall reconstruction. The mean conductive hearing deficit of up to 30 dB was observed before the surgery. Postoperatively in 75% of patients the hearing improvement was observed as well as the satisfactory healing of fascia implant. The postoperative evaluation indicates a better hearing improvement after the myringoplasties with the prefascial lamina than in the myringoplasties performed in the traditional ways. PMID:9757709

Durko, T; Latkowski, B

1997-01-01

11

Traumatic tympanic membrane perforations: complications and management.  

PubMed

There is great diversity in the methods of treating traumatic perforations of the tympanic membrane. To elucidate the controversy, we present a long-term follow-up study of 37 patients. On the basis of our present study and available relevant data in the literature, we emphasize that early surgical intervention of a traumatic myringeal perforation is not indicated, as most of these perforations (an average of 88%) do heal spontaneously without complications. However, we stress the importance of performing a meticulous auditory and vestibular examination with close follow-up and repeat audiograms in all patients with acute traumatic myringoruptures to provide enough information for diagnosis of a major perilymph leak that would warrant operation. Myringeal perforations or major conductive hearing losses persisting 3 months after injury warrant tympanotomy and appropriate reconstruction. PMID:2676466

Kristensen, S; Juul, A; Gammelgaard, N P; Rasmussen, O R

1989-07-01

12

Otoscope fogging: examination finding for perforated tympanic membrane.  

PubMed

The author reports a recently recognised physical examination finding, otoscope fogging, for perforated tympanic membrane. Otoscope fogging is defined as condensation forming in the view field of the otoscope while inspecting the ear. In the setting of occult perforation secondary to the inability to visualise the entire tympanic membrane, otoscope fogging may provide the clinician with valuable information since medical management may differ if perforation is present. PMID:24879720

Naylor, Jason F

2014-01-01

13

Measurements of the tympanic membrane with digital holographic interferometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper a digital holographic interferometry (DHI) system with three object-illumination beams is used for the first time to detect and measure micrometer deformations on the surface of a tympanic membrane. Using this optical setup allows all three object displacement components x, y, and z, to be independently calculated. The corresponding deformations are registered using a cw laser in stroboscopic mode and a CCD camera synchronized to the excitation acoustic wave that produces a resonant vibration mode on the tympanic membrane surface. A series of digital holographic interferograms record the displacements undergone by the tympanic membrane and from them full field deformation phase maps are obtained. From the latter it is possible to observe the displacement of the tympanic membrane in response to the sound pressure. The study was performed on the tympanic membrane taken from a post-mortem cat. The results show the feasibility to apply a similar optomechanical arrangement for the study in humans, representing an alternative technique for the study of pathologies in the tympanic membrane.

Muńoz Solís, S.; Mendoza Santoyo, F.; Del Socorro Hernández-Montes, M.

2011-08-01

14

Prognosis and outcome of the tympanic membrane flap at traumatic tympanic membrane perforation edge.  

PubMed

This study aimed to retrospectively evaluate the prognosis and outcome of tympanic membrane perforations with a particular focus on the fate of the perforation edge flaps.Chart records of 329 patients with a single ear traumatic tympanic membrane perforation were retrieved and analyzed. Of these patients, 70 were left to heal spontaneously, 93 received gelatin sponge patching treatment and 114 were subjected to otoendoscopic eardrum repair before gelatin sponge patching. The complete perforation closure rate at 3 months was 94.29% (66/70), 98.92% (92/93) and 98.24% (112/114) in the 3 groups, respectively, with no statistically significant difference (p = 0.608). The mean closure time was 28.2 ± 3.6 days in the spontaneous healing group, which was significantly longer than that in the sponge patching group (11.1 ± 2.1 days, p = 0.0017) and in the eardrum repair + sponge patching group (12.5 ± 1.9 days, p = 0.0032), while there was no significant difference between the 2 gelatin sponge patching groups (p = 1.86). The hearing ability improved in the 3 groups (6.4 ± 0.83, 7.2 ± 1.65 and 9.6 ± 2.37 dB, respectively), with no statistically significant difference (p >0.05). In the gelatin sponge patching group, new tympanic membrane tissue of the eardrum flap edge proliferated, and the contour of the eardrum flap was not obvious. In the eardrum flap repair group, the eardrum flap retracted to the perforation edge. In conclusion, the eardrum flap of the perforation edge does not have any obvious effect on the perforation closure so that it is unnecessary to conduct an intervention procedure on the flap in the clinical treatment. PMID:21757967

Lou, Zheng-Cai; Hu, Yun-Xing; Tang, Yong-Mei

2011-01-01

15

Scaffolds for Tympanic Membrane Regeneration in Rats  

PubMed Central

Tympanic membrane (TM) perforations lead to significant hearing loss and result in possible infection of the middle ear. Myringoplasty is commonly performed to repair chronic perforations. Although various grafts and materials have been used to promote TM regeneration, all have associated limitations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and feasibility of two graft materials, silk fibroin scaffold (SFS) and porcine-derived acellular collagen type I/III scaffold (ACS), compared with two commonly used graft materials (paper patch and Gelfoam) for the promotion of TM regeneration. These scaffolds were implanted using on-lay myringoplasty in an acute TM perforation rat model. Surface morphology of the scaffolds was observed with scanning electron microscopy. The morphology of the TM was assessed at various time points postimplantation using otoscopy, light and electron microscopy, and functional outcomes by auditory brainstem responses. We found that SFS and ACS significantly accelerated the TM perforation closure, obtained optimal TM thickness, and resulted in better trilaminar morphology with well-organized collagen fibers and early restoration of hearing. However, paper patch and Gelfoam lost their scaffold function in the early stages and showed an inflammatory response, which may have contributed to delayed healing. This study indicates that compared with paper patch and Gelfoam, SFS and ACS are more effective in promoting an early TM regeneration and an improved hearing, suggesting that these scaffolds may be potential substitutes for clinical use. PMID:23092139

Shen, Yi; Redmond, Sharon Leanne; Teh, Bing Mei; Yan, Sheng; Wang, Yan; Zhou, Lin; Budgeon, Charley A.; Eikelboom, Robert Henry; Atlas, Marcus David; Dilley, Rodney James

2013-01-01

16

Moire-shift interferometer measurements of the shape of human and cat tympanic membrane  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The shape of the tympanic membrane is fairly complicated and seems to be of significant importance in the coupling of the acoustic sound pressure in the external ear canal to the motion of the middle ear ossicles. Precise measurements of the tympanic membrane shape are not available in literature. To measure the shape of a very thin, curved biological membrane a technique is required which does not deform the surface during the measurement. Casting techniques are therefore not well suited. A noncontacting measurement technique based on moire interferometry proved to be a better tool. A moire shift interferometer was used to measure with great precision the shape of the external surface of human and cat tympanic membrane. The dense matrix of z(x,y) values thus obtained does not only describe the shape with high spatial resolution but may also be used to calculate different geometrical parameters. As an example of direct application the authors have calculated the area of the curved surface to the pars tensa and pars flaccida for a human and a cat tympanic membrane.

Decraemer, Willem F.; Dirckx, Joris J.

1991-08-01

17

Effects of different IR laser systems on the tympanic membrane  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lasers suitable for myringotomy are the erbium:YAG laser (2940 nm) and the carbon-dioxide laser (10600 nm). The study examines the laser-tissue interaction with tympanic membranes of guinea-pigs, horses and formalin-fixed human tympanic membranes and the effects demonstrated by light-microscopy and scanning-electron-microscopy. The minimum energy densities for a perforation with the erbium:YAG laser in guinea-pig ear drums and formalin-fixed human tympanic membranes are 8 J/cm2 and 16 J/cm2 respectively. There are no thermic side effects. With the carbon-dioxide laser thermic side effects only occur with energy transmission via silver halide polycrystalline fiber. The minimum power density for perforation is 400 W/cm2 (pulse duration 50 ms). With the microslad 719 micromanipulator (Sharplan, Israel, Tel Aviv), the minimum power densities for perforation of guinea-pig and horse eardrums and for formalin-fixed human tympanic membranes are 150 W/cm2, 300 W/cm2 and 600 W/cm2 (pulse duration: 50 ms) respectively. The minimum power density to achieve a perforation with the SwiftLaseTM 757 scanner (Sharplan, Israel, Tel Aviv), is 250 W/cm2 in guinea-pig eardrums (pulse duration: 100 ms). A prototype of a hand-held carbon-dioxide laser otoscope is suitable for performing laser myringotomies in formalin-fixed human tympanic membranes.

Sedlmaier, Benedikt W.; Bloedow, Alexander; Jovanovic, Sergije; Nagli, Lev; Eberle, Hans-Georg

1997-05-01

18

Endoscopic optical coherence tomography for imaging the tympanic membrane  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an imaging modality that enables micrometer-scale contactless subsurface imaging of biological tissue. Endoscopy, as another imaging method, has the potential of imaging tubular organs and cavities and therefore has opened up several application areas not accessible before. The combination of OCT and endoscopy uses the advantages of both methods and consequently allows additional imaging of structures beneath surfaces inside cavities. Currently, visual investigations on the surface of the human tympanic membrane are possible but only with expert eyes. up to now, visual imaging of the outer ear up to the tympanic membrane can be carried out by an otoscope, an operating microscope or an endoscope. In contrast to these devices, endoscopy has the advantage of imaging the whole tympanic membrane with one view. The intention of this research is the development of an endoscopic optical coherence tomography (EOCT) device for imaging the tympanic membrane depth-resolved and structures behind it. Detection of fluids in the middle ear, which function as an indicator for otitis media, could help to avoid the application of antibiotics. It is possible to detect a congeries of fluids with the otoscope but the ambition is to the early detection by OCT. The developed scanner head allows imaging in working distances in the range from zero up to 5 mm with a field of view of 2 mm. In the next step, the scanner head should be improved to increase the working distance and the field of view.

Burkhardt, Anke; Walther, Julia; Cimalla, Peter; Bornitz, Matthias; Koch, Edmund

2011-06-01

19

[A clinical study of traumatic tympanic membrane perforation].  

PubMed

We reviewed 165 cases of traumatic tympanic membrane perforation treated in the last 9 years (2000-2008). Of these, 103 sustained direct injury and 62 indirect injury. Ear picking accounted for 90.3% of direct injuries. Perforation size followed the classification of Yoshikawa, with Grade I perforation the most common, according for 129 (78.2%). The anteroinferior quadrant perforation site was the most common, with 98 (59.4%). Of the 165, 66 were lost during followup. Of the remaining 99, perforations closed spontaneously in 85 (85.9%), within a mean 25.9 days. Tympanoplasty was done in 14, in whom postoperative hearing improved in 12. The remaining 2 had ossicular fractures associated with perilymph fistula. In the 14 undergoing surgery, tympanic membrane perforation relapsed in 4 and 2 developed cholesteatoma as tympanoplasty sequelae. PMID:20845710

Yamazaki, Kazuharu; Ishijima, Ken; Sato, Hiroaki

2010-08-01

20

Vibration analysis of the tympanic membrane with a ventilation tube and a perforation by holography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For severe otitis media with effusion, insertion of a ventilation tube is performed for the purpose of ventilation of the middle ear cavity and normalization of the eustachian tubular function and middle ear mucosa. The ventilation tube is left in place for as long as several months or even a few years. However, the influence of the indwelling tube on vibration of the tympanic membrane is unknown. Therefore, the authors observed the influence by means of time-averaged holography using human tympanic membranes. The following results were obtained. After insertion of a ventilation tube, vibration pattern of the tympanic membrane was not obviously changed, but the vibration amplitude of the tympanic membrane was decreased, especially at 500 Hz. Generally speaking, the change caused by insertion of a ventilation tube was very small. Also, the vibration pattern of perforated tympanic membrane was not changed, but the vibration amplitude of perforated tympanic membrane was decreased at the low frequency area.

Maeta, Manabu; Kawakami, Shinichiro; Ogawara, Toshiaki; Masuda, Yu

1991-08-01

21

External and middle ear sound pressure distribution and acoustic coupling to the tympanic membrane  

E-print Network

External and middle ear sound pressure distribution and acoustic coupling to the tympanic membrane ear by the diaphanous, cone-shaped tympanic membrane (TM). The TM moves in a complex manner and transmits sound signals to the inner ear with high fidelity, pressure gain, and a short delay. Miniaturized

Olson, Elizabeth S.

22

Localization and proliferation of lymphatic vessels in the tympanic membrane in normal state and regeneration  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: •We newly developed the whole-mount imaging method of the tympanic membrane. •Lymphatic vessel loops were localized around the malleus handle and annulus tympanicus. •In regeneration, abundant lymphatic vessels were observed in the pars tensa. •Site-specific lymphatic vessels may play an important role in the tympanic membrane. -- Abstract: We clarified the localization of lymphatic vessels in the tympanic membrane and proliferation of lymphatic vessels during regeneration after perforation of the tympanic membrane by using whole-mount imaging of the tympanic membrane of Prox1 GFP mice. In the pars tensa, lymphatic vessel loops surrounded the malleus handle and annulus tympanicus. Apart from these locations, lymphatic vessel loops were not observed in the pars tensa in the normal tympanic membrane. Lymphatic vessel loops surrounding the malleus handle were connected to the lymphatic vessel loops in the pars flaccida and around the tensor tympani muscle. Many lymphatic vessel loops were detected in the pars flaccida. After perforation of the tympanic membrane, abundant lymphatic regeneration was observed in the pars tensa, and these regenerated lymphatic vessels extended from the lymphatic vessels surrounding the malleus at day 7. These results suggest that site-specific lymphatic vessels play an important role in the tympanic membrane.

Miyashita, Takenori, E-mail: takenori@med.kagawa-u.ac.jp [Department of Otolaryngology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, Kagawa 761-0793 (Japan)] [Department of Otolaryngology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, Kagawa 761-0793 (Japan); Burford, James L. [Department of Physiology and Biophysics and Department of Medicine, Zilkha Neurogenetic Institute, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90033 (United States)] [Department of Physiology and Biophysics and Department of Medicine, Zilkha Neurogenetic Institute, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90033 (United States); Hong, Young-Kwon [Department of Surgery and Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90033 (United States)] [Department of Surgery and Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90033 (United States); Gevorgyan, Haykanush; Lam, Lisa [Department of Physiology and Biophysics and Department of Medicine, Zilkha Neurogenetic Institute, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90033 (United States)] [Department of Physiology and Biophysics and Department of Medicine, Zilkha Neurogenetic Institute, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90033 (United States); Mori, Nozomu [Department of Otolaryngology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, Kagawa 761-0793 (Japan)] [Department of Otolaryngology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, Kagawa 761-0793 (Japan); Peti-Peterdi, Janos [Department of Physiology and Biophysics and Department of Medicine, Zilkha Neurogenetic Institute, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90033 (United States)] [Department of Physiology and Biophysics and Department of Medicine, Zilkha Neurogenetic Institute, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90033 (United States)

2013-10-25

23

The relation between tympanic membrane higher order modes and standing waves  

E-print Network

The relation between tympanic membrane higher order modes and standing waves Jont B. Allen Dept of the specific relation between Tympanic Membrane (TM) higher order modes, and the existence of standing waves modes on the TM [3, 5, 22, 23], consistent with TM standing waves. Here we shall discuss these new

Allen, Jont

24

Cortical Representation of Tympanic Membrane Movements due to Pressure Variation: An fMRI Study  

E-print Network

Agnès JOB 1 Cortical Representation of Tympanic Membrane Movements due to Pressure Variation: An fMRI Joseph Fourier, Institut des Neurosciences de Grenoble, France Short title : fMRI study of tympanic movements Keywords: middle ear; somatosensory cortex; hearing; fMRI; acoustic reflex; BA43; Eustachian tube

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

25

Tympanic membrane retraction pocket staging: is it worthwhile?  

PubMed

Our objectives were to review all reported staging systems of tympanic membrane (TM) retraction pockets (RP) and to report their reliability and utility to our daily clinical practice in terms of follow-up and decision making in the management of RP. We aim to propose a new management algorithm of TMRPs. We conducted a thorough research on Ovid Medline, Pubmed and Cochrane databases for English and French languages studies published between 1963 and 2012 on the retraction pocket. Studies were excluded if it were a short comments, photo clinical cases, experimental studies or round table articles. Cholesteatoma was not included in keywords, since it is considered as an advanced pathological entity with different staging and management approaches. We included 60 of 756 articles that met our inclusion criteria. Sadé and Berco proposed the first staging system of RP in 1976, while the last one was described by Borgstein et al. in 2007. From 1976 to 2007, 12 different staging systems have been described for tympanic membrane retractions. There are three broad categories of TMRPs: localized retractions of the pars tensa, generalized retractions of the pars tensa (atelectasis) and retraction of the pars flaccida. Most of the described staging systems are useful for following up the evolution of retractions over time. However, no consensus was found concerning the decision making in its management. In conclusion, proper management of TMRPs requires a reproducible, easily applicable staging system with low inter- and intra-observer variability. We propose a management algorithm that considers the functional handicap of the patient rather than the topographic description of the TM. PMID:23892691

Alzahrani, Musaed; Saliba, Issam

2014-06-01

26

In vitro tympanic membrane position identification with a co-axial fiber-optic otoscope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Otitis media diagnosis can be assisted by measuring the shape of the tympanic membrane. We have developed an ear speculum for an otoscope, including spatially distributed source and detector optical fibers, to generate source-detector intensity matrices (SDIMs), representing the curvature of surfaces. The surfaces measured were a model ear with a latex membrane and harvested temporal bones including intact tympanic membranes. The position of the tympanic membrane was shifted from retracted to bulging by air pressure and that of the latex membrane by water displacement. The SDIM was normalized utilizing both external (a sheared flat plastic cylinder) and internal references (neutral position of the membrane). Data was fitted to a two-dimensional Gaussian surface representing the shape by its amplitude and offset. Retracted and bulging surfaces were discriminated for the model ear by the sign of the Gaussian amplitude for both internal and external reference normalization. Tympanic membranes were separated after a two-step normalization: first to an external reference, adjusted for the distance between speculum and the surfaces, and second by comparison with an average normally positioned SDIM from tympanic membranes. In conclusion, we have shown that the modified otoscope can discriminate between bulging and retracted tympanic membranes in a single measurement, given a two-step normalization.

Sundberg, Mikael; Peebo, Markus; Strömberg, Tomas

2011-09-01

27

The effect of smooth muscle antagonists on the sound-induced motion of the tympanic membrane  

E-print Network

The pars tensa of the tympanic membrane is composed of three layers: an epidermal layer, a fibrous layer, and a mucosal layer. Recent studies (Kuijpers et al, 1999; Henson and Henson, 2000; Henson et al, 2005) suggest that ...

Graves, Amanda J. (Amanda Jean)

2005-01-01

28

Measurement of hearing loss due to perforated tympanic membrane using image processing techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The tympanic membrane (ear drum) is a thin tissue film that is stretched between the outer and middle ear. Sound waves travel from outside the ear, and strike the tympanic membrane resulting in its vibration. These vibrations amplify the sound waves and transmit them to the ossicles (auditory bones). The magnitude of amplification is directly proportional to vibrating area of tympanic membrane. Hence a perforation in this membrane would result in hearing loss. Pure-tone audiometry is the traditional procedure used to detect the amount of hearing loss in a patient. However, it is lengthy and less efficient, as it largely depends on the response of the patient to sound intensity and frequency of pure-tones. We present a relatively more efficient approach to determine hearing loss due to perforated tympanic membrane using image processing techniques. We describe an algorithm that uses unsharp masking to sharpen images of the perforations as well as the tympanic membrane. Then, it converts the image into a binary image using thresholding. A median filter is applied to get rid of the noise component in the image. The ratio of the area of perforation and total area of tympanic membrane will define the percentage of hearing loss. Our approach will eliminate the error introduced due to patient dependency as in the traditional method.

Sardesai, Neha; Sardesai, Ravindra; Chang, Chein-I.

2014-05-01

29

New Data on the Motion of the Normal and Reconstructed Tympanic Membrane  

PubMed Central

Hypothesis The sound-induced motion of the tympanic membrane has features that are most consistent with modal responses to a uniform stimulus. Background Conceptual models of the coupling of tympanic-membrane motion to the ossicular chain can be classified as either modal responses to a uniform stimulation of the entire membrane, or traveling wave models in which sound energy is captured at the membrane’s rim and travels along the surface to the umbo. The stroboscopic holography technique we employ can separate strongly modal or traveling-wave dominated motions of the tympanic membrane surface. Methods We use computer-aided opto-electronic holography with stroboscopic illumination to measure the magnitude and phase of the sound-induced motion of over 40000 points on the surface of the tympanic membrane in cadaveric human temporal bones. Our techniques are sensitive to motions of the membrane as small as 0.01 microns, and allow determinations of membrane displacement at frequencies as large as 20 kHz. Results We report clear signs of both modal tympanic membrane responses and traveling waves on the human tympanic membrane. Modal responses are seen throughout the frequency range, while the traveling waves are most apparent between 2 and 8 kHz. In general, the magnitudes of the traveling waves are small compared to the modal magnitudes. Conclusion Much of the motion of the tympanic membrane is well approximated by modal motions of the TM surface. This conclusion has implications for ear drum pathology and its treatment. PMID:21956597

Rosowski, JJ; Cheng, JT; Merchant, SN; Harrington, E; Furlong, C

2011-01-01

30

Tympanic membrane regeneration using a water-soluble chitosan patch.  

PubMed

Chronic otitis media or tympanic membrane (TM) perforation is one of the most common otologic diseases. Surgical tympanoplasty remains the best treatment option despite the fact that paper patches are frequently used. Although paper patches are not biocompatible or effective, tympanoplasty is an expensive, complex surgery. Tissue engineering techniques offer a new treatment strategy for TM regeneration. In this study, novel tissue-engineered artificial eardrums were fabricated from water-soluble chitosan, which is known to be a good wound-healing biomaterial. The characteristics, cytotoxicity, and healing effects of several water-soluble chitosan patches (WSCPs) made using various concentrations of water-soluble chitosan and glycerol were investigated. The optimal WSCP was fabricated with 3% water-soluble chitosan and 3% glycerol, and it had a thickness of about 35 mum, a tensile strength of 7 MPa, a percent elongation of 101%, a hydrophilic surface, and no cytotoxicity. In vivo studies showed that the WSCPs were more effective than spontaneous healing for the repair of traumatic TM perforations. The healed TMs to which WSCPs were applied had a much higher density of collagen fibers and a better lamina propria layer structure than spontaneously healed TMs. PMID:19691425

Kim, Jang Ho; Choi, Seong Jun; Park, Jung-Sub; Lim, Ki Taek; Choung, Pill-Hoon; Kim, Seung Won; Lee, Jong Bin; Chung, Jong Hoon; Choung, Yun-Hoon

2010-01-01

31

Measurement of the thickness of the tympanic membrane in cat using a heterodyne interferometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The thickness of the tympanic membrane has to be known for the formulation of mathematical ear models. Using a commercial confocal laser scanning microscope we have found that the tympanic membrane has parts thinner than 10 micron. In this study we were forced to excise the tympanic membranes and due the restricted working distance of the microscope objective, we had to flatten the tympanic membrane onto a glass plate. Although we were able to measure thickness in fresh samples, thickness could still have been altered by the preparation procedure. S. Khanna developed over the years a powerful heterodyne interferometer with confocal pinholes in the illumination and observation arms. Thanks to its sectioning capabilities it can measure vibrations of structures embedded within other tissue without the need to expose the structure. While using this equipment in measuring vibrations in the middle ear, the idea grew that the interferometer could also be used to measure thickness, by tracking the carrier level of the interferometer while the laser focus is driven through the membrane. The method looks full of promises as measurements on animals with the tympanic membrane still in its original niche are possible without a prior preparation of the membrane.

Decraemer, Willem F. S.; Khanna, Shyam M.; Dirckx, Joris J. J.

2004-06-01

32

Smooth muscle in the annulus fibrosus of the tympanic membrane in bats, rodents, insectivores, and humans.  

PubMed

The annulus fibrosus and its attachment to the bony tympanic ring were studied in a series of mammals. In the pallid bat, Antrozous pallidus, there is an extensive plexus of large interconnected blood sinuses in the part of the annulus that borders the tympanic bone. The spaces between the sinuses are packed with smooth muscle cells. Most of the cells have a predominately radial orientation; they extend from the bony tympanic sulcus to a dense collagenous matrix (apical zone) where radially oriented fibers of the pars tensa are confluent with the annulus. The muscles and vessels constitute a myovascular zone. A structurally similar myovascular zone is also present in the European hedgehog. In rodents, the annulus lacks the large interconnected blood sinuses but many small vessels are present. Smooth muscle is concentrated in the broad area of attachment of the annulus to the tympanic bone. In the gerbil, smooth muscle seems to be concentrated in the central part of the width of the annulus where it is attached to bone and radiates toward the tympanic membrane. In humans collections of radially oriented smooth muscle cells were found in several locations. The smooth muscle in all species studied appears to form a rim of contractile elements for the pars tensa. This arrangement suggests a role in controlling blood flow and/or creating and maintaining tension on the tympanic membrane. PMID:15668036

Henson, M M; Madden, V J; Rask-Andersen, H; Henson, O W

2005-02-01

33

An observational study of the management of traumatic tympanic membrane perforations.  

PubMed

Controversies of how best to treat fresh tympanic membrane perforations have always existed. While some otolaryngologists prefer the paper patch method, others prefer modified myringoplasty. A prospective study is needed to investigate the most effective and least expensive management of this common ear trauma. This study examined prospectively, in three sections, a group of patients with a cellophane patch (n = 6), another group with a gentamicin ointment seal (n = 15) and a control group (n = 9) with a gentamicin plug placed at the distal end of the external auditory cavity. Successful healing of the traumatic tympanic membrane perforations was achieved in 50 per cent of the cellophane seal group, 86.7 per cent of the gentamicin ointment seal group and 77.8 per cent of the control group. This study shows that the management of a fresh tympanic membrane perforation should be limited to cleaning the traumatized ear and preventing infection. PMID:11893258

Amadasun, J E O

2002-03-01

34

Topical application of transforming growth factor-beta1 in acute traumatic tympanic membrane perforations: an experimental study in rats.  

PubMed

High transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) expression in combination with fibrotic scar was observed in human tympanic membranes containing a chronic perforation. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether application of exogenous TGF-beta1 to experimentally created tympanic membrane perforations might induce a nonhealing tympanic membrane perforation. Bilateral myringotomies were performed in 20 rats. In 10 animals, a single dose of TGF-beta1 (0.1 microg) was topically applied to the left tympanic membrane after perforation. In the second part of the study with 10 animals, repeated applications of TGF-beta1 at a higher concentration were tested. In both groups, the opposite ears received vehicle alone. Tympanic membranes were observed for a total of 5 weeks. The effect of TGF-beta1 on the healing of the tympanic membranes was evaluated by closure rates and histology. In the single application group, the healing process was not delayed. Repeated applications of TGF-beta1 did cause a faster perforation closure and a thicker tympanic membrane. Topical TGF-beta1 applied to a traumatic tympanic membrane perforation does not create a chronic perforation at the concentrations and modes of application used in this study. PMID:16939573

Kaftan, Holger; Herzog, Michael; Miehe, Bärbel; Hosemann, Werner

2006-01-01

35

Experimental and modeling study of human tympanic membrane motion in the presence of middle ear liquid.  

PubMed

Vibration of the tympanic membrane (TM) has been measured at the umbo using laser Doppler vibrometry and analyzed with finite element (FE) models of the human ear. Recently, full-field TM surface motion has been reported using scanning laser Doppler vibrometry, holographic interferometry, and optical coherence tomography. Technologies for imaging human TM motion have the potential to lead to using a dedicated clinical diagnosis tool for identification of middle ear diseases. However, the effect of middle ear fluid (liquid) on TM surface motion is still not clear. In this study, a scanning laser Doppler vibrometer was used to measure the full-field surface motion of the TM from four human temporal bones. TM displacements were measured under normal and disease-mimicking conditions with different middle ear liquid levels over frequencies ranging from 0.2 to 8 kHz. An FE model of the human ear, including the ear canal, middle ear, and spiral cochlea was used to simulate the motion of the TM in normal and disease-mimicking conditions. The results from both experiments and FE model show that a simple deflection shape with one or two major displacement peak regions of the TM in normal ear was observed at low frequencies (1 kHz and below) while complicated ring-like pattern of the deflection shapes appeared at higher frequencies (4 kHz and above). The liquid in middle ear mainly affected TM deflection shapes at the frequencies higher than 1 kHz. PMID:25106467

Zhang, Xiangming; Guan, Xiying; Nakmali, Don; Palan, Vikrant; Pineda, Mario; Gan, Rong Z

2014-12-01

36

External and middle ear sound pressure distribution and acoustic coupling to the tympanic membrane  

PubMed Central

Sound energy is conveyed to the inner ear by the diaphanous, cone-shaped tympanic membrane (TM). The TM moves in a complex manner and transmits sound signals to the inner ear with high fidelity, pressure gain, and a short delay. Miniaturized sensors allowing high spatial resolution in small spaces and sensitivity to high frequencies were used to explore how pressure drives the TM. Salient findings are: (1) A substantial pressure drop exists across the TM, and varies in frequency from ?10 to 30 dB. It thus appears reasonable to approximate the drive to the TM as being defined solely by the pressure in the ear canal (EC) close to the TM. (2) Within the middle ear cavity (MEC), spatial variations in sound pressure could vary by more than 20?dB, and the MEC pressure at certain locations/frequencies was as large as in the EC. (3) Spatial variations in pressure along the TM surface on the EC-side were typically less than 5?dB up to 50?kHz. Larger surface variations were observed on the MEC-side. PMID:24606269

Bergevin, Christopher; Olson, Elizabeth S.

2014-01-01

37

Transfer function for vital infrasound pressures between the carotid artery and the tympanic membrane.  

PubMed

While occupational injury is associated with numerous individual and work-related risk factors, including long working hours and short sleep duration, the complex mechanisms causing such injuries are not yet fully understood. The relationship between the infrasound pressures of the tympanic membrane [ear canal pressure (ECP)], detected using an earplug embedded with a low-frequency microphone, and the carotid artery [carotid artery pressure (CAP)], detected using a stethoscope fitted with the same microphone, can be quantitatively characterized using systems analysis. The transfer functions of 40 normal workers (19 to 57 years old) were characterized, involving the analysis of 446 data points. The ECP waveform exhibits a pulsatile character with a slow respiratory component, which is superimposed on a biphasic recording that is synchronous with the cardiac cycle. The respiratory ECP waveform correlates with the instantaneous heart rate. The results also revealed that various fatigue-related risk factors may affect the mean magnitudes of the measured pressures and the delay transfer functions between CAP and ECP in the study population; these factors include systolic blood pressure, salivary amylase activity, age, sleep duration, postural changes, chronic fatigue, and pulse rate. PMID:23363133

Furihata, Kenji; Yamashita, Masato

2013-02-01

38

A new magnetic probe to study the vibration of the tympanic membrane  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new magnetic probe to study the vibration of the human tympanic membrane is proposed. The method is based on the measurement of the magnetic flux changes produced by the vibrations of a small magnet attached to the tympanic membrane. The system was evaluated with respect to its applicability to detect displacement amplitudes in the tympanum by measurements performed in a excised temporal bone. A sensitivity sufficient to detect vibrations of the order of 50×10 -9 m was observed for a wide range of frequencies between 200 Hz-5.0 kHz.

Sosa, M.; Carneiro, A. A. O.; Colafemina, J. F.; Baffa, O.

2001-05-01

39

Full-field thickness distribution of human tympanic membrane obtained with optical coherence tomography.  

PubMed

The full-field thickness distribution, three-dimensional surface model and general morphological data of six human tympanic membranes are presented. Cross-sectional images were taken perpendicular through the membranes using a high-resolution optical coherence tomography setup. Five normal membranes and one membrane containing a pathological site are included in this study. The thickness varies strongly across each membrane, and a great deal of inter-specimen variability can be seen in the measurement results, though all membranes show similar features in their respective relative thickness distributions. Mean thickness values across the pars tensa ranged between 79 and 97 ?m; all membranes were thinnest in the central region between umbo and annular ring (50-70 ?m), and thickness increased steeply over a small distance to approximately 100-120 ?m when moving from the central region either towards the peripheral rim of the pars tensa or towards the manubrium. Furthermore, a local thickening was noticed in the antero-inferior quadrant of the membranes, and a strong linear correlation was observed between inferior-posterior length and mean thickness of the membrane. These features were combined into a single three-dimensional model to form an averaged representation of the human tympanic membrane. 3D reconstruction of the pathological tympanic membrane shows a structural atrophy with retraction pocket in the inferior portion of the pars tensa. The change of form at the pathological site of the membrane corresponds well with the decreased thickness values that can be measured there. PMID:23673509

Van der Jeught, Sam; Dirckx, Joris J J; Aerts, Johan R M; Bradu, Adrian; Podoleanu, Adrian G H; Buytaert, Jan A N

2013-08-01

40

Three approaches for estimating the elastic modulus of the tympanic membrane.  

PubMed

The function of the middle ear is to resolve the acoustic impedance mismatch between the air in the ear canal and the fluid of the inner ear. Without this impedance matching, very little acoustic energy would be absorbed into the cochlea. The first step in this process is the tympanic membrane (TM) converting sound in the ear canal into vibrations of the middle ear bones. Understanding how the TM manages its task so successfully over such a broad frequency range should lead to more satisfactory and less variable TM repairs (myringoplasty). In addition, understanding the mechanics of the TM is necessary to improve the coupling between ossicular prostheses and the TM. Mathematical models have played a central role in helping the research community understand the mechanics of the eardrum. However, all models require parameters as inputs. Unfortunately, most of the parameters needed for modeling the TM are not well known. In this work, several approaches for inferring the material properties of the TM are explored. First, constitutive modeling is used to estimate an elastic modulus based on the elastic modulus of collagen and experimentally observed fiber densities. Second, experimental tension and bending test results from the literature are re-interpreted using composite laminate theory. Lastly, dynamic measurements of the cat TM are used in conjunction with a composite shell model to bound the material parameters. Values from the literature, both measurement and modeling efforts, and from the present analysis are brought together to form a coherent picture of the TM's material properties. In the human, the data bound the elastic modulus between 0.1 and 0.3 GPa. In the cat, the data suggest a range of 0.1-0.4 GPa. These values are significantly higher than previous estimates. PMID:16023467

Fay, Jonathan; Puria, Sunil; Decraemer, Willem F; Steele, Charles

2005-09-01

41

Middle-ear function with tympanic-membrane perforations. II. A simple model  

E-print Network

Middle-ear function with tympanic-membrane perforations. II. A simple model Susan E. Vossa) Picker-Peabody Laboratory of Auditory Physiology and Department of Otolaryngology, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary and Department of Otolaryngology, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Boston, Massachusetts 02114; Speech

Allen, Jont

42

Cognition Is Cool: Can Hemispheric Activation Be Assessed by Tympanic Membrane Thermometry?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hemispheric activation during cognitive tasks using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) can be difficult to interpret, uncomfortable, and is not widely available. This study investigated whether tympanic membrane thermometry could be used as a broad measure of hemispheric activation. Infrared probes measured ear temperature continuously…

Cherbuin, Nicolas; Brinkman, Cobie

2004-01-01

43

A study of closure of tympanic membrane perforations by chemical cauterisation.  

PubMed

To study the effectiveness of chemical cautery with patching on chronic tympanic membrane perforations of the pars tensa. Thirty-eight patients with dry tympanic membrane perforations due to inflammatory or traumatic etiology were selected after treating the primary etiological factors like septal deviation and allergic rhinitis. Fifty percentage silver nitrate was used to cauterize the margin and the perforation was covered with thin sterile aluminium foil as a patch. A maximum number of five applications were made, and the patients were followed up for the next 5 years. In this series of 38 patients, highest success was noted among those patients with traumatic perforation, while larger perforations were reduced to small pinhole sizes which were successfully closed by myringoplasty. An overall success rate of 73.75% was achieved. This is a time tested useful method which was popularized by Derlacki (1953), to close small to moderate sized tympanic membrane perforation and should be considered as a first line management in the treatment of tympanic membrane perforation prior to any surgical intervention. Apart from being a simple and economical mode of treatment, it is associated with minimal complications. Though various materials have been used to modify this technique, the principle remains the same and the results obtained in this study is comparable with the previous ones. PMID:24294587

Santhi, T; Rajan, K V

2012-12-01

44

Tympanic Membrane Temperature and Emotional Dispositions in Preschool-Aged Children: A Methodological Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tympanic membrane (TM) temperature asymmetry has been proposed as a phenotypic marker of vulnerability to negative emotionality in children. Little is known about the stability of TM temperatures or how readily one can obtain a reliable index of the phenotype. TM temperatures were collected from 3- to 5-year-old children (N=73) over 5 months…

Gunnar, Megan R.; Donzella, Bonny

2004-01-01

45

Temperament, Tympanum, and Temperature: Four Provisional Studies of the Biobehavioral Correlates of Tympanic Membrane Temperature Asymmetries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined associations between tympanic membrane (TM) temperature asymmetries and biobehavioral attributes of 4- to 8- year-old children. Found shared patterns of associations that linked TM temperature lateralities to individual differences in behavior and socioaffective difficulties. Found that warmer left TMs were associated with affectively…

Boyce, W. Thomas; Essex, Marilyn J.; Alkon, Abbey; Smider, Nancy A.; Pickrell, Tyler; Kagan, Jerome

2002-01-01

46

Tympanic Membrane Boundary Deformations Derived from Static Displacements Observed with Computerized Tomography in Human and Gerbil  

PubMed Central

The middle ear is too complex a system for its function to be fully understood with simple descriptive models. Realistic mathematical models must be used in which structural elements are represented by geometrically correct three-dimensional (3D) models with correct physical parameters and boundary conditions. In the past, the choice of boundary conditions could not be based on experimental evidence as no clear-cut data were available. We have, therefore, studied the deformation of the tympanic membrane (TM) at its boundaries using X-ray microscopic computed tomography in human and gerbil while static pressure was applied to the ear canal. The 3D models of the TM and its bony attachments were carefully made and used to measure the deformation of the TM with focus on the periphery and the manubrium attachment. For the pars flaccida of the gerbil, the boundary condition can, for the most part, be described as simply supported. For the human pars flaccida, the situation is more complicated: superiorly, the membrane contacts the underlying bone more and more when pushed further inward, and it gradually detaches from the wall when sucked outward. In gerbil, the attachment of the TM to the manubrium can be described as simply supported. In human, the manubrium is attached underneath the TM via the plica mallearis and the contact of the TM with the bone is indirect. For both human and gerbil, a simple boundary condition for the peripheral edge of the pars tensa is not appropriate due to the intricate structure at the edge: the TM thickens rapidly before continuing into the annulus fibrosis which finally makes contact with the bone. PMID:19834763

Gea, Stefan L. R.; Funnell, Robert W. J.; Dirckx, Joris J. J.; Maier, Hannes

2009-01-01

47

Dynamic Properties of Human Tympanic Membrane Based on Frequency-Temperature Superposition  

PubMed Central

The human tympanic membrane (TM) transfers sound in the ear canal into the mechanical vibration of the ossicles in the middle ear. The dynamic properties of TM directly affect the middle ear transfer function. The static or quasi-static mechanical properties of TM were reported in the literature, but the dynamic properties of TM over the auditory frequency range are very limited. In this paper, a new method was developed to measure the dynamic properties of human TM using the Dynamic-Mechanical Analyzer (DMA). The test was conducted at the frequency range of 1 to 40 Hz at three different temperatures: 5°, 25° and 37°C. The frequency-temperature superposition was applied to extend the testing frequency range to a much higher level (at least 3800 Hz). The generalized linear solid model was employed to describe the constitutive relation of the TM. The storage modulus E’ and the loss modulus E” were obtained from 11 specimens. The mean storage modulus was 15.1 MPa at 1 Hz and 27.6 MPa at 3800 Hz. The mean loss modulus was 0.28 MPa at 1 Hz and 4.1 MPa at 3800 Hz. The results show that the frequency-temperature superposition is a feasible approach to study the dynamic properties of the ear soft tissues. The dynamic properties of human TM obtained in this study provide a better description of the damping behavior of ear tissues. The properties can be transferred into the finite element (FE) model of the human ear to replace the Rayleigh type damping. The data reported here contribute to the biomechanics of the middle ear and improve the accuracy of the FE model for the human ear. PMID:22820983

Zhang, Xiangming; Gan, Rong Z.

2012-01-01

48

Effect of tympanic membrane perforation on middle-ear sound transmission.  

PubMed

Tympanic membrane perforation causes a sound conduction disturbance, and the size of this conduction disturbance is proportional to the perforation area. However, precise evaluation of perforation size is difficult, and there are few detailed reports addressing this issue. Furthermore, such evaluation becomes more difficult for irregularly shaped perforations. This study conducted a quantitative evaluation of tympanic membrane perforations, using image analysis equipment.A significant correlation was found between the degree of sound conduction disturbance and the perforation area; this correlation was greater at low frequencies following a traumatic perforation. The conductive disturbance associated with chronic otitis media was significantly greater at low frequencies. Circular perforations caused only minor conduction disturbance. Perforations in the anteroinferior quadrant were associated with greater conduction disturbance. Traumatic spindle-shaped perforations and malleolar perforations were associated with greater conduction disturbance. PMID:19460211

Matsuda, Y; Kurita, T; Ueda, Y; Ito, S; Nakashima, T

2009-01-01

49

Cognition is cool: Can hemispheric activation be assessed by tympanic membrane thermometry?  

PubMed

Hemispheric activation during cognitive tasks using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) can be difficult to interpret, uncomfortable, and is not widely available. This study investigated whether tympanic membrane thermometry could be used as a broad measure of hemispheric activation. Infrared probes measured ear temperature continuously while subjects performed left or right hemisphere tasks. Temperature decreased in the left ear as activation increased in the left hemisphere during a verbal task, and in the right ear during a visuo-spatial task. When compared to a baseline, ear temperature measurements appeared to reflect relative changes in activation of the left and right hemispheres. Tympanic membrane thermometry therefore may be used as a broad marker of hemispheric activation. Its ability to demonstrate relative involvement of the two hemispheres during cognitive processes makes it especially useful in studies of hemispheric interaction. Its low cost, rapid set-up, and non-invasive nature also make it particularly attractive. PMID:15050780

Cherbuin, Nicolas; Brinkman, Cobie

2004-04-01

50

Fungal otitis externa as a cause of tympanic membrane perforation: a case series.  

PubMed

We describe a series of 11 patients--8 men and 3 women, aged 18 to 70 years (mean: 46.0)--who had fungal otitis externa that had been complicated by a tympanic membrane perforation. These patients had been referred to us for evaluation of chronic, mostly treatment-refractory otitis externa, which had manifested as otorrhea, otalgia, and/or pruritus. Seven of the 11 patients had no history of ear problems prior to their current condition. Five patients had been referred to us by a primary care physician and 4 by an otolaryngologist; the other 2 patients were self-referred. All patients were treated with a thorough debridement of the ear and one of two antifungal medication regimens. Eight of the 11 patients experienced a complete resolution of signs and symptoms, including closure of the tympanic membrane perforation. The other 3 patients underwent either a tympanoplasty (n = 2) or a fat-graft myringotomy (n = 1) because the perforation did not close within a reasonable amount of time. This series demonstrates that the nonspecific signs and symptoms of fungal otitis externa can make diagnosis difficult for both primary care physicians and general otolaryngologists. This study also demonstrates that most cases of tympanic membrane perforation secondary to fungal otitis externa will resolve with cleaning of the ear and proper medical treatment. Therefore, most patients with this condition will not require surgery. PMID:25181663

Song, James Eingun; Haberkamp, Thomas J; Patel, Riddhi; Redleaf, Miriam I

2014-08-01

51

Effect of caffeic acid phenethyl ester on myringosclerosis development in the tympanic membrane of rat.  

PubMed

Myringosclerosis is hyalinization and calcification of certain areas of the tympanic membrane, especially the fibrous lamina propria layer and appears as white sclerotic lesions. Ventilation tube insertion is one of the most performed operations in the pediatric otorhinolaryngology practice to treat chronic otitis media with effusion. Myringosclerosis is a very common sequela of ventilation tube insertion. In this experimental study, our aim was to show the histopathological effects of caffeic acid phenethyl ester on myringosclerosis development in rat tympanic membrane after myringotomy. The rats were randomly categorized into four experimental groups including the comparison group (n = 4), non-treated group (n = 7), the saline (control) group (n = 7), the caffeic acid phenethyl ester group (n = 7). Non-treated group did not receive any treatment for 15 days. Saline (2.5 mL/kg, intraperitoneal) was administered to the third group once a day for 15 days. Fourth group received caffeic acid phenethyl ester intraperitoneally once a day at a dose of 10 ?mol/kg for 15 days. Myringotomy was performed on the right tympanic membrane of all rats except comparison group using a sterile pick with the help of an operating microscope. Histopathological examination of myringosclerosis formation was done by a pathologist under light microscope. In histopathological analysis of groups, the severity of inflammation was milder in caffeic acid phenethyl ester group compared to non-treated and saline groups (p < 0.05). There was less myringosclerotic plaques in caffeic acid phenethyl ester group than in non-treated and saline groups (p < 0.05). TM thickness measurements were very close to each other in non-treated and saline groups. The tympanic membrane thickness of caffeic acid phenethyl ester group was much thinner than the other two groups (p < 0.05). Caffeic acid phenethyl ester decreases inflammation severity and the formation of myringosclerotic plaques. These two effects resulted in thinner tympanic membranes of rats which were treated with caffeic acid phenethyl ester. As a result, caffeic acid phenethyl ester has potential preventive effects on myringosclerosis development after myringotomy and ventilation tube insertion. PMID:24281567

Kinis, Vefa; Ozbay, Musa; Alabalik, Ulas; Gul, Aylin; Yilmaz, Beyhan; Ozkurt, Fazi Emre; Sengul, Engin; Topcu, Ismail

2015-01-01

52

Viscoelastic properties of the human tympanic membrane studied with stroboscopic holography and finite element modeling.  

PubMed

A new anatomically-accurate Finite Element (FE) model of the tympanic membrane (TM) and malleus was combined with measurements of the sound-induced motion of the TM surface and the bony manubrium, in an isolated TM-malleus preparation. Using the results, we were able to address two issues related to how sound is coupled to the ossicular chain: (i) Estimate the viscous damping within the tympanic membrane itself, the presence of which may help smooth the broadband response of a potentially highly resonant TM, and (ii) Investigate the function of a peculiar feature of human middle-ear anatomy, the thin mucosal epithelial fold that couples the mid part of the human manubrium to the TM. Sound induced motions of the surface of ex vivo human eardrums and mallei were measured with stroboscopic holography, which yields maps of the amplitude and phase of the displacement of the entire membrane surface at selected frequencies. The results of these measurements were similar, but not identical to measurements made in intact ears. The holography measurements were complemented by laser-Doppler vibrometer measurements of sound-induced umbo velocity, which were made with fine-frequency resolution. Comparisons of these measurements to predictions from a new anatomically accurate FE model with varied membrane characteristics suggest the TM contains viscous elements, which provide relatively low damping, and that the epithelial fold that connects the central section of the human manubrium to the TM only loosely couples the TM to the manubrium. The laser-Doppler measurements in two preparations also suggested the presence of significant variation in the complex modulus of the TM between specimens. Some animations illustrating the model results are available at our website (www.uantwerp.be/en/rg/bimef/downloads/tympanic-membrane-motion). PMID:24657621

De Greef, Daniel; Aernouts, Jef; Aerts, Johan; Cheng, Jeffrey Tao; Horwitz, Rachelle; Rosowski, John J; Dirckx, Joris J J

2014-06-01

53

Time Average Holography Study of Human Tympanic Membrane with Altered Middle Ear Ossicular Chain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Computer-assisted time average holographic interferometry was used to study the vibration of the human tympanic membrane (TM) in cadaveric temporal bones before and after alterations of the ossicular chain. Simultaneous laser Doppler vibrometer measurements of stapes velocity were performed to estimate the conductive hearing loss caused by ossicular alterations. The quantified TM motion described from holographic images was correlated with stapes velocity to define relations between TM motion and stapes velocity in various ossicular disorders. The results suggest that motions of the TM are relatively uncoupled from stapes motion at frequencies above 1000 Hz.

Cheng, Jeffrey T.; Ravicz, Michael E.; Rosowski, John J.; Hulli, Nesim; Hernandez-Montes, Maria S.; Furlong, Cosme

2009-02-01

54

Otomycosis with Perforated Tympanic Membrane: Self medication with Topical Antifungal Solution versus Medicated Ear Wick  

PubMed Central

Objectives In otomycosis with tympanic membrane perforation, many physicians prefer to insert an ear wick medicated with antimycotic cream. This needs multiple visits to the clinic and keeps the ear blocked for several days. Direct instillation of alcohol based antimycotic solution causes severe burning if it reaches the middle ear. In this work we compare patient’s self medication with clotrimazole antimycotic solution used on Q-tips with physician–inserted ear wicks; in terms of safety, efficacy and patient satisfaction. Study Design & Setting Prospective controlled study in ambulatory setting. Methodology Forty consecutive patients with otomycosis with tympanic membrane perforation were included in the study. Diagnosis of otomycosis was both clinical and with mycological culture. Mean pure tone average (PTA) in the involved ear was measured after cleaning fungal debris. Patients were then, randomized into two groups; Q-tip group patients (n=20) were taught to self-medicate their ears two times daily with the clotrimazole solution on suitable Q-tips for three weeks. In ear wick group (n=20), a gauze wick impregnated with clotrimazole cream was inserted in the ear. Wick was changed every third day for two more visits (one week overall). Patients were followed up for 3 months. Results After three weeks all patients in Q-tip group and ear wick group had relief of their ear itching and complete disappearance of fungal growth in the deep meatus and on the tympanic membrane. PTA was 22 ± 11dB in Q-tip group and 25 ± 12 dB in ear wick group; the difference was not statistically significant (p= 0.11). Patients in ear wick group had sense of ear blocking and wetness during period of treatment. Transient burning sensation was reported by 2 patients in Q-tip group. During three months, there was recurrence of otomycosis in 5 patients from ear wick group and no recurrence in Q-tip group (p=0.04). Conclusion Self medication with clotrimazole solution on Q-tips and physician inserted medicated wicks are equally safe in treating otomycosis with perforated tympanic membrane. However, self medication with antimycotic solution on Q-tips gives more patient satisfaction and less rate of otomycosis recurrence. PMID:23267306

Abou-halawa, A. S.; Khan, M. A.; AlRobaee, A. A.; Alzolibani, A. A.; AlShobaili, H. A.

2012-01-01

55

Investigation of the human tympanic membrane oscillation ex vivo by Doppler optical coherence tomography.  

PubMed

Investigations of the tympanic membrane (TM) can have an important impact on understanding the sound conduction in the ear and can therefore support the diagnosis and treatment of diseases in the middle ear. High-speed Doppler optical coherence tomography (OCT) has the potential to describe the oscillatory behaviour of the TM surface in a phase-sensitive manner and additionally allows acquiring a three-dimensional image of the underlying structure. With repeated sound stimuli from 0.4 kHz to 6.4 kHz, the whole TM can be set in vibration and the spatially resolved frequency response functions (FRFs) of the tympanic membrane can be recorded. Typical points, such as the umbo or the manubrium of malleus, can be studied separately as well as the TM surface with all stationary and wave-like vibrations. Thus, the OCT methodology can be a promising technique to distinguish between normal and pathological TMs and support the differentiation between ossicular and membrane diseases. PMID:23225692

Burkhardt, Anke; Kirsten, Lars; Bornitz, Matthias; Zahnert, Thomas; Koch, Edmund

2014-06-01

56

Magnetically driven middle ear ossicles for optical measurement of vibrations in an ear with opened tympanic membrane  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vibrations of the middle ear ossicles are easily measured by means of laser vibrometry. However, laser vibrometry requires free visual access to the object under investigation, and acquiring free visual access to the ossicles through the ear canal requires the removal of the tympanic membrane (TM), with the result that the ossicles can no longer be stimulated acoustically. To overcome this, we devised a new setup in which the ossicles can be driven magnetically. After measuring the response of the TM to an acoustic signal, we then remove it and attach a small magnet to the exposed manubrium (a part of the most lateral auditory ossicle, the malleus, which is normally attached to the TM). An electromagnetic excitation coil is then used to drive the magnet, and the output to the coil adjusted until the vibration of the manubrium, as measured by the vibrometer, matches that measured in response to the acoustic signal. Such a setup may have uses in research on middle ear mechanics, such as the measurement of nonlinearities in their response, as well as applications in the diagnosis of middle ear conditions such as the fixation of the ossicles by otosclerosis or in chronic otitis media. We describe our setup and discuss the viability of our method and its future clinical potential by presenting some measurements on an artificially fixated ear.

Peacock, J.; von Unge, M.; Dirckx, J.

2013-12-01

57

Characterization of the linearly viscoelastic behavior of human tympanic membrane by nanoindentation.  

PubMed

Human tympanic membrane (or eardrum) is composed of three membrane layers with collagen fibers oriented in the radial and circumferential directions, and exhibits viscoelastic behavior with membrane (or in-plane) properties different from through-thickness (or out-of-plane) properties. Due to the interaction of bundled fibers and ground substance, which is inhomogeneous, these properties could change with locations. In this paper, we use nanoindentation techniques to measure the viscoelastic functions of four quadrants of tympanic membrane (TM). For measurement of in-plane Young's relaxation modulus we fixed a sectioned quadrant of the TM on a circular hole and used a spherical nanoindenter tip to apply force at the center of the suspended circular portion of the specimen. An inverse problem solving methodology was employed using finite element method to determine the average in-plane Young's relaxation modulus of the TM quadrant. Results indicate that the in-plane steady-state Young's relaxation modulus for four quadrants of the TM does not vary significantly. However, a variation of the modulus from 25.73 MPa to 37.8 MPa was observed with measurements from different individuals. For measurement of Young's relaxation modulus in the through-thickness direction a spherical indenter tip was used to indent into different locations on the surface of the TM specimen supported by a substrate. Viscoelastic contact mechanics analysis of the load-displacement curve, representative primarily of the through-thickness stiffness of the TM, was conducted to extract the Young's relaxation modulus in the out-of-plane direction. Results indicate a wide variation in steady-state Young's relaxation modulus, from 2 MPa to 15 MPa, in the through-thickness direction over the TM. PMID:19627811

Daphalapurkar, Nitin P; Dai, Chenkai; Gan, Rong Z; Lu, Hongbing

2009-01-01

58

Animal models of chronic tympanic membrane perforation: in response to plasminogen initiates and potentiates the healing of acute and chronic tympanic membrane perforations in mice  

PubMed Central

Tympanic membrane perforations (TMP) are relatively common but are typically not treated in their acute stage, as most will heal spontaneously in 7–10 days. Those cases which fail to heal within 3 months are called chronic TMP which attract surgical intervention (e.g. myringoplasty), typically with a temporalis fascia autograft. New materials for the repair of chronic TMP are being developed to address deficiencies in the performance of autografts by undergoing evaluation in animal models prior to clinical study. However, there is currently a lack of ideal chronic TMP animal models available, hindering the development of new treatments. Various techniques and animal species have been investigated for the creation of chronic TMP with varied success. In the present commentary, we bring to the attention of readers the recent report by Shen et al. in Journal of Translational Medicine. The study reported the creation of a chronic TMP animal model in plasminogen gene deficient mice. However, the short observation time (9, 19 days), lack of success rate and the scarcity of solid evidence (e.g. otoscopic & histologic images) to confirm the chronicity of TMP warrant a more thorough discussion. PMID:24669846

2014-01-01

59

Dosimetry of He-Ne laser radiation on specimens of human tympanic membrane  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The clinical application of a laser-Doppler-vibrometry for recording the motion of the tympanic membrane is relying on the harmlessness of the used He-Ne-laser beam. Even when the daily experience tells that an intensity of 1 mW focused onto the skin introduces no obvious thermal effects, focusing this beam down to a waist of a diameter of 40 micrometers , as it is done in this case, raises up the density of power to 80 W/cm2. Safety rules postulate a maximum radiation time at this density of less than 10 ms sec, which is much too short to perform any measurement. Therefore the threshold and the degree of thermal effects have been investigated histomorphologically.

Foth, Hans-Jochen; Huthoff, Christian; Gauer, Axel; Baker, Antonio; Stasche, Norbert; Hoermann, Karl

1994-02-01

60

The Tympanic Membrane Motion in Forward and Reverse Middle-Ear Sound Transmission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sound-induced displacement of the tympanic membrane (TM) is the first stage in the forward transformation of environmental sound to sound within the inner ear, while displacement of the TM induced by mechanical motions of the ossicular chain is the last stage in the reverse transformation of sound generated within the inner ear to clinically valuable otoacoustic emissions (OAEs). In this study, we use stroboscopic holographic interferometry to study motions of the human cadaveric TM evoked by both forward and reverse stimuli. During forward acoustic stimulation, pure tones from 500 to 10000 Hz are used to stimulate the TM, while reverse stimulation is produced by direct mechanical stimulation of the ossicular chain. The TM surface motions in response to both forward and reverse stimuli show differences and similarities, including the modal motion patterns at specific frequencies as well as the presence and directions of traveling waves on the TM surface.

Cheng, Jeffrey Tao; Harrington, Ellery; Horwitz, Rachelle; Furlong, Cosme; Rosowski, John J.

2011-11-01

61

Bilateral keratin horns arising from the tympanic membranes: a case report.  

PubMed

A keratin horn is a horn-like projection composed of dense keratotic material. It usually arises in sun-exposed areas of the body. It can be derived from a variety of underlying benign, premalignant, or malignant epidermal lesions. Risk factors associated with malignant change within a keratin horn include a wide base, male sex, and increasing age, in addition to an origin in a sun-exposed area. The mainstay of management is to obtain a biopsy from the base of the horn and subsequent excision if the histopathologic analysis suggests a malignancy. We report an extremely rare case of bilateral keratin horns arising from the tympanic membranes in a 64-year-old woman. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of its kind to be published in the English-language literature. PMID:25651354

Phua, Chu Qin; Malik, Vikas; Sheehan, Patrick Zaid

2015-02-01

62

A prospective controlled trial comparing spontaneous closure and Epifilm® patching in traumatic tympanic membrane perforations.  

PubMed

The objective was to compare the outcomes of spontaneous closure and hyaluronic acid (HA) ester patching (Epifilm®) in subjects with traumatic tympanic membrane (TM) perforation. This was a prospective, controlled study performed at a tertiary teaching and research hospital. During 6-month period, subjects were divided into spontaneous closure (group A) and HA ester patch-Epifilm® (group B) group. Demographic data, presenting symptoms, closure rate, closure time and audiometric data were evaluated and compared between groups. In total, 155 subjects were evaluated. Group A consisted of 62.6 % (n = 97) of the subjects, whereas group B consisted of 37.4 % (n = 58) of the subjects. Group B had significantly shorter closure times when compared with group A (6.61 ± 4.59 vs. 10.60 ± 5.23 weeks, p = 0.001). When the closure time was evaluated according to perforation size both grade 1 and 2 perforations have significantly shorter closure times when compared with group A (6.33 ± 4.54 vs. 10.80 ± 5.69 weeks, for grade 1 and 6.650 ± 2.07 vs. 10.30 ± 4.32 weeks for grade 2 perforations). Closure rates were not significant between groups (85.6 % for group A and 94.8 % for group B). When the closure rate was evaluated according to perforation size no significant difference exists for grade 1, 2 and 3 perforations between groups. Both air conduction and air-bone gap were significantly improved in both groups. HA ester patch (Epifilm®) is a non-toxic material that can be used in traumatic tympanic membrane perforations. In this study, use of HA ester patching was resulted with earlier closure time but not resulted with higher closure rates. PMID:23292038

Sayin, Ibrahim; Kaya, Kamil Hakan; Ekizo?lu, O?uzhan; Erdim, Ibrahim; Kayhan, Fatma Tülin

2013-11-01

63

Factors Affecting Loss of Tympanic Membrane Mobility in Acute Otitis Media Model of Chinchilla  

PubMed Central

Recently we reported that middle ear pressure (MEP), middle ear effusion (MEE), and ossicular changes each contribute to the loss of tympanic membrane (TM) mobility in a guinea pig model of acute otitis media (AOM) induced by S. pneumoniae (Guan and Gan, 2013). However, it is not clear how those factors vary along the course of the disease and whether those effects are reproducible in different species. In this study, a chinchilla AOM model was produced by transbullar injection of Haemophilus influenzae. Mobility of the TM at the umbo was measured by laser vibrometry in two treatment groups: 4 days (4D) and 8 days (8D) post inoculation. These time points represent relatively early and later phases of AOM. In each group, the vibration of the umbo was measured at three experimental stages: unopened, pressure-released, and effusion-removed ears. The effects of MEP and MEE and middle ear structural changes were quantified in each group by comparing the TM mobility at one stage with that of the previous stage. Our findings show that the factors affecting TM mobility do change with the disease time course. The MEP was the dominant contributor to reduction of TM mobility in 4D AOM ears, but showed little effect in 8D ears when MEE filled the tympanic cavity. MEE was the primary factor affecting TM mobility loss in 8D ears, but affected the 4D ears only at high frequencies. After the release of MEP and removal of MEE, residual loss of TM mobility was seen mainly at low frequencies in both 4D and 8D ears, and was associated with middle ear structural changes. Our findings establish that the factors contributing to TM mobility loss in the chinchilla ear were similar to those we reported previously for the guinea pig ears with AOM. Outcomes did not appear to differ between the two major bacterial species causing AOM in these animal models. PMID:24406734

Guan, Xiying; Chen, Yongzheng; Gan, Rong Z.

2014-01-01

64

TGF-?/HA complex promotes tympanic membrane keratinocyte migration and proliferation via ErbB1 receptor  

SciTech Connect

Tympanic membrane perforations are common and represent a management challenge to clinicians. Current treatments for chronic perforations involve a graft surgery and require general anaesthesia, including associated costs and morbidities. Bioactive molecules (e.g. growth factors, cytokines) play an important role in promoting TM wound healing following perforation and the use of growth factors as a topical treatment for tympanic membrane perforations has been suggested as an alternative to surgery. However, the choice of bioactive molecules best suited to promote wound healing has yet to be identified. We investigated the effects of hyaluronic acid, vitronectin, TGF-?, IL-24 and their combinations on migration, proliferation and adhesion of cultured human tympanic membrane-derived keratinocytes (hTM), in addition to their possible mechanisms of action. We found that TGF-?, TGF-?/HA and TGF-?/IL-24 promoted wound healing by significantly increasing both migration and proliferation. TGF-? and/or HA treated cells showed comparable cell–cell adhesion whilst maintaining an epithelial cell phenotype. With the use of receptor binding inhibitors for ErbB1 (AG1478) and CD44 (BRIC235), we revealed that the activation of ErbB1 is required for TGF-?/HA-mediated migration and proliferation. These results suggest factors that may be incorporated into a tissue-engineered membrane or directly as topical treatment for tympanic membrane perforations and hence reduce the need for a surgery. - Highlights: ? TGF-?, TGF-?/HA and TGF-?/IL-24 improved hTM keratinocyte migration and proliferation. ? TGF-? and/or HA maintained epithelial cell phenotype. ? TGF-?/HA-mediated migration and proliferation requires activation of ErbB1 receptor.

Mei Teh, Bing, E-mail: bing.teh@earscience.org.au [Ear Sciences Centre, School of Surgery, The University of Western Australia, Nedlands, WA (Australia); Ear Science Institute Australia, Subiaco, WA (Australia); Department of Otolaryngology, Head, Neck and Skull Base Surgery, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Nedlands, WA (Australia); Redmond, Sharon L. [Ear Sciences Centre, School of Surgery, The University of Western Australia, Nedlands, WA (Australia); Ear Science Institute Australia, Subiaco, WA (Australia); Shen, Yi [Ear Sciences Centre, School of Surgery, The University of Western Australia, Nedlands, WA (Australia); Ear Science Institute Australia, Subiaco, WA (Australia); Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck, Ningbo Lihuili Hospital (Ningbo Medical Centre), Ningbo, Zhejiang (China); Atlas, Marcus D. [Ear Sciences Centre, School of Surgery, The University of Western Australia, Nedlands, WA (Australia); Ear Science Institute Australia, Subiaco, WA (Australia); Department of Otolaryngology, Head, Neck and Skull Base Surgery, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Nedlands, WA (Australia); Marano, Robert J.; Dilley, Rodney J. [Ear Sciences Centre, School of Surgery, The University of Western Australia, Nedlands, WA (Australia); Ear Science Institute Australia, Subiaco, WA (Australia)

2013-04-01

65

Automated Moire Topography and its Application for Shape and Deformation Measurements of the Tympanic Membrane.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It was the aim of this study to develop a non -contacting, high resolution metrologic apparatus, and to use it for obtaining quantitative data of shape and deformation of the TM. A first part of the work deals with the metrologic method. First a new method is proposed for reconstructing mathematically the shape of a three-dimensional object from moire topograms. Next the implementation of the method in a fully automated apparatus is described. Then, the mathematical description is formulated of a new method to remove the grating noise in video moire interferometry. Next, an automated calibration method for the apparatus is proposed, and the measuring accuracy is discussed. Finally, a numerical procedure is explained to calculate the area change and volume displacement of a deformed membrane. In the second part, results are given of measurements performed on a human tympanic membrane. First an extensive description is given of the TM shape and the calculation of several of its geometric parameters. Next, data are presented of measurements on the TM under static pressure loads. Full field data of the deformation are presented, as well as data on umbo displacement and malleus rotation. Finally, data are presented of the volume displacement and area change of the TM under static pressure. Agreements with data from literature are very good.

Dirckx, Joris Jan J.

1991-02-01

66

Characterization of acoustically induced deformations of human tympanic membranes by digital holography and shearography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, we introduced a Digital Optoelectronic Holographic System (DOEHS) for measurement of acoustically induced deformations of the human tympanic membrane (TM) in order to study and diagnose pathologic conditions of the middle-ear. The DOEHS consists of laser-delivery illumination (IS), optical head (OH), image-processing computer (IP), and positioning arm (PS) subsystems. Holographic information is recorded by a CCD and numerically reconstructed by Fresnel approximation. Our holographic otoscope system is currently deployed in a clinic and is packaged in a custom design. Since digital holography is a high sensitivity measurement technique and the interfering light waves travel along different paths, it makes measurements acquired by DOEHS susceptible to external vibrations. In order to avoid this susceptibility, we are testing a shearography setup as OH. Shearography presents same advantages as holographic interferometry, but it is less susceptible to vibration and external noise, which is a characteristic needed for the use of our techniques in a clinical environment. In this paper we present work in progress in our development of a shearography technique based on a Mach-Zehnder configuration as OH and demonstrate its application by quantifying vibrations modes in thin membranes, including human TM. Results are compared with those obtained with DOEHS.

Flores-Moreno, J. M.; Furlong, Cosme; Cheng, Jeffrey T.; Rosowski, John J.; Merchant, S. N.

2011-08-01

67

Wave motion on the surface of the human tympanic membrane: Holographic measurement and modeling analysis  

PubMed Central

Sound-induced motions of the surface of the tympanic membrane (TM) were measured using stroboscopic holography in cadaveric human temporal bones at frequencies between 0.2 and 18?kHz. The results are consistent with the combination of standing-wave-like modal motions and traveling-wave-like motions on the TM surface. The holographic techniques also quantified sound-induced displacements of the umbo of the malleus, as well as volume velocity of the TM. These measurements were combined with sound-pressure measurements near the TM to compute middle-ear input impedance and power reflectance at the TM. The results are generally consistent with other published data. A phenomenological model that behaved qualitatively like the data was used to quantify the relative magnitude and spatial frequencies of the modal and traveling-wave-like displacement components on the TM surface. This model suggests the modal magnitudes are generally larger than those of the putative traveling waves, and the computed wave speeds are much slower than wave speeds predicted by estimates of middle-ear delay. While the data are inconsistent with simple modal displacements of the TM, an alternate model based on the combination of modal motions in a lossy membrane can also explain these measurements without invoking traveling waves. PMID:23363110

Cheng, Jeffrey Tao; Hamade, Mohamad; Merchant, Saumil N.; Rosowski, John J.; Harrington, Ellery; Furlong, Cosme

2013-01-01

68

Measuring the motion of the human tympanic membrane by laser Doppler vibrometry: basic principles and technical aspects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Under hearing conditions, the amplitude of the motion of the human tympanic membrane is in the range of several tens of nanometers. To measure motions of this size by a touchfree method is a domain of laser technology. Here laser-Doppler-vibrometry was chosen because of its sensitivity in detecting small amplitudes and the clear information about the detected point on the tympanic membrane. Care was taken to develop the method for a clinically acceptable procedure for hearing diagnosis. The first realization by sinus wave excitation was found to be very time consuming. A measuring time of less than a minute was obtained by white noise excitation, fast Fourier transformation and choosing the umbo as the detection point. Meanwhile the setup is used for in vivo measurements.

Foth, Hans-Jochen; Huthoff, Christian; Stasche, Norbert; Hoermann, Karl

1994-02-01

69

Optoelectronic holographic otoscope for measurement of nano-displacements in tympanic membranes.  

PubMed

Current methodologies for characterizing tympanic membrane (TM) motion are usually limited to either average acoustic estimates (admittance or reflectance) or single-point mobility measurements, neither of which suffices to characterize the detailed mechanical response of the TM to sound. Furthermore, while acoustic and single-point measurements may aid in diagnosing some middle-ear disorders, they are not always useful. Measurements of the motion of the entire TM surface can provide more information than these other techniques and may be superior for diagnosing pathology. We present advances in our development of a new compact optoelectronic holographic otoscope (OEHO) system for full field-of-view characterization of nanometer-scale sound-induced displacements of the TM surface at video rates. The OEHO system consists of a fiber optic subsystem, a compact otoscope head, and a high-speed image processing computer with advanced software for recording and processing holographic images coupled to a computer-controlled sound-stimulation and recording system. A prototype OEHO system is in use in a medical research environment to address basic science questions regarding TM function. The prototype provides real-time observation of sound-induced TM displacement patterns over a broad frequency range. Representative time-averaged and stroboscopic holographic interferometry results in animals and human cadaver samples are shown, and their potential utility is discussed. PMID:19566316

Del Socorro Hernández-Montes, Maria; Furlong, Cosme; Rosowski, John J; Hulli, Nesim; Harrington, Ellery; Cheng, Jeffrey Tao; Ravicz, Michael E; Santoyo, Fernando Mendoza

2009-01-01

70

Optoelectronic holographic otoscope for measurement of nano-displacements in tympanic membranes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current methodologies for characterizing tympanic membrane (TM) motion are usually limited to either average acoustic estimates (admittance or reflectance) or single-point mobility measurements, neither of which suffices to characterize the detailed mechanical response of the TM to sound. Furthermore, while acoustic and single-point measurements may aid in diagnosing some middle-ear disorders, they are not always useful. Measurements of the motion of the entire TM surface can provide more information than these other techniques and may be superior for diagnosing pathology. We present advances in our development of a new compact optoelectronic holographic otoscope (OEHO) system for full field-of-view characterization of nanometer-scale sound-induced displacements of the TM surface at video rates. The OEHO system consists of a fiber optic subsystem, a compact otoscope head, and a high-speed image processing computer with advanced software for recording and processing holographic images coupled to a computer-controlled sound-stimulation and recording system. A prototype OEHO system is in use in a medical research environment to address basic science questions regarding TM function. The prototype provides real-time observation of sound-induced TM displacement patterns over a broad frequency range. Representative time-averaged and stroboscopic holographic interferometry results in animals and human cadaver samples are shown, and their potential utility is discussed.

Del Socorro Hernández-Montes, Maria; Furlong, Cosme; Rosowski, John J.; Hulli, Nesim; Harrington, Ellery; Cheng, Jeffrey Tao; Ravicz, Michael E.; Santoyo, Fernando Mendoza

2009-05-01

71

Deformation measurements of the human tympanic membrane under static pressure using automated moire topography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To measure the surface shape and shape change of soft biological material, the use of a noncontacting metrological technique is imperative. One of these techniques is moire contouring, which is particularly interesting because of its simplicity and low cost. We propose a method to mathematically reconstruct a surface shape from moire topograms. The method is based on the recording of three topograms which are shifted in phase by translating the object. The method is implemented in an apparatus which fully automatically performs all required steps to finally yield a 512 by 512 point matrix of surface height values, with a height measuring resolution of 20 micrometers . The resolution for measuring small height displacements is 2 micrometers . Due to this high resolution, it is possible to investigate the deformation of the tympanic membrane, caused by small pressure changes in the middle ear cavity. Full field deformation data are shown. The data can be used to obtain information on the movement of the manubrium, or to calculate volume displacements and surface area changes.

Dirckx, Joris J.; Decraemer, Willem F.

1991-08-01

72

Operative findings of conductive hearing loss with intact tympanic membrane and normal temporal bone computed tomography.  

PubMed

Despite recent technological advances in diagnostic methods including imaging technology, it is often difficult to establish a preoperative diagnosis of conductive hearing loss (CHL) in patients with an intact tympanic membrane (TM). Especially, in patients with a normal temporal bone computed tomography (TBCT), preoperative diagnosis is more difficult. We investigated middle ear disorders encountered in patients with CHL involving an intact TM and normal TBCT. We also analyzed the surgical results with special reference to the pathology. We reviewed the medical records of 365 patients with intact TM, who underwent exploratory tympanotomy for CHL. Fifty nine patients (67 ears, eight bilateral surgeries) had a normal preoperative TBCT findings reported by neuro-radiologists. Demographic data, otologic history, TM findings, preoperative imaging findings, intraoperative findings, and pre- and postoperative audiologic data were obtained and analyzed. Exploration was performed most frequently in the second and fifth decades. The most common postoperative diagnosis was stapedial fixation with non-progressive hearing loss. The most commonly performed hearing-restoring procedure was stapedotomy with piston wire prosthesis insertion. Various types of hearing-restoring procedures during exploration resulted in effective hearing improvement, especially with better outcome in the ossicular chain fixation group. In patients with CHL who have intact TM and normal TBCT, we should consider an exploratory tympanotomy for exact diagnosis and hearing improvement. Information of the common operative findings from this study may help in preoperative counseling. PMID:23744181

Kim, Se-Hyung; Cho, Yang-Sun; Kim, Hye Jeong; Kim, Hyung-Jin

2014-06-01

73

Regeneration of Chronic Tympanic Membrane Perforation Using an EGF-Releasing Chitosan Patch  

PubMed Central

Most chronic tympanic membrane (TM) perforations require surgical interventions such as tympanoplasty because, unlike with acute perforations, it is very difficult for the perforations to heal spontaneously. The purpose of this study was to develop novel therapeutic techniques and scaffolds that release growth factors to treat chronic TM perforations. We evaluated the cell proliferation effects of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) on in vitro cultures of TM cells using an MTT assay. They both showed similar efficacy, so we used EGF because of its lower cost. We then constructed an EGF-releasing chitosan patch scaffold (EGF-CPS) based on previous studies. We analyzed its toxicity and strength, and we studied it using scanning electron microscopy. EGF was released from the EGF-CPS for 8 weeks in an in vitro system. In animal studies, the EGF group, which was treated with EGF-CPS, showed healing in 56.5% of the animals (13/23), while the control group, which did not receive any treatment, revealed 20.8% healing (4/24) (p=0.04). Transmission electron microscopic studies of regenerated eardrums in the EGF group showed much greater preservation of histological features, and TMs of the EGF group were thinner than spontaneously healed TMs. In conclusion, this novel EGF-CPS can be used as a nonsurgical intervention technique for treatment of chronic TM perforations. PMID:23627815

Seonwoo, Hoon; Kim, Seung Won; Kim, Jangho; Chunjie, Tian; Lim, Ki Taek; Kim, Yeon Ju; Pandey, Shambhavi; Choung, Pill-Hoon

2013-01-01

74

Development of water-insoluble chitosan patch scaffold to repair traumatic tympanic membrane perforations.  

PubMed

Perforated tympanic membranes (TM) and otitis media can be managed with a paper patch or tympanoplasty. However, a paper patch is not biocompatible and tympanoplasty requires complex aseptic surgical procedures. A novel biocompatible patch with a water-insoluble chitosan as the main component was prepared. Optimal mechanical characteristics of a water-insoluble chitosan patch scaffold (CPS) was approximately 40 microm in thickness, 7 MPa in tensile strength, and 107% in percent elongation, even though the characteristics varied significantly depending on the concentrations of chitosan and glycerol. SEM of the CPSs showed a very smooth surface as compared with that of the paper patches. These CPSs showed no cytotoxicity and had a stimulating effect on the proliferation of TM cells in in vitro study. In in vivo study, 4 (21.1%) and 17 (89.5%) TMs out of 19 adult rats with CPSs showed no perforations at 1 and 2 weeks, respectively. However, left control TMs showed healing of 0 (0%) at 1 week and 18 (94.7%) at 2 weeks. TEM findings of regenerated eardrums using CPSs showed thinner, smoother, and more compact tissues than spontaneously healed eardrums. A CPS was more effective than spontaneous healing to repair traumatic TM perforations. PMID:18546188

Kim, Jang Ho; Bae, Joon-Ho; Lim, Ki Taek; Choung, Pill-Hoon; Park, Jung-Sub; Choi, Seong Jun; Im, Ae Lee; Lee, Eung Tae; Choung, Yun-Hoon; Chung, Jong Hoon

2009-08-01

75

Multiphoton microscopy imaging of collagen fiber layers and orientation in the tympanic membrane  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Greater understanding of tympanic membrane (TM) biomechanics has the potential to guide future advances in medical technology related to its surgical repair (myringoplasty). The pars tensa of the TM is a composite structure with two collagen fiber layers that provide the main scaffolding for the TM. The external layer is arranged in an approximately radial configuration, and the other is arranged in an approximately circumferential configuration. A more detailed knowledge of collagen fiber orientation and volume fraction could greatly improve existing mechanical simulations of the TM. To address this, we employed multiphoton microscopy (MPM) imaging of the TM in two modalities: second harmonic generation (SHG) and two-photon fluorescence (TPF). The unique spectral signature of SHG allows selective imaging of collagen fibers. TPF also produces images of fibrillar-type collagen but lacks the specificity of SHG. Both the SHG and TPF images show patterns of collagen organization in the TM that match expected results with respect to both orientation and size. Through MPM, we intend to accurately determine the collagen fiber layer thickness, density, and orientation as a function of radial position and quadrant location.

Jackson, R. P.; Chlebicki, C.; Krasieva, T. B.; Puria, S.

2008-02-01

76

Lateralized differences in tympanic membrane temperature, but not induced mood, are related to episodic memory.  

PubMed

The present research examined the effects of pre-encoding and pre-recall induced mood on episodic memory. It was hypothesized that happy and/or angry mood prior to encoding (increasing left hemisphere activity), in tandem with fearful mood prior to recall (increasing right hemisphere activity) would be associated with superior episodic memory. It was also hypothesized that tympanic membrane measures (TMT), indicative of hemispheric activity, would change as a function of induced mood. Although subjectively-experienced mood induction was successful, pre-encoding and pre-recall mood did not alter memory, and only altered TMT in the pre-encoding fear and pre-recall angry mood induction conditions. Interestingly, baseline absolute difference between left and right TMT, a measure of differential hemispheric activity, regardless of the direction of that activity, was significantly positively related to number of total words written, number of correctly recalled words, and corrected recall score. This same TMT measure pre-encoding, regardless of specific mood, was significantly negatively related to false recall. Results are discussed in terms the HERA model of episodic memory, and in the nature of interhemispheric interaction involved in episodic recall. PMID:25647603

Propper, Ruth E; Barr, Taylor D; Brunyé, Tad T

2015-03-01

77

Study of outcome of tympanoplasties in relation to size and site of tympanic membrane perforation.  

PubMed

There are not many studies on the effect of the site and size of the perforation on the hearing loss. This study is set to investigate the relationship between the size and site of perforation and hearing loss. This study was carried out between September 2011 to September 2013, at a tertiary care centre during which 100 cases of chronic otitis media tubotympanic type having central perforation were selected. All patients underwent, tympanoplasty using temporalis fascia/cartilage graft, underlay technique with or without simple mastoidectomy/modified radical mastoidectomy and followed up for 3 months and evaluated for graft uptake and hearing improvement with respect to size and site of TM perforation. To measure the size of perforation intra-operatively, thin transparency sheet was used, on which a graph paper of 1 × 1 mm(2) size was printed. Significant relationship was observed between size and site of tympanic membrane perforation with hearing loss. Perforations which were involving all four quadrants (AS + AI + PS + PI) are having maximum residual perforations after the surgery. In relation with size, subtotal perforation were having more residual perforations postoperatively, followed by medium sized perforations. An inherent relationship noted between ossicular involvement and hearing loss, maximum average hearing loss was observed in those cases, where all three ossicles (malleus, incus & stapes) were involved, also more hearing loss was noted in posterior perforations. PMID:25032126

Vaidya, Sudhakar; Sharma, J K; Singh, Gurchand

2014-09-01

78

Spontaneous perforation of the tympanic membrane in the first 10 days of life.  

PubMed

Twelve cases of neonates admitted to the neonatal unit of our hospital, between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2005, because of otorrhea due to spontaneous perforation of the tympanic membrane within the first 10 days of life are presented. Data were collected retrospectively from medical records. Cultures of the middle ear exudate grew PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA in 10, SERRATIA MARCENSCENS in 1, and STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS in 1 neonate. Cultures of nasopharyngeal secretions grew P. AERUGINOSA in nine, S. MARCENSCENS in one, S. AUREUS in one, and STREPTOCOCCUS VIRIDANS in one neonate. Middle ear versus nasopharyngeal secretions cultures grew the same organism in 11 neonates. A 10-day course of parenteral antibiotics was administered (ampicillin-ceftazidime for all neonates except for the one neonate with the S. AUREUS otitis who received netilmicin-cloxacillin). All neonates had uneventful course and were discharged home in good clinical condition. Our findings suggest that neonates with eardrum perforation should receive antibiotics parenterally, as the most common pathogens is P. AERUGINOSA, for which there are no satisfactory antibiotics for oral use. PMID:20225173

Iacovidou, Nicoletta; Falaena, Vasiliki; Alexaki, Augustina; Nika, Angeliki

2010-09-01

79

The effect of topical estrogen on healing of chronic tympanic membrane perforations and hearing threshold  

PubMed Central

Background: Considering the presence of squamous epithelial cells and fibroblasts in the tympanic membrane (TM), topical estrogen application may influence the repair of TM perforations. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the healing effect of topical estrogen on chronic TM perforations and improvement in hearing threshold. Materials and Methods: Sixty patients were enrolled in a randomized clinical trial. Thirty patients were treated with paper patch and 30 with estrogen-impinged paper patch. Complete closure of the TM perforation and hearing threshold were evaluated in both groups. Chronic unilateral perforations of the TM involving less than 40% of the total area of the TM without active disease in the middle ear were selected. The margin of the perforation was chemically trimmed using 15% trichloroacetic acid and patching performed under an operating microscope. Microscopic examination was performed after 14 days and repeated after 30 days. Complete closure of the TM perforation was considered as successful repair. Hearing threshold was determined before the start of the trial and 30 days after treatment. Results: No significant difference was found between the two groups after 14 days in complete closure of the perforation (P = 0.310). After 30 days, patients treated with estrogen-impinged paper patch showed a significantly higher rate of closure of the perforation (63.4%) and improvement in hearing threshold (P = 0.017). Conclusion: Topical estrogen may have a healing effect on chronic TM perforations and improvement in hearing threshold. PMID:23914209

Barati, Behrouz; Abtahi, Seyyed Hamid Reza; Hashemi, Seyyed Mostafa; Okhovat, Seyyed Ahmad Reza; Poorqasemian, Mehdi; Tabrizi, Ali Goljanian

2013-01-01

80

Influence of middle ear pressure alteration and middle ear effusion on vibration characteristics of human tympanic membrane  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A laser doppler vibrometer was used to measure the motion of a simple middle ear model and tympanic membrane vibrations of human temporal bone specimen. Different pathological conditions were simulated: Increasing or decreasing middle ear pressure to defined levels create a situation similar to a barootitis. Additionally the middle ear cavities were partially or totally filled with fluids of different viscosities. Characteristic changes of the vibration patterns were detected: With increasing pressure difference between middle ear and atmosphere the vibration amplitudes decreased. In middle ear effusions diminished amplitudes were obtained, depending on the fluid-occupied volume within the tympanic cavity. The vibration pattern was not influenced by differences in the viscosity of the effusion. Therefore a preoperative examination of a patient with middle ear effusions by laser doppler vibrometer offers no predictive aspect to the decision whether a ventilation tube should be inserted or not.

Stasche, Norbert; Hoermann, Karl; Foth, Hans-Jochen; Bernecker, Frank; Barton, Thomas G.

1995-05-01

81

High-speed holographic system for full-field transient vibrometry of the human tympanic membrane  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding of the human hearing process requires the quantification of the transient response of the human ear and the human tympanic membrane (TM or eardrum) in particular. Current state-of-the-art medical methods to quantify the transient acousto-mechanical response of the TM provide only averaged acoustic or local information at a few points. This may be insufficient to fully describe the complex patterns unfolding across the full surface of the TM. Existing engineering systems for full-field nanometer measurements of transient events, typically based on holographic methods, constrain the maximum sampling speed and/or require complex experimental setups. We have developed and implemented of a new high-speed (i.e., > 40 Kfps) holographic system (HHS) with a hybrid spatio-temporal local correlation phase sampling method that allows quantification of the full-field nanometer transient (i.e., > 10 kHz) displacement of the human TM. The HHS temporal accuracy and resolution is validated versus a LDV on both artificial membranes and human TMs. The high temporal (i.e., < 24 ?s) and spatial (i.e., >100k data points) resolution of our HHS enables simultaneous measurement of the time waveform of the full surface of the TM. These capabilities allow for quantification of spatially-dependent motion parameters such as energy propagation delays surface wave speeds, which can be used to infer local material properties across the surface of the TM. The HHS could provide a new tool for the investigation of the auditory system with applications in medical research, in-vivo clinical diagnosis as well as hearing aids design.

Dobrev, I.; Harrington, E. J.; Cheng, T.; Furlong, C.; Rosowski, J. J.

2014-07-01

82

Phenotypic and genotypic profile of human tympanic membrane derived cultured cells.  

PubMed

The human tympanic membrane (hTM), known more commonly as the eardrum, is a thin, multi-layered membrane that is unique in the body as it is suspended in air. When perforated, the hTM's primary function of sound-pressure transmission is compromised. For the purposes of TM reconstruction, we investigated the phenotype and genotype of cultured primary cells derived from hTM tissue explants, compared to epithelial (HaCaT cells) and mesenchymal (human dermal fibroblasts (HDF)) reference cells. Epithelium-specific ets-1 (ESE-1), E-cadherin, keratinocyte growth factor-1 (KGF-1/FGF-7), keratinocyte growth factor-2 (KGF-2/FGF10), fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1), variants of fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2), fibroblast surface protein (FSP), and vimentin proteins were used to assess the phenotypes of all cultured cells. Wholemount and paraffin-embedded hTM tissues were stained with ESE-1 and E-cadherin proteins to establish normal epithelial-specific expression patterns within the epithelial layers. Immunofluorescent (IF) cell staining of hTM epithelial cells (hTMk) demonstrated co-expression of both epithelial- and mesenchymal-specific proteins. Flow cytometry (FCM) analysis further demonstrated co-expression of these epithelial and mesenchymal-specific proteins, indicating the subcultured hTMk cells possessed a transitional phenotype. Gene transcript analysis of hTMk cells by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) revealed a down regulation of ESE-1, E-cadherin, FGFR2, variant 1 and variant 2 (FGFR2v1 and FGFR2v2) between low and high passages, and up-regulation of KGF-1, KGF-2, and FGFR1. All results indicate a gradual shift in cell phenotype of hTMk-derived cells from epithelial to mesenchymal. PMID:21072681

Redmond, Sharon L; Levin, Brett; Heel, Kathryn A; Atlas, Marcus D; Marano, Robert J

2011-02-01

83

Biodegradation behavior of silk fibroin membranes in repairing tympanic membrane perforations.  

PubMed

Silk fibroin (SF) from silkworms has been widely studied as a biomaterial. The degradation behavior of silk biomaterials is important for medical applications, but few studies have examined long-term degradation behavior in vivo. In this study, we investigated the degradation behavior of SF membranes in vitro and in vivo. For the in vitro assay, we observed degradation of silk membranes in phosphate buffered saline, culture media, and an enzyme (proteinase K) solution. In the proteinase K solution, 80% of the silk membranes degraded within 10 days. Silk membranes exhibited no cytotoxicity toward L929 cells and rat tissues. To investigate the degradation of silk membranes in vivo, they were implanted subcutaneously in rats and harvested 19 months after surgery. Scanning electron microscopy imaging and histological analysis of silk membrane explants showed that they broke into several pieces after 16 months. Results show that silk membranes are biocompatible and display excellent long-term degradation behavior when used as biomaterials. PMID:22581612

Lee, Ok Joo; Lee, Jung Min; Kim, Ji Heui; Kim, Jin; Kweon, HaeYong; Jo, You Young; Park, Chan Hum

2012-08-01

84

Comparison of tympanic membrane grafting medial or lateral to malleus handle  

PubMed Central

Background: To compare two methods of tympanic membrane (TM) grafting when graft materials medial or lateral to malleus, this study have been done. Materials and Methods: In this clinical trial which was conducted in Alzahra and Kashani hospitals, between June 2010 and February 2012, 56 patients with chronic otitis media and perforated TM entered the study in two groups. The inclusion criteria consisted of patients who were at least 15-years-old without history of smoking, diabetes mellitus or autoimmune disease. Exclusion criteria of the study: No compliance for follow up, post-surgical ear trauma or any infective pathology that directly affects the ear. In Group A patients, the graft material is pierced in near central part of the graft and they lodged so that the malleus handle projects through the graft perforation. Group B had grafting in the lateral side of the malleus. Three month after surgery both groups examined and tested by audiometry. Success of surgery is defined as complete repair of TM, without lateralization, atelectasis, blunting or retraction pocket. Results: This study contained 28 patients in Group A and 28 in Group B. Overall success rate was 94.64% that was 96.42% in Group A, and 92.85% in Group B. Differences of air-bone gap in each group before and after surgery was 16.10 (±4.89) in Group A, and 15.78 (±3.40) in Group B. Improvement of hearing level was not significant between two surgical methods (P = 0.442). Conclusions: Both techniques (medial and lateral to malleus handle) of TM grafting are effective with success rates 96.42% and 92.85% respectively. PMID:24627864

Rogha, Mehrdad; Berjis, Nezamoddin; Taherinia, Ali; Eshaghian, Afrooz

2014-01-01

85

Bacterial cellulose nanofibrillar patch as a wound healing platform of tympanic membrane perforation.  

PubMed

Bacterial cellulose (BC)-based biomaterials on medical device platforms have gained significant interest for tissue-engineered scaffolds or engraftment materials in regenerative medicine. In particular, BC has an ultrafine and highly pure nanofibril network structure and can be used as an efficient wound-healing platform since cell migration into a wound site is strongly meditated by the structural properties of the extracellular matrix. Here, the fabrication of a nanofibrillar patch by using BC and its application as a new wound-healing platform for traumatic tympanic membrane (TM) perforation is reported. TM perforation is a very common clinical problem worldwide and presents as conductive hearing loss and chronic perforations. The BC nanofibrillar patch can be synthesized from Gluconacetobacter xylinus; it is found that the patch contained a network of nanofibrils and is transparent. The thickness of the BC nanofibrillar patch is found to be approximately 10.33 ± 0.58 ?m, and the tensile strength and Young's modulus of the BC nanofibrillar patch are 11.85 ± 2.43 and 11.90 ± 0.48 MPa, respectively, satisfying the requirements of an ideal wound-healing platform for TM regeneration. In vitro studies involving TM cells show that TM cell proliferation and migration are stimulated under the guidance of the BC nanofibrillar patch. In vivo animal studies demonstrate that the BC nanofibrillar patch promotes the rate of TM healing as well as aids in the recovery of TM function. These data demonstrate that the BC nanofibrillar patch is a useful wound-healing platform for TM perforation. PMID:23554356

Kim, Jangho; Kim, Seung Won; Park, Subeom; Lim, Ki Taek; Seonwoo, Hoon; Kim, Yeonju; Hong, Byung Hee; Choung, Yun-Hoon; Chung, Jong Hoon

2013-11-01

86

Plasminogen initiates and potentiates the healing of acute and chronic tympanic membrane perforations in mice  

PubMed Central

Background Most tympanic membrane (TM) perforations heal spontaneously, but approximately 10-20% remain open as chronic TM perforations. Chronic perforations can lead to an impaired hearing ability and recurrent middle ear infections. Traditionally, these perforations must be surgically closed, which is costly and time consuming. Therefore, there is a need for simpler therapeutic strategies. Previous studies by us have shown that plasminogen (plg) is a potent pro-inflammatory regulator that accelerates cutaneous wound healing in mice. We have also shown that the healing of TM perforations is completely arrested in plg-deficient (plg-/-) mice and that these mice develop chronic TM perforations. In the present study, we investigated the therapeutic potential of local plg injection in acute and chronic TM perforation mice models. Methods Plg-/- mice and wild-type mice were subjected to standardized TM perforations followed by local injection of plg into the soft tissue surrounding the TM. TM perforations with chronic characteristics were induced by leaving TM perforations in plg-/- mice untreated for 9 days before treatment. The healing process was observed through otomicroscope and finally confirmed by immunostaining. The quality of TM healing was evaluated based on the morphology of the TM. Result Daily local injections of plg into the soft tissue surrounding the TM restored the ability to heal TM perforations in plg-/- mice in a dose-dependent manner, and potentiated the healing rate and quality in wild-type mice. A single local injection of plg initiated the healing of the chronic-like TM perforations in these mice, resulting in a closed TM with a continuous but rather thick outer keratinocyte layer. However, three plg injections led to a completely healed TM with a thin keratinizing squamous epithelium covering a connective tissue layer. Conclusion Our data suggests that plg is a promising drug candidate for the treatment of chronic TM perforations in humans. PMID:24393366

2014-01-01

87

A method for measuring linearly viscoelastic properties of human tympanic membrane using nanoindentation.  

PubMed

A viscoelastic nanoindentation technique was developed to measure both in-plane and through-thickness viscoelastic properties of human tympanic membrane (TM). For measurement of in-plane Young's relaxation modulus, the TM sample was clamped on a circular hole and a nanoindenter tip was used to apply a concentrated force at the center of the TM sample. In this setup, the resistance to nanoindentation displacement can be considered due primarily to the in-plane stiffness. The load-displacement curve obtained was used along with finite element analysis to determine the in-plane viscoelastic properties of TM. For measurements of Young's relaxation modulus in the through-thickness (out-of-plane) direction, the TM sample was placed on a relatively rigid solid substrate and nanoindentation was made on the sample surface. In this latter setup, the resistance to nanoindentation displacement arises primarily due to out-of-plane stiffness. The load-displacement curve obtained in this manner was used to determine the out-of-plane relaxation modulus using the method appropriate for viscoelastic materials. From our sample tests, we obtained the steady-state values for in-plane moduli as approximately 17.4 MPa and approximately 19.0 MPa for posterior and anterior portions of TM samples, respectively, and the value for through-thickness modulus as approximately 6.0 MPa for both posterior and anterior TM samples. Using this technique, the local out-of-plane viscoelastic modulus can be determined for different locations over the entire TM, and the in-plane properties can be determined for different quadrants of the TM. PMID:18298192

Huang, Gang; Daphalapurkar, Nitin P; Gan, Rong Z; Lu, Hongbing

2008-02-01

88

In vivo areal modulus of elasticity estimation of the human tympanic membrane system: modelling of middle ear mechanical function in normal young and aged ears  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The quasi-static elastic properties of the tympanic membrane system can be described by the areal modulus of elasticity determined by a middle ear model. The response of the tympanic membrane to quasi-static pressure changes is determined by its elastic properties. Several clinical problems are related to these, but studies are few and mostly not comparable. The elastic properties of membranes can be described by the areal modulus, and these may also be susceptible to age-related changes reflected by changes in the areal modulus. The areal modulus is determined by the relationship between membrane tension and change of the surface area relative to the undeformed surface area. A middle ear model determined the tension-strain relationship in vivo based on data from experimental pressure-volume deformations of the human tympanic membrane system. The areal modulus was determined in both a younger (n = 10) and an older (n = 10) group of normal subjects. The areal modulus for lateral and medial displacement of the tympanic membrane system was smaller in the older group (mean = 0.686 and 0.828 kN m-1, respectively) compared to the younger group (mean = 1.066 and 1.206 kN m-1, respectively), though not significantly (2p = 0.10 and 0.11, respectively). Based on the model the areal modulus was established describing the summated elastic properties of the tympanic membrane system. Future model improvements include exact determination of the tympanic membrane area accounting for its shape via 3D finite element analyses. In vivo estimates of Young's modulus in this study were a factor 2-3 smaller than previously found in vitro. No significant age-related differences were found in the elastic properties as expressed by the areal modulus.

Gaihede, Michael; Liao, Donghua; Gregersen, Hans

2007-02-01

89

Enhanced quantitative confocal microscopy and its application for the measurement of tympanic membrane thickness  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work shows that confocal microscopy allows a quantitative study of delicate 3D-biotissue in fresh condition, thus avoiding histological preparation processes. The developed procedure results in exact and accurate thickness data for mum-sized objects with a measuring error of less than 1mum. It is, however, necessary to take into account the effect of focal shift in the case of refractive index mismatch to obtain such precise data. The use of the proposed method is advised instead of the use of a paraxial approximation for the axial scale correction because the method improves measurement precision by a factor of four. The axial scaling correction factors obtained in this work show that for most practical situations the correction cannot be ignored when one wants to obtain precise quantitative data. The thickness correction method can also be used to determine with high accuracy the index of refraction of biological tissue. The thickness measurement method was applied to fresh, untreated tympanic membranes of the gerbil, the cat and the human. Thickness had to be measured at many points as it differs strongly across the membrane. Similar thickness distributions were found in all pars tensas measured even across the species studied: (1) a very thin, central region with a rather constant thickness, curving as a horse shoe upwards around the manubrium (thickness: gerbil: about 7mum, cat: about 10mum, human: large inter-specimen variation: 40mum-120mum), (2) a thinnest zone at the inferior side, (3) a thicker zone at the supero-anterior side, (4) superior to the umbo, an anterior region thicker than the posterior region, (5) maximal thicknesses in a very small region near the entire manubrium and the entire annular periphery. The pars flaccida is found to be thicker than the pars tensa. It shows no central homogeneous zone: the thickness varies irregularly and very rapidly over short distances. Arbitrarily spaced bumps and notches are present over the entire pars flaccida surface. The thickness results advise against the use of single thickness values in mathematical models. The presented thickness and its spatial distribution can be introduced into middle ear computer models to further improve model realism.

Kuypers, Liesbeth

2005-11-01

90

Finite element modeling of sound transmission with perforations of tympanic membrane  

E-print Network

of the external ear canal, middle ear, and cochlea has been developed recently. In this paper, the FE model including the external ear canal, middle ear, and uncoiled cochlea with two straight fluid channels and Bioengineering Center, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma 73019 Mark W. Wood Hough Ear Institute, 3400 N

Allen, Jont

91

Evaluation of the optimum time for direct application of fibroblast growth factor to human traumatic tympanic membrane perforations.  

PubMed

Abstract Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the optimum time for direct application of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) on large traumatic tympanic membrane perforations (TMPs). Study design: Prospective clinical study. Setting: Tertiary University Hospital. Methods: Ninety-three patients, with traumatic TMPs greater in extent than 25% of the entire tympanic membrane, were randomized into observation and bFGF-treated groups (?0.2-0.25?mL of bFGF solution was applied directly onto the TM once daily and continued until the perforation closed). Initial visit times were subcategorized into perforation durations of ?3 and >3 days, thereby rendering two subgroups, as follows: A and B in the observation group; and C and D in the bFGF-treated group. The closure rate and mean closure time were evaluated after 6 months. Results: Eighty-six patients were finally analyzed. After 6 months, the bFGF-treated group exhibited a significantly higher total closure rate (97.8 versus 82.5%, p??0.05) and mean closure time (p?>?0.05), between the A and B subgroups. Similarly, in the bFGF-treated group, visiting time was not associated with differences in closure rate (p?>?0.05) between the C and D subgroups. However, the D subgroup was characterized by significantly shortened mean closure time compared with the C subgroup (p?

Lou, Zhengcai; Wang, Yubizhuo

2014-11-01

92

Full-field transient vibrometry of the human tympanic membrane by local phase correlation and high-speed holography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the human hearing process would be helped by quantification of the transient mechanical response of the human ear, including the human tympanic membrane (TM or eardrum). We propose a new hybrid high-speed holographic system (HHS) for acquisition and quantification of the full-field nanometer transient (i.e., >10 kHz) displacement of the human TM. We have optimized and implemented a 2+1 frame local correlation (LC) based phase sampling method in combination with a high-speed (i.e., >40 K fps) camera acquisition system. To our knowledge, there is currently no existing system that provides such capabilities for the study of the human TM. The LC sampling method has a displacement difference of <11 nm relative to measurements obtained by a four-phase step algorithm. Comparisons between our high-speed acquisition system and a laser Doppler vibrometer indicate differences of <10 ?s. The high temporal (i.e., >40 kHz) and spatial (i.e., >100 k data points) resolution of our HHS enables parallel measurements of all points on the surface of the TM, which allows quantification of spatially dependent motion parameters, such as modal frequencies and acoustic delays. Such capabilities could allow inferring local material properties across the surface of the TM.

Dobrev, Ivo; Furlong, Cosme; Cheng, Jeffrey T.; Rosowski, John J.

2014-09-01

93

Full-field transient vibrometry of the human tympanic membrane by local phase correlation and high-speed holography.  

PubMed

Understanding the human hearing process would be helped by quantification of the transient mechanical response of the human ear, including the human tympanic membrane (TM or eardrum). We propose a new hybrid high-speed holographic system (HHS) for acquisition and quantification of the full-field nanometer transient (i.e., >10 kHz) displacement of the human TM. We have optimized and implemented a 2 ţ 1 frame local correlation (LC) based phase sampling method in combination with a high-speed (i.e., >40 K fps) camera acquisition system. To our knowledge, there is currently no existing system that provides such capabilities for the study of the human TM. The LC sampling method has a displacement difference of <11 nm relative to measurements obtained by a four-phase step algorithm. Comparisons between our high-speed acquisition system and a laser Doppler vibrometer indicate differences of <10 ?s. The high temporal (i.e., >40 kHz) and spatial (i.e., >100 k data points) resolution of our HHS enables parallel measurements of all points on the surface of the TM, which allows quantification of spatially dependent motion parameters, such as modal frequencies and acoustic delays. Such capabilities could allow inferring local material properties across the surface of the TM. PMID:25191832

Dobrev, Ivo; Furlong, Cosme; Cheng, Jeffrey T; Rosowski, John J

2014-09-01

94

The effect of topical insulin application on the healing of acute tympanic membrane perforations: a histopathologic study.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of insulin on the healing of acute traumatic tympanic membrane (TM) perforations by observing the duration of perforation closure clinically and by examining the TM thickness, fibroblastic reaction, neovascularization and collagenization histologically. In all, 24 adult healthy guinea pigs were used. TM perforations, about 2 mm in diameter were made in the pars tensa of each ear. The perforations in the right ears of the guinea pigs (study group) were treated with 1 IU of regular insulin (Humulin-R 100 IU/ml, Lilly) daily topically. The left ears of the guinea pigs (control group) were treated with saline solution daily. The treatments were continued until the each perforation closed. The animals were examined with otomicroscopy at first, third, fifth and seventh days. TM specimens were obtained after the animals were decapitated under deep anesthesia by an intraperitoneal injection of sodium pentobarbital (0.5 ml/100 g) 3 and 7 days after wounding. Histologically, the epithelial and mucosal layers were examined. Finger-like projections, the edema of the LP, neovascularization of LP, fibroblastic activity of LP, inflammatory cell presence of LP, collagenization ratios of LP were evaluated. In the study group; LP fibroblastic reaction positivity and LP collagenization positivity was significantly higher than the control group (P < 0.001 and P < 0.05). Topical insulin treatment may be more beneficial in the treatment of atrophic membrane, which is a sequel of perforation, when tried in various dosages and time intervals. PMID:17431656

Eken, Mehmet; Ates, Gunay; Sanli, Arif; Evren, Cenk; Bozkurt, Suheyla

2007-09-01

95

Real-time automated thickness measurement of the in vivo human tympanic membrane using optical coherence tomography  

PubMed Central

Background Otitis media (OM), an infection in the middle ear, is extremely common in the pediatric population. Current gold-standard methods for diagnosis include otoscopy for visualizing the surface features of the tympanic membrane (TM) and making qualitative assessments to determine middle ear content. OM typically presents as an acute infection, but can progress to chronic OM, and after numerous infections and antibiotic treatments over the course of many months, this disease is often treated by surgically inserting small tubes in the TM to relieve pressure, enable drainage, and provide aeration to the middle ear. Diagnosis and monitoring of OM is critical for successful management, but remains largely qualitative. Methods We have developed an optical coherence tomography (OCT) system for high-resolution, depth-resolved, cross-sectional imaging of the TM and middle ear content, and for the quantitative assessment of in vivo TM thickness including the presence or absence of a middle ear biofilm. A novel algorithm was developed and demonstrated for automatic, real-time, and accurate measurement of TM thickness to aid in the diagnosis and monitoring of OM and other middle ear conditions. The segmentation algorithm applies a Hough transform to the OCT image data to determine the boundaries of the TM to calculate thickness. Results The use of OCT and this segmentation algorithm is demonstrated first on layered phantoms and then during real-time acquisition of in vivo OCT from humans. For the layered phantoms, measured thicknesses varied by approximately 5 µm over time in the presence of large axial and rotational motion. In vivo data also demonstrated differences in thicknesses both spatially on a single TM, and across normal, acute, and chronic OM cases. Conclusions Real-time segmentation and thickness measurements of image data from both healthy subjects and those with acute and chronic OM demonstrate the use of OCT and this algorithm as a robust, quantitative, and accurate method for use during real-time in vivo human imaging. PMID:25694956

Hubler, Zita; Shemonski, Nathan D.; Shelton, Ryan L.; Monroy, Guillermo L.; Nolan, Ryan M.

2015-01-01

96

Establishment of endogenous human tympanic membrane-derived somatic stem cells for stem cell therapy.  

PubMed

We examined whether somatic stem cells (SSCs) exist in human tympanis membrane (hTM) and whether they could be differentiated into neural lineage cells. The hTM-SSCs could generate neurospheres, which could differentiate into specific neural linage cells under specific differentiation conditions. Also, we conducted another experiment that led to differentiation into neurospheres and neuronal lineage cells, which occurred independent of each other. Independent of each other condition, hTM-SSCs could differentiate into neurospheres, and subsequently, into neuronal lineage cells. However, NS-NR neural differentiation rates are higher than independent of each other culture system. PMID:24771506

Choi, Mi Young; Park, Kyoung Ho

2014-09-01

97

Lesions in the external auditory canal.  

PubMed

The external auditory canal is an S- shaped osseo-cartilaginous structure that extends from the auricle to the tympanic membrane. Congenital, inflammatory, neoplastic, and traumatic lesions can affect the EAC. High-resolution CT is well suited for the evaluation of the temporal bone, which has a complex anatomy with multiple small structures. In this study, we describe the various lesions affecting the EAC. PMID:22223939

Chatra, Priyank S

2011-10-01

98

Equivalent Ear Canal Volumes in Children Pre- and Post-Tympanostomy Tube Insertion.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluation of preoperative and postoperative equivalent ear canal volume measures on 334 children (ages 6 weeks to 6.7 years) with chronic otitis media with effusion found that the determination could be made very accurately for children 4 years and older. Criterion values for tympanic membrane perforation and preoperative and postoperative…

Shanks, Janet E.; And Others

1992-01-01

99

Improved tympanic thermometer based on a fiber optic infrared radiometer and an otoscope and its use as a new diagnostic tool for acute otitis media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Clinical diagnosis of acute otitis media (AOM) in children is not easy. It was assumed that there is a difference ?T between the Tympanic Membrane (TM) temperatures in the two ears in unilateral AOM and that an accurate measurement of ?T may improve the diagnosis accuracy. An IR transmitting fiber, made of AgClBr, was coupled into a hand held otoscope and was used for the non-contact (radiometric) measurements of TT, the TM temperature. Experiments were carried out, first, on a laboratory model that simulated the human ear, including an artificial tympanic membrane and an artificial ear canal. Measurements carried out using commercially available tympanic thermometers shown that the temperature Tc of the ear canal affected the results. Tc did not affect the fiberoptic radiometer, and this device accurately measured the true temperature, TT of the tympanic membrane. A prospective blinded sampling of the TM temperature was then performed on 48 children with suspected AOM. The mean temperature difference between the ears, for children with unilateral AOM was ?T = (0.68 +/- 0.27)°C. For children with bilateral AOM it was ?T = (0.14+/-0.10)°C (p<0.001). It was demonstrated that afor unilateral AOM the difference ?T was proportional to the systemic temperature. In conclusion, the fiberoptic interferometric measurements of the TM can be a useful non-invasive diagnostic tool for AOM, when combined with other data.

Fishman, Gadi; DeRowe, Ari; Ophir, Eyal; Scharf, Vered; Shabtai, Abraham; Ophir, Dov; Katzir, Abraham

1999-06-01

100

Canals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the mid-1800's, the canal system in the U.S. was thriving. But, by the end of that century, roads and railways had replaced these commercial thoroughfares. Renewed interest in the abandoned canals is now resulting in renovation and ecological site development in Pennsylvania and New Jersey. (MA)

Winkleman, Michael

1974-01-01

101

[The emergency plastic reconstruction of the tympanic membrane defects of post-traumatic and iatrogenic etiology with the application of the nanostructured bioplastic material].  

PubMed

The objective of the present study was to estimate the effectiveness of the application of the nanostructured bioplastic material for the plastic reconstruction of tympanic defects of post-traumatic and iatrogenic etiology. The authors report the results of the emergency plastic reconstruction of tympanic defects of post-traumatic and iatrogenic nature with the application of the nanostructured bioplastic material (giamatrix). The analysis of the results of the study prfovidd definitive evidence of the effectiveness of plastic reconstruction of tympanic defects with the application of the nanostructured bioplastic material. PMID:25588474

Zabirov, R A; Kar'kaeva, S M; Shchetinin, V N; Akimov, A V

2014-01-01

102

Can general practitioners do the follow-ups after surgery with ventilation tubes in the tympanic membrane? Two years audiological data  

PubMed Central

Background A university hospital in Mid-Norway has modified their guidelines for follow-up after insertion of ventilation tubes (VTs) in the tympanic membrane, transferring the controls of the healthiest children to general practitioners (GPs). The aim of this study was to evaluate the implementation of these guidelines by exploring audiological outcome and subjective hearing complaints two years after surgery, assessing if follow-ups in general practice resulted in poorer outcome. Methods A retrospective observational study was performed at the university hospital and in general practice in Mid-Norway. Children below 18 years who underwent surgery with VTs between Nov 1st 2007 and Dec 31st 2008 (n?=?136) were invited to participate. Pure tone audiometry, speech audiometry and tympanometry were measured. A self-report questionnaire assessed subjective hearing, ear complaints and the location of follow-ups. This study includes enough patients to observe group differences in mean threshold (0.5–1–2–4 kHz) of 9 dB or more. Results There were no preoperative differences in audiometry or tympanometry between the children scheduled for follow-ups by GPs (n?=?23) or otolaryngologists (n?=?50). Two years after surgery there were no differences between the GP and otolaryngologist groups in improvement of mean hearing thresholds (12.8 vs 12.6 dB, p?=?0.9) or reduction of middle ears with effusion (78.0 vs 75.0%, p?=?0.9). We found no differences between the groups in terms of parental reports of child hearing or ear complaints. Conclusions Implementation of new clinical guidelines for follow-ups after insertion of VTs did not negatively affect audiological outcomes or subjective hearing complaints two years after surgery. PMID:24708658

2014-01-01

103

Mechanics of the inner ear of the bullfrog ( Rana catesbeiana ): the contact membranes and the periotic canal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The frog inner ear consists of a complex of fluid-filled membranous sacs and canals containing eight distinct clusters of\\u000a sensory hair cells. In this study we attempt to delineate the potential pathways for acoustic energy flow toward two of these\\u000a clusters located within the amphibian papilla and the basilar papilla. Detailed morphological measurements of the periotic\\u000a canal based on internal

A. P. Purgue; P. M. Narins

2000-01-01

104

Sound pressure distribution within natural and artificial human ear canals: forward stimulation.  

PubMed

This work is part of a study of the interaction of sound pressure in the ear canal (EC) with tympanic membrane (TM) surface displacement. Sound pressures were measured with 0.5-2?mm spacing at three locations within the shortened natural EC or an artificial EC in human temporal bones: near the TM surface, within the tympanic ring plane, and in a plane transverse to the long axis of the EC. Sound pressure was also measured at 2-mm intervals along the long EC axis. The sound field is described well by the size and direction of planar sound pressure gradients, the location and orientation of standing-wave nodal lines, and the location of longitudinal standing waves along the EC axis. Standing-wave nodal lines perpendicular to the long EC axis are present on the TM surface >11-16?kHz in the natural or artificial EC. The range of sound pressures was larger in the tympanic ring plane than at the TM surface or in the transverse EC plane. Longitudinal standing-wave patterns were stretched. The tympanic-ring sound field is a useful approximation of the TM sound field, and the artificial EC approximates the natural EC. PMID:25480061

Ravicz, Michael E; Tao Cheng, Jeffrey; Rosowski, John J

2014-12-01

105

Endoscopic transcanal removal of symptomatic external auditory canal exostoses.  

PubMed

Exostoses are bony outgrowths of the external auditory canal (EAC) that can lead to cerumen entrapment, recurrent infections, and conductive hearing loss. When surgical removal is indicated, a drill or osteotome may be used via a post-auricular, endaural, or transcanal approach. Studies suggest that exostoses removed by transcanal osteotome result in decreased morbidity when compared to open, drilled approaches; however, inadvertent injury to the facial nerve or inner ear is a theoretical concern given the restrictive geometry of the EAC and challenges of visualizing the tip of the chisel through the microscope. The endoscope provides superior visualization of the external auditory canal and tympanic membrane compared to the microscope. We sought to demonstrate the efficacy and safety of endoscopic exostosis surgery with an osteotome. We find that the endoscope provides improved wide angled views without blind spots. There were no intraoperative complications. Endoscopic canaloplasty for exostoses may be readily applied. PMID:25459316

Kozin, Elliott D; Remenschneider, Aaron K; Shah, Parth V; Reardon, Edward; Lee, Daniel J

2015-01-01

106

Numerical Analysis of the Influence of the Auditory External Canal Geometry on the Human Hearing Response  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the analysis and discussion about different effects of the external auditory canal (EAC) geometry on the response of the human hearing system. Simulation has been made by means of 3D finite element models which included EAC and a model of the ossicular-eardrum system. Different EAC geometries were constructed, coupled to a middle ear model validated in previous works. The EAC geometry is based on anatomical measurements taken from the literature. The relative position and orientation of the tympanic membrane and section reduction of the canal at the isthmus were studied and analyzed with a harmonic analysis. A sound pressure level of 90 dB was applied at the canal entrance and through fluid-structure coupling, the pressures in the umbo and the displacements of umbo and stapes footplate were measured in a frequency range from 100 Hz to 20000 Hz.

Caminos, Luis; Garcia-Gonzalez, Antonio; Gonzalez-Herrera, Antonio

2011-11-01

107

Comparison of Ear-Canal Reflectance and Umbo Velocity in Patients with Conductive Hearing Loss  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Patients who present at hearing clinics with a conductive hearing loss (CHL) in the presence of an intact, healthy tympanic membrane create a unique challenge for otologists. While patient counseling, treatment options, and outcome vary with differing middle-ear pathologies, a non-invasive diagnostic that can differentiate between these pathologies does not currently exist. We evaluated the clinical utility and diagnostic accuracy of two non-invasive measures of middle-ear mechanics: ear-canal reflectance (ECR) and umbo velocity (VU).

Merchant, Gabrielle R.; Nakajima, Hideko H.; Pisano, Dominic V.; Röösli, Christof; Hamade, Mohamad A.; Mafoud, Lorice; Halpin, Christopher F.; Merchant, Saumil N.; Rosowski, John J.

2011-11-01

108

Tympanic sound radiation in the bullfrog Rana catesbeiana.  

PubMed

Members of the Rana catesbeiana clade display sexually dimorphic eardrums. In this species assemblage the eardrum of males can be 50% larger than in females of the same body size. There has been, however, no apparent functional explanation for this dimorphism. Measurements of the acoustical coupling (transfer function) of internally generated sound to the enlarged eardrum of male bullfrogs (R. catesbeiana) show distinct energy peaks coincident with those observed in the spectral envelopes of the release and mating calls. Moreover, when the tympanic membranes are artificially damped the spectrum of the release call is drastically altered and the total amount of power radiated decreases substantially. These observations point to a previously unsuspected role for the ears in the sound broadcasting process of the bullfrog and possibly other anurans with similarly modified tympanic membranes. PMID:9373953

Purgue, A P

1997-11-01

109

Vibration of the human tympanic membrane measured with OCT in a range between 0.4 kHz and 6.4 kHz on an ex vivo sample  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vibrations of the tympanic membrane (TM) play a key role for the transmission of sound to the inner ear. Today, there exist still problems in measuring the movement of the TM and there are unresolved issues in understanding the TM and its behavior. A non-invasive and contact-free in vivo investigation of the structure and the functional behavior of the TM would be a big step forward. In the presented study, the suitability of optical coherence tomography (OCT) for measuring the oscillation patterns of the TM in the frequency range covering the range of the human speech perception should be tested. For functional imaging a sound chirp was generated in the frequency range between 0.4 kHz - 6.4 kHz. To obtain the movement within a sufficient resolution, a grid of 25 x 25 measurement points was generated over the whole TM. The information of the oscillatory movement was encoded in the Doppler signal, provided by M-scans at several points of the TM. The frequency response functions of each frequency showed different oscillation patterns on the TM. The acquisition time of one single M-scan was only 8.5 ms and of the entire TM 5.3 s, emphasizing the potential of the method for future in vivo applications. Furthermore, the morphology was acquired with the same OCT-system, showing the feasibility for structural imaging and differentiation between typical regions of the TM. Thus, OCT was shown as a suitable method for the simultaneous measurement of the functional and structural behavior of the TM.

Burkhardt, Anke; Kirsten, Lars; Bornitz, Matthias; Zahnert, Thomas; Koch, Edmund

2013-06-01

110

The role of resonant ear canal thermal noise pressure on the eardrum in helping to determine auditory thresholds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of thermal pressure fluctuations on the tympanic membrane has been re-examined as a possible contributing determinant of the threshold of human hearing over the range of audible frequencies. The early approximate calculation of Sivian and White [1] is shown to result in higher values of thermal noise pressure on the tympanium of a model meatus than the result obtained by directly calculating the noise pressure from thermally excited resonant ear canal modes. [4pt] [1] L.J. Sivian and S.D. White, ``Minimum audible sound fields,'' J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 4, 288-321 (1933).

Harrison, Michael J.

2010-03-01

111

Mechanics of a 'simple' ear: tympanal vibrations in noctuid moths.  

PubMed

Anatomically, the ears of moths are considered to be among the simplest ears found in animals. Microscanning laser vibrometry was used to examine the surface vibrations of the entire tympanal region of the ears of the noctuid moths Agrotis exclamationis, Noctua pronuba, Xestia c-nigrum and Xestia triangulum. During stimulation with ultrasound at intensities known to activate receptor neurones, the tympanum vibrates with maximum deflection amplitudes at the location where the receptor cells attach. In the reportedly heterogeneous tympana of noctuid moths, this attachment site is an opaque zone that is surrounded by a transparent, thinner cuticular region. In response to sound pressure, this region moves relatively little compared with the opaque zone. Thus, the deflections of the moth tympanic membrane are not those of a simple circular drum. The acoustic sensitivity of the ear of N. pronuba, as measured on the attachment site, is 100+/-14 nm Pa(-1) (N=10), corresponding to tympanal motion of a mere 200 pm at sound pressure levels near the neural threshold. PMID:17644678

Windmill, J F C; Fullard, J H; Robert, D

2007-08-01

112

External auditory canal temperature as an estimate of core temperature.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Measurement of rectal (T sub re), auditory canal (T sub ac), positioned 8 to 10 mm from the tympanic membrane, and mean skin temperature (mean T sub sk) in five men during various exercise regimens at an ambient temperature (T sub a) of 25 C (phase one) and in two men during rest and exercise at 5, 15, 25, and 35 C T sub a (phase two). The purpose was to determine if T sub ac can be used as an accurate estimate of core temperature. Previous observations that T sub ac was highly correlated with T sub re but T sub ac was consistently lower than T sub re are confirmed; the mean difference varied from 0.4 C at rest to 1.1 C at the end of exercise. It is concluded that auditory canal temperature cannot be utilized as an estimate of core temperature, but T sub ac may be used to estimate mean body temperature where very accurate measurements are not required.

Greenleaf, J. E.; Castle, B. L.

1972-01-01

113

[Blood flow measurement and clinical usefulness of the temporal fascial scar tissue flap and the periosteal scar tissue flap in posterior canal wall reconstructed tympanoplasty for the mastoid cavity problem in the postoperative ear].  

PubMed

In the postoperative ear, following reconstructive tympanoplasty for a mastoid cavity problem, a very important key is to maintain a stable reconstructed posterior canal wall with the bone plate and cartilage in the posterior canal wall. The authors manage reconstruction of the posterior canal wall with the temporal fascial scar tissue flap (TFSF) and the temporal periosteal scar tissue flap (TPSF) to ensure obtaining a stable posterior canal wall and a tympanic membrane graft. Well-vascularized TFSF and TPSF enable us to acquire a solid reconstructed posterior canal wall because of the secure blood supplies to the flaps. In order to investigate the blood supplies of TFSF and TPSF, we employed laser Doppler blood flowmeters and measured blood flow in the flaps in 20 cases of posyoperative ears treated for a mastoid cavity problem. The blood supplies to both flaps were good, with the blood supply to the TFSF being statistically better than in the case of the TPSF. These findings suggested that the TFSF and TPSF were a reliable source of local well-vascularized tissue which were pliable and could facilitate the creation of a stable posterior canal wall. Furthermore it seems the good blood supply was linked to the prompt postoperative healing, the avoidance of postoperative infection, and good hearing improvement postoperatively. PMID:25102736

Yabe, Takao; Okada, Kazunari

2014-06-01

114

Root canal  

MedlinePLUS

A root canal is a dental procedure to remove dead or dying nerve tissue and bacteria from inside a tooth. ... is removed with special tools called files. The canals (tiny pathways inside the tooth) are cleaned. Medicines ...

115

Insertion of tympanic ventilation tubes as a treating modality for patients with Meniere's disease: a short- and long-term follow-up study in seven cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: As a treatment for patients with Meniere's disease, insertion of a ventilating tube in tympanic membrane was carried out, and the effect of the therapeutic modality was analysed. Methods: Seven patients (four males and three females, age ranged 35–62 years) with active Meniere's disease were placed with ventilating tubes in the affected ear and postoperative change in symptoms, i.e.

Komei Sugawara; Ken Kitamura; Takashi Ishida; Takayuki Sejima

2003-01-01

116

CANAL AUTOMATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Canals have been used to distribute water for irrigation for several millennia. The practices gradually evolved from a shovel to open gaps in a berm to fixed structures to movable structures such as gates. Regulation of water in canals is still by manual labor in most parts of the world. A few hydra...

117

Assessment of hypothermia with a new “tympanic” thermometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. Rapid and accurate core temperature measurement is vitally important in trauma patients, especially in those with\\u000a accidental hypothermia. We tested a new aural thermometer to measure “tympanic” temperatures and assessed its accuracy during\\u000a normothermic and hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass.Methods. Tympanic, esophageal, and blood temperatures were compared in 10 patients undergoing open-heart surgery. In addition, the\\u000a stability and reaction time of

B. H. Walpoth; J. Galdikas; F. Leupi; W. Muehlemann; P. Schlaepfer; U. Althaus

1994-01-01

118

Detection of certain African, insectivorous bats by sympatric, tympanate moths  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tympanic organs of moths we studied in Zimbabwe responded differentially to the echolocation\\/hunting signals of sympatric, insectivorous bats. Bats employing very high frequencies (> 110 kHz) and\\/or low intensity cries tend to be first detected by tympanal preparations at distances considerably less than those with more intense, mid-frequency (20–60 kHz) cries. There appears to be some positive correlation between

James H. Fullard; Donald W. Thomas

1981-01-01

119

Effects of the intensity of masking noise on ear canal recorded low-frequency cochlear microphonic waveforms in normal hearing subjects.  

PubMed

Compared to auditory brainstem responses (ABRs), cochlear microphonics (CMs) may be more appropriate to serve as a supplement to the test of otoacoustic emissions (OAEs). Researchers have shown that low-frequency CMs from the apical cochlea are measurable at the tympanic membrane using high-pass masking noise. Our objective is to study the effect of such noise at different intensities on low-frequency CMs recorded at the ear canal, which is not completely known. Six components were involved in this CM measurement including an ear canal electrode (1), a relatively long and low-frequency toneburst (2), and high-pass masking noise at different intensities (3). The rest components include statistical analysis based on multiple human subjects (4), curve modeling based on amplitudes of CM waveforms (CMWs) and noise intensity (5), and a technique based on electrocochleography (ECochG or ECoG) (6). Results show that low-frequency CMWs appeared clearly. The CMW amplitude decreased with an increase in noise level. It decreased first slowly, then faster, and finally slowly again. In conclusion, when masked with high-pass noise, the low-frequency CMs are measurable at the human ear canal. Such noise reduces the low-frequency CM amplitude. The reduction is noise-intensity dependent but not completely linear. The reduction may be caused by the excited basal cochlea which the low-frequency has to travel and pass through. Although not completely clear, six mechanisms related to such reduction are discussed. PMID:24793117

Zhang, Ming

2014-07-01

120

Tympanal mechanics and neural responses in the ears of a noctuid moth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ears evolved in many groups of moths to detect the echolocation calls of predatory bats. Although the neurophysiology of bat detection has been intensively studied in moths for decades, the relationship between sound-induced movement of the noctuid tympanic membrane and action potentials in the auditory sensory cells (A1 and A2) has received little attention. Using laser Doppler vibrometry, we measured the velocity and displacement of the tympanum in response to pure tone pulses for moths that were intact or prepared for neural recording. When recording from the auditory nerve, the displacement of the tympanum at the neural threshold remained constant across frequencies, whereas velocity varied with frequency. This suggests that the key biophysical parameter for triggering action potentials in the sensory cells of noctuid moths is tympanum displacement, not velocity. The validity of studies on the neurophysiology of moth hearing rests on the assumption that the dissection and recording procedures do not affect the biomechanics of the ear. There were no consistent differences in tympanal velocity or displacement when moths were intact or prepared for neural recordings for sound levels close to neural threshold, indicating that this and other neurophysiological studies provide good estimates of what intact moths hear at threshold.

Ter Hofstede, Hannah M.; Goerlitz, Holger R.; Montealegre-Z, Fernando; Robert, Daniel; Holderied, Marc W.

2011-12-01

121

Canalization: what the flux?  

PubMed

Polarized transport of the hormone auxin plays crucial roles in many processes in plant development. A self-organizing pattern of auxin transport--canalization--is thought to be responsible for vascular patterning and shoot branching regulation in flowering plants. Mathematical modeling has demonstrated that membrane localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN)-family auxin efflux carriers in proportion to net auxin flux can plausibly explain canalization and possibly other auxin transport phenomena. Other plausible models have also been proposed, and there has recently been much interest in producing a unified model of all auxin transport phenomena. However, it is our opinion that lacunae in our understanding of auxin transport biology are now limiting progress in developing the next generation of models. Here we examine several key areas where significant experimental advances are necessary to address both biological and theoretical aspects of auxin transport, including the possibility of a unified transport model. PMID:24296041

Bennett, Tom; Hines, Genevičve; Leyser, Ottoline

2014-02-01

122

Prevalence and characterization of small tympanic bone spicules and drumstick-like hyperostotic tympanic bone spicules in the middle ear cavity of dogs.  

PubMed

Rounded, sessile, hyperattenuating structures detected in computed tomography (CT) studies of canine tympanic bullae have been termed "otoliths." These have been proposed to represent dystrophic mineralizations or heterotopic bone formations in the middle ear that are potentially related to chronic otitis media. Aims of the current study were to describe the prevalence, macroscopic, and histological features of structures consistent with "otoliths" in the canine tympanic cavity. Tympanic bullae from 50 routinely necropsied dogs and 139 retrospectively retrieved CT scans of canine clinical cases were examined. Small tympanic bone spicules with pointed or clubbed tips essentially arising from the free margin of the septum bullae were bilaterally present in the tympanic cavities of all 50 of the necropsied dogs. In 48% of the dogs, "otolith"-like CT-detectable bone spicules carrying drumstick-like hyperostoses that were 1-6 mm in diameter were also present. In the retrospective survey of bulla CT scans of 139 cases, the prevalence of hyperostotic tympanic bone spicules (HTBS) was 20%. Findings from the current study indicated that the presence of small tympanic bone spicules in adult dogs is most likely due to physiological bone growth in the septum bullae and that HTBS represent osseous proliferations of small tympanic bone spicules. However, the factors inducing formation of hyperostotic spicules from small tympanic bone spicules remain unknown. The high prevalence of HTBS displaying a similar appearance in bulla CT scans in dogs suggests that these spicules should be included in a differential diagnosis list for "otoliths." PMID:25138894

Parzefall, Birgit; Rieger, Alexandra; Volk, Holger A; Maierl, Johann; Brühschwein, Andreas; Blutke, Andreas

2015-01-01

123

Simultaneous non-Hodgkin lymphoma of the external auditory canal and thyroid gland: A case report.  

PubMed

Approximately 25% of all cases of extranodal non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) occur in the head and neck region; NHL of the external auditory canal (EAC) and thyroid gland are rare. Specific immunohistochemical staining of the excised tissue is required to confirm the final pathologic diagnosis. We report the case of a 53-year-old woman with underlying systemic lupus erythematosus and autoimmune hemolytic anemia that were in remission. She presented with chronic left ear pain, a mass in the left EAC, and rapid growth of an anterior neck swelling that had led to left vocal fold palsy. High-resolution computed tomography (CT) of the temporal bone and CT of the neck detected a mass lateral to the left tympanic membrane and another mass in the anterior neck that had infiltrated the thyroid gland. The patient was diagnosed with simultaneous B-cell lymphoma of the left EAC and thyroid gland. She was treated with chemotherapy. She responded well to treatment and was lost to follow-up after 1 year. To the best of our knowledge, the simultaneous occurrence of a lymphoma in the EAC and the thyroid has not been previously described in the literature. PMID:25531844

Khaw, BeeLian; Sivalingam, Shailendra; Pathamanathan, Sitra Siri; Tan, Teck S; Naicker, Manimalar

2014-12-01

124

Solar canal  

SciTech Connect

This invention relates generally to a device for the collection of solar energy and the production and storage of heat for industrial processes, space heating, cooling and other processes where heat of up to approximately 1000 C. Is required. A solar canal to collect and store solar energy comprising a covered solar pond which provides an essentially airtight environment for the fluid of the solar pond is disclosed. A nonconvecting solar pond, particularly a saline gradient pond, is preferred.

Eckland, J.E.

1982-04-27

125

Infrared tympanic thermography as a substitute for a probe in the evaluation of ear temperature for post-mortem interval determination: a pilot study.  

PubMed

Reported methods which have been used to measure tympanic temperatures on cadavers up to now are quite invasive. They involve the use of a probe which can perforate the tympanic membrane and frequently causes bleeding from the ear. For this reason a non traumatic method for estimating tympanic temperature should be applied. Infrared tympanic thermometry seems to be a plausible option. Reliability of infrared tympanic thermometry (ITT) has been largely assessed on living individuals but only one author up to now has assessed its applicability for post-mortem interval determination. Thus the authors set out to test the difference between ear temperatures taken with a probe vs. ITT, differences between left and right ear and reproducibility of measurements of ITT. The aim of the study was to verify whether ITT could be a plausible option for measuring ear temperature for PMI estimation. Ear temperatures were taken on 25 cadavers (15 males, 10 females). Temperatures were taken alternately by similarly trained personnel by two technical methods (Checktemp 1 thermocouple probe and First Temp Genius infrared thermometer) for a total of 93 measurements. Statistical analysis of the data was performed using SAS statistical software. The range of temperature measured was from 20 to 28 degrees C, statistical analysis revealed no differences within the two technical methods, both for right and left ear (ITT: 22.33+/-0.35 vs. probe: 23.08+/-0.25; P=0.087). The study shows the ITT method can be considered as a possible alternative to the probe for measuring ear temperative and further studies should be considered. PMID:19329079

Cattaneo, C; Di Giancamillo, A; Campari, O; Orthmann, N; Martrille, L; Domeneghini, C; Jouineau, C; Baccino, E

2009-05-01

126

3. ELEVATION. FROM SOUTH WITH CANAL PRISM. Canal Road ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. ELEVATION. FROM SOUTH WITH CANAL PRISM. - Canal Road Bridge, Canal Road spanning Delaware Canal Diversion, Locks 22 & 23 in Delaware Canal State Park in Williams Township, Raubsville, Northampton County, PA

127

68. CANAL PLAN 5 EAST. CANAL BED IS VISIBLE WHILE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

68. CANAL PLAN 5 EAST. CANAL BED IS VISIBLE WHILE FOOT OF CANAL IS UNDERGOING MAINTAINANCE. NOTE HOW LARGE AMOUNTS OF DIRT ARE HAULED FROM PLACE TO PLACE USING A CANAL BOAT AND CRADLE. - Morris Canal, Phillipsburg, Warren County, NJ

128

External Auditory canal  

E-print Network

Abstract- There is number of variations in the morphology of the External Auditory Canal which influence the ability to examine the canal and also play a role in pathogenesis of many Ear diseases. Broadly the aperture of the External Auditory canal is classified into ?Narrow ? and ?Broad ? canals. The natural self cleansing ability of the Ear canal may be affected in narrow canals, which could predispose to pathology. This study aims to classify and highlight the variations in ear canal anatomy in a cohort of 185 young adults.

unknown authors

129

496. Phys. Lett A., (2006) A.G.Ramm, The shape of the ear canal The shape of the ear canal #+  

E-print Network

496. Phys. Lett A., (2006) A.G.Ramm, The shape of the ear canal 1 #12; The shape of the ear canal@math.ksu.edu Abstract It is proved that the measurement of the acoustic pressure on the ear membrane allows one to determine the shape of the ear canal uniquely. 1 Introduction Consider a bounded domain D # R n , n = 3

130

1. VIEW OF CANAL STATION COMPLEX FROM CANAL STREET, FACING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. VIEW OF CANAL STATION COMPLEX FROM CANAL STREET, FACING NORTH. - New Orleans City Railroad Company, Canal Station, Square 365, bounded by Canal, North Dupre, Iberville, & North White Streets, New Orleans, Orleans Parish, LA

131

2. CANAL BOAT ENTERING THE DELAWARE CANAL FROM OF THE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. CANAL BOAT ENTERING THE DELAWARE CANAL FROM OF THE LEHIGH RIVER. BOATS COULD BE FERRIED ACROSS THE DELAWARE RIVER TO THE MORRIS CANAL BY A CABLE SUPPORTED TROLLEY. - Morris Canal, Phillipsburg, Warren County, NJ

132

17. Junction of old Crosscut Canal with Grand Canal, view ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

17. Junction of old Crosscut Canal with Grand Canal, view to north; Crosscut enters from upper right, control gates of Grand Canal at left. - Old Crosscut Canal, North Side of Salt River, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

133

27. VIEW OF TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL HEADGATE WITH CANAL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

27. VIEW OF TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL HEADGATE WITH CANAL BRIDGE IN DISTANCE; LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

134

Sexual dimorphism in auditory mechanics: tympanal vibrations of Cicada orni.  

PubMed

In cicadas, the tympanum is anatomically intricate and employs complex vibrations as a mechanism for auditory frequency analysis. Using microscanning laser Doppler vibrometry, the tympanal mechanics of Cicada orni can be characterized in controlled acoustical conditions. The tympanum of C. orni moves following a simple drum-like motion, rather than the travelling wave found in a previous study of Cicadatra atra. There is a clear sexual dimorphism in the tympanal mechanics. The large male tympanum is unexpectedly insensitive to the dominant frequency of its own calling song, possibly a reflection of its dual purpose as a sound emitter and receiver. The small female tympanum appears to be mechanically sensitive to the dominant frequency of the male calling song and to high-frequency sound, a capacity never suspected before in these insects. This sexual dimorphism probably results from a set of selective pressures acting in divergent directions, which are linked to the different role of the sexes in sound reception and production. These discoveries serve to indicate that there is far more to be learnt about the development of the cicada ear, its biomechanics and evolution, and the cicada's acoustic behaviour. PMID:18626071

Sueur, Jérôme; Windmill, James F C; Robert, Daniel

2008-08-01

135

Evaluation of Performance and Uncertainty of Infrared Tympanic Thermometers  

PubMed Central

Infrared tympanic thermometers (ITTs) are easy to use and have a quick response time. They are widely used for temperature measurement of the human body. The accuracy and uncertainty of measurement is the importance performance indicator for these meters. The performance of two infrared tympanic thermometers, Braun THT-3020 and OMRON MC-510, were evaluated in this study. The cell of a temperature calibrator was modified to serve as the standard temperature of the blackbody. The errors of measurement for the two meters were reduced by the calibration equation. The predictive values could meet the requirements of the ASTM standard. The sources of uncertainty include the standard deviations of replication at fixed temperature or the predicted values of calibration equation, reference standard values and resolution. The uncertainty analysis shows that the uncertainty of calibration equation is the main source for combined uncertainty. Ambient temperature did not have the significant effects on the measured performance. The calibration equations could improve the accuracy of ITTs. However, these equations did not improve the uncertainty of ITTs. PMID:22319287

Chung, Wenbin; Chen, Chiachung

2010-01-01

136

Canal Visitor Guide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compelling stories exude from this Country's nearly 400 National Park Service sites. As the NPS nears its Centennial in 2016, parks look to share their untold stories. Along the 184.5 miles of the C&O Canal National Historical Park towpath countless stories sparkle! Tales of the canal boat captains, lock keepers, the construction of the canal. When visiting the C&O Canal

John Brown Raid

137

Bacterial change in external auditory canal upon antisepsis with povidone-iodine during tympanoplasty.  

PubMed

The aim of this single-arm prospective study was to determine the flora of the external auditory canal (EAC) in inactive chronic otitis media and evaluate the alteration of microorganisms of the EAC during tympanoplasty upon povidone-iodine antisepsis. Sixty-three patients with central tympanic membrane perforation were enrolled in the study. Preoperative swab cultures were obtained and the EAC was packed with povidone-iodine absorbed gauze. Type I tympanoplasty via a retroauricular route was performed. Cultures from the EAC were taken at the end of each operation. Isolated organisms were identified based upon microbiological, morphological, and biochemical characteristics. The most commonly isolated organisms from preoperative samples were normal commensal flora, including 73 coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) and 18 diphtheroid bacilli (DB). Less commonly cultured pathogenic species included four isolates of Staphylococcus aureus and three isolates of Candida albicans. No bacteria were observed in five patients. Following povidone-iodine antisepsis, 32 of the samples were negative. Eradication was statistically significant for CNS, DB and pathogen microorganism (P < 0.05). Isolated bacteria differed from those in preoperative swab cultures in eight cases. After antisepsis, diverse strains of the CNS were isolated in 13 cases and 10 patients showed no change in microbial flora. Postoperative culture demonstrated that all seven pathogenic isolates were eradicated (100 %); this selective efficacy of povidone-iodine antisepsis against pathogenic isolates was significant when compared with commensal flora (P < 0.05). These results suggest that povidone-iodine antisepsis of the EAC before tympanoplasty is an effective method for the elimination microorganisms, especially pathogenic bacteria. PMID:24337938

Arslan, Ilker Burak; Genc, Selahattin; Kayhan, Bekir Cahit; Gumussoy, Murat; Ozel, Gonul; Cukurova, Ibrahim

2015-03-01

138

The middle ear muscle of frogs does not modulate tympanic responses to sound.  

PubMed

The effect of the opercularis (= middle ear) muscle on the acoustic responsiveness of the tympanic middle ear of anuran amphibians was studied using laser vibrometric measurements of tympanic responses to sound. Removal of the muscle or direct stimulation of denervated muscles had no measurable effects on tympanic responses to sound in either American bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) or green treefrogs (Hyla cinerea) at any frequency or at any sound-pressure level studied. These results suggest that, contrary to proposed hypotheses, the opercularis muscle of the anuran middle ear is not capable of modulating the responsiveness of the tympanic middle ear. Instead, the opercularis system most likely functions as an independent system involved in acoustic reception. PMID:8201108

Hetherington, T E

1994-04-01

139

Lack of agreement between tympanic and oral temperature measurements in adult hospitalized patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The purpose of this study was to compare temperature measurements obtained by tympanic thermometers with those obtained by oral electronic or mercury-glass thermometers in adult hospitalized patients.Methods: A prospective study of 406 nonintensive care unit adult patients hospitalized during an 8-month period in a tertiary care community medical center.Results:Poor agreement was observed between tympanic versus electronic thermometer readings, with

Farrin A. Manian; Sandy Griesenauer

1998-01-01

140

Root canal irrigants  

PubMed Central

Successful root canal therapy relies on the combination of proper instrumentation, irrigation, and obturation of the root canal. Of these three essential steps of root canal therapy, irrigation of the root canal is the most important determinant in the healing of the periapical tissues. The primary endodontic treatment goal must thus be to optimize root canal disinfection and to prevent reinfection. In this review of the literature, various irrigants and the interactions between irrigants are discussed. We performed a Medline search for English-language papers published untill July 2010. The keywords used were ‘root canal irrigants’ and ‘endodontic irrigants.’ The reference lists of each article were manually checked for additional articles of relevance. PMID:21217955

Kandaswamy, Deivanayagam; Venkateshbabu, Nagendrababu

2010-01-01

141

21 CFR 874.4770 - Otoscope.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices...intended to allow inspection of the external ear canal and tympanic membrane under magnification...The device provides illumination of the ear canal for observation by using an...

2010-04-01

142

21 CFR 874.4770 - Otoscope.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices...intended to allow inspection of the external ear canal and tympanic membrane under magnification...The device provides illumination of the ear canal for observation by using an...

2013-04-01

143

21 CFR 874.4770 - Otoscope.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices...intended to allow inspection of the external ear canal and tympanic membrane under magnification...The device provides illumination of the ear canal for observation by using an...

2012-04-01

144

21 CFR 874.4770 - Otoscope.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices...intended to allow inspection of the external ear canal and tympanic membrane under magnification...The device provides illumination of the ear canal for observation by using an...

2011-04-01

145

21 CFR 874.4770 - Otoscope.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices...intended to allow inspection of the external ear canal and tympanic membrane under magnification...The device provides illumination of the ear canal for observation by using an...

2014-04-01

146

Bitter Root Irrigation district canal, looking east, typical section (canal ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Bitter Root Irrigation district canal, looking east, typical section (canal full) - Bitter Root Irrigation Project, Bitter Root Irrigation Canal, Heading at Rock Creek Diversion Dam, West of U.S. Highway 93, Darby, Ravalli County, MT

147

6. O'BRIAN CANAL/DENVERHUDSON CANAL BIFURCATION POINT The O'Brian Canal is ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. O'BRIAN CANAL/DENVER-HUDSON CANAL BIFURCATION POINT The O'Brian Canal is flowing to the left; the Denver-Hudson Canal is flowing to the right - O'Brian Canal, South Platte River Drainage Area Northest of Denver, Brighton, Adams County, CO

148

Tympanal and atympanal 'mouth-ears' in hawkmoths (Sphingidae).  

PubMed Central

The labral pilifers and the labial palps form ultrasound-sensitive hearing organs in species of two distantly related hawkmoth subtribes, the Choerocampina and the Acherontiina. Biomechanical examination now reveals that their ears represent different types of hearing organs. In hearing species of both subtribes, the labral pilifer picks up vibrations from specialized sound-receiving structures of the labial palp that are absent in non-hearing species. In Choerocampina, a thin area of cuticle serves as an auditory tympanum, whereas overlapping scales functionally replace a tympanum in Acherontiina that can hear. The tympanum of Choerocampina and the scale-plate of Acherontiina both vibrate maximally in response to ultrasonic, behaviourally relevant sounds, with the vibrations of the tympanum exceeding those of the scale plate by ca. 15 dB. This amplitude difference, however, is not reflected in the vibrations of the pilifers and the neural auditory sensitivity is similar in hearing species of both subtribes. Accordingly, morphologically different - tympanal and atympanal - but functionally equivalent hearing organs evolved independently and in parallel within a single family of moths. PMID:11788041

Göpfert, Martin C; Surlykke, Annemarie; Wasserthal, Lutz T

2002-01-01

149

The Suez Canal  

Microsoft Academic Search

I NOTICE in your number of 4th inst. an article relating to the Suez Canal (by Mr. Login, C.E., late of the Ganges Canal), and shall be glad if you will allow me to make a few observations with reference to it.

Edw. Rae

1869-01-01

150

Root Canal Treatment from Start to Finish  

MedlinePLUS

Illustrations: Root Canal Treatment From Start to Finish 1. A Deep Infection Root canal treatment is needed when an injury or ... the canals and remove debris. 4. Filling the Canals The canals are filled with a permanent material. ...

151

The Panama Canal  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Among all the engineering feats of the 20th century, the Panama Canal was certainly one of the greatest. The Panama Canal Authority (PCA) provides this home page, which contains a vast amount of information regarding the canal's origins and current affairs. Most visitors to the Web site will be mainly interested in the complete history of the canal. This begins with early plans by the Spanish in the 1500s, and documents all progress until the final completion in 1914. An impressive photo gallery includes historical pictures and panoramic views of four main locations, and a live camera shows the boat traffic in the canal at ten second intervals. Other resources such as maritime operations and news articles are also available.

152

Specialization for underwater hearing by the tympanic middle ear of the turtle, Trachemys scripta elegans  

PubMed Central

Turtles, like other amphibious animals, face a trade-off between terrestrial and aquatic hearing. We used laser vibrometry and auditory brainstem responses to measure their sensitivity to vibration stimuli and to airborne versus underwater sound. Turtles are most sensitive to sound underwater, and their sensitivity depends on the large middle ear, which has a compliant tympanic disc attached to the columella. Behind the disc, the middle ear is a large air-filled cavity with a volume of approximately 0.5 ml and a resonance frequency of approximately 500 Hz underwater. Laser vibrometry measurements underwater showed peak vibrations at 500–600 Hz with a maximum of 300 µm s?1 Pa?1, approximately 100 times more than the surrounding water. In air, the auditory brainstem response audiogram showed a best sensitivity to sound of 300–500 Hz. Audiograms before and after removing the skin covering reveal that the cartilaginous tympanic disc shows unchanged sensitivity, indicating that the tympanic disc, and not the overlying skin, is the key sound receiver. If air and water thresholds are compared in terms of sound intensity, thresholds in water are approximately 20–30 dB lower than in air. Therefore, this tympanic ear is specialized for underwater hearing, most probably because sound-induced pulsations of the air in the middle ear cavity drive the tympanic disc. PMID:22438494

Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Brandt, Christian; Willis, Katie L.; Christensen, Christian Bech; Ketten, Darlene; Edds-Walton, Peggy; Fay, Richard R.; Madsen, Peter T.; Carr, Catherine E.

2012-01-01

153

Building the Erie Canal  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson designed to enhance literacy skills, students look at how the construction of the Erie Canal brought about major changes within United States, particularly in New York City, upstate New York, and the Midwest.

WGBH Educational Foundation

2010-12-28

154

Distribution of Intact and Core Membrane Lipids of Archaeal Glycerol Dialkyl Glycerol Tetraethers among Size-Fractionated Particulate Organic Matter in Hood Canal, Puget Sound  

PubMed Central

There is great interest in the membrane lipids of archaea (glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers [GDGTs]) as tracers of archaeal biomass because of their utility as paleoproxies and because of the biogeochemical importance of archaea. While core GDGTs (formed by hydrolysis of polar head groups of intact GDGTs after cell death) are appropriate for paleostudies, they have also been used to trace archaeal populations. Also, despite the small size (0.2 by 0.7 ?m) of cultivated marine archaea, 0.7-?m glass-fiber filters (GFFs) are typically used to collect GDGTs from natural waters. We quantified both core and intact GDGTs in free-living (0.2- to 0.7-?m), suspended (0.7- to 60-?m), and aggregate (>60-?m) particle size fractions in Puget Sound (Washington State). On average, the free-living fraction contained 36% of total GDGTs, 90% of which were intact. The intermediate-size fraction contained 62% of GDGTs, and 29% of these were intact. The aggregate fraction contained 2% of the total GDGT pool, and 29% of these were intact. Our results demonstrate that intact GDGTs are largely in the free-living fraction. Because only intact GDGTs are present in living cells, protocols that target this size fraction and analyze the intact GDGT pool are necessary to track living populations in marine waters. Core GDGT enrichment in larger-size fractions indicates that archaeal biomass may quickly become attached or entrained in particles once the archaea are dead or dying. While the concentrations of the two pools were generally not correlated, the similar sizes of the core and intact GDGT pools suggest that core GDGTs are removed from the water column on timescales similar to those of cell replication, on timescales of days to weeks. PMID:22226949

Huguet, Carme; Truxal, Laura T.

2012-01-01

155

Panama Canal capacity analysis  

SciTech Connect

Predicting the transit capacities of the various Panama Canal alternatives required analyzing data on present Canal operations, adapting and extending an existing computer simulation model, performing simulation runs for each of the alternatives, and using the simulation model outputs to develop capacity estimates. These activities are summarized in this paper. A more complete account may be found in the project final report (TAMS 1993). Some of the material in this paper also appeared in a previously published paper (Rosselli, Bronzini, and Weekly 1994).

Bronzini, M.S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., Knoxville, TN (United States). Center for Transportation Analysis

1995-04-27

156

Exposure to bright light for several hours during the daytime lowers tympanic temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study investigates the effect on thympanic temperature of exposure to different light intensities for several hours during the daytime. Nine healthy young adult volunteers (two male, seven female) were exposed to bright light of 4000 lx or dim light of 100 lx during the daytime from 0930 to 1800 hours; the light condition was then kept at 100 lx for a further hour. Tympanic temperature was measured continuously at a neutral condition (28° C, 60% relative humidity) from 1000 to 1800 hours. Urinary samples were collected from 1100 to 1900 hours every 2 h, and melatonin excretion rate was measured by enzyme immunoassay. Of nine subjects, six showed clearly lower tympanic temperatures in the bright compared with the dim condition from 1400 to 1800 hours. Average tympanic temperatures were significantly lower in the bright than in the dim condition from 1645 to 1800 hours. Melatonin excretion rate tended to be higher in the bright than in the dim condition. It was concluded that exposure to bright light of 4000 lx during the daytime for several hours could reduce tympanic temperature, compared with that measured in dim light of 100 lx.

Aizawa, Seika; Tokura, H.

157

Acoustic relationships between tympanate moths and the Hawaiian hoary bat ( Lasiurus cinereus semotus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Certain moths possess tympanic organs (ears) that detect the echolocation signals of hunting, insectivorous bats. The auditory characteristics of these ears are matched to the acoustic features of the echolocation calls emitted by the moths' sympatric bat fauna. The two-celled ears of noctuoid moths from the Hawaiian island of Kauai, a site with only one species of bat (Lasiurus cinereus

James H. Fullard

1984-01-01

158

The Semicircular Canal Microphonic  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Present experiments were designed to quantify the alternating current (AC) component of the semicircular canal microphonic for angular motion stimulation as a function of stimulus frequency and amplitude. The oyster toadfish, Opsanus tau, was used as the experimental model. Calibrated mechanical indentation of the horizontal canal duct was used as a stimulus to generate hair-cell and afferent responses reproducing those present during head rotation. Sensitivity to polarization of the endolymph DC voltage re: perilymph was also investigated. Modulation of endolymph voltage was recorded using conventional glass electrodes and lock-in amplification over the frequency range 0.2-80 Hz. Access to the endolymph for inserting voltage recording and current passing electrodes was obtained by sectioning the anterior canal at its apex and isolating the cut ends in air. For sinusoidal stimulation below approx.10 Hz, the horizontal semicircular canal AC microphonic was nearly independent of stimulus frequency and equal to approximately 4 microV per micron indent (equivalent to approx. 1 microV per deg/s). A saturating nonlinearity decreasing the microphonic gain was present for stimuli exceeding approx.3 micron indent (approx. 12 deg/s angular velocity). The phase was not sensitive to the saturating nonlinearity. The microphonic exhibited a resonance near 30Hz consistent with basolateral current hair cell resonance observed previously in voltage-clamp records from semicircular canal hair cells. The magnitude and phase of the microphonic exhibited sensitivity to endolymphatic polarization consistent with electro-chemical reversal of hair cell transduction currents.

Rabbitt, R. D.; Boyle, R.; Highstein, S. M.; Dalton, Bonnie P. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

159

7. 'FLOW IN CANAL NO. 1, A JOINTLY USED CANAL, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. 'FLOW IN CANAL NO. 1, A JOINTLY USED CANAL, ON MAY 22 WHEN 210 SECOND FEET OF WATER WAS FLOWING. THIS WAS LATER INCREASED TO 240 SECOND FEET FOR A NUMBER OF DAYS TO SATISFY THE DEMANDS OF THE DRY GULCH COMPANY.' 1925 - Irrigation Canals in the Uinta Basin, Duchesne, Duchesne County, UT

160

Panama and the Canal  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of Florida's George A. Smathers Libraries and the Panama Canal Museum have worked together to create this engaging digital collection that tells the story of Panama and the Canal Zone. The collection contains 158 items, including newspaper clippings, illustrations, stock shares, and more. The Leonard Carpenter Panama Canal Collection contains a mix of photos of dredging work, military personnel, and a U.S. Navy dirigible. Another smaller collection contains items from the Government Documents Department, such as annual reports, maps, and Congressional hearing transcripts. Visitors can search the entire collection by keyword, and they shouldn't miss the 1754 maps of Panama and the surrounding region by Jacques Nicolas Bellin.

161

Ear-Canal Reflectance, Umbo Velocity and Tympanometry in Normal Hearing Adults  

PubMed Central

Objective This study compares measurements of ear-canal reflectance (ECR) to other objective measurements of middle-ear function including, audiometry, umbo velocity (VU), and tympanometry in a population of strictly defined normal hearing ears. Design Data were prospectively gathered from 58 ears of 29 normal hearing subjects, 16 female and 13 male, aged 22–64 years. Subjects met all of the following criteria to be considered as having normal hearing. (1) No history of significant middle-ear disease. (2) No history of otologic surgery. (3) Normal tympanic membrane (TM) on otoscopy. (4) Pure-tone audiometric thresholds of 20 dB HL or better for 0.25 – 8 kHz. (5) Air-bone gaps no greater than 15 dB at 0.25 kHz and 10 dB for 0.5 – 4 kHz. (6) Normal, type-A peaked tympanograms. (7) All subjects had two “normal” ears (as defined by these criteria). Measurements included pure-tone audiometry for 0.25 – 8 kHz, standard 226 Hz tympanometry, Ear canal reflectance(ECR) for 0.2 – 6 kHz at 60 dB SPL using the Mimosa Acoustics HearID system, and Umbo Velocity (VU ) for 0.3 – 6 kHz at 70–90 dB SPL using the HLV-1000 laser Doppler vibrometer (Polytec Inc). Results Mean power reflectance (|ECR|2) was near 1.0 at 0.2– 0.3 kHz, decreased to a broad minimum of 0.3 to 0.4 between 1 and 4 kHz, and then sharply increased to almost 0.8 by 6 kHz. The mean pressure reflectance phase angle (?ECR) plotted on a linear frequency scale showed a group delay of approximately 0.1 ms for 0.2 – 6 kHz. Small significant differences were observed in |ECR|2 at the lowest frequencies between right and left ears, and between males and females at 4 kHz. |ECR|2 decreased with age, but reached significance only at 1 kHz. Our ECR measurements were generally similar to previous published reports. Highly significant negative correlations were found between |ECR|2 and VU for frequencies below 1 kHz. Significant correlations were also found between the tympanometrically determined peak total compliance and |ECR|2 and The results suggest that middle-ear compliance VU at frequencies below 1 kHz. contributes significantly to the measured power reflectance and umbo velocity at frequencies below 1 kHz, but not at higher frequencies. Conclusions This study has established a database of objective measurements of middle ear function (ear-canal reflectance, umbo velocity, tympanometry) in a population of strictly defined normal hearing ears. The data will promote our understanding of normal middle ear function, and will serve as a control for comparison to similar measurements made in pathological ears. PMID:21857517

Rosowski, John J; Nakajima, Hideko H.; Hamade, Mohamad A.; Mafoud, Lorice; Merchant, Gabrielle R.; Halpin, Christopher F.; Merchant, Saumil N.

2011-01-01

162

[Spinal canal stenosis].  

PubMed

Spinal stenosis is a narrowing of the spinal canal by a combination of bone and soft tissues, which can lead to mechanical compression of spinal nerve roots or the dural sac. The lumbal spinal compression of these nerve roots can be symptomatic, resulting in weakness, reflex alterations, gait disturbances, bowel or bladder dysfunction, motor and sensory changes, radicular pain or atypical leg pain and neurogenic claudication. The anatomical presence of spinal canal stenosis is confirmed radiologically with computerized tomography, myelography or magnetic resonance imaging and play a decisive role in optimal patient-oriented therapy decision-making. PMID:25398571

Papanagiotou, P; Boutchakova, M

2014-11-01

163

Love canal questions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conducted a 3-month monitoring study of the Love Canal area near Niagara Falls, N.Y., after the federal government pronounced that a potential health risk existed due to chemical waste dumps. In 1982 the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) decided that the area was habitable, subject to implementation of effective safeguards against leakage from the canal and to cleaning up of the contaminants. Now, the Congressional Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) has announced that, with the information available, it is not possible to demonstrate with certainty that unsafe levels do not exist within the so-called “emergency declaration area” (EDA).

Bell, Peter M.

164

Distributed control at Love canal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Love Canal is known worldwide as the site of one of the worst non-nuclear environmental disasters in modern history. For 12 years, a Niagara Falls, New York chemical company used the canal bed as a chemical dump. This article discusses the computerized control of equipment used to remove the toxic materials from the ground under Love Canal, and how the

G. McPherson; G. J. Rider; B. Sadowski; M. Moore

1994-01-01

165

Root Canal Irrigants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Local wound debridement in the diseased pulp space is the main step in root canal treatment to prevent the tooth from being a source of infection. In this review article, the specifics of the pulpal microenvironment and the resulting requirements for irrigating solutions are spelled out. Sodium hypochlorite solutions are recommended as the main irrigants. This is because of their

Matthias Zehnder

2006-01-01

166

Love Canal Tragedy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this environmental failure case study paper is to provide educational materials for environmental engineering courses dealing with design and operation of landfills for hazardous waste. In 1978, it was discovered that hazardous waste had contaminated homes and schools in the Love Canal area, a former chemical landfill which became a 15 acre neighborhood of the City of

Alicia Saunte? Phillips; Yung-Tse Hung; Paul A. Bosela

2007-01-01

167

Lumbar Spinal Canal Stenosis  

MedlinePLUS

... pain caused by a ruptured disk in the lumbar spine is usually easy to diagnose and is known ... the pressure off the nerves in your lower spine. This surgery works well for many people. Questions to Ask Your Doctor My father had lumbar spinal canal stenosis. Am I at risk of ...

168

American Experience: Panama Canal  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Panama Canal was quite an undertaking of labor and engineering, and by the time it was completed on August 15th, 1914 the project had been underway (in some form) for well over two decades. Along the way, over 55,000 workers had been involved, 5,000 people had died during the project's duration, and over 350 million dollars had been spent. This riveting documentary looks at the history of this project, and visitors can watch the entire program here. The extra features provided here are real treats, and they can be found on the left-hand side of the page. Here visitors will find an interactive map of the Panama Canal region, along with a timeline, and an interview with the program's producer, Amanda Pollak. Also, the site includes articles on yellow fever, the workers, and the chief engineers of the Canal. Primary resources such as part of the canal record of 1907, suggestions for further reading, and teacher resources round out the site.

169

Differences in the Diameter of Facial Nerve and Facial Canal in Bell's Palsy—A 3-Dimensional Temporal Bone Study  

PubMed Central

Bell's palsy is hypothesized to result from virally mediated neural edema. Ischemia occurs as the nerve swells in its bony canal, blocking neural blood supply. Because viral infection is relatively common and Bell's palsy relatively uncommon, it is reasonable to hypothesize that there are anatomic differences in facial canal (FC) that predispose the development of paralysis. Measurements of facial nerve (FN) and FC as it follows its tortuous course through the temporal bone are difficult without a 3D view. In this study, 3D reconstruction was used to compare temporal bones of patients with and without history of Bell's palsy. Methods Twenty-two temporal bones (HTBs) were included in the study, 12 HTBs from patients with history of Bell's palsy and 10 healthy controls. Three-dimensional models were generated from HTB histopathologic slides with reconstruction software (Amira), diameters of the FC and FN were measured at the midpoint of each segment. Results The mean diameter of the FC and FN was significantly smaller in the tympanic and mastoid segments (p = 0.01) in the BP group than in the controls. The FN to FC diameter ratio (FN/FC) was significantly bigger in the mastoid segment of BP group, when compared with the controls. When comparing the BP and control groups, the narrowest part of FC was the labyrinthine segment in control group and the tympanic segment in the BP. Conclusion This study suggests an anatomic difference in the diameter of FC in the tympanic and mastoid segments but not in the labyrinthine segment in patients with Bell's palsy. PMID:24518410

Vianna, Melissa; Adams, Meredith; Schachern, Patricia; Lazarini, Paulo Roberto; Paparella, Michael Mauro; Cureoglu, Sebahattin

2014-01-01

170

The response of tympanate moths to the echolocation calls of a substrate gleaning bat, Myotis evotis  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.Most studies examining interactions between insectivorous bats and tympanate prey use the echolocation calls of aerially-feeding bats in their analyses. We examined the auditory responses of noctuid (Eurois astricta) and notodontid (Pheosia rimosa) moth to the echolocation call characteristics of a gleaning insectivorous bat, Myotis evotis.2.While gleaning, M. Evotis used short duration (mean ± SD = 0.66 ± 0.28 ms,

Paul A. Faure; James H. Fullard; Robert M. R. Barclay

1990-01-01

171

Morphological alterations in the tympanic membrane affected by tympanosclerosis: ultrastructural study.  

PubMed

The ultrastructure of tympanoslerotic tissue, surgically excised from patients, has been studied with particular reference to the morphological changes of the connective tissue components and mineralization. Detailed analysis revealed the combination of degenerative and fibroplastic alterations, especially in the circular fibrous layer of the thickened lamina propria. In the biological material in this study the authors recognized different stages of calcium plaque development with discrete, moderate, and severe degree of mineralization. Extracellular matrix vesicles, with or without calcareous deposits, released by degenerating fibroblasts were prominent. In these biopsies no distinct morphological features of an inflammatory reaction were seen. PMID:24134073

Tukaj, Cecylia; Kuczkowski, Jerzy; Sakowicz-Burkiewicz, Monika; Gulida, Gra?yna; Tretiakow, Dymitry; Mionskowski, Tomasz; Pawe?czyk, Tadeusz

2014-04-01

172

Sustained Attention to Local and Global Target Features Is Different: Performance and Tympanic Membrane Temperature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vision researchers have investigated the differences between global and local feature perception. No one has, however, examined the role of global and local feature discrimination in sustained attention tasks. In this experiment participants performed a sustained attention task requiring either global or local letter target discriminations or…

Helton, William S.; Hayrynen, Lauren; Schaeffer, David

2009-01-01

173

Digital holographic otoscope for measurements of the human tympanic membrane in vivo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are developing an advanced computer-controlled digital optoelectronic holographic system (DOEHS) for diagnosing middle-ear conductive disorders and investigating the causes of failure of middle-ear surgical procedures. Our current DOEHS system can provide near real-time quantitative measurements of the sound-induced nano-meter scale motion of the eardrum. The DOEHS have been deployed and is currently being tested in clinical conditions, where it is being optimized for in-vivo measurements of patients. The stability of the measurement system during examination is crucial as the non-ideal clinical environment presents disturbances larger than the measured quantities from several domains - thermal, optical, electrical and mechanical. Examples include disturbances are due to heartbeat breathing, patients head's motion as well as environment induced mechanical disturbances (0.1-60Hz, 0.01-100 ?m). In this paper we focus on our current progress in the analysis and implementation of various acquisition strategies and algorithms for minimization of the measurement error due to mechanical disturbances in a clinic. We have also developed and implemented a versatile and modular otoscope head (OH) design providing a variety of capabilities for acoustic and displacement measurements of both post-mortem samples of varying sizes (1-12mm) as well as in-vivo examination of patients. The OH offers hybrid on-axis and off axis digital Furrier holographic setup for high resolution (?/35) 4 phase step measurements as well as fast (<0.1ms) single frame measurements for improved performance in the clinical environment. We also focus on the development of a mechatronic positioning system (MOP) for aiding in the localization of the TM in patients.

Dobrev, I.; Harrington, E. J.; Cheng, T.; Furlong, C.; Rosowski, J. J.

174

Erratum to: Tympanic Membrane Boundary Deformations Derived from Static Displacements Observed  

E-print Network

, Canada 3 Department of Otolaryngology, McGill University, Montréal, Canada 4 HNO Universitätsklinikum.1007/s10162-010-0219-2 D 2010 Association for Research in Otolaryngology 525 JAROJournal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology #12;

Funnell, W. Robert J.

175

Tympanic Membrane Boundary Deformations Derived from Static Displacements Observed with Computerized  

E-print Network

3 Department of Otolaryngology, McGill University, Montréal, Canada 4 HNO Universitätsklinikum.1007/s10162-009-0192-9 D 2009 Association for Research in Otolaryngology 1 JAROJournal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology #12;from a slightly different angle. To obtain a free view of the entire

Funnell, W. Robert J.

176

A tympanal insect ear exploits a critical oscillator for active amplification and tuning.  

PubMed

A dominant theme of acoustic communication is the partitioning of acoustic space into exclusive, species-specific niches to enable efficient information transfer. In insects, acoustic niche partitioning is achieved through auditory frequency filtering, brought about by the mechanical properties of their ears. The tuning of the antennal ears of mosquitoes and flies, however, arises from active amplification, a process similar to that at work in the mammalian cochlea. Yet, the presence of active amplification in the other type of insect ears--tympanal ears--has remained uncertain. Here we demonstrate the presence of active amplification and adaptive tuning in the tympanal ear of a phylogenetically basal insect, a tree cricket. We also show that the tree cricket exploits critical oscillator-like mechanics, enabling high auditory sensitivity and tuning to conspecific songs. These findings imply that sophisticated auditory mechanisms may have appeared even earlier in the evolution of hearing and acoustic communication than currently appreciated. Our findings also raise the possibility that frequency discrimination and directional hearing in tympanal systems may rely on physiological nonlinearities, in addition to mechanical properties, effectively lifting some of the physical constraints placed on insects by their small size [6] and prompting an extensive reexamination of invertebrate audition. PMID:24076240

Mhatre, Natasha; Robert, Daniel

2013-10-01

177

A Tympanal Insect Ear Exploits a Critical Oscillator for Active Amplification and Tuning  

PubMed Central

Summary A dominant theme of acoustic communication is the partitioning of acoustic space into exclusive, species-specific niches to enable efficient information transfer. In insects, acoustic niche partitioning is achieved through auditory frequency filtering, brought about by the mechanical properties of their ears [1]. The tuning of the antennal ears of mosquitoes [2] and flies [3], however, arises from active amplification, a process similar to that at work in the mammalian cochlea [4]. Yet, the presence of active amplification in the other type of insect ears—tympanal ears—has remained uncertain [5]. Here we demonstrate the presence of active amplification and adaptive tuning in the tympanal ear of a phylogenetically basal insect, a tree cricket. We also show that the tree cricket exploits critical oscillator-like mechanics, enabling high auditory sensitivity and tuning to conspecific songs. These findings imply that sophisticated auditory mechanisms may have appeared even earlier in the evolution of hearing and acoustic communication than currently appreciated. Our findings also raise the possibility that frequency discrimination and directional hearing in tympanal systems may rely on physiological nonlinearities, in addition to mechanical properties, effectively lifting some of the physical constraints placed on insects by their small size [6] and prompting an extensive reexamination of invertebrate audition. PMID:24076240

Mhatre, Natasha; Robert, Daniel

2013-01-01

178

Distributed control at Love canal  

SciTech Connect

Love Canal is known worldwide as the site of one of the worst non-nuclear environmental disasters in modern history. For 12 years, a Niagara Falls, New York chemical company used the canal bed as a chemical dump. This article discusses the computerized control of equipment used to remove the toxic materials from the ground under Love Canal, and how the minimization of maintenance is reducing maintenance costs and increasing operator safety.

McPherson, G.; Rider, G.J.; Sadowski, B.; Moore, M.

1994-09-01

179

Canal Superior Online Pas: Portugal  

E-print Network

Canal Superior Online País: Portugal Period.: Diária �mbito: Online Pag.: 1 de 3ID: 44493807 30-10-2012 | Canal Superior Informação Online PROGRAMAS INFORMA��O AGENDA PESQUISA LOGIN/REGISTO EMISS�O INFORMA��O serão os mais afetados perante o cenário de reduções previsto pelo OE 2013. #12;Canal Superior Online

Instituto de Sistemas e Robotica

180

Canal Superior Online Pas: Portugal  

E-print Network

Canal Superior Online País: Portugal Period.: Diária �mbito: Online Pag.: 1 de 3ID: 41197251 10-04-2012 | Canal Superior Informação Online PROGRAMAS INFORMA��O AGENDA LOGIN/REGISTO INFORMA��O NOTÍCIAS» do mundo dos rapazes falou com o Canal Superior. COOLTURA 09/04/2012 12:33 INDIELISBOAREGRESSA

Instituto de Sistemas e Robotica

181

Canal Superior Online Pas: Portugal  

E-print Network

Canal Superior Online País: Portugal Period.: Diária �mbito: Online Pag.: 1 de 3ID: 45533397 07-01-2013 | Canal Superior Informação Online PROGRAMAS INFORMA��O AGENDA PESQUISA LOGIN/REGISTO EMISS�O INFORMA��O:56 LUÍSREBELO: «AS MANIFESTA��EST�M TIDO POUCO OU NENHUM RESULTADO» Numa mini-entrevista ao Canal Superior, com

Instituto de Sistemas e Robotica

182

Canal Superior Online Pas: Portugal  

E-print Network

Canal Superior Online País: Portugal Period.: Diária �mbito: Online Pag.: 1 de 4ID: 40921956 24-03-2012 | Canal Superior Informação Online PROGRAMAS INFORMA��O AGENDA LOGIN/REGISTO INFORMA��O PROGRAMAS DE manifestantes à porta da reitoria. #12;Canal Superior Online País: Portugal Period.: Diária �mbito: Online Pag

Instituto de Sistemas e Robotica

183

Canal Superior Online Pas: Portugal  

E-print Network

Canal Superior Online País: Portugal Period.: Diária �mbito: Online Pag.: 1 de 2ID: 44327911 19-10-2012 | Canal Superior Informação Online PROGRAMAS INFORMA��O AGENDA PESQUISA LOGIN/REGISTO EMISS�O INFORMA��O no topo das preferências da «fuga de cérebros» em Portugal. #12;Canal Superior Online País: Portugal

Instituto de Sistemas e Robotica

184

Wetland Loss: Digging of Canals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity has students build a model canal and perform experiments with it to illustrate the destruction of wetlands, resulting from the digging of canals for oil and gas exploration in the coastal wetlands and cypress logging in the swamps. Older students will examine topographic maps of the area in which they live to identify natural and constructed canals in the wetlands, and find older maps to compare the area of wetlands before and after major canals were built. Students can also research the relationship between channel building, subsidence and salt-water intrusion, and wetland loss in both fresh and salt-water wetlands across the United States.

185

Nasopalatine canal cyst: often missed  

PubMed Central

Nasopalatine canal cyst may occur within the nasopalatine canal or in the soft tissues of the palate, at the opening of the canal, where it is called the ‘cyst of the palatine papilla’. These are normally asymptomatic, constituting casual radiological findings. We present a case report of a male patient with infected nasopalatine canal cyst seen clinically as swelling over palate. Radiographic interpretation should be thoroughly performed for maxillary anterior region and any occlusal radiograph in routine radiography to screen this entity and must be distinguished from other maxillary anterior radiolucencies by the clinician. PMID:23536642

Srivastava, Saurabh; Misra, Neeta; Agarwal, Rashmi; Pandey, Praveen

2013-01-01

186

15. ROUTE OF CANAL NORTHWEST OF THE DILLON CEMETERY. CANAL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. ROUTE OF CANAL NORTHWEST OF THE DILLON CEMETERY. CANAL PASSES BELOW HILLSIDE IN FOREGROUND, THROUGH THE LOWER EDGE OF THE TREES ON LEFT, ON FAR SIDE OF SMALL VALLEY JUST RIGHT OF CENTER, AND AROUND THE PROMINENT POINT ON THE RIGHT. VIEW IS TO THE EAST-SOUTHEAST. - Snake River Ditch, Headgate on north bank of Snake River, Dillon, Summit County, CO

187

ASTER Suez Canal  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the most important waterways in the world, the Suez Canal runs north to south across the Isthmus of Suez in northeastern Egypt. This image of the canal covers an area 36 kilometers (22 miles) wide and 60 kilometers (47 miles) long in three bands of the reflected visible and infrared wavelength region. It shows the northern part of the canal, with the Mediterranean Sea just visible in the upper right corner. The Suez Canal connects the Mediterranean Sea with the Gulf of Suez, an arm of the Red Sea. The artificial canal provides an important shortcut for ships operating between both European and American ports and ports located in southern Asia, eastern Africa, and Oceania. With a length of about 195 kilometers (121 miles) and a minimum channel width of 60 meters (197 feet), the Suez Canal is able to accommodate ships as large as 150,000 tons fully loaded. Because no locks interrupt traffic on this sea level waterway, the transit time only averages about 15 hours. ASTER acquired this scene on May 19, 2000.

Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high-resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface. Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high-resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.

The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Examples of applications include monitoring glacial advances and retreats, potentially active volcanoes, thermal pollution, and coral reef degradation; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; evaluating wetlands; mapping surface temperature of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

2000-01-01

188

Controversy at Love Canal.  

PubMed

A cancer researcher reviews the events surrounding the toxic waste contamination at Love Canal with emphasis on the political nature of the controversy about its health impact. Antagonism between the community and the New York State Department of Health was fueled by several factors: the state's awareness that it gained from delay in investigation, disagreement on health problems to be studied, control over the information gathering process, silencing of opposition opinion, and the violation of norms of scientific behavior. The author calls for the establishment of standards of ethical behavior for scientists in such situations, standards for conflict resolution, and means of appeal for those injured. PMID:7107238

Paigen, B

1982-06-01

189

13. VIEW OF EXISTING GRAND CANAL COURT PEDESTRIAN BRIDGE OVER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. VIEW OF EXISTING GRAND CANAL COURT PEDESTRIAN BRIDGE OVER CARROLL CANAL, LOOKING WEST TOWARD GRAND CANAL FROM NORTH SIDE OF CARROLL CANAL - Venice Canals, Community of Venice, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

190

4. STONE BUILDER'S PLATE CANAL GATES, AND DIVERSION SPILLWAYS. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. STONE BUILDER'S PLATE CANAL GATES, AND DIVERSION SPILLWAYS. - Canal Road Bridge, Canal Road spanning Delaware Canal Diversion, Locks 22 & 23 in Delaware Canal State Park in Williams Township, Raubsville, Northampton County, PA

191

The Love Canal: Beyond science?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When in 1978, the New York State Department of Health issued the report, ‘Love Canal—Public Health Time Bomb,’ the serious effects of chemical waste contamination in the Love Canal area became an issue of national concern. A few ‘studies’ since then have produced results in concert with those of initial reports that described ‘conditions of acute health effects’ as being linked to hazardous wastes incorporated in landfill in the Love Canal site near Niagara Falls, New York. Now that a ‘blue ribbon’ panel of experts from the medical sciences has reviewed the problems of Love Canal, however, a different view has emerged. The ‘Report of the Governors' Panel to Review Scientific Studies and the Development of Public Policy on Problems Resulting from Hazardous Wastes,’ transmitted in October of this year, identifies the following factors about the health effects at Love Canal:

Bell, Peter M.

192

173. CANAL TENDER OPERATING LOCK MACHINERY ON THE MORRIS CANAL. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

173. CANAL TENDER OPERATING LOCK MACHINERY ON THE MORRIS CANAL. AS THE LOCK TENDER TURNS THE CRANK, A SMALL COGGED WHEEL (PINION) ON THE CRANK TURNS A LARGER COGGED WHEEL, (MAIN GEAR). MAIN GEAR ENGAGES A COGGED BAR CALLED A TRAVELLER WHICH MOVES FORWARD OR BACK DEPENDING ON WHICH WAY THE CRANK IS TURNED. CONNECTED TO THE TRAVELLER ARE TO LONG RODS (GATE ARMS) WHICH IN TURN ARE CONNECTED TO THE GATE'S TOP BEAM (ONE FOR EACH GATE). AS THE TRAVELLER MOVES FORWARD THE GATE ARMS EXTEND PUSHING THE GATES OPEN. - Morris Canal, Phillipsburg, Warren County, NJ

193

Codage de Canal : Performances de systmes cods  

E-print Network

Codage de Canal : Performances de systèmes codés Olivier Rioul TELECOM ParisTech Dept. Comelec continus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 1.3.1 Canal gaussien réel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 1.3.2 Canal gaussien complexe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 1.3.3 Canal de Rayleigh

Rioul, Olivier

194

Method for Constructing Standardized Simulated Root Canals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The construction of visual and manipulative aids, clear resin blocks with root-canal-like spaces, for simulation of root canals is explained. Time, materials, and techniques are discussed. The method allows for comparison of canals, creation of any configuration of canals, and easy presentation during instruction. (MSE)

Schulz-Bongert, Udo; Weine, Franklin S.

1990-01-01

195

Status Review of Lynn Canal Herring  

E-print Network

#12;i Status Review of Lynn Canal Herring (Clupea pallasii) Mark G. Carls Chairman, editor the status of Lynn Canal herring and to determine if Lynn Canal herring are a distinct population segment ...........................3.19 3.3. Lynn Canal management area as defined by ADFG

196

Peripheral Canal Design and Implementation Options  

E-print Network

Peripheral Canal Design and Implementation Options Technical Appendix G Jay R. Lund July 2008, an alternative often referred to as a peripheral canal. A peripheral canal or some form of other upstream with a peripheral canal, and the long time frame for making and revisiting these decisions. Several important

Pasternack, Gregory B.

197

Nano-transfersomal ciprofloxacin loaded vesicles for non-invasive trans-tympanic ototopical delivery: in-vitro optimization, ex-vivo permeation studies, and in-vivo assessment.  

PubMed

Ciprofloxacin is a synthetic fluoroquinolone antibiotic that has been used for systemic treatment of otitis media in adults. It was approved for topical treatment of otorrhea in children with tympanostomy tubes. The aim of this work was to enhance the local non-invasive delivery of ciprofloxacin to the middle ear across an intact tympanic membrane (TM) in an attempt to treat acute otitis media (AOM) ototopically. In order to achieve this goal, ciprofloxacin nano-transfersomal vesicles were prepared by thin film hydration (TFH) technique, using several edge activators (EAs) of varying hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) values. A full factorial design was employed for the optimization of formulation variables using Design-Expert(®) software. The optimal formulation was subjected to stability testing, ex-vivo permeation studies (through ear skin and TM of rabbits), and in-vivo evaluation. Results revealed that the optimal formulation (composed of phospholipid and sodium cholate as an EA at a molar ratio of 5:1) exhibited enhanced ex-vivo drug flux through ear skin and TM when compared with the commercial product (Ciprocin(®) drops). It demonstrated a greater extent of in-vivo drug deposition in the TM of albino rabbits relative to Ciprocin(®). Consequently, transfersomes could be promising for the non-invasive trans-tympanic delivery of ciprofloxacin. PMID:24971692

Al-Mahallawi, Abdulaziz Mohsen; Khowessah, Omneya Mohammed; Shoukri, Raguia Ali

2014-09-10

198

Mathematical Model of the Cupula-Endolymph System with Morphological Parameters for the Axolotl (Ambystoma tigrinum) Semicircular Canals  

PubMed Central

By combining mathematical methods with the morphological analysis of the semicircular canals of the axolotl (Ambystoma tigrinum), a system of differential equations describing the mechanical coupling in the semicircular canals was obtained. The coefficients of this system have an explicit physiological meaning that allows for the introduction of morphological and dynamical parameters directly into the differential equations. The cupula of the semicircular canals was modeled both as a piston and as a membrane (diaphragm like), and the duct canals as toroids with two main regions: i) the semicircular canal duct and, ii) a larger diameter region corresponding to the ampulla and the utricle. The endolymph motion was described by the Navier-Stokes equations. The analysis of the model demonstrated that cupular behavior dynamics under periodic stimulation is equivalent in both the piston and the membrane cupular models, thus a general model in which the detailed cupular structure is not relevant was derived. PMID:19593455

Vega, Rosario; Alexandrov, Vladimir V; Alexandrova, Tamara B; Soto, Enrique

2008-01-01

199

Mathematical Model of the Cupula-Endolymph System with Morphological Parameters for the Axolotl (Ambystoma tigrinum) Semicircular Canals.  

PubMed

By combining mathematical methods with the morphological analysis of the semicircular canals of the axolotl (Ambystoma tigrinum), a system of differential equations describing the mechanical coupling in the semicircular canals was obtained. The coefficients of this system have an explicit physiological meaning that allows for the introduction of morphological and dynamical parameters directly into the differential equations. The cupula of the semicircular canals was modeled both as a piston and as a membrane (diaphragm like), and the duct canals as toroids with two main regions: i) the semicircular canal duct and, ii) a larger diameter region corresponding to the ampulla and the utricle. The endolymph motion was described by the Navier-Stokes equations. The analysis of the model demonstrated that cupular behavior dynamics under periodic stimulation is equivalent in both the piston and the membrane cupular models, thus a general model in which the detailed cupular structure is not relevant was derived. PMID:19593455

Vega, Rosario; Alexandrov, Vladimir V; Alexandrova, Tamara B; Soto, Enrique

2008-01-01

200

Subscríbase a los canales RSS  

Cancer.gov

Los canales de RSS (Really Simple Syndication) ofrecen una manera fácil para que usted pueda mantenerse al día con noticias e información del NCI. La información que a usted le interesa se le envía directamente una vez se subscriba.

201

Depolarization canals and interstellar turbulence  

E-print Network

Recent radio polarization observations have revealed a plethora of unexpected features in the polarized Galactic radio background that arise from propagation effects in the random (turbulent) interstellar medium. The canals are especially striking among them, a random network of very dark, narrow regions clearly visible in many directions against a bright polarized Galactic synchrotron background. There are no obvious physical structures in the ISM that may have caused the canals, and so they have been called Faraday ghosts. They evidently carry information about interstellar turbulence but only now is it becoming clear how this information can be extracted. Two theories for the origin of the canals have been proposed; both attribute the canals to Faraday rotation, but one invokes strong gradients in Faraday rotation in the sky plane (specifically, in a foreground Faraday screen) and the other only relies on line-of-sight effects (differential Faraday rotation). In this review we discuss the physical nature o...

Fletcher, A; Fletcher, Andrew; Shukurov, Anvar

2006-01-01

202

Looking back at Love Canal  

SciTech Connect

In the first part of this series (ES and T, April 1987, pp. 328-31) it was pointed out that the methods and conclusions of EPA's Love Canal Study were the subject of some controversy in the environmental community. Others defended the agency's approaches and methods. Part 2 makes no attempt to resolve the controversy; its purpose is to present the results and conclusions of the Love Canal.

Deegan, J. Jr.

1987-05-01

203

The role of 3-canal biomechanics in angular motion transduction by the human vestibular labyrinth.  

PubMed

The present work examines the role of the complex geometry of the human vestibular membranous labyrinth in the process of angular motion transduction by the semicircular canals. A morphologically descriptive mathematical model was constructed to address the biomechanical origins of temporal signal processing and directional coding in determining the inputs to the brain. The geometrical model was developed based on shrinkage-corrected temporal bone sections using a segmentation/data-fitting procedure. Endolymph fluid dynamics within the 3-canal labyrinth was modeled using an asymptotic form of the Navier-Stokes equations and solved to estimate endolymph and cupulae volume displacements. The geometrical model was manipulated to study the role of major morphological features on directional and temporal coding. Anatomical results show that the bony osseous canals provide reasonable estimates of the orientation of the delicate membranous canals--the two differed by only 3.48 +/- 1.89 degrees . Biomechanical results show that the maximal response directions are distinct from the anatomical canal planes, but can be closely approximated by fitting a flat plane to the centerline of the canal of interest and weighting each location along the centerline with the inverse of the cross-sectional area squared. Vector cross-products of these maximal response directions, in turn, determine the null planes and prime directions that transmit the direction of angular motion to the brain as three independent directional channels associated with the nerve bundles. Finally, parameter studies indicate that changes in canal cross-sectional area and shape only moderately affect canal temporal and directional coding, while three-canal orientation is critical to directional coding. PMID:17377842

Ifediba, Marytheresa A; Rajguru, Suhrud M; Hullar, Timothy E; Rabbitt, Richard D

2007-07-01

204

Biomechanics of horizontal canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo.  

PubMed

Horizontal canal (HC) benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (HC-BPPV) is a vestibular disorder characterized by bouts of horizontal ocular nystagmus induced during reorientation of the head relative to gravity. The present report addresses the application of a morphologically descriptive 3-canal biomechanical model of the human membranous labyrinth to study gravity-dependent semicircular canal responses during this condition. The model estimates dynamic cupular and endolymph displacements elicited during HC-BPPV provocative diagnostic maneuvers and canalith repositioning procedures (CRPs). The activation latencies in response to an HC-BPPV provocative diagnostic test were predicted to vary depending upon the initial location of the canalith debris (e.g. within the HC lumen vs. in the ampulla). Results may explain why the onset latency of ocular nystagmus evoked by the Dix-Hallpike provocative maneuver for posterior canal BPPV are typically longer than the latencies evoked by analogous tests for HC-BPPV. The model was further applied to assess the efficacy of a 360 degrees -rotation CRP for the treatment of canalithiasis HC-BPPV. PMID:16286702

Rajguru, Suhrud M; Ifediba, Marytheresa A; Rabbitt, Richard D

2005-01-01

205

Biomechanics of horizontal canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo  

PubMed Central

Horizontal canal (HC) benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (HC-BPPV) is a vestibular disorder characterized by bouts of horizontal ocular nystagmus induced during reorientation of the head relative to gravity. The present report addresses the application of a morphologically descriptive 3-canal biomechanical model of the human membranous labyrinth to study gravity-dependent semicircular canal responses during this condition. The model estimates dynamic cupular and endolymph displacements elicited during HC-BPPV provocative diagnostic maneuvers and canalith repositioning procedures (CRPs). The activation latencies in response to an HC-BPPV provocative diagnostic test were predicted to vary depending upon the initial location of the canalith debris (e.g. within the HC lumen vs. in the ampulla). Results may explain why the onset latency of ocular nystagmus evoked by the Dix-Hallpike provocative maneuver for posterior canal BPPV are typically longer than the latencies evoked by analogous tests for HC-BPPV. The model was further applied to assess the efficacy of a 360°-rotation CRP for the treatment of canalithiasis HC-BPPV. PMID:16286702

Rajguru, Suhrud M.; Ifediba, Marytheresa A.; Rabbitt, Richard D.

2008-01-01

206

Depolarization canals and interstellar turbulence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent radio polarization observations have revealed a plethora of unexpected features in the polarized Galactic radio background that arise from propagation effects in the random (turbulent) interstellar medium. The canals are especially striking among them, a random network of very dark, narrow regions clearly visible in many directions against a bright polarized Galactic synchrotron background. There are no obvious physical structures in the ISM that may have caused the canals, and so they have been called Faraday ghosts. They evidently carry information about interstellar turbulence but only now is it becoming clear how this information can be extracted. Two theories for the origin of the canals have been proposed; both attribute the canals to Faraday rotation, but one invokes strong gradients in Faraday rotation in the sky plane (specifically, in a foreground Faraday screen) and the other only relies on line-of-sight effects (differential Faraday rotation). In this review we discuss the physical nature of the canals and how they can be used to explore statistical properties of interstellar turbulence. This opens studies of magnetized interstellar turbulence to new methods of analysis, such as contour statistics and related techniques of computational geometry and topology. In particular, we can hope to measure such elusive quantities as the Taylor microscale and the effective magnetic Reynolds number of interstellar MHD turbulence.

Fletcher, A.; Shukurov, A.

207

Depolarization canals and interstellar turbulence  

E-print Network

Recent radio polarization observations have revealed a plethora of unexpected features in the polarized Galactic radio background that arise from propagation effects in the random (turbulent) interstellar medium. The canals are especially striking among them, a random network of very dark, narrow regions clearly visible in many directions against a bright polarized Galactic synchrotron background. There are no obvious physical structures in the ISM that may have caused the canals, and so they have been called Faraday ghosts. They evidently carry information about interstellar turbulence but only now is it becoming clear how this information can be extracted. Two theories for the origin of the canals have been proposed; both attribute the canals to Faraday rotation, but one invokes strong gradients in Faraday rotation in the sky plane (specifically, in a foreground Faraday screen) and the other only relies on line-of-sight effects (differential Faraday rotation). In this review we discuss the physical nature of the canals and how they can be used to explore statistical properties of interstellar turbulence. This opens studies of magnetized interstellar turbulence to new methods of analysis, such as contour statistics and related techniques of computational geometry and topology. In particular, we can hope to measure such elusive quantities as the Taylor microscale and the effective magnetic Reynolds number of interstellar MHD turbulence.

Andrew Fletcher; Anvar Shukurov

2006-04-20

208

Fibrous proliferation of the pre-papillary canal in proliferative diabetic retinopathy: Cloquet’s canal as a scaffold for proliferative diabetic retinopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The structure of the vitreous body is known to play an important role in the pathogenesis of proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). The purpose of this study was to ascertain the pattern of fibrous membrane proliferation in PDR fo- cusing on pre-optic disc canal-like fibrous proliferation. Methods: The investigation comprised two parts. The first, prospective study involved examining ten eyes

Keita Yamakiri; Takehiro Yamashita; Miho Miyazaki; Norihito Doi; Akinori Uemura; Taiji Sakamoto

2005-01-01

209

Lock No. 1 St. Lucie Canal. Sector gates, verticals & ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Lock No. 1- St. Lucie Canal. Sector gates, verticals & diagonals-canal side, upper gate. - St. Lucie Canal, St. Lucie Lock No. 1, St. Lucie, Cross State Canal, Okeechobee Intracoastal Waterway, Stuart, Martin County, FL

210

Lock No. 1 St. Lucie Canal. Sector gates, horizontal strutscanal ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Lock No. 1- St. Lucie Canal. Sector gates, horizontal struts-canal side. - St. Lucie Canal, St. Lucie Lock No. 1, St. Lucie, Cross State Canal, Okeechobee Intracoastal Waterway, Stuart, Martin County, FL

211

23. VIEW OF PREEXISTING LINNIE CANAL COURT PEDESTRIAN BRIDGE OVER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

23. VIEW OF PRE-EXISTING LINNIE CANAL COURT PEDESTRIAN BRIDGE OVER EASTERN CANAL, LOOKING SOUTH FROM THE EAST SIDE OF EASTERN CANAL - Venice Canals, Community of Venice, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

212

19. VIEW OF PEDESTRIAN BRIDGE OVER GRAND CANAL LOCATED SOUTH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

19. VIEW OF PEDESTRIAN BRIDGE OVER GRAND CANAL LOCATED SOUTH OF SHERMAN CANAL, LOOKING NORTH FROM THE EAST SIDE OF GRAND CANAL - Venice Canals, Community of Venice, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

213

24. VIEW OF EXISTING LINNIE CANAL COURT PEDESTRIAN BRIDGE OVER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

24. VIEW OF EXISTING LINNIE CANAL COURT PEDESTRIAN BRIDGE OVER EASTERN CANAL, LOOKING NORTH FROM THE EAST SIDE OF EASTERN CANAL - Venice Canals, Community of Venice, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

214

32. VIEW OF TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL FROM VICINITY OF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

32. VIEW OF TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL FROM VICINITY OF PROPOSED POWER CANAL, LOOKING UPSTREAM. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

215

A.G.Ramm, Determination of the shape of the ear canal, Math. Sci. Res. Journ., 9(6), (2005),139-141.  

E-print Network

A.G.Ramm, Determination of the shape of the ear canal, Math. Sci. Res. Journ., 9(6), (2005),139-141. 1 #12;Determination of the shape of the ear canal A.G. Ramm Mathematics Department, Kansas State of the acoustic pressure on the ear membrane allows one to determine the shape of the ear channel uniquely. 1

216

5 CFR 315.601 - Appointment of former employees of the Canal Zone Merit System or Panama Canal Employment System.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Canal Zone Merit System or Panama Canal Employment System. 315.601 Section 315...REGULATIONS CAREER AND CAREER-CONDITIONAL EMPLOYMENT Career or Career-Conditional Appointment...Canal Zone Merit System or Panama Canal Employment System. (a) Agency...

2011-01-01

217

5 CFR 315.601 - Appointment of former employees of the Canal Zone Merit System or Panama Canal Employment System.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Canal Zone Merit System or Panama Canal Employment System. 315.601 Section 315...REGULATIONS CAREER AND CAREER-CONDITIONAL EMPLOYMENT Career or Career-Conditional Appointment...Canal Zone Merit System or Panama Canal Employment System. (a) Agency...

2012-01-01

218

5 CFR 315.601 - Appointment of former employees of the Canal Zone Merit System or Panama Canal Employment System.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Canal Zone Merit System or Panama Canal Employment System. 315.601 Section 315...REGULATIONS CAREER AND CAREER-CONDITIONAL EMPLOYMENT Career or Career-Conditional Appointment...Canal Zone Merit System or Panama Canal Employment System. (a) Agency...

2014-01-01

219

5 CFR 315.601 - Appointment of former employees of the Canal Zone Merit System or Panama Canal Employment System.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Canal Zone Merit System or Panama Canal Employment System. 315.601 Section 315...REGULATIONS CAREER AND CAREER-CONDITIONAL EMPLOYMENT Career or Career-Conditional Appointment...Canal Zone Merit System or Panama Canal Employment System. (a) Agency...

2013-01-01

220

5 CFR 315.601 - Appointment of former employees of the Canal Zone Merit System or Panama Canal Employment System.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Canal Zone Merit System or Panama Canal Employment System. 315.601 Section 315...REGULATIONS CAREER AND CAREER-CONDITIONAL EMPLOYMENT Career or Career-Conditional Appointment...Canal Zone Merit System or Panama Canal Employment System. (a) Agency...

2010-01-01

221

An Electrokinetic Model of Transduction in the Semicircular Canal  

PubMed Central

Transduction in the semicircular canal was studied by focusing an infrared beam on either side of exposed ampullae from the posterior canals of Rana pipiens. The direction of fluid movement resulting from a stimulus was inferred by observing the polarity of the change in afferent impulse mean rate relative to the spontaneous value. On the basis of the accepted functional polarization of this receptor, the results indicate that fluid moved toward the warmer side of the ampulla. Convection and thermal reception were shown to be unlikely explanations for these results. Morover, cupular displacements toward the warmer side would not be expected. Because thermo-osmosis can cause fluid to move toward the warmer side in a gelatin membrane, the results can be interpreted as evidence that thermo-osmosis occurred in the gelatinous cupula and influenced the transduction mechanism. Thermo-osmosis of liquids appears to be due to an electric field that is set up in a charged membrane; hence, the hair cells might have detected an electric field that occurred in the cupula during thermo-osmosis. Electroreception might be an important link in the transduction of physiological stimuli also. Rotational stimuli could result in weak electric fields in the cupula by the mechanoelectric effect. Cupular displacements could be important for large stimuli, but extrapolations to threshold stimuli suggest displacements of angstrom amplitudes. Therefore, electroreception by the hair cells could be an explanation of the great sensitivity that has been observed in the semicircular canal and other labyrinthine receptors. PMID:5496906

O'Leary, Dennis P.

1970-01-01

222

Geomembranes for Canal Lining Geosynthetics 2009  

E-print Network

.S. Bureau of Reclamation (USBR) has conducted a number of test programs on canal-lining systems including.S. Bureau of Reclamation (USBR) irrigation canal near Fort Collins, Colorado. The flexibility

223

TS219 CODAGE CANAL Benot ESCRIG  

E-print Network

1 TS219 CODAGE CANAL Benoît ESCRIG ENSEIRB-MATMECA/IRIT 29/08/2011 Codage Canal-BE 1 Bibliographie numériques. Introduction, Ed. Masson, 1996. 29/08/2011 Codage Canal-BE 2 Plan du cours 1. Introduction 2. Codes en blocs linéaires 3. Codes convolutifs 4. Combinaisons de codes 29/08/2011 Codage Canal-BE 3 Plan

Benoît, Escrig

224

A Population Genetic Theory of Canalization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Canalization is the suppression of phenotypic variation. Depending on thecauses of phenotypic variation one speaks either of genetic or environmentalcanalization. Genetic canalization describes insensitivity of a character to mutations,and the insensitivity to environmental factors is called environmentalcanalization. Genetic canalization is of interest because it influences the availabilityof heritable phenotypic variation to natural selection and is thus potentiallyimportant in...

Gunter P. Wagner; Ginger Booth

1997-01-01

225

33 CFR 117.1045 - Hood Canal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hood Canal. 117.1045 Section 117.1045 ...Requirements Washington § 117.1045 Hood Canal. The draw of the Washington State...requested. (b) The draw of the Hood Canal Bridge, mile 5.0, need not...

2012-07-01

226

33 CFR 117.444 - Falgout Canal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Falgout Canal. 117.444 Section 117.444 Navigation...Requirements Louisiana § 117.444 Falgout Canal. The draw of the LA 315 bridge across Falgout Canal, mile 3.1, shall open on...

2010-07-01

227

33 CFR 117.1045 - Hood Canal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hood Canal. 117.1045 Section 117.1045 ...Requirements Washington § 117.1045 Hood Canal. The draw of the Washington State...requested. (b) The draw of the Hood Canal Bridge, mile 5.0, need not...

2013-07-01

228

33 CFR 117.444 - Falgout Canal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Falgout Canal. 117.444 Section 117.444 Navigation...Requirements Louisiana § 117.444 Falgout Canal. The draw of the LA 315 bridge across Falgout Canal, mile 3.1, shall open on...

2014-07-01

229

33 CFR 117.444 - Falgout Canal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Falgout Canal. 117.444 Section 117.444 Navigation...Requirements Louisiana § 117.444 Falgout Canal. The draw of the LA 315 bridge across Falgout Canal, mile 3.1, shall open on...

2011-07-01

230

33 CFR 117.444 - Falgout Canal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Falgout Canal. 117.444 Section 117.444 Navigation...Requirements Louisiana § 117.444 Falgout Canal. The draw of the LA 315 bridge across Falgout Canal, mile 3.1, shall open on...

2012-07-01

231

33 CFR 117.1045 - Hood Canal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hood Canal. 117.1045 Section 117.1045 ...Requirements Washington § 117.1045 Hood Canal. The draw of the Washington State...requested. (b) The draw of the Hood Canal Bridge, mile 5.0, need not...

2014-07-01

232

33 CFR 117.444 - Falgout Canal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Falgout Canal. 117.444 Section 117.444 Navigation...Requirements Louisiana § 117.444 Falgout Canal. The draw of the LA 315 bridge across Falgout Canal, mile 3.1, shall open on...

2013-07-01

233

Erie Canal Technology: Stump Pullers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many years ago I saw a picture of a huge set of wheels that was used to remove tree stumps during the construction of the Erie Canal (1817-1825) and was intrigued by its use of leverage, mechanical advantage, and torque. Figure 1 is a scale model of the device based on my memory of the (lost) picture and published accounts.

Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

2013-01-01

234

Looking back at Love Canal  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the first part of this series (ES and T, April 1987, pp. 328-31) it was pointed out that the methods and conclusions of EPA's Love Canal Study were the subject of some controversy in the environmental community. Others defended the agency's approaches and methods. Part 2 makes no attempt to resolve the controversy; its purpose is to present the

J. Jr

1987-01-01

235

Depolarization canals and interstellar turbulence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent radio polarization observations have revealed a plethora of unexpected features in the polarized Galactic radio background that arise from propagation effects in the random (turbulent) interstellar medium. The canals are especially striking among them, a random network of very dark, narrow regions clearly visible in many directions against a bright polarized Galactic synchrotron background. There are no obvious physical

Andrew Fletcher; Anvar Shukurov

2007-01-01

236

Artificial lateral line canal for hydrodynamic detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fish use their lateral line system to detect minute water motions. The lateral line consists of superficial neuromasts and canal neuromasts. The response properties of canal neuromasts differ from those of superficial ones. Here, we report the design, fabrication, and characterization of an artificial lateral line canal system. The characterization was done under various fluid conditions, including dipolar excitation and turbulent flow. The experimental results with dipole excitation match well with a mathematical model. Canal sensors also demonstrate significantly better noise immunity compared with superficial ones. Canal-type artificial lateral lines may become important for underwater flow sensing.

Yang, Yingchen; Klein, Adrian; Bleckmann, Horst; Liu, Chang

2011-07-01

237

Healing outcomes of large (>50%) traumatic membrane perforations with inverted edges following no intervention, edge approximation and fibroblast growth factor application; a sequential allocation, three-armed trial  

PubMed Central

Objective The goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of perforation edge approximation and direct application of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) each alone on the healing of large traumatic tympanic membrane perforations with inverted edges in humans. Study Design Prospective, sequential allocation, three-armed, controlled clinical study. Setting University-affiliated teaching hospital. Participants Fifty-eight patients with large traumatic tympanic membrane perforations (i.e. affecting >50% of the surface area) with inverted edges were recruited. They were sequentially allocated to three groups: no intervention (n & 18), edge approximation alone (n & 20) and direct application of bFGF (n & 20). Otoscopy were performed before the treatment and at follow-up visits. Main outcome measures The closure rate, closure time and rate of otorrhoea. Results Application of bFGF yielded a significantly higher average rate of perforation closure (100%) than edge approximation (60%) and no intervention (56%) (P < 0.05). It also significantly shortened the average closure time (12.4 ± 3.6 days) as compared to edge approximation (46.3 ± 8.7 days) and no intervention control (48.2 ± 5.3 days) (P < 0.05). Purulent otorrhoea was observed in none of the three groups. Conclusion Edge approximation of inverted edges has little benefit in improving the healing outcome of large traumatic tympanic membrane perforations and thus is not an ideal treatment option for large traumatic tympanic membrane perforations. Application of bFGF materially improves the closure rate of large traumatic tympanic membrane perforations and significantly shortens the closure time. PMID:23731690

Lou, Z-C; Wang, Y-B-Z

2013-01-01

238

Further studies on the ring canal system of the ovarian cystocytes of Drosophila melanogaster  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ultrastructural study was made of the ring canal system which connects the sister ovarian cystocytes that arise in the germaria of wild type Drosophila melanogaster females. It was discovered that during an oogonial mitosis both chromosomes and spindle are enclosed by a multilayered, perforated membrane system derived (at least in part) from the nuclear envelope. The cytokinesis of stem

Elizabeth A. Koch; Robert C. King

1969-01-01

239

Experimental model of tympanic colic (acute abdomen) in chinchillas (Chinchilla lanigera)  

PubMed Central

Digestive disorders caused by sudden changes in diet or inappropriate diet are among the most common disorders of the digestive system. Cecal or intestinal tympany, one consequence of inappropriate diet, is characterized by the accumulation of gases, marked distension of the cecum and colon and the induction of inflammatory processes. To know the effects of intestinal tympany on the enteric plexuses, we developed a method of experimental tympanic colic (TC) in the Chinchilla lanigera. This species was used in view of its susceptibility to TC. TC was induced with a diet rich in alfalfa associated with grain overload for two weeks. Physical and clinical examination including the von Frey test confirmed the diagnosis. The chinchillas with acute abdomen were treated with 1% ketoprofen and resumption of a balanced diet. Necropsy and histopathological analysis showed tympany-induced alterations mainly in the cecum and colon. After treatment, the control conditions were restored. The TC protocol is proposed as an experimental approach designed to aid the study of the effects of acute intestinal inflammation and obstruction caused by an inappropriate diet. PMID:25324875

Martinez-Pereira, Malcon Andrei; Franceschi, Raphaela da Cunha; Coelho, Bárbara Paranhos; Fünkler, Gustavo da Rosa

2014-01-01

240

Mucoperiosteal Exostoses in the Tympanic Bulla of African Lions (Panthera leo).  

PubMed

Mucoperiosteal exostoses (MpEs) of the tympanic bulla (TB), also referred as middle-ear otoliths, have been occasionally described in dogs and cats in association with clinical signs of otitis media or as an incidental finding, but they have not been recorded in other species. In this report, we describe the radiographic, gross, and histopathologic features of MpEs in 8 African lions (Panthera leo). All animals (5 males and 3 females) were adults that had been kept in captivity and had their skeletons conserved as part of an anatomic academic collection. A radiographic study revealed mineralized structures in the TB consistent with MpEs in 7 of the 16 examined TB; a computed tomography study identified MpEs in 12 of the 16 TB. Six TB from 4 lions were sectioned, and several MpEs were demineralized for histopathologic analysis. Grossly, MpEs appeared variable in number and shape. Some were globular structures that were loosely attached to the mucosal surface of the TB; others were isolated to coalescent bone spicules extending from the mucoperiosteum. Position was also variable, but MpEs frequently developed in the hypotympanum, especially on the ventromedial aspect of the TB wall. Microscopically, MpEs were composed of osteonal bone growing from the periosteum and not by dystrophic calcification of necrotic tissue debris, as is hypothesized in dogs. PMID:24788401

Novales, M; Ginel, P J; Diz, A; Blanco, B; Zafra, R; Guerra, R; Mozos, E

2015-03-01

241

Canals in Milky Way radio polarization maps  

E-print Network

Narrow depolarized canals are common in maps of the polarized synchrotron emission of the Milky Way. Two physical effects that can produce these canals have been identified: the presence of Faraday rotation measure ($\\RM$) gradients in a foreground screen and the cumulative cancellation of polarization known as differential Faraday rotation. We show that the behaviour of the Stokes parameters $Q$ and $U$ in the vicinity of a canal can be used to identify its origin. In the case of canals produced by a Faraday screen we demonstrate that, if the polarization angle changes by $90\\degr$ across the canal, as is observed in all fields to-date, the gradients in $\\RM$ must be discontinuous. Shocks are an obvious source of such discontinuities and we derive a relation of the expected mean separation of canals to the abundance and Mach number of supernova driven shocks, and compare this with recent observations by \\citet{Haverkorn03}. We also predict the existence of less common canals with polarization angle changes other than $90\\degr$. Differential Faraday rotation can produce canals in a uniform magneto-ionic medium, but as the emitting layer becomes less uniform the canals will disappear. We show that for moderate differences in emissivity in a two-layer medium, of up to 1/2, and for Faraday depth fluctuations of standard deviation $\\lesssim 1 \\mathrm{rad}$, canals produced by differential rotation will still be visible.

Andrew Fletcher; Anvar Shukurov

2006-07-03

242

Photodynamic therapy: An adjunct to conventional root canal disinfection strategies.  

PubMed

Although chemical-based root canal disinfectants are important to reduce microbial loads and remove infected smear layer from root dentin, they have only a limited ability to eliminate biofilm bacteria, especially from root complexities. This paper explores the novel photodynamic therapy (PDT) for antimicrobial disinfection of root canals. The combination of an effective photosensitizer, the appropriate wavelength of light and ambient oxygen is the key factor in PDT. PDT uses a specific wavelength of light to activate a non-toxic dye (photosensitizer), leading to the formation of reactive oxygen species. These reactive oxygen molecules can damage bacterial proteins, membrane lipids and nucleic acids, which promote bacterial cell death. In, addition PDT may enhance cross-linking of collagen fibrils in the dentin matrix and thereby improving dentin stability. The concept of PDT is plausible and could foster new therapy concepts for endodontics. The available knowledge should enable and encourage steps forward into more clinical-oriented research and development. This article discusses PDT as related to root canal disinfection, including its components, mechanism of action, reviews the current endodontic literature and also highlights the shortcomings and advancements in PDT techniques. PMID:25404404

Singh, Shipra; Nagpal, Rajni; Manuja, Naveen; Tyagi, Sashi Prabha

2014-11-17

243

11. VIEW SHOWING THE HEAD OF THE WESTERN CANAL ON ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. VIEW SHOWING THE HEAD OF THE WESTERN CANAL ON THE CONSOLIDATED CANAL, LOOKING WEST ACROSS THE CONSOLIDATED CANAL. AT THIS POINT, THE WESTERN CANAL IS A LITTLE LARGER THAN A LATERAL DITCH - Western Canal, South side of Salt River between Tempe, Phoenix & Mesa, Mesa, Maricopa County, AZ

244

160. Photocopy of drawing (taken from Twin Falls Canal Company ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

160. Photocopy of drawing (taken from Twin Falls Canal Company Field Book #361 #86, page 1). SCALE DRAWING, CANAL HEADGATES AND CANAL SURVEY, 'A' LINE. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

245

Management of Six Root Canals in Mandibular First Molar  

PubMed Central

Success in root canal treatment is achieved after thorough cleaning, shaping, and obturation of the root canal system. This clinical case describes conventional root canal treatment of an unusual mandibular first molar with six root canals. The prognosis for endodontic treatment in teeth with abnormal morphology is unfavorable if the clinician fails to recognize extra root canals. PMID:25685156

Gomes, Fabio de Almeida; Sousa, Bruno Carvalho

2015-01-01

246

179. Photocopy of Photograph, Twin Falls Canal Company, Bisbee Photo, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

179. Photocopy of Photograph, Twin Falls Canal Company, Bisbee Photo, September, 1912. Photographer unknown. VIEW OF LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY; VIEW OF LOW LINE CANAL IN PETE LINK'S FIELD. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

247

Developmental spinal canal stenosis and somatotype.  

PubMed Central

The hypothesis that somatotype and cervical spine developmental canal stenosis may be associated has been investigated by anthropometry and measurement of lateral projection cervical spine radiographs. A significant association of canal size with somatotype has been found such that those with developmentally narrow canals are more likely to have relatively shorter long-bones, particularly in the upper arm, and longer trunks. Images PMID:2769282

Nightingale, S

1989-01-01

248

Root canal filling using Resilon: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Root canal treatment is achieved by chemo-mechanical debridement of the root canal system followed by filling. The filling material 'entombs' residual bacteria and acts as a barrier which prevents the entrance of oral microorganisms and reinfection of the root canal system through microleakage. However, filling with contemporary root filling materials such as gutta-percha offers limited long-term resistance to microorganisms; as

D. J. Shanahan; H. F. Duncan

2011-01-01

249

Wideband Reflectance Norms for Caucasian and Chinese Young Adults  

E-print Network

;27;774­788) For humans to hear, sound must pass through the external ear canal, the tympanic membrane, the middle ear quantify the absorbed and reflected sound energy in the external ear canal. Contrary to tympanometry, WBR Objective: This study examined differences between the middle ears of two ethnic groups, Caucasian

Allen, Jont

250

Fluid volume displacement at the oval and round windows with air and bone conduction stimulationa)  

E-print Network

, it is transmitted through the external ear canal and converted to vibrations by the tympanic membrane TM stimulation are believed to be 1 sound radiated into the external ear canal and middle ear cavity, which.64.Bt WPF Pages: 797­812 I. INTRODUCTION When an air-conducted AC sound enters the ear

Allen, Jont

251

[From the Proceedings of the Physiological Society, 13-14 July 1973] Journal of Physiology, 234, 18-19P  

E-print Network

) in the auditory canal to record sound pressure changes close to the tympanic membrane. Broad-band noise was used about the position of a sound source in space is contained in the sound pressure changes recorded in or near the auditory canal. This method, of recording sound pressure changes within the external auditory

Rolls, Edmund T.

252

The primate semicircular canal system and locomotion  

PubMed Central

The semicircular canal system of vertebrates helps coordinate body movements, including stabilization of gaze during locomotion. Quantitative phylogenetically informed analysis of the radius of curvature of the three semicircular canals in 91 extant and recently extinct primate species and 119 other mammalian taxa provide support for the hypothesis that canal size varies in relation to the jerkiness of head motion during locomotion. Primate and other mammalian species studied here that are agile and have fast, jerky locomotion have significantly larger canals relative to body mass than those that move more cautiously. PMID:17576932

Spoor, Fred; Garland, Theodore; Krovitz, Gail; Ryan, Timothy M.; Silcox, Mary T.; Walker, Alan

2007-01-01

253

Love Canal: environmental and toxicological studies  

SciTech Connect

The New York State Department of Health has been involved at the Love Canal since 1978. The State has carried out numerous environmental and toxicological studies. The major purposes for these studies were to define how Love Canal contaminants might be escaping into the environment at large, what paths contaminant migration might take, and what toxicological effects Love Canal chemicals might have individually and together. Although underground contaminant migration was hypothesized along swales and underground utility bedding, these mechanisms have been proven not to be operative except for some migration along the utility bedding under Frontier Avenue. In general no underground migration has occurred outside the confines of the three city blocks that contain the Love Canal referred to as the ''first ring''. Studies have been confused by apparent burial of waste materials in areas proximate but not directly connected to the Love Canal. Migration of Love Canal leachate has occurred through storm sewers. Love Canal contaminants have reached creeks to the north and the Niagara River to the south through storm sewer transport. In spite of finding 2, 3, 7, 8 tetrachlorodibenzoparadioxin (TCDD), toxicological studies in situ and through exposure to volatile components in Love Canal soils do not indicate unusual toxicity. Animal studies continue in an attempt to determine the teratogenic and fetotoxic potential of Love Canal chemicals under different routes of exposure.

Kim, C.S.

1981-01-01

254

Epineurial repair of an iatrogenic facial nerve neurotmesis after total ear canal ablation and lateral bulla osteotomy in a dog with concurrent cranio-mandibular osteopathy.  

PubMed

A 7-year-old male entire West Highland white terrier was referred to the Small Animal Hospital at the University of Glasgow for bilateral, chronic, medically unresponsive otitis media and externa. A history of cranio-mandibular osteopathy was also reported. Bilateral total ear canal ablation and lateral bulla osteotomy was performed with the aid of a pneumatic burr. Extensive bone proliferation was present bilaterally originating from the caudal mandibular ramus and tympanic bulla which incorporated the horizontal canal on each side. The right facial nerve was identified leaving the stylomastoid foramen and running in a cranial direction through a 1.5 cm diameter cuff of bone surrounding the horizontal canal and external acoustic meatus. Despite careful dissection, a facial nerve neurotmesis ensued which required microsurgical epineurial repair. Neurologic examination performed 12 h post-operatively revealed abnormalities consistent with right facial nerve paralysis. At 3 months, the facial nerve function was found to have improved significantly and was assessed to be normal four months after surgery. To the authors' knowledge, this clinical communication described the first reported clinical case where unilateral facial nerve paralysis resulting from iatrogenic facial nerve neurotmesis was successfully treated by microsurgical epineurial repair. PMID:25686402

Calvo, Ignacio; Espadas, Irene; Hammond, Gawain; Pratschke, Kathryn

2014-01-01

255

Biocompatibility evaluation of cigarette and carbon papers used in repair of traumatic tympanic membrane perforations: experimental study.  

PubMed

The purposes of this study were to investigate the biocompatibility of two different paper patches (carbon and cigarette papers) and compare the adhesion and proliferation features of L929 fibroblast cells by using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT Test) test and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In this study, time-dependent cytotoxic effects of cigarette and carbon papers used in repairing small traumatic TM perforations were investigated in vitro by using MTT test. And also adhesion and spreading of cells over disk surface were observed by SEM. Cytotoxicity test carried out by MTT analysis on leakage products collected from two types of paper patches at the end of 24 and 48 h revealed no cytotoxicity (P > 0.05). In SEM studies, it was observed that cells started to proliferate over disk surface as a result of 48-h incubation, and SEM revealed that the cell proliferation over cigarette paper was more compared to the one over carbon paper. We believe that this is the first study where biocompatibility and adhesion features of carbon and cigarette paper have been studied by using L929 fibroblast cell culture. As a result, biocompatibility of cigarette paper and also whether cigarette paper was superior to carbon paper in cell attachment and biocompatibility were studied. It was found, by MTT test and SEM test, that cigarette paper had a higher biocompatibility and cell attachment, and thus cigarette paper should be the patch to be preferred in cases where TM perforations are repaired by paper-patch method. PMID:22271281

Altunta?, Emine Elif; Sümer, Zeynep

2013-01-01

256

Tympanic, Infrared Skin, and Temporal Artery Scan Thermometers Compared with Rectal Measurement in Children: A Real-Life Assessment  

PubMed Central

Introduction Body temperature measurement in children is of clinical relevance. Although rectal measurement is the gold standard, less invasive tools have become available. We aimed to describe the accuracy of tympanic, infrared skin, or temporal artery scan thermometers compared with rectal measurement to reflect core temperature. Methods Rectal (Filac 3000; Covidien, Mechelen, Belgium), tympanic (AccuSystem Genius2 Typmanic Infrared Ear Thermometer, Covidien, Mechelen, Belgium), temporal artery scan (Exergen, Exergen Corp, Watertown, Massachusetts), and infrared (ThermoFlash Contactless Medical Electronic Thermometer, Visiomedlab, Paris, France) body temperature measurements were randomly performed and readings were collected once. Temperature readings were described as median and range, and observations were compared with rectal temperature readings (using Wilcoxon, Bland-Altman, sensitivity, and specificity tests). The child’s comfort was assessed by the child, parent, and nurse (using Likert scales) and ease of use was assessed by nurses (using visual analog scale). Results Based on observations in 294 (median age = 3.2 years, range = 0.02–17 years) children, the mean difference was 0.49°C (tympanic scan; P < 0.0001), 0.34°C (infrared skin scan; P < 0.0001), and 0°C (temporal artery scan; P = 0.9288), respectively, when compared with rectal temperature readings. Based on visual inspection of Bland-Altman plots, all tools overestimated the temperature at lower body temperature and underestimated the temperature at higher body temperature, resulting in a sensitivity of 22% to 41% and a specificity of 98% to 100% for rectal temperatures above 38°C. The Likert scale scores and the visual analog scale scores for rectal measurement were only slightly higher when compared with the other methods. Conclusions All noninvasive techniques underperformed compared with rectal measurement. The temporal artery scan deviations were smallest, but all noninvasive techniques overestimate lower temperatures and underestimate higher temperatures compared with rectal measurement. In our hands, temporal artery scan measurement seems to be second best, but not yet ideal. PMID:25067984

Allegaert, Karel; Casteels, Kristina; van Gorp, Ilse; Bogaert, Guy

2014-01-01

257

Morphology of the tympanic-basicranial region in Mirounga leonina (Phocidae, Carnivora), postnatal ontogeny and sexual dimorphism.  

PubMed

The auditory region of pinnipeds has seldom been described. Here we describe and analyze the ontogenetic trajectory of the tympanic bulla of the southern elephant seal, Mirounga leonina (Phocidae, Mammalia). This species is extremely sexually dimorphic and highly polygynous (organized in harems). We examined 118 specimens, arranged in three age classes (CI, CII, and CIII), ranging from newborn to adults (males and females). To analyze the overall size and shape of the tympanic bulla we performed a geometric morphometric analysis including 87 skulls. Females reach definitive shape and size of the bulla at earlier ontogenetic stages than males, in agreement with their earlier involvement in reproductive activities. The internal anatomy of the tympanic region (e.g. form and extension of the paries) does not show remarkable differences between sexes or age classes. The greatest differences between age classes are related to bone thickness, resulting from the apposition of new annual layers. An examination of possible sex-related external differences among age classes shows significant shape differences between males and females in CIII. The morphology observed in neonates is conserved across all individuals from CI, which included specimens up to 1 year old. Clear morphological differences were observed between CI individuals, on one hand, and CII individuals plus CIII females on the other. During cranial development of both male and females, the glenoid cavity expands and compresses the bulla; this condition reaches its maximum expression in CIII males. CIII males showed the greatest morphological differences, with respect to both CI and CII individuals, and CIII females. PMID:25827162

Loza, C M; Scarano, A C; Soibelzon, L H; Negrete, J; Carlini, A A

2015-04-01

258

10. DETAIL, SOUTHEAST SPAN THROUGH CANAL, VIEW BLOCKED BY STEEL, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. DETAIL, SOUTHEAST SPAN THROUGH CANAL, VIEW BLOCKED BY STEEL, CLAD COUNTER WEIGHT, WATER SPAN RAISED OUT OF VIEW - Cape Cod Canal Lift Bridge, Spanning Cape Cod Canal, Buzzards Bay, Barnstable County, MA

259

Lock No. 1 St. Lucie Canal. Upper gate structure masonry ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Lock No. 1- St. Lucie Canal. Upper gate structure masonry plan- north side - St. Lucie Canal, St. Lucie Lock No. 1, St. Lucie, Cross State Canal, Okeechobee Intracoastal Waterway, Stuart, Martin County, FL

260

Lock No. 1 St. Lucie Canal. Upper gate structure, masonry ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Lock No. 1- St. Lucie Canal. Upper gate structure, masonry plan- south side - St. Lucie Canal, St. Lucie Lock No. 1, St. Lucie, Cross State Canal, Okeechobee Intracoastal Waterway, Stuart, Martin County, FL

261

Lock No. 1 St. Lucie Canal. Upper gate structure, masonry ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Lock No. 1- St. Lucie Canal. Upper gate structure, masonry plan- masonry elevations. - St. Lucie Canal, St. Lucie Lock No. 1, St. Lucie, Cross State Canal, Okeechobee Intracoastal Waterway, Stuart, Martin County, FL

262

3. August, 1971. VIEW ALONG CANAL SHOWING BORDER PATH AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. August, 1971. VIEW ALONG CANAL SHOWING BORDER PATH AND BRIDGE FOR INSPECTION - ABOUT ONE MILE FROM CANAL HEAD. - Hurricane Irrigation Canal, State Route 15 Vicinity, Hurricane, Washington County, UT

263

21 CFR 872.3820 - Root canal filling resin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Root canal filling resin. 872.3820 Section 872... Prosthetic Devices § 872.3820 Root canal filling resin. (a) Identification. A root canal filling resin is a device composed of...

2012-04-01

264

21 CFR 872.3820 - Root canal filling resin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Root canal filling resin. 872.3820 Section 872... Prosthetic Devices § 872.3820 Root canal filling resin. (a) Identification. A root canal filling resin is a device composed of...

2014-04-01

265

77 FR 28767 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Hood Canal, WA  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Hood Canal, WA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION...drawbridge operating regulation for the Hood Canal floating drawbridge near Port Gamble...Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Hood Canal, WA in the Federal Register (77 FR...

2012-05-16

266

77 FR 3608 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Boudreaux Canal, Chauvin, LA  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Boudreaux Canal, Chauvin, LA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS...Route 56 swing bridge across Boudreaux Canal, mile 0.1, near Chauvin, Terrebonne...the swing span bridge across Boudreaux Canal, mile 0.1, at Chauvin,...

2012-01-25

267

77 FR 12514 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Hood Canal, WA  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Hood Canal, WA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION...drawbridge operating regulation for the Hood Canal floating drawbridge near Port Gamble...that the operating regulations of the Hood Canal Bridge be changed to provide some...

2012-03-01

268

63. PLANS FOR PROPOSED HISTORICAL CANAL SECTION AND PUBLIC BOAT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

63. PLANS FOR PROPOSED HISTORICAL CANAL SECTION AND PUBLIC BOAT LAUNCH RAMP Plan Sheet D-29976, Venice Canals Rehabilitation, Sheet 25 of 26 (delineated by Manuel Bartolome, November 1991) - Venice Canals, Community of Venice, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

269

Dundee Canal Industrial Historic District, Beginning at George Street in ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Dundee Canal Industrial Historic District, Beginning at George Street in Passaic & extending north along Dundee Canal approximately 1.2 miles to Canal headgates opposite East Clifton Avenue in Clifton, Passaic, Passaic County, NJ

270

LOCK NO. 1 ST. LUCIE CANAL. MACHINERY HOUSE PLANS, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

LOCK NO. 1 - ST. LUCIE CANAL. MACHINERY HOUSE PLANS, ELEVATIONS, & DETAILS - St. Lucie Canal, Lock No. 1, Machinery Houses, St. Lucie, Cross State Canal, Okeechobee Intracoastal Waterway, Stuart, Martin County, FL

271

26. DETAIL OF HEADGATE HOIST MACHINERY, TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

26. DETAIL OF HEADGATE HOIST MACHINERY, TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

272

30. VIEW OF TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL FROM BRIDGE LOOKING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

30. VIEW OF TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL FROM BRIDGE LOOKING WEST DOWNSTREAM. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

273

24. TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL HEADWORKS, DOWNSTREAM LOOKING TOWARD THE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

24. TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL HEADWORKS, DOWNSTREAM LOOKING TOWARD THE EAST. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

274

22. TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL HEADWORKS WITH MILNER DAM IN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

22. TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL HEADWORKS WITH MILNER DAM IN DISTANCE; LOOKING EAST. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

275

31. VIEW OF TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL BRIDGE FROM DOWNSTREAM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

31. VIEW OF TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL BRIDGE FROM DOWNSTREAM LOOKING UPSTREAM. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

276

23. TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL HEADWORKS WITH MILNER DAM IN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

23. TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL HEADWORKS WITH MILNER DAM IN DISTANCE; LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

277

29. VIEW OF TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL BRIDGE FROM UPSTREAM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

29. VIEW OF TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL BRIDGE FROM UPSTREAM LOOKING DOWNSTREAM. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

278

A Comparative Study of Three Different Root Canal Curvature Measurement Techniques and Measuring the Canal Access Angle in Curved Canals  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the first part of this study the Schneider (S), Weine (W), and Long-Axis (LA) techniques are used for comparing the measurement of canal curvature. One hundred mandibular first and second molar teeth were selected. Radiographs were taken after inserting size 10 K-files into the mesiobuccal root canals. The radiographic findings were digitized on a computer, and the three different

Mahir Günday; Hesna Sazak; Yýldýz Garip

2005-01-01

279

Bacteroides buccae and related taxa in necrotic root canal infections.  

PubMed Central

Fifty-seven adults with apical periodontitis were examined for the presence of nonpigmented Bacteroides species in 62 infected root canals. Nonpigmented Bacteroides species were found in 35 canals. In four cases two nonpigmented Bacteroides species and in one case three nonpigmented Bacteroides species were found. Species belonging to the B. fragilis group were not isolated. The most frequently isolated species were B. buccae (15 strains), B. oris (12 strains), and B. oralis (7 strains). alpha-Fucosidase, beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase, and beta-xylosidase appeared to be useful in the identification of B. buccae and B. oris. Corroding Bacteroides species were not found; all corroding strains were identified as Wolinella recta. The occurrence of nonpigmented Bacteroides species was compared with the severity of the periapical infection. A total of 13 B. buccae strains were found in acute infections and only 2 strains were found in asymptomatic infections, whereas other nonpigmented Bacteroides species were present in acutely infected and asymptomatic teeth with nearly equal frequency. Ultrastructural study of 13 B. buccae strains showed that 8 strains had a crystalline proteinaceous surface layer (S-layer) outside the outer membrane, but all 13 strains had areas of crystalline protein throughout in the outer membrane. The results suggest that B. buccae may have a specific role in the development of an acute opportunistic infection. Images PMID:3782459

Haapasalo, M

1986-01-01

280

Five Canalled and Three-Rooted Primary Second Mandibular Molar  

PubMed Central

A thorough knowledge of root canal anatomy and its variation is necessary for successful completion of root canal procedures. Morphological variations such as additional root canals in human deciduous dentition are rare. A mandibular second primary molar with more than four canals is an interesting example of anatomic variations, especially when three of these canals are located in the distal root. This case shows a rare anatomic configuration and points out the importance of looking for additional canals. PMID:25147744

Selvakumar, Haridoss; Kavitha, Swaminathan; Bharathan, Rajendran; Varghese, Jacob Sam

2014-01-01

281

CANAL AUTOMATION SYSTEM DEMONSTRATION AT MSIDD  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A new canal automation system, known as SACMAN (Software for Automating Canal MANagement), has been developed at the U.S. Water Conservation Laboratory in cooperation with Automata, Inc. through a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement. SACMAN works with a commercial Supervisory Control And ...

282

Love Canal aftermath: learning from a tragedy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under the two-year Love Canal Remedial Action Project, funded by the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (DEC) and engineered by Conestoga-Rovers and Associates, the construction of a unique system for the containment, collection, and treatment of contaminated leachate is under way at Love Canal, the abandoned chemical dump of Hooker Chemical Corp. By the end of the project,

R. S. Glaubinger; P. M. Kohn; R. Remirez

1979-01-01

283

The development of the Suez Canal  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides general background information relating to the physical characteristics and operations of the Suez Canal. In connection with the future development of the Canal, the research programme currently being undertaken by a British consortium is outlined, with particular reference to the traffic system presently operating.

J. D. Griffiths

1977-01-01

284

33 CFR 117.453 - Houma Canal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Houma Canal. 117.453 Section 117.453 Navigation and Navigable...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.453 Houma Canal. The draw of the S3197 bridge, mile 1.7 at Houma,...

2014-07-01

285

33 CFR 117.787 - Gowanus Canal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Gowanus Canal. 117.787 Section 117.787 Navigation and Navigable...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New York § 117.787 Gowanus Canal. The draws of the Ninth Street Bridge, mile...

2011-07-01

286

33 CFR 117.787 - Gowanus Canal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Gowanus Canal. 117.787 Section 117.787 Navigation and Navigable...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New York § 117.787 Gowanus Canal. The draws of the Ninth Street Bridge, mile...

2014-07-01

287

33 CFR 117.445 - Franklin Canal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Franklin Canal. 117.445 Section 117.445 Navigation and Navigable... Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.445 Franklin Canal. The draw of the Chatsworth Bridge, mile 4.8...

2010-07-01

288

33 CFR 117.453 - Houma Canal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Houma Canal. 117.453 Section 117.453 Navigation and Navigable...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.453 Houma Canal. The draw of the S3197 bridge, mile 1.7 at Houma,...

2010-07-01

289

33 CFR 117.445 - Franklin Canal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Franklin Canal. 117.445 Section 117.445 Navigation and Navigable... Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.445 Franklin Canal. The draw of the Chatsworth Bridge, mile 4.8...

2013-07-01

290

Technology, the Potomac Canal, and National Unity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Illustrates the relationship between the technology of canal building and the development of national unity prior to the Revolutionary War. Examines George Washington's efforts to build the Potomac canal. Encourages students to consider the interrelationships among technology, resources, politics, and leadership. Includes two student handouts and…

Keller, Clair W.

1989-01-01

291

Experiential canalization of behavioral development: Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Waddington's (1942) notion of canalization has been widely invoked in developmental psychology to conceptualize species-typical regularities in behavioral development as genetically determined. In contrast, a developmental systems view, such as the one described in the present article, sees the genes as only one component in a hierarchy of influences, all of which contribute to canalize behavioral development. A key issue

Gilbert Gottlieb

1991-01-01

292

33 CFR 117.445 - Franklin Canal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Franklin Canal. 117.445 Section 117.445 Navigation and Navigable... Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.445 Franklin Canal. The draw of the Chatsworth Bridge, mile 4.8...

2014-07-01

293

33 CFR 117.787 - Gowanus Canal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Gowanus Canal. 117.787 Section 117.787 Navigation and Navigable...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New York § 117.787 Gowanus Canal. The draws of the Ninth Street Bridge, mile...

2012-07-01

294

33 CFR 117.787 - Gowanus Canal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Gowanus Canal. 117.787 Section 117.787 Navigation and Navigable...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New York § 117.787 Gowanus Canal. The draws of the Ninth Street Bridge, mile...

2013-07-01

295

33 CFR 117.445 - Franklin Canal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Franklin Canal. 117.445 Section 117.445 Navigation and Navigable... Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.445 Franklin Canal. The draw of the Chatsworth Bridge, mile 4.8...

2012-07-01

296

33 CFR 117.438 - Company Canal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Company Canal. 117.438 Section 117.438 Navigation and Navigable... Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.438 Company Canal. (a) The draw of the S1 bridge, mile 0.4...

2010-07-01

297

33 CFR 117.285 - Grand Canal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Grand Canal. 117.285 Section 117.285 Navigation and Navigable...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.285 Grand Canal. (a) The draw of the Lansing Island bridge,...

2012-07-01

298

33 CFR 117.438 - Company Canal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Company Canal. 117.438 Section 117.438 Navigation and Navigable... Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.438 Company Canal. (a) The draw of the LA1 bridge, mile 0.4...

2012-07-01

299

33 CFR 117.438 - Company Canal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Company Canal. 117.438 Section 117.438 Navigation and Navigable... Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.438 Company Canal. (a) The draw of the LA1 bridge, mile 0.4...

2013-07-01

300

33 CFR 117.1045 - Hood Canal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hood Canal. 117.1045 Section 117.1045 Navigation and Navigable...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Washington § 117.1045 Hood Canal. The draw of the Washington State pontoon highway...

2011-07-01

301

Clinical Manifestations of Superior Semicircular Canal Dehiscence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives\\/Hypotheses: To determine the symp- toms, signs, and findings on diagnostic tests in pa- tients with clinical manifestations of superior canal dehiscence. To investigate hypotheses about the ef- fects of superior canal dehiscence. To analyze the out- comes in patients who underwent surgical repair of the dehiscence. Study Design: Review and analysis of clinical data obtained as a part of

Lloyd B. Minor

2005-01-01

302

33 CFR 117.787 - Gowanus Canal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gowanus Canal. 117.787 Section 117.787 Navigation and Navigable...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New York § 117.787 Gowanus Canal. The draws of the Ninth Street Bridge, mile...

2010-07-01

303

33 CFR 117.1045 - Hood Canal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hood Canal. 117.1045 Section 117.1045 Navigation and Navigable...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Washington § 117.1045 Hood Canal. The draw of the Washington State pontoon highway...

2010-07-01

304

33 CFR 117.285 - Grand Canal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grand Canal. 117.285 Section 117.285 Navigation and Navigable...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.285 Grand Canal. (a) The draw of the Lansing Island bridge,...

2010-07-01

305

33 CFR 117.453 - Houma Canal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Houma Canal. 117.453 Section 117.453 Navigation and Navigable...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.453 Houma Canal. The draw of the S3197 bridge, mile 1.7 at Houma,...

2013-07-01

306

33 CFR 117.285 - Grand Canal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Grand Canal. 117.285 Section 117.285 Navigation and Navigable...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.285 Grand Canal. (a) The draw of the Lansing Island bridge,...

2011-07-01

307

33 CFR 117.453 - Houma Canal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Houma Canal. 117.453 Section 117.453 Navigation and Navigable...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.453 Houma Canal. The draw of the S3197 bridge, mile 1.7 at Houma,...

2011-07-01

308

33 CFR 117.438 - Company Canal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Company Canal. 117.438 Section 117.438 Navigation and Navigable... Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.438 Company Canal. (a) The draw of the LA1 bridge, mile 0.4...

2014-07-01

309

33 CFR 117.438 - Company Canal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Company Canal. 117.438 Section 117.438 Navigation and Navigable... Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.438 Company Canal. (a) The draw of the LA1 bridge, mile 0.4...

2011-07-01

310

33 CFR 117.285 - Grand Canal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Grand Canal. 117.285 Section 117.285 Navigation and Navigable...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.285 Grand Canal. (a) The draw of the Lansing Island bridge,...

2013-07-01

311

33 CFR 117.453 - Houma Canal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Houma Canal. 117.453 Section 117.453 Navigation and Navigable...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.453 Houma Canal. The draw of the S3197 bridge, mile 1.7 at Houma,...

2012-07-01

312

33 CFR 117.445 - Franklin Canal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Franklin Canal. 117.445 Section 117.445 Navigation and Navigable... Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.445 Franklin Canal. The draw of the Chatsworth Bridge, mile 4.8...

2011-07-01

313

33 CFR 117.285 - Grand Canal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Grand Canal. 117.285 Section 117.285 Navigation and Navigable...REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.285 Grand Canal. (a) The draw of the Lansing Island bridge,...

2014-07-01

314

Tissue engineering in endodontics: root canal revascularization.  

PubMed

Root canal revascularization attempts to make necrotic tooth alive by the use of certain simple clinical protocols. Earlier apexification was the treatment of choice for treating and preserving immature permanent teeth that have lost pulp vitality. This procedure promoted the formation of apical barrier to seal the root canal of immature teeth and nonvital filling materials contained within root canal space. However with the success of root canal revascularization to regenerate the pulp dentin complex of necrotic immature tooth has made us to rethink if apexification is at the beginning of its end. The objective of this review is to discuss the new concepts of tissue engineering in endodontics and the clinical steps of root canal revascularization. PMID:25571677

Palit Madhu Chanda; Hegde, K Sundeep; Bhat, Sham S; Sargod, Sharan S; Mantha, Somasundar; Chattopadhyay, Sayan

2014-01-01

315

Clinical management of infected root canal dentin.  

PubMed

Several hundred different species of bacteria are present in the human intraoral environment. Bacterial penetration of root canal dentin occurs when bacteria invade the root canal system. These bacteria may constitute a reservoir from which root canal reinfection may occur during or after endodontic treatment. The learning objective of this article is to review endodontic microbiology, update readers on the role of bacteria in pulp and periapical disease, and discuss the principles of management of infected root canal dentin. Complete debridement, removal of microorganisms and affected dentin, and chemomechanical cleansing of the root canal are suggested as being the cornerstones of successful endodontic therapy, followed by intracanal medication to remove residual bacteria, when required. PMID:9242125

Love, R M

1996-08-01

316

Canal-centering ability: An endodontic challenge  

PubMed Central

During instrumentation of the root canal, it is important to develop a continuously tapered form and to maintain the original shape and position of the apical foramen. However, the presence of curvatures may cause difficulty in root canal instrumentation. The ability to keep the instruments centered is essential to provide a correct enlargement, without excessive weakening of the root structure. Several studies have shown that Ni-Ti instruments remain significantly more centered and demonstrated less canal transportation than stainless steel files. Considerable research has been undertaken to understand the several factors related to an instrument's canal-centering ability. In this article, we have discussed the influence of various parameters such as alloys used in the manufacture of instruments, instrument cross-section, taper, and have given tips on canal-centering ability. PMID:20379433

Kandaswamy, Deivanayagam; Venkateshbabu, Nagendrababu; Porkodi, Ilango; Pradeep, Gali

2009-01-01

317

Coupled effects of canal lining and multi-layered soil structure on canal seepage and soil water dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryPonding tests were conducted in the Shiyang River Basin in Northwest China to assess canal leakage characteristics. Four anti-seepage constructions (concrete lining, pebble lining, clay lining plus compacted canal bed, compacted canal bed only) were performed on four canal sections, which were situated in multi-layered soils. The canal sections were tested using a two-stage approach: First, a stable water level was maintained; second, a stage where the water level in the canal section was permitted to drop. The canal seepage rate and the soil water content near the canal bed were monitored during each stage and in each canal section. Soil texture, bulk density and hydraulic conductivity were determined in each canal section and soil layer. Double ring infiltration tests were performed to investigate infiltration behaviour from the canal sections. The saturated-unsaturated flow model HYDRUS-2D was applied to simulate canal seepage and the local soil water response. The simulation results compared well with the monitored data, indicating that the model can reliably simulate canal seepage under these complex soil structures and different canal liners. Both experimental results and numerical modelling show that the clay lining plus compacted canal bed provides the best anti-seepage performance, followed by compacted canal bed only, then pebble and concrete lining. Simulation results also predicted that the soil water content was discontinuous at the interface of distinct soil layers, and that the range and form of wetting front varied greatly in the four canal sections, with a larger wetted area for the more permeable canal. Simulations were performed to study the sensitivity of canal seepage to the permeability of each soil layer and canal liner. The results, confirmed by the double-ring infiltration tests, indicated that the canal lining is not the only factor affecting canal seepage: The soil permeability can also influence the seepage, especially where there is a low permeability layer (e.g., compacted soil layer) close to the canal.

Yao, Liqiang; Feng, Shaoyuan; Mao, Xiaomin; Huo, Zailin; Kang, Shaozhong; Barry, D. A.

2012-04-01

318

How to bond to root canal dentin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bonding to root canal dentin may be difficult due to various factors: the structural characteristic of the root canal dentin, which is different from that of the coronal dentin; the presence of the organic tissue of the dental pulp inside the root canal, which has to be removed during the cleaning-shaping of the root canal system; the smear-layer resulted after mechanical instrumentation, which may interfere with the adhesion of the filling materials; the type of the irrigants used in the cleaning protocol; the type of the sealer and core material used in the obturation of the endodontic space; the type of the materials used for the restoration of the endodontically treated teeth. The influence of the cleaning protocol, of the root canal filling material, of the type of the adhesive system used in the restoration of the treated teeth and of the region of the root canal, on the adhesion of several filling and restorative materials to root canal dentin was evaluated in the push-out bond strength test on 1-mm thick slices of endodontically treated human teeth. The results showed that all these factors have a statistically significant influence on the push-out bond strength. Formation of resin tags between radicular dentin and the investigated materials was observed in some of the samples at SEM analysis.

Nica, Luminita; Todea, Carmen; Furtos, Gabriel; Baldea, Bogdan

2014-01-01

319

Looking back at Love Canal  

SciTech Connect

The comprehensive environmental study which describes the results of a monitoring program conducted by EPA at Love Canal is evaluated by EPA's former study director. Attention is focused on the episode's history and the agency's study methods. The aim of the program was to constitute a study team, design a monitoring study, reprogram and reallocate the financial resources needed to conduct the study, and identify and employ contractors who would collect and analyze environmental samples. The agency was directed to ensure the quality of the data acquired from various environmental media and analyzed by numerous laboratories; to integrate, interpret, and report the data; and to assess, from an environmental perspective, the habitability of the area.

Deegan, J. Jr.

1987-04-01

320

Anterior canal BPPV and apogeotropic posterior canal BPPV: two rare forms of vertical canalolithiasis.  

PubMed

Posterior canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is the most frequent form of BPPV. It is characterized by a paroxysmal positioning nystagmus evoked through Dix-Hallpike and Semont positioning tests. Anterior canal BPPV (AC) is more rare than posterior canal BPPV; it presents a prevalent down beating positioning nystagmus, with a torsional component clockwise for the left canal, counterclockwise for the right canal. Due to the possible lack of the torsional component, it is sometimes difficult to identify the affected ear. An apogeotropic variant of posterior BPPV (APC) has recently been described, characterised by a paroxysmal positional nystagmus in the opposite direction to the one evoked in posterior canal BPPV: the linear component is down-beating, the torsional component is clockwise for the right canal, counter-clockwise for the left canal, so that a contra-lateral anterior canal BPPV could be simulated. During a 16 month period, of 934 BPPV patients observed, the authors identified 23 (2.5%) cases of apogeotropic posterior canal BPPV and 11 (1.2%) cases of anterior canal BPPV, diagnosed using the specific oculomotor patterns described in the literature. Anterior canal BPPV was treated with the repositioning manoeuvre proposed by Yacovino, which does not require identification of the affected side, whereas apogeotropic posterior canal BPPV was treated with the Quick Liberatory Rotation manoeuvre for the typical posterior canal BPPV, since in the Dix-Hallpike position otoliths are in the same position if they come either from the ampullary arm or from the non-ampullary arm. The direct resolution of BPPV (one step therapy) was obtained in 12/34 patients, 8/23 patients with APC and 4/11 patients with AC; canalar conversion into typical posterior canal BPPV, later treated through Quick Liberatory Rotation (two-step therapy), was obtained in 19 patients,14/23 with APC and 5/11 with AC. Three patients were lost to follow-up. Considering the effects of therapeutic manoeuvres, the authors propose a grading system for diagnosis of AC and APC: "certain" when a canalar conversion in ipsilateral typical posterior canal BPPV is obtained; "probable" when APC or AC are directly resolved; "possible" when disease is not resolved and cerebral neuroimaging is negative for neurological diseases. Our results show that the oculomotor patterns proposed in the literature are effective in diagnosing APC and AC, and that APC is more frequent than AC. Both of these rare forms of vertical canal BPPV can be treated effectively with liberatory manoeuvres. PMID:24882928

Califano, L; Salafia, F; Mazzone, S; Melillo, M G; Califano, M

2014-06-01

321

Backfilling canals to mitigate Wetland dredging in Louisiana coastal marshes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Returning canal spoil banks into canals, or backfilling, is used in Louisiana marshes to mitigate damage caused by dredging for oil and gas extraction. We evaluated 33 canals backfilled through July 1984 to assess the success of habitat restoration. We determined restoration success by examining canal depth, vegetation recolonization, and regraded spoil bank soils after backfilling. Restoration success depended on:

Christopher Neill; R. Eugene Turner

1987-01-01

322

136. FORKS DIVERSION, HIGH LINE AND LOW LINE CANALS, TWIN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

136. FORKS DIVERSION, HIGH LINE AND LOW LINE CANALS, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF HANSEN, IDAHO; HIGH LINE GATES FROM THE CANAL SIDE. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

323

2. View looking northeast; Dundee Canal headgates and guardlock in ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. View looking northeast; Dundee Canal headgates and guardlock in foreground, Dundee Dam and Passaic River in background - Dundee Canal Industrial Historic District, Beginning at George Street in Passaic & extending north along Dundee Canal approximately 1.2 miles to Canal headgates opposite East Clifton Avenue in Clifton, Passaic, Passaic County, NJ

324

Looking west at lift bridge, canal, and tow path, with ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Looking west at lift bridge, canal, and tow path, with U.S. Rt. 11 bridge in background. Remnant of spur track to R. Paul Smith Power Station is at left, and abandoned Western Maryland Railway right of way parallels canal at right. - Potomac Edison Company, Chesapeake & Ohio Canal Bridge, Spanning C & O Canal South of U.S. 11, Williamsport, Washington County, MD

325

3. Dundee Canal looking northwest from north of Dundee Textile ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. Dundee Canal looking northwest from north of Dundee Textile Company Mill - Dundee Canal Industrial Historic District, Beginning at George Street in Passaic & extending north along Dundee Canal approximately 1.2 miles to Canal headgates opposite East Clifton Avenue in Clifton, Passaic, Passaic County, NJ

326

103. CANAL AT THE ENTRANCE TO THE POMPTON FEEDER NEAR ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

103. CANAL AT THE ENTRANCE TO THE POMPTON FEEDER NEAR MOUNTAIN VIEW, NEW JERSEY. THE POMPTON FEEDER BOATS TO TRAVEL NORTH 4.26 MILES TO TO POMPTON AS WELL AS PROVIDING THE MAIN CANAL WITH WATER FROM GREENWOOD LAKE. A MODIFIED QUEEN POST TRUSS BRIDGE SPANS THE CANAL IN THE FOREGROUND. - Morris Canal, Phillipsburg, Warren County, NJ

327

6. VIEW SHOWING WOODEN FLUMES ACROSS MARICOPA CANAL. SUCH FLUMES ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. VIEW SHOWING WOODEN FLUMES ACROSS MARICOPA CANAL. SUCH FLUMES WERE USED TO CARRY WATER FROM ONE CANAL TO ANOTHER, BEFORE THE CANAL COMPANIES WERE BOUGHT BY THE GOVERNMENT, AND THE SYSTEM UNIFIED. Photographer unknown, no date - Grand Canal, North side of Salt River, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

328

Analytic and Algebraic Properties of Canal Zhiqiang Xu a 1  

E-print Network

Analytic and Algebraic Properties of Canal Surfaces Zhiqiang Xu a 1 Renzhong Feng b Jia-guang Sun c m(t) is a canal surface with m(t) as the spine curve and r(t) as the radii function. This concept the principle geometric features of canal surfaces. In particular, a sufficient condition of canal surfaces

Xu, Zhiqiang

329

Coexistence de Protocoles `a Retransmissions Incrementales pour un Canal Cognitif  

E-print Network

Coexistence de Protocoles `a Retransmissions Incr´ementales pour un Canal Cognitif Romain TAJAN secondaire impl´ementant tous deux des syst`emes `a Retransmissions Incr´ementales (IR) sur un canal cognitif and expected throughput for both primary and secondary. 1 Introduction Le canal cognitif [2] est un canal dans

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

330

SEDIMENTATION OF THE PANAMA CANAL RESERVOIR: COSMOGENIC NUCLIDE  

E-print Network

SEDIMENTATION OF THE PANAMA CANAL RESERVOIR: COSMOGENIC NUCLIDE ESTIMATES OF BACKGROUND SEDIMENT, Livermore, CA 94550 The Panama Canal is an engineering marvel. Vital to the operation of the canal, the reservoir to the Panama Canal. In addition to water, the headwater basins supply sediment that reduces

Nichols, Kyle K.

331

44. CROSS SECTION OF GRAND CANAL (not to scale, but ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

44. CROSS SECTION OF GRAND CANAL (not to scale, but representative of all six canals) Plan Sheet D-29976, Venice Canals Rehabilitation, Sheet No. 7 of 26 (delineated by T. Wu and E. Lee, March 1991) - Venice Canals, Community of Venice, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

332

189. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

189. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. ROCK CREEK CROSSING, LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY, IDAHO; BLUEPRINT. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

333

150. Photocopy of drawing (taken from Twin Falls Canal Company ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

150. Photocopy of drawing (taken from Twin Falls Canal Company Surveyor's Book #363, Page 42, entitled, 'Diversion Tunnels', located in Twin Falls Canal Company office, Twin Falls, Idaho). PLAN OF DIVERSION TUNNELS, MILNER DAM. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

334

28. VIEW FROM IMMEDIATELY DOWNSTREAM OF TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

28. VIEW FROM IMMEDIATELY DOWNSTREAM OF TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL HEADWORKS WITH CANAL BRIDGE IN DISTANCE. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

335

180. Photocopy of Photograph, Twin Falls Canal Company. E. Pettygro, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

180. Photocopy of Photograph, Twin Falls Canal Company. E. Pettygro, Photographer, date unknown. BLASTING TWIN FALLS CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY; BLASTING COTTONWOOD AREA TO REPLACE FLUME BY RUNNING HIGH LINE THROUGH SOLID ROCK. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

336

88. CEDAR DRAW SPILL, HIGH LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

88. CEDAR DRAW SPILL, HIGH LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF FILER, IDAHO; WEST VIEW OF CANAL AND GATES. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

337

131. FORKS DIVERSION, HIGH LINE AND LOW LINE CANALS, TWIN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

131. FORKS DIVERSION, HIGH LINE AND LOW LINE CANALS, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF HANSEN, IDAHO; INLET SIDE OF LOW LINE CANAL, WEST VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

338

158. Photocopy of transit book (taken from Twin Falls Canal ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

158. Photocopy of transit book (taken from Twin Falls Canal Company Transit Book #404T, Page 3, #46, Division One). START OF MAIN CANAL SURVEY, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

339

89. CEDAR DRAW SPILL, HIGH LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

89. CEDAR DRAW SPILL, HIGH LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF FILER, IDAHO; OUTLET SIDE OF CANAL, SOUTHWEST VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

340

91. CEDAR DRAW SPILL, HIGH LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

91. CEDAR DRAW SPILL, HIGH LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF FILER, IDAHO; NORTHEAST VIEW OF CANAL AND GATES. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

341

177. Photocopy of Photograph, Twin Falls Canal Company, Bisbee Photo, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

177. Photocopy of Photograph, Twin Falls Canal Company, Bisbee Photo, September, 1912. Photographer unknown. COTTONWOOD FLUME, HIGH LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY, IDAHO; SOUTH VIEW FROM UPPER SIDE. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

342

94. CEDAR DRAW SPILL, LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

94. CEDAR DRAW SPILL, LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY SOUTH OF FILER, IDAHO; CLOSE-UP OF GATES FROM THE CANAL SIDE. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

343

97. POINT SPILL, TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

97. POINT SPILL, TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY NORTHWEST OF MURTAUGH, IDAHO; OVERALL WEST VIEW FROM CANAL SIDE. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

344

123. MCMULLEN CREEK, HIGH LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

123. MCMULLEN CREEK, HIGH LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY, IDAHO; SOUTH VIEW OF THE CREEK EMPTYING INTO THE HIGH LINE CANAL. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

345

149. TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL DIVERSION, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

149. TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL DIVERSION, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER DAM; CLOSE-UP OF MAIN CANAL GATES, SOUTH VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

346

154. Photocopy of transit book (taken from Twin Falls Canal ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

154. Photocopy of transit book (taken from Twin Falls Canal Company Surveyor's Transit Book #405T, Page 2, #46 Division One). STATEMENT OF SIGHT-SETTING FOR 1903 SURVEY TO ALIGN SOUTH SIDE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

347

7. View north at back (canal side) of culvert inlet, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. View north at back (canal side) of culvert inlet, with canal bank completely removed. Background to foreground: back of inlet headwall with tops of high inlet barrels exposed; vertical transition wall between high inlet barrels and low, interior, inlet barrels; tops of low interior barrels; vertical heartening planks and low cutoff wall at site of former canal edge of canal bank; dewatered canal bed and plank sheathing on top of culvert barrels beneath canal bed. - Delaware & Raritan Canal, Ten Mile Run Culvert, 1.5 miles South of Blackwells Road, East Millstone, Somerset County, NJ

348

Modeling the eardrum as a string with distributed force.  

PubMed

In this paper, an analytical model of the tympanic membrane is introduced where the two-dimensional tympanic membrane is reduced to a one-dimensional string. It is intended to bridge the gap between lumped-element models and finite-element models. In contrast to known lumped-element models, the model takes the distributed effect of the sound field on the tympanic membrane into account. Compared to finite-element models, it retains the advantage of a low number of parameters. The model is adjusted to forward and reverse transfer functions of the guinea-pig middle ear. Although the fitting to experimental data is not perfect, important conclusions can be drawn. For instance, the model shows that the delay of surface waves on the tympanic membrane can be different from the signal transmission delay of the tympanic membrane. In a similar vein, the standing wave ratio on the tympanic membrane and within the ear canal can considerably differ. Further, the model shows that even in a low-loss tympanic membrane the effective area, which commonly is associated with the transformer ratio in a lumped-element and some hybrid circuit models, not only is frequency-dependent, but also different for forward and reverse transduction. PMID:21895086

Goll, Erich; Dalhoff, Ernst

2011-09-01

349

Surgical Anatomy of the Sacral Hiatus for Caudal Access to the Spinal Canal  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The sacral hiatus is used for access to the spinal canal in many neurosurgical and anesthesiologic procedures. The aim of\\u000a the present paper is to give a review of its anatomical characteristics relevant to permit correct and uncomplicated accesses.\\u000a The sacral hiatus is posteriorly closed by the superficial dorsal sacrococcygeal ligament (also called sacrococcygeal membrane)\\u000a which has to be pierced

Andrea Porzionato; Veronica Macchi; Anna Parenti; Raffaele De Caro

350

Anesthesia following overfilling of a root canal sealer into the mandibular canal: a case report.  

PubMed

The surgical treatment of a case of anesthesia that occurred with the extrusion of Endomethasone root canal sealer into the mandibular canal is presented. Endomethasone is a neurotoxic root canal sealer containing paraformaldehyde and eugenol. The literature indicates immediate surgical decompression on the extrusion of Endomethasone into the mandibular canal. In our case, the decompression surgery was done 3 weeks after the endodontic mishap. The nearly complete resolution of anesthesia 4 months following the decompression surgery suggests that the neurotoxic effects of Endomethasone are still reversible after 3 weeks. PMID:16731404

Köseo?lu, Banu Gürkan; Tanrikulu, Sinasi; Sübay, Rüstem Kemal; Sencer, Serra

2006-06-01

351

8. VIEW SHOWING THE DEMOSSING OF GRAND CANAL LOCATION UNKNOWN. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. VIEW SHOWING THE DEMOSSING OF GRAND CANAL LOCATION UNKNOWN. AT TEAM OF HORSES ON OPPOSITE BANKS OF THE CANAL DRAG A CHAIN BETWEEN THEM ALONG THE BOTTOM OF THE CANAL, WHICH PULLS THE MOSS AND WEEDS LOOSE. THE PLANS THEN FLOAT DOWN THE CANAL AND ARE CAUGHT IN A SCREEN AND REMOVED. Photographer unknown, 1923 - Grand Canal, North side of Salt River, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

352

Flow Over Faka Union Canal Weir #1  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Freshwater flowing over the Faka Union Canal Weir #1 near Port of the Islands, Collier County, Florida. During cold weather, freshwater flows here can maintain a downstream salinity gradient that creates a warm water refuge for manatees. ...

353

Superior semicircular canal dehiscence : auditory mechanisms  

E-print Network

Superior semicircular canal dehiscence (SCD) syndrome is a recently defined clinical disorder in which patients present to the clinic with vestibular symptoms, auditory symptoms, or both. Understanding the effect of SCD, ...

Songer, Jocelyn Evelyn

2006-01-01

354

Infected hydrocele of the canal of nuck.  

PubMed

Hydrocele of the canal of Nuck in children is rare. It may present as incarcerated inguinal hernia and necessitates emergency exploration. Risk of infection in hydrocele of the canal of nuck is very rare. We present a case report of a 5-year-old girl who presented with a left tender inguinolabial region swelling with fever, tachycardia, and mild dehydration. The clinical features were suggestive of strangulated left inguinal hernia and further imaging and surgical exploration revealed it to be an infected hydrocele of the canal of Nuck. High ligation and hydrocelectomy were performed. Hydrocele of the canal of Nuck in a female child presenting with an inguinal swelling should be considered in differential diagnosis. PMID:24368964

Mandhan, Parkash; Raouf, Zaid; Bhatti, Khalid

2013-01-01

355

Infected Hydrocele of the Canal of Nuck  

PubMed Central

Hydrocele of the canal of Nuck in children is rare. It may present as incarcerated inguinal hernia and necessitates emergency exploration. Risk of infection in hydrocele of the canal of nuck is very rare. We present a case report of a 5-year-old girl who presented with a left tender inguinolabial region swelling with fever, tachycardia, and mild dehydration. The clinical features were suggestive of strangulated left inguinal hernia and further imaging and surgical exploration revealed it to be an infected hydrocele of the canal of Nuck. High ligation and hydrocelectomy were performed. Hydrocele of the canal of Nuck in a female child presenting with an inguinal swelling should be considered in differential diagnosis. PMID:24368964

Mandhan, Parkash; Raouf, Zaid; Bhatti, Khalid

2013-01-01

356

NASA radar experiment discovers Mayan canals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extensive Mayan-built irrigation canals, hidden for more than 1,000 years beneath dense rain forest in Guatemala, have been revealed by a new radar system developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). The radar's unveiling of the ancient canal systems, dug by the Maya between 250 B.C. and 900 A.D. in Guatemala and the neighboring country of Belize, may answer a

Peter M. Bell

1980-01-01

357

Canal length evaluation of curved canals by direct digital or conventional radiography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare the accuracy of a digital radiograph imaging system (DDR) with conventional radiography for the purpose of estimating endodontic file lengths in curved canals of mandibular molars. Study Design: Sixty extracted human mandibular molars with root curvatures ranging from 5° to 52° were mounted in plastic blocks. Canal length was estimated by

Ali Mentes; Nimet Gencoglu

2002-01-01

358

77 FR 42644 - Safety Zone; Canal Fest of the Tonawandas, Erie Canal, Tonawanda, NY  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...the Captain of the Port Buffalo has determined that this...zone will encompass all waters of the Erie Canal, Tonawanda...the Captain of the Port Buffalo or his designated on-scene...zone will encompass all waters of the Erie Canal, Tonawanda...the Captain of the Port Buffalo or his designated...

2012-07-20

359

Application of software for automated canal management (SacMan) to the WM lateral canal  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Simulation studies have demonstrated that automatic control of canals is more effective when feedforward scheduling, or routing of know demand changes, is combined with centralized, automatic, distant, downstream-water-level control. In practice, few canals use this approach. To help further develop...

360

Teaching canal hydraulics and control using a computer game or a scale model canal  

E-print Network

Teaching canal hydraulics and control using a computer game or a scale model canal Pierre-olivier.malaterre@cemagref.fr David C. ROGERS Address: Rogers Engineering Hydraulics, Inc. 2650 Tabor St, Lakewood CO 80215, USA Email by improving the hydraulic efficiency of irrigation schemes. Technical concepts involved in these modernization

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

361

On the mechanics of growing thin biological membranes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite their seemingly delicate appearance, thin biological membranes fulfill various crucial roles in the human body and can sustain substantial mechanical loads. Unlike engineering structures, biological membranes are able to grow and adapt to changes in their mechanical environment. Finite element modeling of biological growth holds the potential to better understand the interplay of membrane form and function and to reliably predict the effects of disease or medical intervention. However, standard continuum elements typically fail to represent thin biological membranes efficiently, accurately, and robustly. Moreover, continuum models are typically cumbersome to generate from surface-based medical imaging data. Here we propose a computational model for finite membrane growth using a classical midsurface representation compatible with standard shell elements. By assuming elastic incompressibility and membrane-only growth, the model a priori satisfies the zero-normal stress condition. To demonstrate its modular nature, we implement the membrane growth model into the general-purpose non-linear finite element package Abaqus/Standard using the concept of user subroutines. To probe efficiently and robustness, we simulate selected benchmark examples of growing biological membranes under different loading conditions. To demonstrate the clinical potential, we simulate the functional adaptation of a heart valve leaflet in ischemic cardiomyopathy. We believe that our novel approach will be widely applicable to simulate the adaptive chronic growth of thin biological structures including skin membranes, mucous membranes, fetal membranes, tympanic membranes, corneoscleral membranes, and heart valve membranes. Ultimately, our model can be used to identify diseased states, predict disease evolution, and guide the design of interventional or pharmaceutic therapies to arrest or revert disease progression.

Rausch, Manuel K.; Kuhl, Ellen

2014-02-01

362

On the mechanics of growing thin biological membranes  

PubMed Central

Despite their seemingly delicate appearance, thin biological membranes fulfill various crucial roles in the human body and can sustain substantial mechanical loads. Unlike engineering structures, biological membranes are able to grow and adapt to changes in their mechanical environment. Finite element modeling of biological growth holds the potential to better understand the interplay of membrane form and function and to reliably predict the effects of disease or medical intervention. However, standard continuum elements typically fail to represent thin biological membranes efficiently, accurately, and robustly. Moreover, continuum models are typically cumbersome to generate from surface-based medical imaging data. Here we propose a computational model for finite membrane growth using a classical midsurface representation compatible with standard shell elements. By assuming elastic incompressibility and membrane-only growth, the model a priori satisfies the zero-normal stress condition. To demonstrate its modular nature, we implement the membrane growth model into the general-purpose non-linear finite element package Abaqus/Standard using the concept of user subroutines. To probe efficiently and robustness, we simulate selected benchmark examples of growing biological membranes under different loading conditions. To demonstrate the clinical potential, we simulate the functional adaptation of a heart valve leaflet in ischemic cardiomyopathy. We believe that our novel approach will be widely applicable to simulate the adaptive chronic growth of thin biological structures including skin membranes, mucous membranes, fetal membranes, tympanic membranes, corneoscleral membranes, and heart valve membranes. Ultimately, our model can be used to identify diseased states, predict disease evolution, and guide the design of interventional or pharmaceutic therapies to arrest or revert disease progression. PMID:24563551

Rausch, Manuel K.; Kuhl, Ellen

2013-01-01

363

On the mechanics of growing thin biological membranes.  

PubMed

Despite their seemingly delicate appearance, thin biological membranes fulfill various crucial roles in the human body and can sustain substantial mechanical loads. Unlike engineering structures, biological membranes are able to grow and adapt to changes in their mechanical environment. Finite element modeling of biological growth holds the potential to better understand the interplay of membrane form and function and to reliably predict the effects of disease or medical intervention. However, standard continuum elements typically fail to represent thin biological membranes efficiently, accurately, and robustly. Moreover, continuum models are typically cumbersome to generate from surface-based medical imaging data. Here we propose a computational model for finite membrane growth using a classical midsurface representation compatible with standard shell elements. By assuming elastic incompressibility and membrane-only growth, the model a priori satisfies the zero-normal stress condition. To demonstrate its modular nature, we implement the membrane growth model into the general-purpose non-linear finite element package Abaqus/Standard using the concept of user subroutines. To probe efficiently and robustness, we simulate selected benchmark examples of growing biological membranes under different loading conditions. To demonstrate the clinical potential, we simulate the functional adaptation of a heart valve leaflet in ischemic cardiomyopathy. We believe that our novel approach will be widely applicable to simulate the adaptive chronic growth of thin biological structures including skin membranes, mucous membranes, fetal membranes, tympanic membranes, corneoscleral membranes, and heart valve membranes. Ultimately, our model can be used to identify diseased states, predict disease evolution, and guide the design of interventional or pharmaceutic therapies to arrest or revert disease progression. PMID:24563551

Rausch, Manuel K; Kuhl, Ellen

2014-02-01

364

Seepage study of the Rocky Point Canal and the Grey Mountain-Pleasant Valley Canal systems, Duchesne County, Utah  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report describes the study of the Rocky Point Canal system in the vicinity of Duchesne and the Grey Mountain-Pleasant Valley Canal system between Duchesne and Myton, in the Uinta Basin, Duchesne County, Utah. The Rocky Point Canal diverts from the left bank of the Duchesne River about 4 mi north of Duchesne. This canal splits into the upper Rocky Point Canal and the lower Rocky Point Canal about 5.2 mi below its head. The Grey Mountain Canal diverts from the right bank of the Duchesne River about 6 mi east of Duchesne. At a point about 7.6 mi below the head, the Pleasant Valley Canal diverts from the right bank of the Grey Mountain Canal.

Cruff, R.W.; Hood, J.W.

1976-01-01

365

Function of lateral line canal morphology.  

PubMed

Fish perceive water motions and pressure gradients with their lateral line. Lateral line information is used for prey detection, spatial orientation, predator avoidance, schooling behavior, intraspecific communication and station holding. The lateral line of most fishes consists of superficial neuromasts (SNs) and canal neuromasts (CNs). The distribution of SNs and CNs shows a high degree of variation among fishes. Researchers have speculated for decades about the functional significance of this diversity, often without any conclusive answers. Klein et al. (2013) examined how tubules, pore number and pore patterns affect the filter properties of lateral line canals in a marine teleost, the black prickleback (Xiphister atropurpureus). A preliminary mathematical model was formulated and biomimetic sensors were built. For the present study the mathematical model was extended to understand the major underlying principle of how canal dimensions influence the filter properties of the lateral line. Both the extended mathematical model and the sensor experiments show that the number and distribution of pores determine the spatial filter properties of the lateral line. In an environment with little hydrodynamic noise, simple and complex lateral line canals have comparable response properties. However, if exposed to highly turbulent conditions, canals with numerous widely spaced pores increase the signal to noise ratio significantly. PMID:24920149

Klein, Adrian; Bleckmann, Horst

2015-01-01

366

Surgical capping of superior semicircular canal dehiscence.  

PubMed

Surgical plugging and resurfacing are well established treatments of superior semicircular canal dehiscence, while capping with hydroxyapatite cement has been little discussed in literature. The aim of this study was to prove the efficacy of the capping technique. Charts of patients diagnosed with superior semicircular canal dehiscence were reviewed retrospectively. All patients answered the dizziness handicap inventory, a survey analyzing the impact of their symptoms on their quality of life. Capping of the dehiscent canal was performed via the middle fossa approach in all cases. Ten out of 22 patients diagnosed with superior semicircular canal dehiscence were treated with surgical capping, nine of which were included in this study. No major perioperative complications occurred. In 8 out of 9 (89%) patients, capping led to a satisfying reduction of the main symptoms. One patient underwent revision surgery 1 year after the initial intervention. Scores in the dizziness handicap inventory were lower in the surgically treated group than in the non-surgically treated group, but results were not statistically significant (P = 0.45). Overall, capping is a safe and efficient alternative to plugging and resurfacing of superior semicircular canal dehiscence. PMID:23640386

Mueller, S A; Vibert, D; Haeusler, R; Raabe, A; Caversaccio, M

2014-06-01

367

46 CFR 69.7 - Vessels transiting the Panama and Suez Canals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...part 135. (b) All vessels intending to transit the Suez Canal must be measured and certificated under the Arab Republic of Egypt Suez Canal Authority Rules of Navigation, part IV. (c) Panama Canal and Suez Canal tonnage certificates are in...

2014-10-01

368

Canalization and maintaining the patency of external auditory canal in a congenital aural atresia patient: a multidisciplinary approach.  

PubMed

This clinical report describes the role of a prosthodontist in rehabilitating a patient with congenital aural atresia. The external auditory canal and structure in the middle ear fail to develop completely in cases of congenital aural atresia. Canalization procedure to establish the communication between the external ear and middle ear, and maintaining the patency of the created canal plays an important role in the success of treatment in selected patients. Post Operative external auditory canal restenosis is the most common complication after congenital aural atresia surgery. The prosthodontist has an important role in assisting ENT surgeons in canalization procedure and also maintaining the patency of the canal during healing phase. PMID:24431722

Upadhyaya, Guruprasada

2013-06-01

369

7. REMAINS OF PLANK WALL WITHIN CANAL CONSTRUCTED TO PROTECT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. REMAINS OF PLANK WALL WITHIN CANAL CONSTRUCTED TO PROTECT OUTSIDE CANAL BANK, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. NOTE CROSS SUPPORT POLES EXTENDING TO HILLSIDE. - Snake River Ditch, Headgate on north bank of Snake River, Dillon, Summit County, CO

370

7. VIEW OF MAIN CANAL, LOOKING SOUTH, IMMEDIATELY DOWNSTREAM FROM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. VIEW OF MAIN CANAL, LOOKING SOUTH, IMMEDIATELY DOWNSTREAM FROM THE SNAKE RIVER VALLEY IRRIGATION DISTRICT, SECTION 34, T2N, R37E - Woodville Canal Company, West side of Snake River (River Mile 796), Woodville, Bingham County, ID

371

6. REMAINS OF PLANK WALL NAILED TO POSTS WITHIN CANAL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. REMAINS OF PLANK WALL NAILED TO POSTS WITHIN CANAL CONSTRUCTED TO PROTECT OUTSIDE CANAL BANK. VIEW IS TO THE WEST. - Snake River Ditch, Headgate on north bank of Snake River, Dillon, Summit County, CO

372

MAIN CANAL HEADWORKS, FROM DOWNSTREAM (TO RIGHT), NOTE SAND AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

MAIN CANAL HEADWORKS, FROM DOWNSTREAM (TO RIGHT), NOTE SAND AND SILT SLUICE GATE FOR DIVERSION DAM ON LEFT, VIEW TO NORTHWEST - Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, Main Canal Headworks, Salmon Creek, Okanogan, Okanogan County, WA

373

OVERALL VIEW OF CASCADE CANAL COMPANY CRIB DAM, LOOKING UPSTREAM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

OVERALL VIEW OF CASCADE CANAL COMPANY CRIB DAM, LOOKING UPSTREAM FROM DIRECTION OF KACHESS DAM. VIEW TO NORTH - Kachess Dam, 1904 Cascade Canal Company Crib Dam, Kachess River, 1.5 miles north of Interstate 90, Easton, Kittitas County, WA

374

31. Floating original Ship Canal draw (in background) to University ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

31. Floating original Ship Canal draw (in background) to University Heights location. New Ship Canal draw in foreground. June 1906 photograph. - University Heights Bridge, Spanning Harlem River at 207th Street & West Harlem Road, New York, New York County, NY

375

59. PLANS FOR HEADGATE INSTALLATION IN GRAND CANAL AT WASHINGTON ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

59. PLANS FOR HEADGATE INSTALLATION IN GRAND CANAL AT WASHINGTON STREET Plan Sheet D-13360, Sheet No. 15 of 20 (delineated by D. Hee, May 1957) - Venice Canals, Community of Venice, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

376

NORTHERLY STRETCH OF MILLBURY PORTION; GENERAL VIEW ACROSS CANAL PRISM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

NORTHERLY STRETCH OF MILLBURY PORTION; GENERAL VIEW ACROSS CANAL PRISM TO TOWPATH BERM (LATER FILL ENCROACHING LEFT) NEAR CENTER OF THIS STRETCH; VIEW TO SOUTHWEST - Blackstone Canal Worcester-Millbury Segment, Eastern bank of Blackstone River, Millbury, Worcester County, MA

377

5. VIEW SOUTHWEST, INTERIOR CANAL WALL (Original Fabric) Bald ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. VIEW SOUTHWEST, INTERIOR CANAL WALL (Original Fabric) - Bald Eagle Cross-Cut Canal Lock, North of Water Street along West Branch of Susquehanna River South bank, 500 feet East of Jay Street Bridge, Lock Haven, Clinton County, PA

378

5. VIEW SHOWING DREDGING OF ARIZONA CANAL NEAR THE GRANITE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. VIEW SHOWING DREDGING OF ARIZONA CANAL NEAR THE GRANITE REEF DAM. SOUTH INTAKE OF THE DAM IS IN THE BACKGROUND Photographer: Walter J. Lubken. March 1908 - Arizona Canal, North of Salt River, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

379

View north, north wall of canal, hoboken rail yard in ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View north, north wall of canal, hoboken rail yard in background. - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad Freight & Rail Yard, Long Slip Canal, New Jersey Transit Hoboken Rail Yard, Hoboken, Hudson County, NJ

380

View north, west (back) wall of canal, mu shed in ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View north, west (back) wall of canal, mu shed in background. - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad Freight & Rail Yard, Long Slip Canal, New Jersey Transit Hoboken Rail Yard, Hoboken, Hudson County, NJ

381

View east, view of full length of canal, west wall ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View east, view of full length of canal, west wall pileheads in foreground. - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad Freight & Rail Yard, Long Slip Canal, New Jersey Transit Hoboken Rail Yard, Hoboken, Hudson County, NJ

382

12. VIEW OF GAGE IRRIGATION CANAL AT HILLTOP DRIVE AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. VIEW OF GAGE IRRIGATION CANAL AT HILLTOP DRIVE AND BARTON ROAD SHOWING BEGINNING OF SIPHON, DATED '1952' - Gage Irrigation Canal, Running from Santa Ana River to Arlington Heights, Riverside, Riverside County, CA

383

Bitter Root Irrigation district canal, looking east, typical section and ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Bitter Root Irrigation district canal, looking east, typical section and crossing - Bitter Root Irrigation Project, Bitter Root Irrigation Canal, Heading at Rock Creek Diversion Dam, West of U.S. Highway 93, Darby, Ravalli County, MT

384

Individual Differences and the Canalization of Human Behavior.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Notes that psychologists' interest in behavioral development concerns individual differences in behavior. Explores complexities of genetic and environmental determination of development, and of canalization. Intelligence is considered as an example of the canalization of human behavior. (BC)

Turkheimer, Eric; Gottesman, Irving I.

1991-01-01

385

21 CFR 872.3810 - Root canal post.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3810 Root canal post. (a) Identification. A root canal post is a device made of...

2012-04-01

386

21 CFR 872.3820 - Root canal filling resin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3820 Root canal filling resin. (a) Identification. A root canal filling resin is a...

2011-04-01

387

21 CFR 872.3810 - Root canal post.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3810 Root canal post. (a) Identification. A root canal post is a device made of...

2011-04-01

388

21 CFR 872.3820 - Root canal filling resin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3820 Root canal filling resin. (a) Identification. A root canal filling resin is a...

2010-04-01

389

21 CFR 872.3820 - Root canal filling resin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3820 Root canal filling resin. (a) Identification. A root canal filling resin is a...

2013-04-01

390

2. LOOKING DOWN THE LINED POWER CANAL AS IT WINDS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. LOOKING DOWN THE LINED POWER CANAL AS IT WINDS ITS WAY TOWARD THE CEMENT MILL Photographer: Walter J. Lubken, November 19, 1907 - Roosevelt Power Canal & Diversion Dam, Parallels Salt River, Roosevelt, Gila County, AZ

391

53. LAYOUT OF POWER CANAL LINE, LIST OF STRUCTURES Courtesy ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

53. LAYOUT OF POWER CANAL LINE, LIST OF STRUCTURES Courtesy of Reclamation Service, Salt River Project, Arizona - Roosevelt Power Canal & Diversion Dam, Parallels Salt River, Roosevelt, Gila County, AZ

392

28. Photocopy of photograph (original print at Gage Canal Company ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

28. Photocopy of photograph (original print at Gage Canal Company Office), photographer unknown, ca. 1913. CONSTRUCTION OF CORE WALL AT MOCKINGBIRD DAM ON THE GAGE IRRIGATION CANAL - California Citrus Heritage Recording Project, Riverside, Riverside County, CA

393

27. Photocopy of photograph (original print at Gage Canal Company ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

27. Photocopy of photograph (original print at Gage Canal Company Office), photographer unknown, ca. 1913. TIGHTENING JOINTS AND ADJUSTING PLATES ON STEEL FLUME AT MOCKINGBIRD DAM ON THE GAGE IRRIGATION CANAL - California Citrus Heritage Recording Project, Riverside, Riverside County, CA

394

29. Photocopy of photograph (original print at Gage Canal Company ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

29. Photocopy of photograph (original print at Gage Canal Company Office), photographer unknown, ca. 1926. CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS AT OLIVEWOOD PUMPING STATION ON THE GAGE IRRIGATION CANAL - California Citrus Heritage Recording Project, Riverside, Riverside County, CA

395

22. Photocopy of photograph (original print at Gage Canal Company ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

22. Photocopy of photograph (original print at Gage Canal Company Office), photographer and date unknown. 'FLUME NO. 9, 'GAGE CANAL SYSTEM,' RIVERSIDE, CAL.' VIEW OF FLUME OVER TEQUESQUITE ARROYO. - California Citrus Heritage Recording Project, Riverside, Riverside County, CA

396

23. Photocopy of photograph (original print at Gage Canal Company ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

23. Photocopy of photograph (original print at Gage Canal Company Office), photographer unknown, ca. 1917. VIEW OF FLUME NO. 3 OF GAGE IRRIGATION CANAL AND NEW 66' REINFORCED CONCRETE PIPELINE - California Citrus Heritage Recording Project, Riverside, Riverside County, CA

397

9. VIEW SHOWING ARIZONA CANAL WITH CITRUS ORCHARDS, FACING NORTH. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. VIEW SHOWING ARIZONA CANAL WITH CITRUS ORCHARDS, FACING NORTH. CAMELBACK MOUNTAIN IS IN THE BACKGROUND Photographer: unknown. No date - Arizona Canal, North of Salt River, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

398

24. Photocopy of photograph (original print at Gage Canal Company ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

24. Photocopy of photograph (original print at Gage Canal Company Office), photographer unknown, ca. 1939. VIEW OF SAND PUMP HOUSE AT THE HEAD OF THE GAGE IRRIGATION CANAL - California Citrus Heritage Recording Project, Riverside, Riverside County, CA

399

26. Photocopy of photograph (original print at Gage Canal Company ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

26. Photocopy of photograph (original print at Gage Canal Company Office), photographer unknown, ca. 1931. VIEW OF CONSTRUCTION OF GUNITE INVERT SIPHON REPLACING FLUME NO. 10 ON GAGE IRRIGATION CANAL - California Citrus Heritage Recording Project, Riverside, Riverside County, CA

400

79. ROOSEVELT POWER CANAL, REHABILITATION, CROSS DRAINAGE FLUME LONGITUDINAL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

79. ROOSEVELT POWER CANAL, REHABILITATION, CROSS DRAINAGE FLUME - LONGITUDINAL SECTIONS Courtesy of Dept. of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation, Salt River Project, Arizona - Roosevelt Power Canal & Diversion Dam, Parallels Salt River, Roosevelt, Gila County, AZ

401

80. ROOSEVELT POWER CANAL, REHABILITATION, CROSS DRAINAGE FLUME FLUME ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

80. ROOSEVELT POWER CANAL, REHABILITATION, CROSS DRAINAGE FLUME - FLUME DETAILS Courtesy of Dept. of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation, Salt River Project - Roosevelt Power Canal & Diversion Dam, Parallels Salt River, Roosevelt, Gila County, AZ

402

81. ROOSEVELT POWER CANAL, REHABILITATION, CROSS DRAINAGE FLUMES CENTER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

81. ROOSEVELT POWER CANAL, REHABILITATION, CROSS DRAINAGE FLUMES - CENTER BENT DETAILS Courtesy of Dept. of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation, Salt River Project, Arizona - Roosevelt Power Canal & Diversion Dam, Parallels Salt River, Roosevelt, Gila County, AZ

403

77. ROOSEVELT POWER CANAL LOCATION MAP, WORK TO BE DONE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

77. ROOSEVELT POWER CANAL LOCATION MAP, WORK TO BE DONE BY CONTRACT Courtesy of Dept. of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation, Salt River Project - Roosevelt Power Canal & Diversion Dam, Parallels Salt River, Roosevelt, Gila County, AZ

404

6. Tempe Crosscut Canal, looking west from Division Gates. Lateral ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. Tempe Crosscut Canal, looking west from Division Gates. Lateral at left is for local delivery of irrigation water. Photographer: Mark Durben, February 1989. Source: SRPA - Tempe Canal, South Side Salt River in Tempe, Mesa & Phoenix, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

405

1. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF THE IRRIGATION CANAL BRIDGE, LOOKING NORTHWESTERLY. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF THE IRRIGATION CANAL BRIDGE, LOOKING NORTHWESTERLY. - Washington Water Power Company Post Falls Power Plant, Irrigation Canal Bridge, West of intersection of Spokane & Fourth Streets, Post Falls, Kootenai County, ID

406

32. VIEW OF TERMINUS OF GRAND CANAL, SHOWING TURNOUT GATES, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

32. VIEW OF TERMINUS OF GRAND CANAL, SHOWING TURNOUT GATES, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. WASTE WATER IS TURNED INTO THE BED OF NEW RIVER. Photographer: Mark Durben, April 1989 - Grand Canal, North side of Salt River, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

407

NAME: Chedella In patients with a nonvital asymptomatic tooth, will a singlevisit root canal therapy, as compared to multiplevisit root  

E-print Network

canal therapy, as compared to multiplevisit root canal therapy provide better healing and longevity) P: nonvital asymptomatic tooth I: singlevisit root canal therapy C: multiplevisit root canal therapy O: healing and longevity QUESTION TYPE: Treatment SEARCH STRATEGY: root canal therapy

Goldman, Steven A.

408

21. VIEW OF NORTHERN BRANCH OF HIGHLINE CANAL, SECTION 1, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

21. VIEW OF NORTHERN BRANCH OF HIGHLINE CANAL, SECTION 1, T1S-R3E, SHOWING NON-PROJECT LAND, STILL DESERT, IN FOREGROUND AND CULTIVATED FIELDS OF THE SALT RIVER PROJECT BELOW THE CANAL, LOOKING NORTH. A SMALL PORTION OF NON-IRRIGABLE LAND BELOW THE CANAL IS SHOWN AT LEFT, March 1990 - Highline Canal & Pumping Station, South side of Salt River between Tempe, Phoenix & Mesa, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

409

Matters of simulation of the semicircular canal system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A scale model of the human semicircular canal system was developed based on the theory of dynamic similitude. This enlarged model makes it convenient to conduct tests on the vestibular processes and dynamics in the semicircular canals. Tests revealed hydromechanical interaction between canals, with asymmetry of the conditions of movement of the endolymph in the canals in opposite directions. A type of vestibular reactions, occurring with angular oscillations of the head, was predicted and demonstrated using this model and human test subjects.

Gurfinkel, V. S.; Petukhov, S. V.

1977-01-01

410

14. VIEW OF WESTERN CANAL AT THE SALT RIVER PROJECT'S ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. VIEW OF WESTERN CANAL AT THE SALT RIVER PROJECT'S KYRENE STEAM POWER PLANT, TEMPE. THE WESTERN CANAL BEGINS TO TURN NORTH AT THIS POINT, AND DIVERTS WATER TO THE HIGHLINE PUMP PLANT AND THE KYRENE LATERAL. THE KYRENE PLANT INLET (LEFT-CENTER) ALSO DIVERTS CANAL WATER FOR PLANT OPERATION AND COOLING. - Western Canal, South side of Salt River between Tempe, Phoenix & Mesa, Mesa, Maricopa County, AZ

411

6. View southwest, culvert inlet with canal bank completely removed. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. View southwest, culvert inlet with canal bank completely removed. Left to right: back of headwall; tops of high inlet barrels; vertical transition wall between high inlet barrels and low, interior, inlet barrels; tops of low interior barrels; vertical heartening planks and low cutoff wall along former edge of canal bank; dewatered canal bed. - Delaware & Raritan Canal, Ten Mile Run Culvert, 1.5 miles South of Blackwells Road, East Millstone, Somerset County, NJ

412

28. MAIN CANAL Photographic copy of historic photo, July ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

28. MAIN CANAL - Photographic copy of historic photo, July 18, 1906 (original print located at the Carlsbad Irrigation District offices, Carlsbad, New Mexico) J.J. Lubken, photographer 'LOOKING SOUTH FROM STATION 413, ON THE MAIN CANAL, SHOWING THE REMODLING SIC OF THE OLD PECOS VALLEY IRRIGATING CANAL' - Carlsbad Irrigation District, Main Canal, 4 miles North to 12 miles Southeast of Carlsbad, Carlsbad, Eddy County, NM

413

Canal de Propagation 3me anne Tlcom-Rseaux  

E-print Network

1 Canal de Propagation 3ème année Télécom-Réseaux 2007-2008 Martial COULON #12;2 #12;3 Chap. I VHF/UHF Pico-Cellules : qques m, haut débit. #12;5 I.2. Définition du Canal Radio Mobile · Canal de ( entre 100km et 1mm) Canal montant (Reverse Channel ou Uplink Channel) Mobiles vers BS Transmissions

Dobigeon, Nicolas

414

13. VIEW OF WESTERN CANAL EAST OF CARRIAGE LANE IN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. VIEW OF WESTERN CANAL EAST OF CARRIAGE LANE IN TEMPE, SHOWING DROP STRUCTURE AND GROUNDWATER PUMP. THIS IS THE LAST OF FOUR PUMPS WHICH FEED DIRECTLY INTO THE CANAL BETWEEN ALMA SCHOOL ROAD AND PRICE ROAD. ON THIS DAY, ALL FOUR PUMPS, OPERATING AT FULL OUTPUT, HAVE CONSIDERABLY SWELLED THE FLOW TO THE CANAL. NOTE THE OLD FASHIONED BRICKWORK ON THE NORTH BANK. - Western Canal, South side of Salt River between Tempe, Phoenix & Mesa, Mesa, Maricopa County, AZ

415

54. PAGE TWO OF PLANS FOR EXISTING GRAND CANAL COURT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

54. PAGE TWO OF PLANS FOR EXISTING GRAND CANAL COURT (VIRGINIA COURT) ARCHED PEDESTRIAN BRIDGE OVER CARROLL CANAL Plan Sheet D-26358, Sheet No. 2 of 6 (delineated by Richard G. Carrizosa, January 1978) - Venice Canals, Community of Venice, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

416

52. PAGE FOUR OF PLANS FOR EXISTING LINNIE CANAL COURT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

52. PAGE FOUR OF PLANS FOR EXISTING LINNIE CANAL COURT ARCHED PEDESTRIAN BRIDGE OVER EASTERN CANAL Plan Sheet D-26357, Sheet No. 4 of 6 (delineated by William Loo, January 1978) - Venice Canals, Community of Venice, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

417

57. PAGE FIVE OF PLANS FOR EXISTING GRAND CANAL COURT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

57. PAGE FIVE OF PLANS FOR EXISTING GRAND CANAL COURT (VIRGINIA COURT) ARCHED PEDESTRIAN BRIDGE OVER CARROLL CANAL Plan Sheet D-26358, Sheet No. 5 of 6 (delineated by Richard G. Carrizosa, January 1978) - Venice Canals, Community of Venice, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

418

50. PAGE TWO OF PLANS FOR EXISTING LINNIE CANAL COURT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

50. PAGE TWO OF PLANS FOR EXISTING LINNIE CANAL COURT ARCHED PEDESTRIAN BRIDGE OVER EASTERN CANAL Plan Sheet D-26357, Sheet No. 2 of 6 (delineated by Richard G. Carrizosa, January 1978) - Venice Canals, Community of Venice, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

419

65. PLANS FOR PROPOSED ARCHED BRIDGE OVER GRAND CANAL AT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

65. PLANS FOR PROPOSED ARCHED BRIDGE OVER GRAND CANAL AT 25TH AVENUE Plan Sheet D-29887, Venice Canals Pedestrian Bridges Replacement, Sheet No. 10 of 14 (delineated by Manuel Bartolome, June 1990) - Venice Canals, Community of Venice, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

420

51. PAGE THREE OF PLANS FOR EXISTING LINNIE CANAL COURT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

51. PAGE THREE OF PLANS FOR EXISTING LINNIE CANAL COURT ARCHED PEDESTRIAN BRIDGE OVER EASTERN CANAL Plan Sheet D-26357, Sheet No. 3 of 6 (delineated by William Loo, January 1978) - Venice Canals, Community of Venice, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

421

53. PAGE FIVE OF PLANS FOR EXISTING LINNIE CANAL COURT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

53. PAGE FIVE OF PLANS FOR EXISTING LINNIE CANAL COURT ARCHED PEDESTRIAN BRIDGE OVER EASTERN CANAL Plan Sheet D-26357, Sheet No. 5 of 6 (delineated by Richard G. Carrizosa, January 1978) - Venice Canals, Community of Venice, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

422

55. PAGE THREE OF PLANS FOR EXISTING GRAND CANAL COURT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

55. PAGE THREE OF PLANS FOR EXISTING GRAND CANAL COURT (VIRGINIA COURT) ARCHED PEDESTRIAN BRIDGE OVER CARROLL CANAL Plan Sheet D-26358, Sheet No. 3 of 6 (delineated by William Loo, January 1978) - Venice Canals, Community of Venice, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

423

56. PAGE FOUR OF PLANS FOR EXISTING GRAND CANAL COURT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

56. PAGE FOUR OF PLANS FOR EXISTING GRAND CANAL COURT (VIRGINIA COURT) ARCHED PEDESTRIAN BRIDGE OVER CARROLL CANAL Plan Sheet D-26358, Sheet No. 4 of 6 (delineated by William Loo, January 1978) - Venice Canals, Community of Venice, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

424

156. Photocopy of written record (taken from Twin Falls Canal ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

156. Photocopy of written record (taken from Twin Falls Canal Company, Low Line Book #1, pp.2,3). LOW LINE CONTRACTORS AND BORROW RECORD. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

425

11. Tempe Canal, looking north from the Superstition Freeway at ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. Tempe Canal, looking north from the Superstition Freeway at the point where the canal turns west toward the Superstition flume. Equipment in center is beginning excavation for the pipe headworks. Photographer: Mark Durben, February 1989. Source: SRPA - Tempe Canal, South Side Salt River in Tempe, Mesa & Phoenix, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

426

20. VIEW OF GRAND CANAL, SHOWING OLD ALIGNMENT, LOOKING EAST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

20. VIEW OF GRAND CANAL, SHOWING OLD ALIGNMENT, LOOKING EAST FROM SOUTH BANK NEAR SETTLING BASIN (see HAER Photograph No. AZ-30-17, Crosscut Hydro Plant). THE LARGE FOREGROUND PIPE CARRIED WATER ACROSS THE CANAL FROM THE SETTLING BASIN TO THE CROSSCUT STEAM PLANT. Photographer: Mark Durben, April 1989 - Grand Canal, North side of Salt River, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

427

Effects of Canals and Levees on Everglades Ecosystems  

E-print Network

-309 #12;Refuges and Sinks Canals provide habitat for dense populations of alligators, but these populations are dominated by adults. Nesting success in canals is negligible. Alligators that rely on canals may no longer construct and maintain alligator holes, which provide critical dry- season habitat

Mazzotti, Frank

428

14. VIEW OF GAGE IRRIGATION CANAL AT HILLTOP DRIVE AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. VIEW OF GAGE IRRIGATION CANAL AT HILLTOP DRIVE AND BARTON ROAD, SHOWING OLD ROUTE OF CANAL VIADUCT ACROSS BARTON ROAD. SIPHON NOW GOES UNDER ROAD AND EMERGES AT RIGHT REAR BELOW TWO TELEPHONE POLES (SEE CA-120-15) - Gage Irrigation Canal, Running from Santa Ana River to Arlington Heights, Riverside, Riverside County, CA

429

Aquatic Vegetation in Irrigation Canals A Guide to Integrated Management  

E-print Network

Aquatic Vegetation in Irrigation Canals A Guide to Integrated Management #12;Aquatic Vegetation in Irrigation Canals A Guide to Integrated Management For: Oregon Department of Agriculture and U Southern Oregon University October 1999 #12;Aquatic Vegetation in Irrigation Canals A Guide to Integrated

430

Forecasting the Suez Canal traffic: a neural network analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the Suez Canal is the most important man-made waterway in the world, rivaled perhaps only by the Panama Canal, little research has been done into forecasting its traffic flows. This paper uses both univariate ARIMA (Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average) and Neural network models to forecast the maritime traffic flows in the Suez Canal which are expressed in tons. One

Mohamed M. Mostafa

2004-01-01

431

33 CFR 117.273 - Canaveral Barge Canal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Canaveral Barge Canal. 117.273 Section 117.273 Navigation...Florida § 117.273 Canaveral Barge Canal. (a) The drawspan of the Christa...mile 1.0, across the Canaveral Barge Canal need only open daily for...

2010-07-01

432

5 CFR 550.714 - Panama Canal Commission employees.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Panama Canal Commission employees. 550.714 Section... Severance Pay § 550.714 Panama Canal Commission employees. (a) Notwithstanding...separated from employment with the Panama Canal Commission as a result of the...

2013-01-01

433

Spontaneous Tegmen Defect and Semicircular Canal Dehiscence: Same Etiopathogenic Entity?  

E-print Network

Spontaneous Tegmen Defect and Semicircular Canal Dehiscence: Same Etiopathogenic Entity? *Tarik El) with semicircular canal dehiscences (SCCDs) and to postulate a novel etiopatho- genic hypothesis of these pathologic data were analyzed. Results: Twenty-three patients matched the inclusion criteria. Semicircular canal

434

Optimal Design of Transmission Canal Prabhata K. Swamee1  

E-print Network

Optimal Design of Transmission Canal Prabhata K. Swamee1 ; Govinda C. Mishra2 ; and Bhagu R. Chahar3 Abstract: This paper presents design equations for the least-cost canal sections considering and evaporation from irrigation canals of triangular, rectangular, and trapezoidal shapes passing through

Chahar, B. R.

435

5 CFR 550.714 - Panama Canal Commission employees.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Panama Canal Commission employees. 550.714 Section... Severance Pay § 550.714 Panama Canal Commission employees. (a) Notwithstanding...separated from employment with the Panama Canal Commission as a result of the...

2011-01-01

436

33 CFR 117.455 - Houma Navigation Canal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Houma Navigation Canal. 117.455 Section 117.455 Navigation... Louisiana § 117.455 Houma Navigation Canal. The draw of SR 661 (Houma Nav Canal) bridge, mile 36.0, at Houma,...

2013-07-01

437

5 CFR 550.714 - Panama Canal Commission employees.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Panama Canal Commission employees. 550.714 Section... Severance Pay § 550.714 Panama Canal Commission employees. (a) Notwithstanding...separated from employment with the Panama Canal Commission as a result of the...

2014-01-01

438

33 CFR 117.273 - Canaveral Barge Canal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Canaveral Barge Canal. 117.273 Section 117.273 Navigation...Florida § 117.273 Canaveral Barge Canal. (a) The drawspan of the Christa...mile 1.0, across the Canaveral Barge Canal need only open daily for...

2012-07-01

439

5 CFR 550.714 - Panama Canal Commission employees.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Panama Canal Commission employees. 550.714 Section... Severance Pay § 550.714 Panama Canal Commission employees. (a) Notwithstanding...separated from employment with the Panama Canal Commission as a result of the...

2010-01-01

440

21 CFR 872.3810 - Root canal post.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Root canal post. 872.3810 Section 872.3810 Food...DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3810 Root canal post. (a) Identification. A root canal post is a device made of austenitic...

2010-04-01

441

33 CFR 117.273 - Canaveral Barge Canal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Canaveral Barge Canal. 117.273 Section 117.273 Navigation...Florida § 117.273 Canaveral Barge Canal. (a) The drawspan of the Christa...mile 1.0, across the Canaveral Barge Canal need only open daily for...

2011-07-01

442

33 CFR 117.455 - Houma Navigation Canal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Houma Navigation Canal. 117.455 Section 117.455 Navigation... Louisiana § 117.455 Houma Navigation Canal. The draw of SR 661 (Houma Nav Canal) bridge, mile 36.0, at Houma,...

2012-07-01

443

Neandertal birth canal shape and the evolution of human childbirth  

E-print Network

Neandertal birth canal shape and the evolution of human childbirth Timothy D. Weavera,b,1 and Jean the situation in great apes, human neonates are about the same size as the birth canal, making passage difficult mother's birth canal) distinguishes humans not only from great apes, but also from lesser apes

Dever, Jennifer A.

444

75 FR 45477 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Company Canal, Bourg, LA  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Company Canal, Bourg, LA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS...vertical lift span bridge across Company Canal, mile 8.1, at Bourg, Terrebonne Parish...vertical lift span bridge across Company Canal at mile 8.1 in Bourg, Terrebonne...

2010-08-03

445

33 CFR 117.455 - Houma Navigation Canal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Houma Navigation Canal. 117.455 Section 117.455 Navigation... Louisiana § 117.455 Houma Navigation Canal. The draw of SR 661 (Houma Nav Canal) bridge, mile 36.0, at Houma,...

2014-07-01

446

76 FR 21253 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Company Canal, Lockport, LA  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Company Canal, Lockport, LA AGENCY: Coast Guard...vertical lift span bridge across Company Canal, mile 0.4, at Lockport, Lafourche...vertical lift span bridge across Company Canal at mile 0.4 in Lockport, Lafourche...

2011-04-15

447

21 CFR 872.3810 - Root canal post.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Root canal post. 872.3810 Section 872.3810 Food...DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3810 Root canal post. (a) Identification. A root canal post is a device made of austenitic...

2014-04-01

448

5 CFR 550.714 - Panama Canal Commission employees.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Panama Canal Commission employees. 550.714 Section... Severance Pay § 550.714 Panama Canal Commission employees. (a) Notwithstanding...separated from employment with the Panama Canal Commission as a result of the...

2012-01-01

449

76 FR 26182 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Hood Canal, WA  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Hood Canal, WA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION...regulation governing the operation of the Hood Canal floating drawbridge near Port Gamble...that the operating regulations of the Hood Canal Bridge be changed in order to try to...

2011-05-06

450

33 CFR 117.455 - Houma Navigation Canal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Houma Navigation Canal. 117.455 Section 117.455 Navigation... Louisiana § 117.455 Houma Navigation Canal. The draw of SR 661 (Houma Nav Canal) bridge, mile 36.0, at Houma,...

2010-07-01

451

Water Locks and the Panama Canal Civil Engineering  

E-print Network

Water Locks and the Panama Canal Civil Engineering Objective · This lesson teaches students about civilization-changing engineering design: locks. The Panama Canal is a historical and impressive engineering feat. Discussing the Panama Canal and other lock systems (specifically the Columbia River System

Provancher, William

452

33 CFR 117.455 - Houma Navigation Canal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Houma Navigation Canal. 117.455 Section 117.455 Navigation... Louisiana § 117.455 Houma Navigation Canal. The draw of SR 661 (Houma Nav Canal) bridge, mile 36.0, at Houma,...

2011-07-01

453

SEDIMENT IN ARROYO PASAJERO AND SAN LUIS CANAL  

E-print Network

SEDIMENT IN ARROYO PASAJERO AND SAN LUIS CANAL PREPARED FOR: US BUREAU OF RECLAMATION DENVER in the Diablo Mountain Range flowed along Arroyo Pasajero, before ending up at the San Luis Canal as floodwaters breached the San Luis Canal levee and filled the sediment basins with a mixture of water, sediment

Julien, Pierre Y.

454

33 CFR 117.273 - Canaveral Barge Canal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Canaveral Barge Canal. 117.273 Section 117.273 Navigation...Florida § 117.273 Canaveral Barge Canal. (a) The drawspan of the Christa...mile 1.0, across the Canaveral Barge Canal need only open daily for...

2013-07-01

455

33 CFR 117.273 - Canaveral Barge Canal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Canaveral Barge Canal. 117.273 Section 117.273 Navigation...Florida § 117.273 Canaveral Barge Canal. (a) The drawspan of the Christa...mile 1.0, across the Canaveral Barge Canal need only open daily for...

2014-07-01

456

78 FR 58458 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Quogue Canal, Southampton, NY  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Quogue Canal, Southampton, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard...Quogue Bridge, mile 1.1, across Quogue Canal, at Southampton, New York. This temporary...Quogue Bridge, mile 1.1, across Quogue Canal may keep one lift span in the closed...

2013-09-24

457

21 CFR 872.3810 - Root canal post.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Root canal post. 872.3810 Section 872.3810 Food...DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3810 Root canal post. (a) Identification. A root canal post is a device made of austenitic...

2013-04-01

458

Optimal Design of Parabolic Canal Section Bhagu R. Chahar1  

E-print Network

Optimal Design of Parabolic Canal Section Bhagu R. Chahar1 Abstract: Optimal design equations for a parabolic canal section are presented in this paper. The design equations for a minimum earthwork cost section and a minimum cost lined section are in explicit form and result in optimal dimensions of a canal

Chahar, B. R.

459

48. SUMMIT OF THE MORRIS CANAL, 914 FEET ABOVE MEAN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

48. SUMMIT OF THE MORRIS CANAL, 914 FEET ABOVE MEAN HIGH TIDE AT NEWARK, NEW JERSEY. TRACKS OF THE D, L & W RAILROAD CAN BE SEEN AT LEFT. EDGE OF THE LAKE HOPATCONG STATION IS ALSO VISIBLE AT LEFT. PASSENGERS AND FREIGHT COULD BE TRANSFERRED TO SMALL BOATS FOR TRANSPORT THROUGH THE FEEDER CANAL TO LAKE HOPATCONG. - Morris Canal, Phillipsburg, Warren County, NJ

460

13. Tempe Canal along Price Road, looking north from Baseline ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. Tempe Canal along Price Road, looking north from Baseline Road. This is the section of the canal which will be piped. Photographer: Mark Durben, February 1989. Source: SRPA - Tempe Canal, South Side Salt River in Tempe, Mesa & Phoenix, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

461

Looking east at canal and R. Paul Smith Power Station. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Looking east at canal and R. Paul Smith Power Station. The dark trestle at right center carried the spur track to coal unloading facilities located in the space now occupied by the coal pile. - Potomac Edison Company, Chesapeake & Ohio Canal Bridge, Spanning C & O Canal South of U.S. 11, Williamsport, Washington County, MD

462

16. VIEW OF HIGHLINE CANAL PIPELINE OUTLET, SHOWING THE OUTLET, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

16. VIEW OF HIGHLINE CANAL PIPELINE OUTLET, SHOWING THE OUTLET, A GROUNDWATER PUMP (LEFT), AND THE SOUTH BRANCH OF THE CANAL (FOREGROUND), August 1989 - Highline Canal & Pumping Station, South side of Salt River between Tempe, Phoenix & Mesa, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

463

Cigarette Smoking Increases the Risk of Root Canal Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few studies have investigated smoking as a risk factor for root canal treatment. We studied the effect of smoking on the incidence of root canal treatment, controlling for recognized risk factors, in 811 dentate male participants in the VA Dental Longitudinal Study. Participants were not VA patients. Follow-up ranged from 2 to 28 years. Root canal treatment was verified on

E. A. Krall; C. Abreu Sosa; C. Garcia; M. E. Nunn; D. J. Caplan; R. I. Garcia

2010-01-01

464

19. Photocopied August 1978. CANAL SECTION I, LOOKING EAST, 1900, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

19. Photocopied August 1978. CANAL SECTION I, LOOKING EAST, 1900, WITH SEVERAL PARTIALLY SUBMERGED STEAM SHOVELS SHOWN IN THE FLOODED CANAL. ONE OF THE TEMPORARY BRIDGES CONSTRUCTED OVER THE CANAL RIGHT -OF-WAY IS VISIBLE IN THE BACKGROUND. (39) - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

465

185. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

185. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. MILNER DAM CROSS SECTION PLAN, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO; BLUEPRINT. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

466

116. ROCK CREEK SIPHON LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

116. ROCK CREEK SIPHON LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY IDAHO; CLOSE-UP OF OUTLET, DIVERSION SPILL IN BACKGROUND, WEST VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

467

147. TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL DIVERSION, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

147. TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL DIVERSION, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO; VIEW OF MAIN HEADGATES, EAST VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

468

110. ROCK CREEK SIPHON, LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

110. ROCK CREEK SIPHON, LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY, IDAHO; INLET SIDE WEST VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

469

130. FORKS DIVERSION, HIGH LINE AND LOW LINE CANALS, TWIN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

130. FORKS DIVERSION, HIGH LINE AND LOW LINE CANALS, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF HANSEN, IDAHO; OUTLET SIDE OF THE HIGH LINE GATES, NORTH VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

470

191. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

191. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. SPILLWAY GATES, MILNER DAM, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO; BLUEPRINT. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

471

194. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

194. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. PROFILE AND GATE PLAN, NORTH ISLAND CROSS SECTION OF DAM, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO; BLUEPRINT. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

472

186. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

186. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. DRY CREEK RESERVOIR, CASSIA COUNTY (NOW TWIN FALLS COUNTY); MAP. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

473

137. TWIN FALLS SOUTH SIDE MAIN CANAL DIVERSION HEADGATES, TWIN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

137. TWIN FALLS SOUTH SIDE MAIN CANAL DIVERSION HEADGATES, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO; OVERALL VIEW OF MAIN HEADGATES, DAM IN BACKGROUND. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

474

151. Photocopy of drawing (taken from Twin Falls Canal Company ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

151. Photocopy of drawing (taken from Twin Falls Canal Company Surveyor's Transit Book #363, Page 20). SURVEY PRINT SHOWING POINT SPILLWAY AND FIELD NOTES, TWIN FALLS COUNTY NORTHWEST OF MURTAUGH, IDAHO. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

475

157. Photocopy of drawing (taken from Twin Falls Canal Company ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

157. Photocopy of drawing (taken from Twin Falls Canal Company Field Book #360, Page 75, entitled, 'Clay-Seam Cut-Off.' Cross-Reference: ID-15-153). MILNER DAM SURVEY, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

476

99. POINT SPILL, TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

99. POINT SPILL, TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY NORTHWEST OF MURTAUGH, IDAHO; CLOSE-UP OF OUTLET SIDE OF GATES, SOUTH VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

477

93. ROCK CREEK SIPHON, LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

93. ROCK CREEK SIPHON, LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY SOUTH OF KIMBERLY, IDAHO; OVERALL NORTHEAST VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

478

25. TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL HEADWORKS FROM UPSTREAM LOOKING TOWARD ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

25. TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL HEADWORKS FROM UPSTREAM LOOKING TOWARD THE WEST (DAM-TENDER RICHARD CARL ADJUSTING THE GATES TO ALLOW 3400 CFS THROUGH). - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

479

148. TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL DIVERSION, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

148. TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL DIVERSION, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER DAM; HEADGATES AT INLET, SOUTHWEST VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

480

195. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

195. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. PLAN OF CONSTRUCTION AREA PLANT, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO; BLUEPRINT. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

481

181. Photocopy of Photograph, Twin Falls Canal Company. Photographer and ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

181. Photocopy of Photograph, Twin Falls Canal Company. Photographer and date unknown. POINT SPILL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY; SOUTH VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

482

98. SHOESTRING, TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY NORTHWEST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

98. SHOESTRING, TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY NORTHWEST OF MURTAUGH, IDAHO; PROFILE VIEW, SOUTH. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

483

90. CEDAR DRAW SPILL, HIGH LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

90. CEDAR DRAW SPILL, HIGH LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF FILER, IDAHO; CLOSE-UP OF GATES. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

484

109. CEDAR DRAW SPILL, LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

109. CEDAR DRAW SPILL, LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF FILER, IDAHO; OVERALL VIEW LOOKING WEST. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

485

111. ROCK CREEK SIPHON LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

111. ROCK CREEK SIPHON LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY IDAHO; OVERALL VIEW OF SIPHON, EAST VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

486

155. Photocopy of transit book (taken from Twin Falls Canal ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

155. Photocopy of transit book (taken from Twin Falls Canal Company Surveyor's Transit Book #405T, Page 1, #46 Division One). STATEMENT RE: SURVEY ALIGNMENT 3/03, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

487

187. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

187. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. TOPOGRAPHICAL MAP OF MILNER DAM LOCATION, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO; BLUEPRINT MAP. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

488

182. Photocopy of Photograph, Twin Falls Canal Company. Photographer and ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

182. Photocopy of Photograph, Twin Falls Canal Company. Photographer and date unknown. MILNER DAM TUNNELS, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO; APPROACH TO TUNNELS. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

489

141. TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL DIVERSION, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

141. TWIN FALLS MAIN CANAL DIVERSION, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO; CLOSE-UP OF MAIN HEADGATES, RADIAL GATES INSIDE, SOUTHEAST VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

490

178. Photocopy of Photograph, Twin Falls Canal Company. C. R. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

178. Photocopy of Photograph, Twin Falls Canal Company. C. R. Savage, Photographer, March, 1905. FIRST FULL WATER OVER MILNER DAM, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO; SOUTHWEST VIEW OF SPILLWAY GATES. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

491

124. MCMULLEN CREEK HIGH LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

124. MCMULLEN CREEK HIGH LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY, IDAHO; OVERALL SOUTH VIEW OF DRAW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

492

113. ROCK CREEK SIPHON LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

113. ROCK CREEK SIPHON LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY IDAHO; CLOSE-UP OF INLET SIDE OF SIPHON, NORTHWEST VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

493

95. CEDAR DRAW SPILL, LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

95. CEDAR DRAW SPILL, LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY SOUTH OF FILER, IDAHO; OVERALL VIEW LOOKING EAST. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

494

193. Photocopy of Photograph, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

193. Photocopy of Photograph, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. MILNER DAM PROFILE, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO; BLUEPRINT. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

495

115. ROCK CREEK SIPHON LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

115. ROCK CREEK SIPHON LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, SOUTH OF KIMBERLY IDAHO; WEST VIEW OF SIPHON CROSSING ROCK CREEK. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

496

183. Photocopy of map (Twin Falls Canal Company). TOPOGRAPHICAL MAP ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

183. Photocopy of map (Twin Falls Canal Company). TOPOGRAPHICAL MAP OF MILNER DAM SITE, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO; MAP, LEFT SIDE ONLY. CROSS REFERENCE: ID-15-192. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

497

96. CEDAR DRAW SPILL, LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

96. CEDAR DRAW SPILL, LOW LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY SOUTH OF FILER, IDAHO; OUTLET SIDE OF CEDAR DRAW, WEST VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

498

92. CEDAR DRAW SPILL, HIGH LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

92. CEDAR DRAW SPILL, HIGH LINE CANAL, TWIN FALLS COUNTY SOUTH OF FILER, IDAHO; CLOSE-UP OF OUTLET SIDE OF GATES, SOUTH VIEW. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

499

153. Photocopy of drawing (taken from Twin Falls Canal Company ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

153. Photocopy of drawing (taken from Twin Falls Canal Company Field Book #360, Page 74, entitled, 'Clay-Seam Cut-Off.' Cross-Reference: ID-15-157). MILNER DAM SURVEY, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

500

192. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

192. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls Canal Company, date unknown. TOPOGRAPHICAL MAP (DAM DRAWN IN), MILNER SITE, TWIN FALLS COUNTY, MILNER, IDAHO; RIGHT SIDE OF MAP (LEFT ON ID-15-183). - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID